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Sample records for province north china

  1. Responses of tree-ring growth and crop yield to drought indices in the Shanxi province, North China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junyan; Liu, Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationships among the tree-ring chronology, meteorological drought (precipitation), agricultural drought (Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI), hydrological drought (runoff), and agricultural data in the Shanxi province of North China. Correlation analyses indicate that the tree-ring chronology is significantly correlated with all of the drought indices during the main growing season from March to July. Sign test analyses further indicate that the tree-ring chronology shows variation similar to that of the drought indices in both high and low frequencies. Comparisons of the years with narrow tree rings to the severe droughts reflected in all three indices from 1957 to 2008 reveal that the radial growth of the trees in the study region can accurately record the severe drought for which all three indices were in agreement (1972, 1999, 2000, and 2001). Comparisons with the dryness/wetness index indicate that tree-ring growth can properly record the severe droughts in the history. Correlation analyses among agricultural data, tree-ring chronology, and drought indices indicate that the per-unit yield of summer crops is relatively well correlated with the agricultural drought, as indicated by the PDSI. The PDSI is the climatic factor that significantly influences both tree growth and per-unit yield of summer crops in the study region. These results indicate that the PDSI and tree-ring chronology have the potential to be used to monitor and predict the yield of summer crops. Tree-ring chronology is an important tool for drought research and for wider applications in agricultural and hydrological research. PMID:24162181

  2. Field relation, geochemistry and origin of the Xinglonggou volcanic rocks in Beipiao area, Liaoning Province (China): Reappraisal on the foundering of lower continental crust of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Cheng, Su-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Our large scale geological mapping in the Beipiao area, western Liaoning Province, the North China Craton, shows that the exposed "Xinglonggou Formation" is not a monoclinal stratum, but a suit of strongly deformed volcanic rocks intruded by some small plugs. Consequently, two rock groups are categorized for the "Xinglonggou Formation" in the Beipiao area, according to their field relation, petrography, and geochemical characteristics. The group 1 rocks are blackish and fresh, and cut across the deformed group 2 volcanic rocks. Meanwhile, the group 1 rocks exhibit characteristics of higher magnesium number (Mg# ⩾ 60), calcium content (CaO > 5 wt.%), and Sr/Y ratio (>60), but lower potassium (K2O < 2 wt.%) and Rb contents (<40 ppm). Among these rocks, most of them have higher Cs but lower Li content. Geochemically, the group 1 rocks belong to high-SiO2 adakite (HSA). On the contrary, the group 2 is composed of intermediate and acid volcanic rocks, which are brownish or greenish and strongly folded. Compared with the group 1 rocks, they have higher potassium (K2O > 2 wt.%) and Rb contents, but lower Mg# (<60) and calcium content (most samples CaO < 5 wt.%); meanwhile, they have lower Sr/Y ratios (in general <60), and lower Cs but higher Li contents. According to their near zero ɛNd(t) value and radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, as well as the enrichment of U and Th relative to LREE, neither the group 1 or the group 2 rocks result from the partial melting of the lower crust of North China Craton. The group 1 HSAs are generated by melting of the subducted oceanic crust of the Paleo-Pacific plate; otherwise, the group 2 rocks are derivatives of the magma originated from a slab-derived melt metasomatised mantle.

  3. The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Jin, Guiyun; Bocinsky, R. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China. PMID:26125619

  4. Chemical Compositions of Precipitation at Three Non-urban Sites of Hebei Province, North China: Influence of Terrestrial Sources on Ionic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid economic development and increased energy demand have resulted in severe air pollution problems throughout China, and the increasing emissions of SO2 and NOx have led to significant deposition of acid rain in China. Despite high SO2 concentrations are observed in both southern and northern China, acid rain is mainly observed in the south area in history. It is believed that high content of alkaline matters in the soil in the North China is one of the key factors that contribute to the neutralization of acidic ions in the rainwater. However, an increasing trend of the precipitation acidity was observed at many sites in North, Central and East China after 2000, with more pronounced trends in the Beijing-Tianjin region and Bohai Sea surrounding area. In this study, precipitations were collected from April to October in 2008 at three non-urban sites (Chicheng, Huailai and Xuanhua) in Hebei Province, North China. The pH values of precipitation events ranged from 4.08 to 7.53 for the three sampling sites. About 61.8% of the total precipitation had a pH value higher than 6.0. The predominant ions in the precipitation were SO42-, NO3- and Ca2+, and their concentrations were significantly higher than other sites in South China. The high concentration of acidic ions reflects that atmospheric pollution has already been severe in this area. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of major ions and pH value showed obvious seasonal differences, precipitation in dry season had high pH values and VWM concentrations of major ions. According to the equivalent ratio of NP/AP and the results of neutralization factors, the strong acid neutralization is mainly brought about by Ca2+ followed by NH4+ and Mg2+. Using Na as an indicator of marine origin, the proportions of sea salt and non-sea-salt were estimated from elemental ratios. Combining with the results of correlation analysis and enrichment factors, the main acidic ions (SO42- and NO3-) and NH4+ were mainly derived from

  5. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Kong, Xianghuai; Hu, Gang

    2014-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, (210)Pbexcess and (137)Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin. PMID:24766897

  6. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  7. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingqi; Shao, Xuemei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner’s ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb. PMID:26244548

  8. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Xuemei, S.; Yin, Z. Y.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  9. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqi; Shao, Xuemei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb. PMID:26244548

  10. The Liaonan metamorphic core complex, Southeastern Liaoning Province, North China: A likely contributor to Cretaceous rotation of Eastern Liaoning, Korea and contiguous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Davis, Gregory A.; Lin, Zhiyong; Wu, Fuyuan

    2005-09-01

    The Mesozoic Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) of the southeastern Liaoning province, North China, is an asymmetric Cordilleran-style complex with a west-rooting master detachment fault, the Jinzhou fault. A thick sequence of lower plate, fault-related mylonitic and gneissic rocks derived from Archean and Early Cretaceous crystalline protoliths has been transported ESE-ward from mid-crustal depths. U-Pb ages of lower plate syntectonic plutons (ca. 130-120 Ma), 40Ar- 39Ar cooling ages in the mylonitic and gneissic sequence (ca. 120-110 Ma), and a Cretaceous supradetachment basin attest to the Early Cretaceous age of this extensional complex. The recent discovery of the coeval and similarly west-rooting Waziyu mcc in western Liaoning [Darby, B.J., Davis, G.A., Zhang, X., Wu, F., Wilde, S., Yang, J., 2004. The newly discovered Waziyu metamorphic core complex, Yiwulushan, western Liaoning Province, North China. Earth Science Frontiers 11, 145-155] indicates that the Gulf of Liaoning, which lies between the two complexes, was the center of a region of major crustal extension. Clockwise crustal rotation of a large region including eastern Liaoning province and the Korean Peninsula with respect to a non-rotated North China block has been conclusively documented by paleomagnetic studies over the past decade. The timing of this rotation and the reasons for it are controversial. Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] proposed that a clockwise rotation of 22.5° ± 10.2° was largely post-Early Cretaceous in age, and was the consequence of extension within a crustal domain that tapers southwards towards the Bohai Sea (of which the Gulf of Liaoning is the northernmost part). Paleomagnetic studies of Early Cretaceous strata (ca 134-120 Ma) in the Yixian-Fuxin supradetachment basin of

  11. Lower crustal xenoliths from Junan, Shandong province and their bearing on the nature of the lower crust beneath the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Ji-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Tang, Yan-Jie

    2010-10-01

    Geochronological, petrological and geochemical studies were performed on the granulite xenoliths from a Late Cretaceous basaltic breccia dike in Junan, Shandong province, eastern China. These xenoliths show close similarities to the Nushan granulite xenoliths from the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) and the Archean granulite terrains in terms of mineralogy and bulk rock compositions, but are quite different from the Hanuoba mafic granulite xenoliths from the northern NCC. In-situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic analyses, together with geochemical data reveal that the protolith of these xenoliths was formed around 2.3 Ga ago, through assimilation-fractional crystallization of a mafic magma. P-T conditions of these xenoliths suggest that the lower crust beneath the Junan region reaches to a depth of 35 km, which agree well with the result deduced from various geophysical methods. The consistent petrological and seismic Moho depths, the observed velocity structure and calculated velocity of these xenoliths imply the absence of underplating induced crust-mantle transition zone, which was well formed in the northern NCC. Compared to 40-50 km depth of the lower crust in Early Jurassic, the lower crust beneath Junan extended to a depth of 30 km in Late Cretaceous, suggesting that the lower crust of NCC was significantly thinned during Late Mesozoic.

  12. Mineralogical and geochemical composition of particulate matter (PM10) in coal and non-coal industrial cities of Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Shao, Longyi; Zheng, Qiming; Yang, Shushen

    2014-06-01

    A total of 19 24-h PM10 samples, the 11 for a typical coal industrial city and 8 for a non-coal industrial city, were collected by a TSP-PM10 sampler during a serious and continuous haze event in Henan Province, North China. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the PM10 samples. The crystalline phases that were identified by XRD mainly include sulfate (dominated by koktaite, boussingaultite, gypsum, etc.) and silicate (quartz and kaolinite) as well as small amount of chloride (sal-ammoniac). Silicate particles mainly originate from crust as well as waste dumps for coal industrial cities, and usually have an irregular shape, while sulfate particles occur as individual sheets or needles, and have an anthropogenic origin, which are the products of chemical reaction of preexisting carbonate with SO2 emitted by coal combustion. Nitrogen, S and Cl occurring in particulate matter are considered to have an anthropogenic origin due to their high enrichment factors, and their abundance in particulate matter is associated with coal industrial activities. Nitrogen mainly occurs as NH4+ in sulfate, as well as in small amount of organic matter. Sulfur mainly occurs as SO42 - in sulfate. Chlorine mainly occurs in chloride.

  13. Timing and tectonic setting of the Sijiaying banded iron deposit in the eastern Hebei province, North China Craton: Constraints from geochemistry and SIMS zircon U-Pb dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Minli; Zhang, Lianchang; Wu, Huaying; Xu, Yingxia; Li, Wenjun

    2014-11-01

    The North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest continental blocks in Asia, has a complicated evolutionary history with the age of the old crust up to 3.8 Ga and records the important geological events of the Earth. The Sijiaying BIF, the largest banded iron formation located in eastern Hebei province, in the east part of NCC, records an important thermo-tectonic event; Previous studies focused on the geological description, but the timing and tectonic setting have been unclear so far. The Sijiaying BIF is hosted in Neoarchean metamorphic rocks, which includes biotite-leptynite, hornblende plagioclase-gneiss and biotite plagioclase-gneiss. Using major element contents and ratios of the host rocks, the protoliths of the hornblende plagioclase-gneiss and biotite plagioclase-gneiss are shown to be dacite, whereas those of the biotite-leptynites are sedimentary rocks. Based on geology and geochemistry of the host rocks, we infer that the Sijiaying BIF is an Algoma type deposit. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating shows: igneous zircons from the biotite plagioclase-gneiss and hornblende plagioclase-gneiss have U-Pb ages of 2535 ± 8 Ma and 2543 ± 14 Ma, respectively; zircons from the biotite-leptynite have an age of 2537 ± 13 Ma. We infer that the ages of 2543-2535 Ma represent the time of the Sijiaying BIF. PAAS-normalized REY profiles of the ore samples are characterized by LREE depletion and HREE enrichment, positive La and Eu anomalies and an average Y/Ho weight ratio of 32, indicating a mixture of submarine hydrothermal fluids and deep seawater. REE data was combined with the δ18O analyzed by previous researcher of the ore from individual magnetite bands to infer that the Sijiaying BIF precipitated from hydrothermal fluids discharging on the sea floor. The hornblende plagioclase-gneiss and biotite plagioclase-gneiss that are enriched in LILE and LREE and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE) Nb, Ta and Ti, have geochemical signatures that are similar to those of

  14. [Effects of scale-like pit and mulching measures on soil moisture of dryland jujube orchard in North Shaanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Chen; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Gao, Xiao-Ding; Wang, Jia-Wen; Shi, Yin-Guang

    2014-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key factor affecting jujube growth in the semiarid Northern Shaanxi Province. The impacts of different engineering and mulching measures on soil moisture were investigated via in situ measurements in a typical dryland jujube orchard. The results showed that the mean soil moistures (0-180 cm) of scale-like pit + branch mulching, scale-like scale + straw mulching, and soil moisture of scale-like pit with no mulching were increased by 14.2%, 9.4%, and 4.8% than control, respectively. Different measures, especially for the scale-like pit + branch mulching, significantly increased the soil moisture in the soil surface (0-20 cm) and the main root zone layer (20-100 cm) during the jujube growth stage. Individual precipitation events had great impacts on soil moisture in the 0-100 cm, while its effect on soil moisture in deep layers was not apparent. There was no significant difference among the soil moistures in different soil depths of scale-like pit with no mulching when compared with the control under high, medium, and low soil humidity conditions. This study indicated that using the clipped jujube branches as mulching could both save materials cost and achieve the goal of reserving more water in dryland jujube orchard in north Shaanxi Province. PMID:25509081

  15. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 20121

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  16. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  17. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  18. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  19. Simulated water productivity in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jinyan; Sun, Zhongxiao; Wang, Zhan; Chen, Jiancheng; Li, Zhaohua

    Economic value of water and economic analysis of water use management in Gansu Province of China have attracted widespread public attention. With the socioeconomic development, research on water resources has become more important than before. In this study, we define "water productivity" as the changes of economic production outputs of sectoral activities in every cubic meter of water input, which is also the technical coefficient of water resource use in each sector. According to Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework, based on the Input-Output Table 2007 and water resources bulletin of Gansu Province, we introduced the water into the ORANI-G (A Generic Single-Country Computable General Equilibrium model) model through the nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function to analyze the changes of economic productions caused by water supply changes. We then examined water productivity in different sectors. Empirical results showed that current water productivity is underestimated. Agricultural water productivity is lower than that of the secondary and tertiary industries, even although agricultural water use is the largest part of water use in Gansu Province, and therefore improving agricultural water productivity can greatly mitigate the water shortage. Simulation results indicate that industrial transformation and development of water-saving industries will also mitigate water scarcity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the empirical results are robust under different scenarios. The results also show that higher constant elasticity of substitution rate (CES) between water and other production factors will contribute to sustainable development.

  20. Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: Evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chenyi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Retallack, Gregory J.; Huang, Yuangeng; Fang, Yuheng

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structures, wrinkle structures, sponge pore fabrics, gas domes, and leveled ripple marks. Microanalysis shows that these MISSs are characterized by thin clayey laminae and filamentous mica grains arranged parallel to bedding plane as well as oriented matrix supported quartz grains, which are indicative of biogenic origin. Facies analysis suggests that the MISS-hosting sediments were deposited in a fluvial sedimentary system during the Early Triassic, including lake delta, riverbeds/point bars, and flood plain paleoenvironments. Abundant MISSs from Yiyang indicate that microbes also proliferated in terrestrial ecosystems in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) biocrisis, like they behaved in marine ecosystems. Microbial blooms, together with dramatic loss of metazoans, may reflect environmental stress and degradation of terrestrial ecosystems or arid climate immediately after the severe Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  2. Crust-mantle interaction in the central North China Craton during the Mesozoic: Evidence from zircon U-Pb chronology, Hf isotope and geochemistry of syenitic-monzonitic intrusions from Shanxi province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Ji-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Tang, Yan-Jie

    2011-07-01

    In-situ zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotopic compositions and whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions are presented for three Mesozoic syenitic-monzonitic intrusions from Shanxi province, central North China Craton. Zircons from these intrusions all show core-rim structures in that the oscillatory rims recorded their intrusive ages, whereas the cores are interpreted as xenocrysts. The U-Pb age data reveal that the northernmost Dishuiyan monzonite was emplaced at 241 Ma, while the Huyanshan and Erfengshan syenitic-monzonitic complexes were emplaced at 130 Ma and 128-134 Ma, respectively. The Dishuiyan monzonite is petrologically and geochemically uniform, it shows LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion and exhibits enriched Sr and Nd isotopic compositions with (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7065 and εNd(t) = - 8.3--7.9. The zircon rims in the Dishuiyan monzonite show highly varied Hf isotopic compositions with εHf(t) = - 27.8--6.4. The varied Hf isotopic compositions and enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, together with the ubiquitous xenocrystic zircon cores, suggest the Dishuiyan monzonite was produced by the mixing of melts from enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust. The monzonite and syenite from the Huyanshan complexes exhibit different geochemical features. The εNd(t) values of syenite, which are higher than those of monzonite resemble the enriched lithospheric mantle, and together with the absence of zircon in the syenite, we propose that it was originated by partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Monzonites from Huyanshan and Erfengshan share similar petrological and geochemical characteristics, being enriched in LREE and depleted in HFSE, and they show low εNd(t) values between - 18.2 and - 13.9. Similar to zircon rims in the Dishuiyan monzonite, those in the Huyanshan and Erfengshan monzonites also exhibit highly varied Hf isotopic compositions. The consistent ages between the xenocrystic zircons in monzonites and the lower crustal basement

  3. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  4. New and rare lignicolous hyphomycetes from Zhejiang Province, China* §

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawas, Mongkol; Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis sp. nov. and Spadicoides americana were found on submerged wood from streams in Zhejiang Province, China. Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis is characterized by obclavate to fusiform, 5-6-distoseptate, versicolorous, verruculose conidia with an apical mucilaginous sheath. Spadicoides americana is a new record to China. These taxa are described and illustrated, and morphological differences between these species and their similar species were summarized. PMID:18837107

  5. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  6. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 2012(1).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  7. Mantle provinces under North America from multifrequency P wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin

    2011-02-01

    This is a survey of mantle provinces (large-scale seismic anomalies) under North America, from the surface down to 1500-1800 km depth. The underlying P velocity model was obtained by multifrequency tomography, a waveform-based method that systematically measures and models the frequency-dependence of teleseismic body waves. A novel kind of three-dimensional rendering technique is used to make the considerable structural complexities under North America accessible. In the transition zone and below, the North American mantle is dominated by seismically fast provinces, which represent distinct subduction episodes of the Farallon plate. I attempt to date and interpret the various slab fragments by reconciling their present positions with paleotrench locations from plate tectonic reconstructions and with major geologic surface episodes. Differences in vertical sinking velocity have led to large vertical offsets across adjacent, coeval slabs. Some of the mantle provinces have not been discussed much previously, including (1) a seismically slow blanket overlying the oldest Farallon subduction along the eastern continental margin, (2) a transition zone slab coeval with the Laramide orogeny (ca. 80-60 Myr), which I discuss in analogy to the "stagnant slab" subduction style commonly found in the western Pacific today, (3) the lower mantle root of present-day Cascadia subduction, which may have started out as intraoceanic subduction,(4) a lower mantle slab under Arizona and New Mexico, the last material to subduct before strike-slip motion developed along the San Andreas boundary, and (5) two narrow plate tears thousands of kilometers long, one of which is the subducted conjugate of the Mendocino Fracture Zone.

  8. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  9. HIV Infection--Guangdong Province, China, 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-24

    In 2007, an estimated 700,000 persons in China were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An estimated 50,000 new HIV infections and 20,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurred in 2007, and an estimated 71% of persons with HIV infection were unaware of their HIV status. In 2007, 40.6% of those living with HIV had been infected through heterosexual transmission and 38.1% through injection-drug use. Guangdong Province in southeastern China is the country's most populous province, with an estimated 75.6 million permanent residents and 16.5 million migrants; the province has undergone rapid economic development. Since 1986, a case-based surveillance system (CBSS) in China has collected data on persons infected with HIV, including demographic characteristics and transmission categories. To assess recent trends in HIV infection in the province, the Guangdong Center for Disease Control, with technical assistance from CDC, analyzed CBSS data for the period 1997--2007. The results of that analysis indicated that the number of HIV cases increased from 102 in 1997 to 4,593 in 2007, although this increase resulted, in part, from expanded testing and surveillance. Among males classified by HIV transmission category, 82.1% of newly diagnosed infections were attributed to injection-drug use. Among females classified by HIV transmission category, 53.7% engaged in high-risk heterosexual conduct. Despite substantial methodologic limitations, these results can be useful to Guangdong public health agencies in targeting and evaluating HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. PMID:19390507

  10. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  11. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in Cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Man; Bian, Qing-Qing; Hu, Bing; Cong, Mei-Mei; Lin, Qing; Wang, Rong-Jun; Qi, Meng; Qi, Mao-Zhen; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Long-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4%) were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province. PMID:23560072

  12. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  13. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  14. Lung cancer burden has increased during the last 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Li, Daojuan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2011, Hebei Province, located in North China with a population of 71 794 239, accounted for approximately 6% of the national population. It is well known as a heavily air polluted area. This study reports the lung cancer burden and mortality trend in Hebei Province from 1973 to 2011. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. The proportions, cumulative incidence/mortality rates, and median age at death of lung cancer were calculated. Lung cancer mortality data of 1973–1975, 1990–1992, and 2004–2005 were extracted from national death surveys. Data of lung cancer from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population‐based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated numbers of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province were 32 623 and 27 612, respectively. The crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 45.44/100 000. The age‐standardized incidence rate by world standard population was 39.01/100 000, ranking second among all cancers. The lung cancer mortality rate was 38.46/100 000, ranking first among all cancer deaths, with a significantly increasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973–1975 to 2010–2011, with an increased rate of 189.15%. Conclusion Hebei Province suffers a heavy disease burden of lung cancer and an obvious increasing trend has been observed over the past 40 years. Preventive and control strategies should be encouraged. PMID:27148418

  15. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  16. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Aubrey L.; Yu, JunQing; Abbott, Mark B.; Cooke, Colin A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2014-08-01

    Pollution and eutrophication of Chinese lakes are widely perceived to be 20th century phenomena. However, China has a long history of deforestation, agriculture, mineral resource extraction, and other anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. Here, we present a sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in the Yunnan Province of China that reveals significant alterations to the lake, its ecosystem, and its watershed beginning as early as 500 AD. A comprehensive suite of biogeochemical and isotopic proxies reveal several rapid transitions related to changes in agriculture and lake-level management that coincides with cultural and dynastic transitions. The deterioration of contemporary environmental conditions at Xing Yun arises from a long history of anthropogenic manipulation, eutrophication, and pollution of the lake and its watershed. This study highlights the importance of using historical records of industrial and agricultural activities, including landscape modification, in conjunction with records of climate change, to place present day environmental concerns into a long-term context.

  17. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles

  18. Contribution to the knowledge of Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Hainan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The species of the perlid genus Neoperla are reviewed from Hainan Province, China. Three species of Neoperla, N. minuta sp. nov., N. wuzhishana sp. nov., and N. sexlobata sp. nov. are described from this island province and compared with other taxa. A provisional key is presented to the known Neoperla males from Hainan Province. PMID:27470851

  19. Modern Tectonic Deformation in the Active Basin-And Province Northwest of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, S.; Wen, X.

    2012-12-01

    Our study region is the northwest of Beijing, northern north China. The most typical extensional active tectonic area of the China continent, called the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing, exist there. This active tectonic province is made up of several NE-trending Quaternary graben basins and horst ranges between basins. An about 1500-year-long written historical record has suggested that there have been no major earthquakes with magnitude 7 or greater occurred in most of the study region since AD 512. So, the characteristic of modern tectonic deformation of the study region and its implication for the future seismic potential of major earthquakes are important scientific issues. In this study, based on data of regional GPS station velocities and active tectonics, combining relocated earthquake distribution, we make a preliminary analysis on the characteristic of the modern tectonic deformation of the study region. We design three zones across deferent segments of the active basin-and-range province to analyze both the present tectonic deformation from the GPS velocity profiles and the major fault's downward-extents from the relocated hypocenters. Our analyses reveal that: (1) Significant NNW-ward and SSE-ward horizontal extension exists on different segments of the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing at rates of 2 to 3mm /yr, accompanied with right-lateral shear deformation at 1 to 2mm/yr. (2) On the present tectonic deformation, the southeastern margin of the Datong-Yangyuan basin, the biggest graben basin of the active tectonic province, shows as a turning belt of the extensional rates, suggesting that relatively high tensile strain accumulation could exist there. (3)On the northeastern segment of the studied active basin-and-range province, both the Zhangjiakou-Yanhui graben basin and the Beijing graben basin have also been being in significant extensional and shear deformation. (4) The relocated hypocenter distribution have

  20. Spatial Analysis of China Province-level Perinatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, Kun; SONG, Deyong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using spatial analysis tools to determine the spatial patterns of China province-level perinatal mortality and using spatial econometric model to examine the impacts of health care resources and different socio-economic factors on perinatal mortality. Methods: The Global Moran’s I index is used to examine whether the spatial autocorrelation exists in selected regions and Moran’s I scatter plot to examine the spatial clustering among regions. Spatial econometric models are used to investigate the spatial relationships between perinatal mortality and contributing factors. Results: The overall Moran’s I index indicates that perinatal mortality displays positive spatial autocorrelation. Moran’s I scatter plot analysis implies that there is a significant clustering of mortality in both high-rate regions and low-rate regions. The spatial econometric models analyses confirm the existence of a direct link between perinatal mortality and health care resources, socio-economic factors. Conclusions: Since a positive spatial autocorrelation has been detected in China province-level perinatal mortality, the upgrading of regional economic development and medical service level will affect the mortality not only in region itself but also its adjacent regions. PMID:27398334

  1. Genetic Characterization of Shigella flexneri Isolates in Guizhou Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D.; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838

  2. Paleomagnetism of large igneous provinces: case-study from West Greenland, North Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisager, Janna; Riisager, Peter; Pedersen, Asger Ken

    2003-09-01

    We present new paleomagnetic and multi-model stereo photogrammetry data from lava sequences in the West Greenland part of the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP). The joint analyses of paleomagnetic and photogrammetric data yield a well-defined paleomagnetic pole located at Lat=73.6°N, Long=160.5°E ( N=44, α95=6.2°, K=13.1; age ˜61-55 Ma), which is statistically indistinguishable from a pole recently obtained for the Eurasian part of the NAIP on Faroe Islands [Riisager et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276]. Combining the two datasets we obtain a joint NAIP paleomagnetic pole in Greenland coordinates: Lat=71.1°N, Long=161.1°E ( N=87, α95=4.3°, K=13.6; age ˜61-54 Ma). The results presented here represent the first study in which photogrammetry profiles were photographed at the exact same locations where paleomagnetic fieldwork was carried out, and a direct flow-to-flow comparison of the two datasets is possible. Photogrammetry is shown to be particularly useful because of (i) highly precise dip/strike measurements and (ii) detailed 'field observations' that can be made in the laboratory. Highly precise determination of the structural attitude of well-exposed Kanisut Mb lava sequences demonstrates that their apparently reliable in-field dip/strike measurements typically are up to ˜6° wrong. Erroneous dip/strike readings are particularly problematic as they offset paleomagnetic poles without affecting their confidence limits. Perhaps more important for large igneous provinces is the recognition of a variable temporal relationship between consecutive lava flows. We demonstrate how correct interpretation of paleosecular variation, facilitated by the detailed photogrammetry analysis, is crucial for the rapidly emplaced Vaigat Formation lavas. Inaccurate tectonic correction, non-averaged paleosecular variation and unrecognized excursional directions may, perhaps, explain why coeval paleomagnetic poles from large igneous provinces are often

  3. Rangeland degradation in North China: perceptions of pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peter; Azadi, Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Rangeland degradation, a worldwide problem, is serious in China, especially in the Northern provinces. To assess the pastoralists' perceptions toward rangeland trend and degradation, a survey was conducted in Ningxia, North China. Data were collected from a total of 284 pastoralists in six Ningxia counties. Findings showed that the majority of respondents believe the rangelands in Ningxia have been degraded, although there are some disparities among the counties that illustrate differing severity of degradation. Findings also clarified that the pastoralists have more knowledge about the "technical" and "supportive" aspects of conditions, while remaining less aware of "economic" and "management" factors of this issue. Yet, a high disparity was revealed between pastoralists' perceptions among the counties in this study. The correlation matrix showed that most of their perceptions do not act independently. Findings also showed that those pastoralists who believe that their rangeland trend is "improved" have broader management and social perceptions than those who believe their rangeland is "degraded". Finally, correlation analysis showed that the management and social perceptions have a negative correlation with degradation severity. Based on the findings, recommendations for possible interventions through extension/educational programs to diminish rangeland degradation are made. The programs are suggested to be presented in three packages including "management", "social", and "economic" issues in rangeland degradation. PMID:20106474

  4. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  5. Modern Tectonic Deformation in the Active Basin-and-Range Province Northwest of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Suting; Wen, Xueze

    2013-04-01

    Our study region is the northwest of Beijing, northern north China. The most typical extensional active tectonic area of the China continent, called the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing, exist there. This active tectonic province is made up of several NE-trending Quaternary graben basins and horst ranges between basins. An about 1500-year-long written historical record has suggested that there have been no major earthquakes with magnitude 7 or greater occurred in most of the study region since AD 512. So, the characteristic of modern tectonic deformation of the study region and its implication for the future seismic potential of major earthquakes are important scientific issues. In this study, based on data of regional GPS station velocities and active tectonics, combining relocated earthquake distribution, we make a preliminary analysis on the characteristic of the modern tectonic deformation of the study region. We design three zones across deferent segments of the active basin-and-range province to analyze both the present tectonic deformation from the GPS velocity profiles and the major fault's downward-extents from the relocated hypocenters. Our analyses reveal that: (1) Significant NNW-ward and SSE-ward horizontal extension exists on different segments of the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing at rates of 2 to 3mm /yr, accompanied with right-lateral shear deformation at 1 to 2mm/yr. (2) On the western and middle segments of the active basin and range province, most of the total horizontal extension and shear deformation happen in the width from the Huangqihai basin to the Datong-Yanggao basin , suggesting that some major faults in this width could have had relatively-high strain build-up. (3) It is possible that one or more basement detachment belts exist under the active basins, and it or they possibly dip(s) southeastern-ward. (4) The modern tectonic extensional rate is up to 2 to 3mm /yr in the study region. However

  6. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  7. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing; Guo, Tiankang; Bao, Guoxian

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  8. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment. PMID:26513899

  9. Biomedical survey in North Samar Province, Philippine Islands.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H; Banzon, T; Wheeling, C H; Cometa, H; Lien, J C; Clarke, R; Petersen, H; Sevilla, J; Basaca-Sevilla, V

    1977-12-01

    A biomedical survey was carried out in North Samar Province, Philipines to update information on the prevalence of parasitic and other infectious diseases. A total of 1,394 stool specimens, 1,859 blood smears and 1,274 sera were collected from persons living in 8 barrios. Stools were examined for intestinal parasites, bloods smears for malaria and filariasis and sera tested for antibodies to Schistosoma japonicum, Entamoeba histolytica, Toxoplasma gondii, influenza A and B, and Japanese encephalitis virus. The prevalence rates for intestinal parasites were: Trichuris trichiura 90%, Ascaris lumbricoides 78%, hookworm 65%, Schistosoma japonicum 15%, Strongyloides stercoralis 1%, Entamoeba coli 16%, Endolimax nana 6%, entamoeba histolytica 5%, Giardia lamblia 3%, Entaemoeba hartmanii 1%, Chilomastix mesnili 1%. No malaria was found but microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti were detected in 4% of the blood smears; the MfD50 was 12.9. The circumoval precipitin test (COPT) was used to detect antibodies to Schistosoma japonicum and 65% of 994 sera was considered positive. The indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) was used for detecting antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii and 5% and 3% of 1,274 sera tested were positive at titers equal to or greater than 1:128 and 1:256, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition tests (HI) were used to detect antibodies to Influenza A2HK68, Influenza A2HK68, Influenza B2T62 and Japanese encephalitis virus and 72%, 12% and 78%, respectively, of 1201 sera were considered positive at titers equal to or greater than 1:20. PMID:614707

  10. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  11. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition. PMID:27395926

  12. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of “culture of remittances” in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise. PMID:26146509

  13. Perinatal hepatitis B prevention program in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Ko, Stephen; Lv, Jingjing; Ji, Feng; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Fujie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) alone is highly effective in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and the World Health Organization recommends administering HepB to all infants within 24 h after delivery. Maternal screening for HBsAg and administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in addition to HepB for infants born to HBsAg-positive pregnant women can increase the effectiveness of post-exposure prophylaxis for perinatal HBV transmission. In Shangdong Province, China which has a high prevalence of chronic HBV infection, HepB birth dose and HBIG were integrated into the routine childhood immunization program in 2002 and July 2011 respectively. We assessed progress toward implementation of these measures. Hospital-based reporting demonstrated an increase in maternal screening from 70.7% to 96.9% from 2004–2012; HepB birth dose coverage (within 24 h) remained high (96.3–97.1%) during this period. For infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers, the coverage of HBIG increased from 85.0% (before July 2011) to 92.1% (after July 2011). However, HBIG coverage in western areas of Shandong Province remained at 81.1% among infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers. Preterm/low-birth-weight and illness after birth were the most commonly reported reasons for delay in the first dose of HepB to >24 h of birth. Additional education on the safety and immune protection from HepB and HBIG might help to correct delays in administering the HepB birth dose and low HBIG coverage in the western areas of the Shandong Province. PMID:25483482

  14. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. PMID:19202872

  15. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-08-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005-2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012-2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20-50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  16. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  17. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  18. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  19. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  20. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  1. Impact of karst water on coal mining in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongyu; Zhou, Wanfang

    2006-01-01

    Coalfields in North China encompass more than ten Provinces. They contain six to seven coal seams in the Permo-Carboniferous strata. The lower three seams account for 37% of the total reserves and are threatened with intrusion of karst water from the underlying Ordovician limestone. Hundreds of water inrush incidences have occurred, in which a large amount of water suddenly flows into tunnels or working faces under high potentiometric pressure. Over 50 mines have been flooded over the last 30 years. Large-scale dewatering or depressurizing of the karst aquifer was considered essential to avoid water inrushes and keep the mines safely operational. This practice, however, has caused sinkholes, dry springs, water supply shortage, and groundwater contamination in the surrounding areas. One alternative water control measure is to make full use of the rock layer between the coal seam and the karst aquifer as a protective barrier to prevent or constrain water flow from the underlying aquifer into the mines. Grouting is effective when the hydrogeological conditions are favorable to this technique. Proper design of the grouting program and experience of the contractor are also important for a successful application.

  2. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Zhejiang Province, China, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Qian; Li, Zhijun; Chen, Songhua; Liu, Zhengwei; Nelson, Hugh; Yang, Qun; Dye, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate levels and trends in drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Zhejiang Province, China, we conducted 1 survey in each of 3 years (1999, 2004, and 2008). We found that <5% of new cases were multidrug-resistant TB. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB has not increased in new or re-treated cases in this province. PMID:22377167

  3. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  4. Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran’s I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. PMID:24852390

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mackenzie Delta province, North America, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitchell E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 40 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered nonassociated gas, a mean of 10.5 billion barrels of undiscovered oil (with 46.6 trillion cubic feet of associated gas), and a mean of 4.0 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Mackenzie Delta Province of North America, exclusive of the unassessed deep-water portion of the province.

  6. Mantle Redox Conditions in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Gras, M. A.; Lesher, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    The North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP) has long been viewed as a region of anomalous mantle upwelling related to plume activity, continental rifting, and a heterogeneous mantle source. Prior to continental rifting in the Tertiary, the northern portion of the region was the site of closure of the Iapetus ocean basin. This tectonic event may have contributed to heterogeneities within the upper mantle and altered its oxidation state relative to the ambient mantle. Vanadium has been shown to be a useful indicator of redox conditions due to its multiple valence states (e.g. [1-2]). In mantle minerals, vanadium becomes increasingly incompatible under more oxidizing conditions [3]. Because both scandium and vanadium are moderately incompatible during melting, the Sc/V ratio of primitive basalts can be used to investigate the oxidation state of the mantle [1-3]. We have examined the Sc/V ratios of primitive lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR), Iceland, and the East Greenland margin to determine if there are spatial or temporal variations in the oxidation state of the NAIP mantle. The Sc/V ratios for MAR basalts are 0.13-0.20 (GEOROC chemical database); while Icelandic basalts range from 0.10-0.25 with an average of 0.16 (1 σ =0.05). The entire range of Sc/V ratios of the Paleogene East Greenland basalts is 0.07-0.17 with an average of 0.10 (1 σ = 0.05). The Sc/V ratios of Icelandic basalts are similar to MAR basalts, but the East Greenland lavas are distinctly lower than both the MAR and Iceland. The Sc/V ratio also can vary as a function of mean pressure of melting (i.e. spinel versus garnet lherzolite). To test the relative importance of melting systematics, source composition, and oxygen fugacity on the Sc/V systematics for NAIP basalts, we incorporated the oxygen-fugacity-dependent V mineral-melt partitioning data of [3] into the polybaric decompression melting model REEBOX [4]. The best-fit model parameters for the majority of the Iceland and MAR basalts

  7. Characterization and Origin of Zonal Sapphire from Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyan; Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Linghao

    2015-02-01

    Shandong Province is the main producer of sapphire in China. Among the sapphire deposits discovered in China, Shandong sapphire hosted in Cenzoic basalt shows a great variety of features, especially for in zoning. These sapphire crystals are generally large in size, with depth in color and well-developed zoning. In this article, the characteristics of zonal sapphire have been studied by using petrography, trace element data from laser ablation inductively coupled with plasma-mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry. The trace elements variation is proposed to correspond with their parent magma composition, and the changes in growth environment of sapphire have resulted in the formation of zoning features. Sapphires from different geological settings have different characteristics. Trace elements in sapphire not only affect the color but also reflect the changes of physical and chemical conditions of sapphire growth. The concentration of impurity elements in the zoning core of Shandong sapphire is the highest, indicating that the parent magma of Shandong sapphire-host basaltic rock is rich in trace elements. Fe content is more than 2.00% in the zoning core, which causes the deepest color in the samples. It also suggests that the total content of Fe is positively correlated to the band color. The Raman spectrum shows that the spectrum peaks at 246 cm-1 caused by Fe3+ vary regularly with the band color, which shows that Fe is dominated by Fe3+ in Shandong sapphire. With the changes of forming condition, the parent magma composition has changed accordingly, which causes the zoning formation.

  8. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space. PMID:26054518

  9. Distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Gong, Zhengda; Ge, Junqi; Meng, Weishan; Feng, Yun; Wang, Jinglin; Zhai, Yougang; Wang, Huanqin; Nasci, Roger; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong

    2009-12-01

    From July to September in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' N and 29 degrees 00' N latitude in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, China. A total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using UV light traps at 59 sites. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. The density of mosquitoes as well as the diversity of species decreased with increasing altitude. A total of 21,008 mosquitoes in 281 pools representing all of the 15 species was tested for the presence of viruses using cell culture. Viruses identified included Japanese encephalitis virus (13 isolates), Getah virus (five isolates), Banna virus (three isolates), Kadipiro virus (five isolates), and Densovirus (seven isolates). These isolates were obtained from Culex tritaeniorhynchus (20 isolates), Anopheles sinensis (three isolates), Armigeres subalbatus (six isolates), Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (two isolates), and from unidentified, mixed mosquitoes (two isolates). Most of the isolates were from collections made at elevations below 2,500 m. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 0, 000-000. PMID:19196130

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation trends during 1961-2010 in Hubei province, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ranghui; Li, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is an important climatic parameter, and its variability severely affects regional hydrological processes and water resource management. In order to explore the changing spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation-related indices, including precipitation amounts indices, extreme precipitation indices, and precipitation concentration indices, in Hubei province, central China during 1961-2010, several precipitation-related indices series were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test, and inverse distance weighted interpolation method in this paper. The results are as follows: (1) A clear south-north gradient is apparent in the spatial distribution of the majority of precipitation-related indices, while the distribution of other indices (i.e., CDD, PCD, and PCP) is just the opposite. Most part of Hubei province can experience mixed positive and negative trends in precipitation-related indices. (2) The majority of precipitation-related indices exhibit an increasing trend, but most of which are not significant. July has the largest positive trend, with a regional average of 14.76 mm/decade. As for extreme precipitation indices, there exist large variations in Hubei, especially in R95pTOT. Besides, no obvious trends are shown in precipitation concentration indices. (3) With the exception of consecutive dry days (CDD), most of extreme precipitation indices are strongly correlated with annual mean precipitation (AMP) in Hubei. And the extreme precipitation indices are well correlated with each other except CDD and consecutive wet days (CWD). For six precipitation-related indices (i.e., SDII, RX1day, RX5day, R95pTOT R99pTOT, and PCD), there are significant positive relationships with Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High (NHSH) but significant negative relationships with Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex (NHPV). Furthermore, the majority of precipitation-related indices have significant negative correlations with East Asian summer monsoon

  11. Crustal structure of Hubei Province of China from teleseismic receiver functions: Evidence for lower crust delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rong; Zhu, Lupei; Xu, Yixian

    2014-12-01

    Western Hubei Province is at the southern end of the 3000-km-long north-south-oriented Xing'anling-Taihangshan-Wulingshan topographic step in China, which separates high-rising plateaus and mountain ranges in the west from low-elevation plains in the east. We calculated teleseismic P receiver functions of 32 permanent broadband seismic stations in Hubei Province and estimated crustal thicknesses under them using the H-κ method. We also obtained detailed crustal structural images along three profiles using the CCP stacking method. The results show an east-west crustal thickness increase in the study area from 30-35 km to 45-50 km in less than 20 km of horizontal distance, most likely in a step-wise fashion. The thin crust beneath the Nanxiang and Jianghan basins in eastern Hubei extends into the interior of the Wuling Uplift and the Huangling Massif in western Hubei. The lack of mirror symmetry between the Moho and surface topography suggests that part of the mountain ranges in western Hubei is either compensated by non-Airy-type isostasy models or is not in isostatic equilibrium but supported by the strength of the lithosphere. The brittle or localized ductile deformation in the lower crust/uppermost mantle as indicated by the abrupt Moho steps seems to be decoupled with brittle deformation in the upper crust. The CCP images also reveal an apparent double Moho beneath the Wudang Mts. which is interpreted to be due to a partially eclogitized lower crust after the original cratonic mantle lithosphere was replaced by warm and hydrated mantle materials in eastern China in the Late Mesozoic. The Moho steps were formed when a segment of eclogitized lower crust became gravitationally unstable and foundered into the mantle.

  12. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  13. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille).

    PubMed

    An, Jiandong; Huang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youquan; Zhang, Shiwen; Wang, Biao; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Jie; Williams, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators for wild flowers and agricultural crops. North China is a region of varied geomorphology and vegetation, with plateaus, plains, mountains and deserts, and is part of the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity worldwide. We report on a field survey of the bumblebees of North China made between 2005-2012. A sample of 21,636 bumblebee specimens are assigned to 76 species. One older specimen held in London added one more species to this list. Together, these 77 species represent 10 subgenera of the genus Bombus. Seven species are recorded from North China for the first time: B. (St.) distinguendus, B. (Th.) anachoreta, B. (Th.) pseudobaicalensis, B. (Th.) exil, B. (Ps.) campestris, B. (Pr.) infirmus and B. (Ag.) validus. We provide identification keys for both males and females, photographs of the common colour patterns, and distribution maps for all species. We describe variation in local species richness and abundance, and list the food plants used by bumblebees in North China. The most abundant 10 bumblebee species are: B. (Ml.) pyrosoma, B. (Bo.) lantschouensis, B. (Bo.) patagiatus, B. (St.) melanurus, B. (Sb.) sibiricus, B. (Bo.) ignitus, B. (Th.) hedini, B. (Pr.) picipes, B. (Mg.) trifasciatus and B. (Mg.) longipes. Bumblebees are distributed widely within North China, from low elevations near the edge of the North-China plain to high elevations at the edge of the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (65-4011 m). The highest species richness is found in meadows of the high elevation east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and in forests of the Qilianshan mountains in southwestern Gansu. The 337 food plant species recorded here belong to 49 families, showing that bumblebees play an important role in interconnecting agricultural and natural ecosystems in North China.  PMID:25081273

  14. Willingness-to-accept and purchase genetically modified rice with high folate content in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; Storozhenko, S; Liqun, G; Lambert, W; Van Der Straeten, D; Viaene, J

    2010-02-01

    Neural-tube defects (NTDs) are considered to be the most common congenital malformations. As Shanxi Province, a poor region in the North of China, has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of NTDs in the world, folate fortification of rice is an excellent alternative to low intake of folate acid pills in this region. This paper investigates the relations between socio-demographic indicators, consumer characteristics (knowledge, consumer perceptions on benefits, risks, safety and price), willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay genetically modified (GM) rice. The consumer survey compromises 944 face-to-face interviews with rice consumers in Shanxi Province, China. Multivariate analyses consist of multinomial logistic regression and multiple regression. The results indicate that consumers generally are willing-to-accept GM rice, with an acceptance rate of 62.2%. Acceptance is influenced by objective knowledge and consumers' perceptions on benefits and risks. Willingness-to-pay GM rice is influenced by objective knowledge, risk perception and acceptance. Communication towards the use of GM rice should target mainly improving knowledge and consumers' perceptions on high-risk groups within Shanxi Province, in particular low educated women. PMID:19815041

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  16. Assessment of Undiscovered Biogenic Gas Resources, North-Central Montana Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Application of a geology-based assessment methodology by the U.S. Geological Survey resulted in an estimated mean of 6,192 billion cubic feet of shallow biogenic (continuous) undiscovered gas in the North-Central Montana Province. Oil, gas, and natural gas liquids in conventional accumulations were not assessed.

  17. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  18. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term. PMID:27228611

  19. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the postpartum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and

  20. [The Analysis of Traditional Lime Mortars from Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-bin; Cui, Biao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2016-01-01

    The components of ancient mortars have always been an important research field in historic building conservation. It has been well known that using traditional mortars in conservation projects have many advantages, such as compatibility and stability. So, developing new binding materials based on traditional mortar has become an international study hotspot. With China's economic development, the protection of ancient buildings also began to put on the agenda, but the understanding on Chinese traditional mortar is limited, and rare literatures are reported. In the present work, the authors investigate seven ancient city wall sites in Zhejiang Province in situ, and subsequently laboratory analysis were carried out on collected mortar samples. The characterizations of mortar samples were made by multi-density gauge, XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC and wet chemical analysis. The experimental results showed that: the main component of masonry mortars is calcium carbonate, the content between 75% - 90%, and they should be made from relatively pure lime mortar. The raw materials of mortar samples were mainly calcareous quick lime, and sample from Taizhou city also contained magnesium quick lime. There are four city walls were built by sticky-rice mortars. It suggests that the technology of adding the sticky rice soup into mortar was universal in the Ming Dynasties. These mortars have lower density between 1.2 and 1.9 g x cm(-3); this outcome should be the result of long-term natural erosion. We have also analyzed other chemical and physical characteristics of these masonry mortars. The results can afford the basic data for the future repairmen programs, development of new protective materials, and comparative study of mortars. PMID:27228774

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sows in Hunan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). Overall, 31.3% (373/1191) of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4%) and autumn (34.9%) than in spring (24.6%) and winter (23.9%). Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1: 1024) to 17.4% (titer = 1:64). The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China. PMID:24683331

  2. alpha-Thalassemia mutation analyses in Mazandaran province, North Iran.

    PubMed

    Tamaddoni, Ahmad; Hadavi, Valeh; Nejad, Nima Hafezi; Khosh-Ain, Atefeh; Siami, Rita; Aghai-Meibodi, Jalil; Almadani, Navid; Oberkanins, Christian; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-five patients from Mazandaran Province, Iran, all presenting with hypochromic and microcytic anemia, were selected for alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) mutation screening. We detected a total of 274 alpha-globin mutations in 227 (89%) of these patients. Among the 21 different alpha-globin alleles found, the -alpha(3.7) (44.9%), polyadenylation signal 2 (poly A2) (AATAAA>AATGAA) (18.2%), -alpha(4.2) (9.1%), alpha(IVS-I(-5 nt)) (6.5%), - -(MED) (4.3%), and alpha(codon 19 (-G)) (4%) were the most frequent. The other 15 mutations included variants that had not yet been observed in Iran, such as Hb Bleuland [alpha108(G15)ThrAsn, ACC>AAC (alpha2)], as well as a novel mutation on the alpha2 gene, also not described to date [3 ' untranslated region (3 'UTR) nucleotide (nt) 46 (C>A)]. These comprehensive new data are useful for establishing a screening strategy for the effective control of alpha-thal in Mazandaran Province. PMID:19373587

  3. Assessing the Remotely Sensed Drought Severity Index for Agricultural Drought Monitoring in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, J.; Mu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    With a warming climate, the world has experienced frequent droughts during the past few decades. A remotely sensed Drought Severity Index (DSI), which integrates both vegetation growth condition and evapotranspiration, has been recently proposed for drought monitoring at the global scale. However, there has been little research on its utility for regional application, especially on agricultural drought. As an important winter wheat producing region, the North China has suffered from frequent droughts in recent years. In this study, the capability of the DSI for drought monitoring and impact analysis in five wheat producing provinces of North China was investigated. First, the DSI was compared with precipitation and soil moisture to show its ability for characterizing moisture status. Then specifically for agricultural drought, the DSI was evaluated against agricultural drought severity and the impacts of drought on crop yield during the growing season were also explored using the 8-day DSI data. The main conclusions are: (1) The DSI shows generally good ability for characterizing moisture conditions at the province level with varying ability during winter wheat main growing season (March-June), and the best relationship was found in April. (2) Despite varying capability, the DSI is quite effective in characterizing agricultural drought severity at the province level. (3) Drought shows generally increasing agricultural impacts during winter wheat main growing season (March-June), with little impacts in March (green-up stage), emerging impacts in April (jointing and booting stages) and significant drought impacts in May (heading and filling stages). (4) Based on the spatial pattern of agricultural drought impacts, densely winter wheat planted areas such as South Hebei, Central/West Shandong and North/East Henan are identified as drought vulnerable regions and comprehensive monitoring in these hotspots is highly recommended.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  5. Natural occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn in four provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tiesong; Zhu, Weifang; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) are the most abundant fumonisins (FBs) occurring worldwide in maize, infected mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. A total of 307 corn kernel samples were collected from 45 districts of Gansu, Shandong, Ningxia and the Inner Mongolia provinces of the north and northwest China. The samples were analysed for FB1 and FB2 by high-performance liquid chromatography. The FBs (FB1+ FB2) incidence rate in samples from Gansu, Shandong, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia were 31.5%, 81.1%, 46.2% and 53.6%, respectively. Average FBs concentration was 703 μg/kg and the concentrations ranged from ≤11 to 13,110 μg kg(-1). Results were compared with the European Commission (EC) regulation for FB1+ FB2 in unprocessed maize for human consumption of 4 mg kg(-1). Contamination in 17 samples was higher than these levels. More than 80% of the samples from Liaocheng county, which is located in the Shandong province, were contaminated with FBs, with a mean total FB concentration of 2496 μg/kg. The result was significantly different from that of the Inner Mongolia (1399 μg/kg), Ningxia (373 μg/kg) and Gansu (175 μg/kg). Average exposure to FBs (0.12 μg/kg body weight/day) is within the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2.0 mg/kg of body weight set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:24779936

  6. Melt-Peridotite Reaction Mechanism of North China Craton Destruction: Experimental Constrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Jin, Z.; Gao, S.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, S.

    2009-12-01

    Although the geoscientsts in the world have reached an agreement about the Mesozoic thinning of North China Craton, the dynamics of this process is still under debate, especially the thinning mechanism. There are two popular thinning mechanisms were proposed for the North China Craton, one is the delamination model and the other is thermo-mechanical erosion model. The delamination model has aroused great interests since Gao et al. use it to explain the formation of Xilonggou high Mg# andesite from Liaoxi region of Liaoning Province. These Lavas, which possessed an adakitic signature with high Mg#, were believed to origin by the interaction between silica rich and yttrium delepted melt, which are formed by partile melting of low crust eclogite, and asthenospheric peridotite. The discovery of zoned mantle olivine and pyroxene xenocrysts, especially zoned mantle peridotitic xenoliths in Mesozoic basaltic rocks from eastern North China, indicates that peridotite-melt reaction was widespread in Mesozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern North China craton. Such interaction could be an important mechanism for the compositional transformation and rapid enrichment of the lithospheric mantle. We conducted a series of experiments at a pressure of 2.0 GPa and temperatures of 1250-1400 °C using Bixiling eclogite and Damaping peridotite as starting materials to study the mechanism of melt-peridotite reaction. Our results show that olivine and orthopyroxene were dissolved in the reacting melts between eclogite and peridotite, resulting in clinopyroxene precipitation along the interface of melts and lherzolite. The experimental run products, possessing a lherzolite-pyroxenite-garnet pyroxenite sequence, are identical to the composite mantle xenoliths in the Neogene Hannuoba basalt of the North China craton. The later is considered as strong evidence of the maffic lower continental crust recycling into the mantle during the Mesozoic Era. The reacting melts have a high

  7. Mesozoic tectonic setting of rift basins in eastern North China and implications for destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guo-wei; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    Destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic due to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate has attracted a lot of recent interest, with numerous studies focusing on regional tectonics and associated magmatism. Although the peak ages for this event have been established, the timing of its initiation remains poorly understood. In this paper, two rift basins in the northern Hebei Province of China, the Diaoe Basin (DB) and Houcheng Basin (HB), are studied in order to constrain the timing of destruction of the northern margin of the NCC. Both NNE-striking basins developed on Proterozoic basement. The DB is a graben controlled by normal faults on its two margins, and the HB is a half-graben bounded by normal faults on its eastern side. Basin fills include detrital sediments and volcanic rocks, which are (from bottom to top) the Houcheng Formation (Fh), the Zhangjiakou Formation (Fzh), the Shijiayao Formation (Fs), and the Huajiying Formation (Fhj). The Fh is composed mainly of detrital sediments interlayered with andesite in its lower section, and interlayered with felsic volcanics (rhyolite) in its upper section. There exists a transitional change from the Fh to the thick felsic volcanic strata of the Fzh. Geochemically, the andesite layers in the lower Fh were most likely derived from mixing of crust and mantle melts, whereas the felsic rocks were derived from melting of the lower crust. U-Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded ages for the lower Fh andesites of ca. 165.7 Ma in the HB and ca. 157.4 Ma in the DB. The felsic rocks at the base of the Fzh yielded ages of ca. 155.1 Ma in the HB and ca. 149.2-143.4 Ma in the DB. The Fs and Fhj in the DB both yielded similar ages of ca. 136 Ma. The development of rift basins, together with the occurrence of massive felsic volcanic rocks, indicates a period of significant extension and thinning of the NCC. The ca. 165.7-155.1 Ma age for andesites not only represents the initial timing of crustal extension

  8. Alpha-thalassemia mutations in Gilan Province, North Iran.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, Valeh; Jafroodi, Maryam; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Moghadam, Sousan Dehnadi; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Tarashohi, Shahin; Pourfahim, Hamideh; Oberkanins, Christian; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and three patients from Gilan Province, Iran, presenting with hypochromic and microcytic anemia parameters without iron deficiency were included in this study. Using gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR), reverse hybridization StripAssay and DNA sequencing, we detected a total of 113 alpha-globin mutations in 94 (91.3%) of these patients. Most prevalent of the 16 different alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) alleles was -alpha(3.7) (42.5%), followed by the polyadenylation signal (poly A2) (AATAAA>AATGAA) (12.4%), Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS, alpha142, Term-->Gln (TAA>CAA in alpha2] (10.6%), --(MED) (8.8%), IVS-I donor site [GAG GTG AGG>GAG G-----, alpha(-5 nt) (-TGAGG)] (7.1%), -alpha(4.2) (4.4%) and poly A1 (AATAAA>AATAAG) (3.5%). An additional nine mutations were observed at frequencies below 2%. We also found two novel alpha1 gene mutations: alpha(-9) (HBA1: c.-9 G>C) and alpha(IVS-I-4) (HBA1: c.95+4 A>G). Our new findings will be valuable for improving targeted thalassemia screening and prevention strategies in this area. PMID:19657838

  9. Regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Zihong; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Løvlie, Reidar; Liu, Liqiang; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study on regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China, was performed in this study. To get a better understanding of the present-day stress status in this area, 31 focal mechanisms of M L ≥3 earthquakes since 1965 were compiled, and the best stress tensor was then inverted based on the database. Additionally, magnetic fabrics along the Taigu fault zone were investigated to get an indication of the regional stress field in the past. Our results show that the present-day stress field around the Taigu fault zone is characterized by astable NW-SE extension with a strike-slip component, consistent with the geological surveys and recent GPS data. Results from magnetic fabrics indicate that the orientations of principal stress axes from magnetic fabrics of sedimentary rocks in Neogene coincide to the orientations of principal stress axes from focal mechanisms. The south segment of the Taigu fault displays more complicated magnetic fabrics and more activity of moderate earthquakes. It is connected with the Mianshan west fault and intersects with NW-SE striking Fenyang fault and the north fault of the Lingshi uplift at the south edge of Taiyuan basin. This may be the area needing more attention in terms of seismic risk along the Taigu fault.

  10. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  11. Primary Analysis of Shear-Wave Splitting Aroundbohai Sea Area in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, L.; Gao, Y.; Shi, Y.; Sun, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bohai Sea area locates at eastern China, including 3 provinces ( Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong ) and 2 metropolitan cities ( Beijing and Tianjin ). There are 5 tectonic units (Yanshan uplift, Taihang uplift, Liaodong uplift, Luxi uplift and Jizhong depression), where is within North China (in short, NC). Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, an important seismotectonic zone in eastern China and Tanlu fault, the largest fault in eastern China, intersect in this zone, so that the tectonics are complicated. Earthquake activity is very strong in this zone, which is famous of earthquakes with large magnitude and high frequency. This study used a system analysis method of shear-wave splitting, namely SAM method (GAO et al, 2004). It includes mainly three aspects, i.e., calculation of cross-correlation function, elimination of time delay and check of polarization analysis. Preliminarily, we obtained the 378 seismic data within shear-wave window recorded by 27 stations around Bohai Sea area. The polarizations of fast shear-waves show different local features so that we divide the studied zone into 3 different areas, west of Bohai Sea gulf (including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province), north of Bohai Sea gulf (Liaoning province) and south of Bohai Sea gulf (Shandong province). In the west of Bohai Sea gulf, we divided the area into 3 parts. In south of Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are a little scattered, lots of stations strike to nearly E-W, consistent with the direction of the in situ principal stress, consistent with the direction of regional tectonic stress in north part of NC, which strikes to nearly WNW or E-W, while some stations strike to NNE or NW, different from the direction of the regional principal stress field. It may be influenced by local tectonics or shallow crust structure. Within Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are in direction of nearly E-W, consistent with

  12. Atmospheric PAHs in North China: Spatial distribution and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Lin, Yan; Cai, Jing; Liu, Yue; Hong, Linan; Qin, Momei; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Zheng, Mei

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed through incomplete combustion process, have adverse health effects. To investigate spatial distribution and sources of PAHs in North China, PAHs with passive sampling in 90 gridded sites during June to September in 2011 were analyzed. The average concentration of the sum of fifteen PAHs in North China is 220±14ng/m(3), with the highest in Shanxi, followed by Shandong and Hebei, and then the Beijing-Tianjin area. Major sources of PAHs are identified for each region of North China, coke process for Shanxi, biomass burning for Hebei and Shandong, and coal combustion for Beijing-Tianjin area, respectively. Emission inventory is combined with back trajectory analysis to study the influence of emissions from surrounding areas at receptor sites. Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin areas are more influenced by sources nearby while regional sources have more impact on Hebei and Shandong areas. Results from this study suggest the areas where local emission should be the major target for control and areas where both local and regional sources should be considered for PAH abatement in North China. PMID:27241206

  13. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton. PMID:15602559

  14. Analysis of carbon monoxide budget in North China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Zhao, Chunsheng; Lin, Yunping; Zheng, Xiangdong; Tie, Xuexi; Chan, Lo-Yin

    2007-01-01

    A global chemical transport model (MOZART-2; model of ozone and related tracers, version 2) was used to assess physical and chemical processes that control the budget of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) in North China. Satellite observations of CO from the measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are combined with model results for the analysis. The comparison between the model simulations and the satellite observations of total column CO (TCO) shows that the model can reproduce the spatial and temporal distributions. However, the model results underestimate TCO by 23% in North China. This underestimation of TCO may be caused by the uncertainties of emissions. The tropospheric CO budget analysis suggests that in North China, surface emission is the largest source of tropospheric CO. The main sinks of tropospheric CO in this region are chemical reaction and stratosphere_and_troposphere exchange. The analysis also shows that most of inflow CO to Pacific regions comes from the upwind regions of North China. This transport of CO is significant during Winter and Spring time. PMID:17092540

  15. Impact of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Dai, J R; Liang, Y S; Huang, Y X; Coles, G C

    2009-01-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is currently the key, national, water-conservation project in China, designed to optimise the use of water resources and relieve the water shortages in the north of the country. As one of the main water intakes for the project, that of the Eastern Route Scheme (ERS), is a breeding site for Oncomelania hupensis (the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum), there is concern that the snail may be carried far to the north, in the water passing through the project. To see if they could survive and breed to the north of their current range in China, O. hupensis were collected in marshland near Nanjing City and transferred to cages, on the banks of fish ponds, in the cities of Zhenjiang (in Jiangsu province, at 32 degrees 10'N), Xuzhou (in the same province but at a latitude of 34 degrees 23'N) and Jining (in Shandong province, at 35 degrees 23'N). Except over the first 6 months in Xuzhou, the snails moved north of their natural distribution did not survive and reproduce as well as those in Zhenjiang, and all those transferred to Jining died out within 1 year. Although the snail populations in Xuzhou survived for 7-8 years and retained their infectivity to S. japonicum, histological and histochemical studies revealed abnormalities in the reproductive organs of these snails. It is concluded that, unless global warming significantly increases the minimum winter temperatures in northern China, the SNWDP is unlikely to result in the northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica. PMID:19173773

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  18. Diffuse Pleural Mesothelioma and Asbestos Exposure in the North Western Cape Province

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J. C.; Sleggs, C. A.; Marchand, Paul

    1960-01-01

    Primary malignant tumours of the pleura are uncommon. Thirty-three cases (22 males, 11 females, ages 31 to 68) of diffuse pleural mesothelioma are described; all but one have a probable exposure to crocidolite asbestos (Cape blue). In a majority this exposure was in the Asbestos Hills which lie to the west of Kimberley in the north west of Cape Province. The tumour is rarely seen elsewhere in South Africa. Images PMID:13782506

  19. Formation mechanism of land subsidence in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haipeng; Cheng, Guoming

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is a progressive and gradual geological disaster, whose development is irreversible. Due to rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, land subsidence occurs commonly in the North China Plain, and has become the main environmental factor impacting sustainable economic and social development. This study presents a brief review on the current situation of land subsidence in the North China Plain. Then the hydrologic, hydrogeologic and anthropogenic conditions favorable for the formation of land subsidence are analyzed, indicating that the formation of land subsidence is mainly determined by local geological condition and enabling conditions, e.g. long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater and engineering construction. A correlation analysis was conducted in both the North China Plain and Cangzhou region, a typical area where severe land subsidence occurs, of the quantitative relationship between deep groundwater yield and the land subsidence. The analysis results indicate that the land subsidence volume accounts for 40% to 44% of deep water yield in the North China Plain, indirectly showing the proportion of released water from compressibility of the aquifer and the aquitard in deep groundwater yield. In Cangzhou region, this proportion was calculated as 58%, far greater than that of the North China Plain. This is induced by the local lithologic structure and recharge condition of deep groundwater in Cangzhou region. The analysis of soil samples in Cangzhou region shows that strong relations exist among different physical parameters, and good change laws of compression with depth and pressure are found for soil samples. The hydraulic conductivities of clay are six orders of magnitude greater than those of the aquifer, implying the strong hypothesis of land subsidence. This analysis provides data and scientific basis for further study on formation mechanism of land subsidence in Cangzhou region and objective evaluation of its

  20. Co-seismic and post-seismic effects of the Tohoku-Oki M W 9.0 earthquake in North and Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chengjun; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengxuan; Qi, Bangshen; Wang, Lianjie

    2016-01-01

    Using the US Geological Survey (USGS) finite fault model, the co-seismic horizontal displacement and horizontal principal stress field in North and Northeast China generated by the Tohoku-Oki M W 9.0 earthquake of March 11th, 2011, were retrieved by linear elastic finite element numerical simulation. On this basis, the static Coulomb failure stress variations of the main active faults and tectonic zones in North and Northeast China were calculated, and the triggering effect of the earthquake on seismicity in North and Northeast China was discussed. Results were as follows: (1) the co-seismic horizontal displacement field caused by the great earthquake was eastward in North China; the maximum value, which occurred in the Shandong Peninsula and north Jiangsu Province, was about 12 mm; and the values gradually decreased from east to west. The co-seismic horizontal displacement field in Northeast China was SE-SEE and the maximum value, which occurred in northeast Jilin Province, was about 30 mm. The simulated results for the co-seismic horizontal displacement field were in good agreement with GPS observational results. (2) The near-surface co-seismic maximum horizontal principal stress (ΔσHmax) was tensile stress ranging from 0 to 2.0 KPa. From Northeast China to North China, the direction gradually altered from NW to NWW to nearly EW to NEE. The co-seismic minimum horizontal principal stress (ΔσHmax) was compressive as well as tensile stress, with a magnitude of 0-0.75 KPa, which is approximately equal to zero. From Northeast China to North China, the direction gradually changed to NNW from NE to NNE to nearly NS. Although the co-seismic stress effect generated by the great earthquake had some effect on the present tectonic stress field of North and Northeast China, its influence was too slight to change the present framework of the regional tectonic stress field. (3) Coulomb failure stress variations on active fault zones in North and Northeast China mainly

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  2. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  3. Industry sector analysis, China: Electrical generating equipment in guangdong province. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the electrical generating equipment market in the Guangdong Province of China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  4. A new combination and two varieties of polystigmate Gomphonema (gomphonemaceae bacillariophyta) from Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yawen; Shi, Zhixin; Bao, Wenmei; Wang, Quanxi

    2004-06-01

    The authors discribed a new polystigmate combination, Gomphonema turris Ehr. var. okamurae (Skv.) Fan et Bao. comb. nov., and two new varieties, Gomphonema turris Ehr. var. latum Fan et Wang. var. nov. and Gomphonema acuminatum var. obtusum Fan et Bao, var. nov., that were distinguished by frustule morphology under LM. The samples were collected from freshwater of Heilongjiang Province, China.

  5. Challenges to Early Childhood Education in Rural China: Lessons from the Hebei Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…

  6. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  7. Anti-Smoking Practice in Hospitals: An Intercept Survey among Patients in Hubei Province, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…

  8. Higher Vocational Education in China: A Preliminary Critical Review of Developments and Issues in Liaoning Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, G. R.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the increasingly important economy of China and its associated higher vocational education and training (HVE) system. More specifically, the paper aims to present the findings of a critical review of recent developments in the HVE system in Liaoning province. Design/methodology/approach: As part of this review,…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Among Primary School Children in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yao, Zong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection in primary school children has been investigated in many countries, limited surveys have been available in primary school children in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Sera from 6,000 primary school children were evaluated for T. gondii antibodies with ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 16.0% (961/6,000), of which 14.5% (870/6,000) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, 3.4% (206/6,000) positive for IgM, and 1.9% (115/6,000) were positive for both IgG and IgM. The results of the present investigation indicated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control T. gondii infection in primary school children in this province. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in primary school children in Shandong province, China. PMID:26323849

  11. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur (Pterosauria) from Jurassic deposits of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Xu, Li; Wei, Xuefang; Chang, Huali; Kundrát, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following characters: the toothless tip of the lower jaw is slightly pointed; the length ratio of wing metacarpal to humerus is 0.38, the ulna is shorter than each wing phalanx and the tibia is nearly equal to femur in length. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Orientognathus chaoyngensis as a rhamphorhynchid pterosaur. Orientognathus chaoyngensis is perhaps the youngest Jurassic pterosaur from western Liaoning Province of China.  PMID:25661600

  12. A hepatitis E outbreak by genotype 4 virus in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-07-19

    Hepatitis E vaccine was available in China in 2012, but the priority population for immunization is not clear. In 2013, a hepatitis E outbreak occurred in a company of Shandong province, China where most employees moved from other provinces and dined at the company's cafeteria. A total of fourteen (19%, 14/73) case-patients were identified, and three of them had symptomatic infection with one death. The proportion of symptomatic infection was much higher among those aged ⩾50years than those aged <50years (2/2 vs. 1/12, P=0.03), and higher in males than females (3/8 vs. 0/6, P=0.21). Food in the company's cafeteria might be the possible source of the outbreak. The findings from this outbreak investigation indicate that individuals aged ⩾50years, particularly males, might be the population of top priority for hepatitis E vaccination in China. PMID:27318419

  13. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  14. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae), a new species from North China.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group Hieracium sect. Aestiva (Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea × Hieracium sect. Umbellata) and is most similar to Hieracium veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements. PMID:25197222

  15. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China. PMID:26963628

  16. Locating True North in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankenier, D. W.

    2009-08-01

    Archaeological discoveries from the Chinese Bronze Age have demonstrated a dominant concern with achieving cardinal orientation that persisted throughout the Xià, Shāng, and Zhōdu dynasties (ca. 2000 -- 300 BCE). It has long been understood that cardinality is an index of the paradigmatic roles of ``the center'' and ``the four quarters'', both core organizing principles of early Chinese cosmological thinking. Here, however, I focus on a very early practical technique used to identify the location of the pole in the absence of a pole star. This method takes advantage of the unique orientation of the Great Square of Pegasus (known as Ding} in early China) and offers insight into a fundamental mindset that figured importantly in the formation of early Chinese Civilization.

  17. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution. PMID:26215458

  18. Late Precambrian aulacogens of the North China craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, X.

    1985-01-01

    According to tectonic styles, the Precambrian evolution history of the North China craton may be subdivided into four stages: (1) Archean consolidation in 3.5 to 2.5 Ga, (2) Early Proterozoic rifting in 2.5 to 1.8 Ga, (3) Late Precambrian aulacogen in 1.8 to 0.8 Ga and (4) Platform regime after 0.8 Ga. In the Late Precambrian aulacogen stage of the North China craton there were two main aulacogens, Yanliao and Zhongtiao (Y and Z), developed in Middle Proterozoic time with an age 1.8 to 1.0 Ga. Their NE trend caused them to meet together in the central part of the craton and build up one great Y-Z aulacogen throughout the craton.

  19. New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Wei, Qi; Qiang, Xiaoke; Xiao, Guoqiao

    2013-01-01

    The Nihewan Basin in North China has a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites. Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site that was found in the northeastern Nihewan Basin in 1972. The artifact layer is suggested to be located in the Matuyama reversed polarity chron just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai polarity subchron, yielding an estimated age of ca 1.7–1.6 Ma. This provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene. The earliest hominids are argued to have lived in a habitat of open grasslands mixed with patches of forests close to the bank of the Nihewan paleolake as indicated from faunal compositions. Hominid migrations to East Asia during the Early Pleistocene are suggested to be a consequence of increasing cooling and aridity in Africa and Eurasia. PMID:23948715

  20. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.

  1. Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Babaniyi, Olusegun A.; Mwaba, Peter; Mulenga, David; Monze, Mwaka; Songolo, Peter; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Chizema, Elizabeth; Eshetu-Shibeshi, Messeret; Malama, Costantine; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation. PMID:25722614

  2. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of North China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, T.; Zuan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocens Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pole in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point.

  3. Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic constraints on the Paleozoic reconstructions of south China, north China and Tarim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangyou, Nie

    1991-10-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data provide the most useful latitudinal constraints for plate reconstructions. Distributions through the Paleozoic of five types of climatically sensitive sediments (coals, evaporites, reefs, dolomites and limestones) for south China, north China and Tarim are shown on 15 maps that include 1578 reliable data points. These paleoclimatic data agree reasonably well with available paleomagnetic directions, although significant divergence between the two exists for the Early Paleozoic. These data indicate the following: (1) South China was in low latitudes during the entire Paleozoic, with a subtropical position in the Cambrian. (2) North China also remained near the equator in the Early and Late Paleozoic, except for the Ordovian and the Late Permian when extensive evaporites suggest slightly higher latitudinal positions, while its Middle Paleozoic position is uncertain due to the missing stratigraphie record. (3) In south China, local tectonics appears to have played a dominant role in determining paleogeography and therefore marine sedimentation, especially after the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian, because the areal coverage of marine sediments through time is distinctly different from what would be expected from published global sea-level curves. (4) Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic data are compatible with biogeographic data which suggest that south China was part of eastern Gondwana in the Early Paleozoic, but was widely separated from Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic, and the split between the two probably happened in the Devonian, giving rise to a major break-up unconformity in central south China.

  4. Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

  5. Invasion of the Red Seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica Spans Biogeographic Provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E. S.; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic. PMID:23638018

  6. Molecular identification and seasonal infections of species of Fasciola in ruminants from two provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W; Liu, J-M; Lu, K; Li, H; Duan, M-M; Feng, J-T; Hong, Y; Liu, Y-P; Zhou, Y; Tong, L-B; Lu, J; Zhu, C-G; Jin, Y-M; Cheng, G-F; Lin, J-J

    2016-05-01

    We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4-100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0-89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively. PMID:26123576

  7. Changes in Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…

  8. Evaluating ecosystem service change in Jiangxi Province of China based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Taiyang; Huang, Xianjing; Ma, Yuandan

    2009-10-01

    The function and services of ecosystem are important components of the life-support system in the planet, as well as the basic elements for sustainable development of environment and society. In this study, the change of ecosystem function and services in Jiangxi Province of China were estimated by employing the classification and economic parameters from Costanza et al. The types and area of terrestrial ecosystems in 1980s and 2000s were identified from Landsat imagery, based on the maximum likelihood classification methods. And then the distribution maps of ecosystem services of Jiangxi Province were drawn. The value for terrestrial ecosystem was 2522x108 RMB in 1980s, while it increased by 7.3% in 2000s, which mainly because the increased forest areas in Jiangxi Province. The estimation method employed in this study was conservative, and should be improved in future studies.

  9. Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H.; Ge, L.; Song, L.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-07-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) is a worldwide fulminant infectious disease. Since the first HFRS cases in Hubei Province were reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of seriously affected areas in China. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS are still not entirely clear. Therefore, a systematic investigation of spatial and temporal distribution pattern of HFRS system is needed. In order to facilitate better prevention and control of HFRS in Hubei Province, in this paper, a GIS spatiotemporal analysis and modeling tool was developed to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the HFRS epidemic, as well as providinga comprehensive examination the dynamic pattern of HFRS in Hubei over the past 30 years (1980-2009), to determine spatiotemporal change trends and the causes of HFRS. This paper describes the experiments and their results.

  10. Survey of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in the five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-Qi; Han, Rong-Wei; Zhen, Yun-Peng; Xu, Xiao-Min; Sun, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the only mycotoxin that has a legal limit in milk all over the world. In the present study, 360 raw milk samples were collected from Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Shanghai and Guangdong provinces in China in September 2010, and their AFM1 levels were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). More than three-fourths (78.1%) of the 360 raw milk samples contained AFM1 at concentrations of 5-123 ng L⁻¹. AFM1 contents in all positive samples were far below the Chinese and US legal limit of 500 ng L⁻¹, but 10% of the raw milk samples exceeded the EU legal limit of 50 ng L⁻¹. Moreover, both incidence and content of AFM1 in milk collected from the southern provinces, including Shanghai and Guangdong, were higher than those collected from the northern provinces, including Beijing, Hebei and Shanxi. PMID:24779875

  11. Shelf north of Falklands may be new S. Atlantic petroleum province

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S. ); Johnson, M. )

    1995-03-06

    Interpretation of new seismic data shows that all the elements of a favorable petroleum geology exist on the North Falkland shelf and therefore that the area will become an important petroleum province of the future. Spectrum Energy and Information Technology Ltd. acquired approximately 7,500 line km of speculative seismic data during 1993--94 over the continental shelf north of the Falkland Islands. These data have been interpreted geologically to determine the petroleum prospectivity of the area prior to the planned offshore Falkland Islands licensing round. In this article the authors outline this interpretation and show how it provides some important new information on regional geology and the break-up history of southern Gondwana. The paper describes plate tectonics and basin evolution; stratigraphy; basin structure; petroleum geology; source rock maturity; hydrocarbon generation; and petroleum prospectivity.

  12. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  13. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  14. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. PMID:26041195

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Waterfowl-Origin Tembusu Virus Strains Isolated in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Xin; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Ti, Jinfeng; Gao, Xuhui

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two tembusu virus strains, ZC-1 and LQ-1, isolated from ducks and geese, respectively, in 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the two strains are closely related to those of the TMUV isolates around Shandong province. The full-length genome sequences of two waterfowl-origin TMUVs provided herein will help to understand the molecular epidemiology of tembusu virus in China, which deserves further investigation. PMID:24356821

  16. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  17. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  18. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping )

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] -35.5 [approximately] -39.9[per thousand], and [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2] -24.0 [approximately] -26.8[per thousand]. The [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4[per thousand] to -26.8[per thousand]. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] of the gases there is -37.9 [approximately] -37. l[per thousand], with the [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 [approximately] -26.6[per thousand]. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] from - 38.7 to -43.7[per thousand] and [delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] from -25.9[per thousand] to -29.9[per thousand]. The [delta] [sup 13]C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3[per thousand] to 27.8[per thousand].

  19. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping

    1996-12-31

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} -35.5 {approximately} -39.9{per_thousand}, and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2} -24.0 {approximately} -26.8{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4{per_thousand} to -26.8{per_thousand}. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} of the gases there is -37.9 {approximately} -37. l{per_thousand}, with the {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 {approximately} -26.6{per_thousand}. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} from - 38.7 to -43.7{per_thousand} and {delta} {sup 13}C{sub 2} from -25.9{per_thousand} to -29.9{per_thousand}. The {delta} {sup 13}C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3{per_thousand} to 27.8{per_thousand}.

  20. Climatic and tectonic controls on Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentation in northeastern Guangdong Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wen, Shu-Nv; Krapež, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    Stratigraphic analyses document climatic and tectonic controls on the filling of a Late Triassic to early Middle Jurassic (T3-J2) basin that developed on top of a young orogenic belt in southeastern South China. About 2700 m of Carnian to Bajocian sedimentary rocks is documented in the Meizhou region, Guangdong Province. The Carnian to Rhaetian sequence is characterized by deltaic facies that are succeeded by Hettangian fluvial, shallow marine and volcaniclastic facies, and by Sinemurian to early Toarcian interdistributary bay and floodplain facies. The late Toarcian to Bajocian sequence comprises proximal alluvial to lacustrine facies that changed upwards to fluvial facies. Fossil assemblages indicate that climatic conditions changed from tropical/subtropical warm humid, to temperate humid, and then to hot arid through the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic. Climatically induced changes (e.g., in precipitation, vegetation and erosion) exerted a strong influence on sediment supply, whereas tectonics played a dominant role in stratigraphic evolution, accommodation generation, sedimentation pattern and volcanism. Tectonostratigraphic analysis shows that the T3-J2 basin was initiated on an orogenic belt during late-stage orogeny, and evolved into shallow-marine and volcanic environments and then back to terrestrial facies during the post-orogenic stage. This was followed by regional uplift and the development of a basin-and-range province. The order of these events is similar to that of the central Rocky Mountains, western North America during the Palaeogene. The Mesozoic basin of South China and the Eocene basins of the central Rocky Mountains highlight the importance of subduction-related subsidence above young and broad orogens.

  1. Spatiotemporal variations in rainfall erosivity during the period of 1960-2011 in Guangdong Province, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qinghe; Liu, Qian; Ma, Lijiao; Ding, Shengyan; Xu, Shanshan; Wu, Changsong; Liu, Pu

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall erosivity, which shows a potential risk of soil loss caused by water erosion, is an important factor in soil erosion process. In consideration of the critical condition of soil erosion induced by rainfall in Guangdong Province of southern China, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall erosivity based on daily rainfall data observed at 25 meteorological stations during the period of 1960-2011. The methods of global spatial autocorrelation, kriging interpolation, Mann-Kendall test, and continuous wavelet transform were used. Results revealed that the annual rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province, which spatially varied with the maximum level observed in June, was classified as high erosivity with two peaks that occur in spring and summer. In the direction of south-north, mean annual rainfall erosivity, which showed significant relationships with mean annual rainfall and latitude, gradually decreased with the high values mainly distributed in the coastal area and the low values mainly occurring in the lowlands of northwestern Guangdong. Meanwhile, a significant positive spatial autocorrelation which implied a clustered pattern was observed for annual rainfall erosivity. The spatial distribution of seasonal rainfall erosivity exhibited clustering tendencies, except spring erosivity with Moran's I and Z values of 0.1 and 1.04, respectively. The spatial distribution of monthly rainfall erosivity presented clustered patterns in January-March and July-October as well as random patterns in the remaining months. The temporal trend of mean rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province showed no statistically significant trend at the annual, seasonal, and monthly scales. However, at each station, 1 out of 25 stations exhibited a statistically significant trend at the annual scale; 4 stations located around the Pearl River Delta presented significant trends in summer at the seasonal scale; significant trends were observed in March (increasing

  2. Lead distribution in Permo-Carboniferous coal from the North China Plate, China.

    PubMed

    Kunli, Luo; Jidong, Lu; Lianwu, Chen

    2005-02-01

    The content and distribution of the lead in coal, gangue and the sulfur ball and the pyritic gangue of the Permo-Carboniferous in the North China Plate have been systematically studied (nearly 300 samples) in this paper. The Permo-Carboniferous coals in the North China Plate account for nearly 44.45% of total Chinese coal resources, and most of the steam coals in China come from the Permo-Carboniferous coals in the North China Plate. The result shows that lead content in the coal varied from 1.45 to 63.60 mg kg(-1), averaging 23.95 mg kg(-1); the lead content of the sulfur ball and the pyritic gangue in the coal seam ranges from 70.26-1060 mg kg(-1), with an average of 271.28 mg kg(-1); the lead content of the gangue is from 29.5 to 77.81 mg kg(-1), averaging at 40.77 mg kg(-1). The lead in the coal seam is mainly concentrated in the pyrite, such as sulfur ball, pyritic gangue or pyrite, and is the least concentrated in the organic of coal. The content of the lead has a direct ratio with the ash and the pyretic sulfur. Coal washing can reduce the content of the pyretic sulfur and the lead. PMID:15688128

  3. [Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China].

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jia-Xing; Williams, Paul H; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Bing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Based on the 1893 specimens collected from Hebei Province, Beijing City, and Tianjin City in 2005-2009, and the specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, this paper analyzed the species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. A total of 32 species belonging to 8 subgenera of Bombus were recorded, with 32 species in Hebei Province, 18 species in Beijing, and 5 species in Tianjin. The bumblebee in Taihang Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, and Bashang Plateau had the highest richness and abundance, and its food-plant included 80 species of 21 families, among which, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae were most important. Five bumblebee species, i. e., Bombus hypocrita, B. ignitus, B. patagiatus, B. pyrosoma, and B. picipes, had the largest colony, with more than 110 workers, 160 drones, and 30 young queens produced per colony. The success in rearing colonies of each of the 5 species by queens was > 50%, demonstrating that these 5 species had the potential to be mass-reared, with important applied value for crop pollination. PMID:20873633

  4. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) viruses with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses. The HA gene of the isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1412 /2014(H5N1) virus belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1b. The isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1508/2015 (H5N1) virus was a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) virus with three internal genes (PB2, PB1 and M) from H9N2 virus and belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1c. PMID:27162026

  5. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) viruses with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses. The HA gene of the isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1412 /2014(H5N1) virus belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1b. The isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1508/2015 (H5N1) virus was a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) virus with three internal genes (PB2, PB1 and M) from H9N2 virus and belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1c. PMID:27162026

  6. Satellite signal shows storage-unloading subsidence in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiwo, J. P.; Tao, F.

    2015-06-01

    Worsening water storage depletion (WSD) contributes to environmental degradation, land subsidence and earthquake and could disrupt food production/security and social stability. There is need for efficient water use strategies in North China, a pivotal agrarian, industrial and political base in China with a widespread WSD. This study integrates satellite, model and field data products to investigate WSD and land subsidence in North China. In the first step, GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mass rates are used to show WSD in the region. Next, GRACE total water storage (TWS) is corrected for soil water storage (SWS) to derive groundwater storage (GWS) using GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) data products. The derived GWS is compared with GWS obtained from field-measured groundwater level to show land subsidence in the study area. Then GPS (Global Positioning System) data of relative land surface change (LSC) are used to confirm the subsidence due to WSD. A total of ~ 96 near-consecutive months (January 2002 through December 2009) of datasets are used in the study. Based on GRACE mass rates, TWS depletion is 23.76 ± 1.74 mm yr-1 or 13.73 ± 1.01 km3 yr-1 in the 578 000 km2 study area. This is ~ 31 % of the slated 45 km3 yr-1 water delivery in 2050 via the South-North Water Diversion Project. Analysis of relative LSC shows subsidence of 7.29 ± 0.35 mm yr-1 in Beijing and 2.74 ± 0.16 mm yr-1 in North China. About 11.53 % (2.74 ± 0.18 mm or 1.58 ± 0.12 km3) of the TWS and 8.37 % (1.52 ± 0.70 mm or 0.88 ± 0.03 km3) of the GWS are attributed to storage reductions accompanying subsidence in the region. Although interpretations of the findings require caution due to the short temporal and large spatial coverage, the concurrence of WSD and land subsidence could have adverse implications for the study area. It is critical that the relevant stakeholders embark on resource-efficient measures to ensure water availability, food security, ecological

  7. Spaceborne radar for geoscientific applications in North China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Hua-Dong; Wu, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Song

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A and -B (SIR-A and SIR-B) carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia in Nov. 1981 and the Challenger in Oct. 1984 acquired images of test sites of North China. The Russian ALMAZ SAR also acquired imagery of part of this test site in Sep. 1992. In Nov. 1990, the airborne SAR developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS/SAR) covered this area for the purpose of Chinese spaceborne radar development. By studying and analyzing these SAR data, positive results in geoscientific applications were achieved.

  8. Spaceborne radar for geoscientific applications in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hua-Dong; Wu, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Song

    1993-05-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A and -B (SIR-A and SIR-B) carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia in Nov. 1981 and the Challenger in Oct. 1984 acquired images of test sites of North China. The Russian ALMAZ SAR also acquired imagery of part of this test site in Sep. 1992. In Nov. 1990, the airborne SAR developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS/SAR) covered this area for the purpose of Chinese spaceborne radar development. By studying and analyzing these SAR data, positive results in geoscientific applications were achieved.

  9. Pesticide residues in market foods in Shaanxi Province of China in 2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Wang, Zhilun; Zhang, Yibei; Wang, Jiang; Guo, Rong

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pesticide residues in market vegetables in Shaanxi Province of China. The concentrations of 33 pesticides were determined by gas chromatography (GC) in 285 samples. Ten organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were found in concentrations ranging from 0.004 to 0.257 mg/kg. The mean levels of omethoate, phorate, chlorpyrifos, methidathion, ethoprophos in vegetables exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) allowed by the Ministry of Health, of China. Other detectable OP pesticide residues levels were below their MRLs. Dicofol were detectable in green pepper and chives samples. Five pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) were detectable in vegetable samples respectively. The results provide useful information on the current contamination status of a key agricultural area in China, and point to the need for urgent action to control the excessive use of some chemicals. PMID:23411338

  10. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  11. Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Yang, Song; Liu, Shi; Sun, Li; Lian, Yi; Gao, Zongting

    2011-08-01

    A previous study revealed a close relationship between interannual variations of northeast China (NEC) summer temperature and a tripole sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern in the North Atlantic in preceding spring. The present study investigates the change in the above relationship and the plausible causes for the change. A tripole SST index is defined with its positive value corresponding to positive SST anomalies in the tropics and midlatitudes and negative SST anomalies in the subtropics. The tripole SST anomaly pattern has a weak correlation with NEC summer temperature during the 1950s through the mid-1970s, in sharp contrast to the 1980s and 1990s. This change is related to the difference in the persistence of the tripole SST pattern. Before the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern weakened from spring to summer, and thus, the spring North Atlantic tripole SST pattern had a weak connection with NEC summer temperature. On the contrary, after the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern displayed a tendency of persistence from spring to summer, contributing to circulation changes that affected NEC summer temperature. There are two factors for the persistence of the tripole SST pattern from spring to summer. One is the North Atlantic air-sea interaction, and the other is the persistence of SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the decay of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is shown that the North Atlantic SST anomalies can have an impact on NEC summer temperature independent of ENSO.

  12. Haze trends over the capital cities of 31 provinces in China, 1981-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Yang; Zhou, Zijiang; Qu, John J.; Hao, Xianjun

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the patterns and trends of haze over 31 provincial capitals in China between 1980 and 2005. The haze measurements were based on human visual range observations at 31 synoptic meteorological stations operated by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The high haze regions were found in largely populated cities such as Chongqing, Beijing, and Shenyang, while the low haze regions were located in the cities with small populations such as Lhasa, Kunming, and Guiyang in southwestern China and Haikou in southern China. The haziness of the 12 cities shows a significantly (95%) decreasing trend, while that of the 13 cities shows a significantly increasing trend over the 25-year study period. The increases are evident in the eastern and southwestern cities in China. It has also been found that there is a decreasing haze trend in winter but an increasing trend in summer for many cities. Nonetheless, the causality for the reduction of aerosol emissions has not been established. This report is the first survey and preliminary analysis done on haze patterns and trends from 1980 to 2005 over the capital cities of 31 provinces in Mainland China.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen infecting humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The most common sources of human infection are ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China. Methods Serum samples were collected from 711 and 738 slaughtered horses and donkeys, respectively, in 13 regions of Liaoning province. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used to test the specific antibodies to T. gondii. Results In this study, 178 of 711 (25.0%) horses were seropositive for T. gondii with titers of 1:25 in 81, 1:50 in 62, 1:100 in 33, and 1:200 in 2, and seroprevalence of T. gondii infection from 13 regions ranged from 8.2% to 37.0%. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 174 of 738 (23.6%) donkeys with titers of 1:25 in 66, 1:50 in 54, 1:100 in 49, and 1:200 in 5, and seroprevalence varied in 13 different regions, ranging from 9.1% to 32.6%. Conclusions The results of the present study indicated that the rate of infection with T. gondii in horses and donkeys is a little high in Liaoning province, northeastern China in comparison to other surveys in China, which suggests that consumption of horse and donkey meat in this area may represent a potential source for human infection with T. gondii. PMID:23680297

  14. Survey of helminths in adult sheep in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, C R; Qiu, J H; Zhu, X Q; Han, X H; Ni, H B; Zhao, J P; Zhou, Q M; Zhang, H W; Lun, Z R

    2006-09-10

    The prevalence of helminths in adult sheep was investigated in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China between January 1999 and September 2003. A total of 326 adult sheep representing local breeds (Xingjiang Fine Wool Sheep, Dongbei Fine Wool Sheep) as well as introduced breeds (Merino and Charollais) from representative geographical locations in Heilongjiang Province were slaughtered and examined for the presence of helminths. The worms were examined, counted and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. A total of 26 helminth species were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 13 families and 20 genera. All sheep were infected by more than one helminth species. Oesophagostomum columbianum, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were the most common nematode species, and Paramphistomum cervi, Orientobilharzia turkestanica and Fasciola hepatica were the most common trematode species, whereas the infection of adult sheep with cestodes was uncommon. The results of the present investigation provide relevant "base-line" data for Heilongjiang Province, China, for assessing the effectiveness of future control strategies against helminth infections in sheep. PMID:16713098

  15. Prevalence of HPV infection among 28,457 Chinese women in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Liu, Feng; Cheng, Si; Shi, Lei; Yan, Zhiling; Yang, Jie; Shi, Li; Yao, Yufeng; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a key role in the development of cervical cancer. The aim of the current study was to investigate the HPV type distribution in Chinese women from Yunnan Province, southwest China. A total of 28,457 individuals ranging in age from 17–84 years were recruited from 13 clinical hospitals located in 10 different regions of Yunnan Province. Cervicovaginal swabs were collected from each participant, and HPV screening was performed using Luminex xMAP technology. Our results showed that the HPV prevalence was 12.9% in Yunnan Province. Overall, 10.6% of the individuals were positive for a single HPV type, and 2.3% were positive for multiple types. Among the individuals who tested positive for a single HPV type and multiple HPV types, the three most prevalent high-risk types were 52, 16, and 58. Age subgroup analysis showed two peaks for the frequencies of single and multiple HPV infections, one for the group of women under 25 years old, and the other for the group over 56 years old. Here, we present data regarding the prevalence and type distribution of HPV infection, which will aid in the estimation of the potential clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of HPV screening and vaccination in China. PMID:26868772

  16. Dynamics of rabies epidemics and the impact of control efforts in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiang; Jin, Zhen; Ruan, Shigui

    2012-05-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in some developing countries including China. One of the reasons is that there is a very large number of dogs, both domestic and stray, especially in Guangdong Province which has the third most rabies cases (after Guangxi and Hunan) among the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in Mainland China, and at least 18.2% of the human rabies cases are caused by stray dogs. In this paper, based on the reported data and characteristics of the rabies infection in Guangdong Province, we propose a mathematical model for the dog-human transmission of rabies. We first determine the basic reproduction number R₀ and discuss the stability of the disease-free equilibrium and persistence of the disease. By carrying out sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number in terms of some parameters, we find that the domestic dog vaccination rate, the recruitment rate of domestic dogs, and the quantity of stray dogs play important roles in the transmission of rabies. This study suggests that rabies control and prevention strategies should include public education and awareness about rabies, increase of the domestic dog vaccination rate and reduction of the stray dog population. PMID:22273729

  17. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  18. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dysentery in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Wang, Guoyong; Hiller, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on dysentery transmission, the relationship between monthly dysentery cases in Shandong Province of China and the monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a broad index of ENSO, was examined over the period 1991-2003. Spearman correlations and generalized linear models were calculated to detect the association between the SOI and dysentery cases. Data from 1991 to 2001 were used to estimate the parameters, while data from 2002 to 2003 were used to test the forecasting ability of the model. After controlling for seasonality, autocorrelation, and a time-lagged effect, the results indicate that there was a significant negative association between the number of dysentery cases and the SOI, with a lagged effect of 2 months. A one-standard-deviation decrease in the SOI might cause up to 207 more dysentery cases per month in Shandong Province. This is the first report of the impact of the Southern Oscillation on dysentery risk in China, indicating that the SOI may be a useful early indicator of potential dysentery risk in Shandong Province. PMID:16690051

  19. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  20. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  1. Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Guan, Dawei; Kang, Min; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 virus has continued to cause infections in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong Province during the first wave, but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong Province. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all four pediatric patients. All patients reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving, the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong Province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission. PMID:25339399

  2. Background ozone in North China: trends, photochemical and transport impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Lin, W.; Ge, B.

    2012-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the key greenhouse gases and plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Being a strong oxidant, ozone in the surface layer has significant impacts on human and vegetation health. Long-term measurements of surface ozone are highly needed for climate change assessment and environmental policy-making. Such measurements are scarce, particularly from the background regions. Since 2004, surface ozone and some related reactive gases have been observed at Shangdianzi (SDZ), a Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station in North China. Located at the north edge of the Northern China Plain (NCP), the SDZ station is an ideal site for capturing polluted air masses from the NCP sector (southwest) and clean air masses from the background sector (northeast). This facilitates the investigation of impacts of regional transport on surface ozone. In this study, we present long-term measurements of surface ozone made at SDZ, discuss the trends of surface ozone levels in different seasons. Results about the observation-based ozone production efficiency (OPE) for the site will be presented, along with impacts from horizontal and vertical air transport.

  3. Background ozone in North China: trends, photochemical and transport impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Lin, W.; Ge, B.

    2011-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the key greenhouse gases and plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Being a strong oxidant, ozone in the surface layer has significant impacts on human and vegetation health. Long-term measurements of surface ozone are highly needed for climate change assessment and environmental policy-making. Such measurements are scarce, particularly from the background regions. Since 2004, surface ozone and some related reactive gases have been observed at Shangdianzi (SDZ), a Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station in North China. Located at the north edge of the Northern China Plain (NCP), the SDZ station is an ideal site for capturing polluted air masses from the NCP sector (southwest) and clean air masses from the background sector (northeast). This facilitates the investigation of impacts of regional transport on surface ozone. In this study, we present long-term measurements of surface ozone made at SDZ, discuss the trends of surface ozone levels in different seasons. Results about the observation-based ozone production efficiency (OPE) for the site will be presented, along with impacts from horizontal and vertical air transport.

  4. Evaluation of dust activity and climate effects in North China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiang-ao; Liang, Feng; Wang, Ming-xing

    2004-01-01

    TOMS/AI data with nearly 20 years are utilized in the paper to evaluate dust activities in North China. Combined with simultaneous NCEP reanalysis climate data, climate effects on dust activities are assessed. The results showed that the whole North China suffers impact by dust aerosols, with three centers standing out in TOMS/AI spring average map that are western three basins, which are characterized by lower annual precipitation and elevation. Gobi deserts in Mongolia Plateau do not attain higher TOMS/AI value due to cloud contamination and relative higher elevation. Spring is the season with the highest TOMS dust aerosol index; within the western three basins, high dust aerosol index appears in both spring and summer, especially in Tarim Basin. Wind speed in spring and precipitation in previous rainy season play important roles in controlling dust activities, higher wind speed and less precipitation than the normal are in favor of dust activities in spring. Temperature in spring and previous winter also affect dust activity to a certain extent, but with contrary spatial distribution. Temperature in winter exert effect principally in west part, contrarily, temperature effect in spring is mainly shown in east part. Both of them have negative correlation with dust activity. PMID:15137635

  5. Analyzing the implementation of the rural allowance in hospitals in North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ditlopo, Prudence; Blaauw, Duane; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Using a policy analysis framework, we analyzed the implementation and perceived effectiveness of a rural allowance policy and its influence on the motivation and retention of health professionals in rural hospitals in the North West province of South Africa. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with policy-makers, hospital managers, nurses, and doctors at five rural hospitals and found weaknesses in policy design and implementation. These weaknesses included: lack of evidence to guide policy formulation; restricting eligibility for the allowance to doctors and professional nurses; lack of clarity on the definition of rural areas; weak communication; and the absence of a monitoring and evaluation framework. Although the rural allowance was partially effective in the recruitment of health professionals, it has had unintended negative consequences of perceived divisiveness and staff dissatisfaction. Government should take more account of contextual and process factors in policy formulation and implementation so that policies have the intended impact. PMID:21730996

  6. Incidence and mortality rate of esophageal cancer has decreased during past 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Wu, Yan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2015-01-01

    Background Hebei province is located in North of China with of approximately 6% of whole national population. It is known as a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in China and worldwide. The aim of our study was to estimate the esophageal cancer burden and trend in Hebei Province. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted cancer registry data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. All data were qualified and compiled for cancer statistics in 2011. The pooled data were stratified by gender and age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…80+). Incidence and mortality rates were age-standardized to World Segi’s population standard and expressed per 100,000 persons. In addition, proportions and cumulative incidence/mortality rates for esophageal cancer were calculated. Esophageal cancer mortality data during the periods 1973-1975, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005 were extracted from the national death surveys. Mortality and incidence rate data from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population-based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated number of newly diagnosed esophageal cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province was 24,318 and 18,226, respectively. The crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer was 33.37/100,000 (males, 42.18/100,000 and females, 24.31/100,000). The age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASRW) was 28.09/100,000, ranking third among all cancers. The esophageal cancer mortality rate was 25.01/100,000 (males, 31.40/100,000 and females, 18.45/100,000), ranking third in deaths among all cancers. The mortality rates of esophageal cancer displayed a significant decreasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973-1975 (ASRW =48.69/100,000) to 2004-2005 (ASRW =28.02/100,000), with a decreased rate of 42.45%. In Cixian, the incidence of esophageal cancer decreased from 250.76/100,000 to 106.74/100,000 in males and from 153.86/100,000 to 75.41/100,000 in females, with annual percentage changes (APC) of 2.13 and 2

  7. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K. L.; Meixner, T.; Ajami, H.; De La Cruz, L.

    2015-12-01

    For water-scarce communities in the western U.S., it is critical to understand groundwater recharge regimes and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change and impact groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Geological Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters and variable summer precipitation. The relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation recharge dominant in the northern parts of the region, and recharge from summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon (NAM) extends its influence. Stable water isotope data of groundwater and seasonal precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to estimate and compare groundwater recharge seasonality throughout the region. Contributions of winter precipitation to annual recharge vary from 69% ± 41% in the southernmost Río San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico, to 100% ± 36% in the westernmost Mojave Desert of California. The Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), a simple water budget method for estimating recharge seasonality from climatic data, was shown to approximate recharge seasonality well in several winter precipitation-dominated systems, but less well in basins with significant summer precipitation.

  8. Assessment of Regional Human Health Risks from Lead Contamination in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49 % health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  9. Molecular newborn screening of four genetic diseases in Guizhou Province of South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengwen; Xu, Yin; Liu, Xingmei; Zhou, Man; Wu, Xian; Jia, Yankai

    2016-10-10

    Genetic disorders have been a major concern for public health in China, especially in the rural regions. However, there is little information available about prevalence of many common single-gene disorders in Guizhou Province in the south western part of China. In the present study, we performed a molecular newborn screening for four genetic disorders, including beta-thalassemia (β-thal), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, phenylketonuria (PKU), and non-syndromic hearing loss and deafness (NSHL) in this region. A total of 515 newborns were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) developed for screening the mutations causing these four disorders, and then confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The results showed that 48 out of 515 newborns were carriers of mutations related to these four diseases, with a frequency of 1 in 11 (9.32%). The carrier frequencies for each disease are: β-thal 2.72%; G6PD deficiency 1.94%; PKU 0.78% and NSHL 4.47%. The genotyping results by MALDI-TOF MS were concordant with Sanger sequencing results within 30 randomly selected samples. This is the first study that reveals carrier frequencies of these four diseases in Guizhou Province. These data provide valuable information for the genetic counseling and disease prevention in Guizhou and southwest China. PMID:27395428

  10. Factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers among men in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use in commercial sex is highly prevalent globally and alcohol use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability of risky behaviors. In the current study, we explored individual and contextual factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers (FSWs) among 560 male clients in Sichuan province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sichuan province, China. Over one-fifth (21.1 %) of the participants reported always using alcohol before having sex with FSWs. As compared to those who reported not always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs, male clients who reported always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs had higher income, were more likely to have main sex partners, to drink alcohol daily, to report minor depressive symptoms and were more likely to visit FSWs with friends rather than by themselves. Results from this study highlight the importance of addressing alcohol use among men who pay for sex in China. Future interventions should promote alcohol-related norms in reducing the harms associated with consuming alcohol. PMID:22806054

  11. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxocara infection among children in Shandong and Jilin provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; You, Hai-Long; Zhou, Na; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the Toxocara serology in children in Shandong and Jilin provinces, China using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n=1458) was 19.3%, sick children (26.4%) had significantly higher seroprevalence than clinically healthy children (14.4%) (P<0.05), and the highest Toxocara seroprevalence was found in children suffering from chronic cough (40.6%), followed by recurrent abdominal pain (40.0%), recurrent headache (38.1%), slight fever (36.2%), and recurrent vomiting (31.6%). Place of residence, education level, type of school, keeping dogs at home, contact with dogs and cats and exposure with soil were found to be associated with Toxocara infection. Our findings show that children infection with Toxocara is common in Shandong and Jilin provinces, eastern and northeastern China, indicating an immediate need for implementing strategies and measures to prevent and control Toxocara infection in children in China. PMID:26384456

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronal R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.65 billion barrels of oil, 1.85 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota.

  14. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  15. Field evaluation of foliar anthracnose disease response for sorghum germplasm from the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose occurs in most sorghum producing regions worldwide and the pathogen is highly variable; thus, additional sources of resistance are needed for sorghum improvement. To identify resistant sources, 41 sorghum accessions from the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe were evaluated for fol...

  16. An Evaluation of the Viles Tok Ples Skul Scheme in the North Solomons Province. ERU Report No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpit, Lisa D.; Kemelfield, Graeme

    The local-language-medium schools of North Solomons Province are described and evaluated. The Viles Tok Ples Skuls (VTPS) provide education in both the indigenous languages (tok ples) and English as a means of integrating the past with modern development, as is preferred by the local people. The report contains seven chapters. The first gives the…

  17. Occupational Stress and Strain of Support Staff at a Higher Education Institution in the North West Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahomed, F. E.; Naude, J. L. P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stressors and strains for support staff at a higher education institution in the North West Province, and to assess the differences between the stressors and strains of different biographical groups. A cross-sectional survey design (N = 315) was used. The ASSET and a biographical…

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Cai, Y N; Leng, X; Wang, J; Ma, W; Mu, G D; Jiang, J; Liu, X Y; Wang, Z D; Zhao, Q; Yang, G L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, a total of 1,235 porcine serum samples were collected from 9 counties in Jilin Province (40°52'~46°18'N,121°38'~131°19'E), northeastern China from August to October 2013, and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The results showed that antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 21.3%), with higher seroprevalence in the breeding boars (28.6%, 95% CI, 20.0% to 37.2%), and breeding sows (32.0%, 95% CI, 25.2% to 38.9%). No significant difference was found among the slaughter pigs, fattening pigs and the piglets. These results indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widespread in Jilin province, and is of public health concern. PMID:25801260

  19. MITOCHONDRIAL GENE SEQUENCES AMONG DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATES OF SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xue-Mei; Li, Cui-Ying; Li, Mei; Zeng, Jin; Zheng, Su-Yue; Li, Fei

    2016-05-01

    In order to evaluate differentiate genetic differences among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from Dali Ancient City, Xizhou and Yongsheng County, Yunnan Province, China, mitochondrial col, cytb, nd1, nd6, and nd4l were PCR amplified and sequenced, revealing nucleotide difference(s) among these strains of 8, 1, 5, 4, and 0, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. japonicum from the three different geographical locations of Yunnan Province were clustered genetically together and were more similar to S. malayensis and S. mekongi than S. haematobium or S. mansoni. For intra-species differentiation purposes, Schistosoma mitochondrial col, nd1, and nd6 are better genetic markers than cytb and nd41. PMID:27405120

  20. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time. PMID:27144770

  1. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  2. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time. PMID:27144770

  3. Class 1 integrons, selected virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from the Minjiang River, Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Zheng, Weiwen; Yu, Ying; Huang, Wenwen; Zheng, Siping; Zhang, Yun; Guan, Xiong; Zhuang, Yiting; Chen, Ning; Topp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Widespread fecal pollution of surface waters in developing countries is a threat to public health and may represent a significant pathway for the global dissemination of antibiotic resistance. The Minjiang River drainage basin in Fujian Province is one of China's most intensive livestock and poultry production areas and is home to several million people. In the study reported here, Escherichia coli isolates (n = 2,788) were sampled (2007 and 2008) from seven surface water locations in the basin and evaluated by PCR for carriage of selected genes encoding virulence factors, primarily for swine disease. A subset of isolates (n = 500) were evaluated by PCR for the distribution and characteristics of class 1 integrons, and a subset of these (n = 200) were evaluated phenotypically for resistance to a range of antibiotics. A total of 666 (24%) E. coli isolates carried at least one of the virulence genes elt, fedA, astA, fasA, estA, stx(2e), paa, and sepA. Forty-one percent of the isolates harbored class 1 integrons, and these isolates had a significantly higher probability of resistance to tobramycin, cefoperazone, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, azitromycin, and rifampin than isolates with no class 1 integron detected. Frequencies of resistance to selected antibiotics were as high as or higher than those in fecal, wastewater, and clinical isolates in published surveys undertaken in China, North America, and Europe. Overall, E. coli in the Minjiang River drainage basin carry attributes with public health significance at very high frequency, and these data provide a powerful rationale for investment in source water protection strategies in this important agricultural and urban setting in China. PMID:21057021

  4. 77 FR 13171 - China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2012. It... accurate information concerning the securities of China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited (``NEP''),...

  5. Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Changhua, L; Xiaorong, Z; Dongchuan, Q; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J; Defu, Z; Hulian, Z; Mingden, L; Hainan, R; Bing, Z; Haichou, X; Hawdon, J; Zheng, F

    1999-10-15

    Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15 years (currently children under this age are dewormed annually with anthelmintic drugs). Among 310 residents of Lugao Village (Hejiang County), 87, 63 and 60% were infected with hookworm, Ascaris or Trichuris, respectively. The prevalence of hookworm determined to rise linearly with age (r = 0.97). High intensity infections with hookworm still occur in this region as 22% of the residents have over 3000 eggs per gram (PEG) of feces as determined by quantitative egg counts. The majority of these individuals harbored mixed infection with Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, although the former predominated when adult hookworms were collected from 30 village residents treated with pyrantel pamoate. In contrast, among the 334 Xinjian villagers examined (Santai County) the majority harbored predominantly light hookworm infections--66.1% of the residents has less than 400 EPG by quantitative fecal examination and only 3.7% exhibited greater than 3000 EPG. Again, N. americanus was the predominant hookworm seen after worm expulsion. We have round that despite economic development which is occurring in some parts of China, significant hookworm infections and clinical hookworm anemia still exist in areas of Sichuan Province. In Hejiang County we found that the intensity of hookworm infection has actually risen within the last 10 years. Hookworm is a medical problem among the elderly in Sichuan. PMID:10546842

  6. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  7. Determinants of health care demand in poor, rural China: the case of Gansu Province.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dongfu; Pong, Raymond W; Yin, Aitian; Nagarajan, K V; Meng, Qingyue

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants that influence health care demand decisions in rural areas of Gansu province, China. This represents the first effort to identify and quantify the effect of price of care on choice of provider in China, and is the first quantitative examination of this topic focusing on poor rural areas in China. In the three-tier health care system in rural China, we further distinguish the public village clinics and private village clinics using a mixed multinomial logit model. The results show that price and distance play significant roles in choice of health care provider. The price elasticity of demand for outpatients is higher for low-income groups than for high-income groups. When outpatients have particular concerns about provider quality or reputation, or when their health status is poor, distance tends to matter less, i.e. they are willing to travel further in order to obtain better treatment for their illness. Insurance status has a significant impact on the choice of public village clinics relative to self-treatment. Furthermore, age and the attributes of illness are also statistically significant factors. We discuss the policy implications of the results for meeting the health care needs of the poor in rural China. PMID:19429698

  8. The pre-Caledonian Large Igneous Province and the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, Christian; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre; Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2016-04-01

    Magmatism of the first known rifting phase of the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle is surprisingly well preserved in the Caledonian nappes of central Scandinavia. The Särv and Seve Nappes are characterised by spectacular dyke complexes originally emplaced into continental sediments along the rifted margin of Iapetus. The intensity and structure of the pre-Caledonian Dyke Complex is comparable to that of the present passive margins of the North Atlantic large igneous province (NALIP) and U-Pb ages of 610-590 Ma suggest magmatism was short-lived. It can be described as a pre-Caledonian large igneous province (CLIP). To constrain the origin of CLIP magmatism we: (1) re-visited the dyke complexes of the Sarek, Kebnekaise and Tornetrask mountains of North Sweden; (2) compiled new and published geochemical data for the more than 950 km long, magma-rich segment of the Scandinavian Caledonides; and (3) extended reconstructions of the paleo-position of Baltica back to 600 Ma. Although the appearance of the dykes ranges from garnet amphibolite gneiss to pristine magmatic intrusions, all bulk rock compositions largely reflect the original magmatic rock. The compiled dataset includes 584 analyses that essentially forms a coherent suite of tholeiitic ferrobasalt (2-12 wt% MgO, 45-54 wt% SiO2; 6-16 wt% FeOtot; 0.7-4.0 wt% TiO2) akin to LIP basalts such as those of NALIP (61-54 Ma). A few samples (<20) are significantly contaminated with crust, but most are largely uncontaminated. The delta Nb value is a proxy for geochemical enrichment based on Nb-Zr-Y systematics and was defined for the present-day North Atlantic system to distinguish enriched Iceland basalts (positive delta Nb) from normal MORB basalts (negative delta Nb). The CLIP dykes are dominantly enriched with positive delta Nb (-0.07 to +0.9) in the central and southern portion, but stretching to more negative values (-0.6 to +0.5) in the northern portion (Sarek, Kebnekaise, Tornetrask). The few available rare earth element

  9. Spatio-temporal Transmission and Environmental Determinants of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Sun, Liqian; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica still remains of public health and economic significance in China, especially in the lake and marshland areas along the Yangtze River Basin, where the control of transmission has proven difficult. In the study, we investigated spatio-temporal variations of S. japonicum infection risk in Anhui Province and assessed the associations of the disease with key environmental factors with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the disease and seeking clues to effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methodology/Principal Findings Infection data of schistosomiasis from annual conventional surveys were obtained at the village level in Anhui Province, China, from 2000 to 2010 and used in combination with environmental data. The spatio-temporal kriging model was used to assess how these environmental factors affected the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Our results suggested that seasonal variation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), seasonal variation of land surface temperature at daytime (LSTD), and distance to the Yangtze River were negatively significantly associated with risk of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps showed that schistosomiasis prevalence remained at a low level and schistosomiasis risk mainly evolved along the Yangtze River. Schistosomiasis risk also followed a focal spatial pattern, fluctuating temporally with a peak (the largest spatial extent) in 2005 and then contracting gradually but with a scattered distribution until 2010. Conclusion The fitted spatio-temporal kriging model can capture variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time. Combined with techniques of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS), this approach facilitates and enriches risk modeling of schistosomiasis, which in turn helps to identify prior areas for effective and sustainable control of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province and perhaps elsewhere in China. PMID:25659112

  10. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  11. Geomorphological observations of active faults in the epicentral region of the Huaxian large earthquake in 1556 in Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jian-Jun; Han, Mu-Kang; Chai, Bao-Long; Han, Heng-Yue

    1998-05-01

    The Huaxian magnitude 8 great earthquake of January 23, 1556, is the largest one recorded in the Weihe basin, Shaanxi Province, China and caused 830,000 people either injury or death. The epicenter is located in the southeastern part of the Weihe basin, around Huaxian City. Earthquakes are closely related to active faults and active faults are well developed in the epicentral area of the Huaxian large earthquake. Thus we will discuss the activity of the major faults in the epicentral area by geomorphological observations. There are three major fault sets in the study area: striking approximately east-west, northeast and northwest. These are inhomogeneous in spatial distribution, rates and manners of faulting, as shown by geomorphological observations such as faulted fluvial terraces and alluvial fans. The ages of the second and first terraces are around 20,000 and 5,000 years B.P. by thermoluminescent dating, Carbon-14 dating and archeology. The terraces were faulted by the North Huashan fault (F 1), the main boundary fault of Weihe basin and the Piedmont fault (F 2) after the second and the first terraces formed. The distribution of the displacement shows that the intersections of the North Huashan fault and the Chishui fault (F 4) striking northwest, and the western margin fault (F 5) of Tongguan loess tableland, have the largest in offsets in the area. Perhaps the Huanxian great earthquake in 1556 A.D. had a close relation to the North Huashan fault. The Weihe fault (F 3) striking east-west is also an active fault by analysis of the flood plain structure. Thus we should pay attention to the activities of the faults to take precautions against another possible large earthquake in this region.

  12. Seasonality of groundwater recharge in the Basin and Range Province, western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Kirstin Lynn

    Alluvial groundwater systems are an important source of water for communities and biodiverse riparian corridors throughout the arid and semi-arid Basin and Range Geological Province of western North America. These aquifers and their attendant desert streams have been depleted to support a growing population, while projected climate change could lead to more extreme episodes of drought and precipitation in the future. The only source of replenishment to these aquifers is recharge. This dissertation builds upon previous work to characterize and quantify recharge in arid and semi-arid basins by characterizing the intra-annual seasonality of recharge across the Basin and Range Province, and considering how climate change might impact recharge seasonality and volume, as well as fragile riparian corridors that depend on these hydrologic processes. First, the seasonality of recharge in a basin in the sparsely-studied southern extent of the Basin and Range Province is determined using stable water isotopes of seasonal precipitation and groundwater, and geochemical signatures of groundwater and surface water. In northwestern Mexico in the southern reaches of the Basin and Range, recharge is dominated by winter precipitation (69% +/- 42%) and occurs primarily in the uplands. Second, isotopically-based estimates of seasonal recharge fractions in basins across the region are compared to identify patterns in recharge seasonality, and used to evaluate a simple water budget-based model for estimating recharge seasonality, the normalized seasonal wetness index (NSWI). Winter precipitation makes up the majority of annual recharge throughout the region, and North American Monsoon (NAM) precipitation has a disproportionately weak impact on recharge. The NSWI does well in estimating recharge seasonality for basins in the northern Basin and Range, but less so in basins that experience NAM precipitation. Third, the seasonal variation in riparian and non-riparian vegetation greenness

  13. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  14. A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Si-Li; SUN, Zhi-Yu; GUO, Yan-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Triplophysa yajiangensis sp. nov. is described from the upper and middle reaches of the Yalong River, Yangtze Basin, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the following characters: body surface smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed and tapered slightly; lower jaw shovel-shaped; head shorter than caudal peduncle; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin reaches or exceeds anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine spiral type with 3-5 winding coils. PMID:26452694

  15. A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Si-Li; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Guo, Yan-Shu

    2015-09-18

    Triplophysa yajiangensis sp. nov. is described from the upper and middle reaches of the Yalong River, Yangtze Basin, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the following characters: body surface smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed and tapered slightly; lower jaw shovel-shaped; head shorter than caudal peduncle; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin reaches or exceeds anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine spiral type with 3-5 winding coils. PMID:26452694

  16. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  17. The predominant cluster of CRF01_AE circulating among newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive people in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianjun; Shen, Yuelan; Zhong, Ping; Feng, Yi; Xing, Hui; Jin, Lin; Qin, Yizu; Liu, Aiwen; Miao, Lifeng; Cui, Lili; Su, Bin; Guo, Hongxiong

    2015-09-01

    CRF01_AE, which has led a new epidemic in many provinces in China and has displayed complex characteristics, has now evolved into multiple clusters in China. Some clusters often circulate in specific regions or among specific risk populations in China. To better determine the characteristics of CRF01_AE circulating in Anhui Province, we analyzed CRF01_AE based on gag and pol sequences. Our results showed that CRF01_AE circulating in Anhui Province was clearly divided into three clusters. Cluster 1 covered 90% of the sequences in all CRF01_AE. Among Cluster 1, the sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals were interwoven. It is suggested that MSM may play a bridge role in transmitting HIV-1 among the different risk groups. PMID:26123125

  18. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China. PMID:26243325

  19. A qualitative study on commercial sex behaviors among male clients in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A.; Liu, Peng; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Wang, Cunlin; Luan, Rongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Males who seek commercial sex have been identified as an important “bridging population” in the transmission of HIV. There is little information on the HIV-related risk perceptions and behaviors among commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) in China. This study reports qualitative findings from six focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with CSMCs in Sichuan Province, China. Commercial sex visits were described as a group activity and associated with patterns of social-network specific interactions and norms. Primary motivations for visiting female sex workers included peer pressure, stress reduction, and fulfilling a need for an intimate and emotional support. Male clients’ decisions about condom use were influenced by their perceived norms of condom use, susceptibility of HIV infection, and the condom policy and availability in the establishments. Implications of these findings for further research and interventions are discussed. PMID:20390503

  20. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from apparently healthy animals of the Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Chai, T; Wang, L; Wang, H; Duan, H; Müller, W; Zucker, B A

    2007-10-01

    In a pilot study the presence and frequency of Clostridium (C.) perfringens was investigated among apparently healthy farm animals in the Shandong province of China. 748 faecal samples were collected from 9 pig-, 4 sheep-, 7 cattle- and 5 rabbit farms. C. perfringens was isolated from 124 samples (16.6%). The isolates were classified into major toxin types by using PCR analysis detecting the genes encoding these toxins. All isolates were identified as C perfringens toxin type A. There are also some reports from different regions in China linking C. perfringens toxin type A strains to gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore further investigations about the epidemiologic role of C perfringens toxin type A strains in the Shandong region are necessary. Currently, cases of enterotoxemia from this region are investigated for the presence of C perfringens. PMID:17970339

  1. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used. PMID:27447226

  2. The Late Triassic and Late Jurassic stress fields and tectonic transmission of North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guiting; Wang, Yanxin; Hari, K. R.

    2010-09-01

    The transmission of the tectonic regime from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean during Mesozoic era was reconstructed using the modeling of Late Triassic (T 3) and Late Jurassic (J 3) stress fields employing two dimensional linear finite element models (2-D FEM). The model at T 3 proposes that Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogens coevally collided and the model J 3 proposes that Subei block continued to collide with the North China block along the Sulu orogen while the collision of the Qinling-Dabie orogen was terminated. The stress fields at T 3 and J 3 during the two episodes were calculated based on mechanical conditions under different deviatoric stresses acting along the boundaries of the North China craton by elastic finite modeling. The transmission between two episodes of stress fields resulted from Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision between North China and South China in the Late Triassic period, and from continued collision between the Subei block and North China by the NW-trending movement of Izanagi plate during Late Jurassic. The results from modeling of the Mesozoic stress fields of the North China suggest that late Jurassic was the key transmission period of the tectonic regime of the North China block when large scale thrusting triggered the subsequent destruction of the North China craton.

  3. Update on the distribution and phylogenetics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) populations in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Stephen W; Huo, Guan-Nan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In 1973 planorbid snails then identified as Biomphalaria straminea were discovered in Hong Kong, China. It was assumed that these snails had been introduced to Hong Kong via the import of tropical fish by air from South America. In 2012 Biomphalaria were found for the first time in Guangdong Province, China. In view of the renewed interest in these invasive snails, a morphological and DNA-sequence based phylogenetic study was undertaken for seven populations of Biomphalaria snails collected in Guangdong. Morphologically and phylogenetically, five of the populations clustered more closely with Biomphalaria kuhniana than with B. straminea. Levels of genetic diversity among the populations were about half those of autochthonous populations in Brazil, the phylogenetic relationships did not correlate with a radiation from any one international port in China, and different lineages appeared associated with different ports. Consequently in explaining the current distribution of the snails, multiple colonization events, each establishing a new local snail population near to maritime international container ports, were considered more likely than the spread of snails from Hong Kong to China. The displacement of B. straminea by B. kuhniana in Guangdong is considered as an explanation for the habitat changes observed among the snails between Hong Kong in the 1980s and the present. The conclusions of the study are that any risk of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in China is more likely to come from parasite importation in the intramolluscan stage, than from transmission by migrant workers from South America or Africa. In addition, although likely to be rare, sporadic outbreaks of imported schistosomiasis (caused by invading infected snails) could be a threat to public health in the vicinity of International container ports (not only in Guangdong Province). Further work is called for to investigate further the presence of B. kuhniana and its potential interactions with B

  4. [Modelling the changes of soil organic carbon under different management practices using Daycent model in North China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Xie, Li-yong; Guo, Li-ping; Fan, Jing-wei

    2016-02-01

    The Daycent model was calibrated and validated using measured crop yield and soil organic carbon (SOC) as double assessment standards based on the experimental data from three long-term experiments (i.e. Zhengzhou site in Henan Province, Yucheng site in Shandong Province and Quzhou site in Hebei Province) in North China. Results showed that the build-up parameters simulated the long-term dynamic changes of crop yields and SOC very well, indicating Daycent model could project the dynamic changes of crop yield and SOC soundly. After calibration and validation, Daycent model was used to simulate the changes of SOC under future climate scenarios (representative concentration pathway 4.5, RCP 4.5) with four different management practices (chemical fertilizer, NPK; chemical fertilizer + organic manure, MNPK; straw incorporation, SNPK; no-tillage +straw incorporation, NT) at the three sites. At Zhengzhou site, the change of SOC was highest for MNPK treatment during the period of 2001-2050 (1.7%) and followed by SNPK (1.3%) and NPK (0.8%) in terms of annual relative increase rate (ARIR), indicating long-term amendment of organic manure could effectively increase SOC for light loam soil with irrigation condition. At Yucheng site, the increase of SOC (ARIR) under MNPK treatment (0.4%) was higher than under NPK treatment (0.3%). In addition, the increase of SOC was very low under all treatments at this site, probably due to light soil salinization. At Quzhou site, the increase of SOC (ARIR) under NT treatment was 1.3%, higher than those under SNPK treatment (0.7%) and NPK treatment (0.4%), indicating NT was more effective for SOC increase in this area. We concluded that no-tillage with straw incorporation is the optimized management practice to increase SOC in North China Plain due to mild climate, sound irrigation and available mechanical equipment for straw processing and no-tillage operation. PMID:27396129

  5. Characteristics of groundwater recharge on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiu-Cui; Wu, Jing-Wei; Cai, Shu-Ying; Yang, Jin-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important component of the groundwater system. On the North China Plain (NCP), groundwater is the main water supply. Because of large-scale overexploitation, the water table has declined, which has produced severe adverse effects on the environment and ecosystem. In this article, tracer experiment and watershed model were used to calculate and analyze NCP groundwater recharge. In the tracer experiment, average recharge was 108 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.16. With its improved irrigation, vegetation coverage and evapotranspiration modules, the INFIL3.0 model was used for calculation of groundwater recharge. Regional modeling results showed an average recharge of 102 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.14, for 2001-2009. These values are very similar to those from the field tracer experiment. Influences in the two methods were analyzed. The results can provide an important reference for NCP groundwater recharge. PMID:24032445

  6. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  7. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  8. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM) in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI), hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention. PMID:27240391

  9. Application of intake fraction to population exposure estimates in Hunan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Hao, Jiming

    2003-06-01

    This article developed a new method, based on the concept of "intake fraction", to assess population exposure to primary and secondary fine particle matters from site-specific sources. This method was illustrated by a set of 17 power plants (totally 24 stacks) in Hunan Province of China. The CALPUFF long-range atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate ambient concentrations of fine particles, and the GIS technology was used to generate a population distribution database from county-level population statistical data. An integrated computer program package was developed to carry out numerical integration of dispersion results over the population data, and produce intake fractions. The resulting average intake fractions within 500 km were 9.73 x 10(-6), 2.39 x 10(-6), and 2.47 x 10(-6) for primary fine particles, sulfate and nitrate respectively. Regression analyses were performed to explore the relationships between intake fractions and potential variables. Results showed that the stack height and aggregate populations could be used to predict intake fractions of fine particles. R2 of the regression equations were 0.83, 0.64, and 0.74 for primary fine particles, sulfate and nitrate respectively. Iso-intake fractions presenting geographical distributions of intake fractions in Hunan Province were mapped, showing a factor of about 2 between the highest values in the northeast and the lowest in the southwest of Hunan Province. PMID:12774907

  10. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies. PMID:26103990

  11. High rate of drug resistance among tuberculous meningitis cases in Shaanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Feng, Guo-Dong; Pang, Yu; Liu, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Li, Qiao; Gao, Yu; Chen, Ping; Zhan, Li-Ping; Marais, Ben J; Zhao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and mycobacterial features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases in China are not well described; especially in western provinces with poor tuberculosis control. We prospectively enrolled patients in whom TBM was considered in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, over a 2-year period (September 2010 to December 2012). Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), as well as genotyping of all positive cultures. Among 350 patients included in the study, 27 (7.7%) had culture-confirmed TBM; 84 (24.0%) had probable and 239 (68.3%) had possible TBM. DST was performed on 25/27 (92.3%) culture positive specimens; 12/25 (48.0%) had "any resistance" detected and 3 (12.0%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Demographic and clinical features of drug resistant and drug susceptible TBM cases were similar. Beijing was the most common genotype (20/25; 80.0%) with 9/20 (45%) of the Beijing strains exhibiting drug resistance; including all 3 MDR strains. All (4/4) isoniazid resistant strains had mutations in the katG gene; 75% (3/4) of strains with phenotypic rifampicin resistance had mutations in the rpoB gene detected by Xpert MTB/RIF®. High rates of drug resistance were found among culture-confirmed TBM cases; most were Beijing strains. PMID:27143630

  12. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Longxian; Qi, Nanshan; Liao, Shenquan; Lv, Minna; Wu, Caiyan; Sun, Mingfei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China, 244 fecal samples were collected from four pigeon breeding farms between June 2012 and March 2013. Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and characterized by DNA sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Cryptosporidium species were determined by comparison of sequences with corresponding Cryptosporidium sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining (NJ) in MEGA5.2. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province was 0.82% (2/244). Two Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis, were identified in Huizhou and Chaozhou farm, respectively. These findings confirmed the existence of C. meleagridis infection in domestic pigeons in China for the first time and provided base-line information for further studies to evaluate the public health risk from pigeon to human. PMID:25773186

  13. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  14. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingling; Zhang, Enmin; Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax. PMID:27299730

  15. Prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cong, Wei; Liu, Guo-Hua; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most important zoonotic pathogen that can infect almost all animals, including humans. However, little information is available regarding prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in sika deer. In the present study, the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China was examined using PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. 23 (7.06%) of 326 samples were tested E. bieneusi-positive, and the risk factor significantly associated with E. bieneusi prevalence was the age of sika deer. Sequence analysis of the ITS rRNA gene suggested that 8 genotypes of E. bieneusi were found in this study, with five known genotypes, namely J (n = 11), BEB6 (n = 4), EbpC (n = 1), CHN-DC1 (n = 1), KIN-1 (n = 1) and three novel genotypes, namely JLD-1 (n = 2), JLD-2 (n = 2) and JLD-3 (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that genotypes CHN-DC-1, KIN-1, EbpC, JLD-2 and JLD-3 fell into group 1, while other three genotypes (genotypes J, BEB6 and JLD-1) were clustered into group 2 (so-called bovine-specific groups). These findings indicated the presence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in Jilin province, Northeastern China. Effective strategies should be performed to control E. bieneusi infection in sika deer, other animals and humans. PMID:27078663

  16. High rate of drug resistance among tuberculous meningitis cases in Shaanxi province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Feng, Guo-Dong; Pang, Yu; Liu, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Li, Qiao; Gao, Yu; Chen, Ping; Zhan, Li-Ping; Marais, Ben J; Zhao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and mycobacterial features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases in China are not well described; especially in western provinces with poor tuberculosis control. We prospectively enrolled patients in whom TBM was considered in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, over a 2-year period (September 2010 to December 2012). Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), as well as genotyping of all positive cultures. Among 350 patients included in the study, 27 (7.7%) had culture-confirmed TBM; 84 (24.0%) had probable and 239 (68.3%) had possible TBM. DST was performed on 25/27 (92.3%) culture positive specimens; 12/25 (48.0%) had “any resistance” detected and 3 (12.0%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Demographic and clinical features of drug resistant and drug susceptible TBM cases were similar. Beijing was the most common genotype (20/25; 80.0%) with 9/20 (45%) of the Beijing strains exhibiting drug resistance; including all 3 MDR strains. All (4/4) isoniazid resistant strains had mutations in the katG gene; 75% (3/4) of strains with phenotypic rifampicin resistance had mutations in the rpoB gene detected by Xpert MTB/RIF®. High rates of drug resistance were found among culture-confirmed TBM cases; most were Beijing strains. PMID:27143630

  17. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax. PMID:27299730

  18. Clusters of spatial, temporal, and space-time distribution of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantavirus, with characteristics of fever, hemorrhage, kidney damage, and hypotension. HFRS is recognized as a notifiable public health problem in China, and Liaoning Province is one of the most seriously affected areas with the most cases in China. It is necessary to investigate the spatial, temporal, and space-time distribution of confirmed cases of HFRS in Liaoning Province, China for future research into risk factors. Methods A cartogram map was constructed; spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial, temporal, and space-time cluster analysis were conducted in Liaoning Province, China over the period 1988-2001. Results When the number of permutation test was set to 999, Moran's I was 0.3854, and was significant at significance level of 0.001. Spatial cluster analysis identified one most likely cluster and four secondary likely clusters. Temporal cluster analysis identified 1998-2001 as the most likely cluster. Space-time cluster analysis identified one most likely cluster and two secondary likely clusters. Conclusions Spatial, temporal, and space-time scan statistics may be useful in supervising the occurrence of HFRS in Liaoning Province, China. The result of this study can not only assist health departments to develop a better prevention strategy but also potentially increase the public health intervention's effectiveness. PMID:21867563

  19. Is Pertussis Infection Neglected in China? Evidence from a Seroepidemiology Survey in Zhejiang, an Eastern Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Deng, Xuan; Pan, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    Background The resurgence of pertussis has occurred in many countries. However, the epidemiological profiles of pertussis cannot be well understood by the current surveillance system in China. This study was designed to investigate the age specific serologic evidence of antibodies against pertussis, and to offer information regarding the existence of pertussis infection in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional serosurvey was carried out in 6 counties of Zhejiang Province during September and October of 2014. The immunoglobulin G-pertussis toxin (IgG-PT) levels were measured quantitatively with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody activities were expressed in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-U/ml and a level ≥30 FDA-U/ml was considered seropositive. An IgG-PT >80 FDA-U/ml indicated recent pertussis infection if the patient had not received immunization with the pertussis vaccine within the last year. Results The mean IgG-PT seropositivity rate among the 2107 subjects was 33.32% with a geometric mean concentration of 17.73 (95% confidence interval: 16.90–18.60) FDA-U/ml. The difference in the seropositivity rates reached significant means among the different age groups (waldχ2 = 198.41, P<0.0005), and children aged 3 years had the highest percentage (63.24%) of undetectable IgG-PT level. Of the 1707 subjects ≥3 years of age, 169 (9.90%) had evidence of a recent infection. The highest proportion of IgG-PT levels ≥80 FDA-U/ml was found in ≥60 years age group followed by 11–15 and 16–25 years age groups. Conclusions This study indicates the rather lower IgG-PT level sustained 1 year after the acellular pertussis vaccine booster dose, and substantial proportion of population susceptibility to pertussis in Zhejiang Province, China. Moreover, pertussis infection is not uncommon; it was estimated that 10% of subjects were recently infected approximately within the last 100 days. We highly suggest

  20. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K.; Meixner, T.; De La Cruz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is the primary source of aquifer replenishment, an important source of freshwater for human consumption and riparian area sustainability in semi-arid regions. It is critical to understand the current groundwater recharge regimes in groundwater basins throughout the Western U.S. and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change, land use change and management manipulations that impact the availability and composition of groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters, and variable summer precipitation. The horst-graben structure of these basins lends itself to orographic and continental precipitation effects that make mountain block and mountain front recharge critical components of annual recharge. The current assumption is that the relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation dominating in the northern parts of the region, and summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon extends its influence. To test this hypothesis, stable water isotope data of groundwater and precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to characterize and compare groundwater recharge regimes throughout the region. Preliminary stable water isotope results from the southernmost Rio San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico indicate that groundwater is composed of 64%±14% summer monsoon precipitation, in contrast to more northern basins where winter precipitation is the source of 79-90% of basin groundwater.

  1. Deriving crustal properties from the P Coda without deconvolution: the southwestern Superior Province, North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, A. W.; Delaney, C.

    2015-06-01

    We present a new approach to measuring crustal thickness and bulk properties from teleseismic data. In contrast to the traditional H - k stacking approach, which involves receiver-function deconvolution followed by stacking along expected arrival-time curves, we eliminate the deconvolution step and generate synthetic transfer functions predicting the relationship between the vertical and radial components. Given a catalogue of precalculated transfer functions, we convolve the vertical component with each assumed transfer function and then calculate a misfit between the real and predicted radial component. As a single-layer crust is no longer a necessary assumption, we use the transfer-function approach to extend H - k analysis to models containing sedimentary basins. Applied to a data set in Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota, where the Archean Superior Province, Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen and Meso/Neoproterozoic Mid-Continent Rift are largely overlain by sediments of the Williston Basin, we find that the transfer-function approach is able to recover approximate sedimentary thickness, as well as remove the contaminating effects of the sedimentary layers from crustal thickness and basement P/S velocity ratio measurements. We find that the Superior Province has uniformly low P/S ratio, reflecting a highly felsic composition, but has substantial Moho topography, with substantial crustal thinning to the west possibly related to Trans-Hudson accretion. The Trans-Hudson has thick crust with higher (more mafic) P/S ratio; higher ratios in the Superior near the Trans-Hudson contact suggest that the Superior is overthrust on Trans-Hudson basement material. The vicinity of the Mid-Continent Rift shows thinned crust, elevated P/S ratio, and a localized zone of very high P/S ratio associated with a rift offset, possibly related to a former triple junction, that extends northwestward into the Superior following a recently detected linear mantle anomaly.

  2. Cryptosporidium suis infection in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy at × 400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  3. Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cryptosporidium suis Infection in Post-Weaned and Adult Pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique and microscopy at×400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  5. Comparison of Late Ordovician epicontinental seas and their relative bathymetry in North American and China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Fox, W.T. ); Jia-Yu, Rong )

    1989-02-01

    Six widely separated areas with Upper Ordovician strata in Canada and the United States are compared with six localities in southern China. Cyclic sedimentation, including evaporites, carbonates, and phosphatic black shales, occurred in relatively shallow epicontinental seas of North America. As many as three Ashgill cycles of regionally different styles may have been coeval throughout North America in response to modest changes in sea level. Environments in South China primarily included carbonates and black shales with a far more uniform distribution. Absence of comparable sedimentary cycles confirms that the platform bathymetry of South China was consistently deeper than in North America. The almost complete exposure of North China (Sino-Korean Plate) by Late Ordovician time underscores the fact that independent cratons have different bathymetric histories. By mid-Silurian time, South China also was fully exposed. Such hypsographic variation is critical to the intercontinental correlation of features related to eustasy, water chemistry, and even the patterns of extinctions.

  6. Potential temperature, upwelling rate and eclogite in the formation of the North Atlantic large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. L.; Lesher, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    The volumes and compositions of basalts generated by adiabatic decompression melting of the Earth’s mantle depend on mantle potential temperature (T_P), upwelling rate and the fertility of the mantle source. The relative importance of these factors in generating the high productivity magmatism of the Paleogene - Recent North Atlantic large igneous province (NAIP) remains controversial. Each has been proposed as a primary factor in the region. To assess the significance of these mechanisms in NAIP magmatism, we apply our forward melting model, REEBOX PRO, which simulates the melting of a heterogeneous source comprised of peridotite and eclogite lithologies. The model accounts for the thermodynamics of adiabatic decompression melting of a heterogeneous source using constraints from laboratory melting experiments. Input values of T_P and eclogite abundance are used to calculate the buoyancy of the mantle source and maximum upwelling rates. Source buoyancy constrains the maximum amount of eclogite in the mantle source that can ascend beneath the rift axis. All melts generated within the melting regime are pooled to form magmatic crust according to the residual column method. Using the model, variations in magmatic crustal thickness (from geophysics) as a function of eclogite content (from geochemistry) can be related to T_P and upwelling rate. Models with no thermal anomaly, that call on either enhanced upwelling rates due to plate separation (edge - driven convection) or the melting of abundant (> 30%) eclogite at “ambient” T_P (1325 °C), cannot generate the observed igneous crustal thicknesses around the province. Rather, elevated mantle T_P (minimum thermal anomaly ~ 85 - 195 °C) and associated buoyancy - driven upwelling are needed to explain the volume of igneous crust in the province. Involvement of eclogite, while necessary to explain the compositions of many NAIP lavas, does not significantly enhance melt production. These factors, coupled with the long

  7. Formation of the Shanxi Rift in North China: The control of preexisting lithospheric weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Liu, M.; Ye, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Shanxi Rift is an active seismic zone in North China, developed mainly since Pliocene (~5 Ma). Its formation has been associated with the Indo-Asian collision; other hypothesized causes include a regional extensional stress field associated with subduction of the western pacific plate and mantle upwelling under the North China Plain. However, these mechanisms do not explain why the rift system did not form along the western boundary of the North China Plain, where lithospheric thickness changes sharply from more than 150 km under the Ordos block and the Taihangshan Mountains to the west, to less than 70 km under the North China Plain. We have used a viscoplastic finite element model to explore the conditions for localized rifting in North China. Our results show that, for all the hypothesized causes, the preferred site of rifting would be along the boundary zone of changing lithospheric thickness. The only way to initiate the Shanxi rift in its current location, which is between the Ordos block and the Taihangshan Mountains with thick lithosphere, is to have preexisting lithospheric weakening there. This lithospheric weakness was likely formed during the collision between the Easter North China block and the Western North China block during the Paleoproterozoic (~1.8 Ga). Hence the ancient tectonic event still controls the young continental rifting.

  8. Two modes of extension in the North China Craton: Insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Liu, M.

    2013-12-01

    The North China Craton was formed around 1.8 Ga by collision and amalgamation of the Eastern and Western blocks. It remained tectonically stable since then until Mesozoic, when its eastern part experienced wide-distributed extension and volcanism. This distributed extension waned down in the early Cenozoic, and was replaced by localized extension (rifting) in the western part of the North China Craton. We have developed a series of viscoplastic finite element models to investigate the lithospheric conditions associated with these changing modes of extension in the North China Craton. Our results show that the wide-distributed extension in North China requires a thin and hot lithosphere, which is probably the result of delamination or thermal erosion of the lithospheric root under the eastern part of the North China Craton. The localized rifting during the late Cenozoic in the western part of the North China Craton indicates a relatively cold and thick lithosphere. Furthermore, preexisting lithospheric weakening was needed to explain the formation of the Late Cenozoic rift zones. These preexisting weakening zones may be inherited from the Paleoprotozoic collision that formed the North China Craton.

  9. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel

  10. The geochemical variations of mid-Cretaceous lavas across western Shandong Province, China and their tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jifeng; Zhou, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongfu

    2006-02-01

    Major and trace element as well as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of mid-Cretaceous lavas across western Shandong Province, China have been studied. These lavas can be generally divided into southern Shandong group (including Pingyi and Mengyin) and northern Shandong group (including Laiwu and Zouping) based on their geochemistry. The southern group lavas are characterized by extreme enrichment in LREE, large ion lithophile elements (LILE), and depletion in HFSE along with EMII-like Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, suggesting that the crustal involvements play a significant role in their petrogenesis. Comparing studies with Fangcheng basalts reveal that the Triassic continent-continent collision between the Yangtze craton (YC) and the North China craton (NCC), and subsequent extensive modification of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the south part of the NCC by silicic melts released from the subducted Yangtze lower crust, formed an enriched lithospheric mantle which was the source of the southern Shandong group lavas. In contrast, the northern Shandong group lavas are mildly enriched in LREE and LILE relative to those of the southern group lavas. The isotope compositions are also distinctive in that the Sr isotopic ratios are very low. Available geochemical evidence and comparing studies with spatially closed related mafic intrusions suggest that the SCLM feeding the northern group lavas seems to be linked to carbonatitic metasomatism and changed modal proportion of phlogopite and clinopyroxene in the mantle rather than subduction-related modifications. The contrasting geochemical characters of the mid-Cretaceous lavas across western Shangdong suggest that the SCLM of the NCC is spatially heterogeneous in Mesozoic.

  11. HIV Prevalence and Associated Factors among Foreign Brides from Burma in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yin; Fu, Li Ru; Jia, Manhong; Dai, Genyin; Wang, Qing; Huang, Peng; Zheng, Hui; Peng, Zhihang; Wang, Lu; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background Many Burmese women have migrated to Yunnan Province and married local residents over the past few decades; however, limited information is available on their HIV prevalence and ability to cope with HIV. This study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV and knowledge related to AIDS, as well as to discover possible risk factors of HIV infection among foreign brides from Burma in Yunnan Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was taken of all Burmese cross-border wives residing in Tengchong County using standardized questionnaires. HIV and syphilis testing was conducted at the same time. Results Among 600 Burmese brides, the HIV prevalence was 2.17%. Those aged 21–30, those with higher education levels and those who had resided in China less than one year had higher infection rates. The AIDS awareness rate of 39.50% was very low in this population. Only 28.67% of participants had ever been involved in prevention services. The rate of condom use was low. Classification by age, education, occupation, prior HIV testing and prior use of HIV prevention services showed a statistically significant association with mean knowledge score (p<0.05). Residing in China less than one year (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.09–13.70) and having casual sex in the last year (OR = 10.49, 95% CI = 1.20–91.59) were risk factors for HIV infection. Conclusions Burmese brides in China are not only exposed to a high risk of HIV infection, but also seriously lack response capabilities. Educational interventions and control efforts are practical approaches that need to be strengthened among this population. PMID:25536087

  12. Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports

  13. ISSR, an effective molecular approach for studying genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from different provinces in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Hui; Li, Juan; Zou, Feng-Cai; Mo, Xi-Hao; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) markers were used to examine the genetic variability of Schistosoma japonicum isolates from different provinces in mainland China, using S. japonicum from Japan and S. mansoni from Puerto Rico for comparison. Of the 30 primers screened, 4 produced highly reproducible ISSR fragments. Using these primers, 107 discernible DNA fragments were generated with 105 (98.13%) being polymorphic, indicating considerable genetic variation among the examined S. japonicum isolates. The percentage of polymorphic bands among S. japonicum isolates from mainland China and Japan was 82.24%, 43.93% among mountainous type isolates and 64.49% among lake/marshland type isolates from mainland China. UPGMA analysis revealed that all of the S. japonicum samples were grouped into two clades, the first contained isolates from mainland China, and the other one contained samples from Japan. Within the cluster of S. japonicum isolates from mainland China, isolates from mountainous Sichuan and Yunnan provinces grouped together, whereas isolates from lake/marshland regions (Anhui, Jiangsu and Hubei provinces) clustered together. The results of present study demonstrated that the ISSR markers are useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure of S. japonicum isolates from mainland China. PMID:19539784

  14. A Spatial-Dynamic Agent-based Model of Energy Crop Introduction in Jiangsu province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, K.; Schneider, U. A.; Scheffran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bioenergy, as one promising option to replace a fraction of conventional fossil fuels and lower net greenhouse gas emissions, has gained many countries', in particular developing ones' attention. Their focus is mainly on the design of efficient bioenergy utilization pathways which adapt to both local geographic features and economic conditions. The establishment of a biomass production sector would be the first and pivotal component in the whole industrial chain. Several existing studies have estimated the global biomass for energy potential but arrived at very different results. One reason for the large uncertainty of biomass potential may be ascribed to the diverse nature of biomass leading to different estimates in different circumstances. Therefore, specific research at the local level is essential. Following this thought, our research conducted in the Jiangsu province, a representative region in China, will explore the spatial distribution of biomass production. The employed methodology can also be applied to other locations both in China and similar developing countries if model parameters are adequately adjusted. In this study, we analyze the local situation in the Jiangsu province focusing on the selection of new energy crops, since the cultivation of dedicated crop for energy use is still in experimental phase. We also examine the land use conflict which is especially relevant to China with more than 1.3 billion people and a severe burden on food supply. We develop an agent-based model to find the optimal spatial distribution of biomass (SDA-SDB) in Jiangsu province. Compromising data accessibility and heterogeneity of environmental factors across the province, we resolve our model at county level and consider the aggregated farming community in one county as a single agent. The aim of SDA-SDB is to simulate farmers' decision process of allocating land to either food or energy crops facing limited resources and political targets for bioenergy development

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Enterovirus Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guifang; Xu, Aiqiang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Song, Lizhi; Ji, Feng; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Song, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. Objectives To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. Study Design Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification) and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Results A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2%) and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E) 30 (27.4%), EV71 (13.1%), coxsackievirus (CV) B1 (9.5%), CVB3 (7.1%), CVB5 (7.1%), E6 (7.1%), E9 (7.1%), CVA9 (6.0%), and CVA10 (3.6%). Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. Conclusions Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses–the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease–is currently an important concern in mainland China. PMID:24587020

  16. Isolation and Sequence Analysis of Highly Pathogenic Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from Swine Herds in the Jilin Province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Guo, Li; Yang, Yan-Ling; Song, Ni; Chen, Li-Zhi; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the causative agent of infected swines in the Jilin province of China and assess its genetic characteristics. Virus was isolated from tissues suspected of being infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and inoculated onto MARC-145 cells. Virus detection was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy and sequencing. The results showed that the isolate was the North American genotype PRRSV, termed the JL-04/12 strain, with a 15,320 bp genome. The homology of the amino acid sequences in two nonstructural proteins and GP2 to GP5, between strains JL-04/12 and HUN4, ranged from 97.2 to 99.3 %. However, JL-04/12 GP6 and N protein were identical in HP-PRRSV JXA1 and HUN4. JL-04/12 was characterized by two discontinuous deletions in Nsp2. We speculate that the isolate is a variant of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome derived from strains in 2006-2008. Altogether, these results indicate that highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus still exists in the Jilin province of China. PMID:24426266

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Williston Basin Province Assessment Team

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  18. Molecular detection of equine piroplasms in donkeys (Equus asinus) in North Khorasan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi, V; Razmi, Gh; Seifi, H; Naghibi, A

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tickborne disease of equids with worldwide distribution, caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. The aim of this study was molecular detection of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys in northeastern Iran and investigate the association between positivity of piroplasm infection and host-related factors. In the present study, Blood samples were collected from 106 apparently healthy donkeys (Equus asinus) in North Khorasan province, Iran. Blood smears were prepared and stained by giemsa method. DNA was extracted from blood and then multiplex-PCR was done for detection of any piroplasms infection. According to the results, four donkeys showed T. equi in blood smears but B. caballi was not found. Also, fifty four donkeys (50.94%) showed T. equi infection using multiplex-PCR. No siginificant difference was observed between the frequency of T. equi infection with host-related factors in donkeys. This is the first report on the molecular detection of eqiune piroplamosis in donkeys in Iran. Also, no significant association was found between the rate of T. equi infected animals. PMID:27175176

  19. Molecular detection of equine piroplasms in donkeys (Equus asinus) in North Khorasan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, V; Razmi, Gh; Seifi, H; Naghibi, A

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tickborne disease of equids with worldwide distribution, caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. The aim of this study was molecular detection of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys in northeastern Iran and investigate the association between positivity of piroplasm infection and host-related factors. In the present study, Blood samples were collected from 106 apparently healthy donkeys (Equus asinus) in North Khorasan province, Iran. Blood smears were prepared and stained by giemsa method. DNA was extracted from blood and then multiplex-PCR was done for detection of any piroplasms infection. According to the results, four donkeys showed T. equi in blood smears but B. caballi was not found. Also, fifty four donkeys (50.94%) showed T. equi infection using multiplex-PCR. No siginificant difference was observed between the frequency of T. equi infection with host-related factors in donkeys. This is the first report on the molecular detection of eqiune piroplamosis in donkeys in Iran. Also, no significant association was found between the rate of T. equi infected animals. PMID:27175176

  20. Economic opportunity survey of small scale dairy farms of the north west province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bayemi, P H; Webb, E C; Manjeli, Y; Naoussi, P

    2007-12-01

    An Economic Opportunity Survey was conducted on dairy farms in the North West Province of Cameroon. Results showed that median (range) number of cows in milk per farm was zero point six (0-4) and six (3-12) in the zero grazing and transhumance systems, respectively. Medians (range) of three (0-24) and four (3-10) litres of milk were sold per farm per day, corresponding to 30% and 60% of milk produced. 24% and 13% of total cattle per herd were milking cows in the zero grazing and transhumance systems respectively. Median milk production per cow on one day was two (0-25) and two (1-3) litres. Median calf production interval was 14.5 (12-25) and. 21.5 (14-29) months. More milk produced per day represented the best economic opportunity in both systems while reduced age at first calving and longer lactation length were the next in both. Wastage of milk through spoilage from poor hygiene and lack of cooling was a major problem. Holstein cows, which were in the zero grazing system, had unexpectedly short lactations. Constraints identified led to the setting up of interventions of training and advice for farmers and of better nutrition. PMID:18265867

  1. Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in the North of Caldas Province, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Mercado, Marcela; De la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Pérez, Jorge E.; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Rickettsia typhi and R. felis are the etiological agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever, respectively. Both are emerging acute febrile zoonotic diseases for which fleas are vectors; they also have similar clinical characteristics and global distribution. In 2005, we identified the circulation of murine typhus in 6 towns within the mountainous coffee-growing area north of Caldas, Colombia. We now report the specific seroprevalence against R. typhi and R. felis, and associated risk factors in 7 towns of this province. The combined seroprevalence against the 2 flea-borne rickettsioses is the highest yet reported in the literature: 71.7% (17.8% for R. felis, 25.2% for R. typhi, and 28.7% for both). We also report a prospective analysis of 26 patients with a febrile illness compatible with rickettsioses, including murine typhus; 9 of these patients had a rickettsiosis. This supports our sero-epidemiological results and highlights the diagnostic complexity of febrile syndromes in this region. PMID:23473218

  2. Paleogene time scale miscalibration: Evidence from the dating of the North Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, David W.; Clarke, Benjamin; Kelley, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Igneous activity in the North Atlantic igneous province began with the arrival of the proto-Iceland plume beneath the lithosphere in early Cenozoic time. Sediments between and equivalent to the oldest lavas contain an influx of a diagnostic pollen flora, an influx of the dinocyst Apectodinium, a benthic foraminiferal extinction, nannofossil zone NP9, and a carbon isotope excursion associated with the late Paleocene thermal maximum (LPTM). Lavas immediately overlying the LPTM strata (54.98 Ma on the current time scale), yield U-Pb and Ar-Ar isotopic dates between 57.5 and 60.54 Ma, highlighting a dating discrepancy of up to 5 m.y. Recognition of this disparity, as well as our biostratigraphical correlation, places the LPTM within the early phase of widespread northeast Atlantic margin basaltic volcanism. A later volcanic phase, equivalent to the seaward-dipping reflector series, terminates at 54 Ma. The onset of 60 Ma basaltic volcanism can be linked to ocean water mass perturbations, and the release of ocean-floor methane hydrates thought responsible for the LPTM.

  3. Serological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Turkoman horses in the North Khorasan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Razmi, G R; Abedi, V; Yaghfoori, S

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The infection is observed in an unusually wide range of warm-blooded animals, including most of the livestock and humans. Many studies have shown high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in man and animals in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Turkoman horses in the North Khorasan Province. During 2011-2012, 100 blood samples from horses were collected and tested for antibodies against toxoplasmosis using indirect fluorescent antibody test. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was detected in 14 % (14) horses. The antibodies titres were detected in the range of 1:20-1:160 dilution. The lowest and highest frequencies of toxoplasmosis were observed in the age groups of <1 year and 1-10 years, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between toxoplasmosis frequencies and gender and usage of horses. With regard to the high frequency of toxoplasmosis in the sampled horses, attention must be paid to the animal health for the control and prophylaxis of the disease. PMID:27413330

  4. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions. PMID:21713473

  5. Species diversity of ectoparasitic chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope

  6. Landsat analysis of the Yangjiatan tungsten district, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, W.D.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Yangjiatan tungsten district at latitude 27??28??? N. and longitude 111??54???E. is located about 140 km southwest of the city of Changsha and 35 km northeast of the town of Shaoyang, southeast Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. The deposits, consisting largely of scheelite in veins (Wang, 1975), are contained in highly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age intruded by granitic plutons that are circular in plan view. The major faults and folds trend in a northeasterly direction; whereas, the plutons are clustered in a more easterly trending band across the Landsat image. Landsat image E-2338-02202, acquired December 26, 1975, is number 470 in the "Landsat Image Atlas of the People's Republic of China" printed by the Publishing House of Geology in 1979. A computer-compatible tape of the image was analyzed and used as a demonstration project under a United Nations technical assistance program. Supervised classification of soils, rocks, and vegetation; band ratioing to detect limonite alteration; and edge enhancement were all conducted to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of interactive computer systems. Field evaluation of the results of this work will be conducted by colleagues of the Remote Sensing Center for Geology, Ministry of Geology, in China. ?? 1983.

  7. Anemia and feeding practices among infants in rural Shaanxi Province in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6-11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6-11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01), and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01). The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding. PMID:25533008

  8. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01), and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01). The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding. PMID:25533008

  9. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC) absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  10. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of north China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, Tong; Huang Zuan

    1988-02-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocene Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pools in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point. Hydrocarbon exploration began in 1971, but only a few small oil fields were found in the 1970s. Recently, by applying digital seismic techniques, the subsurface geological structure has been accurately mapped and new production technology has enabled the high-our-point oil to be produced. Thus, important achievements in hydrocarbon exploration were made during the 1980s.