Science.gov

Sample records for province south-west china

  1. Seroprevalence Study of Leptospirosis Among Rice Farmers in Khuzestan Province, South West Iran, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Khoshkho, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis as an emerging infectious disease is considered as an important public health problem worldwide. Objectives: The current study aimed to identify potential risks for leptospirosis among rice farmers in Khuzestan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Khuzestan, South west Iran, from October to December, 2012. Randomly selected participants were placed in two groups: Rice farmers as cases, and non-farmers as controls. Blood samples obtained from the participants were tested for IgM anti-leptospira antibodies using Serion ELISA classic ESR 125M. The assays were performed and interpreted according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A questionnaire including variables related to Leptospira spp. exposure was administered to each participant. SPSS software version 16 was employed; Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to analyze data. Results: Of the total 288 samples, 65 (22.5%) were positive for IgM anti-leptospira antibodies. Among the positive samples, 52 (36.1%) were from the case (rice farmer) and 14 (9.7%) from the control groups. There was a significant difference between the case and control groups regarding leptospiral infection (P < 0.0001). Mean age in male and female in the case and control groups were 44.2, 41.9 and 43.5, 41.2 years, respectively (P > 0.05). In the case group, males and those more than 35 years were at a higher risk of infection. Conclusions: Rice farmers are significantly infected with leptospirosis, and infection prevalence is highly affected by gender (male) and age (above 35 years). Rice farming parts of Khuzestan, Iran may be considered as endemic for leptospirosis. PMID:25368799

  2. Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Min-Jiao; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain negative aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77924(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth was found to occur from 55 to 75 °C (optimum 65 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were observed to be rod-shaped and the colonies convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77924(T) belongs to the genus Thermus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77924(T) and other species of the genus Thermus were all below 97 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77924(T) were determined to be aminophospholipid, phospholipid and glycolipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-8 and the G+C content was 66.64 mol%. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) and C(16:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77924(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., in the genus Thermus. The type strain is YIM 77924(T) (=KCTC 32025(T) = CCTCC AB2012063(T)). PMID:23104072

  3. Three species of Hitobia Kamura, 1992 (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) from south-west China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Peng, Xian-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species and one new record of the Hitobia are described from Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan Province, China: Hitobia tengchong sp. n. (male), Hitobia hirtella sp. n. (male) and Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011. Distributional data and illustrations of body and copulatory organs are provided. The differences between the new species and their related species are discussed. PMID:25589867

  4. Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov., isolated from an alkali geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, South-West China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Duan, Yan-Yan; Zhou, En-Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Feng, Hui-Geng; Liu, Lan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-05-01

    An alkalitolerant, thermotolerant and Gram-stain negative bacterium, designated strain YIM 78007(T), was isolated from an alkaline geothermal soil sample from Hehua hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of strain YIM 78007(T) were observed to be aerobic and short rod-shaped. The colonies were observed to be orange-red, convex and circular. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 78007(T) clustered with members of the genus Roseomonas (with similarities from 97.2 to 92.2 %). Optimal growth of strain YIM 78007 occurs at 40-50 °C and pH 8.0-10.0. The predominant ubiquinone was identified as Q-10 and the major fatty acids were identified as C18:1 ω7c and C16:0. The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 63 mol %. The levels of DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain YIM 78007(T) and its closet neighbours (Roseomonas lacus JCM 13283(T) and Roseomonas terrae JCM 14592(T)) were well below the threshold required for the proposal of a novel species. The results of physiological and biochemical characteristics, the phylogenetic analysis, as well as low DNA-DNA hybridization values, allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain YIM 78007(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain YIM 78007(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78007(T) (=BCRC 80644(T) = JCM 19656(T)). PMID:24590559

  5. Deltamethrin impregnated bednets for the control of urban malaria in Kumba Town, South-West Province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Moyou-Somo, R; Lehman, L G; Awahmukalah, S; Ayuk Enyong, P

    1995-10-01

    This study was conducted from January to December 1992 in Kumba, a town situated in the rain forest region of the South-West Province of Cameroon, and consisted of a longitudinal survey including parasitological and clinical studies. Forty households were chosen for the study and randomly divided into two groups, each with approximately 240 inhabitants aged < or = 15 years. One group received deltamethrin impregnated bednets and the other group had no nets (control). For the months of April, June and August (rainy season), deltamethrin impregnated bednets did not reduce malaria prevalence significantly, but the overall malaria prevalence for all months of the study was significantly reduced (chi 2 MH = 9.17, P = 0.002). Enlarged spleen rates (chi 2 MH = 6.73, P = 0.009) and spleen sizes (P = 0.0002) were also significantly reduced by the nets. However, the reduction in the geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was not significant. Even though some of these reductions were statistically significant, they were relatively low in a global context compared with previous work done mainly in rural areas. In an urban environment, parents and children usually stay up late, and probably receive many mosquito bites before going to sleep. PMID:7563259

  6. Co-endemicity of loiasis and onchocerciasis in the South West Province of Cameroon: implications for mass treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Esum, M; Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Enyong, P

    2001-01-01

    Encephalopathy has been reported in Cameroon in individuals heavily infected with Loa loa microfilariae who were treated with ivermectin against onchocerciasis. Prior to the initiation of the community-directed treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin (CDTI) in the South West Province of Cameroon, an epidemiological survey of loiasis was conducted (in July 1998-July 1999) to ascertain the intensity of the disease. Thick blood films were made from 1228 blood samples collected during the day. Rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis was conducted among 614 individuals in the Upper Bayang area. Sixteen percent of the population examined were carriers of L. loa microfilariae. More males (20.1%) than females (12.4%) were infected. The community mean microfilaraemias of the different villages were low (< 1100 mf/mL). However, 1 person was found harbouring 174,000 mf/mL of blood and 1% of the study population (12) had microfilaraemia > 8100 mf/mL. Results of the REA of onchocerciasis show that 31.3% of the population investigated in the Upper Bayang area have this disease. These findings show that loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic in the area, but the risk of developing encephalopathy after taking ivermectin is small. PMID:11816443

  7. Measuring the Quality of Communication Linkages between Farmers and the Agricultural Agencies Responsible for the Diffusion of Innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Bridget Ayuk

    The quality of communication linkages between farmers and the agricultural agencies responsible for diffusion of innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon was examined in a study of all 25 researchers and 150 extension agents in the province and 385 farmers who were randomly selected from the province's 3,000 farmers. Data were collected…

  8. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  9. Panxi region (South-West China): Tectonics, magmatism and metallogenesis. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Marian; Yao, Yong; Wilson, Allan H.; Chunnett, Gordon; Luo, Yaonan; He, Hong; Cioacă, Mihaela; Wen, Maolin

    2013-11-01

    The Panxi region of SW China makes up most of the western margin of the Yangtze craton. Its structural pattern, defined by NS-trending deep faults, is superimposed on a zone of late Proterozoic crustal extension. The Panxi region seems to have evolved as a continental rift in the Permian, and was subsequently subjected to compression, caused mainly by the Himalayan collision. This induced the uplift of its axial and western parts, generating a horst-type structure within the former rift graben. At ca. 260 Ma, mantle plume-related magmatism in the Panxi region generated the Emeishan flood basalts together with ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and with numerous intrusive bodies (peridotites, pyroxenites, layered gabbros, syenites, granites). A geochemical distinction between high-Ti and low-Ti Emeishan basalts can be made, but just with the significance of compositional end-members since the published data define a continuous variation of the entire compositional range. Similar compositional variation occurs in the ultramafic lavas (picrites and komatiites) intercalated in the sequence of the Emeishan basalts, which are considered to be the products of undifferentiated primary magmas. Based on the geochemical data, the primary magmas could have been generated from distinct source materials (mantle plume, asthenosphere, lithospheric mantle), from compositionally heterogeneous mantle plume source or from a common source but with various degrees of mantle melting and crustal contamination. Considering the picritic composition of the primary magmas, a deep-seated differentiation of large volume of magma is needed to produce the extrusion of the relatively evolved Emeishan basalts. World class Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits are associated with the layered gabbros, while the ultramafic intrusions can host small Ni-Cu and PGE sulfide deposits. The intrusions containing Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits show remarkably continuous layering and probably derived from mafic magmas

  10. The temporal lagged association between meteorological factors and malaria in 30 counties in south-west China: a multilevel distributed lag non-linear analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between malaria and meteorological factors is complex due to the lagged and non-linear pattern. Without fully considering these characteristics, existing studies usually concluded inconsistent findings. Investigating the lagged correlation pattern between malaria and climatic variables may improve the understanding of the association and generate possible better prediction models. This is especially beneficial to the south-west China, which is a high-incidence area in China. Methods Thirty counties in south-west China were selected, and corresponding weekly malaria cases and four weekly meteorological variables were collected from 2004 to 2009. The Multilevel Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (MDLNM) was used to study the temporal lagged correlation between weekly malaria and weekly meteorological factors. The counties were divided into two groups, hot and cold weathers, in order to compare the difference under different climatic conditions and improve reliability and generalizability within similar climatic conditions. Results Rainfall was associated with malaria cases in both hot and cold weather counties with a lagged correlation, and the lag range was relatively longer than those of other meteorological factors. Besides, the lag range was longer in hot weather counties compared to cold weather counties. Relative humidity was correlated with malaria cases at early and late lags in hot weather counties. Minimum temperature had a longer lag range and larger correlation coefficients for hot weather counties compared to cold weather counties. Maximum temperature was only associated with malaria cases at early lags. Conclusion Using weekly malaria cases and meteorological information, this work studied the temporal lagged association pattern between malaria cases and meteorological information in south-west China. The results suggest that different meteorological factors show distinct patterns and magnitudes for the lagged correlation, and

  11. Sedimentology and magnetostratigraphy of the Tierekesazi Cenozoic section in the foreland region of south West Tian Shan in Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinwei; Chen, Hanlin; Cheng, Xiaogan; Shen, Zhongyue; Lin, Xiubin

    2015-07-01

    The geology of Tian Shan provides an excellent example for understanding the intracontinental orogeny in the context of Indian-Eurasian convergence. Previous studies leave much space in basinfill deposition process to be assessed in the regions west to the Talas-Fergana fault (TFF). We improve the understanding by conducting new investigations on sedimentology and magnetostratigraphy in the Tierekesazi section of the foreland region of south West Tian Shan. Four lithofacies have been identified, (i) marine lithofacies from the Aertashi to Bashibulake Formations, (ii) lacustrine to fluvial (plain) lithofacies from the Keziluoyi to the middle Pakabulake Formations, (iii) alluvial sand-gravel sheet lithofacies in the upper Pakabulake Formation, and (iv) conglomerate lithofacies from the Atushi to Xiyu Formations. Magnetostratigraphic analysis, accompanied with biostratigraphic correlation, indicates that four lithofacies cover age intervals of ca. 65 Ma to 34 Ma, ca. 22.1 Ma to 12 Ma, 12 Ma to 5.2 Ma, and 5.2 Ma to approximately present (?), with the sediment accumulation rates increasing from ca. 2.4/3.3-3.5 (compacted/decompacted) cm/ka in the lithofacies (i), to 12.3/16-17 cm/ka in the lithofacies (ii), to 16.3/19.5-20.6 cm/ka in the lithofacies (iii), and finally to > 22.8/> 22.8 cm/ka in the lithofacies (iv). These results suggest three episodes of sedimentary events. Combined with previous results, these episodes of sedimentary events are attributed to tectonic activities that are widespread along south Tian Shan. We speculate that the Oligo-Miocene boundary event more directly and likely marks the initial underthrusting of the Tarim block beneath the south Tian Shan. The mid-Miocene and Mio-Pliocene boundary events, although approximately synchronous between the regions east and west to the TFF, have different structural expressions in the two regions. Such difference is proposed to cause the dextral slipping of the TFF, and more fundamentally, likely be driven

  12. One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Linwei; Bi, Yan; Ho, Suzanne C; Liu, Wenjie; Liang, Song; Goggins, William B; Chan, Emily YY; Zhou, Shuisen; Sung, Joseph JY

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. This study explored the impact of climate variability on the transmission of malaria in the tropical rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China. Methods Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Results At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria. Conclusion Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide. PMID:18565224

  13. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 20121

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  14. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  15. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  16. The Re-Socialisation of Migrants in a Local Community in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the…

  17. Simulated water productivity in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jinyan; Sun, Zhongxiao; Wang, Zhan; Chen, Jiancheng; Li, Zhaohua

    Economic value of water and economic analysis of water use management in Gansu Province of China have attracted widespread public attention. With the socioeconomic development, research on water resources has become more important than before. In this study, we define "water productivity" as the changes of economic production outputs of sectoral activities in every cubic meter of water input, which is also the technical coefficient of water resource use in each sector. According to Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework, based on the Input-Output Table 2007 and water resources bulletin of Gansu Province, we introduced the water into the ORANI-G (A Generic Single-Country Computable General Equilibrium model) model through the nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function to analyze the changes of economic productions caused by water supply changes. We then examined water productivity in different sectors. Empirical results showed that current water productivity is underestimated. Agricultural water productivity is lower than that of the secondary and tertiary industries, even although agricultural water use is the largest part of water use in Gansu Province, and therefore improving agricultural water productivity can greatly mitigate the water shortage. Simulation results indicate that industrial transformation and development of water-saving industries will also mitigate water scarcity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the empirical results are robust under different scenarios. The results also show that higher constant elasticity of substitution rate (CES) between water and other production factors will contribute to sustainable development.

  18. BLDG 1 SOUTH & WEST SIDES Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 SOUTH & WEST SIDES - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  20. 32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE WASTE CONVEYOR IN FOREGROUND, CANT ROLL CASE TO BEAM SAW, THEN ROLL CASE FROM EDGER IN MIDDLE GROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  1. View of Mission Street facing south west. Williams Building is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Mission Street facing south west. Williams Building is at left background, Aron (Mercantile) Building is at right background. Parking lot is in left foreground - Williams Building, 693 Mission Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 9. 64 foot pony truss south west bearing abutment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 64 foot pony truss - south west bearing abutment of the first pony, truss, showing the sheet piling and the added 'I' beam support. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  3. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 10. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. CHIPPER AT LEFT, STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. CHIPPER AT LEFT, STEAM PLANT AT RIGHT. NOTE STEAM EXHAUSTS IN ROOF; LEFT IS MAIN ENGINE, RIGHT IS CARRIAGE DRIVE ENGINE. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  6. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF TERMINAL FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE FLYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF TERMINAL FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE FLYING FISH FREIZE ALONG TOP OF BUILDING. - New York Municipal Airport, Marine Air Terminal, Grand Central Parkway at Ninety-fourth Street, Jackson Heights, Queens County, NY

  7. POLICE STATION LOOKING SOUTH WEST, HOSPITAL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POLICE STATION LOOKING SOUTH WEST, HOSPITAL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Police and Voluntary Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  8. New and rare lignicolous hyphomycetes from Zhejiang Province, China* §

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawas, Mongkol; Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis sp. nov. and Spadicoides americana were found on submerged wood from streams in Zhejiang Province, China. Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis is characterized by obclavate to fusiform, 5-6-distoseptate, versicolorous, verruculose conidia with an apical mucilaginous sheath. Spadicoides americana is a new record to China. These taxa are described and illustrated, and morphological differences between these species and their similar species were summarized. PMID:18837107

  9. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  10. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 2012(1).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  11. HIV Infection--Guangdong Province, China, 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-24

    In 2007, an estimated 700,000 persons in China were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An estimated 50,000 new HIV infections and 20,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurred in 2007, and an estimated 71% of persons with HIV infection were unaware of their HIV status. In 2007, 40.6% of those living with HIV had been infected through heterosexual transmission and 38.1% through injection-drug use. Guangdong Province in southeastern China is the country's most populous province, with an estimated 75.6 million permanent residents and 16.5 million migrants; the province has undergone rapid economic development. Since 1986, a case-based surveillance system (CBSS) in China has collected data on persons infected with HIV, including demographic characteristics and transmission categories. To assess recent trends in HIV infection in the province, the Guangdong Center for Disease Control, with technical assistance from CDC, analyzed CBSS data for the period 1997--2007. The results of that analysis indicated that the number of HIV cases increased from 102 in 1997 to 4,593 in 2007, although this increase resulted, in part, from expanded testing and surveillance. Among males classified by HIV transmission category, 82.1% of newly diagnosed infections were attributed to injection-drug use. Among females classified by HIV transmission category, 53.7% engaged in high-risk heterosexual conduct. Despite substantial methodologic limitations, these results can be useful to Guangdong public health agencies in targeting and evaluating HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. PMID:19390507

  12. 56. VIEW SOUTH, WEST SIDE AT CANTILEVER SPAN (SPAN 70) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. VIEW SOUTH, WEST SIDE AT CANTILEVER SPAN (SPAN 70) SHOWING FACADE, DOUBLE CROSS BRACING AT COLUMNS, AND CONCRETE BASE - Route 1 Extension, Southbound Viaduct, Spanning Conrail Yards, Wilson Avenue, Delancy Street, & South Street on Routes 1 & 9 Southbound, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  13. TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TS-D-26 (R) 157.4815. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TS-D-26 (R) 157.4815. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. South west corner of Bunkhouse showing the door to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South west corner of Bunkhouse showing the door to the basement, electric panels and the hinged door to the basement used for unloading items into the basement. A small ranch hand's house sits adjacent to the west. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  16. 6. DETAIL: LOOKING NORTH, OF THE SOUTH WEST PORTAL SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL: LOOKING NORTH, OF THE SOUTH WEST PORTAL SHOWING THE TERMINUS OF THE BANNISTER AND SIDEWALK RADIUS. RILEY PARK ANNEX ROAD IS IN THE IMMEDIATE FOREGROUND - Delphi Bridge on U.S. Route 421, Spanning Deer Creek at U.S. Route 421, Delphi, Carroll County, IN

  17. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  18. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in Cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Man; Bian, Qing-Qing; Hu, Bing; Cong, Mei-Mei; Lin, Qing; Wang, Rong-Jun; Qi, Meng; Qi, Mao-Zhen; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Long-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4%) were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province. PMID:23560072

  19. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Aubrey L.; Yu, JunQing; Abbott, Mark B.; Cooke, Colin A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2014-08-01

    Pollution and eutrophication of Chinese lakes are widely perceived to be 20th century phenomena. However, China has a long history of deforestation, agriculture, mineral resource extraction, and other anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. Here, we present a sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in the Yunnan Province of China that reveals significant alterations to the lake, its ecosystem, and its watershed beginning as early as 500 AD. A comprehensive suite of biogeochemical and isotopic proxies reveal several rapid transitions related to changes in agriculture and lake-level management that coincides with cultural and dynastic transitions. The deterioration of contemporary environmental conditions at Xing Yun arises from a long history of anthropogenic manipulation, eutrophication, and pollution of the lake and its watershed. This study highlights the importance of using historical records of industrial and agricultural activities, including landscape modification, in conjunction with records of climate change, to place present day environmental concerns into a long-term context.

  20. Contribution to the knowledge of Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Hainan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The species of the perlid genus Neoperla are reviewed from Hainan Province, China. Three species of Neoperla, N. minuta sp. nov., N. wuzhishana sp. nov., and N. sexlobata sp. nov. are described from this island province and compared with other taxa. A provisional key is presented to the known Neoperla males from Hainan Province. PMID:27470851

  1. Characterizing the effect of temperature fluctuation on the incidence of malaria: an epidemiological study in south-west China using the varying coefficient distributed lag non-linear model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is strongly determined by the environmental temperature and the environment is rarely constant. Therefore, mosquitoes and parasites are not only exposed to the mean temperature, but also to daily temperature variation. Recently, both theoretical and laboratory work has shown, in addition to mean temperatures, daily fluctuations in temperature can affect essential mosquito and parasite traits that determine malaria transmission intensity. However, so far there is no epidemiological evidence at the population level to this problem. Methods Thirty counties in southwest China were selected, and corresponding weekly malaria cases and weekly meteorological variables were collected from 2004 to 2009. Particularly, maximum, mean and minimum temperatures were collected. The daily temperature fluctuation was measured by the diurnal temperature range (DTR), the difference between the maximum and minimum temperature. The distributed lag non-linear model (MDLNM) was used to study the correlation between weekly malaria incidences and weekly mean temperatures, and the correlation pattern was allowed to vary over different levels of daily temperature fluctuations. Results The overall non-linear patterns for mean temperatures are distinct across different levels of DTR. When under cooler temperature conditions, the larger mean temperature effect on malaria incidences is found in the groups of higher DTR, suggesting that large daily temperature fluctuations act to speed up the malaria incidence in cooler environmental conditions. In contrast, high daily fluctuations under warmer conditions will lead to slow down the mean temperature effect. Furthermore, in the group of highest DTR, 24-25°C or 21-23°C are detected as the optimal temperature for the malaria transmission. Conclusion The environment is rarely constant, and the result highlights the need to consider temperature fluctuations as well as mean temperatures, when trying to understand or

  2. Genetic Characterization of Shigella flexneri Isolates in Guizhou Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D.; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838

  3. Spatial Analysis of China Province-level Perinatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, Kun; SONG, Deyong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using spatial analysis tools to determine the spatial patterns of China province-level perinatal mortality and using spatial econometric model to examine the impacts of health care resources and different socio-economic factors on perinatal mortality. Methods: The Global Moran’s I index is used to examine whether the spatial autocorrelation exists in selected regions and Moran’s I scatter plot to examine the spatial clustering among regions. Spatial econometric models are used to investigate the spatial relationships between perinatal mortality and contributing factors. Results: The overall Moran’s I index indicates that perinatal mortality displays positive spatial autocorrelation. Moran’s I scatter plot analysis implies that there is a significant clustering of mortality in both high-rate regions and low-rate regions. The spatial econometric models analyses confirm the existence of a direct link between perinatal mortality and health care resources, socio-economic factors. Conclusions: Since a positive spatial autocorrelation has been detected in China province-level perinatal mortality, the upgrading of regional economic development and medical service level will affect the mortality not only in region itself but also its adjacent regions. PMID:27398334

  4. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one substance or a combination of substances. These substances include organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and a vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights.

  5. Millennial-Scale Fluctuations in Stable Isotope and Productivity Proxy Records in the N. South China Sea During the Last Glacial-Interglacial Cycle: Comparison Between the East Asian and South West Monsoons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, M. J.; Altabet, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Several published records attest to the response of the mid- and low-latitudes to millennial-scale climatic variability. However, forcings, teleconnections and their relative leads/lags between the sub-tropics and polar latitudes are unclear. We focus on the biological response to fluctuations in East Asian Monsoon intensity on sub-millennial timescales in the South China Sea (SCS) and compare these records with those obtained from the NW Arabian Sea dominated by the SW Monsoon. We have analyzed very rapidly accumulating sediments (c. 50cm/Ka) from the northern SCS recovered during ODP Leg 184 (Site 1144) in a region of high surface productivity c. 400km SE of Hong Kong. The SCS is the largest semi-enclosed marginal basin of the W. Pacific and is especially sensitive to the influences of the West Pacific Warm Pool and East Asian Monsoon. Nutrient supply from localized upwelling during the winter NE monsoon is augmented by cyclonic advection of substantial areas of upwelled water with a high nutrient content both offshore NW Philippines and SW of Taiwan during prevailing NE winds. With temporal resolution <100 yr, our results exhibit millennial-scale variations in both stable isotopes (Nitrogen and Oxygen) and productivity proxies (chlorins, total N) with clear correlation to the oxygen isotopic record of D-O events from the GISP2 ice-core. Apparently rapid and abrupt increases in productivity record intensification of the winter monsoon during cold stades, whilst remote changes in W. Pacific source water outwith the SCS basin appear to control sedimentary isotopic composition. Comparison with similar records in the NW Arabian Sea under the influence of the SW summer monsoon facilitates analysis of the response of the monsoon system to changes in vegetation, albedo and pressure gradient over the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau (HTP). Monsoon intensity is clearly tightly coupled to high latitude climate change. Variations in seasonal response on the HTP produce quite

  6. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  7. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing; Guo, Tiankang; Bao, Guoxian

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  8. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment. PMID:26513899

  9. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  10. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition. PMID:27395926

  11. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of “culture of remittances” in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise. PMID:26146509

  12. Perinatal hepatitis B prevention program in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Ko, Stephen; Lv, Jingjing; Ji, Feng; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Fujie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) alone is highly effective in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and the World Health Organization recommends administering HepB to all infants within 24 h after delivery. Maternal screening for HBsAg and administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in addition to HepB for infants born to HBsAg-positive pregnant women can increase the effectiveness of post-exposure prophylaxis for perinatal HBV transmission. In Shangdong Province, China which has a high prevalence of chronic HBV infection, HepB birth dose and HBIG were integrated into the routine childhood immunization program in 2002 and July 2011 respectively. We assessed progress toward implementation of these measures. Hospital-based reporting demonstrated an increase in maternal screening from 70.7% to 96.9% from 2004–2012; HepB birth dose coverage (within 24 h) remained high (96.3–97.1%) during this period. For infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers, the coverage of HBIG increased from 85.0% (before July 2011) to 92.1% (after July 2011). However, HBIG coverage in western areas of Shandong Province remained at 81.1% among infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers. Preterm/low-birth-weight and illness after birth were the most commonly reported reasons for delay in the first dose of HepB to >24 h of birth. Additional education on the safety and immune protection from HepB and HBIG might help to correct delays in administering the HepB birth dose and low HBIG coverage in the western areas of the Shandong Province. PMID:25483482

  13. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. PMID:19202872

  14. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-08-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005-2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012-2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20-50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  15. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  16. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  17. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  18. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  19. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Zhejiang Province, China, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Qian; Li, Zhijun; Chen, Songhua; Liu, Zhengwei; Nelson, Hugh; Yang, Qun; Dye, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate levels and trends in drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Zhejiang Province, China, we conducted 1 survey in each of 3 years (1999, 2004, and 2008). We found that <5% of new cases were multidrug-resistant TB. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB has not increased in new or re-treated cases in this province. PMID:22377167

  20. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  1. Characterization and Origin of Zonal Sapphire from Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyan; Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Linghao

    2015-02-01

    Shandong Province is the main producer of sapphire in China. Among the sapphire deposits discovered in China, Shandong sapphire hosted in Cenzoic basalt shows a great variety of features, especially for in zoning. These sapphire crystals are generally large in size, with depth in color and well-developed zoning. In this article, the characteristics of zonal sapphire have been studied by using petrography, trace element data from laser ablation inductively coupled with plasma-mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry. The trace elements variation is proposed to correspond with their parent magma composition, and the changes in growth environment of sapphire have resulted in the formation of zoning features. Sapphires from different geological settings have different characteristics. Trace elements in sapphire not only affect the color but also reflect the changes of physical and chemical conditions of sapphire growth. The concentration of impurity elements in the zoning core of Shandong sapphire is the highest, indicating that the parent magma of Shandong sapphire-host basaltic rock is rich in trace elements. Fe content is more than 2.00% in the zoning core, which causes the deepest color in the samples. It also suggests that the total content of Fe is positively correlated to the band color. The Raman spectrum shows that the spectrum peaks at 246 cm-1 caused by Fe3+ vary regularly with the band color, which shows that Fe is dominated by Fe3+ in Shandong sapphire. With the changes of forming condition, the parent magma composition has changed accordingly, which causes the zoning formation.

  2. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space. PMID:26054518

  3. Distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Gong, Zhengda; Ge, Junqi; Meng, Weishan; Feng, Yun; Wang, Jinglin; Zhai, Yougang; Wang, Huanqin; Nasci, Roger; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong

    2009-12-01

    From July to September in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' N and 29 degrees 00' N latitude in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, China. A total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using UV light traps at 59 sites. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. The density of mosquitoes as well as the diversity of species decreased with increasing altitude. A total of 21,008 mosquitoes in 281 pools representing all of the 15 species was tested for the presence of viruses using cell culture. Viruses identified included Japanese encephalitis virus (13 isolates), Getah virus (five isolates), Banna virus (three isolates), Kadipiro virus (five isolates), and Densovirus (seven isolates). These isolates were obtained from Culex tritaeniorhynchus (20 isolates), Anopheles sinensis (three isolates), Armigeres subalbatus (six isolates), Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (two isolates), and from unidentified, mixed mosquitoes (two isolates). Most of the isolates were from collections made at elevations below 2,500 m. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 0, 000-000. PMID:19196130

  4. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  5. Determinants of child mortality in south-west Uganda.

    PubMed

    Vella, V; Tomkins, A; Nidku, J; Marshall, T

    1992-01-01

    Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables were taken from 4320 children in a baseline survey carried out in March-April 1988 in the district of Mbarara, south-west Uganda. After 12 months a follow-up survey assessed the mortality of the children during the preceding year. Lack of ownership of cattle, recent arrival in the village, using candles for lighting, being of birth order higher than 5 and having a father with less than 8 years of schooling were significantly associated with child mortality. The addition of mid-upper arm circumference significantly improved the logistic model of socioeconomic variables and mortality and did not diminish the predictive power of socioeconomic variables in relation to increased mortality. This suggests that nutritional status and specific socioeconomic factors are both, independently, important predictors of child mortality. PMID:1737806

  6. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England.

    PubMed

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L(-1)) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L(-1) were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. PMID:21925780

  7. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented. PMID:22026605

  8. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the postpartum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and

  9. [The Analysis of Traditional Lime Mortars from Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-bin; Cui, Biao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2016-01-01

    The components of ancient mortars have always been an important research field in historic building conservation. It has been well known that using traditional mortars in conservation projects have many advantages, such as compatibility and stability. So, developing new binding materials based on traditional mortar has become an international study hotspot. With China's economic development, the protection of ancient buildings also began to put on the agenda, but the understanding on Chinese traditional mortar is limited, and rare literatures are reported. In the present work, the authors investigate seven ancient city wall sites in Zhejiang Province in situ, and subsequently laboratory analysis were carried out on collected mortar samples. The characterizations of mortar samples were made by multi-density gauge, XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC and wet chemical analysis. The experimental results showed that: the main component of masonry mortars is calcium carbonate, the content between 75% - 90%, and they should be made from relatively pure lime mortar. The raw materials of mortar samples were mainly calcareous quick lime, and sample from Taizhou city also contained magnesium quick lime. There are four city walls were built by sticky-rice mortars. It suggests that the technology of adding the sticky rice soup into mortar was universal in the Ming Dynasties. These mortars have lower density between 1.2 and 1.9 g x cm(-3); this outcome should be the result of long-term natural erosion. We have also analyzed other chemical and physical characteristics of these masonry mortars. The results can afford the basic data for the future repairmen programs, development of new protective materials, and comparative study of mortars. PMID:27228774

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sows in Hunan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). Overall, 31.3% (373/1191) of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4%) and autumn (34.9%) than in spring (24.6%) and winter (23.9%). Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1: 1024) to 17.4% (titer = 1:64). The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China. PMID:24683331

  11. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran. PMID:23656910

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  13. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  14. SouthWest view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South-West view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  16. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one or a variable combination of: organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights. The former include CH4, C2H6, C3H8 and possibly C4H10 as well as CO, CO2, H2O, N2 and H2. High molecular weight components are dominantly n-alkanes and isoprenoid hydrocarbons. The n-alkanes range from at least n-C10 to n-C33. Concentrations of n-alkanes larger than n-C17 decrease regularly with increasing carbon number. An homologous series of isoprenoid hydrocarbons ranging from at least C14 to C20 is present in unusually high concentrations. Pristane (C19) is most abundant, and C17 isoprenoid is least abundant. The molecular composition and distribution of hydrocarbons suggest biological precursors for these components. Consideration of data provided by freezing, crushing and heating experiments suggests that the pressures at the time these in part supercritical fluids were trapped probably exceeded 30-40 atm, and the minimum trapping temperature was about 120-160??C. Both primary and secondary inclusions apparently containing only organic materials were trapped by the growth of the host quartz from aqueous solution. The data obtained neither prove nor preclude Precambrian, Paleozoic or younger sources for the organic materials. ?? 1971.

  17. Anti-Smoking Practice in Hospitals: An Intercept Survey among Patients in Hubei Province, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…

  18. Higher Vocational Education in China: A Preliminary Critical Review of Developments and Issues in Liaoning Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, G. R.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the increasingly important economy of China and its associated higher vocational education and training (HVE) system. More specifically, the paper aims to present the findings of a critical review of recent developments in the HVE system in Liaoning province. Design/methodology/approach: As part of this review,…

  19. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  20. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  1. Industry sector analysis, China: Electrical generating equipment in guangdong province. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the electrical generating equipment market in the Guangdong Province of China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  2. A new combination and two varieties of polystigmate Gomphonema (gomphonemaceae bacillariophyta) from Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yawen; Shi, Zhixin; Bao, Wenmei; Wang, Quanxi

    2004-06-01

    The authors discribed a new polystigmate combination, Gomphonema turris Ehr. var. okamurae (Skv.) Fan et Bao. comb. nov., and two new varieties, Gomphonema turris Ehr. var. latum Fan et Wang. var. nov. and Gomphonema acuminatum var. obtusum Fan et Bao, var. nov., that were distinguished by frustule morphology under LM. The samples were collected from freshwater of Heilongjiang Province, China.

  3. Challenges to Early Childhood Education in Rural China: Lessons from the Hebei Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Among Primary School Children in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yao, Zong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection in primary school children has been investigated in many countries, limited surveys have been available in primary school children in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Sera from 6,000 primary school children were evaluated for T. gondii antibodies with ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 16.0% (961/6,000), of which 14.5% (870/6,000) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, 3.4% (206/6,000) positive for IgM, and 1.9% (115/6,000) were positive for both IgG and IgM. The results of the present investigation indicated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control T. gondii infection in primary school children in this province. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in primary school children in Shandong province, China. PMID:26323849

  7. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur (Pterosauria) from Jurassic deposits of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Xu, Li; Wei, Xuefang; Chang, Huali; Kundrát, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following characters: the toothless tip of the lower jaw is slightly pointed; the length ratio of wing metacarpal to humerus is 0.38, the ulna is shorter than each wing phalanx and the tibia is nearly equal to femur in length. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Orientognathus chaoyngensis as a rhamphorhynchid pterosaur. Orientognathus chaoyngensis is perhaps the youngest Jurassic pterosaur from western Liaoning Province of China.  PMID:25661600

  8. A hepatitis E outbreak by genotype 4 virus in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-07-19

    Hepatitis E vaccine was available in China in 2012, but the priority population for immunization is not clear. In 2013, a hepatitis E outbreak occurred in a company of Shandong province, China where most employees moved from other provinces and dined at the company's cafeteria. A total of fourteen (19%, 14/73) case-patients were identified, and three of them had symptomatic infection with one death. The proportion of symptomatic infection was much higher among those aged ⩾50years than those aged <50years (2/2 vs. 1/12, P=0.03), and higher in males than females (3/8 vs. 0/6, P=0.21). Food in the company's cafeteria might be the possible source of the outbreak. The findings from this outbreak investigation indicate that individuals aged ⩾50years, particularly males, might be the population of top priority for hepatitis E vaccination in China. PMID:27318419

  9. Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools, Ahwaz, South-west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, A; Amirrajab, N

    2010-01-01

    Background: Using public swimming pools during different seasons and poor health behavior could be responsible in transmission of fungal disease through pool water and its environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate fungal agents of indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz, capital city of Khouzestan Province, south-west of Iran. Methods: Ten indoor swimming pools of Ahwaz were investigated during two seasons for 6 months. Water specimens were collected by pump and environment samples including shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slippers, by sterile carpet pieces. All specimens were cultured in SC and SCC culture media and fungal agents identification were based on macroscopic, microscopic characteristic and complement tests when it was necessary. Data analyzing was performed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing. Results: A total of 593 samples were collected from different parts of pools. Interestingly in 13 samples from environmental places, dermatophytes were isolated as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum 5, 4, 3 and 1 cases respectively. Ten cases of dermatophytes were isolated from floor of dressing area. Three hundred seventy two saprophytic fungi species and 32 yeasts were recovered from water and environment surfaces samples. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor were the most common isolated saprophytic fungi. Conclusion: Existence of saprophytic fungi and yeast in pools water seems to be an indicator of their resistance to detergent agents. In addition, yeast water contamination could be from swimmers. Dermatophytes isolation from pools environment areas and foot washing sink, reveals the importance of public swimming pools in disease transmission. Because dressing places are being used by all of the swimmers, take care of hygienic discipline in these places should be noted by health policy markers. PMID:23113031

  10. Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

  11. Molecular identification and seasonal infections of species of Fasciola in ruminants from two provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W; Liu, J-M; Lu, K; Li, H; Duan, M-M; Feng, J-T; Hong, Y; Liu, Y-P; Zhou, Y; Tong, L-B; Lu, J; Zhu, C-G; Jin, Y-M; Cheng, G-F; Lin, J-J

    2016-05-01

    We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4-100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0-89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively. PMID:26123576

  12. Changes in Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…

  13. Evaluating ecosystem service change in Jiangxi Province of China based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Taiyang; Huang, Xianjing; Ma, Yuandan

    2009-10-01

    The function and services of ecosystem are important components of the life-support system in the planet, as well as the basic elements for sustainable development of environment and society. In this study, the change of ecosystem function and services in Jiangxi Province of China were estimated by employing the classification and economic parameters from Costanza et al. The types and area of terrestrial ecosystems in 1980s and 2000s were identified from Landsat imagery, based on the maximum likelihood classification methods. And then the distribution maps of ecosystem services of Jiangxi Province were drawn. The value for terrestrial ecosystem was 2522x108 RMB in 1980s, while it increased by 7.3% in 2000s, which mainly because the increased forest areas in Jiangxi Province. The estimation method employed in this study was conservative, and should be improved in future studies.

  14. Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H.; Ge, L.; Song, L.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-07-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) is a worldwide fulminant infectious disease. Since the first HFRS cases in Hubei Province were reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of seriously affected areas in China. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS are still not entirely clear. Therefore, a systematic investigation of spatial and temporal distribution pattern of HFRS system is needed. In order to facilitate better prevention and control of HFRS in Hubei Province, in this paper, a GIS spatiotemporal analysis and modeling tool was developed to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the HFRS epidemic, as well as providinga comprehensive examination the dynamic pattern of HFRS in Hubei over the past 30 years (1980-2009), to determine spatiotemporal change trends and the causes of HFRS. This paper describes the experiments and their results.

  15. Survey of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in the five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-Qi; Han, Rong-Wei; Zhen, Yun-Peng; Xu, Xiao-Min; Sun, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the only mycotoxin that has a legal limit in milk all over the world. In the present study, 360 raw milk samples were collected from Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Shanghai and Guangdong provinces in China in September 2010, and their AFM1 levels were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). More than three-fourths (78.1%) of the 360 raw milk samples contained AFM1 at concentrations of 5-123 ng L⁻¹. AFM1 contents in all positive samples were far below the Chinese and US legal limit of 500 ng L⁻¹, but 10% of the raw milk samples exceeded the EU legal limit of 50 ng L⁻¹. Moreover, both incidence and content of AFM1 in milk collected from the southern provinces, including Shanghai and Guangdong, were higher than those collected from the northern provinces, including Beijing, Hebei and Shanxi. PMID:24779875

  16. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  17. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  18. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. PMID:26041195

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Waterfowl-Origin Tembusu Virus Strains Isolated in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Xin; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Ti, Jinfeng; Gao, Xuhui

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two tembusu virus strains, ZC-1 and LQ-1, isolated from ducks and geese, respectively, in 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the two strains are closely related to those of the TMUV isolates around Shandong province. The full-length genome sequences of two waterfowl-origin TMUVs provided herein will help to understand the molecular epidemiology of tembusu virus in China, which deserves further investigation. PMID:24356821

  20. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  1. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  2. The Classroom Environment: A Major Motivating Factor towards High Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, Comfort O.; Adesua, Veronica O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of the classroom environment as a motivating factor in enhancing the academic performance of secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey type. The population of this study comprises all students of senior secondary schools in South West Nigeria which consist of Lagos, Ogun,…

  3. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping )

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] -35.5 [approximately] -39.9[per thousand], and [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2] -24.0 [approximately] -26.8[per thousand]. The [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4[per thousand] to -26.8[per thousand]. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] of the gases there is -37.9 [approximately] -37. l[per thousand], with the [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 [approximately] -26.6[per thousand]. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] from - 38.7 to -43.7[per thousand] and [delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] from -25.9[per thousand] to -29.9[per thousand]. The [delta] [sup 13]C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3[per thousand] to 27.8[per thousand].

  4. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping

    1996-12-31

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} -35.5 {approximately} -39.9{per_thousand}, and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2} -24.0 {approximately} -26.8{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4{per_thousand} to -26.8{per_thousand}. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} of the gases there is -37.9 {approximately} -37. l{per_thousand}, with the {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 {approximately} -26.6{per_thousand}. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} from - 38.7 to -43.7{per_thousand} and {delta} {sup 13}C{sub 2} from -25.9{per_thousand} to -29.9{per_thousand}. The {delta} {sup 13}C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3{per_thousand} to 27.8{per_thousand}.

  5. Job Satisfaction and Gender Factor of Administrative Staff in South West Nigeria Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olorunsola, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the level of job satisfaction of male and female administrative staff in South West Nigeria Universities. The research design used was a descriptive survey type. The population consisted of all the senior administrative staff in the universities, out of which a sample of 400 respondents made up of 100 respondents from each…

  6. Job Performance and Gender Factors of Administrative Staff in South West Nigeria Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olorunsola, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the level of administrative staff job performance in South West Nigerian universities and also investigates whether the administrative staff job performance is related to their sexual characteristics. An instrument titled Job Performance Questionnaire (JPQ) was used to collect the data and was administered 400 subjects in…

  7. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

  8. Stakeholders' Perception on the Investment in Higher Education in South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, J. B.; Olaiya, Foluke M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the perceptions of stakeholders on investment in higher education and economic development in south-west Nigeria. The study was based on the argument that despite the fact that Nigeria celebrates her wealth of human capital and boasts of her educated labour force, there is still widespread ignorance and poverty with no…

  9. Correlate of Resource Utilization and Students' Learning Outcome in Colleges of Education in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibukun, W. O.; Akinfolarin, C. A.; Alimi, O. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated resource utilisation in vocational and technical education as a correlate of student learning outcome in selected colleges of education in south west Nigeria. The study examined the relationship between time, space and physical resource utilisation and perceived student learning outcome. The study used the descriptive…

  10. Five new records of Luvarus imperialis (Acanthuroidei: Luvaridae) in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Domingues, R R; Montealegre-Quijano, S; Soto, J M R; Amorim, A F

    2015-03-01

    Five new records of louvars Luvarus imperialis are documented for the south-west Atlantic Ocean, extending its distribution range in this ocean. The presence of one ripe specimen, associated with the previous records of larvae and juveniles, suggests that L. imperialis spawn in this region. The possible association of juveniles with shoals of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis is discussed. PMID:25639157

  11. Pesticide residues in market foods in Shaanxi Province of China in 2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Wang, Zhilun; Zhang, Yibei; Wang, Jiang; Guo, Rong

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pesticide residues in market vegetables in Shaanxi Province of China. The concentrations of 33 pesticides were determined by gas chromatography (GC) in 285 samples. Ten organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were found in concentrations ranging from 0.004 to 0.257 mg/kg. The mean levels of omethoate, phorate, chlorpyrifos, methidathion, ethoprophos in vegetables exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) allowed by the Ministry of Health, of China. Other detectable OP pesticide residues levels were below their MRLs. Dicofol were detectable in green pepper and chives samples. Five pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) were detectable in vegetable samples respectively. The results provide useful information on the current contamination status of a key agricultural area in China, and point to the need for urgent action to control the excessive use of some chemicals. PMID:23411338

  12. Haze trends over the capital cities of 31 provinces in China, 1981-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Yang; Zhou, Zijiang; Qu, John J.; Hao, Xianjun

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the patterns and trends of haze over 31 provincial capitals in China between 1980 and 2005. The haze measurements were based on human visual range observations at 31 synoptic meteorological stations operated by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The high haze regions were found in largely populated cities such as Chongqing, Beijing, and Shenyang, while the low haze regions were located in the cities with small populations such as Lhasa, Kunming, and Guiyang in southwestern China and Haikou in southern China. The haziness of the 12 cities shows a significantly (95%) decreasing trend, while that of the 13 cities shows a significantly increasing trend over the 25-year study period. The increases are evident in the eastern and southwestern cities in China. It has also been found that there is a decreasing haze trend in winter but an increasing trend in summer for many cities. Nonetheless, the causality for the reduction of aerosol emissions has not been established. This report is the first survey and preliminary analysis done on haze patterns and trends from 1980 to 2005 over the capital cities of 31 provinces in Mainland China.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen infecting humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The most common sources of human infection are ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China. Methods Serum samples were collected from 711 and 738 slaughtered horses and donkeys, respectively, in 13 regions of Liaoning province. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used to test the specific antibodies to T. gondii. Results In this study, 178 of 711 (25.0%) horses were seropositive for T. gondii with titers of 1:25 in 81, 1:50 in 62, 1:100 in 33, and 1:200 in 2, and seroprevalence of T. gondii infection from 13 regions ranged from 8.2% to 37.0%. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 174 of 738 (23.6%) donkeys with titers of 1:25 in 66, 1:50 in 54, 1:100 in 49, and 1:200 in 5, and seroprevalence varied in 13 different regions, ranging from 9.1% to 32.6%. Conclusions The results of the present study indicated that the rate of infection with T. gondii in horses and donkeys is a little high in Liaoning province, northeastern China in comparison to other surveys in China, which suggests that consumption of horse and donkey meat in this area may represent a potential source for human infection with T. gondii. PMID:23680297

  14. Lung cancer burden has increased during the last 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Li, Daojuan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2011, Hebei Province, located in North China with a population of 71 794 239, accounted for approximately 6% of the national population. It is well known as a heavily air polluted area. This study reports the lung cancer burden and mortality trend in Hebei Province from 1973 to 2011. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. The proportions, cumulative incidence/mortality rates, and median age at death of lung cancer were calculated. Lung cancer mortality data of 1973–1975, 1990–1992, and 2004–2005 were extracted from national death surveys. Data of lung cancer from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population‐based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated numbers of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province were 32 623 and 27 612, respectively. The crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 45.44/100 000. The age‐standardized incidence rate by world standard population was 39.01/100 000, ranking second among all cancers. The lung cancer mortality rate was 38.46/100 000, ranking first among all cancer deaths, with a significantly increasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973–1975 to 2010–2011, with an increased rate of 189.15%. Conclusion Hebei Province suffers a heavy disease burden of lung cancer and an obvious increasing trend has been observed over the past 40 years. Preventive and control strategies should be encouraged. PMID:27148418

  15. Prevalence of HPV infection among 28,457 Chinese women in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Liu, Feng; Cheng, Si; Shi, Lei; Yan, Zhiling; Yang, Jie; Shi, Li; Yao, Yufeng; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a key role in the development of cervical cancer. The aim of the current study was to investigate the HPV type distribution in Chinese women from Yunnan Province, southwest China. A total of 28,457 individuals ranging in age from 17–84 years were recruited from 13 clinical hospitals located in 10 different regions of Yunnan Province. Cervicovaginal swabs were collected from each participant, and HPV screening was performed using Luminex xMAP technology. Our results showed that the HPV prevalence was 12.9% in Yunnan Province. Overall, 10.6% of the individuals were positive for a single HPV type, and 2.3% were positive for multiple types. Among the individuals who tested positive for a single HPV type and multiple HPV types, the three most prevalent high-risk types were 52, 16, and 58. Age subgroup analysis showed two peaks for the frequencies of single and multiple HPV infections, one for the group of women under 25 years old, and the other for the group over 56 years old. Here, we present data regarding the prevalence and type distribution of HPV infection, which will aid in the estimation of the potential clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of HPV screening and vaccination in China. PMID:26868772

  16. Survey of helminths in adult sheep in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, C R; Qiu, J H; Zhu, X Q; Han, X H; Ni, H B; Zhao, J P; Zhou, Q M; Zhang, H W; Lun, Z R

    2006-09-10

    The prevalence of helminths in adult sheep was investigated in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China between January 1999 and September 2003. A total of 326 adult sheep representing local breeds (Xingjiang Fine Wool Sheep, Dongbei Fine Wool Sheep) as well as introduced breeds (Merino and Charollais) from representative geographical locations in Heilongjiang Province were slaughtered and examined for the presence of helminths. The worms were examined, counted and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. A total of 26 helminth species were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 13 families and 20 genera. All sheep were infected by more than one helminth species. Oesophagostomum columbianum, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were the most common nematode species, and Paramphistomum cervi, Orientobilharzia turkestanica and Fasciola hepatica were the most common trematode species, whereas the infection of adult sheep with cestodes was uncommon. The results of the present investigation provide relevant "base-line" data for Heilongjiang Province, China, for assessing the effectiveness of future control strategies against helminth infections in sheep. PMID:16713098

  17. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dysentery in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Wang, Guoyong; Hiller, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on dysentery transmission, the relationship between monthly dysentery cases in Shandong Province of China and the monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a broad index of ENSO, was examined over the period 1991-2003. Spearman correlations and generalized linear models were calculated to detect the association between the SOI and dysentery cases. Data from 1991 to 2001 were used to estimate the parameters, while data from 2002 to 2003 were used to test the forecasting ability of the model. After controlling for seasonality, autocorrelation, and a time-lagged effect, the results indicate that there was a significant negative association between the number of dysentery cases and the SOI, with a lagged effect of 2 months. A one-standard-deviation decrease in the SOI might cause up to 207 more dysentery cases per month in Shandong Province. This is the first report of the impact of the Southern Oscillation on dysentery risk in China, indicating that the SOI may be a useful early indicator of potential dysentery risk in Shandong Province. PMID:16690051

  18. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  19. Dynamics of rabies epidemics and the impact of control efforts in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiang; Jin, Zhen; Ruan, Shigui

    2012-05-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in some developing countries including China. One of the reasons is that there is a very large number of dogs, both domestic and stray, especially in Guangdong Province which has the third most rabies cases (after Guangxi and Hunan) among the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in Mainland China, and at least 18.2% of the human rabies cases are caused by stray dogs. In this paper, based on the reported data and characteristics of the rabies infection in Guangdong Province, we propose a mathematical model for the dog-human transmission of rabies. We first determine the basic reproduction number R₀ and discuss the stability of the disease-free equilibrium and persistence of the disease. By carrying out sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number in terms of some parameters, we find that the domestic dog vaccination rate, the recruitment rate of domestic dogs, and the quantity of stray dogs play important roles in the transmission of rabies. This study suggests that rabies control and prevention strategies should include public education and awareness about rabies, increase of the domestic dog vaccination rate and reduction of the stray dog population. PMID:22273729

  20. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  1. Modern Tectonic Deformation in the Active Basin-And Province Northwest of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, S.; Wen, X.

    2012-12-01

    Our study region is the northwest of Beijing, northern north China. The most typical extensional active tectonic area of the China continent, called the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing, exist there. This active tectonic province is made up of several NE-trending Quaternary graben basins and horst ranges between basins. An about 1500-year-long written historical record has suggested that there have been no major earthquakes with magnitude 7 or greater occurred in most of the study region since AD 512. So, the characteristic of modern tectonic deformation of the study region and its implication for the future seismic potential of major earthquakes are important scientific issues. In this study, based on data of regional GPS station velocities and active tectonics, combining relocated earthquake distribution, we make a preliminary analysis on the characteristic of the modern tectonic deformation of the study region. We design three zones across deferent segments of the active basin-and-range province to analyze both the present tectonic deformation from the GPS velocity profiles and the major fault's downward-extents from the relocated hypocenters. Our analyses reveal that: (1) Significant NNW-ward and SSE-ward horizontal extension exists on different segments of the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing at rates of 2 to 3mm /yr, accompanied with right-lateral shear deformation at 1 to 2mm/yr. (2) On the present tectonic deformation, the southeastern margin of the Datong-Yangyuan basin, the biggest graben basin of the active tectonic province, shows as a turning belt of the extensional rates, suggesting that relatively high tensile strain accumulation could exist there. (3)On the northeastern segment of the studied active basin-and-range province, both the Zhangjiakou-Yanhui graben basin and the Beijing graben basin have also been being in significant extensional and shear deformation. (4) The relocated hypocenter distribution have

  2. Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Guan, Dawei; Kang, Min; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 virus has continued to cause infections in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong Province during the first wave, but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong Province. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all four pediatric patients. All patients reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving, the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong Province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission. PMID:25339399

  3. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  4. Factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers among men in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use in commercial sex is highly prevalent globally and alcohol use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability of risky behaviors. In the current study, we explored individual and contextual factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers (FSWs) among 560 male clients in Sichuan province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sichuan province, China. Over one-fifth (21.1 %) of the participants reported always using alcohol before having sex with FSWs. As compared to those who reported not always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs, male clients who reported always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs had higher income, were more likely to have main sex partners, to drink alcohol daily, to report minor depressive symptoms and were more likely to visit FSWs with friends rather than by themselves. Results from this study highlight the importance of addressing alcohol use among men who pay for sex in China. Future interventions should promote alcohol-related norms in reducing the harms associated with consuming alcohol. PMID:22806054

  5. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  6. Molecular newborn screening of four genetic diseases in Guizhou Province of South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengwen; Xu, Yin; Liu, Xingmei; Zhou, Man; Wu, Xian; Jia, Yankai

    2016-10-10

    Genetic disorders have been a major concern for public health in China, especially in the rural regions. However, there is little information available about prevalence of many common single-gene disorders in Guizhou Province in the south western part of China. In the present study, we performed a molecular newborn screening for four genetic disorders, including beta-thalassemia (β-thal), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, phenylketonuria (PKU), and non-syndromic hearing loss and deafness (NSHL) in this region. A total of 515 newborns were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) developed for screening the mutations causing these four disorders, and then confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The results showed that 48 out of 515 newborns were carriers of mutations related to these four diseases, with a frequency of 1 in 11 (9.32%). The carrier frequencies for each disease are: β-thal 2.72%; G6PD deficiency 1.94%; PKU 0.78% and NSHL 4.47%. The genotyping results by MALDI-TOF MS were concordant with Sanger sequencing results within 30 randomly selected samples. This is the first study that reveals carrier frequencies of these four diseases in Guizhou Province. These data provide valuable information for the genetic counseling and disease prevention in Guizhou and southwest China. PMID:27395428

  7. Assessment of Regional Human Health Risks from Lead Contamination in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49 % health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxocara infection among children in Shandong and Jilin provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; You, Hai-Long; Zhou, Na; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the Toxocara serology in children in Shandong and Jilin provinces, China using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n=1458) was 19.3%, sick children (26.4%) had significantly higher seroprevalence than clinically healthy children (14.4%) (P<0.05), and the highest Toxocara seroprevalence was found in children suffering from chronic cough (40.6%), followed by recurrent abdominal pain (40.0%), recurrent headache (38.1%), slight fever (36.2%), and recurrent vomiting (31.6%). Place of residence, education level, type of school, keeping dogs at home, contact with dogs and cats and exposure with soil were found to be associated with Toxocara infection. Our findings show that children infection with Toxocara is common in Shandong and Jilin provinces, eastern and northeastern China, indicating an immediate need for implementing strategies and measures to prevent and control Toxocara infection in children in China. PMID:26384456

  9. MITOCHONDRIAL GENE SEQUENCES AMONG DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATES OF SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xue-Mei; Li, Cui-Ying; Li, Mei; Zeng, Jin; Zheng, Su-Yue; Li, Fei

    2016-05-01

    In order to evaluate differentiate genetic differences among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from Dali Ancient City, Xizhou and Yongsheng County, Yunnan Province, China, mitochondrial col, cytb, nd1, nd6, and nd4l were PCR amplified and sequenced, revealing nucleotide difference(s) among these strains of 8, 1, 5, 4, and 0, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. japonicum from the three different geographical locations of Yunnan Province were clustered genetically together and were more similar to S. malayensis and S. mekongi than S. haematobium or S. mansoni. For intra-species differentiation purposes, Schistosoma mitochondrial col, nd1, and nd6 are better genetic markers than cytb and nd41. PMID:27405120

  10. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time. PMID:27144770

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Cai, Y N; Leng, X; Wang, J; Ma, W; Mu, G D; Jiang, J; Liu, X Y; Wang, Z D; Zhao, Q; Yang, G L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, a total of 1,235 porcine serum samples were collected from 9 counties in Jilin Province (40°52'~46°18'N,121°38'~131°19'E), northeastern China from August to October 2013, and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The results showed that antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 21.3%), with higher seroprevalence in the breeding boars (28.6%, 95% CI, 20.0% to 37.2%), and breeding sows (32.0%, 95% CI, 25.2% to 38.9%). No significant difference was found among the slaughter pigs, fattening pigs and the piglets. These results indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widespread in Jilin province, and is of public health concern. PMID:25801260

  12. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time. PMID:27144770

  13. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  14. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  15. Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Changhua, L; Xiaorong, Z; Dongchuan, Q; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J; Defu, Z; Hulian, Z; Mingden, L; Hainan, R; Bing, Z; Haichou, X; Hawdon, J; Zheng, F

    1999-10-15

    Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15 years (currently children under this age are dewormed annually with anthelmintic drugs). Among 310 residents of Lugao Village (Hejiang County), 87, 63 and 60% were infected with hookworm, Ascaris or Trichuris, respectively. The prevalence of hookworm determined to rise linearly with age (r = 0.97). High intensity infections with hookworm still occur in this region as 22% of the residents have over 3000 eggs per gram (PEG) of feces as determined by quantitative egg counts. The majority of these individuals harbored mixed infection with Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, although the former predominated when adult hookworms were collected from 30 village residents treated with pyrantel pamoate. In contrast, among the 334 Xinjian villagers examined (Santai County) the majority harbored predominantly light hookworm infections--66.1% of the residents has less than 400 EPG by quantitative fecal examination and only 3.7% exhibited greater than 3000 EPG. Again, N. americanus was the predominant hookworm seen after worm expulsion. We have round that despite economic development which is occurring in some parts of China, significant hookworm infections and clinical hookworm anemia still exist in areas of Sichuan Province. In Hejiang County we found that the intensity of hookworm infection has actually risen within the last 10 years. Hookworm is a medical problem among the elderly in Sichuan. PMID:10546842

  16. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  17. Determinants of health care demand in poor, rural China: the case of Gansu Province.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dongfu; Pong, Raymond W; Yin, Aitian; Nagarajan, K V; Meng, Qingyue

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants that influence health care demand decisions in rural areas of Gansu province, China. This represents the first effort to identify and quantify the effect of price of care on choice of provider in China, and is the first quantitative examination of this topic focusing on poor rural areas in China. In the three-tier health care system in rural China, we further distinguish the public village clinics and private village clinics using a mixed multinomial logit model. The results show that price and distance play significant roles in choice of health care provider. The price elasticity of demand for outpatients is higher for low-income groups than for high-income groups. When outpatients have particular concerns about provider quality or reputation, or when their health status is poor, distance tends to matter less, i.e. they are willing to travel further in order to obtain better treatment for their illness. Insurance status has a significant impact on the choice of public village clinics relative to self-treatment. Furthermore, age and the attributes of illness are also statistically significant factors. We discuss the policy implications of the results for meeting the health care needs of the poor in rural China. PMID:19429698

  18. Spatio-temporal Transmission and Environmental Determinants of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Sun, Liqian; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica still remains of public health and economic significance in China, especially in the lake and marshland areas along the Yangtze River Basin, where the control of transmission has proven difficult. In the study, we investigated spatio-temporal variations of S. japonicum infection risk in Anhui Province and assessed the associations of the disease with key environmental factors with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the disease and seeking clues to effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methodology/Principal Findings Infection data of schistosomiasis from annual conventional surveys were obtained at the village level in Anhui Province, China, from 2000 to 2010 and used in combination with environmental data. The spatio-temporal kriging model was used to assess how these environmental factors affected the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Our results suggested that seasonal variation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), seasonal variation of land surface temperature at daytime (LSTD), and distance to the Yangtze River were negatively significantly associated with risk of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps showed that schistosomiasis prevalence remained at a low level and schistosomiasis risk mainly evolved along the Yangtze River. Schistosomiasis risk also followed a focal spatial pattern, fluctuating temporally with a peak (the largest spatial extent) in 2005 and then contracting gradually but with a scattered distribution until 2010. Conclusion The fitted spatio-temporal kriging model can capture variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time. Combined with techniques of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS), this approach facilitates and enriches risk modeling of schistosomiasis, which in turn helps to identify prior areas for effective and sustainable control of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province and perhaps elsewhere in China. PMID:25659112

  19. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  20. Modern Tectonic Deformation in the Active Basin-and-Range Province Northwest of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Suting; Wen, Xueze

    2013-04-01

    Our study region is the northwest of Beijing, northern north China. The most typical extensional active tectonic area of the China continent, called the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing, exist there. This active tectonic province is made up of several NE-trending Quaternary graben basins and horst ranges between basins. An about 1500-year-long written historical record has suggested that there have been no major earthquakes with magnitude 7 or greater occurred in most of the study region since AD 512. So, the characteristic of modern tectonic deformation of the study region and its implication for the future seismic potential of major earthquakes are important scientific issues. In this study, based on data of regional GPS station velocities and active tectonics, combining relocated earthquake distribution, we make a preliminary analysis on the characteristic of the modern tectonic deformation of the study region. We design three zones across deferent segments of the active basin-and-range province to analyze both the present tectonic deformation from the GPS velocity profiles and the major fault's downward-extents from the relocated hypocenters. Our analyses reveal that: (1) Significant NNW-ward and SSE-ward horizontal extension exists on different segments of the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing at rates of 2 to 3mm /yr, accompanied with right-lateral shear deformation at 1 to 2mm/yr. (2) On the western and middle segments of the active basin and range province, most of the total horizontal extension and shear deformation happen in the width from the Huangqihai basin to the Datong-Yanggao basin , suggesting that some major faults in this width could have had relatively-high strain build-up. (3) It is possible that one or more basement detachment belts exist under the active basins, and it or they possibly dip(s) southeastern-ward. (4) The modern tectonic extensional rate is up to 2 to 3mm /yr in the study region. However

  1. A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Si-Li; SUN, Zhi-Yu; GUO, Yan-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Triplophysa yajiangensis sp. nov. is described from the upper and middle reaches of the Yalong River, Yangtze Basin, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the following characters: body surface smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed and tapered slightly; lower jaw shovel-shaped; head shorter than caudal peduncle; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin reaches or exceeds anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine spiral type with 3-5 winding coils. PMID:26452694

  2. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  3. A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Si-Li; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Guo, Yan-Shu

    2015-09-18

    Triplophysa yajiangensis sp. nov. is described from the upper and middle reaches of the Yalong River, Yangtze Basin, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the following characters: body surface smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed and tapered slightly; lower jaw shovel-shaped; head shorter than caudal peduncle; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin reaches or exceeds anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine spiral type with 3-5 winding coils. PMID:26452694

  4. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  5. The predominant cluster of CRF01_AE circulating among newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive people in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianjun; Shen, Yuelan; Zhong, Ping; Feng, Yi; Xing, Hui; Jin, Lin; Qin, Yizu; Liu, Aiwen; Miao, Lifeng; Cui, Lili; Su, Bin; Guo, Hongxiong

    2015-09-01

    CRF01_AE, which has led a new epidemic in many provinces in China and has displayed complex characteristics, has now evolved into multiple clusters in China. Some clusters often circulate in specific regions or among specific risk populations in China. To better determine the characteristics of CRF01_AE circulating in Anhui Province, we analyzed CRF01_AE based on gag and pol sequences. Our results showed that CRF01_AE circulating in Anhui Province was clearly divided into three clusters. Cluster 1 covered 90% of the sequences in all CRF01_AE. Among Cluster 1, the sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals were interwoven. It is suggested that MSM may play a bridge role in transmitting HIV-1 among the different risk groups. PMID:26123125

  6. A qualitative study on commercial sex behaviors among male clients in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A.; Liu, Peng; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Wang, Cunlin; Luan, Rongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Males who seek commercial sex have been identified as an important “bridging population” in the transmission of HIV. There is little information on the HIV-related risk perceptions and behaviors among commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) in China. This study reports qualitative findings from six focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with CSMCs in Sichuan Province, China. Commercial sex visits were described as a group activity and associated with patterns of social-network specific interactions and norms. Primary motivations for visiting female sex workers included peer pressure, stress reduction, and fulfilling a need for an intimate and emotional support. Male clients’ decisions about condom use were influenced by their perceived norms of condom use, susceptibility of HIV infection, and the condom policy and availability in the establishments. Implications of these findings for further research and interventions are discussed. PMID:20390503

  7. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China. PMID:26243325

  8. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from apparently healthy animals of the Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Chai, T; Wang, L; Wang, H; Duan, H; Müller, W; Zucker, B A

    2007-10-01

    In a pilot study the presence and frequency of Clostridium (C.) perfringens was investigated among apparently healthy farm animals in the Shandong province of China. 748 faecal samples were collected from 9 pig-, 4 sheep-, 7 cattle- and 5 rabbit farms. C. perfringens was isolated from 124 samples (16.6%). The isolates were classified into major toxin types by using PCR analysis detecting the genes encoding these toxins. All isolates were identified as C perfringens toxin type A. There are also some reports from different regions in China linking C. perfringens toxin type A strains to gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore further investigations about the epidemiologic role of C perfringens toxin type A strains in the Shandong region are necessary. Currently, cases of enterotoxemia from this region are investigated for the presence of C perfringens. PMID:17970339

  9. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used. PMID:27447226

  10. Update on the distribution and phylogenetics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) populations in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Stephen W; Huo, Guan-Nan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In 1973 planorbid snails then identified as Biomphalaria straminea were discovered in Hong Kong, China. It was assumed that these snails had been introduced to Hong Kong via the import of tropical fish by air from South America. In 2012 Biomphalaria were found for the first time in Guangdong Province, China. In view of the renewed interest in these invasive snails, a morphological and DNA-sequence based phylogenetic study was undertaken for seven populations of Biomphalaria snails collected in Guangdong. Morphologically and phylogenetically, five of the populations clustered more closely with Biomphalaria kuhniana than with B. straminea. Levels of genetic diversity among the populations were about half those of autochthonous populations in Brazil, the phylogenetic relationships did not correlate with a radiation from any one international port in China, and different lineages appeared associated with different ports. Consequently in explaining the current distribution of the snails, multiple colonization events, each establishing a new local snail population near to maritime international container ports, were considered more likely than the spread of snails from Hong Kong to China. The displacement of B. straminea by B. kuhniana in Guangdong is considered as an explanation for the habitat changes observed among the snails between Hong Kong in the 1980s and the present. The conclusions of the study are that any risk of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in China is more likely to come from parasite importation in the intramolluscan stage, than from transmission by migrant workers from South America or Africa. In addition, although likely to be rare, sporadic outbreaks of imported schistosomiasis (caused by invading infected snails) could be a threat to public health in the vicinity of International container ports (not only in Guangdong Province). Further work is called for to investigate further the presence of B. kuhniana and its potential interactions with B

  11. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  12. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  13. Application of intake fraction to population exposure estimates in Hunan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Hao, Jiming

    2003-06-01

    This article developed a new method, based on the concept of "intake fraction", to assess population exposure to primary and secondary fine particle matters from site-specific sources. This method was illustrated by a set of 17 power plants (totally 24 stacks) in Hunan Province of China. The CALPUFF long-range atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate ambient concentrations of fine particles, and the GIS technology was used to generate a population distribution database from county-level population statistical data. An integrated computer program package was developed to carry out numerical integration of dispersion results over the population data, and produce intake fractions. The resulting average intake fractions within 500 km were 9.73 x 10(-6), 2.39 x 10(-6), and 2.47 x 10(-6) for primary fine particles, sulfate and nitrate respectively. Regression analyses were performed to explore the relationships between intake fractions and potential variables. Results showed that the stack height and aggregate populations could be used to predict intake fractions of fine particles. R2 of the regression equations were 0.83, 0.64, and 0.74 for primary fine particles, sulfate and nitrate respectively. Iso-intake fractions presenting geographical distributions of intake fractions in Hunan Province were mapped, showing a factor of about 2 between the highest values in the northeast and the lowest in the southwest of Hunan Province. PMID:12774907

  14. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM) in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI), hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention. PMID:27240391

  15. Major substructure in the M31 outer halo: the South-West Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, N. F.; Conn, A. R.; McMonigal, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Martin, N. F.; McConnachie, A. W.; Veljanoski, J.; Mackey, A. D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Ibata, R. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Fardal, M.; Huxor, A. P.; Babul, A.

    2014-02-01

    We undertake the first detailed analysis of the stellar population and spatial properties of a diffuse substructure in the outer halo of M31. The South-West Cloud lies at a projected distance of ˜100 kpc from the centre of M31 and extends for at least ˜50 kpc in projection. We use Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey photometry of red giant branch stars to determine a distance to the South-West Cloud of 793^{+45}_{-45} kpc. The metallicity of the cloud is found to be [Fe/H] = -1.3 ± 0.1. This is consistent with the coincident globular clusters PAndAS-7 and PAndAS-8, which have metallicities determined using an independent technique of [Fe/H] = -1.35 ± 0.15. We measure a brightness for the Cloud of MV = -12.1 mag; this is ˜75 per cent of the luminosity implied by the luminosity-metallicity relation. Under the assumption that the South-West Cloud is the visible remnant of an accreted dwarf satellite, this suggests that the progenitor object was amongst M31's brightest dwarf galaxies prior to disruption.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  17. High rate of drug resistance among tuberculous meningitis cases in Shaanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Feng, Guo-Dong; Pang, Yu; Liu, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Li, Qiao; Gao, Yu; Chen, Ping; Zhan, Li-Ping; Marais, Ben J; Zhao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and mycobacterial features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases in China are not well described; especially in western provinces with poor tuberculosis control. We prospectively enrolled patients in whom TBM was considered in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, over a 2-year period (September 2010 to December 2012). Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), as well as genotyping of all positive cultures. Among 350 patients included in the study, 27 (7.7%) had culture-confirmed TBM; 84 (24.0%) had probable and 239 (68.3%) had possible TBM. DST was performed on 25/27 (92.3%) culture positive specimens; 12/25 (48.0%) had "any resistance" detected and 3 (12.0%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Demographic and clinical features of drug resistant and drug susceptible TBM cases were similar. Beijing was the most common genotype (20/25; 80.0%) with 9/20 (45%) of the Beijing strains exhibiting drug resistance; including all 3 MDR strains. All (4/4) isoniazid resistant strains had mutations in the katG gene; 75% (3/4) of strains with phenotypic rifampicin resistance had mutations in the rpoB gene detected by Xpert MTB/RIF®. High rates of drug resistance were found among culture-confirmed TBM cases; most were Beijing strains. PMID:27143630

  18. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Longxian; Qi, Nanshan; Liao, Shenquan; Lv, Minna; Wu, Caiyan; Sun, Mingfei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China, 244 fecal samples were collected from four pigeon breeding farms between June 2012 and March 2013. Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and characterized by DNA sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Cryptosporidium species were determined by comparison of sequences with corresponding Cryptosporidium sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining (NJ) in MEGA5.2. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province was 0.82% (2/244). Two Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis, were identified in Huizhou and Chaozhou farm, respectively. These findings confirmed the existence of C. meleagridis infection in domestic pigeons in China for the first time and provided base-line information for further studies to evaluate the public health risk from pigeon to human. PMID:25773186

  19. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  20. Prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cong, Wei; Liu, Guo-Hua; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most important zoonotic pathogen that can infect almost all animals, including humans. However, little information is available regarding prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in sika deer. In the present study, the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China was examined using PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. 23 (7.06%) of 326 samples were tested E. bieneusi-positive, and the risk factor significantly associated with E. bieneusi prevalence was the age of sika deer. Sequence analysis of the ITS rRNA gene suggested that 8 genotypes of E. bieneusi were found in this study, with five known genotypes, namely J (n = 11), BEB6 (n = 4), EbpC (n = 1), CHN-DC1 (n = 1), KIN-1 (n = 1) and three novel genotypes, namely JLD-1 (n = 2), JLD-2 (n = 2) and JLD-3 (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that genotypes CHN-DC-1, KIN-1, EbpC, JLD-2 and JLD-3 fell into group 1, while other three genotypes (genotypes J, BEB6 and JLD-1) were clustered into group 2 (so-called bovine-specific groups). These findings indicated the presence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in Jilin province, Northeastern China. Effective strategies should be performed to control E. bieneusi infection in sika deer, other animals and humans. PMID:27078663

  1. High rate of drug resistance among tuberculous meningitis cases in Shaanxi province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Feng, Guo-Dong; Pang, Yu; Liu, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Li, Qiao; Gao, Yu; Chen, Ping; Zhan, Li-Ping; Marais, Ben J; Zhao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and mycobacterial features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases in China are not well described; especially in western provinces with poor tuberculosis control. We prospectively enrolled patients in whom TBM was considered in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, over a 2-year period (September 2010 to December 2012). Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), as well as genotyping of all positive cultures. Among 350 patients included in the study, 27 (7.7%) had culture-confirmed TBM; 84 (24.0%) had probable and 239 (68.3%) had possible TBM. DST was performed on 25/27 (92.3%) culture positive specimens; 12/25 (48.0%) had “any resistance” detected and 3 (12.0%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Demographic and clinical features of drug resistant and drug susceptible TBM cases were similar. Beijing was the most common genotype (20/25; 80.0%) with 9/20 (45%) of the Beijing strains exhibiting drug resistance; including all 3 MDR strains. All (4/4) isoniazid resistant strains had mutations in the katG gene; 75% (3/4) of strains with phenotypic rifampicin resistance had mutations in the rpoB gene detected by Xpert MTB/RIF®. High rates of drug resistance were found among culture-confirmed TBM cases; most were Beijing strains. PMID:27143630

  2. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingling; Zhang, Enmin; Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax. PMID:27299730

  3. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies. PMID:26103990

  4. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax. PMID:27299730

  5. Clusters of spatial, temporal, and space-time distribution of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantavirus, with characteristics of fever, hemorrhage, kidney damage, and hypotension. HFRS is recognized as a notifiable public health problem in China, and Liaoning Province is one of the most seriously affected areas with the most cases in China. It is necessary to investigate the spatial, temporal, and space-time distribution of confirmed cases of HFRS in Liaoning Province, China for future research into risk factors. Methods A cartogram map was constructed; spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial, temporal, and space-time cluster analysis were conducted in Liaoning Province, China over the period 1988-2001. Results When the number of permutation test was set to 999, Moran's I was 0.3854, and was significant at significance level of 0.001. Spatial cluster analysis identified one most likely cluster and four secondary likely clusters. Temporal cluster analysis identified 1998-2001 as the most likely cluster. Space-time cluster analysis identified one most likely cluster and two secondary likely clusters. Conclusions Spatial, temporal, and space-time scan statistics may be useful in supervising the occurrence of HFRS in Liaoning Province, China. The result of this study can not only assist health departments to develop a better prevention strategy but also potentially increase the public health intervention's effectiveness. PMID:21867563

  6. Is Pertussis Infection Neglected in China? Evidence from a Seroepidemiology Survey in Zhejiang, an Eastern Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Deng, Xuan; Pan, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    Background The resurgence of pertussis has occurred in many countries. However, the epidemiological profiles of pertussis cannot be well understood by the current surveillance system in China. This study was designed to investigate the age specific serologic evidence of antibodies against pertussis, and to offer information regarding the existence of pertussis infection in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional serosurvey was carried out in 6 counties of Zhejiang Province during September and October of 2014. The immunoglobulin G-pertussis toxin (IgG-PT) levels were measured quantitatively with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody activities were expressed in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-U/ml and a level ≥30 FDA-U/ml was considered seropositive. An IgG-PT >80 FDA-U/ml indicated recent pertussis infection if the patient had not received immunization with the pertussis vaccine within the last year. Results The mean IgG-PT seropositivity rate among the 2107 subjects was 33.32% with a geometric mean concentration of 17.73 (95% confidence interval: 16.90–18.60) FDA-U/ml. The difference in the seropositivity rates reached significant means among the different age groups (waldχ2 = 198.41, P<0.0005), and children aged 3 years had the highest percentage (63.24%) of undetectable IgG-PT level. Of the 1707 subjects ≥3 years of age, 169 (9.90%) had evidence of a recent infection. The highest proportion of IgG-PT levels ≥80 FDA-U/ml was found in ≥60 years age group followed by 11–15 and 16–25 years age groups. Conclusions This study indicates the rather lower IgG-PT level sustained 1 year after the acellular pertussis vaccine booster dose, and substantial proportion of population susceptibility to pertussis in Zhejiang Province, China. Moreover, pertussis infection is not uncommon; it was estimated that 10% of subjects were recently infected approximately within the last 100 days. We highly suggest

  7. Cryptosporidium suis infection in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy at × 400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  8. Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryptosporidium suis Infection in Post-Weaned and Adult Pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique and microscopy at×400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  10. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel

  11. Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports

  12. HIV Prevalence and Associated Factors among Foreign Brides from Burma in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yin; Fu, Li Ru; Jia, Manhong; Dai, Genyin; Wang, Qing; Huang, Peng; Zheng, Hui; Peng, Zhihang; Wang, Lu; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background Many Burmese women have migrated to Yunnan Province and married local residents over the past few decades; however, limited information is available on their HIV prevalence and ability to cope with HIV. This study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV and knowledge related to AIDS, as well as to discover possible risk factors of HIV infection among foreign brides from Burma in Yunnan Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was taken of all Burmese cross-border wives residing in Tengchong County using standardized questionnaires. HIV and syphilis testing was conducted at the same time. Results Among 600 Burmese brides, the HIV prevalence was 2.17%. Those aged 21–30, those with higher education levels and those who had resided in China less than one year had higher infection rates. The AIDS awareness rate of 39.50% was very low in this population. Only 28.67% of participants had ever been involved in prevention services. The rate of condom use was low. Classification by age, education, occupation, prior HIV testing and prior use of HIV prevention services showed a statistically significant association with mean knowledge score (p<0.05). Residing in China less than one year (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.09–13.70) and having casual sex in the last year (OR = 10.49, 95% CI = 1.20–91.59) were risk factors for HIV infection. Conclusions Burmese brides in China are not only exposed to a high risk of HIV infection, but also seriously lack response capabilities. Educational interventions and control efforts are practical approaches that need to be strengthened among this population. PMID:25536087

  13. ISSR, an effective molecular approach for studying genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from different provinces in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Hui; Li, Juan; Zou, Feng-Cai; Mo, Xi-Hao; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) markers were used to examine the genetic variability of Schistosoma japonicum isolates from different provinces in mainland China, using S. japonicum from Japan and S. mansoni from Puerto Rico for comparison. Of the 30 primers screened, 4 produced highly reproducible ISSR fragments. Using these primers, 107 discernible DNA fragments were generated with 105 (98.13%) being polymorphic, indicating considerable genetic variation among the examined S. japonicum isolates. The percentage of polymorphic bands among S. japonicum isolates from mainland China and Japan was 82.24%, 43.93% among mountainous type isolates and 64.49% among lake/marshland type isolates from mainland China. UPGMA analysis revealed that all of the S. japonicum samples were grouped into two clades, the first contained isolates from mainland China, and the other one contained samples from Japan. Within the cluster of S. japonicum isolates from mainland China, isolates from mountainous Sichuan and Yunnan provinces grouped together, whereas isolates from lake/marshland regions (Anhui, Jiangsu and Hubei provinces) clustered together. The results of present study demonstrated that the ISSR markers are useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure of S. japonicum isolates from mainland China. PMID:19539784

  14. A Spatial-Dynamic Agent-based Model of Energy Crop Introduction in Jiangsu province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, K.; Schneider, U. A.; Scheffran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bioenergy, as one promising option to replace a fraction of conventional fossil fuels and lower net greenhouse gas emissions, has gained many countries', in particular developing ones' attention. Their focus is mainly on the design of efficient bioenergy utilization pathways which adapt to both local geographic features and economic conditions. The establishment of a biomass production sector would be the first and pivotal component in the whole industrial chain. Several existing studies have estimated the global biomass for energy potential but arrived at very different results. One reason for the large uncertainty of biomass potential may be ascribed to the diverse nature of biomass leading to different estimates in different circumstances. Therefore, specific research at the local level is essential. Following this thought, our research conducted in the Jiangsu province, a representative region in China, will explore the spatial distribution of biomass production. The employed methodology can also be applied to other locations both in China and similar developing countries if model parameters are adequately adjusted. In this study, we analyze the local situation in the Jiangsu province focusing on the selection of new energy crops, since the cultivation of dedicated crop for energy use is still in experimental phase. We also examine the land use conflict which is especially relevant to China with more than 1.3 billion people and a severe burden on food supply. We develop an agent-based model to find the optimal spatial distribution of biomass (SDA-SDB) in Jiangsu province. Compromising data accessibility and heterogeneity of environmental factors across the province, we resolve our model at county level and consider the aggregated farming community in one county as a single agent. The aim of SDA-SDB is to simulate farmers' decision process of allocating land to either food or energy crops facing limited resources and political targets for bioenergy development

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Enterovirus Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guifang; Xu, Aiqiang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Song, Lizhi; Ji, Feng; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Song, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. Objectives To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. Study Design Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification) and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Results A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2%) and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E) 30 (27.4%), EV71 (13.1%), coxsackievirus (CV) B1 (9.5%), CVB3 (7.1%), CVB5 (7.1%), E6 (7.1%), E9 (7.1%), CVA9 (6.0%), and CVA10 (3.6%). Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. Conclusions Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses–the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease–is currently an important concern in mainland China. PMID:24587020

  16. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions. PMID:21713473

  17. Species diversity of ectoparasitic chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope

  18. Anemia and feeding practices among infants in rural Shaanxi Province in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6-11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6-11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01), and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01). The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding. PMID:25533008

  19. Landsat analysis of the Yangjiatan tungsten district, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, W.D.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Yangjiatan tungsten district at latitude 27??28??? N. and longitude 111??54???E. is located about 140 km southwest of the city of Changsha and 35 km northeast of the town of Shaoyang, southeast Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. The deposits, consisting largely of scheelite in veins (Wang, 1975), are contained in highly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age intruded by granitic plutons that are circular in plan view. The major faults and folds trend in a northeasterly direction; whereas, the plutons are clustered in a more easterly trending band across the Landsat image. Landsat image E-2338-02202, acquired December 26, 1975, is number 470 in the "Landsat Image Atlas of the People's Republic of China" printed by the Publishing House of Geology in 1979. A computer-compatible tape of the image was analyzed and used as a demonstration project under a United Nations technical assistance program. Supervised classification of soils, rocks, and vegetation; band ratioing to detect limonite alteration; and edge enhancement were all conducted to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of interactive computer systems. Field evaluation of the results of this work will be conducted by colleagues of the Remote Sensing Center for Geology, Ministry of Geology, in China. ?? 1983.

  20. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01), and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01). The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding. PMID:25533008

  1. Olfactory and visual responses of the long-legged chafer hoplia spectabilis medvedev (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Qinghai province, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-legged chafer, Hoplia spectabilis Medvedev (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has recently been recorded in outbreak numbers in pastureland of Qinghai province, China. It is causing significant damage to several species of woody shrubs, especially Hippophae neurocarpa Liu and Ho (Elaeagnaceae), D...

  2. Incidence of sweet cherry viruses in Shandong Province, China and a case study on multiple infection with five viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the occurrence of viruses in sweet cherry in China, leaf samples displaying leaf necrotic lesions or chlorotic spots were collected from trees in six orchards in the Shandong province. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that Prunus necrotic rin...

  3. Identification of Phytophthora species baited and isolated from forest soil and streams in northwestern Yunnan province, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora species were surveyed by collecting soil samples and placing bait leaves in selected streams during June - October in the years 2005, 2006 and 2010 at three sites in oak forests in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of NW Yunnan province, China. Seventy-three isolates of Phytophthora ...

  4. An Examination of the Preparation and Practice of Grades 7-12 Mathematics Teachers from the Shandong Province in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Su; Glaz, Sarah; DeFranco, Thomas; Vinsonhaler, Charles; Grenier, Robin; Cardetti, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study that examined the preparation and teaching practice of ten teachers of grades 7-12 from the Shandong province in China. This study revealed that a multi-dimensional training system has been developed to help the teachers gradually build up their knowledge base for teaching. The findings of this study…

  5. The Difficulties and Challenges of Adopting the Communicative Approach in TEFL at Secondary Schools in Qinghai Province, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, May Xiu-qin

    This study identifies and describes the difficulties faced by secondary school Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in Qinghai Province (China) in adopting the communicative approach to language instruction. It examines the perceptions of both teachers and teacher trainers. Data were drawn from semi-structured interviews with one…

  6. Remote Sensing of Agro-droughts in Guangdong Province of China Using MODIS Satellite Data

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Maofang; Qin, Zhihao; Zhang, Hong'ou; Lu, Liping; Zhou, Xia; Yang, Xiuchun

    2008-01-01

    A practical approach was developed in the study for drought monitoring in Guangdong province of China on the basis of vegetation supply water index (VSWI) and precipitation distance index (PDI). A comprehensive index for assessment of agro-drought severity (SADI) was then established from the normalized VSWI and PDI. Using MODIS satellite images and precipitation data from ground-observed meteorological stations, we applied the approach to Guangdong for drought monitoring in 2006. The monitoring results showed that the drought severity on average was very low in the province during the main growing season from May to September in 2006. However, seasonal variation of the severity was also obvious in difference counties of the province. Higher severity of drought could be seen in the periods of late-June (In China each month is traditionally divided into 3 periods. Each is with 10 days and has different names. This division system is mainly with consideration of farming seasons hence has been widely used as the basis of drought monitoring periods in China. In order to keep this tradition, we define, for example, for June, the early-June as the period from 1st to 10th of June, the mid-June as the period from 11th to 20th, and the late-June as the period from 21st to 30th. So mid-August denotes the period from 11th to 20th of August, and early-July the period from 1st to 10th of July, and so on.), early-July, mid-August and late-September. Regionally, Leizhou Peninsula in the west had the most serious drought before mid-May. Validation indicated that our monitoring results were generally consistent with the drought statistics data and the results from Chinese National Satellite Meteorological Center (CNSMC), which used only remote sensing data. This consistence confirmed the applicability of our approach for drought monitoring. Our better identification of drought severity in Leizhou Peninsula of western Guangdong than that of CNSMC might suggest that the approach

  7. Linear Mixed-Effects Models to Describe Individual Tree Crown Width for China-Fir in Fujian Province, Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xu; Yujun, Sun; Xinjie, Wang; Jin, Wang; Yao, Fu

    2015-01-01

    A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME) models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike’s information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)], and the compound symmetry structure (CS). Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2). For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models. PMID:25876178

  8. An acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by GII.17 norovirus in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chao; Feng, Wei-Hong; Shi, Ping; Ai, Jing; Guan, Hong-Xia; Sha, Dan; Geng, Qian; Mei, Jun; Chen, Shan-Hui; Xiao, Yong; Qian, Yan-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Noroviruses are a common cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world; however, reports of outbreaks caused by GII.17 norovirus are rare. An outbreak caused by GII.17 norovirus in a senior high school in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China is reported here. An epidemiological investigation, pathogen detection, and case-control study were performed. Epidemiological data combined with the epidemic curve indicated that this outbreak was a point source type initially, followed by secondary transmission. The first case was identified as most likely the source of the outbreak. Risk analysis showed exposure to patients and sharing a communal water cooler to be associated with the spread of infection. Sequence analysis of GII-positive samples confirmed that the norovirus GII.17 variant was the etiological agent of this outbreak. PMID:27224012

  9. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  10. Natural and artificial radionuclide measurements and radioactivity assessment of soil samples in eastern Sichuan province (China).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhonghai; He, Jun; Du, Yu; He, Yang; Li, Zhiqian; Chen, Zhihua; Yang, Chaowen

    2012-07-01

    The activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were measured in the eastern region of Sichuan province (China). One hundred and ninety-three soil samples from this region were collected and analysed by high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry. The measured results show that the average radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the soil samples are 26, 49, 440 and 6 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated average radium equivalent activity is 130 Bq kg(-1), which is less than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). The absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose are 60 nGy h(-1) and 74 µSv, respectively. This is the first time the absorbed dose rate in the east region of Sichuan has been mapped. Overall, the environmental radiation background is greater in the southern part of the area studied than in the northern. PMID:22128351

  11. Crustal Structure of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, from Seismic Refraction Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kan, R J; Hu, H X; Zeng, R S; Mooney, W D; McEvilly, T V

    1986-10-24

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy. PMID:17792016

  12. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Region of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Peidong; Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2015-07-01

    Magnesite is the world's most important source material for magnesia refractory production, and Haicheng City in Liaoning Province, China has been called "the magnesium capital of the world." However, magnesite mining in these areas has caused serious environmental problems. Field investigations have shown that the soil profile of many sites in the mining region are contaminated by magnesium, and the magnesium-enriched crusts that have formed on the soil surface have affected ecologically important soil functions, particularly reduced water penetration rate. Laboratory experiment revealed that anionic polyacrylamide and calcium dihydrogen phosphate can be used to improve soil condition, and have positive effects on soil function. The findings of this study are of significance in the magnetite mining areas, providing clear options for the remediation of soils that should be carried out immediately. PMID:25836265

  13. Climate and natural production of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis) in Xishuangbanna, southern part of Yunnan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ailiang

    1988-12-01

    According to the author's and his collaborators' investigations, the climate influences the growth of rubber trees ( Hevea brasiliensis) in Xishuangbanna, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China, in at least four aspects: (1) The yield of latex per tapping and the final yield of dry rubber per tree per year or per unit area per year; (2) the growth rate, as expressed by increment of girth in cm; (3) the survival during the over-wintering period; (4) the initiation or suppression of certain diseases; In this paper the author would like to describe the influence of climatic elements on yield of latex and on survival during the over-wintering period. As for the other two aspects, only general comments are given.

  14. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  15. A new species of Chleuastochoerus (Artiodactyla: Suidae) from the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sukuan; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China, is known for its abundant and well-preserved fossils. Here a new species, Chleuastochoerus linxiaensis sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the upper Miocene deposits of the Linxia Basin, distinguishable from C. stehlini by the relatively long facial region, more anteromedial-posterolaterally compressed upper canine and more complicated cheek teeth. A cladistics analysis placed Chleuastochoerus in the subfamily Hyotheriinae, being one of the basal taxa of this subfamily. Chleuastochoerus linxiaensis and C. stehlini are considered to have diverged before MN 10. C. tuvensis from Russia represents a separate lineage of Chleuastochoerus, which may have a closer relationship to C. stehlini but bears more progressive P4/p4 and M3. PMID:25544095

  16. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Crustal structure of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, from seismic refraction profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kan, R.-J.; Hu, H.-X.; Zeng, R.-S.; Mooney, W.D.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics, on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile, but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy.

  18. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China.

    PubMed

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  19. Distribution characteristics of the soils in Henan province of central China based on pedodiversity methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J. L.; Zhang, X. L.

    2014-03-01

    A newly developed pedodiversity methodology was used in analyzing the distribution character of the soils in Henan province of central China. The rare soil types and representative soil types were defined after three soil parameters (soil patch numbers, total area and spatial distribution diversity in 2km×2km grid scale) were calculated respectively. Results show that there are positive correlations between soil patch numbers, total area and spatial distribution diversity, the regression equations between spatial distribution diversity and total area is y=0.086ln(x)-0.021, R2=0.992 and y=0.106ln(x)+0.161, R2=0.921 between spatial distribution diversity and patch numbers. The value constituent pattern of soil spatial distribution diversity fits the normal distribution. More attention needs to be paid to protect the endangered rare soil types. The soil type quantity per km2 is always different under different local conditions.

  20. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-01-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors. PMID:19353749

  1. The Mesoproterozoic `seismite' at Laiyuan (Hebei Province, E China) re-interpreted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loon, A. J. (Tom) Van

    2014-07-01

    A 1-million m3 breccia near Laiyuan (Hebei Province, E China) occurs as a block-like lithological unit between dolo-stones of the 1.55-1.45 Ga (Early Mesoproterozoic) Wumishan Formation. It has previously been interpreted as a seismite, but it appears not to fulfil any of the commonly accepted criteria that jointly are considered diagnostic for seis-mites. Its presence in a graben-like structure with almost vertical bounding fault planes rather indicates an origin as a (submarine) valley fill. As the valley originated by tectonic activity in the form of faulting, the breccia can be considered as a secondary effect of seismic activity, but it does not represent a seismite.

  2. The Association of Maternal Lifestyle with Birth Defects in Shaanxi Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Leilei; Kang, Yijun; Cheng, Yue; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The main objective was to investigate the burden of birth defects among alive infants and explore the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on the burden of birth defects in Northwest China. Methods A stratified multi-stage sampling method was used to study infants born during 2010–2013 (and their mothers) in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire, and medical records from the local hospitals were used to determine the final diagnosis of birth defects. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the association between maternal lifestyles during pregnancy and the burden of birth defects, while adjusting for potential confounders. Results We sampled 29098 infants, of whom 629 (i.e. 216.17 per 10000) were observed to have congenital defects. Cardiovascular system defects (77.32 per 10000) were found to be the most common. Mothers who had ever consumed alcohol during pregnancy were found to have infants with a higher prevalence of some categories of birth defects, including nervous system (Prevalence Rate Ratio, PRR:14.67, 95%CI:1.94, 110.92), cardiovascular system (PRR:3.22, 95%CI: 1.02, 10.16) and oral clefts (PRR:9.02, 95%CI: 2.08, 39.10) in contrast to infants of mothers without any alcohol consumption. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy lead to the increased burden of malformations of eye, ear, face and neck (PRR:1.95, 95%CI:1.15, 3.33), cardiovascular system (PRR:1.70, 95%CI: 1.25, 2.31) and respiratory system (PRR:9.94, 95%CI: 2.37, 41.76) in their newborns. Further, tea or coffee consumption during pregnancy was positively correlated with the burden of specific birth defects, such as cardiovascular system (PRR: 2.44, 95%CI: 1.33, 4.46) and genital organs (PRR:14.72, 95%CI: 1.87, 116.11) among infants. Conclusions The prevalence of birth defects was high in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. The unhealthy lifestyles of mothers during pregnancy may

  3. Prevalence and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolated from sheep in Henan Province, central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Kaifang; Li, Junqiang; Huang, Jianying; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a gastrointestinal protozoan that infects sheep. It is a well-known zoonotic pathogen and sheep have been implicated as a source of human infection. However, there have been few studies of its potential threat to public health in China. We used a multilocus analysis of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes to examine the occurrence and genotype distribution of G. duodenalis in sheep in China. In total, 716 fresh faecal specimens, including 89 from pre-weaned lambs (<3 months old) and 627 from post-weaned sheep (>3 months old) from nine intensive sheep farms in Henan Province, China, were examined for Giardia cysts with microscopy. Of these specimens, 6.65% (47/716; 99% CI: 6.2%-6.92%) from five farms were positive for G. duodenalis. The infection rate was significantly higher in pre-weaned lambs than in post-weaned sheep (12.36% versus 5.74%, respectively; P<0.05). Infection rates ranged from 2.8% to 17.2% on the G. duodenalis-positive farms. All G. duodenalis-positive samples were assayed with PCR followed by sequencing at the three gene loci investigated in this study. As a result, two assemblages were detected: assemblage A (n=5) and assemblage E (n=31), with some mixed E and A infections (n=3). The ratios of assemblage A to assemblage E on the different successfully sequenced G. duodenalis-positive farms were 0:1, 3:14, 1:4, and 1:12. Two new tpi sequences and one new gdh sequence were identified. Multilocus genotyping yielded seven multilocus genotypes (MLGs): one new assemblage A MLG and six assemblage E MLGs. In the phylogenetic analysis, the assemblage A MLG was more closely related to AI than to AII or AIII. The detection of G. duodenalis assemblage A in sheep has public health implications, although G. duodenalis assemblage E was predominant. The data provide basic information for control of giardiasis in human and sheep in Henan province, central China. PMID:26861620

  4. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Japanese encephalitis virus genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Hongming; Chai, Chunxia; He, Bo; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-06-01

    The genome of JEV strain SC201301, which was isolated from an aborted fetal piglet in 2013 in Sichuan province in China, was completely sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Sequence alignments showed that the SC201301 strain shared 97-100% sequence identity with other genotype III strains but showed less similarity to genotype I representative JEVs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SC201301 strain belonged to genotype III and was most closely related to representative strains such as SA14-14-2, HW and SH0601. Our findings suggest that JEV genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China, and thus, there is an urgent need to monitor the infection status of JEV among swine herds in China. PMID:26976139

  5. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012-2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of-pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  6. Forest recovery and river discharge at the regional scale of Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Wei, Xiaohua; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Mingfang; Li, Yuelin; Qiao, Yuna; Liu, Haigui; Wang, Chunlin

    2010-09-01

    Information on how large-scale forest changes affect water resources is important in China as country-wide reforestation programs are being implemented and concerns have arisen over possible water reduction. In this study, water budget analysis and statistical methods were used to assess the effects of significant forest recovery on river discharge at Guangdong Province based on 50 years of data. We used realized water yield (RWY) as a balance term between the outflows from and inflows to the province to represent the river discharge produced solely in Guangdong Province. The relationship between forest recovery and RWY was inferred after quantitatively examining other contributing variables including precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, development of impervious areas, human water consumption, and reservoir constructions. We applied time series analysis to test the statistical relationship between forest recovery and RWYs at annual, wet season, and dry season intervals. Both approaches showed that large-scale forest recovery did not cause significant water reduction over the past 50 years. This finding is contrary to the widely held perception of the trade-off relationship between carbon (reforestation) and water. There were no significant trends in precipitation or in RWY annually and in the wet season, but there was a significant increase of RWY in the dry season over the past 50 years. It is estimated that forest recovery may play a positive role in redistributing water from the wet season to the dry season and, consequently, in increasing water yield in the dry season. The implication of those research findings for future reforestation programs and water resource protection is also discussed.

  7. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001). During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001). Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases. Conclusions Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614

  8. The Expanding Burden of Elevated Blood Pressure in China: Evidence From Jiangxi Province, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Junxiu; Liu, Shiwei; Zhou, Haiming; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Liu, Jie; Li, Yichong; Tang, Ji; Zhou, Chunlian; Huang, Jiuling

    2015-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) as a risk factor accounts for the biggest burden of disease worldwide and in China. This study aimed to estimate attributed mortality and life expectancy (LE) to elevated BP in Jiangxi province between 2007 and 2010. BP and mortality data (2007 and 2010 inclusive) were obtained from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey and Disease Surveillance Points system, respectively. Population-attributable fraction used in comparative risk assessment of the Global Burden of Disease study 2010 were followed to quantify the attributed mortality to elevated BP, subsequently life table methods were applied to estimate its effects on LE. Uncertainty analysis was conducted to get 95% uncertainty intervals (95% uncertainty interval [UI]) for each outcome. There are 35,482 (95% UI: 31,389-39,928) and 47,842 (42,323-53,837) deaths in Jiangxi province were caused by elevated BP in 2007 and 2010, respectively. 2.24 (1.87-2.65) years of LE would be gained if all the attributed deaths were eliminated in 2007, and increased to 3.04 (2.52-3.48) in 2010. If the mean value of elevated BP in 2010 was decreased by 5 and 10 mm Hg, 5324 (4710-5991) and 11,422 (10,104-12,853) deaths would be avoided, with 0.41 (0.37-0.48) and 0.85 (0.71-1.09) years of LE gained, respectively. The deaths attributable to elevated BP in Jiangxi province has increased by 35% from 2007 to 2010, with 0.8 years of LE loss, suggesting the necessity to take actions to control BP in Chinese population. PMID:26426647

  9. The Expanding Burden of Elevated Blood Pressure in China: Evidence From Jiangxi Province, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Junxiu; Liu, Shiwei; Zhou, Haiming; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Liu, Jie; Li, Yichong; Tang, Ji; Zhou, Chunlian; Huang, Jiuling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Elevated blood pressure (BP) as a risk factor accounts for the biggest burden of disease worldwide and in China. This study aimed to estimate attributed mortality and life expectancy (LE) to elevated BP in Jiangxi province between 2007 and 2010. BP and mortality data (2007 and 2010 inclusive) were obtained from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey and Disease Surveillance Points system, respectively. Population-attributable fraction used in comparative risk assessment of the Global Burden of Disease study 2010 were followed to quantify the attributed mortality to elevated BP, subsequently life table methods were applied to estimate its effects on LE. Uncertainty analysis was conducted to get 95% uncertainty intervals (95% uncertainty interval [UI]) for each outcome. There are 35,482 (95% UI: 31,389–39,928) and 47,842 (42,323–53,837) deaths in Jiangxi province were caused by elevated BP in 2007 and 2010, respectively. 2.24 (1.87–2.65) years of LE would be gained if all the attributed deaths were eliminated in 2007, and increased to 3.04 (2.52–3.48) in 2010. If the mean value of elevated BP in 2010 was decreased by 5 and 10 mm Hg, 5324 (4710–5991) and 11,422 (10,104–12,853) deaths would be avoided, with 0.41 (0.37–0.48) and 0.85 (0.71–1.09) years of LE gained, respectively. The deaths attributable to elevated BP in Jiangxi province has increased by 35% from 2007 to 2010, with 0.8 years of LE loss, suggesting the necessity to take actions to control BP in Chinese population. PMID:26426647

  10. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-feng; Liu, Kang; Wang, Xiao-rong; Huang, Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    To understand pollution level and possible sources of atmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high, reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province. PMID:16465890

  11. Mycotoxins in wheat flour and intake assessment in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zhou, Jingyang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Fengjia

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the occurrence and contamination levels of eight mycotoxins were investigated in wheat flour samples (n = 359) from Shandong Province of China. Samples were determined using a multi-mycotoxin method based on isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the most frequently found mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol (DON) (97.2%), nivalenol (40.4%) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (33.4%), and mean contamination levels in positive samples were 86.7, 3.55 and 3.34 µg kg(-1), respectively. The obtained data were further used to estimate the daily intake of the local population, and indicated that wheat flour consumption contributes little to DON exposure. However, with the aim to keep the contamination levels under control and to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Shandong Province, more sample data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in the future. PMID:26892316

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Porcine Cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in Sichuan Province, China: 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yuancheng

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits the immune function of the macrophage and T-cell lymphatic systems, and has caused huge economic losses to the porcine breeding industry. Molecular epidemiological investigation of PCMV is important for prevention and treatment, and this study is the first such investigation in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. A PCMV positive infection rate of 84.4% (865/1025) confirmed that PCMV is widely distributed in Sichuan Province. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the PCMV glycoprotein B gene (gB) nucleotide and amino acid sequences from 24 novel Sichuan isolates and 18 other PCMV gB sequences from Genbank. PCMV does not appear to have evolved into different serotypes, and two distinct sequence groups were identified (A and B). However, whether PCMV from this region has evolved into different genotypes requires further research. Analysis of the amino acid sequences confirmed the conservation of gB, but amino acid substitutions in the major epitope region have caused antigenic drift, which may have altered the immunogenicity of PCMV. PMID:23762243

  13. What drives the aerosol distribution in Guangdong--the most developed province in Southern China?

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Wang, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Guangdong, the most developed province in China, during 2010-2012. Linear regression and self-organizing maps (SOM) are used to investigate the relationship between AOT and its affecting factors, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, urbanized land fraction, and several socio-economic variables. Results show that the highest values of τ 0.55 mainly occur over the rapidly-developing Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the eastern coast. Seasonal averaged AOT is highest in summer (0.416), followed by spring (0.351), winter (0.292), and autumn (0.254). From unary linear regression and SOM analysis, AOT is shown to be strongly negatively correlated to NDVI (R(2) = 0.782) and elevation (R(2) = 0.731), and positively correlated with socio-economic factors, especially GDP, industry and vehicle density (R(2) above 0.73), but not primary industry. Multiple linear regression between AOT and the contributing factors shows much higher R(2) values (>0.8), indicative of the clear relationships between AOT and variables. This study illustrates that human activities have strong impacts on aerosols distribution in Guangdong Province. Economic and industrial developments, as well as vehicle density, are the main controlling factors on aerosol distribution. PMID:25096216

  14. What drives the aerosol distribution in Guangdong - the most developed province in Southern China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lili; Wang, Yunpeng

    2014-08-01

    This paper uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Guangdong, the most developed province in China, during 2010-2012. Linear regression and self-organizing maps (SOM) are used to investigate the relationship between AOT and its affecting factors, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, urbanized land fraction, and several socio-economic variables. Results show that the highest values of τ0.55 mainly occur over the rapidly-developing Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the eastern coast. Seasonal averaged AOT is highest in summer (0.416), followed by spring (0.351), winter (0.292), and autumn (0.254). From unary linear regression and SOM analysis, AOT is shown to be strongly negatively correlated to NDVI (R2 = 0.782) and elevation (R2 = 0.731), and positively correlated with socio-economic factors, especially GDP, industry and vehicle density (R2 above 0.73), but not primary industry. Multiple linear regression between AOT and the contributing factors shows much higher R2 values (>0.8), indicative of the clear relationships between AOT and variables. This study illustrates that human activities have strong impacts on aerosols distribution in Guangdong Province. Economic and industrial developments, as well as vehicle density, are the main controlling factors on aerosol distribution.

  15. Simulation of emissions from wildfires in Heilongjiang province, Northern China using dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venevsky, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The new global fire model SEVER-FIRE is a mechanistic model which calculates number of human-induced and lightning fires as well as area burnt and carbon and particle emissions for both cases. The model operates at a daily time step and uses climate data (daily minimum/maximum temperature, daily precipitation/convective precipitation and daily short-wave radiation) as an input. The model works in interactive mode with a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), which provides fuel content and moisture and receives back amount of biomass burnt. SEVER-FIRE applies at a variable spatial resolution and for regional and global scale. This model was applied for simulation of Russian wildfires in 2010. We calculated burnt area for a case study of Heilongjiang province, Northern China and compared it with GFED satellite data products and field statistics of forest authorities in the province for 1980-2010. It was found that carbon dioxide emissions from this fire prone area are slightly decreased in three decades.

  16. Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery Based on Spatial Correlation Analysis in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Methods Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. Results The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other. PMID:25036182

  17. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Free-Range Chickens in Henan Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjie; Lu, Yaoyao; Wang, Yinghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Longxian; Yang, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chickens serve as an intermediate host for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum; infection of free-range (FR) chickens with these organisms is a useful indicator of soil and environmental contamination with oocysts. A total of 700 FR chicken serum samples and 300 heart samples were collected from Henan province from March to July 2015. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 18.86% (132/700) of the chickens by modified agglutination test (cut-off 1 : 25), while 23.14% (162/700) were positive for N. caninum by indirect fluorescent antibody test (cut-off 1 : 25). T. gondii DNA was detected in the myocardium digestion liquids of 4/25 (16%) FR chickens. The PCR results of N. caninum DNA from FR chicken myocardium digestion liquids (n = 25) were all negative. Attempts to isolate viable T. gondii were unsuccessful. The results showed that there were antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in FR chickens from Henan province. Accordingly, effective control of feces from cats and dogs and improved pets hygiene habits were needed. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of N. caninum antibody in chickens from China. PMID:27274992

  18. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation trends during 1961-2010 in Hubei province, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ranghui; Li, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is an important climatic parameter, and its variability severely affects regional hydrological processes and water resource management. In order to explore the changing spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation-related indices, including precipitation amounts indices, extreme precipitation indices, and precipitation concentration indices, in Hubei province, central China during 1961-2010, several precipitation-related indices series were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test, and inverse distance weighted interpolation method in this paper. The results are as follows: (1) A clear south-north gradient is apparent in the spatial distribution of the majority of precipitation-related indices, while the distribution of other indices (i.e., CDD, PCD, and PCP) is just the opposite. Most part of Hubei province can experience mixed positive and negative trends in precipitation-related indices. (2) The majority of precipitation-related indices exhibit an increasing trend, but most of which are not significant. July has the largest positive trend, with a regional average of 14.76 mm/decade. As for extreme precipitation indices, there exist large variations in Hubei, especially in R95pTOT. Besides, no obvious trends are shown in precipitation concentration indices. (3) With the exception of consecutive dry days (CDD), most of extreme precipitation indices are strongly correlated with annual mean precipitation (AMP) in Hubei. And the extreme precipitation indices are well correlated with each other except CDD and consecutive wet days (CWD). For six precipitation-related indices (i.e., SDII, RX1day, RX5day, R95pTOT R99pTOT, and PCD), there are significant positive relationships with Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High (NHSH) but significant negative relationships with Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex (NHPV). Furthermore, the majority of precipitation-related indices have significant negative correlations with East Asian summer monsoon

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses and donkeys in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. There have been limited reports about the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in equids around the world and little is known about the seroprevalence of T. gondii in equids in southwestern China, in particular in Yunnan Province. The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in equids in this area. Methods A total of 399 serum samples (266 from horses and 133 from donkeys) were collected in 2012, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) test using a commercially available kit. Results A total of 108 (27.1%) equids, including 81 (30.5%) horses and 27 (20.3%) donkeys were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 18.8% to 37.5% among different sampling areas. The seroprevalence was 27.4% and 26.8% for male and female equids, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence ranged from 21% to 32.9% among different age groups, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the existence of high T. gondii seroprevalence in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which has significant public health concern. Therefore, it is imperative that improved integrated measures be carried out to prevent and control T. gondii infection in equids in the studied region. PMID:23742078

  20. Crustal structure of Hubei Province of China from teleseismic receiver functions: Evidence for lower crust delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rong; Zhu, Lupei; Xu, Yixian

    2014-12-01

    Western Hubei Province is at the southern end of the 3000-km-long north-south-oriented Xing'anling-Taihangshan-Wulingshan topographic step in China, which separates high-rising plateaus and mountain ranges in the west from low-elevation plains in the east. We calculated teleseismic P receiver functions of 32 permanent broadband seismic stations in Hubei Province and estimated crustal thicknesses under them using the H-κ method. We also obtained detailed crustal structural images along three profiles using the CCP stacking method. The results show an east-west crustal thickness increase in the study area from 30-35 km to 45-50 km in less than 20 km of horizontal distance, most likely in a step-wise fashion. The thin crust beneath the Nanxiang and Jianghan basins in eastern Hubei extends into the interior of the Wuling Uplift and the Huangling Massif in western Hubei. The lack of mirror symmetry between the Moho and surface topography suggests that part of the mountain ranges in western Hubei is either compensated by non-Airy-type isostasy models or is not in isostatic equilibrium but supported by the strength of the lithosphere. The brittle or localized ductile deformation in the lower crust/uppermost mantle as indicated by the abrupt Moho steps seems to be decoupled with brittle deformation in the upper crust. The CCP images also reveal an apparent double Moho beneath the Wudang Mts. which is interpreted to be due to a partially eclogitized lower crust after the original cratonic mantle lithosphere was replaced by warm and hydrated mantle materials in eastern China in the Late Mesozoic. The Moho steps were formed when a segment of eclogitized lower crust became gravitationally unstable and foundered into the mantle.

  1. Faunal analysis of chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu

    2015-08-01

    This paper studied the species diversity and fauna distribution of chigger mites on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest Yunnan. In total, 120,138 individuals of chigger mites were collected from 13,760 individual small mammals, and these mites were identified as comprising two families, 26 genera, and 274 species. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, the mite species diversity in subregions I and II was higher than that in subregions III, IV, and V. Four mite species (Leptotrombidium scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, Leptotrombidium deliense, and Helenicula simena) were the most dominant species in the whole province. Several vector species of chigger mites co-existed in Yunnan, and L. deliense (a main vector of scrub typhus in China) was mainly distributed in subregions IV and V with lower latitude and average altitude whereas L. scutellare (also a main vector in China) was mainly distributed in subregions I, II, and III with higher latitude and average altitude. Some geographically widely distributed mite species were also the mites with wide host ranges and low host specificity. The dominant mite species and their clustering tendency in the dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis were highly in accordance with the zoogeographical divisions. The species diversity of chigger mites showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3,500 m) along the vertical gradients and reached the highest value in the middle altitude regions in 2,000-2,500 m. The highest species diversity of the mites and their small mammal hosts happened in the regions around the Hengduan Mountains, which is a hotspot of biodiversity in Asia continent. The host and its sample size, geographical scope, landscape, topography, and some other factors comprehensively influence the species diversity and faunal distribution of chigger mites. A systematic field investigation with a wide geographical scope and large host sample is strongly recommended

  2. Health and Human Rights Concerns of Drug Users in Detention in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J. Elizabeth; Amon, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    Background Although confinement in drug detoxification (“detox”) and re-education through labor (RTL) centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. Methods and Findings Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs) and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8–23 y) and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times) and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times). IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. Conclusions Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights and imperil

  3. Time distribution of heavy rainfall events in south west of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassabi, Zahra; kamali, G. Ali; Meshkatee, Amir-Hussain; Hajam, Sohrab; Javaheri, Nasrolah

    2016-07-01

    Accurate knowledge of rainfall time distribution is a fundamental issue in many Meteorological-Hydrological studies such as using the information of the surface runoff in the design of the hydraulic structures, flood control and risk management, and river engineering studies. Since the main largest dams of Iran are in the south-west of the country (i.e. South Zagros), this research investigates the temporal rainfall distribution based on an analytical numerical method to increase the accuracy of hydrological studies in Iran. The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) estimated the temporal rainfall distribution in various forms. Hydrology studies usually utilize the same distribution functions in other areas of the world including Iran due to the lack of sufficient observation data. However, we first used Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to achieve the simulated rainfall results of the selected storms on south west of Iran in this research. Then, a three-parametric Logistic function was fitted to the rainfall data in order to compute the temporal rainfall distribution. The domain of the WRF model is 30.5N-34N and 47.5E-52.5E with a resolution of 0.08 degree in latitude and longitude. We selected 35 heavy storms based on the observed rainfall data set to simulate with the WRF Model. Storm events were scrutinized independently from each other and the best analytical three-parametric logistic function was fitted for each grid point. The results show that the value of the coefficient a of the logistic function, which indicates rainfall intensity, varies from the minimum of 0.14 to the maximum of 0.7. Furthermore, the values of the coefficient B of the logistic function, which indicates rain delay of grid points from start time of rainfall, vary from 1.6 in south-west and east to more than 8 in north and central parts of the studied area. In addition, values of rainfall intensities are lower in south west of IRAN than those of observed or proposed by the

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jiangxi Province, Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Hai; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Xu, Chang-Man; Deng, Shun-Zhou; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in humans and a wide range of animal species. In the current study, a serological investigation using an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs in Jiangxi Province, southeastern China. A total of 1232 serum samples were collected from pigs in 10 administrative districts in Jiangxi, and specific antibodies were detected in 282 pigs (22.9%) with the titers ≥1:64. Positive pigs were found in each administrative district, with prevalence ranging from 5.0% to 46.2%. Age and season were found to be associated with T. gondii infection. Lactating sows (odds ratio [OR]=15.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=6.8-35.2, p<0.01), pregnant sows (OR=11.5, 95% CI=5.3-24.8, p<0.01), nonpregnant sows (OR=13.7, 95% CI=6.4-29.3, p<0.01), breeding boars (OR=9, 95% CI=3.8-21.4, p<0.01), and fattening pigs (OR=4.9, 95% CI=2.1-11.7, p<0.01) all had a greater risk of acquiring infection compared to the weanling pigs. There is a higher risk of infection in the spring (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.6, p=0.01) and the summer (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.3-3.2, p<0.01) than in the winter. This is the first documentation of T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs in Jiangxi Province, which enriches the epidemiological data of T. gondii infection in pigs in China. The results of this study indicate that pigs in Jiangxi Province are frequently exposed to T. gondii, posing a direct threat to the pig industry as well as to public health. Integrated strategies are needed to strengthen future prevention and control of T. gondii infection in pigs in this region. PMID:24552150

  5. Dominant modern sublineages and a new modern sublineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Di; Dong, Cai-Bo; Cui, Jia-Yi; Nakajima, Chie; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Pan, Xin-Ling; Sun, Gao-Xiang; Dai, En-Yu; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Zhuang, Min; Ling, Hong

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family includes a variety of sublineages. Knowledge of the distribution of a certain sublineage of the Beijing family may help to understand the mechanisms of its rapid spread and to establish an association between a certain genotype and the disease outcome. We have previously found that M. tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates represent approximately 90% of the clinical isolates from Heilongjiang Province, China. To clarify the distribution of M. tuberculosis Beijing family sublineages in Heilongjiang Province, China and to investigate the regularity rule for their evolution, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 250 M. tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates using 10 SNP loci that have been identified as appropriate for defining Beijing sublineages. After determining the sequence type (ST) of each isolate, the sublineages of all M. tuberculosis Beijing family isolates were determined, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. We found that 9 out of the 10 SNP loci displayed polymorphisms, but locus 1548149 did not. In total, 92.8% of the isolates in Heilongjiang Province are modern sublineages. ST10 is the most prevalent sublineage (ST10 and ST22 accounted for 63.2% and 23.6% of all the Beijing family isolates, respectively). A new ST, accounting for 4% of the Beijing family isolates in this area, was found for the first time. Each new ST isolate showed a unique VNTR pattern, and none were clustered. The present findings suggest that controlling the spread of these modern sublineages is important in Heilongjiang Province and in China. PMID:25111610

  6. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. PMID:25529706

  7. Water Balance Change in Xia Ying River Basin, Qinghai Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Zhou, B.; Li, J.

    2010-12-01

    Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River are major river systems supporting billions of people in South East Asia and China. Source region of Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River (Three Rivers) is located in Qinghai Province, China. Recently, Chinese government started a conservation project in the source region of the Three Rivers called “Convert Agricultural Field to Forest and Grassland”. Xia Ying River Basin is a sub-basin located in the source region of the Three River Basin. The upper Xia Ying River Basin has experienced dramatic land cover change since 2006. Before 2006, upper Xia Ying River Basin hill slope was agricultural field. Coniferous trees and bush vegetation were planted on the slope greater than 70 degree in the upper Xia Ying River Basin in 2006. The objective of the study is to investigate the water balance term change in the Xia Ying River Basin because of the conservation project. This study will use Landsat and MODIS imagery to classify and quantify land cover classes before and after land cover conversion. Water balance terms including runoff and evaportranspiration will be simulated using a land surface model to investigate water balance term change due to land cover change. The study serves as a pilot study for the investigation of hydrological change in the entire source region of the Three River Basin during the past 50 years.

  8. A New Basal Ankylosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fenglu; Zheng, Wenjie; Hu, Dongyu; Xu, Xing; Barrett, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    A new ankylosaurid, Chuanqilong chaoyangensis gen. et sp. nov., is described here based on a nearly complete skeleton from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Baishizui Village, Lingyuan City, Liaoning Province, China. Chuanqilong chaoyangensis can be diagnosed on the basis of two autapomorphies (glenoid fossa for quadrate at same level as the dentary tooth row; distally tapering ischium with constricted midshaft) and also a unique combination of character states (slender, wedge-like lacrimal; long retroarticular process; humerus with strongly expanded proximal end; ratio of humerus to femur length  = 0.88). Although a phylogenetic analysis places Chuanqilong chaoyangensis as the sister taxon of the sympatric Liaoningosaurus near the base of the Ankylosauridae, the two taxa can be distinguished on the basis of many features, such as tooth morphology and ischial shape, which are not ontogeny-related. Chuanqilong chaoyangensis represents the fourth ankylosaurid species reported from the Cretaceous of Liaoning, China, suggesting a relatively high diversity in Cretaceous Liaoning. PMID:25118986

  9. Previously unrecognized ornithuromorph bird diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  10. Incidence of thyroid diseases in Zhejiang Province, China, after 15 years of salt iodization.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fang; Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Mo, Zhe; Zhu, Wenming; Zhou, Jinshui; Mao, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid diseases(TD) can be induced by either deficient or excessive iodine intake. Universal Salt Iodization(USI) program has been implemented in China since 1995, to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). To evaluate the current conditions of TD and the role of USI, a multi-stage stratified random sampling scheme was used to perform a cross-sectional survey on the incidence of TD among participants in 6600 households in Zhejiang Province, a coastal area in China. Iodine nutrition status of the population was assessed by dietary iodine intake recall and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the participants, and TD were diagnosed by thyroid ultrasonography for 15122 participants and for 5873 participants by serum criteria for thyroid function(fT3, fT4, TSH, TRAb, TgAb, TPOAb; see Introduction for abbreviations). The median UIC of the surveyed population was 163μg iodine/L. From the participants 23.2% had UIC<100μg/L which is moderately iodine-deficient according to WHO classification. Diffuse goiter was present in 2.3% of the population and thyroid nodule in 20.9%. The incidence of hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, Graves' disease and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis was 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.6%, 7.8%, 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively. The proportion of several TD for participants with non-iodized salt intake was higher than that for participants with iodized salt intake. PMID:27259353

  11. Survey of coccidial infection of rabbits in Sichuan Province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Goraya, Mohsan Ullah; Huang, Juhui; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian; Liu, Xianyong

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a challenging disease of wild and domestic rabbits both, caused by Eimeria and thereby leads enormous economic losses at rabbit farms. The present study carried out to survey the prevalence and intensity of coccidial infection among the rabbits in Sichuan Province, southwest China. A total of 110 faecal samples were collected from 11 farms situated in eight main rabbits rearing administrative regions. Oocysts in faecal samples were purified, sporulated and identified according to morphological features. The overall prevalence of infection was 56.4 % (62/110), with prevalence of 64 % (47/75) for local meat breeds of rabbit and 51.4 % (18/35) for Rex Rabbits (local fur rabbits). Weanling rabbits had the highest prevalence (74 %, 37/50), followed by young rabbits (45 %, 13/29) and the adult rabbits showed the lowest prevalence (42 %, 13/31). Concurrent infection with two to seven Eimeria species was found. In total, 9 species of Eimeria were identified from oocyst-positive samples. E. perforans was the most prevalent specie (42.73 %), followed in order by Eimiera media, E. irresidua, E. magna, and E. intestinalis with prevalences of 35.45, 34.55, 31.82, and 23.64 %, respectively. Results of the present investigation indicated that the prevalence of coccidial infection is high among the rabbit population in southwest China. This study also elucidate about the coccidial infection and emphasis to adopt control strategies in commercial rabbitories. PMID:27386319

  12. Microgeographic Heterogeneity of Border Malaria During Elimination Phase, Yunnan Province, China, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Hu, Yue; Ruan, Yonghua; Fan, Qi; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang

    2016-08-01

    To identify township-level high-risk foci of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, China, along the international border, we retrospectively reviewed data collected in hospitals and clinics of 58 townships in 4 counties during 2011-2013. We analyzed spatiotemporal distribution, especially hot spots of confirmed malaria, using geographic information systems and Getis-Ord Gi*(d) cluster analysis. Malaria incidence, transmission seasonality, and Plasmodium vivax:P. falciparum ratio remained almost unchanged from 2011 to 2013, but heterogeneity in distribution increased. The number of townships with confirmed malaria decreased significantly during the 3 years; incidence became increasingly concentrated within a few townships. High-/low-incidence clusters of P. falciparum shifted in location and size every year, whereas the locations of high-incidence P. vivax townships remained unchanged. All high-incidence clusters were located along the China-Myanmar border. Because of increasing heterogeneity in malaria distribution, microgeographic analysis of malaria transmission hot spots provided useful information for designing targeted malaria intervention during the elimination phase. PMID:27433877

  13. Estimating health damage cost from secondary sulfate particles--a case study of Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ji-Ming; Li, Ji; Ye, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Tian-Le

    2003-09-01

    China's coal-dominated energy pattern has resulted in large amount of SO2 emissions. Estimate of the sulfur-related health damage cost is necessary to help perform systematic cost-benefit analysis and set national energy and emissions control priorities. Current researches were confined to gaseous SO2 in urban areas; however, secondary sulfate (SO4(2-)) particles can exert serious impact in a wider region. Based on the concept of "intake fraction", CALPUFF long-range dispersion model and 180 sample emission sources, multiple regression equation was obtained with good correlation( r = 0.85), which illustrates that populations were key parameters to determine intake fraction but source characteristics were insignificant. Based on the formula and the population distribution data, county-level intake fractions were mapped for Hunan Province(range: 1.1 x 10(-6) - 3.2 x 10(-6)) of China. A combination of county-level SO2 emissions with the intake fractions yields a total 1.98 tons of sulfate(SO4(2-)) inhalation, and resulting total health damage cost to be 0.76(willingness to pay approach, WTP) or 0.16 (human capital approach, HC) billion USD in 1997, about 2.1% or 0.45% of GDP in Hunan in 1997. Average health damage cost per ton of SO2 emission is 930(WTP) or 200 USD(HC). The results demonstrated that more stringent regulation should be forced. PMID:14562920

  14. Provider payment reform in China: the case of hospital reimbursement in Hainan province.

    PubMed

    Yip, W; Eggleston, K

    2001-06-01

    This paper develops a simple model of payment incentives and empirically evaluates provider payment reform in Hainan Province, China. We use a pre-post study design with a control group to analyse two years of claims data to assess the impact of a January 1997 change to prospective payment for a sub-sample of the hospitals. This difference-in-difference empirical strategy allows us to isolate the supply-side payment reform effects from demand-side changes, in contrast with previous studies of China's reforms. Our results validate the theory that Chinese providers' behavioural response to payment incentives is similar to that reported in the literature derived from the experience of industrialized countries. We find that prepayment is associated with a slower rate of growth of overall expenditures, programme spending and patient co-payments per inpatient admission, compared to fee-for-service (FFS). These findings suggest cautious optimism regarding the effectiveness of prospective payment for controlling costs and should be encouraging for policymakers in developing and transitional economies considering replacement of FFS with more aggregated forms of provider payment. PMID:11400255

  15. Gender and HIV risk behavior among intravenous drug users in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Choi, Susanne Y P; Cheung, Yuet Wah; Chen, Kanglin

    2006-04-01

    Using data from a community-based study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Sichuan Province in China, this study compared the level of HIV risk behavior (needle sharing and unsafe sex) amongst female and male IDUs, and examined the risk factors separately for these two groups. Five risk factors were examined in the analysis, including a lack of family support, having an IDU primary sex partner, economic pressure, lack of access to a methadone program, and younger age. Regression results showed that male and female IDUs had different risk factors. For male IDUs, younger age and a lack of family support increased their level of HIV risk behavior. For female IDUs, having an IDU primary sex partner and economic pressure were predictive of their HIV risk behavior. Sex differences in risk factors are explained with respect to gender norms surrounding HIV risk behavior in the context of social relations. Female IDUs who were sex workers suffered additional HIV risk due to their powerlessness in negotiating safe sex with male customers. Practical implications of the findings for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention work in China are discussed. PMID:16185801

  16. Evaluation and zoning of groundwater hazards in Pingshuo No. 1 underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Fan, Zhenli; Zhang, Zhongwen; Zhou, Wanfang

    2014-05-01

    Coal mining safety has been compromised with water inrushes from aquifers either overlying or underlying the coal seams. Detailed studies of the associated hydrogeological conditions in China have led to different approaches to mitigate the water inrush risks from these two types of aquifers—the `three diagram method' for overlying-aquifer water inrushes and the `vulnerability index method' for underlying-aquifer water inrushes. The `three diagram method' consists of: (1) aquifer water-abundance distribution charts derived from a geographic information system and analytic hierarchy process based water-abundance index model; (2) a fracture height map showing mining-induced fractures above the coal seam, established with stratified numerical simulations; and (3) a comprehensive partition map identifying the overlying-aquifer water inrush risk. The `vulnerability index method' uses site-specific data to establish thematic maps for major factors that affect the underlying-aquifer water inrushes, whereas the weight of each control factor is determined by the analytic hierarchy process. The calculated vulnerability index is indicative of water inrush risks. The effectiveness of these methods is illustrated with a case study at the Pingshuo No. 1 underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China.

  17. Helminth infections and risk factor analysis among residents in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Li, Yuan-Lin; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Shao-Rong; Yang, Zhong; Fan, Weng; Jia, Tie-Wu; Li, Lan-Hua; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-10-01

    Whilst infections with soil-transmitted helminths are common across China, the public-health significance of Schistosoma japonicum and food-borne helminths is more focalized. Only few studies have investigated the local epidemiology of helminth infections in rural China, including risk factor analysis. We collected stool and blood samples from 3220 individuals, aged 5-88 years, from 35 randomly selected villages in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique and examined for helminth eggs. Blood samples were tested for Trichinella spp., S. japonicum and cysticerci-specific antibodies. Data on individual and family-level risk factors were collected using questionnaires. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura and hookworms was 15.4%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 0.3%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. was 58.8% and that of cysticercosis 18.5%. The egg positivity rate of S. japonicum in the 13 known endemic villages was 2.7%, and the corresponding seroprevalence was 49.5%. We observed a strong spatial heterogeneity in the families' economic status. S. japonicum infections were more prevalent among the Han than Bai nationality (odds ratio (OR)=3.77, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.97-7.23) and tobacco growers (OR=3.66, 95% CI=1.77-7.60) and was only found at elevations below 2150 m above sea level. A. lumbricoides and Taenia spp. infections were more prevalent at altitudes above 2150 m when compared to lower settings (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.24-1.84 and OR=5.32, 95% CI=3.42-8.28, respectively). The opposite was found for T. trichiura (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.14-0.70). Our findings can guide the design and spatial targeting of control interventions against helminth infections in Eryuan county. PMID:17719553

  18. High Incidence and Endemic Spread of NDM-1-Positive Enterobacteriaceae in Henan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shangshang; Fu, Ying; Zhang, Qijing; Qi, Hui; Wen, Jian Guo; Xu, Hui; Xu, Lijuan; Zeng, Li; Tian, Hao; Rong, Lijuan; Li, Yonghong; Shan, Lihong; Xu, Hongde; Yu, Yunsong

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) present an urgent threat to human health. In China, the blaNDM-1 gene has been reported mostly in Acinetobacter spp. but is rarely found in Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we report a high incidence and endemic spread of NDM-1-producing CRE in Henan Province in China. Sixteen (33.3%) of the 48 CRE isolates obtained from patients during June 2011 to July 2012 were positive for blaNDM-1, and the gene was found to be carried on plasmids of various sizes (∼55 to ∼360 kb). These plasmids were readily transferrable to recipient Escherichia coli by conjugation, conferred resistance to multiple antibiotics, and belonged to multiple replicon types. The blaNDM-1-positive CRE isolates were genetically diverse, and six new multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence types were linked to the carriage of NDM-1. Five of the isolates were classified as extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates, four of which also carried the fosA3 gene conferring resistance to fosfomycin, an alternative drug for treating infections by CRE. In each blaNDM-1-positive CRE isolate, the blaNDM-1 gene was downstream of an intact ISAba125 element and upstream of the bleMBL gene. Furthermore, gene environment analysis suggested the possible transmission of blaNDM-1-containing sequences from Acinetobacter spp. to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. These findings reveal the emergence and active transmission of NDM-1-positive CRE in China and underscore the need for heightened measures to control their further spread. PMID:24777095

  19. Patient–physician mistrust and violence against physicians in Guangdong Province, China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Cheng, Yu; Wong, Bonnie; Gong, Ni; Nie, Jing-Bao; Zhu, Wei; McLaughlin, Megan M; Xie, Ruishi; Deng, Yinghui; Huang, Meijin; Wong, William C W; Lan, Ping; Liu, Huanliang; Miao, Wei; Kleinman, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Objective To better understand the origins, manifestations and current policy responses to patient–physician mistrust in China. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews focused on personal experiences of patient–physician mistrust and trust. Setting Guangdong Province, China. Participants One hundred and sixty patients, patient family members, physicians, nurses and hospital administrators at seven hospitals varying in type, geography and stages of achieving goals of health reform. These interviews included purposive selection of individuals who had experienced both trustful and mistrustful patient–physician relationships. Results One of the most prominent forces driving patient–physician mistrust was a patient perception of injustice within the medical sphere, related to profit mongering, knowledge imbalances and physician conflicts of interest. Individual physicians, departments and hospitals were explicitly incentivised to generate revenue without evaluation of caregiving. Physicians did not receive training in negotiating medical disputes or humanistic principles that underpin caregiving. Patient–physician mistrust precipitated medical disputes leading to the following outcomes: non-resolution with patient resentment towards physicians; violent resolution such as physical and verbal attacks against physicians; and non-violent resolution such as hospital-mediated dispute resolution. Policy responses to violence included increased hospital security forces, which inadvertently fuelled mistrust. Instead of encouraging communication that facilitated resolution, medical disputes sometimes ignited a vicious cycle leading to mob violence. However, patient–physician interactions at one hospital that has implemented a primary care model embodying health reform goals showed improved patient–physician trust. Conclusions The blind pursuit of financial profits at a systems level has eroded patient–physician trust in China. Restructuring incentives

  20. Spherical Cap Harmonic Modelling of 400 Years of Secular Variation in the South-west Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, M.; Alfheid, M.; Ingham, E. M.; Turner, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Historical magnetic data recorded in ship's logs on voyages of exploration and trade in the south-west Pacific have been used as a basis for constructing a model of secular variation in the region using spherical cap harmonic (SCH) analysis. The spherical cap used is centred on colatitude 115° and longitude 160° and has a radius of 50°, thus covering New Zealand, Australia and parts of Antarctica. Gaps in the observational data have been filled by an iterative procedure started by using IGRF field values to obtain SCH models for 2000, 1950 and 1900 and assuming that the spherical cap coefficients have a linear variation in time over the 400 year time period of the model, as is observed to a first approximation for Gauss coefficients calculated from a global spherical harmonic analysis. The resulting field models have generally smooth spatial and temporal variations in declination, inclination and intensity which show some differences from the variations calculated using the global spherical harmonic model gufm1. The technique clearly shows promise for producing more refined models of secular variation in the south-west Pacific when the historical data are supplemented by archeomagnetic and paleomagnetic data.

  1. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Mengistu; Kebebe Borga, Dereje; Mulisa Bobasa, Eshetu

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72%) and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%). However, 43.3% of dispensers didn’t get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%), age of the patient (90%), the dosage form of drug (96.7%), the route of administration (90%), the duration of therapy (86.7%), and frequency of administration (86.7%) for prescription papers. Conclusion In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use. PMID:26229506

  2. Association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in South West Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ghogomu, S M; Ngolle, N E; Mouliom, R N; Asa, B F

    2016-01-01

    The association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension has been reported but with controversial results in diverse populations in Asia and Europe, thereby suggesting a dependency on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and essential hypertension in a Cameroonian population (Bantu ethnic group) of the South West Region. Analysis of anthropometric and biochemical data in hypertensive and normotensive subjects revealed that age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum total cholesterol, and triglycerides are independent risk factors for essential hypertension. Substitution of thymine for cytosine at position 667 of the MTHFR gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genotype frequencies were found to be 7.3% CC, 58.5% CT, and 34.1% TT for hypertensive subjects compared to 90.0% CC, 10.0% CT, and 0.0% TT for normotensives. Allele frequencies were obtained as 36.6% C and 63.4% T for hypertensive subjects and 95.0% C and 5.0% T for normotensive subjects. These results reveal that the T allele predisposes individuals to hypertension. Therefore, there is an association between variants of the MTHFR gene and hypertension in Cameroonian patients from the South West region. PMID:27051013

  3. A New Tektite Discovery in the Guangdong Province, China, and the Search for the Source Crater of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Maier, R. V.; Sturm, S.; Zhu, Meng-Hua.

    2014-09-01

    A new tektite location in South China is presented that belongs to the Australasian tektite strewnfield. We also investigated a 30 km circular structure in the Guangdong and Guangxi Province that might be related to the Australasian impact event.

  4. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in animal wastewater and surface water around farms in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ruicheng; Ge, Feng; Huang, Siyu; Chen, Ming; Wang, Ran

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to obtain a broad profile of veterinary antibiotics residues in animal wastewater and surface water around large-scale livestock and poultry farms in Jiangsu Province of China. Therefore, 53 samples collected from 27 large-scale animal farms in 11 cities and counties of Jiangsu Province in 2009, were monitored for 10 selected veterinary antibiotics using solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) techniques. Ten veterinary antibiotics were found in animal wastewaters, eight antibiotics were detected in pond waters, and animal farm-effluents and river water samples were contaminated by nine antibiotics. The most frequently detected antibiotics were sulfamethazine (75%), oxytetracycline (64%), tetracycline (60%), sulfadiazine (55%) and sulfamethoxazole (51%) which were detected with a maximum concentration of 211, 72.9, 10.3, 17.0 and 63.6 μg L(-1), respectively. The maximum concentration of 0.55 μg L(-1) for cyromazine, 3.67 μg L(-1) for chlortetracycline, 0.63 μg L(-1) for sulfadoxine, 39.5 μg L(-1) for doxycycline and 0.64 μg L(-1) for sulfaquinoxaline were determined in the collected samples. In general, the maximum concentration of the selected veterinary antibiotics was detected in animal wastewaters except for chlortetracycline in animal farm-effluents. In addition, residue levels of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal wastewater and surface water around the farms were related to animal species and have a high spatial variation. PMID:21159362

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Porcine torovirus (PToV) in Sichuan Province, China: 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine torovirus (PToV) is a member of the genus Torovirus which is responsible for gastrointestinal disease in both human beings and animals with particular prevalence in youth. Torovirus infections are generally asymptomatic, however, their presence may worsen disease consequences in concurrent infections with other enteric pathogens. Methods A total of 872 diarrheic fecal samples from pigs of different ages were collected from 12 districts of Sichuan Province in the southwest of China. RT-PCR was done with PToV S gene specific primers to detect the presence of PToV positive samples. M gene specific primers were used with the PToV positive samples and the genes were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the M gene nucleotide sequences from the 19 selected novel Sichuan strains and 21 PToV and BToV M gene sequences from GenBank. Results A total of 331 (37.96%, 331/872) samples were found to be positive for PToV and the highest prevalence was observed in piglets aged from 1 to 3 weeks old. Through phylogenetic inference the 40 PToV M gene containing sequences were placed into two genotypes (I & II). The 19 novel Sichuan strains of genotype I showed strong correlations to two Korean gene sequences (GU-07-56-11 and GU-07-56-22). Amino-acid sequence analysis of the 40 PToV M gene strains revealed that the M gene protein was highly conserved. Conclusions This study uncovered the presence of PToV in Sichuan Province, and demonstrated the need for continuous surveillance PToV of epidemiology. PMID:24903213

  6. A social epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in a village of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Yong; Xu, Guangming; Luo, Dan; Yi, Qifeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic caused by commercial blood donation in rural Henan Province of China in the early- to mid-1990s is the largest known cohort in the world related to blood donation but is not fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemic, epidemiology, and social epidemiology of commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS. Both qualitative and quantitative mixed methods were used. A village was randomly selected from the 38 key HIV/AIDS pandemic villages in Henan Province. "Demographic Data Form" was applied to collect demographic information of each resident. Focus groups were held for the managers, some residents, members of "HIV/AIDS Work-Team" (organized by the Henan Provincial Government) in the village. Every village physician, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), school header, and other stakeholders were interviewed individually. The social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS was analyzed under three perspectives of the framework: individual, social, and structural perspectives. In this village, there were 2335 residents, 484 (20.3%) were former donors, 107 (4.6%) were PLWHA, and 96.3% of PLWHA were infected through commercial blood donation. Individually, low education and plasma donation were the risky factors of HIV/AIDS infection. Socially, the epidemic was geography-, kinship-, and conformity-related. Structurally, the related macrostructure factor was policy endorsement of national blood products. The microstructure factors were poverty and value belief on male child in passing down generations. It is concluded that commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS epidemic in the village are symbiotically related. The epidemic is temporary and socially determined. PMID:22835156

  7. Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi Kawasaki-related genotypes in Shandong Province, northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Yang, Huili; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Shoufeng; Meng, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2015-03-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and characterized by dramatic genetic diversity. To elucidate the genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi populating in patients in Shandong Province, a new epidemic zone in China, we sequenced partial of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) and identified the genotypes of 43 O. tsutsugamushi samples from human patients confirmed with scrub typhus from 2010 to 2013. All of the 43 sequences are in the same clade, 39 of them are in one branch and the other four sequences, nominated as SH1002, SH1306, SH1309, and SH1307 are in four separate branches. To clarify the clinical characterizations caused by Kawasaki-related genotypes, we studied the clinical profiles of these 43 scrub typhus patients. Most patients (88.1%) were farmers lived in rural areas. They presented with fever (100.0%), headache (79.1%), dizziness (32.6%), generalized myalgia (48.8%), fatigue (53.5%), anorexia (53.5%), facial flushing (23.3%), conjunctival congestion (11.6%), skin rashes (58.1%) and lymphadenopathy (23.3%). Eschar (97.7%) was quite common in patients, which provided doctors with a luminous clue for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 23.1% of patients, and three patients (7.0%) had bronchopneumonia. There was no death report in Shandong Province during the study period. The present study provides beneficial data for clinical, serological, and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections, and also provides foundations for subsequent studies. PMID:25575441

  8. Natural occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn in four provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tiesong; Zhu, Weifang; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) are the most abundant fumonisins (FBs) occurring worldwide in maize, infected mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. A total of 307 corn kernel samples were collected from 45 districts of Gansu, Shandong, Ningxia and the Inner Mongolia provinces of the north and northwest China. The samples were analysed for FB1 and FB2 by high-performance liquid chromatography. The FBs (FB1+ FB2) incidence rate in samples from Gansu, Shandong, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia were 31.5%, 81.1%, 46.2% and 53.6%, respectively. Average FBs concentration was 703 μg/kg and the concentrations ranged from ≤11 to 13,110 μg kg(-1). Results were compared with the European Commission (EC) regulation for FB1+ FB2 in unprocessed maize for human consumption of 4 mg kg(-1). Contamination in 17 samples was higher than these levels. More than 80% of the samples from Liaocheng county, which is located in the Shandong province, were contaminated with FBs, with a mean total FB concentration of 2496 μg/kg. The result was significantly different from that of the Inner Mongolia (1399 μg/kg), Ningxia (373 μg/kg) and Gansu (175 μg/kg). Average exposure to FBs (0.12 μg/kg body weight/day) is within the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2.0 mg/kg of body weight set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:24779936

  9. Organochlorine Pesticides in Consumer Fish and Mollusks of Liaoning Province, China: Distribution and Human Exposure Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongmei; Tao, Minhui; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Ying; Ma, Dandan; He, Zhiming

    2010-01-01

    Fish and mollusk samples were collected from markets located in 12 cities in Liaoning province, China, during August and September 2007, and 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. DDT, HCH, endosulfan, chlordane, and HCB were the dominating OCPs, with mean concentrations and ranges of, respectively, 15.41 and 0.57 to 177.56 ng/g, 0.84 and below detection limit (BDL) to 22.99 ng/g, 1.31 and BDL to 13.1 ng/g, 1.05 and BDL to 15.68 ng/g, and 0.63 and BDL to 9.21 ng/g in all fish and mollusk samples. The concentrations of other OCPs generally were low and were detectable in a minority of samples, reflecting the low levels of these OCPs in the study region. In general, OCP concentrations were obviously higher in fish than in mollusks, and higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish, which indicated, first, that freshwater fish are more easily influenced than seawater fish and mollusks by OCP residues in agricultural areas and, second, that there are different biota accumulation factors for OCPs between fish and mollusk. To learn the consumption of fish and mollusk, 256 questionnaires were sent to families in 12 cities of Liaoning province. Using the contamination data, average estimated daily intakes of OCPs via fish and mollusk consumption were calculated, which were used for exposure assessment. The public health risks caused by exposure to OCPs in the course of fish and mollusk consumption were compared to noncancer benchmarks and cancer benchmarks. PMID:20352204

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Buffaloes, Sheep and Goats in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, Fengcai; YU, Xin; YANG, Yan; HU, Shuang; CHANG, Hua; YANG, Jianfa; DUAN, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in buffaloes, sheep and goats in Yunnan Province, southwestern China was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013. Methods: A total of 973 (427 buffaloes, 154 sheep and 392 goats) serum samples were collected from seven administrative regions of Yunnan Province, and examined for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Some risk factors related to species, age, gender and geographical origin were determined using a multinomial logistic regression. Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant species was estimated at 11.9%. The final logistic regression model demonstrated that host species and geographical origin were the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taken together, the results of the present study revealed a high exposure to T. gondii in ruminant species in Yunnan Province, which has an important implication for public health. PMID:26811733

  11. [Relationship between geopolitical political structure and distribution of dao-di herbs in frontier provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Dao-di herbs have both natural and humanistic attribute. Geopolitical political structure of Northeast, Mongolian, Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces form frontier inland of China were summarized in this paper. The relationship between distribution of the Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure in above-mentioned provinces were described. In a strict sense, humanistic attribute of Dao-di herbs belonged to medical culture of Han Nationality. Distribution range of Dao-di herbs was determined by sphere of influence of central plains dynasty. Development of Dao-di herbs in the frontier inland area was unbalanced. The relationship between distribution of Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure proofed that natural attribute and humanistic attribute were inseparable. Recognition of this relationship is helpful to understand and develop genuine medicinal materials in frontier provinces. PMID:24380321

  12. An updated distribution and hosts: trombiculid mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) associated with small mammals in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Dong, Wen-Ge; Song, Wen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Trombiculid mites (or chigger mites) are a large group of arthropods, and some of these species are vectors of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is situated in the southwest of China, and its complicated topography, special altitude gradients, and high biodiversity have aroused the interest of many scientists to study the fauna and species diversity of plants and animals. To replenish our former faunal study, this paper listed all the scientific names of trombiculid mites in Yunnan Province, together with their hosts and collection sites (geographical distribution). A total of 120,138 individuals of trombiculid mites were collected from the body surface of 13,760 small mammal hosts (89.06 % of them are rodents) in 29 collection sites (counties) of Yunnan Province from 2001 to 2013. The 120,138 mites were identified as comprising 2 families (Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae), 26 genera, and 274 species. The genus Leptotrombidium had the most abundant species (109 species) of 26 genera. Of the six main vectors of scrub typhus in China, five of them were found in Yunnan. Of the 274 chigger mite species, 23 were determined as the newly recorded species (new records), which were found in Yunnan Province for the first time. The identified 274 species of trombiculid mites in the present paper are much more than those from other provinces in China and even largely exceeded the species of trombiculid mites recorded from some other regions and countries in the world. Based on the formula of Chao 1, the total number of chigger mite species in Yunnan was approximately estimated to be 346 species, and about 72 species might have been missed in our sampling process. PMID:26833324

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in Jiangsu Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Changjun; Zhou, Minghao; Hu, Jianli; Tang, Fenyang; Guo, Xiling; Jiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Wenshuai; Luo, Peilin; Li, Luxun; Zhu, Kuanyuan; Tan, Wenwen; Lu, Qimei; Ge, Hengming; Chen, Abao

    2014-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), which is caused by a novel bunyavirus, is an emerging infectious disease in China. In 2011, this new virus was designated as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of SFTSV infection. The investigation was conducted among the general population in Jiangsu Province, China in 2011. A total of 2,510 serum samples were collected. Testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of SFTSV infection. Result showed that the overall seroprevalence of SFTSV infection was 0.44% (11 of 2,510) in seven counties in Jiangsu Province. Multiple variable logistic regression analysis showed that raising goats, farming, and grazing were risk factors for SFTSV infection. Raising goats, farming, and grazing might be important risk factors for virus exposure, and appropriate health education could be useful in preventing infections. PMID:24343883

  14. Indicators of Child Health, Service Utilization and Mortality in Zhejiang Province of China, 1998–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei Fang; Xu, Yan Hua; Yang, Ru Lai; Zhao, Zheng Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. Methods The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (<7 days) mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. Results The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) between the prevalence of low birth weight in 1998 (2.03%) and the prevalence in 2011 (2.71%). The increase in low birth weight was more significant in urban areas than in rural areas. The postnatal visit rate increased from 95.00% to 98.45% with a significant difference (P<0.001). The breastfeeding rate was the highest in 2004 at 74.79% and lowest in 2008 at 53.86%. The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years old decreased from 1.63% to 0.65%, and the prevalence was higher in rural areas. The early neonatal, neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (P<0.001). The mortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. Conclusion Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology. PMID:23638155

  15. Transient population bypassed by polio vaccination programmes in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ding, Z R; Liang, Z S; Matsuba, T; Xu, W

    1997-10-01

    Four wild strains of polioviruses were isolated between 1995 and April 1996 around the Myanmar border with China. This may have occurred because immunization programs missed certain groups of children who migrated with their parents when they were searching for work. Market tradespeople, in particular, travel with their children. Since it is illegal for persons to live where they are not registered and for parents to have more than the number of children permitted by the family planning law, these children may not participate in national immunization days (NIDs) out of fear of being identified. In September and October of 1996, four markets in Yunnan Province were surveyed to determine the proportion of transients and the prevalence of oral polio vaccine (OPV) immunization; parents and guardians of 127 children, who appeared to be under the age of 5 years, were interviewed. The analysis included 91 children (45 boys and 46 girls), aged 1-3 years, who had complete information. Children were grouped as follows: 1) 37 nontransients who lived where their families were registered; 2) 15 transients from within Yunnan Province; 3) 32 transients from other provinces; and 4) 7 foreign transients. The following information was obtained for each child: 1) whether the child had received a routine OPV; 2) whether the child had a BCG scar; 3) whether the child had ever participated in a NID; and 4) whether the child had participated in the 9 supplementary OPV campaigns since 1990. There were no significant differences in sex or age between groups. As shown in a table of survey results, all indices of immunization were lower in transients. Of the nontransient children, 94.6% had received an OPV; 86.5% had a BCG scar; 89.2% had participated in a NID; and 89.2% had received OPV supplementation. The same figures for all transients as a group were 44.4%, 50.0%, 37.0%, and 38.9%, respectively. For the intraprovincial group, the figures were 66.7%, 46.7%, 60.0%, and 46.7%, respectively

  16. Disaster resilience in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as a hospital’s ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining critical functions, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one. This study aims to explore the status of resilience among tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province, China. Methods A stratified random sample (n = 50) was derived from tertiary A, tertiary B, and tertiary C hospitals in Shandong Province, and was surveyed by questionnaire. Data on hospital characteristics and 8 key domains of hospital resilience were collected and analysed. Variables were binary, and analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies. Results A response rate of 82% (n = 41) was attained. Factor analysis identified four key factors from eight domains which appear to reflect the overall level of disaster resilience. These were hospital safety, disaster management mechanisms, disaster resources and disaster medical care capability. The survey demonstrated that in regard to hospital safety, 93% had syndromic surveillance systems for infectious diseases and 68% had evaluated their safety standards. In regard to disaster management mechanisms, all had general plans, while only 20% had specific plans for individual hazards. 49% had a public communication protocol and 43.9% attended the local coordination meetings. In regard to disaster resources, 75.6% and 87.5% stockpiled emergency drugs and materials respectively, while less than a third (30%) had a signed Memorandum of Understanding with other hospitals to share these resources. Finally in regard to medical care, 66% could dispatch an on-site medical rescue team, but only 5% had a ‘portable hospital’ function and 36.6% and 12% of the hospitals could surge their beds and staff capacity respectively. The average beds surge capacity within 1 day was 13%. Conclusions This study validated the broad utility of a framework for understanding and measuring the

  17. Impact of climate variability on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a public health problem in the remote and poor area of Yunnan Province, China. Yunnan faces an increasing risk of imported malaria infections from Mekong river neighboring countries. This study aimed to identify the high risk area of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, and to estimate the effects of climatic variability on the transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the identified area. Methods We identified spatial clusters of malaria cases using spatial cluster analysis at a county level in Yunnan Province, 2005–2010, and estimated the weekly effects of climatic factors on P. vivax and P. falciparum based on a dataset of daily malaria cases and climatic variables. A distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the impact of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall up to 10–week lags on both types of malaria parasite after adjusting for seasonal and long-term effects. Results The primary cluster area was identified along the China–Myanmar border in western Yunnan. A 1°C increase in minimum temperature was associated with a lag 4 to 9 weeks relative risk (RR), with the highest effect at lag 7 weeks for P. vivax (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.05) and 6 weeks for P. falciparum (RR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.11); a 10-mm increment in rainfall was associated with RRs of lags 2-4 weeks and 9-10 weeks, with the highest effect at 3 weeks for both P. vivax (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.04) and P. falciparum (RR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.06); and the RRs with a 10% rise in relative humidity were significant from lag 3 to 8 weeks with the highest RR of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.10, 1.41) for P. vivax at 5-week lag. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the China–Myanmar border is a high risk area for malaria transmission. Climatic factors appeared to be among major determinants of malaria transmission in this area. The estimated lag effects for the association between temperature and malaria are consistent with the life

  18. [Investigation of a Patient with Pre-vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Yao; Wang, Suting; Zhang Xiao; Song, Lizhi; Tao, Zexin; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the genetic characteristics of a polio-I highly variant vaccine recombinant virus in Shandong Province (China) in 2011 and to identify isolates from healthy contacts, two stool specimens from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and 40 stool specimens from his contacts were collected for virus isolation. The complete genome of poliovirus and VP1 coding region of the non-polio enterovirus were sequenced. Homologous comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 sequences were undertaken among coxsackievirus (CV) B1, CV-B3 isolates, and those in GenBank. One poliovirus (P1/11186), CV-A4 and CV-A8 were isolated from the AFP patient; one CV-A2, Echovirus 3 (E-3), E-12 and E-14, ten CV-B1, and five CV-B3 strains were isolated from his contacts. These results led us to believe that there may be a human enterovirus epidemic in this area, and that surveillance must be enhanced. P1/11186 was a type-1 vaccine-related poliovirus; it combined with type-2 and type-3 polioviruses in 2A and 3A regions, respectively. There were 25 nucleotide mutations with 9 amino-acid alterations in the entire genome. There were 8 nucleotide mutations with 5 amino-acid alterations in the VP1 region compared with the corresponding Sabin strains. Homology analyses suggested that the ten CV-B1 isolates had 97.0%-100% nucleotide and 98.9%-100% amino-acid identities with each other, as well as 92.6%-100% nucleotide and 99.2%-100% amino-acid identities among the five CV-B3 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses on the complete sequences of VP1 among CV-B1 and CV-B3 isolates showed that Shandong strains, together with strains from other provinces in China, had a close relationship and belonged to the same group. PMID:26738293

  19. Nuurcala obesa sp. n. (Blattida, Caloblattinidae) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Liaoning Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chongda; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nuurcala obesa sp. n., in the cockroach family Caloblattinidae, is described from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Liaoning Province, China) based on a combination of differential characters of fore- and hind wing venation, colouration and body structures. Systematically, Nuurcala (Vršanský, 2003), known from the Cretaceous sediments of Bon Tsagaan and Khurilt, Mongolia, is closely related to other genera of Caloblattinidae known from the Jurassic and Cretaceous localities in other parts of Asia. PMID:23950675

  20. A new species of Paracleistostoma De Man, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Camptandriidae) from Haikou, Hainan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han Lun; Huang, Jian Rong

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Paracleistostoma De Man, 1895, P. meilanense n. sp. is reported from mangroves forests in Haikou, Hainan Province, China. The new species inhabits mud burrows in the upper intertidal zone and is sympatric with P. tomentosa Yang & Sun, 1993, and P. depressum De Man, 1895. The slender chelipeds as well as the characteristic morphology of the male first pleopod easily distinguishes the species from congeners. PMID:27395229

  1. The occurrence of an exotic bisexual Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, in two coastal salterns of Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo; Sun, Shichun; Ma, Lin

    2004-10-01

    The alien halophilous Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, was found in Chengkou Saltern and Yangkou Saltern of Shandong Province, P.R. China. Although the indigenous parthenogenetic Artemia is detectable, the exotic species is dominant in both salterns. The cross-breeding tests between the exotic A. franciscana and 5 bisexual Artemia species were conducted. The results of hybridization and morphological observations on the exotic A. franciscana are briefly presented in this short communication.

  2. Hydrogeology in The Semi-Arid South-West of Madagascar - a Multi-Scale Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, A.; Dworak, L.; Rasoloariniaina, J.; Brinkmann, K.; Kobbe, S.; Buerkert, A.

    2014-12-01

    The project „Sustainable Land Management" (SuLaMa) aims at the participatory development and implementation of alternative land-use management practices to protect the ecosystem and its biodiversity and improve the livelihood of the local population in a sustainable manner. One critical aspect within this project is the availability of sustainable water resources. To approach reliable estimates about the availability and dynamics of the water resources, we started a study to understand in detail the hydrogeology of the South-West of Madagascar. As this area has an extend of about 40000 square kilometers, the study is based on a multi-scale approach. Rough large scale estimates are utilized to develop a general understanding of the hydrogeology in the South-West of Madagascar, which allows for large scale estimates of hydrogeology under changing boundary conditions like climate change. Detailed investigations at target villages of the SuLaMa project, combined with boundary conditions derived from the large scale hydrogeological model, allows for estimates of the local hydrogeology under changing boundary conditions like enhanced water abstraction. Although several governmental and nongovernmental institutions have been working on the water resources of the South-West of Madagascar in the past, only few sources on the hydrogeology of this area can be found in literature. To improve the data base we installed five automatic loggers in the area to measure groundwater levels as function of time and investigated in detail about one hundred wells in terms of geometry, groundwater level, electrical conductivity and pH. First preliminary results of the study show that the hydrogeology in the study area is dominated by four major hydrogeological units (fractured crystalline basement, karstic plateau, porous perched aquifers and a porous coastal area) and can be analyzed effectively by assuming a radial symmetric geometry. Ongoing efforts are the development of a model for

  3. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  4. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term. PMID:27228611

  5. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  6. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Ambient PM2.5 Concentrations in Shandong Province (China).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George

    2015-11-17

    China experiences severe particulate matter (PM) pollution problems closely linked to its rapid economic growth. Advancing the understanding and characterization of spatiotemporal air pollution distribution is an area where improved quantitative methods are of great benefit to risk assessment and environmental policy. This work uses the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method to assess the space-time variability of PM2.5 concentrations and predict their distribution in the Shandong province, China. Daily PM2.5 concentrations obtained at air quality monitoring sites during 2014 were used. On the basis of the space-time PM2.5 distributions generated by BME, we performed three kinds of querying analysis to reveal the main distribution features. The results showed that the entire region of interest is seriously polluted (BME maps identified heavy pollution clusters during 2014). Quantitative characterization of pollution severity included both pollution level and duration. The number of days during which regional PM2.5 exceeded 75, 115, 150, and 250 μg m(-3) varied: 43-253, 13-128, 4-66, and 0-15 days, respectively. The PM2.5 pattern exhibited an increasing trend from east to west, with the western part of Shandong being a heavily polluted area (PM2.5 exceeded 150 μg m(-3) during long time periods). Pollution was much more serious during winter than during other seasons. Site indicators of PM2.5 pollution intensity and space-time variation were used to assess regional uncertainties and risks with their interpretation depending on the pollutant threshold. The observed PM2.5 concentrations exceeding a specified threshold increased almost linearly with increasing threshold value, whereas the relative probability of excess pollution decreased sharply with increasing threshold. PMID:26501430

  7. [Genetic Characteristics of Type 2 Vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shanxi Province (China) in 2014].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongrei; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianfang; Zhu, Shuangli; Wang, Dongyan; Zhang, Chuangye; Zhu, Hui; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization redefined the type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in 2010. To study the genetic characteristics and evolution of type 2 VDPV under this new definition, we conducted genome sequencing and analyses of type 2 VDPVs isolated from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis in Shanxi province (China) in 2014. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length of type 2 VDPV is 7439 bases encoding 2207 amino acids with no insertion or deletion of nucleotides compared with Sabin2. One nucleotide substitution identified as a key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (A-G reversion at nucleotide nt 481 in the 5-end of the untranslated region) had reverted in the Shanxi type 2 VDPV. The other known key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (U-->C reversion at nt2909 in the VP1 coding region that caused a Ile143Thr substitution in VP1) had not reverted in the Shanxi VDPV. The Shanxi type 2 VDPV was S2/S1 recombinant, the crossover site of which mapped to the 3-end of the 3D region (between nt 6247 and nt 6281). A phylogentic tree based on the VP1 coding region showed that evolution of the Shanxi type 2 VDPV was independent of other type 2 VDPVs detected worldwide. We estimated that the strain circulated for approximately = 11 months in the population according to the known evolution rate. The present study confirmed that the Chinese Polio Laboratory Network could discover the VDPV promptly and that it played an important part in maintenance of a polio-free China. PMID:26164941

  8. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guiqin; Chen, Jingqi; Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yanqin; Wang, Yazhe; Yao, Meiling

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of child physical maltreatment (CPM) in children with autism aged 2-5 years in Henan province (China), and to explore the risk factors for severe CPM in these children. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Psychology Clinic of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between September 2012 and September 2013 with 180 parents of children with autism. Children and parents had no history of any cognitive therapy. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was used to evaluate the severity of autism in children. Data on parental CPM during the past 3 months were collected from parental self-reporting. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors of severe CPM. CPM was self-reported by 88% of the parents of children with autism. One hundred and fifty four of these cases were in the minor CPM group (86%) and 64 in the severe CPM group (36%). Most cases of severe CPM were unlikely to have caused injury. Univariate analyses showed that child's age (p=.018), age started to speak (p=.043) and CARS score (p=.048) were associated with severe CPM. Child's age (p=.011) and CARS score (p=.041) were independently associated with severe CPM. The risk of severe CPM increased with age and CARS score. Our findings showed that CPM is widespread in families of children with autism in Central China and more knowledge should be provided to parents of children with autism, particularly in cases of severe autism (those with high CARS scores). PMID:25957752

  9. The Characteristics of Heterosexual STD Clinic Attendees Who Practice Oral Sex in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Pan, Xiaohong; Cai, Gaofeng; Yan, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Background The characteristics of heterosexual attendees who visit sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and practice oral sex have not been revealed in China. This information is important for the development of targeted STD prevention programmes for this population. Study Design A self-administered questionnaire survey with a cross-sectional design was administered to consecutive attendees at four STD clinics in Zhejiang Province, China, between October and December in 2007. Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with oral sex over a lifetime were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 872 attendees, 6.9% engaged in oral sex over their lifetimes. Of the oral-sex group, 96.6% also engaged in vaginal sex. The correlates for oral sex over a lifetime as determined by the multivariate analysis were high income (odds ratio [OR] = 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39–4.59), high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.26–5.81), early sex initiation (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.37–4.27), multiple sexual partners (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.58–6.06), and sexually active in the previous 6 months (OR = 7.73, 95% CI 1.04–57.39). Conclusions Though the prevalence of oral sex is low, the heterosexual STD clinic attendees practicing oral sex was found to have higher risks associated with STD/HIV transmission than those not. Behavioural and medical interventions conducted by clinicians in Chinese STD clinics should take into account the characteristics and related risks of those who practice oral sex. PMID:23825627

  10. The Impact of Physical Facilities on Students' Level of Motivation and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, Comfort Olufunke; Adesua, Veronica Olubunmi

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the relevance of physical facilities in enhancing the level of motivation and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The population consists of all senior secondary students in South West Nigeria. The sample for the study include one thousand…

  11. Prevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in five provinces of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Ma, Xusheng; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Jia-Ping; Ba, Heng-Xing; Rui-Du; Xing, Xiu Mei; Wang, Quan-Kai; Zhao, Quan

    2016-09-01

    The disease microsporidiosis is found worldwide and is mainly caused by Enterocytozoon bieneusi. E. bieneusi can infect a wide range of hosts; however, information regarding the prevalence and genotyping of E. bieneusi infection in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is limited. Therefore, in 2015, we examined 305 faecel samples from 80 farmed raccoon dogs in Jilin Province, from 54 in Hebei Province, from 72 in Liaoning Province, from 29 in Shandong Province, and from 40 in Heilongjiang Province. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs was 22.30%. Logistic regression analysis suggests that age, gender and region of raccoon dogs were highly related to the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection. Moreover, six E. bieneusi internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences, including four known genotypes, namely D, CHN-DC1, NCF2, and CHN-F1, and two novel genotypes (NCR1 and NCR2), were identified in the present study. The present study firstly indicated the existence of E. bieneusi genotypes NCF2, NCR1, NCR2and CHN-F1 in infected raccoon dogs in Northern China. Integrated control strategies should be implemented to limit E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs, and to prevent transmission of this disease to other animals and humans. PMID:27260667

  12. Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran’s I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. PMID:24852390

  13. Epidemiology and vector efficiency during a dengue fever outbreak in Cixi, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianci; Lu, Liang; Fu, Guiming; Zhong, Shi; Ding, Gangqiang; Xu, Rong; Zhu, Guangfeng; Shi, Nanfeng; Fan, Feilong; Liu, Qiyong

    2009-06-01

    An emigrant worker returning from Southeast Asia triggered the outbreak of a DF epidemic in Zhejiang province, China, in October, 2004. Eighty-three cases, mainly young and middle-aged people between 20 and 50 (78.3%), were reported in the area of Cixi. There were no obvious occupational patterns. The majority of cases were female, with a sex ratio of 1:1.86 (m:f). The dengue virus (DENV) strains from the epidemic area were isolated and identified as DENV-1, which belongs to Asian strain 1. According to the epidemiological investigation, the incidence of DF had no relationship to temperature, humidity, or precipitation, and the Breteau index of larvae showed a clear relationship only with the House Index and Container Index. Recent dengue problems in the town have been associated with the complex social factors and hygienic conditions for endemic villagers and immigrant workers. Some hygienic measures should be taken by the local government to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne disease. These measures should aim to eliminate the breeding sites of the vector Aedes albopictus in indoor and outdoor containers filled with rainwater and thus reducing the risk of DF transmission. PMID:20836815

  14. Molecular characteristics of Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenpeng; Yang, Zushun; Chen, Yujuan; Yin, Jianwen; Yang, Jianbin; Li, Chaoqun; Zhou, Yongming; Yin, Jie; Xu, Wen; Zhao, Shiwen; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Jing, Huaiqi; Fu, Xiaoqing

    2015-03-01

    Previously, the prevalence of Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A in Yunnan was high; and recently Yunnan was the predominant endemic province in China. To identify the molecular epidemiology, antibiotic resistance profile and genotypic diversity of the S. Paratyphi A isolates from 1995 to 2013 in Yunnan, we performed the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to identify the characteristics of the bacterial isolates. The results showed from 1995 to 2013, 366 S. Paratyphi A were isolated: 295 isolates (80.6%) from Yuxi and 68 isolates (18.58%) from Honghe. All of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, and some were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in different years. All the isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. Identical PFGE with two enzyme digestion patterns were found for 339 isolates. Some environmental isolates in different years were homologous with the strains isolated from food and patients. MLST showed 349 strains were ST85, only 17 isolates were ST129. S. Paratyphi A isolates from Yunnan showed a high similarity, and we found the pathogen isolated from patients, the environment and food had the close epidemiological relationship, forming a transmission circulation. These findings have important implications for paratyphoid-control strategies. PMID:25555526

  15. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area. PMID:19160059

  16. Emergence of reticuloendotheliosis virus in pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Tao; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Wen-Kang; Lv, Dian-Hong; Chen, Rui-Ai

    2016-07-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an important immunosuppressive pathogen, has many hosts, including chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, and wild birds. Clinically, REV may lead to increased susceptibility to other pathogens, resulting in serious tissue damage (especially tumors) and the death of its host. In this study, we encountered a disease outbreak resulting in a large number of deaths of pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China. Histopathological analysis revealed apparent tumor-like lesions in multiple organs of pigeons. PCR assays for detection of tumor-associated pathogens (REV, avian leukosis virus, and Marek's disease virus) in poultry revealed the presence of REV sequences only. Moreover, fowlpox virus (FPV) with an insertion of REV long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences was also considered, but it was excluded using a specific PCR assay. To gain more genetic information, two full-length REV genome sequences were determined and found to have the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (99.9 %) and the closest genetic relationship to a vaccine strain (MD-2) and had a more distant genetic relationship (94.3 %) to a duck-origin strain (ATCC-VR775). To confirm the presence of REVs in pigeons, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and healthy pigeons were inoculated with microfiltered tumor tissue homogenates and were found to be susceptible to infection with REV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of REV in pigeons, and the data suggest that pigeons may be the natural host of REV. PMID:27120185

  17. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in bats from Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cao, Lili; He, Biao; Li, Jiping; Hu, Tingsong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Fan, Quanshui; Tu, Changchun; Liu, Quan

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in bats. A total of 247 bats, belonging to Rhinolophus sinicus , Rousettus leschenaultia, Aselliscus stoliczkanus , and Hipposideros fulvus , were collected in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and the intestinal tissues were examined for Cryptosporidium infection by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA). The overall infection rate was 7.7% (95% CI, 4.5 to 11.0%), with R. sinicus having the highest level at 9.5% (95% CI, 2.8 to 16.1%) followed by A. stoliczkanus at 7.8% (95% CI, 2.2 to 18.9%), H. fulvus at 7.2% (95% CI, 1.1 to 13.4%), and R. leschenaultia at 5.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 15.7%). DNA sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA revealed the presence of 2 novel genotypes, designated as Cryptosporidium bat genotype I in A. stoliczkanus and R. sinicus and Cryptosporidium bat genotype II in R. leschenaultia, R. sinicus , and H. fulvus . This is the first report of Cryptosporidium genotypes in bats. Further biological and genetic characterization is needed to determine the relationship of the 2 novel genotypes to established Cryptosporidium species-genotypes. PMID:23886252

  18. Problematic Internet Use in High School Students in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ciyong; Wu, Jie; Deng, Xueqing; Hong, Lingyao

    2011-01-01

    Background Problematic Internet Use (PIU) is a growing problem in Chinese adolescents. There are many risk factors for PIU, which are found at school and at home. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and to investigate the potential risk factors for PIU among high school students in China. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 14,296 high school students were surveyed in four cities in Guangdong province. Problematic Internet Use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test (YIAT). Information was also collected on demographics, family and school-related factors and Internet usage patterns. Of the 14,296 students, 12,446 were Internet users. Of those, 12.2% (1,515) were identified as problematic Internet users (PIUs). Generalized mixed-model regression revealed that there was no gender difference between PIUs and non-PIUs. High study-related stress, having social friends, poor relations with teachers and students and conflictive family relationships were risk factors for PIU. Students who spent more time on-line were more likely to develop PIU. The habits of and purposes for Internet usage were diverse, influencing the susceptibility to PIU. Conclusions/Significance PIU is common among high school students, and risk factors are found at home and at school. Teachers and parents should pay close attention to these risk factors. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem. PMID:21573073

  19. Land salinization classification method using Landsat TM in western Jilin Province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Haoyang; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Sun, Jian

    2014-10-01

    In the study of land salinization classification, researchers are most concerned about the distribution, area and degree of salinization. Traditional classification methods of land salinization only manually extract the sample data from the study area, which cannot obtain the classification results for large area. With the development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data is often used to extract and analyze the information of saline-alkali soil. At present, most classification methods of land salinization utilize the spectral information of remote sensing data based on supervised classification or unsupervised classification, which still have some errors in the classification results. Combining the sample data with Landsat TM images, the Western Jilin Province of China was selected as the study area in this paper. Through analyzing the relationship between the spectral characteristics and the content of soil salinity of the sample data extracted from different types of saline-alkali land, a land salinization classification method using the decision tree was proposed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can supply more accurate classification information of land salinization, and further effectively monitor soil salinization changes for the study area.

  20. GNSS Positioning by CORS and EGM2008 in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Kang, Jingyu; Li, Shuwen; Zhen, Jianing; Li, Hongqing

    2015-01-01

    The Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) technique has been widely applied in land resource management, surveying, mapping, deformation monitoring, precise navigation, etc. This article analyzed the positioning method using EGM2008 and CORS of Jilin Province, China. The vertical transformation of EGM2008 from WGS84 to China’s CGCS2000 datum and the horizontal coordinate transformation from CGCS2000 to a triangulation coordinate system were discussed. The results indicated that a local geoid with respect to CGCS2000 can be transferred from EGM2008 with the same accuracy, and the geoid correction between CGCS2000 and WGS84 varied from 0.023 m to 0.111 m. The coordinate transformation method based on the curve surface approximation method indicated that the theoretical error was less than 0.09 m in the grid within 10° longitudinal and 5° latitudinal, and less than 0.3 m in large area and 0.1 m in small area in field validation. The method proposed in this article expanded the positioning result and its application for JLCORS and other CORS with local datum. PMID:26690150

  1. Flavonoid intake and the risk of age-related cataract in China's Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingna; Gao, Weiqi; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing age-related cataract (ARC). Flavonoids are widely distributed in foods of plant origin, and the objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the association between the intakes of the five flavonoid subclasses and the risk of ARC. Subjects/methods A population-based case-control study (249 cases and 66 controls) was carried out in Heilongjiang province, which is located in the northeast of China, and where intakes and availability of fresh vegetables and fruits can be limited. Dietary data gathered by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to calculate flavonoid intake. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Results No linear associations between risk of developing ARC and intakes of total dietary flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavon-3-ol, flavanone, total flavones or total flavonols were found, but quercetin and isorhamnetin intake was inversely associated with ARC risk (OR 11.78, 95% CI: 1.62–85.84, p<0.05, and OR 6.99, 95% CI: 1.12–43.44, p<0.05, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, respectively). Conclusion As quercetin is contained in many plant foods and isorhamnetin in very few foods, we concluded that higher quercetin intake may be an important dietary factor in the reduction of the risk of ARC. PMID:26652740

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Guizhou Province of China Against 13 Antituberculosis Drugs.

    PubMed

    Li, Nana; Liao, Xiaoqin; Chen, Ling; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2015-06-01

    A total of 92 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the Zunyi region between 2011 and 2012. Collected isolates were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns against 13 anti-TB drugs: 4 first-line and 9 second-line (ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin, and prothionamide) drugs. Results showed that among 57 new cases of TB only 66.7% were susceptible to all four first-line anti-TB drugs and 64.9% were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectables; 10.5% of new and 22.9% of previously treated cases were multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); and 1.8% of new and 2.9% of previously treated cases were extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). In addition, 14.3% of MDR-TB cases (2 out of 14) were XDR-TB, which is higher than the average numbers in China (about 8%) and in the world (9.6%). This study confirms that primary transmission of drug-resistant TB, including MDR/XDR-TB, is a real threat to achieving effective control of drug-resistant TB in the Guizhou Province and indicates the necessity to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns in patients with TB to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25599413

  3. Genetic, pathogenic and antigenic diversity of Newcastle disease viruses in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyan; Yang, Shaohua; Hu, Beixia; Xu, Chuantian; Gao, Dandan; Zhu, Manling; Huang, Qinghua; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Xiumei; Khan, Marzhar I

    2015-11-18

    Thirty-one Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated from domestic and wild birds in Shandong Province, China (2006-2014) were characterized genetically, pathogenically and antigenically. Phylogenetic analysis classified the viruses into a single genotype under Class I, and four genotypes under Class II. The nineteen viruses classified in genotype VII of Class II were velogenic, while the other viruses were either mesogenic or lentogenic to chickens. Some NDV isolates (17/23) showed no neutralizing reactivity with a monoclonal antibody developed against the HN protein of the LaSota strain, reflecting the mutation at the related antigenic epitope. When challenged with two genotype VII NDV isolates, LaSota-vaccinated SPF chickens were prevented from disease development, but virus shedding was detected for at least 5 days post challenge. Circulation of the same NDV isolate for up to 13 years suggested the role of an environmental reservoir in NDV perpetuation, and reinforced the importance of strict biosecurity measures in addition to vaccination for disease control. PMID:26386490

  4. Jonesia luteola sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Ma, Yong-Chun; Gong, Zhi-Lian; Jia, Man; Tian, Fei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tang, Shu-Kun

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe microorganism, designated YIM 93067(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang Province of China and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 93067(T) grew at 5-40 °C, 0-8.0 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 7.0-9.0. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism belongs to the genus Jonesia and exhibited a sequence similarity of 98.8 % to the closely related type strain Jonesia quinghaiensis DSM 15701(T). The predominant menaquinone was MK-9 and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and one unidentified phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 57.4 mol%. Based on the results of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic comparative analyses, the isolate is assigned to a novel species of the genus Jonesia, for which the name Jonesia luteola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain YIM 93067(T) (=DSM 21367(T) = CCTCC AB 2014350(T)). PMID:26122886

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of the Permo-Triassic boundary section at Shangsi (Guangyuan, Sichuan Province, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Friedrich; Lowrie, William; Huamei, Li; Junda, Wang

    1988-05-01

    Continous marine sedimentation characterizes many Late Permian to Early Triassic sections on the Yangtze terrane in South China. The Permo-Triassic (P/Tr) boundary section at Shangsi (Sichuan Province) consists of limestones intercalated with clays and mudstones which belong to the Wuchiapingian and Changxingian (Upper Permian) and the Griesbachian and Dienerian (Lower Triassic) stages. The P/Tr boundary is formed by a clay horizon with an unusually high iridium concentration. The intensity of natural remanent magnetization is very low with a mean of 0.15 mA m -1. About 40% of the samples contain secondary or unstable magnetization components only, whereas the remaining samples carry a characteristic remanent magnetization thought to reflect the polarity of the geomagnetic field during deposition with sufficient accuracy. Normal and reversed polarity of the characteristic magnetization constitute a pattern of at least six polarity zones, the P/Tr boundary being situated very close to the transition from a reversed to a normal polarity zone. The Shangsi polarity sequence represents part of the Illawarra interval of mixed polarity, the exact beginning of which has still to be determined.

  6. Shifts in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Schistosomiasis: A Case Study in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese national surveillance system showed that the risk of Schistosoma japonicum infection fluctuated temporally. This dynamical change might indicate periodicity of the disease, and its understanding could significantly improve targeted interventions to reduce the burden of schistosomiasis. The goal of this study was to investigate how the schistosomiasis risk varied temporally and spatially in recent years. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasitological data were obtained through repeated cross-sectional surveys that were carried out during 1997-2010 in Anhui Province, East China. A multivariate autoregressive model, combined with principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis, was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that the temporal changes of schistosomiasis risk in the study area could be decomposed into two sustained damped oscillatory modes with estimated period of approximately 2.5 years. The POPs associated with these oscillatory components showed that the pattern near the Yangtze River varied markedly and that the disease risk appeared to evolve in a Southwest/Northeast orientation. The POP coefficients showed decreasing tendency until 2001, then increasing during 2002-2005 and decaying afterwards. Conclusion The POP analysis characterized the variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time and demonstrated that the disease mainly varied temporally along the Yangtze River. The schistosomiasis risk declined periodically with a temporal fluctuation. Whether it resulted from previous national control strategies on schistosomiasis needs further investigations. PMID:25881189

  7. Identification and Characterization of Porcine Kobuvirus Variant Isolated from Suckling Piglet in Gansu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengtao; Sun, Heting; Ying, Ying; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Yicong; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Yu, Zhijun; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2013-01-01

    Kobuviruses comprise three species, the Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus). Porcine kobuvirus is endemic to pig farms and is not restricted geographically but, rather, is distributed worldwide. The complete genomic sequences of four porcine kobuvirus strains isolated during a diarrhea outbreak in piglets in the Gansu province of China were determined. Two of these strains exhibited variations relative to the traditional strains. The potential 3C/3D cleavage sites of the variant strains were Q/C, which differed from the Q/S in the traditional porcine kobuvirus genome. A 90-nucleotide deletion in the 2B protein and a single nucleotide insertion in the 3′UTR were found in the variant strains. The VP1 regions of all four porcine kobuviruses in our study were highly variable (81%–86%). Ten common amino acid mutations were found specifically at certain positions within the VP1 region. Significant recombination sites were identified using SimPlot scans of whole genome sequences. Porcine kobuviruses were also detected in pig serum, indicating that the virus can escape the gastrointestinal tract and travel to the circulatory system. These findings suggest that mutations and recombination events may have contributed to the high level of genetic diversity of porcine kobuviruses and serve as a driving force in its evolution. PMID:24145960

  8. Prevalence and subtyping of Cronobacter species in goat milk powder factories in Shaanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ruoyu; Wang, Qianning; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Binyun; Geng, Wei; Feng, Xianchao; Yang, Junjun; Yang, Jing; Ge, Wupeng

    2015-11-01

    Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens that can cause serious diseases in neonates and infants via consumption of contaminated milk powder. To determine Cronobacter spp. contamination status, 632 samples, including 15 evaporated milk, 45 intermediate powder, 150 finished products, and 422 manufacturing environment samples, were collected from 3 goat milk powder factories in Shaanxi province, China, from July 2013 to April 2014. The recovered Cronobacter isolates were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to trace the potential dissemination routes during the whole production processing. Sixty-seven Cronobacter spp. isolates were recovered. The prevalence rates in manufacturing environment, intermediate powder, and finished products were 92.5, 6.0, and 1.5%, respectively. The predominant species were Cronobacter sakazakii (88.1%); no Cronobacter turicensis, Cronobacter condimenti, or Cronobacter dublinensis were detected. Sixty-seven Cronobacter isolates were grouped in 26 clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and substantial genetic similarity was observed among isolates from different sampling sites in the same factory. Isolates in the main clusters were commonly recovered from intermediate powder, floor powder, and shoes. These data indicated that air, powder, and personnel movement were potential routes for Cronobacter dissemination, and manufacturing environment is the key control point for Cronobacter contamination. PMID:26387017

  9. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

  10. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Domestic Animals in Ten Provinces/Cities of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Hong; Xu, Bianli; Lu, Qunying; Li, Liang; Chang, Litao; Zhang, Xiuchun; Fan, Desheng; Li, Guohua; Jin, Yuming; Cui, Feng; Shi, Yonglin; Li, Weihong; Xu, Jianguo; Yu, Xue Jie

    2012-01-01

    A nationwide epidemiologic investigation of domestic animal infections has been conducted in nine provinces and one city during 2007–2010. Serum samples from a total of 707 goats, 433 cattle, and 219 dogs were collected for detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum IgG antibody by immunofluorescence assays and the average seroprevalences were 10.05% for dogs, 3.82% for goats, and 0.69% for cattle, respectively. A total of 472 goats, 201 cattle, 102 dog blood clots, and 1,580 ticks were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA genes and the PCR-positive rates were 26.69% for goats, 23.38% for cattle, and 10.89% for dogs. Six species were identified and the average PCR-positive rates were 58.3% for Dermacentor silvarum, 43.9% for Haemaphysalis longicornis, 12.5% for Ixodes persulcatus, 7.5% (3 of 40) for Boophilus microplus, and 5.2% for Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. The evidence in the study indicated the zoonotic Rickettsia is highly prevalent in China. PMID:22764312

  11. Contents and occurrence of cadmium in the coals from Guizhou Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Dangyu Song; Mingshi Wang; Junying Zhang; Chuguang Zheng

    2008-10-15

    Eleven raw coal samples were collected from Liuzhi, Suicheng, Zunyi, Xingren, Xingyi, and Anlong districts in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The content of cadmium (Cd) in coal was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd contents ranged from 0.146 to 2.74 ppm (whole coal basis), with an average of 1.09 ppm. In comparison with the arithmetic means of Cd in Chinese coal (0.25 ppm), this is much higher. In order to find its occurrence in coal, float-sink analysis and a coal flotation test by progressive release were conducted on two raw coal samples. The content of the Cd and ash yield of the flotation products were determined. The organic matter was removed by low-temperature ashing (LTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to differentiate the main, minor, and trace minerals in the LTA from different flotation subproducts. Quartz, kaolinite, pyrite, and calcite were found to dominate the mineral matters, with a proportion of anatase, muscovite, and illite. Then quantitative analysis of minerals in LTA was conducted using material analysis using diffraction (MAUD) based on the Rietveld refinement method. Results show that Cd has a strong association with kaolinite.

  12. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6) in Yunnan province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Jibo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary. PMID:27489694

  13. Regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Zihong; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Løvlie, Reidar; Liu, Liqiang; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study on regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China, was performed in this study. To get a better understanding of the present-day stress status in this area, 31 focal mechanisms of M L ≥3 earthquakes since 1965 were compiled, and the best stress tensor was then inverted based on the database. Additionally, magnetic fabrics along the Taigu fault zone were investigated to get an indication of the regional stress field in the past. Our results show that the present-day stress field around the Taigu fault zone is characterized by astable NW-SE extension with a strike-slip component, consistent with the geological surveys and recent GPS data. Results from magnetic fabrics indicate that the orientations of principal stress axes from magnetic fabrics of sedimentary rocks in Neogene coincide to the orientations of principal stress axes from focal mechanisms. The south segment of the Taigu fault displays more complicated magnetic fabrics and more activity of moderate earthquakes. It is connected with the Mianshan west fault and intersects with NW-SE striking Fenyang fault and the north fault of the Lingshi uplift at the south edge of Taiyuan basin. This may be the area needing more attention in terms of seismic risk along the Taigu fault.

  14. Evaluating historical simulations of CMIP5 GCMs for key climatic variables in Zhejiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Weidong; Ma, Chong; Kang, Lili; Gu, Haiting; Pan, Suli; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the regional impact of climate change on agriculture, hydrology, and forests is vital for sustainable management. Trustworthy projections of climate change are needed to support these assessments. In this paper, 18 global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are evaluated for their ability to simulate regional climate change in Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. Simple graphical approaches and three indices are used to evaluate the performance of six key climatic variables during simulations from 1971 to 2000. These variables include maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, and relative humidity. These variables are of great importance to researchers and decision makers in climate change impact studies and developing adaptation strategies. This study found that most GCMs failed to reproduce the observed spatial patterns, due to insufficient resolution. However, the seasonal variations of the six variables are simulated well by most GCMs. Maximum and minimum air temperatures are simulated well on monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales. Solar radiation is reasonably simulated on monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales. Compared to air temperature and solar radiation, it was found that precipitation, wind speed, and relative humidity can only be simulated well at seasonal and yearly scales. Wind speed was the variable with the poorest simulation results across all GCMs.

  15. Microgeographic Heterogeneity of Border Malaria During Elimination Phase, Yunnan Province, China, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Hu, Yue; Ruan, Yonghua; Fan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    To identify township-level high-risk foci of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, China, along the international border, we retrospectively reviewed data collected in hospitals and clinics of 58 townships in 4 counties during 2011–2013. We analyzed spatiotemporal distribution, especially hot spots of confirmed malaria, using geographic information systems and Getis-Ord Gi*(d) cluster analysis. Malaria incidence, transmission seasonality, and Plasmodium vivax:P. falciparum ratio remained almost unchanged from 2011 to 2013, but heterogeneity in distribution increased. The number of townships with confirmed malaria decreased significantly during the 3 years; incidence became increasingly concentrated within a few townships. High-/low-incidence clusters of P. falciparum shifted in location and size every year, whereas the locations of high-incidence P. vivax townships remained unchanged. All high-incidence clusters were located along the China–Myanmar border. Because of increasing heterogeneity in malaria distribution, microgeographic analysis of malaria transmission hot spots provided useful information for designing targeted malaria intervention during the elimination phase. PMID:27433877

  16. Molecular epidemiology of PRRSV from China's Guangxi Province between 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yun; Liang, Jing-Jing; Meng, Xian-Ming; Li, Hui; Yang, Jian; Su, Li-Juan; Zhang, Hong-Pu; Xie, Lin-Juan; He, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yan-Sheng; Yin, Shan; Li, Xiao-Quan; Li, Xiao-Ning; Luo, Ting Rong

    2013-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases affecting livestock. This study used gene sequence analysis of ORF5 and Nsp2 to determine the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV in different parts of the Guangxi province of China. These genes were selected due to their extensive variation within the genome. Out of 189 samples from animals suspected to have PRRS, 145 were PRRSV RNA positive. ORF5 and Nsp2 gene sequence analysis of 31 of these samples showed that all of the Guangxi isolates were of type 2. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on ORF5 showed that the Guangxi isolates were divided into two groups. Most of these were closely related to highly pathogenic strains, showing a 30 amino acid deletion at positions 481 and 533-561 of Nsp2, but an additional unique isolate (GXNN06) possessed a further four amino acid deletion at positions 485-488 of Nsp2. PMID:23007890

  17. (Assessment of the potential of Yunnan Province, China to grow and convert biomass to electricity)

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    1990-10-15

    The purpose of the trip was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of biomass energy development in Yunnan Province, China. The evaluation included an assessment of the potential to grow and convert biomass to electricity, and an evaluation of the institutional relationships, which would be critical to the establishment of a collaborative biomass energy development project. This site visit was undertaken to evaluate the potential of an integrated biomass energy project, including the growing and handling of biomass feedstocks and its conversion to electricity. Based on this site visit, it was concluded that biomass production risks are real and further research on species screening and experiments is necessary before proceeding to the conversion phase of this project. The location of potential sites inspected and the logistics required for handling and transporting biomass may also be a concern. The commitment of support (labor and land) and leadership to this project by the Chinese is overwhelming exceeding all pre-site visit expectations. In sum, there is a definite opportunity in Yunnan for an integrated biomass energy project and a potential market for US technology.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from Sichuan and Gansu provinces of China in 2011.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. PMID:23506473

  19. Prevalence of Obesity and Related Factors among Bouyei and Han Peoples in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Dong, Fen; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and associated factors in Bouyei and Han peoples. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in Guizhou province, southwest China in 2012, with multi-stage sampling to enroll 4551 participants aged 20 to 80 years. General and abdominal obesity were defined by World Health Organization (WHO) for Chinese. A design-based analysis was performed to evaluate prevalence of obesity and its related factors. Results Bouyei people had a significantly lower prevalence of general obesity (4.8% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05) and abdominal obesity (13.6% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.05) than that in Han people. Prevalence of obesity increased with age until middle-age period and declined thereafter. Men aged 40–49 years group and women aged 50–59 years group have the highest prevalence of general obesity. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher than that of general obesity. Middle-age, Higher income, Han people were significantly associated with an increased risk of General/abdominal obesity. Conclusions Bouyei people had a lower prevalence of general and abdominal obesity than the Han people. Etiological studies should be conducted to determine underlying genetic factors and dietary factors. PMID:26075708

  20. Policy implementation of methadone maintenance treatment and HIV infection: evidence from Hubei province, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jifang; Zhao, Lianyi; Liang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    To view methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) globally, it is necessary to accumulate data on MMT policy implementation under different health service systems. The aim of the current study is to provide empirical evidence about policy implementation of MMT and HIV infection control, as well as recommendations for improvement of MMT in the future. Based on China's national policy framework of MMT, policy implementation of MMT in Hubei province has two objectives: 1) to create linkages between health and public security, and 2) to provide integrated services for management of drug abusers. From 2007 to 2011, following the establishment of MMT clinics that provide methadone as well as HIV prevention services, the proportion of HIV infection among drug abusers decreased relatively quickly (12.12% → 5.77% → 5.19% → 2.39% → 2.04%). However, high drop-out rate and poor information management have been identified as particular problems which now need to be addressed. Furthermore, client drop-out from MMT programs may reflect social issues the clients encounter, and consequently, sustainable MMT development requires incorporation of social measures that help MMT clients return to society without discrimination, especially through family cooperation and employment opportunities. PMID:24188659

  1. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  2. A Small Short-Necked Hupehsuchian from the Lower Triassic of Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Hupehsuchia is a group of enigmatic Triassic marine reptiles that is known exclusively from two counties in Hubei Province, China. One of the common features of the group was a modestly long neck with nine to ten cervical vertebrae. We report a new species of Hupehsuchia, Eohupehsuchus brevicollis gen. et sp. nov., which for the first time shows a short neck in this group, with six cervicals. The configuration of the skull roof in Eohupehsuchus is also unique among Hupehsuchia, with narrow frontals and posteriorly shifted parietals, warranting recognition of a new species. The taxon superficially resembles Nanchangosaurus in retaining hupehsuchian plesiomorphies, such as low neural spines and small body size. However, its limbs are well-developed, unlike in Nanchangosaurus, although the latter genus is marginally larger in body length. Thus, the individual is unlikely to be immature. Also, Eohupehsuchus shares a suite of synapomorphies with Hupehsuchus, including the second and third layers of dermal ossicles above the dorsal neural spines. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is not the most basal hupehsuchian despite its short neck, and instead forms the sister taxon of Hupehsuchidae. Until recently, Hupehsuchia contained only two monotypic genera. Now there are at least four genera among Hupehsuchia, and the undescribed diversity is even higher. The left forelimb of the only specimen is incomplete, ending with broken phalanges distally. The breakage could only have occurred pre-burial. The individual may have been attacked by a predator and escaped, given that scavenging is unlikely. PMID:25517113

  3. Integrated biochronology for Triassic marine vertebrate faunas of Guizhou Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zuoyu; Jiang, Dayong; Ji, Cheng; Hao, Weicheng

    2016-03-01

    The Middle and Upper Triassic marine deposits of Guizhou Province, which yielded exceptionally well-preserved vertebrate faunas, are further investigated. New age-diagnostic conodonts and ammonoids from six measured sections, together with already published data, allow us to construct an integrated biochronology straddling strata from the upper Guanling Formation (Anisian, Middle Triassic) to the basal Xiaowa Formation (Carnian, Upper Triassic). Age constrains for those fossil Lagerstätten are now dated to the substage and zone levels: the Panxian Fauna, within the conodont Nicoraella kockeli Zone and broadly coexisted with the ammonoid 'Schreyerites' binodosus, is suggested as latest Pelsonian (middle Anisian) in age; the Xingyi Fauna is assumed to be not younger than the middle Longobardian (Late Ladinian) because the conodont Paragondolella inclinata with free-blade and the ammonoid Haoceras xingyiensis are recorded from slightly younger strata; the conodont Paragondolella auriformis and the ammonoid Trachyceras multituberculatum and Austrotrachyceras triadicum clearly indicate that the Guanling Fauna is not older than Julian (early Carnian) in age (time interval between Aon Zone or Aonoides Zone). With the new biostratigraphic data, a relative sequence and correlation of the Middle Triassic vertebrate faunas from Guizhou (South China) and Monte San Giorgio (Southern Alps, Switzerland/Italy) is proposed.

  4. Identification and characterization of porcine kobuvirus variant isolated from suckling piglet in Gansu province, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengtao; Sun, Heting; Ying, Ying; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Yicong; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Yu, Zhijun; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2013-10-01

    Kobuviruses comprise three species, the Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus). Porcine kobuvirus is endemic to pig farms and is not restricted geographically but, rather, is distributed worldwide. The complete genomic sequences of four porcine kobuvirus strains isolated during a diarrhea outbreak in piglets in the Gansu province of China were determined. Two of these strains exhibited variations relative to the traditional strains. The potential 3C/3D cleavage sites of the variant strains were Q/C, which differed from the Q/S in the traditional porcine kobuvirus genome. A 90-nucleotide deletion in the 2B protein and a single nucleotide insertion in the 3'UTR were found in the variant strains. The VP1 regions of all four porcine kobuviruses in our study were highly variable (81%-86%). Ten common amino acid mutations were found specifically at certain positions within the VP1 region. Significant recombination sites were identified using SimPlot scans of whole genome sequences. Porcine kobuviruses were also detected in pig serum, indicating that the virus can escape the gastrointestinal tract and travel to the circulatory system. These findings suggest that mutations and recombination events may have contributed to the high level of genetic diversity of porcine kobuviruses and serve as a driving force in its evolution. PMID:24145960

  5. Sensitivity of the reference evapotranspiration to key climatic variables in Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jialin; Liu, Chaoshun; Zhou, Cong

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to predict responses of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) to perturbations of four climatic variables in Shandong province, China. For this purpose, ETo was estimated based on the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation, a non-dimensional relative sensitivity coefficient was employed. Climatic variables (i.e., daily air temperature, sunshine duration, wind speed and daily relative humidity) at 12 meteorological stations covering whole area (1960 to 2013) were collected firstly and used for the analysis. Results showed that ETo had positive sensitivities to air temperature, sunshine duration and wind speed, opposite to what were observed to relative humidity. The sensitivity of climatic parameters to ETo showed a decreasing trend: relative humidity> >sunshine duration>wind speed > air temperature. The sensitivity coefficients of different factors varied in time and space. From 1960 to 2013, the sensitivity coefficient of sunshine duration (Sn) showed a downward trend at a rate of (-4.3e-4)/a. The sensitivity coefficient of wind speed (SWS) and relative humidity (SRH) increased at a rate of (3.9e-4)/a and (1.9e-3)/a respectively, while the sensitivity coefficient of air temperature (ST) waved with a tiny decrease trend. The values of ST and Sn in southern were larger than in northern region. The values of SWS in southern and northeast region were smaller than that in the northern area. SRH in the central region was lower than other area, opposite to what were observed in coastal areas.

  6. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77-7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04-35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  7. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  8. Future potential evapotranspiration changes and contribution analysis in Zhejiang Province, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue-Ping; Pan, Suli; Fu, Guangtao; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Xujie

    2014-03-01

    Potential evapotranspiration is an important component of hydrological modeling. In this study, the objective is to project potential evapotranspiration in the future period 2011-2040 and understand their changes in Zhejiang Province, East China. The sensitivity of potential evapotranspiration to five climatic variables (solar radiation, daily minimum and maximum air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) is analyzed based on observation data from 1955-2008 using a global sensitivity analysis method, Sobol's method. The changes in potential evapotranspiration during the future period are generated using one regional climate model, Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies, with two global climate models, ECHAM5 and Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3, and their causes are analyzed based on sensitivity analysis results. Global sensitivity analysis results reveal substantial spatial-temporal variations in the sensitivity of potential evapotranspiration to climatic variables and unignorable interactions among climatic variables. Rather similar spatial change patterns of annual mean potential evapotranspiration (PET) are generated for both general circulation models; however, seasonal or monthly changes are very different due to different spatial-temporal changes in climatic variables. Different contributory sources to potential evapotranspiration changes are identified at different months and stations; the PET changes in 2011-2040 are mainly due to three climatic variables including solar radiation, relative humidity, and daily minimum temperature.

  9. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  10. External occupational exposures in some NORM industries located at the South-West of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolivar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    Detailed mappings of the external exposures which can be received by the workers in two NORM industrial factories located at the South-West of Spain have been performed: one devoted to the production of phosphoric acid, and the other devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments. In most places of the analyzed factories, the external exposures are moderated, although in some specific points, and associated to the presence of scales, their values are clearly higher. Nevertheless, under normal running conditions, the contribution of the external exposures to the effective doses received by the workers is lower than 1 mSv/y because the worker occupancy factors values are very low in the places with the highest external exposures.

  11. External occupational exposures in some NORM industries located at the South-West of Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, J. P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-07

    Detailed mappings of the external exposures which can be received by the workers in two NORM industrial factories located at the South-West of Spain have been performed: one devoted to the production of phosphoric acid, and the other devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments. In most places of the analyzed factories, the external exposures are moderated, although in some specific points, and associated to the presence of scales, their values are clearly higher. Nevertheless, under normal running conditions, the contribution of the external exposures to the effective doses received by the workers is lower than 1 mSv/y because the worker occupancy factors values are very low in the places with the highest external exposures.

  12. Extraordinarily high coral cover on a nearshore, high-latitude reef in south-west Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, D. P.; Frisch, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Photographic line transects were used to quantify the benthic community at Hall Bank, a small, nearshore, high-latitude reef in south-west Australia. On one of the seven transects, the coral cover was 72.5% (mean = 52.6 ± 0.45%), which is the highest ever recorded coral cover at or beyond 32°S. There were no macro-algae, possibly due to the high density of herbivorous sea-urchins (mean = 5.0 ± 0.8 m-2). Fourteen species of scleractinian corals dominated the benthos, seven of which were from the family Faviidae. Given that Hall Bank is at the limit of environmental tolerance for reef formation, it represents a valuable research opportunity for understanding the factors that build and maintain coral reef biodiversity and resilience.

  13. HPLC profiling of antimicrobial and antioxidant phyco sugars isolated from the South West coast of India.

    PubMed

    Kailas, Abhilash Parameswaran; Nair, Sukumaran Muraleedharan

    2016-10-20

    Phyco sugars isolated from the South West coast of India are commercially and therapeutically interesting due to their various biological activities. These sugars were isolated from six (three red and three green) seaweed species using water at 100°C followed by precipitation using ethanol. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics were explored with specific highlights onto the specific rotation, HPLC-RI sugar speciation, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The biological properties were evaluated based on multiple methods and standards, such that the actual nature of the sugar is understood. G. corticata var. cylindrica (31.66%) had the highest sugar content. All the sugars had levo rotatory specific rotation and interesting chemical characteristics. Sugars isolated had competitive biological activities and had the presence of seven monosaccharides and one disaccharide. The results highlighted the socio-economic importance of seaweeds which could be developed as a potential source of bioactive compounds in the upcoming future. PMID:27474603

  14. The South West Local Health Integration Network Behavioural Supports Ontario Experience.

    PubMed

    Gutmanis, Iris; Speziale, Jennifer; Van Bussel, Lisa; Girard, Julie; Hillier, Loretta; Simpson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Creating a seamless system of care with improved system and patient outcomes is imperative to the estimated 35,000 older adults living with mental health problems and addictions in the South West Local Health Integration Network. Building on existing investments and those offered through the Behavioural Supports Ontario program, strategies to improve system coordination were put in place, cross-sectoral partnerships were fostered, interdisciplinary teams from across the care continuum were linked, and educational opportunities were promoted. This evolving, co-created system has resulted in a decrease in alternate level of care cases among those with behavioural specialized needs and improved client/family perceptions of care. Also, in fiscal year 2014/15, it provided more than 7,000 care providers with learning opportunities. PMID:26854549

  15. The satellite-determined thermal structure of heat low during Indian south-west monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Desai, Pranav S.

    One of the important climatic features of the south-west (SW) monsoon period in the Indian subcontinent is the appearance of a shallow heat low centred around Pakistan region. The details of this system are not easy to observe, as the region lies mostly over a desert area. However, satellite soundings provide a frequent and synoptic view of the system. We have undertaken a study of the properties of this system through lower level and upper level thermal structure around the region using NOAA temperature soundings. The results for the months of April, May and June in the year 1982 are presented here. The temperature changes in the region are studied in relation to the date of the onset of SW-monsoon and its activity in the Indian sub-continent.

  16. Marriage, intimacy and risk of HIV infection in south west Uganda.

    PubMed

    Agol, Dorice; Bukenya, Dominic; Seeley, Janet; Kabunga, Elazabeth; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Long-term, monogamous, relationships are often portrayed as protective in HIV prevention campaigns. Focusing on marriage in a community in south west Uganda, we examine why and how people enter long term relationships, what their expectations are and what factors sustain those relationships. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews with 50 men and women randomly selected from a General Population Cohort. The results showed that managing expectations to sustain marriage is challenging; however the socio-economic and cultural benefits of marriage: having children, property acquisition as well as securing societal status tend to overshadow the costs associated with risks from infidelity such as sexually transmitted infections (including HIV). Recognising the compromises that couples may make to sustain their marriage is an important step towards acknowledging that 'being faithful' may be about staying together and showing commitment, not sexual exclusivity. PMID:25993749

  17. Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

  18. Retrieval of biophysical parameters with AVIRIS and ISM: The Landes Forest, south west France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagolski, F.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Mougin, E.; Giordano, G.; Marty, G.; Letoan, T.; Beaudoin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The first steps of an experiment for investigating the capability of airborne spectrometer data for retrieval of biophysical parameters of vegetation, especially water conditions are presented. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ISM data were acquired in the frame of the 1991 NASA/JPL and CNES campaigns on the Landes, South west France, a large and flat forest area with mainly maritime pines. In-situ measurements were completed at that time; i.e. reflectance spectra, atmospheric profiles, sampling for further laboratory analyses of elements concentrations (lignin, water, cellulose, nitrogen,...). All information was integrated in an already existing data base (age, LAI, DBH, understory cover,...). A methodology was designed for (1) obtaining geometrically and atmospherically corrected reflectance data, (2) registering all available information, and (3) analyzing these multi-source informations. Our objective is to conduct comparative studies with simulation reflectance models, and to improve these models, especially in the MIR.

  19. Traffic violations in Guangdong Province of China: speeding and drunk driving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Gong, Xiangpu

    2014-03-01

    The number of speeding- and drunk driving-related injuries in China surged in the years immediately preceding 2004 and then began to decline. However, the percent decrease in the number of speeding and drunk driving incidents (decrease by 22%) is not proportional to the corresponding percent decrease in number of automobile accident-related injuries (decrease by 47%) from the year 2004 to 2010 (Traffic Management Bureau, Ministry of Public Security, Annual Statistical Reports on Road Traffic Accidents). Earlier studies have established traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. In this study, we examine in greater detail two important types of traffic violation events, speeding and drunk driving, and attempt to identify significant risk factors associated with these types of traffic violations. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze the speeding (N=11,055) and drunk driving (N=10,035) data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report and are the only comprehensive and official source of traffic accident data in China. Significant risk factors associating with speeding and drunk driving are identified. We find that several factors are associated with a significantly higher probability of both speeding and drunk driving, particularly male drivers, private vehicles, the lack of street lighting at night and poor visibility. The impact of other specific and unique risk factors for either speeding or drunk driving, such as hukou, road type/grades, commercial vehicles, compulsory third party insurance and vehicle safety status, also require particular attention. Legislative or regulatory measures targeting different vehicle types and/or driver groups with respect to the various driver

  20. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. δ13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). δ34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive δ13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ∑REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in δ13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of δ34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior

  1. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus among Adults in South-West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Taherkhani, Reza; Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge regarding prevalence of HEV in general population can be an indicator of the public health and hygiene. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of HEV among adults in South-West of Iran. Methods. Blood samples were taken from 510 participants, 206 (40.4%) males and 304 (59.6%) females from February to July 2014. Detection of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out by ELISA test. Results. The overall anti-HEV IgG and IgM prevalence rates were 46.1% and 1.4%, respectively. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM seropositivity were not statistically associated with gender and race/ethnicity. Meanwhile, there were significant differences between the age groups regarding HEV IgG and IgM seropositivity. HEV IgG seroprevalence increased with age from 14.3% in subjects aged 18–30 years to 71.4% in persons over 71 years old, and considerably individuals aged 61 to 70 years had the highest HEV prevalence (90.9%). Also, 5.7% in the age group 18–30 years and 2.2% in the age group 31–40 years were positive for anti-HEV IgM antibodies and the highest rate was observed in subjects aged 18–30 years. Conclusion. In conclusion, high HEV IgG seroprevalence of 46.1% was observed among adults in South-West of Iran. PMID:26199756

  2. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  3. Geochemistry of magnetite from Proterozoic Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian metallogenic province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei Terry; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Hu, Ruizhong

    2015-10-01

    Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian Fe-Cu metallogenic province, SW China, are hosted in Paleoproterozoic meta-volcanic-sedimentary sequences and are spatially associated with coeval mafic intrusions. Several well-known examples are the giant Lala, Dahongshan, and Yinachang deposits. They have a common paragenetic sequence of an early Fe-oxide stage associated with sodic alteration and a late Cu-sulfide stage associated with potassic-carbonate alteration. Magnetite dominates the Fe-oxide stage of these deposits but is also present in the Cu-sulfide stage of the Lala deposit. This study uses trace element compositions of magnetite to examine the nature and origin of the ore-forming fluids. The magnetite has variable concentrations of Ti, Al, Mg, Mn, Si, V, Cr, Ca, Co, Ni, Sc, Zn, Cu, Mo, Sn, and Ga, which are thought to have been controlled mainly by fluid compositions and/or intensive parameters (e.g., temperature and oxygen fugacity ( fO2)). Fluid-rock interaction and coprecipitating mineral phases appear to be less important in controlling the magnetite compositions. Magnetite grains in the Fe-oxide stage of the Lala and Dahongshan deposits have comparable trace element compositions and were likely precipitated from chemically similar fluids. High Ni contents of magnetite in both deposits, coupled with previous isotopic data and the fact that the two deposits are spatially associated with coeval mafic intrusions, strongly suggest that the ore-forming fluids were genetically related to the mafic magmas that formed the intrusions. Magnetite grains in the Fe-oxide stage of the Yinachang deposit have much lower V and Ni but higher Sn and Mo contents than those of the Lala and Dahongshan deposits and are thus thought to have precipitated from more oxidized and Mo-Sn-rich fluids that may have evolved from relatively felsic magmas. Magnetite grains from the Cu-sulfide and Fe-oxide stages of the Lala deposit are broadly similar in composition, but those in the Cu

  4. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Ningxu; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world’s highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China’s government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world’s average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area. Methods In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley’s k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS) software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads. Results In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05) reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on

  5. Rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in Jilin Province China

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Kai; SHAO, Hongze; PEI, Zhihua; HU, Guixue

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in Jilin Province, China, using the assay. A LAMP assay targeting a highly conserved region of the F1L gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (CEV). Three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of Jilin Province, China, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the LAMP assay. The results showed that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 100 copies of the standard plasmid, which is 100-fold higher than the sensitivity of PCR. No cross-reactivity was observed with capripoxvirus, fowlpox virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia I and bluetongue virus. The average positive rate was 19.73% (72/365), and the positive rate was highest in lambs aged 1–6 months. Our results demonstrated that CEV infection was very widespread in the flocks of Jilin Province and that the LAMP assay allows for easy, rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of CEV infection. PMID:26346652

  6. Willingness-to-accept and purchase genetically modified rice with high folate content in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; Storozhenko, S; Liqun, G; Lambert, W; Van Der Straeten, D; Viaene, J

    2010-02-01

    Neural-tube defects (NTDs) are considered to be the most common congenital malformations. As Shanxi Province, a poor region in the North of China, has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of NTDs in the world, folate fortification of rice is an excellent alternative to low intake of folate acid pills in this region. This paper investigates the relations between socio-demographic indicators, consumer characteristics (knowledge, consumer perceptions on benefits, risks, safety and price), willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay genetically modified (GM) rice. The consumer survey compromises 944 face-to-face interviews with rice consumers in Shanxi Province, China. Multivariate analyses consist of multinomial logistic regression and multiple regression. The results indicate that consumers generally are willing-to-accept GM rice, with an acceptance rate of 62.2%. Acceptance is influenced by objective knowledge and consumers' perceptions on benefits and risks. Willingness-to-pay GM rice is influenced by objective knowledge, risk perception and acceptance. Communication towards the use of GM rice should target mainly improving knowledge and consumers' perceptions on high-risk groups within Shanxi Province, in particular low educated women. PMID:19815041

  7. Rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in Jilin Province China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Shao, Hongze; Pei, Zhihua; Hu, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in Jilin Province, China, using the assay. A LAMP assay targeting a highly conserved region of the F1L gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (CEV). Three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of Jilin Province, China, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the LAMP assay. The results showed that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 100 copies of the standard plasmid, which is 100-fold higher than the sensitivity of PCR. No cross-reactivity was observed with capripoxvirus, fowlpox virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia I and bluetongue virus. The average positive rate was 19.73% (72/365), and the positive rate was highest in lambs aged 1-6 months. Our results demonstrated that CEV infection was very widespread in the flocks of Jilin Province and that the LAMP assay allows for easy, rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of CEV infection. PMID:26346652

  8. Contribution to knowledge of the genus Chydaeus in Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet] and Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalini)

    PubMed Central

    Kataev, Boris M.; Liang, Hongbin; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of the genus Chydaeus Chaudoir, 1854 are described from China: Chydaeus fugongensis sp. n. (Shibali, Fugong County, Yunnan Province), Chydaeus gutangensis sp. n. (Gutang, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus hanmiensis sp. n. (Hanmi, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus asetosus sp. n. (NE of Fugong, Yunnan Province), and Chydaeus baoshanensis sp. n. (N of Baoshan, Yunnan Province). Taxonomic and faunistic notes on eleven other species occurring in Xizang and Yunnan are also provided. Chydaeus shunichii Ito, 2006 is re-described, based on specimens from Lushui County, Yunnan. Chydaeus kumei Ito, 1992 is treated as a subspecies of Chydaeus andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 [NEW STATUS]. The taxonomic status of Chydaeus guangxiensis Ito, 2006 is discussed. The following taxa are recorded from China for the first time: Chydaeus obtusicollis Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus malaisei Kataev & Schmidt, 2006 (Yunnan), Chydaeus semenowi (Tschitschérine, 1899) (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus andrewesi andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus andrewesi kumei Ito (Yunnan), Chydaeus bedeli interjectus Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Xizang), and Chydaeus bedeli vietnamensis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Yunnan). PMID:22423195

  9. Occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk samples from 12 provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Wang, Hao; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning; Shao, Bing

    2016-07-01

    The levels of 12 synthetic musks and one musk metabolite in 24 pooled human milk samples were examined in order to assess the health risks of these contaminants to breast-feeding infants of China. The 24 pooled samples comprised of 1237 individual human milk samples collected from 12 provinces of China according to WHO guidelines. Among the 13 target analytes, OTNE ([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl]ethan-1-one), HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[γ]-2-benzopyran), AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone, MK), Musk T (1,4-dioxacyclohepta decane-5,17-dione), HHCB-lactone (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl cyclopenta[γ]-2-benzopyran-1-one) and musk ambrette (1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,5-dinitrobenzene, MA), were found in the milk samples analysed with mean (median) concentrations of 3.96 (3.91), 18.03 (15.10), 10.30 (9.38), 4.68 (4.45), < 3.70 (< 3.70), 10.02 (9.20) and < 5.20 (< 5.20) ng g(-1) lipid weight, respectively, whereas ADBI (4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindan), AHDI (6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindan), ATII (5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-isopropylindan), musk xylene (1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, MX), musk tibetene (1-tert-butyl-3,4,5-trimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene, MT) and musk moskene (1,1,3,3,5-pentamethyl-4,6-dinotroindane, MM) were not detected. Significantly positive associations were observed in concentration levels between HHCB and AHTN (p < 0.001), HHCB and HHCB-lactone (p < 0.05), AHTN and HHCB-lactone (p < 0.001), and MK and OTNE (p < 0.05). No statistical difference was found in musk concentrations between rural and urban areas in China (p > 0.05). The mean (median) estimated daily intakes by infants were 20.5 (20.2), 93.4 (78.2), 53.4 (48.6), 24.2 (23.0) and 51.9 (47.6) ng kg(-1) body weight for OTNE, HHCB, AHTN, MK and HHCB

  10. Drought early-warning driven by Remote sensed data in Henan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yao; Sun, Rui

    2013-04-01

    Drought is the most common natural disaster that heavily affects the crop yield in Henan Province, the major food producer in China. Although there has been lots of study on drought monitoring during the past decades, drought early-warning is still difficult. In order to decrease the losses that come with drought as much as possible, it is necessary to combine remote sensing data and soil water budget model to monitor and predict the trend of drought. This paper describes the building, validation and application of a drought early-warning model. The model is designed to simulate the soil water balance for the winter wheat & maize growing areas in Henan Province on a daily basis. The model is a simple soil water budget model and is initialized by the soil moisture retrieved from MODIS data, which results in the application of model at a spatial resolution of 1 km. The input data include meteorologcal data (daily precipitation, air temperature, air humidity, wind speed and sunshine period), soil physical data (soil texture and available soil water capacity), topographical data (elevation, slope, aspect) and auxiliary data (crop growth period, latitude and so on). Emphasis is put on the estimation of actual and potential crop evapotranspiration by FAO Penman-Monteith equation, in this way, a daily drought warning index is defined by the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration. Through the simulation of soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration, soil moisture and drought index can be predicted if weather forecast data are available. The initialized soil moisture is vital for this model. In this study, an Advanced Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (ATVDI) is used to monitor initialized soil moisture status using an improved surface temperature and a vegetation index space that is formed by the theoretical dry edge determined by the surface energy balance principle and the wet edge extracted from water surface temperature. The ATVDI can be calculated from

  11. Survey of mycotic mastitis in dairy cows from Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulong; Ren, Yachao; Fan, Chunling; Shao, Hong; Zhang, Zecai; Mao, Wenbin; Wei, Chunbo; Ni, Hongbo; Zhu, Zhanbo; Hou, Xilin; Piao, Fanze; Cui, Yudong

    2013-11-01

    A survey of the prevalence rate, pathogenic subspecies, and risk factors of mycotic mastitis in dairy cows from Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted. Milk samples from 412 cows with chronic mastitis were collected and cultured on 8 % sheep blood agar, MacConkey agar, and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. Counting of the morphologically distinct colonies was performed, as well as the isolation and identification of organisms through phenotypical and physiological criteria. Four hundred seventy-eight aerobic microorganisms were isolated. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi 35.6 % (170/478) and bacteria 64.4 % (308/478) were isolated. The fungal isolates were identified as Candida (79.4 %), Trichosporon (5.9 %), Aspergillus (7.1 %), Cryptococcus (2.4 %), and Rhodotorula (4.1 %). More than ten species of yeast were isolated including Candida krusei 50/135 (37 %), Candida rugosa 16/135 (11.9 %), and Candida lusitaniae 15/135 (11.1 %). A higher positivity (18.5 and 56.3 %) (P ≤0.05) was observed in cows from environmental temperatures of 0-15 and 15-35 °C than those at <0 °C and in cows affected by the disease for >45 and 30-45 days compared with cows suffering 10-30 days. Meanwhile, a statistically significant difference (44.9 vs. 31.4 %) (P ≤0.05) was observed under extensive raising systems vs. intensive raising systems. It appears that Candida is a major pathogen of mycotic mastitis of dairy cows. Extensive raising system, high environmental temperature (15-35 °C), and the duration of the disease (>30 days) were important risk factors of the incidence of mycotic mastitis. Here, we provide a theoretical foundation for research into preventing and treating mycotic mastitis of dairy cows in China. PMID:23813119

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of reference evapotranspiration trends in Karst area: a case study in Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Peng, Shizhang; Wang, Weiguang; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2016-02-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the essential part of hydrological cycle and crop irrigation system (watering system framework). To reveal the change pattern of annual and seasonal ET0 and its corresponding dominated factors aspects of karst regions in China, daily meteorological data of 19 meteorological stations during 1959-2011 in Guizhou Province were collected. ET0 trends in seasonal and annual time series were detected by nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The results indicated (demonstrated) that the annual ET0 for the entire Guizhou Province performed a decreasing trend by 0.4476 mm/year. The seasonal ET0 in spring and summer performed the an alike decreasing trend, while it presented an increasing trend in autumn and winter. According to the rotated empirical orthogonal function clustering method, Guizhou Province was divided into four parts. Annual ET0 performed (executed) the ascendant trend in western area, while the descendent trend occurred in middle, northwestern, and southwestern areas. The sensitivity and the attribution analysis indicated (specified) that the relative humidity was identified as the most sensitive variable to the annual ET0 and sunshine duration as the essential main thrusts for the declined annual ET0 in Guizhou Province. In addition, the more severe of karst landform development, the more obvious decreasing trend in ET0.

  13. Black carbon record of the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing regional fire regimes. The results demonstrate that wildfires occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the regional vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. Wildfire occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that regional-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.

  14. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B.; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We evaluated a peer leader–support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. METHODS Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. RESULTS Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P <0.05) for knowledge, self-efficacy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and both fasting and 2-hour post-prandial blood glucose. The Anhui Provincial Health Bureau has extended the PLSP model to other communities and to cardiovascular disease prevention and management. CONCLUSION The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. PMID:26304972

  15. Estimates of HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China: Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Jiangping; Fan, Lu; Song, Duan; Tian, Shuming; Yang, Yuecheng; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin; Sun, Xinhua; Zhang, Sanguo; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-01-01

    Background Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the ‘Golden Triangle’, one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of this study is to improve the 2005 estimates of the true status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Dehong Prefecture. Methods We estimated the HIV prevalence by synthesizing the results from several data sources (HIV/AIDS case reports, surveys, surveillance activities and epidemiological studies). We applied three different statistical procedures for estimations: (i) The Workbook method, adapted to meet the estimation needs in Dehong Prefecture; (ii) An estimate based on antenatal clinical data; and (iii) a dynamic model based on the local epidemic pattern. Results We estimated that the population prevalence for HIV infections in Dehong Prefecture is 1.3% (likely range from low/high of three estimates: 0.9–1.7%) such that 13 500 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong Prefecture (likely range: 8200–18 300) in 2005. Infections remain concentrated among injection drug users, female sex workers and their clients with an uneven geographical distribution of estimated cases. Conclusion More reliable estimates of HIV prevalence can be made by synthesizing multiple data sources using several procedures. Current HIV prevention, care and treatment challenges are judged substantial in Dehong Prefecture, regardless of what modelling strategy is used. PMID:18922804

  16. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:26816489

  17. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from <10% to >50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. PMID:25985673

  18. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huilin; Dong, Lihu; Li, Fengri; Zhang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root). Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1). The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1) estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2) multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2), average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3), and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4)). The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D) as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available. PMID:26659257

  19. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Matthys, Barbara; Li, Yuan-Lin; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Shao-Rong; Yang, Zhong; Fan, Weng; Jia, Tie-Wu; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-11-01

    Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex), environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index) and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination =20 degrees ) or on less precipitous slopes of >5 degrees above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration. PMID:18686256

  20. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium in Yaks in Qinghai Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Rongsheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Li, Chunhua; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Li, Zhengfeng; Lei, Mengtong; Cai, Jinzhong; Chen, Zhaoguo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium infecting yaks in the Qinghai Province of Northwestern China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected by microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 586 fecal samples were collected from yaks in 6 counties, of which 142 (24.2%) samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium. The small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of fifty-five samples were amplified and sequenced successfully and demonstrated that Cryptosporidium bovis (31/55, 56.4%) was the most common species, followed by C. parvum (16/55, 29.1%) and C. ryanae (5/55, 9.0%). Mixed infections of C. parvum and C. bovis (n = 2), C. ryanae and C. bovis (n = 1) were also detected. All three species were found in yaks ranging in age from <1 year, 1–2 years, to >2 years. Cryptosporidium was most commonly detected in spring (28.4%), followed by summer (20.9%), then winter (17.5%). Cryptosporidium parvum positive samples were subtyped using the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Subtypes IIaA15G2R1 (n = 8), IIaA16G2R1 (n = 2), IIaA14G1R1 (n = 1), IIaA14G2R1 (n = 1) and IIaA16G3R1 (n = 1) were detected. All of these subtypes are zoonotic, and may pose a potential threat to human health. PMID:24086416

  1. Capture of heavy metals and sulfur by foliar dust in urban Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuan; Guan, Dongsheng; Song, Weiwei; Huang, Kangyou

    2009-04-01

    Foliar dust on urban tree leaf surfaces in Huizhou (HZ) in Guangdong Province of China was studied for a range of elements. The concentrations of the heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) and sulfur in the foliar dust were determined by ICP-AES. Remote sensing imaging was used to estimate the total aboveground urban vegetation biomass in Huizhou, information that was then used to estimate the total removal of air particulates in the city by foliar dust. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in foliar dust were high, particularly for Cd and Pb. Concentrations of Cd ranged from 6.2 to 12.8 mg kg(-1), while concentrations of Pb ranged from 434.0 to 512.0 mg kg(-1). The amount of foliar dust retained by the four tree species increased with time for 20 d following a rain event. The amount of foliar dust collected from different locations in the city was significantly different. Specifically, the heavy metal and sulfur pollution index in the different locations decreased in this order: Power Station (PS)>Electronic Industry Area (EIA)>Commercial and Traffic Area (CTA)>Residential Areas (RA)>Control Area (CA). These data suggest that the foliar dust can remove appreciable amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and S--0.040 t, 1.63 t, 2.70 t, 1.84 t, 5.54 t, and 19.52 t, respectively--from the atmosphere in the study area. This information can provide health-related impetus and guidance for the work of urban planners and those involved in environment protection. PMID:19201444

  2. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. Setting and participants 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Outcome measures Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. Results (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010–2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. Conclusions There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010–2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency

  3. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  4. Evaluation of aeolian desertification from 1975 to 2010 and its causes in northwest Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhanjin; Qin, Zuodong; Li, Hongjian; Ding, Guangwei; Meng, Xianwen

    2013-08-01

    Efforts to control aeolian desertification in China have focused on the arid and semiarid regions. However, the direct dust emission rates, sediment characteristics and local-scale controls, as well as the measures needed to combat desertification, remain poorly understood in northwest Shanxi Province. Aeolian desertification is regarded as an obstacle to local sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper investigated changes in aeolian desertification between 1975 and 2010 on the northwestern Shanxi Plateau. In this study, remote sensing images were used to classify land suffering from aeolian desertification into four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. To evaluate the evolution and status of aeolian desertification as well as its causes, we interpreted and analyzed Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) image (acquired in 1975) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (acquired in 1991, 2000, 2006, and 2010) as well as meteorological and socioeconomic data. Results revealed 11,866 km2, 13,362 km2, 14,051 km2, 13,613 km2, and 12,318 km2 of aeolian desertified land (ADL) in the above 5 periods, respectively. The spatial dynamics and patterns showed two stages: expansion during 1975-2000 at a rate of 87.37 km2 a- 1, and spatial transfer of affected areas during 2000-2010 with a net decrease of 173.27 km2 a- 1. During the evolution of aeolian desertification, areas of moderate ADL had the greatest dynamic response (11.45%). The factors controlling ADL dynamics were analyzed from the perspectives of two groups of factors: natural factors and human activities. Our results indicated that the climate-dominated natural factors contribute greatly to the occurrence and development of ADL. However, they are not the fundamental causes of its development. The human factors are the primary and direct driving forces responsible for the increase in ADL area. More thorough quantitative analysis, with more frequent remotely sensed data is needed to assess

  5. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huilin; Dong, Lihu; Li, Fengri; Zhang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root). Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1). The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1) estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2) multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2), average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3), and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4)). The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D) as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available. PMID:26659257

  6. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect α- and β-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles were confirmed by α- and β-globin genetic testing, including DNA microarray analysis, direct sequencing methods and multiplex gap-PCR assays. Setting Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. Results We found 363 suspected cases by primary screening of haematological variables and haemoglobin analysis. After further genetic testing, four types of α- and β-thalassaemia mutation were detected in 203 out of 363 individuals. Both α0- and α+-thalassaemia mutations, --SEA and -α3.7, were identified. β-Thalassaemia mutations included CD17 (HBB:c.52A>T) and CD26 (HbE or HBB:c.79G>A). In addition, 13 HbE carriers had coexisting α0- or α+-thalassaemia deletions. Clinical haematological variables indicated that, in this study, carriers of all thalassaemic genotypes had more severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia than non-thalassaemic individuals. Conclusions Our results provide information on the Jino ethnic minority that may be useful for further genetic counselling, prenatal screening and clinical diagnosis of thalassaemia in this region. PMID:26715484

  7. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:26816489

  8. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.

    2016-08-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  9. Relation of arsenic exposure to lung cancer among tin miners in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, P R; Qiao, Y L; Schatzkin, A; Yao, S X; Lubin, J; Mao, B L; Rao, J Y; McAdams, M; Xuan, X Z; Li, J Y

    1989-01-01

    The relation of mining and smelting exposure to arsenic and lung cancer was studied among tin miners in Yunnan Province in the People's Republic of China. Interviews were conducted in 1985 with 107 living tin miners who had lung cancer and an equal number of age matched controls from among tin miners without lung cancer to obtain information on risk factors for lung cancer including detailed history of employment and tobacco use. Occupational history was combined with industrial hygiene data to estimate cumulative arsenic exposure. Similar methods were also used to estimate radon exposure for simultaneous evaluation in this analysis. The results indicate that subjects in the highest quarter of cumulative arsenic exposure have a relative risk of 22.6 compared with subjects without exposure after adjusting for tobacco and radon exposure, and a positive dose response relation was observed. Simultaneous evaluation of arsenic and tobacco exposure indicates a greater risk for arsenic, whereas simultaneous assessment of arsenic and radon exposure suggests radon to be the greater risk. There is no evidence of synergism between arsenic and tobacco exposure. Among arsenic exposed individuals, cases of lung cancer have longer duration but lower average intensity of arsenic exposure than controls, indicating that duration of exposure to arsenic may be more important than intensity in the aetiology of lung cancer. Finally, risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to arsenic only in mining is only slightly less than for miners whose exposure to arsenic was limited to smelting, although risks are highest when workers were exposed to both mining and smelting. PMID:2611163

  10. Levels, compositions, and inventory of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge of Guangdong Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yong; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yejun; Zeng, Xianying; Gui, Hongyan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in sewage sludge samples collected from major wastewater treatment plants in Guangdong Province, South China. Concentrations of ∑39PBDE (all 39 compounds including tri- to hepta- PBDE congeners except for BDE-209) ranged from 3.6 to 428 ng/g dw with a mean value of 67.4 ng/g dw and a median value of 25.9 ng/g dw, and those of BDE-209 ranged from 9.9 to 5,010 ng/g dw (mean 1,024 ng/g dw and median 824 ng/g dw). The PBDE mixtures detected were mainly comprised of penta-, octa-, and deca-BDEs, with deca-BDE as the dominant constituent. The most abundant congeners, excluding BDE-209, were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-183. Good correlations were found among the concentrations of BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-138, and BDE-154 (r>0.8). However, poor correlations were found between the concentrations of BDE-209 and all other congeners (r<0.3). This fact suggests that most tri- to hepta-BDEs detected did not originate from decomposition of deca-BDE. The estimated annual emission of ∑allPBDEs, ∑39PBDEs, penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE to the Pearl River Delta environment (PRD), based on the sludge samples analyzed, amounts to 232, 20.2, 5.5, 1.7, and 212 kg per year, implicating sewage sludge as a significant source of PBDEs to the PRD environment. PMID:23729027

  11. Environmental distribution and associated human health risk due to trace elements and organic compounds in soil in Jiangxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Li, Jiao; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Chen, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    The government of China launched its first national soil quality and pollution survey (NSQPS) during April 2006 to December 2013. Data gathered in several earlier soil surveys were rarely used to understand the status of pollution. In this study, the dataset collected at the provincial level was analyzed for the first time. Concentrations, distribution, diversity, and human health risks of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn) and organic pollutants (benzene hexachloride (BHCs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs)) in surface soil samples collected across Jiangxi province,China were presented. The results showed that, the proportion of contaminants with concentrations higher than their corresponding regulatory reference value ranged from 0.12% to 17%. It is worth note that, the local residents are exposed to moderate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks at some sites. The comprehensive analysis of soil pollutants provide baseline information for establishing a long-term soil environmental monitoring program in Jiangxi province, China. PMID:26363984

  12. Three new species of Potamothrix (Oligochaeta, Naididae, Tubificinae) from Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yongde; Wang, Hongzhu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Potamothrix Vejdovský & Mrázek, 1902 (Oligochaeta: Tubificinae), Potamothrix praeprostatus sp. n., Potamothrix paramoldaviensis sp. n. and Potamothrix parabedoti sp. n., are reported from Fuxian Lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Potamothrix praeprostatusdiffers from its allies by its prostate glands joining atria in its proximal to middle portion, and spermathecal chaetae. Potamothrix paramoldaviensis is distinguishable from its allies by having penial chaeta but no penes, and differs from Potamothrix moldaviensisby its homogenous atrium. Potamothrix parabedoti is distinctive in the position of its reproductive organs, and differs from Potamothrix bedoti by its homogenous atrium. Hitherto, 34 freshwater oligochaete species have been recorded in Yunnan Province, including nine endemic species from the plateau lakes. PMID:22451787

  13. Three new species of Potamothrix (Oligochaeta, Naididae, Tubificinae) from Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yongde; Wang, Hongzhu

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Potamothrix Vejdovský & Mrázek, 1902 (Oligochaeta: Tubificinae), Potamothrix praeprostatussp. n., Potamothrix paramoldaviensissp. n. and Potamothrix parabedotisp. n., are reported from Fuxian Lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Potamothrix praeprostatusdiffers from its allies by its prostate glands joining atria in its proximal to middle portion, and spermathecal chaetae. Potamothrix paramoldaviensis is distinguishable from its allies by having penial chaeta but no penes, and differs from Potamothrix moldaviensisby its homogenous atrium. Potamothrix parabedoti is distinctive in the position of its reproductive organs, and differs from Potamothrix bedoti by its homogenous atrium. Hitherto, 34 freshwater oligochaete species have been recorded in Yunnan Province, including nine endemic species from the plateau lakes. PMID:22451787

  14. Anomalous tidal loading signals in South-West England and Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshin, M.; Penna, N. T.; Clarke, P. J.; Bos, M. S.; Baker, T. F.

    2010-05-01

    The tidal deformation of the Earth, including ocean tide loading (OTL), sheds light on the Earth's internal structure. Uncertainties in the knowledge of this deformation may be a source of both direct and propagated periodic errors in GPS geodesy. The increasing number of global GPS stations with long histories of observations, as well as recent developments in precise GPS geodesy such as the availability of reprocessed satellite orbits, enables further study of these geophysical and geodetic phenomena. There are more than 10 worldwide regions where OTL displacement amplitudes exceed 25mm. In our work we considered one such region covering South-West England and stretching southward along the coasts of France, Spain and Portugal. Estimates of three-dimensional harmonic site motion at each of the principal diurnal (K1, O1, P1, Q1) and semi-diurnal (K2, M2, N2, S2) frequencies were obtained for 40 European stations with at least 2 year observation span, using the GIPSY-OASIS II software package with reprocessed precise satellite orbits from JPL. All GPS data available from 2002.0 to 2010.0 were considered. 34 stations were situated close to the Atlantic coast; a further 6 inland stations at similar latitudes were processed as a check on solid Earth tide models. Inter-model OTL displacement differences are small, especially for the inland sites; the problematic Bristol Channel area of South-West England was excluded. We validated the quality of our GPS estimates by using and comparing three different analysis strategies: (1) Harmonic estimation of total tidal displacement in 24-hour Precise Point Positioning (PPP) batch solutions: harmonic displacements are estimated per coordinate component for each of the eight principal tidal constituents. OTL is not modelled a priori, and nodal corrections are applied in post-processing after combination of the daily results; (2) Harmonic estimation of residual tidal displacement in 24-hour PPP batch solutions: OTL is modelled a

  15. Genotyping of Human Brucella melitensis Biovar 3 Isolated from Shanxi Province in China by MLVA16 and HOOF

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Pei; Yang, Hongxia; Di, Dongdong; Piao, Dongri; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Hao, Ruie; Yao, Suxia; Zhao, Rong; Zhang, Fanfei; Tian, Guozhong; Zhao, Hongyan; Fan, Weixing; Cui, Buyun; Jiang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis presents a significant economic burden for China because it causes reproductive failure in host species and chronic health problems in humans. These problems can involve multiple organs. Brucellosis is highly endemic in Shanxi Province China. Molecular typing would be very useful to epidemiological surveillance. The purpose of this study was to assess the diversity of Brucella melitensis strains for epidemiological surveillance. Historical monitoring data suggest that Brucella melitensis biovar 3 is the predominant strain associated with the epidemic of brucellosis in Shanxi Province. Methods/Principal Findings Multiple-locus variable-number repeat analysis (MLVA-16) and hypervariable octameric oligonucleotide fingerprinting (HOOF-print) were used to type a human-hosted Brucella melitensis population (81 strains). Sixty-two MLVA genotypes (discriminatory index: 0.99) were detected, and they had a genetic similarity coefficient ranging from 84.9% to 100%. Eighty strains of the population belonged to the eastern Mediterranean group with panel 1 genotypes 42 (79 strains) and 43 (1 strain). A new panel 1 genotype was found in this study. It was named 114 MLVAorsay genotype and it showed similarity to the two isolates from Guangdong in a previous study. Brucella melitensis is distributed throughout Shanxi Province, and like samples from Inner Mongolia, the eastern Mediterranean genotype 42 was the main epidemic strain (97%). The HOOF-printing showed a higher diversity than MLVA-16 with a genetic similarity coefficient ranging from 56.8% to 100%. Conclusions According to the MLVA-16 and HOOF-printing results, both methods could be used for the epidemiological surveillance of brucellosis. A new genotype was found in both Shanxi and Guangdong Provinces. In areas with brucellosis, the MLVA-16 scheme is very important for tracing cases back to their origins during outbreak investigations. It may facilitate the expansion and eradication of the disease

  16. Rain- vapour isotopic interaction over the south-west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palliyil Ravisankar, Lekshmy; Madhavan, Midhun; Rengaswamy, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Boundary layer water vapor isotopic composition (δv) is an important factor that controls the isotopic composition of evaporation flux and modulating the δ18O of tree ring cellulose through plant physiological cycle. But due to the difficult sampling procedure for water vapor, δv has rarely been quantified. Since many simple isotopic models require δvas an input, mostly we assume that the water vapor is in isotopic equilibrium with δof monthly rain (δr). Here we present simultaneous observations of water vapour (~ 300 samples) and rainfall (~200 samples) isotopic ratios from two stations in the south-west coast of India (both the stations are located in the west of Western Ghats), sampled during April- October, 2012. Daily rain water and water vapour (cryogenic trapping method) were collected according to the IAEA protocol and the isotopic analyses (D and 18O) were done using a Thermo Fisher Delta V+ Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We observe that, water vapour and rain are close to the equilibrium values during pre monsoon (April-May, ɛ = δr - δv= 8.9 ± 1.4 ), summer monsoon (June-September, ɛ = 9.0 ± 1.8 ) and North- East (NE) monsoon (October, ɛ = 7.9 ± 2.9 ) seasons. However, some individual rain events show more deviations from the equilibrium values. NE monsoon rainfall and water vapour are isotopically more depleted in 18O compared to the pre monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, in which the depletion is more in rain (~4 ) compared to water vapour (~2 ). This is because of the 18O enrichment of ground level vapour due to local evapo- transpiration (stations are at the leeward side of the Ghats), while rainfall is directly formed from the NE monsoon clouds which is more depleted in 18O. These results will be useful for the interpretation of δ18O of tree rings from south west.

  17. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. Material/Methods Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20–68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. Results Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21–40 age group vs. the 41–66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). Conclusions Older age (41–66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  18. Spatial Analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, China: A GIS-Based Analysis of Schistosomiasis from 2009 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Huang, Xi-Bao; Xiao, Ying; Jiang, Yong; Shan, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Juan; Cai, Shun-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic areas are located in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly in areas along the middle and low reach of the Yangtze River. Spatial analytical techniques are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial clusters in disease regions. This study assesses the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and explores high-risk regions in Hubei Province, China to provide guidance on schistosomiasis control in marshland regions. Methods In this study, spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including global Moran’s I and local Getis–Ord statistics, were utilized to describe and map spatial clusters and areas where human Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent at the county level in Hubei province. In addition, linear logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation with time. Results The infection rates of S. japonicum decreased from 2009 to 2013. The global autocorrelation analysis results on the infection rate of S. japonicum for five years showed statistical significance (Moran’s I > 0, P < 0.01), which suggested that spatial clusters were present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection from 2009 to 2013. Local autocorrelation analysis results showed that the number of highly aggregated areas ranged from eight to eleven within the five-year analysis period. The highly aggregated areas were mainly distributed in eight counties. Conclusions The spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not exhibit a temporal change at the county level in Hubei Province. The risk factors that influence human S. japonicum transmission may not have changed after achieving the national criterion of infection control. The findings indicated that spatial–temporal surveillance of S. japonicum transmission plays a significant role on schistosomiasis control. Timely and integrated prevention should be

  19. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20-68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. RESULTS Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21-40 age group vs. the 41-66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). CONCLUSIONS Older age (41-66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  20. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatial-Temporal Clusters of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Zhejiang Province, China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianfang; Hua, Qihang; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Bin; Gu, Hua; Lv, Huakun; Dong, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is one of the major public health concerns in China. Being the province with high incidence rates of HFMD, the epidemiological features and the spatial-temporal patterns of Zhejiang Province were still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and the high-incidence clusters, as well as explore some potential risk factors. The surveillance data of HFMD during 2008–2012 were collected from the communicable disease surveillance network system of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The distributions of age, gender, occupation, season, region, pathogen’s serotype and disease severity were analyzed to describe the epidemiological features of HFMD in Zhejiang Province. Seroprevalence survey for human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in 549 healthy children of Zhejiang Province was also performed, as well as 27 seroprevalence publications between 1997 and 2015 were summarized. The spatial-temporal methods were performed to explore the clusters at county level. Furthermore, pathogens’ serotypes such as EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) and meteorological factors were analyzed to explore the potential factors associated with the clusters. A total of 454,339 HFMD cases were reported in Zhejiang Province during 2008–2012, including 1688 (0.37%) severe cases. The annual average incidence rate was 172.98 per 100,000 (ranged from 72.61 to 270.04). The male-to-female ratio for mild cases was around 1.64:1, and up to 1.87:1 for severe cases. Of the total cases, children aged under three years old and under five years old accounted for almost 60% and 90%, respectively. Among all enteroviruses, the predominant serotype was EV71 (49.70%), followed by Cox A16 (26.05%) and other enteroviruses (24.24%) for mild cases. In severe cases, EV71 (82.85%) was the major causative agent. EV71 seroprevalence survey in healthy children confirmed that occult infection was common in

  1. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatial-Temporal Clusters of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Zhejiang Province, China, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Gui, Juanjuan; Liu, Zhifang; Zhang, Tianfang; Hua, Qihang; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Bin; Gu, Hua; Lv, Huakun; Dong, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is one of the major public health concerns in China. Being the province with high incidence rates of HFMD, the epidemiological features and the spatial-temporal patterns of Zhejiang Province were still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and the high-incidence clusters, as well as explore some potential risk factors. The surveillance data of HFMD during 2008-2012 were collected from the communicable disease surveillance network system of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The distributions of age, gender, occupation, season, region, pathogen's serotype and disease severity were analyzed to describe the epidemiological features of HFMD in Zhejiang Province. Seroprevalence survey for human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in 549 healthy children of Zhejiang Province was also performed, as well as 27 seroprevalence publications between 1997 and 2015 were summarized. The spatial-temporal methods were performed to explore the clusters at county level. Furthermore, pathogens' serotypes such as EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) and meteorological factors were analyzed to explore the potential factors associated with the clusters. A total of 454,339 HFMD cases were reported in Zhejiang Province during 2008-2012, including 1688 (0.37%) severe cases. The annual average incidence rate was 172.98 per 100,000 (ranged from 72.61 to 270.04). The male-to-female ratio for mild cases was around 1.64:1, and up to 1.87:1 for severe cases. Of the total cases, children aged under three years old and under five years old accounted for almost 60% and 90%, respectively. Among all enteroviruses, the predominant serotype was EV71 (49.70%), followed by Cox A16 (26.05%) and other enteroviruses (24.24%) for mild cases. In severe cases, EV71 (82.85%) was the major causative agent. EV71 seroprevalence survey in healthy children confirmed that occult infection was common in children

  2. Descriptions of five new eriophyoid mite species of the Diptilomiopidae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Shahjahan; Li, Hao-Sen; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Five new eriophyoid mite species from Zhejiang Province, China are described and illustrated: Diptacus coreanus sp. nov. from Litsea coreana H. Lév. (Lauraceae), Neorhynacus camphoratus sp. nov. from Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl (Lauraceae),  Rhinotergum boehmerius sp. nov. from Boehmeria gracilis C.H. Wright (Urticaceae), Rhyncaphytoptus cathayensis sp. nov from Carya cathayensis Sarg. (Juglandaceae) and Rhyncaphytoptus lanceolatus sp. nov. from Cunnighamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook (Cupressaceae). All species were vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage observed. PMID:26624103

  3. An epidemic of coxsackievirus B3 infection in infants and children in Jiangsu Province, China: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Bian, Lian-Lian; Mao, Qun-Ying; Chen, Pan; Yao, Xin; Li, Jing-Xin; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liang, Zheng-Lun

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the epidemiological data on coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection and its incidence in infants and children, a prospective cohort study was carried out from 2012 to 2014 in Jiangsu Province, China. According to the results of seropositive rates and NTAb titers of CVB3, an epidemic of CVB3 infection was found, and a dynamic change in CVB3 neutralizing antibody was also observed. One case was recorded with CVB3-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and the isolates belonged to the CVB3 D2 subtype. Our data help us to better understand the epidemic characteristics of CVB3 infection in infants and children. PMID:27020571

  4. Isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Jianjun; Shao, Xiqun; Ma, Zengjun; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Wu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. In this study, a wild-type strain of CDV was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in Jilin Province, China. Cytopathic effects typical of CDV infection were observed after three blind passages in Vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) TCID50/mL. Virus identification was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and genome sequencing. The results showed that the isolated virus, termed the SY strain, corresponded to the Asia-1 genotype of CDV and has a genome of 15,690 nucleotides. This represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of a CDV strain circulating in raccoon dogs in China. PMID:26265248

  5. Endemic arsenosis caused by indoor combustion of high-As coal in Guizhou Province, P.R. China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baoshan, Z.; Binbin, W.; Zhenhua, D.; Daixing, Z.; Yunshu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Chaochang, C.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    The arsenic (As) content of coal relating with mineralization of gold in Southwest Guizhou Province, China is up to 35,000 ppm. The coal is burned indoors in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying. As a result, arsenic is precipitated and concentrated in corn (5-20 ppm), chili (100-800 ppm) and other foods. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water of high-As coal areas are lower than 50 ppb. The estimated main sources of As exposure in this area are from polluted food. Approximately, 3000 arsenosis patients were found by 1998, and more than 100,000 people from six counties were under the threat in China. This paper presents the major ingestion pathway of this type arsenosis and relative geochemistry of high-As coal. ?? Springer 2005.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Boaretto, Elisabetta; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Jiarong; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Chu, Vikki; Pan, Yan; Liu, Kexin; Cohen, David; Jiao, Tianlong; Li, Shuicheng; Gu, Haibin; Goldberg, Paul; Weiner, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Yuchanyan Cave in Daoxian County, Hunan Province (People's Republic of China), yielded fragmentary remains of 2 or more ceramic vessels, in addition to large amounts of ash, a rich animal bone assemblage, cobble and flake artifacts, bone tools, and shell tools. The artifacts indicate that the cave was a Late Paleolithic foragers' camp. Here we report on the radiocarbon ages of the sediments based on analyses of charcoal and bone collagen. The best-preserved charcoal and bone samples were identified by prescreening in the field and laboratory. The dates range from around 21,000 to 13,800 cal BP. We show that the age of the ancient pottery ranges between 18,300 and 15,430 cal BP. Charcoal and bone collagen samples located above and below one of the fragments produced dates of around 18,000. These ceramic potsherds therefore provide some of the earliest evidence for pottery making in China. PMID:19487667

  7. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Boaretto, Elisabetta; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Jiarong; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Chu, Vikki; Pan, Yan; Liu, Kexin; Cohen, David; Jiao, Tianlong; Li, Shuicheng; Gu, Haibin; Goldberg, Paul; Weiner, Steve

    2009-06-16

    Yuchanyan Cave in Daoxian County, Hunan Province (People's Republic of China), yielded fragmentary remains of 2 or more ceramic vessels, in addition to large amounts of ash, a rich animal bone assemblage, cobble and flake artifacts, bone tools, and shell tools. The artifacts indicate that the cave was a Late Paleolithic foragers' camp. Here we report on the radiocarbon ages of the sediments based on analyses of charcoal and bone collagen. The best-preserved charcoal and bone samples were identified by prescreening in the field and laboratory. The dates range from around 21,000 to 13,800 cal BP. We show that the age of the ancient pottery ranges between 18,300 and 15,430 cal BP. Charcoal and bone collagen samples located above and below one of the fragments produced dates of around 18,000. These ceramic potsherds therefore provide some of the earliest evidence for pottery making in China. PMID:19487667

  8. Epidemiology of elderly patients' burns in the South West of France.

    PubMed

    Cutillas, M; Sesay, M; Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Castede, J C; Sanchez, R

    1998-03-01

    A retrospective study of 716 patients aged 60 years and above (324 men, 392 women) was undertaken in order to determine quality control in burns management in the South West of France. The following epidemiological data was obtained: high hospitalization rate (7 per cent of the general admissions); monthly and seasonal periodicity; predominance of indoor accidents (86 per cent) with domestic accidents being more frequent in women (63 vs. 37 per cent). Outdoor accidents were mainly recreational and were five times more frequent in men than in women. The overall mortality was 39 per cent and was influenced by the burns extent, depth, predisposing factors and early management. More burns occurred in urban areas (53 per cent) but mortality was higher in patients from rural areas (62 vs. 38 per cent). It was observed that delay in management, especially fluid resuscitation of patients from the rural areas, was partly responsible for this outcome. Propositions were made to diffuse more information on the importance of early management of burns in rural areas. PMID:9625238

  9. The validity of DSM-IV dissociative disorders categories in south-west Uganda.

    PubMed

    Van Duijl, Marjolein; Cardeña, Etzel; De Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-06-01

    There is little systematic research on the cross-cultural validity of the dissociative disorders, especially in non-western countries. This study evaluates the fit of the DSM-IV classification and concepts of these disorders with local concepts, experiences and local presentations in south-west Uganda. We conducted focus group discussions with medical students, traditional healers, religious leaders, counselors, community members and other health workers (n=48). They were supplemented by key informant interviews with religious people, traditional healers and leaders (n=11). The responses were subjected to thematic analysis. Dissociative amnesia and depersonalization were generally recognized and seen as the result of traumatic experiences and were useful categories in Uganda. However, dissociative fugue did not match local concepts and was confused with spirit possession and other conditions such as alcoholic fugues and dementia. The description of dissociative identity disorder was always interpreted as a possession trance disorder by the local healers. We found only partial support for the validity of the DSM-IV classification of dissociative disorders in Uganda. PMID:16114584

  10. Risk factors for vulva biting in breeding sows in south-west England.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S; Nicol, C J; Green, L E

    1998-12-12

    A postal survey was conducted on 410 pig farms in south-west England to investigate the risk factors for vulva biting. The results of the bivariate analyses indicated that group housing, keeping a boar in the same pen and the number of sows per drinker were significantly associated (P < or = 0.05) with vulva biting in service sows. Group housing, group size, keeping a boar in the same pen, straw bedding, electronic sow feeders, feeding once daily, providing water automatically and the number of sows per drinker were significantly associated with vulva biting in dry sows. Vulva biting was also significantly associated with an increased percentage of culled sows and the occurrence of tail biting on the farm. A logistic regression analysis showed that group size and the number of sows per drinker were significant risk factors for vulva biting in service sows, and once a day feeding, group size, the number of sows per drinker and providing water automatically were significant risk factors for dry sows. PMID:9885129

  11. Reproductive biology of the spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Lasta, C A; Menni, R C

    2012-06-01

    This study provides information on the reproduction of spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui. A total of 232 individuals (119 females and 113 males) were obtained from surveys carried out between 2003 and 2006, from the south-west Atlantic Ocean, between 34 and 42° S and <50 m deep; another 514 specimens (241 females and 273 males) were obtained between 2005 and 2007 from commercial fishery operations carried out in the same area and landings in the port of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Males ranged from 185 to 1250 mm total length (L(T) ) and females from 243 to 1368 mm L(T) . Length at maturity was estimated to be 980 mm for males and 1089 mm L(T) for females. Lack of variation of testis mass together with the continuous production of mature spermatocyst and spermatozoa in deferent ducts suggested that males can reproduce throughout the year. Females reproduced year-round with peaks of reproductive activity an integral part of a continuous cycle. This conclusion is corroborated by the seasonal variation of ovaries, oviducal gland and the occurrence of females with eggs in the uterus throughout the year. Results from this study indicate that A. castelnaui is very susceptible to fishery pressure. PMID:22650424

  12. Lead in exterior paints from the urban and suburban environs of Plymouth, south west England.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Solman, Kevin R

    2016-03-15

    Dry weight concentrations of lead in paints on a variety of structures in the urban and suburban environs of a British city (Plymouth, south west England) were determined in situ and ex situ by field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Lead was detected in 221 out of 272 analyses, with overall median and mean concentrations of 4180 μg g(-1) and 29,300 μg g(-1), respectively, and a maximum concentration of 390,000 μg g(-1). Highest concentrations were observed in extant paints on poorly maintained, metallic structures, including railings, gates, telephone kiosks and bridges, in various yellow road line paints, and in paints of varying condition on public playground facilities (ramps, climbing frames, monkey bars). Occupants of households in the vicinity of structures that are shedding leaded paint are at potential risk of exposure from paint particles being tracked in on shoes and clothing while children in contact with leaded paints in playgrounds and recreational areas are at potential risk from the direct ingestion of paint flakes. Since the issues highlighted in the present study are neither likely to be restricted to this city, nor to the UK, a greater, general awareness and understanding of the sources and routes of exposure of exterior leaded paint is called for. PMID:26780138

  13. Squid 'ear bones' (statoliths) from the Jurassic succession of South-west England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Malcolm; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Squid 'ear bones' - or statoliths - are a part of the balancing organs of modern and probably most fossil squids. Over the course of the last 10 years fossil statoliths have been discovered in the Jurassic sediments of the Wessex Basin (South-west England). They are probably all related to teuthids, such as Belemnotheutis antiquus Pearce, of Callovian-Oxfordian age. Thus far, we have identified four possible 'species' of statolith that are in the process of being formally described, named and their potential relationships determined. The sediments from which these statoliths have been recorded also contain squid hooklets (onycites), otoliths (fish 'ear bones') and other microfossils (including foraminifera). All are, therefore, of marine origin. In the case of the Christian Malford and Ashton Keynes lagerstätte (of late Callovian age), the statoliths are associated with exceptional, soft-bodied preservation of squid and it may be possible to determine the parent animal of the recorded statoliths. A number of museum collections (Natural History Museum [London], Natural History Museum [Paris], Senckenberg [Frankfurt], Smithsonian Institution [Washington], etc.) are being investigated in order to trace the possible host animals for all of the recorded statoliths. Despite many thousands of samples of Cretaceous sediments being investigated for foraminifera over the past 40+ years, no statoliths have been recorded and none are known from the literature.

  14. The Morphology, Structure and Origin of Seamounts on the South-West Indian Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, L. A.; Watts, A. B.; JC066 shipboard scientific party

    2012-04-01

    The South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR) between longitude 46 and 57° East is an ultra-slow spreading (~16 mm/a) mid-ocean ridge system with a highly oblique (>50°) spreading direction and a large number of closely spaced transform faults. Previous swath bathymetry surveys onboard R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in 2009 show that the ridge crest is characterised by a number of irregularly shaped seamounts which rise about 2500 m above the mean depth of the surrounding seafloor. However, the origin of these seamounts and whether they reflect passive cracking of the lithosphere or deep mantle processes is not clear. In November/December, 2011 we re-surveyed 5 of these seamounts onboard RRS James Cook using an EM120 swath bathymetry system, a Lacoste-Romberg air-sea gravimeter and a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Preliminary results show that the seamounts are highly fractured, with fault trends parallel and orthogonal to the spreading direction. There is evidence of both growth and collapse structures, including head scars, chutes and debris flows. We present here a preliminary analysis of the morphology, gravity field and rock sample data and its implications for tectonics, mass wasting and eruptive processes at young seamounts that have formed in an active extensional setting.

  15. Climate change and N2O emissions from South West England grasslands: A modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Diego; Cardenas, Laura M.; Wu, Lianhai

    2016-05-01

    Unravelling the impacts of climate change on agriculture becomes increasingly important, as the rates and magnitude of its effects are accelerating. Current estimates of the consequences of climate change on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions remain largely uncertain; there is a need for more consistent and comprehensive assessments of this impact. In this study we explored the implications of two IPCC climate change projections (high and medium emissions scenarios) on N2O emissions from South West England grasslands for the time slices of a baseline, the 2020s, the 2050s and the 2080s, employing a process-based model (SPACSYS). The model was initially calibrated and validated using datasets collected from three grassland sites of the region. Statistical analysis showed that simulated results had no significant total error or bias compared to measured values. We found a consistent increase in N2O emissions of up to 94% under future climate change scenarios compared to those under the baseline, and warming rather than precipitation variability was the overriding factor controlling the N2O rise. Modelling fertilizer forms showed that replacing ammonium-nitrate fertilizers with urea or slurry significantly reduced N2O emissions (c. 30%). Our study highlights the urgent necessity to adopt viable N2O mitigation measures now in order to avoid higher emissions in the future.

  16. Reproductive patterns of blacktail comber ( Serranus atricauda, Serranidae) from south-west Portugal seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Ana; Sequeira, Vera; Paiva, Rafaela Barros; Vieira, Ana Rita; Gordo, Leonel Serrano

    2014-03-01

    The knowledge of the reproductive strategy is essential for the comprehensive understanding of the population dynamics of any fish species. This study intends to define the spawning season, verify the type of fecundity regulation and estimate relative annual fecundity for Serranus atricauda inhabiting the south-west of Portugal seamounts (Gorringe, Ampère and Lion). Monthly samples, between September 2010 and December 2011, were obtained from commercial vessels. This species is synchronously hermaphroditic, and mature individuals were found all year round, with gonadosomatic index peak from February to September. No clear relation between hepatosomatic index and Fulton's condition factor and gonadal development was found, and therefore, it is probable that reproductive success depends more on environmental conditions and food availability during the spawning season than on body energy reserves. No gap exists between pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes and the oocyte size-frequency distribution during the main spawning season show no dominant cohort progressing through time. The number of standing stock of advanced vitellogenic oocytes showed an increase trend along the spawning season decreasing only at its end and the relative intensity of α-atresia was always low throughout this period with an increase towards the end. All these criteria corroborate the indeterminate fecundity type assigned to S. atricauda in previous studies. Mean relative annual fecundity estimated was 5,655 ± 4,321 oocytes per gram of gutted weight.

  17. Fire regimes and tree growth in low rainfall jarrah forest of south-west Australia.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Neil; Ward, Bruce; Robinson, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Regular fuel reduction burning is an important management strategy for reducing the scale and intensity of wildfires in south-west Australian native forests, but the long term effects of this on tree and stand growth are not well understood. Five fire treatments, including application of frequent and infrequent low intensity burns, and 25 years of fire exclusion, were applied to small (4 ha) experimental plots in a low rainfall mixed jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and marri (Corymbia calophylla) forest to investigate the effects of these treatments on tree stem diameter growth, stand basal area increment and tree mortality. Mean tree stem growth measured over 20 years was lowest in the long unburnt treatment compared with the burn treatments, although surface soil nutrient levels were generally higher in the unburnt treatment, suggesting these sites may be moisture limited. There was no clear pattern of the effects of the burn treatments, including the number of fires and the interval between fires, on tree stem growth, stand basal area increment, crown health or mortality. These factors were strongly influenced by dominance condition, with dominant and co-dominant trees growing most and suppressed trees growing least and experiencing the highest mortality levels. There was no evidence of deteriorating tree or stand health that could be attributed to either regular low intensity burning or to a long period (25 years) of fire exclusion. PMID:20405126

  18. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, James; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Davison, Nick; Deaville, Rob; Everest, David; Peake, Julie; Finnegan, Christopher; Jepson, Paul; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-01-01

    Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM). Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1) and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2). In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall) between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species) detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera. PMID:26046847

  19. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH NEEDS OF COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN IN SOUTH-WEST ENGLAND

    PubMed Central

    Grimsmo-Powney, Helen; Harris, E. Clare; Reading, Isabel; Coggon, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Work in commercial fishing is physically demanding and hazardous, but unlike merchant seamen, fishermen are not required to hold a certificate of medical fitness. Aims To investigate the case for regulatory medical standards for commercial fishermen, and to identify priorities for the prevention and management of occupational injuries at sea. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of fishermen at three major fishing ports in South-west England, using a standardised, interview-administered questionnaire. Results Interviews were completed by 210 (68%) of 307 fishermen approached. Over their careers, 56 subjects (27%) had been returned to shore as an emergency for medical reasons, a rate of 14.6 (95% CI 11.5-18.2) per 1000 man-years. Most emergency evacuations were for acute injuries, and only five were for illness. A few participants suffered from chronic disease that would call into question their fitness to go to sea. Fifty five fishermen had suffered injuries in the past 12 months, including 12 that had caused loss of more than three days from work. Subjects had self-stitched four of 15 reported hand lacerations, while others had been bound with “Gaffer” tape. Conclusion Prevention of hand lacerations should be a high priority, with first aid training and equipment for fishing crews to improve their care when prevention fails. No firm conclusions can be drawn about the value of regular medical screening for commercial fishermen, but such screening should be considered a lower priority than accident prevention. PMID:19770214

  20. A characterisation of the coastal tufa deposits of south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Matt; Vogwill, Ryan; Onton, Kimberly

    2010-12-01

    Located in the south-west coastal zone of Western Australia are numerous tufa deposits, which are registered as Threatened Ecological Communities (TEC). The tufas occur in near-shore shallow bedrock settings and are associated with local groundwater discharge. Depositional facies, mineralogy, elemental chemistry and water quality were investigated for five key deposits. Two conceptual environmental models are identified. The first, the cascade to barrage pool model is associated with coastal waterfall zones, the second, a perched spring-line and barrage pool model is located predominantly in the supratidal zone. Tufa morphology, texture, mineral composition and elemental chemistry vary within and between sites. Both phytoclast and lithoclast (allochthonous), and phytoherm forms of tufa are identified depending on location within the facies. Calcite, and to a lesser extent, aragonite and Mg-calcite dominate tufa mineralogy, with diagenetic modifications apparent. Tufa water chemistry is generally Na-Cl-HCO 3 dominated; however, Na-Cl concentrations increase at sites situated within the supratidal zone. Currently the most likely potential threat posed to these deposits is increasing nutrient levels in spring waters from agricultural land use within the catchments. This could in the future impact on tufa development.

  1. Female control of sexuality: illusion or reality? Use of vaginal products in south west Uganda.

    PubMed

    Green, G; Pool, R; Harrison, S; Hart, G J; Wilkinson, J; Nyanzi, S; Whitworth, J A

    2001-02-01

    This paper reports on a trial of vaginal products that were distributed and used by 131 women and 21 men in south west Uganda. It focuses specifically upon the issue of female control in heterosexual relationships and examines whether methods which are ostensibly under women's control, will in practice give women greater control of their sexual health. Participants were invited to select two from a range of vaginal products that included the female condom, contraceptive sponge, film, tablets, foam and gel, and use each for five weeks and their favourite product for a further three months. They were interviewed up to seven times over a five-month period. Although the women perceived that a major advantage of the products (with the exception of the female condom) was that they could be used secretly, less than 40% were using the products without their partner's knowledge after one week and this proportion declined over time with only 22% using the products secretly after ten weeks. In the main male partners were told as women felt it their duty to inform them. In general the women were very much more positive about the products than they were about the male condom, as were the men. A contributory factor to their popularity among women was the greater control they gave them. Even though, use of these products in practice often involved negotiation with male partners, the fact that use was contingent on women's action was empowering and increased somewhat their ability to control their sexual health. PMID:11206655

  2. High spatiotemporal resolution monitoring of hydrological function across degraded peatlands in the south west UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashe, Josie; Luscombe, David; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Gatis, Naomi; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Exmoor/Dartmoor Mires Project is a peatland restoration programme focused on the geoclimatically marginal blanket bogs of South West England. In order to better understand the hydrological functioning of degraded/restored peatlands and support land management decisions across these uplands, this study is providing robust spatially distributed, hydrological monitoring at a high temporal resolution and in near real time. This paper presents the conceptual framework and experimental design for three hydrological monitoring arrays situated in headwater catchments dominated by eroding and drained blanket peatland. Over 250 individual measurements are collected at a high temporal resolution (15 minute time-step) via sensors integrated within a remote telemetry system. These are sent directly to a dedicated server over VHF and GPRS mobile networks. Sensors arrays are distributed at varying spatial scales throughout the studied catchments and record multiple parameters including: water table depth, channel flow, temperature, conductivity and pH measurements. A full suite of meteorological sensors and ten spatially distributed automatic flow based water samplers are also connected to the telemetry system and controlled remotely. This paper will highlight the challenges and solutions to obtaining these data in exceptionally remote and harsh field conditions over long (multi annual) temporal scales.

  3. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    SciTech Connect

    Babkin, K. V. Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V.; Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V.

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  4. Paralava and clinker products of coal combustion, Yellow River, Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapes, Rodney; Zhang, Ke; Peng, Zhuo-lun

    2009-12-01

    Combustion of bituminous coal seams in a Carbonifeorus-Permian sequence of siltstone, quartzose sandstone, sideritic mudstone, kaolinite-rich and sulphide-ankerite rocks exposed on the left bank of the Yellow River, western border of Shanxi Province, China, has resulted in the formation of paralava and glassy clinker. Some paralavas have compositions similar to low alkali basalts and contain anorthite, low Ca-pyroxenes (clinoenstatite, pigeonite), ± minor augite, ± olivine, Fe-Ti oxides and K-bearing siliceous glass. In these paralavas the sequence of pyroxene crystallization was Mg-pigeonite → augite → Fe-pigeonite and Mg-clinoenstatite → borderline Fe-clinoenstatite/pigeonite. More siliceous paralava compositions contain anorthite, clinoenstatite, cordierite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass. Fused clinker consists of cordierite, anorthite, tridymite, mullite, Fe-Ti oxides and K-rich siliceous glass. Paralava liquidus temperatures range between ca. 1230 and 1120 °C and the generalized crystallization sequence in a "basaltic" composition was anorthite, pyroxene (low Ca-clinopyroxene, augite), Ti-magnetite, olivine with quench apatite in glass over a cooling interval of ˜ 345 °C. The liquidus temperature of clinker was ca. 1100 °C. In paralavas and clinker, subsolidus exsolution of hemo-ilmenite from Ti-magnetite occurred under log fO 2 = - 9.0 to - 13.9 at temperatures of 907-756 °C, with formation of almost pure ilmenite at lowest temperatures of 536-567 °C at log fO 2 = - 24.9-21.9. Changes in the texture and habit of pyroxene in paralava adjacent clinker (porphyritic to skeletal/plumose towards clinker) reflect the effects of a cooling front moving into the paralava and changing bulk composition. Paralavas formed by melting of different combinations of siltstone, sideritic mudstone and ankerite-rich rock "end-members", and there was also diffusion of Si, Al, Ti and K into paralava from fused clinker blocks within it.

  5. Re-emergence of Rabies in the Guangxi Province of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wu; Yang, Jian; He, Xiao-Xia; Xie, Lin-Juan; Zeng, Lan; Zheng, Lie-Feng; Xiong, Yi; Minamoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rabies cases in the Guangxi province of China decreased from 839 in 1982 to 24 in 1995, but subsequently underwent a sharp increase, and has since maintained a high level. Methodology/Principal Findings 3,040 brain samples from normal dogs and cats were collected from 14 districts of Guangxi and assessed by RT-PCR. The brain samples showed an average rabies virus (RV) positivity rate of 3.26%, but reached 4.71% for the period Apr 2002 to Dec 2003. A total of 30 isolates were obtained from normal dogs and 28 isolates from rabid animals by the mouse inoculation test (MIT). Six representative group I and II RV isolates showed an LD50 of 10−5.35/ml to 10−6.19/ml. The reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to group I and II RV isolates from the Guangxi major epidemic showed that eight anti-G MAbs showed strong reactivity with isolates of group I and II with titers of ≥10,000; however, the MAbs 9-6, 13-3 and 12-14 showed lower reactivity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the G gene demonstrated that the Guangxi RV isolates have similar topologies with strong bootstrap values and are closely bonded. Alignment of deduced amino acids revealed that the mature G protein has four substitutions A96S, L132F, N436S, and A447I specific to group I, and 13 substitutions T90M, Y168C, S204G, T249I, P253S, S289T, V332I, Q382H, V427I, L474P, R463K Q486H, and T487N specific to group II, coinciding with the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates. Conclusions Re-emergence of human rabies has mainly occurred in rural areas of Guangxi since 1996. The human rabies incidence rate increased is related with RV positive rate of normal dogs. The Guangxi isolates tested showed a similar pathogenicity and antigenicity. The results of phylogenetic analysis coincide with that of alignment of deduced amino acids. PMID:25275567

  6. Seismogenic tectonics of the Qian-Gorlos earthquake in Jilin Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Yu, Xiao-hui; Yu, Yang; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei; Zhang, Hanwen

    2016-04-01

    The Qian-Gorlos earthquake, which occurred in the Songliao basin in Jilin Province in 1119 AD, was the largest earthquake to occur in NE China before the 1975 Haicheng earthquake. Based on historical records and surface geological investigations, it has been suggested previously that the earthquake epicenter was in the Longkeng area. However, other workers have considered the epicenter to be in the Halamaodu area based on the landslides and faults found in this region. No seismogenic structure has yet been found in either of these two regions. We tried to detect active faults in the urban areas of Songyuan City, where the historical earthquake was probably located. One of the aims of this work was to clarify the seismogenic structure so that the seismic risk in the city could be more accurately evaluated. The area was investigated and analyzed using information from remote sensing and topographic surveys, seismic data from petroleum exploration, shallow seismic profiles, exploratory geological trenches on fault outcrops, and borehole data. The geophysical data did not reveal any evidence of faults cutting through Cretaceous or later strata under the Longkeng scarp, which has been suggested to be structural evidence of the Qian-Gorlos earthquake. The continuous fault surfaces on the back edge of terraces in the Halamaodu area stretch for >3.5 km and were probably formed by tectonic activity. However, results from shallow seismic profiles showed that the faults did not extend downward, with the corresponding deep structure being identified as a gentle kink band. A new reverse fault was found to the west of the two suggested epicenters, which presented as a curvilinear fault extending to the west, and was formed by two groups of NE- and NW-trending faults intersecting the Gudian fault. Three-dimensional seismic and shallow seismic data from petroleum exploration revealed its distinct spatial distribution and showed that the fault may cut through Late Quaternary strata

  7. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  8. Environmental impacts of Tl related to mined Dajiangping pyrite deposit in west Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Qi, J. Y.; Wang, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on the accumulation of Tl in Dajiangping pyrite deposit area in west Guangdong province, China, as a case study for environmental impacts of Tl due to natural processes and human activities. The pyrite deposit is one of the largest in Asia and has been mined on large scale since 1970s. Results show that Tl and other trace elements in local ecosystems, such as rocks/ores, soils, surface and ground waters, water sediments, plants and crops in Dajiangping near the pyrite ore deposit are enriched, characterized by high concentrations. The range of Tl concentrations is from 13.7 to 43.0 mg/kg in chunk concentrated ore, from 31.0 to 56.4 mg/kg in powdery concentrated ore and 49.7 to 51.6 mg/kg in pyrite tailing. Tl concentrations range from 15.0 to 21.0 mg/kg in soils of mineralized area, from 7.4 to 30.5 mg/kg in alluvial deposits and from 1.2 to 2.0 mg/kg in undisturbed background soil. Elevated concentrations of Tl have been observed in surface water from upstream( 2.2 µg/L) to downstream(102.6 µg/L) sections. Tl concentrations are comparatively high in the groundwater in mineralized area ( 7.8 µg/L). Tl concentrations in the edible parts of plants and crops range from 0.02 to 22.03 mg/kg (dry weight). Tl uptake shows characteristics of species-dependent, more in vegetables (around 90 mg/kg) than crops (0.3-8.1 mg/kg). For each individual plant, Tl concentrated more in roots than leaves and stems. The enrichment of Tl in the local ecosystem might come from the weathering, leaching and dissolving of Tl pyrite minerals. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behaviour in mined Tl-pyrite deposits, and also benefits to the study on local environmental protection and mineral resources exploitation in the future.

  9. Maternal care in rural China: a case study from Anhui province

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhuochun; Viisainen, Kirsi; Li, Xiaohong; Hemminki, Elina

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies on prenatal care in China have focused on the timing and frequency of prenatal care and relatively little information can be found on how maternal care has been organized and funded or on the actual content of the visits, especially in the less developed rural areas. This study explored maternal care in a rural county from Anhui province in terms of care organization, provision and utilization. Methods A total of 699 mothers of infants under one year of age were interviewed with structured questionnaires; the county health bureau officials and managers of township hospitals (n = 10) and county level hospitals (n = 2) were interviewed; the process of the maternal care services was observed by the researchers. In addition, statistics from the local government were used. Results The county level hospitals were well staffed and equipped and served as a referral centre for women with a high-risk pregnancy. Township hospitals had, on average, 1.7 midwives serving an average population of 15,000 people. Only 10–20% of the current costs in county level hospitals and township hospitals were funded by the local government, and women paid for delivery care. There was no systematic organized prenatal care and referrals were not mandatory. About half of the women had their first prenatal visit before the 13th gestational week, 36% had fewer than 5 prenatal visits, and about 9% had no prenatal visits. A major reason for not having prenatal care visits was that women considered it unnecessary. Most women (87%) gave birth in public health facilities, and the rest in a private clinic or at home. A total of 8% of births were delivered by caesarean section. Very few women had any postnatal visits. About half of the women received the recommended number of prenatal blood pressure and haemoglobin measurements. Conclusion Delivery care was better provided than both prenatal and postnatal care in the study area. Reliance on user fees gave the hospitals an incentive

  10. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  11. Molecular Identification of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense from 3 Human Cases in Heilongjiang Province with a Brief Literature Review in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weizhe; Che, Fei; Tian, Song; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Human diphyllobothriasis is a widespread fish-borne zoonosis caused by the infection with broad tapeworms belonging to the genus Diphyllobothrium. In mainland China, so far 20 human cases of Diphyllobothrium infections have been reported, and the etiologic species were identified as D. latum and D. nihonkaiense based on morphological characteristics or molecular analysis. In the present study, proglottids of diphyllobothriid tapeworms from 3 human cases that occurred in Heilongjiang Province, China were identified as D. nihonkaiense by sequencing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) genes. Two different cox1 gene sequences were obtained. One sequence showed 100% homology with those from humans in Japan. The remaining cox1 gene sequence and 2 different nad5 gene sequences obtained were not described previously, and might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. D. nihonkaiense might also be a major causative species of human diphyllobothriasis in China. Meanwhile, the finding of the first pediatric case of D. nihonkaiense infection in China suggests that infants infected with D. nihonkaiense should not be ignored. PMID:26797434

  12. Test of 259 serums from patients with arthritis or neurological symptoms confirmed existence of Lyme disease in Hainan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Xiong; Hou, Xuexia; Geng, Zhen; Chen, Hai; Hao, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Indirect Fluorescent-Antibody Test (IFA), Western Blot (WB) and Nested-PCR were applied to identify the Borrelia burgdorferi in human serum samples in Hainan province. A total of 259 serum samples were collected from Sanya Peoples’ Hospital, Hainan province. These samples were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi serologically and etiologically by the two tier tests (IFA and WB) and Nested-PCR. 43 in total of 259 serum samples were tested positive by IFA assay, the positive rate was 16.6%. Among 43 IFA-positive samples, 6 were identified positive by WB. Nested-PCR were also used to test B. burgdorferi DNA in 259 serum samples at the same time, 27 samples were tested positive with positive rate of 10.42%. It is the first time to confirm that there are Lyme patients in Hainan province of China. The study suggested that Lyme disease should be commonly considered by clinicians with the patients who had correlated symptoms with lyme disease in Hainan. PMID:26309619

  13. Arsenic speciation in locally grown rice grains from Hunan Province, China: Spatial distribution and potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Wang, Lin; Jia, Yuyu; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic contaminations have been evaluated in rice grains from Hunan Province, China. Forty-three locally grown rice samples were collected from 40 counties. Arsenic species including As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA were separated and determined by HPLC-ICP-MS method. The mean concentration of total arsenic in rice samples was 129.4±49.2μg/kg, lower than the Chinese maximum contaminant levels of inorganic arsenic in rice (200μg/kg). The dominant species detected in rice samples was As(III), following DMA, As(V) and MMA. The Pearson's correlation analysis indicated significant positive relationships between As(III) and total arsenic (r=0.939, p<0.01), and DMA and total arsenic (r=0.761, p<0.01). However, the percentage of As(III) decreased with the total arsenic concentration in rice (r=-0.515, p<0.01). Spatial distribution map of total arsenic concentration in rice samples from Hunan Province was obtained using kriging interpolation. High levels of total arsenic in rice grains were observed in south and east regions associated with mining activities and urbanization process. The cancer risk and hazard quotient were employed to estimate the potential human health risk. The results suggested great carcinogenic risk and high potential non-carcinogenic risk to people consuming local rice in Hunan Province. PMID:27016689

  14. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  15. Physiological traits contributed to the recent increase in yield potential of winter wheat from Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bangwei; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Shen, Tianmin; Sánchez-Bragado, Rut; Bort, Jordi; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    This experiment aims to test the traits responsible for the increase in yield potential of winter wheat released in Henan Province, China. Seven established cultivars released in the last 20 years and three advanced lines were assayed. The results showed that grain yield was positively correlated with harvest index (HI), kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. In addition, the HI and aboveground biomass showed an increasing trend with the year of release. Therefore, we can conclude that bread wheat breeding advances during recent decades in Henan Province, China, have been achieved through an increase in HI, kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. A higher δ(13)C seems also to be involved in these advances, which suggests a progressive improvement in constitutive water use efficiency not associated with a trend towards lower stomatal conductance in the most recent genotypes. However, genetic advance does not appear related to changes in photosynthesis rates on area basis when measured in the flag leaf or the spike, but only to a higher, whole-spike photosynthesis. Results also indirectly support the concept that under potential yield conditions, the spike contributed more than the flag leaf to kernel formation. PMID:24373600

  16. Isolation and identification of cultivable lactic acid bacteria in traditional yak milk products of Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Bao, QiuHua; Liu, WenJun; Yu, Jie; Wang, Weihong; Qing, ManJun; Chen, Xia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Wenyi; Qiao, Jianmin; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Various traditional fermented yak milk and raw milk foods could be considered as an abundant resource for obtaining novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with unique properties. Eighty-eight samples of yak milk products were collected from Gansu Province in China. Three hundred and nineteen strains of LAB isolated from these samples were identified by phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology. Among the isolates, one hundred and sixty-four isolates (51.41% of the total) were classified under Lactobacilli, and one hundred and fifty-five (48.59%) belonged to cocci. All the isolates were classified to six genera (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella) and twenty-one species. Lactobacillus helveticus (87 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (49 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (39 strains), Lactobacillus casei (31 strains) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (19 strains) were considered as the predominant populations in the yak milk products. The results showed that there were abundant genus and species LAB existing in yak milk products in Gansu Province in China. The obtained LAB pure cultures may be a valuable source for further starter selection. PMID:22688240

  17. Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among female sex workers in a city in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China, andTrichomonas vaginalis(TV) can facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of TV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city of Yunnan Province in southern China, with confidential face-to-face interviews and laboratory tests for TV (wet mount) and other sexually transmitted infections. A total of 734 FSWs participated in the study. The prevalence of TV was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.02-11.30). In multivariate analyses, adjusted odds ratios of TV infection were 3.0 (95% CI 1.47-6.01) for herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive, 2.4 (95% CI 1.37-4.14) forChlamydia trachomatisinfection, 2.6 (95% CI 1.30-5.31) for genital ulcer, 1.9 (95% CI 1.11-3.30) for starting age in commercial sex <20 years, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.87) for vaginal douching. We found a relatively high prevalence of TV infection among FSWs in Yunnan Province. A range of control strategies that include TV screening are recommended among FSWs, which could contribute significantly to the disruption of transmission by the provision of immediate treatment. PMID:25957327

  18. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus infection among dogs in several developed cities in the Guangdong province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifang; Zheng, Yun; Fu, Cheng; Huang, San; Hong, Malin; Yan, Zhongshan; Jia, Kun; Zhou, Pei; Li, Shoujun

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, was seldom studied in dogs especially in stray dogs. As previously reported, dog might be an accidental host of HEV for human beings and some risk factors might play an important role in HEV transmission. Thus, we designed this study to evaluate the seroprevalence of HEV infection among dogs in several cities in Guangdong province of China. This surveillance may help us understand risk factors including location, gender, live type, and diet habit for HEV transmission. The overall seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in dogs was 19.00%. Positive rate of anti-HEV antibodies in other food groups (21.13%) was higher than that in dog food groups (9.77%) (P < 0.05), which suggested that diet habit might be a vital element of infecting HEV for dogs and play an important role in living environment. However, the analysis indicated that no strong relationship was observed among different cities, gender groups, and live type. Our study demonstrated that HEV is prevalent in dogs in the Guangdong province of China. As diet habit might become a vital element of infecting HEV for dogs and play an important role in living environment, similar studies of dogs should be conducted in the future. J. Med. Virol. 88:1404-1407, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26743155

  20. Implication of fault interaction to seismic hazard assessment in Sichuan-Yunnan provinces of Southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkarlaouni, C.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Karakostas, V. G.; Wen, Xue–Ze; Jin, Xue–Shen; Kilias, A.; Pan, Hua

    2009-04-01

    Strong seismicity in China and adjacent regions is distributed over specific zones that configure rigid lithospheric subplates often bounded by active faults. Sichuan and Yunnan provinces correspond to a so-called rhombic shaped subplate that experiences the strongest intraplate seismicity in the territory of China. The region exhibits a complicated tectonic regime that consists of various rupture zones and different faulting types with strike slip prevailing, consistent with the regional stress field and geological background. During the 20th century, 35 devastating earthquakes with magnitude Ms≥6.5 occurred nearby densely populated areas causing a majority of casualties and deaths. The fact that Sichuan and Yunnan provinces are densely populated and industrially developed urges the necessity for investigating the occurrence pattern of the region's stronger events through the stress evolutionary model and also identifying the structures that are apt to produce a potential strong seismic event in the future. The tectonic complexity reveals a real challenge for our investigation, since the interaction is sought among different faulting types. Stress transfer seems not to be restricted in a single however segmented fault but also expands over the adjacent faults or conjugate zones often bringing them toward rupture. The characteristic of the tectonic setting is that various long strike slip, normal and some thrust faults exist within the same area, interacting with each other. Such interaction of strong earthquakes has been proved by previous investigation concerning the Xianshuihe fault zone (Papadimitriou et al., 2004) and the stress evolution for the northeast Tibetan Plateau from 1920 till present for a viscoelastic model (Wan et al., 2007). A feature characterizing long fault zones is that they are found segmented and distinct parts of faults rupture each time until they complete a seismic cycle. Although fault surfaces are irregular and ruptures are more

  1. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy and native beef (Qinchuan) calves in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Wang, R J; Ren, G J; Yu, Z Q; Zhang, L X; Zhang, S Y; Lu, H; Peng, X Q; Zhao, G H

    2016-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two common protozoa that parasitize the intestinal epithelium of animals and humans. Calves have been identified as important reservoirs of these two pathogens, but limited data is available for these two pathogens in calves in China. In the present study, the prevalence and assemblages/genotypes of both parasites in calves of dairy and native beef (Qinchuan) cattle in Shaanxi province, northwestern China, were analyzed using multilocus genotyping (MLST). Of 371 fecal samples collected from calves (including 198 dairy calves and 173 Qinchuan calves), the respective overall prevalence of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi was 18.87 (70 of 371) and 19.68 % (73 of 371). Both the zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblage A and animal adapted assemblage E were found in dairy and Qinchuan calves. Seventeen, eight, five, and two G. duodenalis subtypes were detected at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) loci, with five and two novel subtypes detected at the tpi and bg loci, forming 25 multiple genotypes (MLGs) (15 and 11 in dairy and Qinchuan calves, respectively). Of 73 samples that were positive for E. bieneusi at the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus, five ITS genotypes were found, including three known zoonotic genotypes (I, J, CHN1) and two novel genotypes (CSX1 and CSX2). MLST analysis of three microsatellite loci (MS1, MS3, MS7) and one minisatellite locus (MS4) detected six, two, two, and two genotypes at the MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7 loci, respectively, forming ten MLGs (seven and four in dairy and Qinchuan calves, respectively). These results indicate complex population structures of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi in calves in Shaanxi province and the zoonotic potential of these two pathogens in calves in this province. PMID:26782809

  2. The Effect of Urban Basic Medical Insurance on Health Service Utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: A Comparison of Two Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Results Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p<0.10), whilst the significant effect on hospitalisation was evident in the CEM method (p<0.10). The effect of URBMI was limited in that although being insured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Conclusion Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services. PMID:24740282

  3. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China. PMID:26963628

  4. Estimates of forest biomass carbon storage inLiaoning Province of Northeast China: a review and assessment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha(-1) in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha(-1) in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 2.1b from Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weixing; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Hunan 23/2013, belonging to the predominant subgenotype 2.1b. This strain was originally isolated from diseased pigs in Hunan Province, China. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV stains circulating in China and in selecting and developing a suitable vaccine candidate for CSF control. PMID:26205876

  6. Prevalence and Genetic Characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in Pre-Weaned and Post-Weaned Piglets in Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aiqin; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Shen, Yujuan; Cao, Jianping; Ling, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoa of humans and animals. There have been few studies conducted on the molecular characterizations of pig-derived Cryptosporidium isolates worldwide, especially in China. Thus, the aim of the present study was to understand the prevalence, distribution and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in pigs in Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 568 fecal samples from pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets were collected from eight pig farms from four areas of Heilongjiang Province. The average infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 1.6% (9/568) by microscopy. 113 samples were subjected to PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium, with 55.8% (63/113) being positive for Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium suis (n = 31) and C. scrofarumn (n = 32) were identified by DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene. Three types of C. scrofarumn were found at the SSU rRNA locus, with one novel type being detected. Using species/genotype-specific primers for pig-adapted Cryptosporidium spp., 22 and 23 respectively belonged to C. suis and C. scrofarum mono-infections, with 18 co-infections detected. The infection peaks for C. suis (60%, 24/40) and C. scrofarum (51.2%, 21/41) were respectively found in the piglets of 5 to 8 weeks and more than 8 weeks. Conclusion/Significance The detection of C. suis and C. scrofarum in pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets has public health implications, due to the fact that the two species are both zoonotic Cryptosporidium. The novel C. scrofarum type detected may be endemic to China. PMID:23844032

  7. Low prevalence of lactase persistence in Neolithic South-West Europe.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Theo S; Alonso, Santos; Izagirre, Neskuts; Hervella, Montserrat; Fregel, Rosa; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; de la Rúa, Concepcion

    2012-07-01

    The ability of humans to digest the milk component lactose after weaning requires persistent production of the lactose-converting enzyme lactase. Genetic variation in the promoter of the lactase gene (LCT) is known to be associated with lactase production and is therefore a genetic determinant for either lactase deficiency or lactase persistence during adulthood. Large differences in this genetic trait exist between populations in Africa and the Middle-East on the one hand, and European populations on the other; this is thought to be due to evolutionary pressures exerted by consumption of dairy products in Neolithic populations in Europe. In this study, we have investigated lactase persistence of 26 out of 46 individuals from Late Neolithic through analysis of ancient South-West European DNA samples, obtained from two burials in the Basque Country originating from 5000 to 4500 YBP. This investigation revealed that these populations had an average frequency of lactase persistence of 27%, much lower than in the modern Basque population, which is compatible with the concept that Neolithic and post-Neolithic evolutionary pressures by cattle domestication and consumption of dairy products led to high lactase persistence in Southern European populations. Given the heterogeneity in the frequency of the lactase persistence allele in ancient Europe, we suggest that in Southern Europe the selective advantage of lactose assimilation in adulthood most likely took place from standing population variation, after cattle domestication, at a post-Neolithic time when fresh milk consumption was already fully adopted as a consequence of a cultural influence. PMID:22234158

  8. Knowledge Regarding Organ Donation and Willingness to Donate among Health Workers in South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluyombo, R.; Fawale, M. B.; Ojewola, R. W.; Busari, O. A.; Ogunmola, O. J.; Olanrewaju, T. O.; Akinleye, C. A.; Oladosu, Y. O.; Olamoyegun, M. A.; Gbadegesin, B. A.; Obajolowo, O. O.; Soje, M. O.; Adelaja, A.; Ayodele, L. M.; Ayodele, O. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Organ transplantation program in developing countries is still significantly dwarfed. Health workers are undeniably important in the success of transplantation. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of health workers toward organ donation in South-West Nigeria with a view to explaining reasons for these shortcomings. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 850 health care workers, self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from participants. Results: Of 850 participants, 766 (90.1%) returned their completed questionnaires. The mean±SD age of participants was 36.7±9.2 years. Majority (93.3%) of participants had heard of organ donation; 82.5% had desirable knowledge. Only 29.5% and 39.4% would be willing to donate and counsel potential organ donors, respectively; 36.5% would consider signing organ donation cards. Only 19.4% believed that organ transplantation is often effective and 63.4% believed they were permitted by their religion to donate. Permission by religion (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.3), good knowledge (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.7), readiness to sign donation cards (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.8), discuss organ donation (OR 2.7; 95%CI 8.0 to 63.8), and knowing somebody who had donated (OR 2.9) independently influenced willingness to donate organ. Conclusion: There is disparity in knowledge of organ donation and willingness to donate among health care workers. Efforts should be intensified to give comprehensive and appropriate education to health care workers about organ donation to bridge this gap. PMID:26889370

  9. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mosallanejad, B; Alborzi, AR; Katvandi, N

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010. Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (<1 year, 1–3 years and >3 years), sex, breed and region Results: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57%) were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hippobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp.) were identified on 9 (7.14%), 7 (5.56%), 6 (4.76%), 3 (2.38%), 3 (2.38%), 2 (1.59%), 2 (1.59%) and one (0.79%) of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%). Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67) than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59), age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22) and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42), but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P> 0.05). Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert. PMID:23293781

  10. Monitoring South-West Greenland's ice sheet melt with ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, A.; Mikesell, T. D.; Harig, C.; Lipovsky, B.; Prieto, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) accounts for ~ 70% of global ice sheet mass loss and contributes to sea level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/yr. Therefore, the GIS needs to be carefully monitored. The spaceborne techniques commonly used to monitor the GIS mass balance contain inherent uncertainties. These uncertainties can be reduced by comparing independent datasets and techniques. However, spaceborne methods remain inadequate in the sense that they offer low spatial and/or temporal resolution. This fact highlights the need for other complimentary methods to monitor the GIS more accurately and with greater resolution. Here we use a seismic method: the correlation of seismic noise recorded at South-West Greenland seismic stations to show that the GIS seasonal melt produces significant variations of seismic wave speed in the Greenland crust. The amplitudes of the measured velocity variations during 2012-2013 correlate with the total ice plus atmospheric mass variations measured by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite mission. We explain the phase delay between mass maxima and velocity minima ( 50 days) using a non-linear poroelastic model that includes a 55 cm-thick layer of till between the ice sheet and the bedrock. We, thus, interpret the velocity variations as pore pressure variations in the bedrock resulting from the loading and unloading of the overlying glacier and atmosphere. This method provides a new and independent way to monitor in near real-time the first-order state of the GIS, giving new constraints on its evolution and its contribution to the global sea level rise. By increasing the density of seismic stations in the region it will be possible to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of the method and create detailed maps of ice-mass variations across Greenland.

  11. Climatic variables and malaria transmission dynamics in Jimma town, South West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background:- In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics. It usually occurs at altitudes < 2,000 m above sea level. Occasionally, transmission of malaria occurs in areas previously free of malaria, including areas > 2,000 m above sea level. For transmission of malaria parasite, climatic factors are important determinants as well as non-climatic factors that can negate climatic influences. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the correlation between climatic variability and malaria transmission risk in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between meteorological variables and malaria cases. Methods: - Time-series analysis was conducted using data on monthly meteorological variables and monthly total malaria in Jimma town, south west Ethiopia, for the period 2000-2009. All the data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 database program. Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis were used to asses association between the variables. Results: - During last ten years (2000-2009), a fluctuating trend of malaria transmission was observed with P.vivax becoming predominant species. Spearman correlation analysis showed that monthly minimum temperature, total rainfall and two measures of relative humidity were positively related with malaria but monthly maximum temperature negatively related. Also regression analysis suggested that monthly minimum (p = 0.008), monthly maximum temperature (p = 0.013) and monthly total rainfall (p = 0.040), at one month lagged effect, were significant meteorological factors for transmission of malaria in the study area. Conclusion: - Malaria incidences in the last decade seem to have a significant association with meteorological variables. In future, prospective and multidisciplinary cooperative research involving researchers from the fields of parasitology, epidemiology, botany, agriculture and

  12. Lead and other toxic metals in playground paints from South West England.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Kearl, Emily R; Solman, Kevin R

    2016-02-15

    Paints on surfaces of public playground structures in South West England have been analysed for Pb, Cr, Cd and Sb by field-portable, energy-dispersive XRF. Lead was detected (>8 μg g(-1)) in 102 out of 242 cases, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 152,000 μg g(-1) (median=451 μg g(-1)). Chromium was detected (>25 μg g(-1)) in 48 cases, and concentrations ranged from 26 to 24,800 μg g(-1) (median=1040 μg g(-1)) and exhibited a significant positive correlation with Pb concentrations. Antimony concentrations ranged from 273 to 16,000 μg g(-1) (median=2180 μg g(-1)) in 56 detectable cases, and Cd was detected in eight paints and up to a concentration of 771 μg g(-1) (median=252 μg g(-1)). The highest concentrations of Pb, Cr and Sb generally occurred in yellow or red paints but were encountered on a variety of structures and equipment (e.g. gates, flooring lines, railings and handles of climbing frames and seesaws, and the interior of a model train) and were observed in both flaking, extant paint and in formulations that appeared to have been recently applied. Maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Pb, Cr and Sb in a range of paints, evaluated in selected samples by ICP analysis following pepsin-dilute HCl extraction, were 2710, 205 and 23.6 μg g(-1), respectively, or 16.6, 0.82 and 0.56% of the respective total concentrations. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of toxic metals in playground paints that exceed various contemporary and historical standards (and in many cases for Pb, by orders of magnitude) are likely to be a more widespread and pervasive issue that needs addressing by the relevant authorities. PMID:26657391

  13. Exposure to blood among mortuary workers in teaching hospitals in south-west Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunnowo, Babatunde; Anunobi, Charles; Onajole, Adebayo; Odeyemi, Kofoworola

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortuary workers like other health workers are exposed to blood borne pathogens at work. A baseline assessment is important to plan for programmes to safeguard the health of workers. The aim of this study is to determine exposure rates to blood among mortuary workers in teaching hospitals in South West Nigeria. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out between March and May 2008. All mortuary workers working in six (6) teaching hospitals, 80 in total were included in the study. Data was collected with the aid of a 15- item self administered questionnaire. Data was analysed with the aid of EPI-INFO 2002. Statistical associations were explored using odds ratio and confidence intervals. Results A total of 76 respondents completed questionnaire giving a response rate of 95%; 3 males and 1 female declined to participate, the mean age of respondents was 38.2 years, 48(72.6%), 53(85.5%) and 50(73.5%) of the workers had been exposed to blood through cuts, blood splash and needle stick injury. Duration at work was significantly associated with blood splash. Workers who had worked 5years and above were 0.10 times (95% confidence interval 0.00–.0.78) as likely to experience blood splash compared to those who had worked under 5 years. Only 5(10.4%) of workers with needle stick injury had completed three doses of Hepatitis B vaccine. The specific confirmation by antibody titre was however not done in this study. Conclusion Exposure to blood was very common with blood splash emerging as the most common route of exposure. There is a need for vaccination of all mortuary workers with three doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine to protect their health. In addition, education of workers on risks and institution of standard operating procedure are crucial to safeguard the health of mortuary workers. PMID:22593797

  14. Low prevalence of lactase persistence in Neolithic South-West Europe

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Theo S; Alonso, Santos; Izagirre, Neskuts; Hervella, Montserrat; Fregel, Rosa; van der Meer, Jos WM; Netea, Mihai G; de la Rúa, Concepcion

    2012-01-01

    The ability of humans to digest the milk component lactose after weaning requires persistent production of the lactose-converting enzyme lactase. Genetic variation in the promoter of the lactase gene (LCT) is known to be associated with lactase production and is therefore a genetic determinant for either lactase deficiency or lactase persistence during adulthood. Large differences in this genetic trait exist between populations in Africa and the Middle-East on the one hand, and European populations on the other; this is thought to be due to evolutionary pressures exerted by consumption of dairy products in Neolithic populations in Europe. In this study, we have investigated lactase persistence of 26 out of 46 individuals from Late Neolithic through analysis of ancient South-West European DNA samples, obtained from two burials in the Basque Country originating from 5000 to 4500 YBP. This investigation revealed that these populations had an average frequency of lactase persistence of 27%, much lower than in the modern Basque population, which is compatible with the concept that Neolithic and post-Neolithic evolutionary pressures by cattle domestication and consumption of dairy products led to high lactase persistence in Southern European populations. Given the heterogeneity in the frequency of the lactase persistence allele in ancient Europe, we suggest that in Southern Europe the selective advantage of lactose assimilation in adulthood most likely took place from standing population variation, after cattle domestication, at a post-Neolithic time when fresh milk consumption was already fully adopted as a consequence of a cultural influence. PMID:22234158

  15. Regional analysis of the mean annual maximum peak flow in South West Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas; Cooper, David

    2010-05-01

    The work reported here is a pilot study carried out as part of the EU FP7 project Mirage, and aims to derive flood frequency relationships for temporary rivers in the Mediterranean region. Regional studies of flood characteristics are often limited to national, or even sub-national, regions. Reasons for these spatially limited studies are manifold, but include: lack of international co-operation, difficulties in getting access to hydrometric data from other countries, and inconsistencies in national datasets for deriving catchment characteristics. As part of this study, preliminary regional datasets from south-west Europe of flood statistics and relevant catchment descriptors have been derived. The annual maximum peak flow data have been obtained from the UNESCO/FRIEND project and includes 381 time series of daily river flow from Portugal, Spain and southern France. Note that a majority of these data comes from perennial rivers. The catchment descriptors including catchment area, mean annual rainfall, soil properties and land-use characteristics. These characteristics have been derived from pan-European dataset including the SRTM (90m) dtm, gridded precipitation data from CRU (18km), the JRC soil database (1km) and CORINE land-cover data (250m). The logarithm of the mean annual maximum peak flow (QBAR) has been linked to a subset of log-transformed catchment descriptors using a linear regression-type model, including correlation in both observations and regression model errors. The existence of model error correlation suggests that the data contains more between-catchment variation in QBAR than can be explained by the catchment descriptors alone. Thus, further research is needed to identify additional explanatory variables with the potential to be made available on a pan-European scale.

  16. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96%) respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women). The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent) who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4%) sisters who had died, 819 (32%) occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769) per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia. PMID:23176124

  17. Simultaneous measurements of CO2 and water exchanges over three agroecosystems in South-West France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, P.; Lamaud, E.; Brunet, Y.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Loustau, D.; Irvine, M.

    2009-02-01

    During the last few decades, many studies have been performed to determine water and carbon budgets of broadleaf and deciduous forests, crops and grasslands. However, since most measurements have been made in different regions and at different periods, it is difficult to compare the results directly. In order to evaluate accurately the respective contribution of various agroecosystems to global water and carbon exchanges, it is necessary to compare data obtained in similar climatic and weather conditions. To address this question, we present the results from simultaneous measurements carried out from 31 March 2007 to 3 March 2008 over three typical agroecosystems of the Les Landes region in South-West France: an agricultural field with maize from 29 May to 18 October, a young (5 year-old) pine forest and a mature (37 year-old) pine forest. All measurements were collected as part of the Regional Experiment component of the CarboEurope-IP project. During most of the year, the agricultural field without vegetation is a source of CO2, but from late June to early September the maize crop becomes a stronger carbon sink than the forests. Over the whole measurement period the three agroecosystems behave as CO2 sinks with carbon storage of about 500, 330 and 230 gC m-2 for the young forest, the mature forest and the agricultural field, respectively. Daily Water Use Efficiencies (WUE) of the three ecosystems were evaluated and expressed as functions of the mean daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Similar trends were observed for the two forests, which suggests that for a given species WUE is independent of stand age. The WUE of the maize crop at maturity was also found to depend upon VPD, but it is about twice as large as for the forests, owing to the physiological advantages of C4 species.

  18. Mammographic parasitic calcifications in South West Nigeria: prospective and descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike Temitayo; Obajimi, Millicent Olubunmi; Oluwasola, Abideen Olayiwola; Soyemi, Temitope O

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia Malayi is endemic in the tropics. In Nigeria, 25% of the population is infected. Lymph edema and elephantiasis are the predominant manifestations. Its infrequent manifestation is in the breast. This paper discusses the epidemiology, reviews literature, imaging options and mammographic appearances of these parasitic nematodes. Methods This prospective descriptive study reports on 39 cases of parasitic calcifications seen during mammography in the Radiology Department, University College Hospital between 2006 and 2012 in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. Each mammogram was reported by MO and ATS: assigned a final Bi-RADs category. Parasitic calcifications were further evaluated for distribution, and types of calcification. Results A total of 527 women had mammography done between 2006 and 2012. Thirty-nine women (7.4%) had parasitic breast calcifications. The ages of the women ranged between 38-71 years - mean of 52.36±8.72 SD. Twenty-three (59%) were post-menopausal, 16(41%) were pre-menopausal. The majority (31; 79.5%) were screeners while 8(20.5%) were follow up cases. Approximately half (51.3%) of the women had no complaints. Pain (23.1%) was the commonest presentation in the remaining half. Solitary calcifications were predominant (20) while only 3 cases had 10 calcifications. Left sided calcifications (53.8%) were the majority. Calcifications were subcutaneous in 2/3rds of the women (66.7%) while the Yoruba tribe (84.6%) was principal. Conclusion Parasitic breast calcifications can be misdiagnosed on mammography for suspicious micro-calcification. This publication should alert radiologists in a tropical country like Nigeria to increase diagnostic vigilance thereby preventing unnecessary anxiety and invasive work-up procedures. PMID:24255732

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites of birds in zoological gardens in south-west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otegbade, A C; Morenikeji, O A

    2014-03-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites are a major health issue in captive birds. However, prevalence data of gastrointestinal parasites of birds in zoological gardens in Nigeria are scarce. This study was carried out to establish the gastrointestinal parasite profile of birds kept in zoological gardens in the University of Ibadan, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ilorin, University of Lagos and Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, all in south-west Nigeria. A total of 178 fecal samples from 83 birds (14 species in eight orders) were examined using three techniques; Feacal sedimentation using ethyl acetate, McMaster Egg Counting Technique and Petri Dish-Filter Paper Slant culture technique (modified Harada-Mori Technique). A total of 39(21.9%) of the 178 samples were infected. The highest prevalence (100%) of infection was recorded in Unilag zoo and a total of five species of parasites including two protozoans (coccidian and Balantidium spp.); and three nematodes Capillaria spp., Ascaris spp. and Strongyloides spp.) were recorded with Capillaria spp. (14.1%) as the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasite. Mixed infections were found in 18(10.1%) samples. Strongyloides larvae were observed in 6(3.4%) samples. All Anseriformes were infected but the Struthioniformes had the highest infection rate. The geometric mean intensity of eggs ranged from 101.98 ± 10.36 to 63.00 ± 16.67 epg and oocyst counts ranged from 332.47 ± 16.67 to 297.89 ± 20.41 opg. Balantidium cyst count was 324.04 ± 25.00. Count of oocyst of coccidian species was significantly higher in all the zoos. The feacal culture yielded Strongyloides species. Regular deworming and hygienic measures are necessary to prevent gastrointestinal infections in captive birds. So also, improved funding and management are necessary to ensure sustainability of Nigerian zoological gardens. PMID:24862045

  20. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.

  1. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output. PMID:22720632

  2. Remote sensing for predicting potential habitats of Oncomelania hupensis in Hongze, Baima and Gaoyou lakes in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-11-01

    Political and health sector reforms, along with demographic, environmental and socio-economic transformations in the face of global warming, could cause the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in areas where transmission has been successfully interrupted and its emergence in previously non-endemic areas in China. In the present study, we used geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques to predict potential habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Focussing on the Hongze, Baima and Gaoyou lakes in Jiangsu province in eastern China, we developed a model using the normalized difference vegetation index, a tasseled-cap transformed wetness index, and flooding areas to predict snail habitats at a small scale. Data were extracted from two Landsat images, one taken during a typical dry year and the other obtained three years later during a flooding event. An area of approximately 163.6 km2 was predicted as potential O. hupensis habitats around the three lakes, which accounts for 4.3% of the estimated snail habitats in China. In turn, these predicted snail habitats are risk areas for transmission of schistosomiasis, and hence illustrate the scale of the possible impact of climate change and other ecological transformations. The generated risk map can be used by health policy makers to guide mitigation policies targetting the possible spread of O. hupensis, and with the aim of containing the transmission of S. japonicum. PMID:18686234

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from multiple provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    KONG, Ling-Cong; GAO, Duo; JIA, Bo-Yan; WANG, Zi; GAO, Yun-Hang; PEI, Zhi-Hua; LIU, Shu-Ming; XIN, Jiu-Qing; MA, Hong-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has spread widely throughout the world via animal movement and has become an important pathogen of bovine respiratory disease. However, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials for Mycoplasma bovis have not been studied in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from young cattle with respiratory infection in China. Mycoplasma bovis was detected in 32/45 bovine respiratory infection outbreaks at beef farms in 8 provinces in China. The isolates were susceptible or had medium sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and doxycycline, but were frequently resistant to macrolides (13/32, 41%). An A2058G (Escherichia coli Numbering) mutation located in the rrnA operon in domain V of 23S rRNA was observed in strains that were resistant to macrolides. This single mutations at the rrnA operon in domain V of 23S rRNA may play an important role in the resistance of Mycoplasma bovis strains to macrolides. PMID:26346744

  4. A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking of In-Service and Pre-Service Middle School Chemistry Teachers in Shaanxi Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Yan, Chungeng; Zhao, Shuyu; Liu, Liya; Xing, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the development of critical thinking of middle school chemistry teachers in Shaanxi province of China. In-service and pre-service teachers' critical thinking are examined in order to provide evidence for establishing teachers' standard. The sample in this study consisted of 69 in-service and 61 pre-service chemistry…

  5. Infections with Sarcococystis wenzeli are prevalent in the chickens of Yunnan Province, China, but rare or absent from the flocks of domesticated pigeons and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution and prevalence of infections with species of Sarcocystis in domestic fowl in Asia are poorly known. Here, ducks, pigeons, and chickens from Yunnan Province, China were examined for evidence of parasitic infection with Sarcocystis spp. One hundred ninety one chickens, 514 ducks, and...

  6. Analysis on Inter-Provincial Disparities of China's Rural Education and Convergence Rate: Empirical Analysis on 31 Provinces' (Municipalities') Panel Data from 2001 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Tongwei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze inter-provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001. Design/methodology/approach: The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside…

  7. Case 3. "Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China": Opinion by the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the decision of the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province on the Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China case. Jiang Tao, the plaintiff, claimed that the defendant Chengdu Branch placed an announcement in the "Chengdu Business Daily" to "recruit tellers for Chengdu Branch" on…

  8. Spatiotemporal variations in rainfall erosivity during the period of 1960-2011 in Guangdong Province, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qinghe; Liu, Qian; Ma, Lijiao; Ding, Shengyan; Xu, Shanshan; Wu, Changsong; Liu, Pu

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall erosivity, which shows a potential risk of soil loss caused by water erosion, is an important factor in soil erosion process. In consideration of the critical condition of soil erosion induced by rainfall in Guangdong Province of southern China, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall erosivity based on daily rainfall data observed at 25 meteorological stations during the period of 1960-2011. The methods of global spatial autocorrelation, kriging interpolation, Mann-Kendall test, and continuous wavelet transform were used. Results revealed that the annual rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province, which spatially varied with the maximum level observed in June, was classified as high erosivity with two peaks that occur in spring and summer. In the direction of south-north, mean annual rainfall erosivity, which showed significant relationships with mean annual rainfall and latitude, gradually decreased with the high values mainly distributed in the coastal area and the low values mainly occurring in the lowlands of northwestern Guangdong. Meanwhile, a significant positive spatial autocorrelation which implied a clustered pattern was observed for annual rainfall erosivity. The spatial distribution of seasonal rainfall erosivity exhibited clustering tendencies, except spring erosivity with Moran's I and Z values of 0.1 and 1.04, respectively. The spatial distribution of monthly rainfall erosivity presented clustered patterns in January-March and July-October as well as random patterns in the remaining months. The temporal trend of mean rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province showed no statistically significant trend at the annual, seasonal, and monthly scales. However, at each station, 1 out of 25 stations exhibited a statistically significant trend at the annual scale; 4 stations located around the Pearl River Delta presented significant trends in summer at the seasonal scale; significant trends were observed in March (increasing

  9. Evaluation of spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation variations in Jilin Province, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation time series were analysed using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test and wavelet analysis based on the mean seasonal and annual precipitation from 29 meteorological stations in Jilin Province for the period 1958-2011. Both the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the seasonal and annual precipitation trends and periodicities in different regions in Jilin Province were studied for the first time in this paper. New findings from the intensive calculations and appropriate analysis of data in longer period are as follows: (i) The annual precipitation of Jilin Province has experienced four states: a decrease (1958-1980), increase (1980-1987), decrease (1987-2003) and increase (2003-2011). (ii) The annual precipitation and seasonal precipitation increased from the northwest and northeast of the study area toward the south. (iii) Almost 90 % of the stations showed negative trends in annual precipitation variations. (iv) The trends in spring and winter are mainly increasing, whereas the trends in summer and autumn are mainly decreasing. (v) Jilin Province can be divided into four parts based on the periodicities of annual precipitation sequences: 5-6, 10-20 and 25-30 years in the northwest; 4-8 and 16-25 years in the centre; 7-8 and 13-17 years in the south and 5-10 and 12-17 years in the southeast.

  10. Genome Sequences of the Novel Porcine Parvovirus 3, Identified in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hui; Li, Xiangmin; Zhao, Zekai; An, Chunjing; Wan, Peng; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun; Qian, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 3 is a novel parvovirus that infects pigs. Here, we report two genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 3 strains GX1 and GX2, which are highly prevalent in Guangxi province. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine parvovirus 3. PMID:26941135

  11. Genome Sequences of the Novel Porcine Parvovirus 3, Identified in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hui; Li, Xiangmin; Zhao, Zekai; An, Chunjing; Wan, Peng; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 3 is a novel parvovirus that infects pigs. Here, we report two genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 3 strains GX1 and GX2, which are highly prevalent in Guangxi province. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine parvovirus 3. PMID:26941135

  12. Notes on the Nazeris fauna of Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia-Yao; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Nazeris Fauvel collected from Nabanhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, are described under the names of Nazeris nabanhensissp. n. and Nazeris caoisp. n. The male sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key to the Nazeris species of Yunnan is provided. A map of the collecting sites is given. PMID:21594163

  13. Incidence and mortality rate of esophageal cancer has decreased during past 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Wu, Yan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2015-01-01

    Background Hebei province is located in North of China with of approximately 6% of whole national population. It is known as a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in China and worldwide. The aim of our study was to estimate the esophageal cancer burden and trend in Hebei Province. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted cancer registry data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. All data were qualified and compiled for cancer statistics in 2011. The pooled data were stratified by gender and age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…80+). Incidence and mortality rates were age-standardized to World Segi’s population standard and expressed per 100,000 persons. In addition, proportions and cumulative incidence/mortality rates for esophageal cancer were calculated. Esophageal cancer mortality data during the periods 1973-1975, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005 were extracted from the national death surveys. Mortality and incidence rate data from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population-based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated number of newly diagnosed esophageal cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province was 24,318 and 18,226, respectively. The crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer was 33.37/100,000 (males, 42.18/100,000 and females, 24.31/100,000). The age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASRW) was 28.09/100,000, ranking third among all cancers. The esophageal cancer mortality rate was 25.01/100,000 (males, 31.40/100,000 and females, 18.45/100,000), ranking third in deaths among all cancers. The mortality rates of esophageal cancer displayed a significant decreasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973-1975 (ASRW =48.69/100,000) to 2004-2005 (ASRW =28.02/100,000), with a decreased rate of 42.45%. In Cixian, the incidence of esophageal cancer decreased from 250.76/100,000 to 106.74/100,000 in males and from 153.86/100,000 to 75.41/100,000 in females, with annual percentage changes (APC) of 2.13 and 2

  14. Using Geographic Information System-based Ecologic Niche Models to Forecast the Risk of Hantavirus Infection in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lan; Qian, Quan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Glass, Gregory E.; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiu-Jun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Xian-Jun; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in Shandong Province, China. In this study, we combined ecologic niche modeling with geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to identify the risk factors and affected areas of hantavirus infections in rodent hosts. Land cover and elevation were found to be closely associated with the presence of hantavirus-infected rodent hosts. The averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.864, implying good performance. The predicted risk maps based on the model were validated both by the hantavirus-infected rodents' distribution and HFRS human case localities with a good fit. These findings have the applications for targeting control and prevention efforts. PMID:21363991

  15. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia) with a Unique Ischium from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    He, Yiming; Makovicky, Peter J; Wang, Kebai; Chen, Shuqing; Sullivan, Corwin; Han, Fenglu; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The partial skeleton of a leptoceratopsid dinosaur, Ischioceratops zhuchengensis gen. et sp. nov., was excavated from the bone-beds of the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. This fossil represents the second leptoceratopsid dinosaur specimen recovered from the Kugou locality, a highly productive site in Zhucheng. The ischium of the new taxon is morphologically unique among known Dinosauria, flaring gradually to form an obturator process in its middle portion and resembling the shaft of a recurve bow. An elliptical fenestra perforates the obturator process, and the distal end of the shaft forms an axehead-shaped expansion. The discovery of Ischioceratops increases the known taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of the Leptoceratopsidae. PMID:26701114

  16. Genetic characterization of porcine kobuvirus and detection of coinfecting pathogens in diarrheic pigs in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Jin, Wenjie; Zhao, Zhenpeng; Lin, Weidong; Zhang, Di; Yu, Enqi; Qin, Aijian; Yang, Hanchun

    2014-12-01

    In this study, 396 samples from diarrheic pigs on 46 pig farms in Jiangsu Province, China, were analyzed by RT-PCR. One-hundred eighty-one pigs from 37 farms tested positive for porcine kobuvirus (PKV). Phylogenetic analysis of the 3D gene from 19 isolates showed sequence homology of 88.0 %-100 % and 69.4 %-100 % for nucleotides and amino acids, respectively, while similarity to isolates of other kobuviruses was 69.6 %-78.8 % and 27.8 %-56.9 %, respectively. One-hundred eighty-five samples contained two or more pathogens, and 31/68 PKV-positive samples tested positive for other diarrheic pathogens, confirming the existence of PKV infection and coinfection. PMID:25119679

  17. Phylogenetic studies of four Anser cygnoides (Anserini: Anserinae) in Hunan province of China based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiu-Zhong; Lin, Qian; Jiang, Gui-Tao

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNAs of Chinese goose, Anser cygnoides populations from three different areas of Hunan province in China. The Anser cygnoides breed Wugangtong white goose (WGTW) sample and Wugangtong grey goose sample (WGTG) were taken from the Wugang county of Shaoyang city, the Anser cygnoides breed Xupu goose (XP) sample was taken from the Xupu county of Huaihua city, and the Anser cygnoides breed Yanling white goose (YLW) sample was taken from the Yanling county of Zhuzhou city. The organization of the four Anser cygnoides breeds mitochondrial genomes was similar. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the analyzed species are divided into four major clades: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. It was noted that Wugangtong white goose, Yanling white goose and Xupu goose have highly similar phylogenetic relationship. PMID:26057006

  18. K Ar ages of plutonism and mineralization at the Shizhuyuan W Sn Bi Mo deposit, Hunan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jingwu; Kim, Sang Jung; Lee, Hyun Koo; Itay, Tetsumaru

    2002-01-01

    The Qianlishan granite complex, situated 16 km southeast of Chenzhou City, Hunan Province, China, hosts the Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Bi-Mo deposit. This complex, which intruded the Protozoic metasedimentary rocks and the Devonian clastic sedimentary and carbonate rocks, consists of mainly medium- to coarse-grained biotite granites and minor amounts of fine-grained biotite granite in addition to granite and quartz porphyry. K-Ar ages suggest three episodes of plutonism: the medium- to coarse-grained biotite granite (before 152 Ma), the fine-grained biotite granite (137 Ma), and the granite porphyry (129-131 Ma). Muscovite ages of the greisen are 145-148 Ma, suggesting that the W-Sn-Bi-Mo mineralization was related to the main, medium- to coarse-grained biotite granites. The K-Ar age of the hydrothermal vein mineralization is 92 Ma and is probably related to the porphyries.

  19. Occurrence of trace elements and antibiotics in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang Province of China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Jianmei; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Zulin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Lin, Hui; Ma, Junwei

    2016-07-15

    The occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang province of China. These trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium. The targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The median amounts of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6mg·kg(-1), respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound, with a detection rate of 39.3% and concentrations ranging from 6.7μg·kg(-1) to 4091μg·kg(-1). Based on the referred loading rates in agricultural soil, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizer samples might pose a high potential ecological risk due to the presence of antibiotics. PMID:27058135

  20. A new species of the genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Mt. Gaoligongshan of western Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Huan; Wang, Ying-Yong; Chen, Guo-Ling; Rao, Ding-Qi

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Leptolalax is described from the Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The new species, Leptolalax tengchongensis sp. nov., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) small size (SVL 23.9-26.0 mm in males, 28.8-28.9 mm in females); (2) dorsal skin shagreened and scattered with fine, round reddish tubercles; (3) toes with rudimentary webbing and narrow lateral fringes; (4) tympanum distinctly discernible, almost entirely black; (5) ventrolateral glands indistinct; (6) flanks with several distinct and large dark blotches; (7) ventral surfaces white, scattered with distinct irregular dark speckling; (8) iris not bicolored, uniformly dark brown and scattered with minute, coppery reticulations throughout. To date, the new species has only been found at its type locality in evergreen broadleaf forests at elevations between 2000-2100 m. PMID:27394346

  1. Phylogenetic studies of two Anas platyrhynchos (Anatini: Anatinae) in Hunan province of China based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Lin, Qian; Cao, Rong; Yuan, Ya-Ting; Pan, Di-Zi; Yun, Long; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNAs of Chinese duck, Anas platyrhynchos, population from two different areas of Hunan province in China. The Anas platyrhynchos breed Linwu duck (LW) sample was taken from the Linwu county of Chenzhou city, and the Anas platyrhynchos breed Youxian duck (YX) sample was taken from the Youxian county of Zhuzhou city. The lengths of their complete mitochondrial genome were 16,604 bp (LW) and 16,606 bp (YX), respectively. The organization of the two Anas platyrhynchos breed mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other duck mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the analyzed species are divided into four major clades: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Also, the Linwu duck and Youxian duck have highly similar phylogenetic relationship. PMID:26057008

  2. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia) with a Unique Ischium from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yiming; Makovicky, Peter J.; Wang, Kebai; Chen, Shuqing; Sullivan, Corwin; Han, Fenglu; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The partial skeleton of a leptoceratopsid dinosaur, Ischioceratops zhuchengensis gen. et sp. nov., was excavated from the bone-beds of the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. This fossil represents the second leptoceratopsid dinosaur specimen recovered from the Kugou locality, a highly productive site in Zhucheng. The ischium of the new taxon is morphologically unique among known Dinosauria, flaring gradually to form an obturator process in its middle portion and resembling the shaft of a recurve bow. An elliptical fenestra perforates the obturator process, and the distal end of the shaft forms an axehead-shaped expansion. The discovery of Ischioceratops increases the known taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of the Leptoceratopsidae. PMID:26701114

  3. The impact of climate change on infectious disease transmission: perceptions of CDC health professionals in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Xue, Shulian; Zhao, Shufang; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change. PMID:25285440

  4. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in cats and dogs in Heilongjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Yang, Jinping; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Zhang, Siwen; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-03-15

    This study investigated 319 fecal specimens of cats (n=52) and dogs (n=267) from Heilongjiang province, China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene identified C. felis and C. parvum in one cat each (3.8%) and C. canis and C. ubiquitum in 6 dogs (2.2%). Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and phylogenetic analysis characterized zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, NED1, and NED2 and host-adapted ones NED3, NED4, and PtEb IX in 18 dogs (6.7%) and human-pathogenic genotypes D and IV in 3 cats (5.8%). Genotyping based on the hypermutation of G. duodenalis triosephosphate isomerase gene (TPI) facilitated identification of assemblage F in a cat (1.9%) and assemblages C and E in 12 dogs (4.5%). Subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates were determined by measuring the diversity of both TPI nucleotide and amino acid sequences. C. canis, C. felis, C. parvum, E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV, and G. duodenalis assemblage C identified herein have been documented in human infections in China. C. canis, C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, and E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV carried by cats or dogs also existed in wastewater in China. The finding suggested pet animals could be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis and potential sources of water contamination in China. PMID:25665462

  5. Toxocara Seroprevalence among Clinically Healthy Individuals, Pregnant Women and Psychiatric Patients and Associated Risk Factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Na; Yu, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Li, Bing; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection. Methodology/Principle Findings Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866) was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445) than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431) and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990) was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05–0.08, P<0.001), contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33–0.53, P<0.001) and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28–0.49, P<0.001) were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. Conclusions/Significance The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis

  6. Erectile Dysfunction Among Male Hypertensives in a Tertiary Health Facility in South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fafiolu, Akinbode Samuel; Adebayo, Ayodeji Matthew; Akande, Temilola Olufunmi; Akinboboye, Olubankole Olutosin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been associated with hypertension and some other chronic diseases. There are few studies on ED in Nigerian male hypertensives and ED appears to be under-reported. We sought to determine the prevalence of ED among hypertensive and normotensive men and to assess the association of demographics, hypertension, antihypertensive medications and other risk factors with erectile function. Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among male adult hypertensive and normotensive patients attending the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in South-West Nigeria. A systematic random sampling method was employed for the selection of respondents. Participants were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to document socio-demographic data, medical history, social history and degree of ED. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics was obtained from all participants. The International Index of Sexual Health Inventory for men (SHIM) was used to determine the presence and severity of ED. Association between categorical independent variables and erectile function were tested using Chi square and the predictors of erectile dysfunction determined with binary logistic regression model at 5% level of significance. Results: A total of 202 male patients completed the study (101 with established hypertension and 101 normotensives who served as comparative group). The mean age of the respondents was 49.74 ± 16.6 years. A total of 133 (65.8%) respondents had ED in varying severities while 34.2% had normal erectile function. Mild to moderate ED occurred in 29.7% while 36.1% had severe ED. On bivariate analysis, prevalence of ED was higher among hypertensives (75%) than normotensives (56.9%) and this was statistically significant, p = 0.007. On multivariate analysis, the only significant risk factor for ED was age. The elderly aged ≥ 65 years (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.03–8.35; p = 0.04) and those aged 46–64 years (OR

  7. The role of soil quality and soil conservation for private gardening in South-West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Sandra; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the past centuries, agriculture played a major role in the economy of Germany, and private gardening was common practice. With the shift from agriculture to (service-) industry, less people work in their own garden for subsistence purposes and thus are no longer in direct contact with soil. However, the "Kleingarten"- and "Schrebergarten"-movements still exist in Germany, within which gardeners use soil to provide themselves with fruit and vegetables. The gardeners spend their leisure time cultivating the soil, planting, and harvesting. We ask as to whether these gardeners have a specific relation to soil quality and soil conservation, and what it is they associate with soil. Moreover, how do they use soil? Is soil quality assessed prior to planting? How do private gardeners conserve their soil? Interviewer-administered questionnaires were carried out in the respective gardens. Additionally, management practices were observed, and the fertility of the topsoil was measured. The research area is located in South-West Germany between the Black Forest and the Swabian Jura in a rural district. However, the "Kleingärten" investigated belong to the regional centre there and thus developed in an urban context. The theoretical framework of the SFB 1070 ResourceCultures was used for the study. A small portion of the surveyed private gardeners used simple box kits to analyse soil quality. However, the majority relied on experience and traditional knowledge to determine their management practices. This behaviour complicates the establishment of up-to-date knowledge about sustainable soil use like no-till and raised vegetable beds. Many surveyed persons have an agricultural background inasmuch as their (grand-) parents were farmers or at least owned a garden. Soil conservation practices are common, like the use of green manure to prevent the soil from drying out and supplementing soil with compost. Soil pollution is related to the use of chemical fertilizers which many

  8. New Paleomagnetic Results from Late Cretaceous Volcanics and Dykes, SouthWest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, M.; Joseph, M.; Monie, P.

    2015-12-01

    Late Cretaceous magmatism is widely distributed along the south west coast of India, mainly in the form of dyke intrusions. Most prominent dykes were emplaced around 65 Ma and are distributed in central Kerala, north Kerala and Goa. The strike trend of these dykes is NW-SE in central Kerala, whereas two orthogonal directions with NW-SE and NE-SW trends are found in north Kerala. In Goa region, they are mostly perpendicular to the coast. 25 sites (232 samples) have been collected in Kerala and Goa areas. A subordinate magmatism, around 90 Ma in age, is also traced in Agali area and St Mary Archipelago off the Malpe coast. Nine dykes (79 samples) with NW-SE trend were collected, and 9 flows (63 samples) from 8 different islands of the St Mary Archipelago. Finally, following some field evidences, the Ezhimala igneous complex, south of St Mary Islands, that occurs as a linear ridge with a NNW-SSE trend and consists mainly of granite, granophyre and gabbro, cut by dolerites, was also sampled (9 sites, 58 samples) despite its inferred Precambrian age (Rb-Sr determinations at 678 Ma). Finally, in order to constrain the duration of the Deccan volcanism, some of the younger and of the older flows (55 sites, 309 samples) were also collected. Most of the doleritic dykes are fine to medium grained with typical mineral assemblages of plagioclase, augite, olivine, and Fe-Ti oxides. All the mafic dykes of Kerala plot within the sub-alkalic field but three groups can be distinguished chemically. Fe-Ti oxides are found either as early inclusions within pyroxene or as interstitial and may constitute the late crystallization phases. Selected specimens from each site were subjected to low and high temperature susceptibility measurements to define the magnetic carriers and the thermal stability of the samples. They have indicated titanomagnetite as the main carrier of magnetization. Palaeomagnetic measurements were carried out by detailed step-wise alternating field and thermal

  9. Black Carbon aerosol measurements and simulation in two cities in south-west Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milford, Celia; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Rodríguez, Sergio; Castell, Nuria; Marrero, Carlos; Bustos, J. J.; de la Rosa, J. D.; Stein, Ariel F.

    2016-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been simulated for south-west Spain with the air quality model CAMx driven by the MM5 meteorological model, with a spatial resolution of 2 km × 2 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h. The simulation results were evaluated against hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations obtained in the cities of Seville and Huelva for a winter period (January 2013) and a summer period (June 2013). A large seasonal variability was observed in PM2.5 EBC concentration in the two cities, with higher concentrations in wintertime; summertime EBC concentrations were typically less than half those of the wintertime. The model captured the large diurnal, seasonal and day to day variability in these urban areas, mean biases ranged between -0.14 and 0.07 μg m-3 in winter and between 0.01 and 0.29 μg m-3 in summer while hourly PM2.5 EBC observations ranged between 0.03 μg m-3 to 10.9 μg m-3. The diurnal variation in EBC concentrations was bimodal, with a morning and evening peak. However, the EBC evening peak was much smaller in summer than in winter. The modelling analysis demonstrates that the seasonal and day to day variability in EBC concentration in these urban areas is primarily driven by the variation in meteorological conditions. An evaluation of the role of regional versus local contributions to EBC concentrations indicates that in the medium size city of Seville, local on-road sources are dominant, whereas in the small size city of Huelva, local as well as regional sources produce a similar contribution. Considering the large diesel share of the vehicle fleet in Spain (currently ˜ 56%), we conclude that continued reduction of BC from diesel on-road sources in these urban areas is indeed a priority, and we suggest that targeted mitigation strategies, for example reducing the heaviest emitters in wintertime, would yield the greatest benefits.

  10. Prevalence of low back pain among peasant farmers in a rural community in South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, A A; Aba, S O; Odunaiya, N A

    2005-09-01

    This study is a survey conducted in Iju-Odo rural community of Ondo State in South West Nigeria to determine the prevalence and risk factors for low back pain amongst peasant farmers. Five hundred peasant farmers were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. A questionnaire was administered which sought information on demographic characteristics, presence of low back pain in the last 12 months prior to the time of the study and the duration, severity of low back pain and its effect on farming activity. The five hundred peasant farmers that participated in this study were 276 men (55.2%) and 224 women (44.8%). Three hundred and sixty two peasant farmers (72.4% of the population) had low back pain in the last 12 months prior to the time of this study, of which two hundred and three (73.5%) were males and one hundred and fifty nine (71.0%) were females peasant farmers having low back pain. The nature of onset of low back pain was that of gradual onset in 57.5%. One hundred and eighty-eight (51.9%) respondents indicated that low back pain reduced their farming workload, while one hundred and twenty four (34.3%) respondents were prevented from going to farm because they could not walk, resulting in 675 work days being lost by one hundred and twenty one (24.2%) peasant farmers in the last one-year with a mean of 5.6 days lost. This study concluded that low back pain prevalence is high among peasant farmers, with higher prevalence in males compared with females (P<0.05). The prevalence also increased with age (P<0.05). Years of farming was found to have a significant influence on the prevalence of low back pain (P<0.05) with prevalence of low back pain increasing as years of farming increases. Low back pain was found to be a cause of work absenteeism in this working population. PMID:16749358

  11. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  12. Blood meal origins and insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles arabiensis from Chano in South-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles arabiensis, the main malaria vector in Ethiopia, shows both anthropophilic and zoophilic behaviours. Insecticide resistance is increasing, and alternative methods of vector control are needed. The objectives of this study were to determine the blood meal origins and the susceptibility to insecticides of An. arabiensis from Chano village near Arba Minch in South-West Ethiopia. Methods Blood meal sources of anopheline mosquitoes collected using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) from human dwellings, and hand-held mouth aspirators from outdoor pit shelters were analysed using a direct enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The susceptibility of An. arabiensis to pyrethroid insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and cyfluthrin) and DDT was assessed using females reared from larval and pupal collections from natural breeding sites. Results The blood meal origins of 2967 freshly fed Anopheles mosquitoes were determined. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (75%), and it fed mainly on cattle. The densities of both freshly fed An. arabiensis and those fed on human blood followed similar seasonal patterns. The overall human blood index (HBI) of An. arabiensis, including mixed blood meals, was 44% and the bovine blood index (BBI) was 69%. The HBI of An. arabiensis from CDC light trap collections was 75% and this was higher than those for PSC (38%) and outdoor pit shelter collections (13%), while the BBI was 65% for PSC, 68% for outdoor pit shelters and 72% for CDC light traps. More freshly fed and human blood-fed An. arabiensis were sampled from houses close to the shore of Lake Abaya (the major breeding site). A high proportion of An. arabiensis was resistant to the pyrethroid insecticides, with a mortality rate of 56% for lambdacyhalothrin, 50% for cyfluthrin and alphacypermethrin, 47% for deltamethrin, and 10% for DDT. Conclusion Anopheles arabiensis is

  13. Simultaneous measurements of CO2 and water exchanges over three agroecosystems in South-West France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, P.; Lamaud, E.; Brunet, Y.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Loustau, D.; Irvine, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the last few decades, many studies have been performed to determine water and carbon budgets of broadleaf and deciduous forests, crops and grasslands. However, since most measurements have been made in different regions and at different periods, it is difficult to compare the results directly. In order to evaluate accurately the respective contribution of various agroecosystems to global water and carbon exchanges, it is necessary to compare data obtained in similar climatic and weather conditions. To address this question, we present the results from simultaneous measurements carried out during one year over three typical agroecosystems of the Les Landes region in South-West France:~an agricultural field with maize from 29 May to 18 October, a young (5 year-old) pine forest and a mature (37 year-old) pine forest. All measurements were collected as part of the Regional Experiment component of the CarboEurope-IP project. During most of the year, the agricultural field without vegetation is a source of CO2, but from late June to early September the maize crop becomes a stronger carbon sink than the forests. Over the whole measurement period the three agroecosystems behave as CO2 sinks with carbon storage of about 335, 210 and 160 g C m-2 for the young forest, the mature forest and the agricultural field, respectively. We investigated the influence of climatic conditions on Gross Primary Production (GPP) of the three ecosystems and observed a predominant role of vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for forests and of photosynthetic photon flux density (FPP) for maize. Daily Water Use Efficiencies (WUE) of the three ecosystems were evaluated and expressed as functions of the mean daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Similar trends were observed for the two forests, which suggests that for a given species WUE is independent of stand age. The WUE of the maize crop at maturity was also found to depend upon VPD, but it is about twice as large as for the forests, owing to

  14. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination. PMID:25861710

  15. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient’s house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  16. Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHU, MengRu

    2015-04-01

    Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China Remote sensing technology , is one of the pillars of the space information technology in the 21st century ,play an important role in the study of vegetation. Vegetation coverage as an important parameter reflecting surface information, has been an important research topic in the field of vegetation remote sensing. Administrative region in zhejiang Province as the study area, use of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote sensing technology, combined with the related data, to survey the area of forest resources in zhejiang Province, establishes an index system of sustainable forest resources management ability in zhejiang, and to evaluate its ability. Remote Sensing is developed in the 1960 s of the earth observation technology, comprehensive instruments refers to the application, not contact with the object detection phase, the target characteristics of electromagnetic waves recorded from a distance, through the analysis, reveals the characteristics of the object properties and changes of comprehensive detection technology. Investigation of vegetation is an important application field of remote sensing investigation. Vegetation is an important factor of environment, and also is one of the best sign to reflect the regional ecological environment, at the same times is the interpretation of soil, hydrological elements such as logo, individual or prospecting indicator plant. Vegetation imaging and interpretation of research results for environmental monitoring, biodiversity conservation, agriculture, forestry and other relevant departments to provide information services.Microwave remote sensing hyperspectral remote sensing technology and application in the research of vegetation is an important direction of remote sensing technology in the future. This paper introduces the principle of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote

  17. Infection rate and genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis in pet and stray dogs in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Junqiang; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Longxian; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important protozoan parasite that is known to be zoonotic. To assess the potential zoonotic transmission of giardiasis from dogs and to identify genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in dog populations, we examined the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in both pet dogs (from pet dog farms, pet shops, pet hospitals, pet markets) and stray dogs of different ages in Henan Province, China. A total of 940 fresh fecal specimens were collected from 2007 to 2013 in Henan Province. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 14.3% (134/940) as determined by microscopy, with the highest infection rate (17.3%) observed in dogs from shelters. Young dogs were more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs, and G. duodenalis cysts were found more frequently in diarrheic dogs. All G. duodenalis-positive isolates were characterized at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) loci, and 37, 51, and 48 sequences were obtained, respectively. The dog-specific assemblages C and D were identified using multi-locus sequence analysis. Six novel sequences of the tpi locus, one novel sequence of the gdh locus and two novel sequences of the bg locus were detected among the G. duodenalis assemblage C isolates, while two novel sequences of the gdh locus were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage D isolates. Our data indicate that G. duodenalis is a common parasite and cause of diarrheal disease in dogs in Henan Province. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in the study population. PMID:26631754

  18. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiwei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaodan; Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient's house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  19. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  20. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    PubMed

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%. PMID:10928356

  1. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  2. Satellite-Based Investigation and Evaluation of the Observational Environment of Meteorological Stations in Anhui Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Bin; Shi, Tao; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Wu, Bi-Wen; Wang, La-Bao; Shi, Chun-E.; Guo, Jian-Xia; Ji, Cheng-Li; Wen, Hua-Yang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, by using multi-temporal and high resolution Landsat data and geographic information system techniques, the land use/land cover (LULC) in the 2-km buffer zone of 52 meteorological stations in the Anhui province of China is retrieved and categorized into three types: vegetation (including farmland, forest and grass land), water (including lakes, rivers and pools), and construction (including buildings and roads). Besides, the land surface temperature (LST) in the buffer zone of these stations is also obtained from thermal infrared data. The normalized LST index (NLI) and the heat effect contribution index (HECI) of different LULC types are calculated. Via case studies and statistical analysis, the LULC and thermal environment's temporal-spatial variance in the 2-km buffer zone of these stations are surveyed, and their impacts on the observational environment are investigated. The study shows that the observational environments of the meteorological stations in Anhui province have been greatly influenced by rapid urbanization. The study proposes two new methods to classify the stations' observational environment into three types (urban, sub-urban, and rural). One uses the NLI and the other uses the HECI. The NLI method needs only LST information. The HECI method combines both LULC and LST information and, hence, is considered more reliable. The evaluation methods and criteria can be used conveniently, effectively, and quantitatively, and are especially useful when analyzing observational data from meteorological stations in weather and climate research and when choosing a location for a new meteorological station.

  3. Land cover and landscape changes in Shaanxi Province during China's Grain for Green Program (2000-2010).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; López-Carr, David; Liang, Xiao-ying

    2015-10-01

    This study examines landscape changes in the context of China's national Grain for Green (GFG) policy, one of the world's largest "payment for environmental/ecosystem services" (PES) programs. We explored landscape structures and dynamics between 2000 and 2010 in Shaanxi Province, the Chinese province with the greatest amount of cropland conversion and reforestation in recent decades. We used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)-derived data and landscape metrics for six land cover classes to determine (1) the major land cover changes during enforcement of the policy, (2) the spatial and temporal variations in these changes, and (3) the effects of land cover changes on landscape structure and dynamics. The results suggested that provincial-level land cover changes modestly reflected the goals of the GFG. Over the 10-year study period, the forest and grassland coverages expanded from 95,737.9 to 97,017.4 km(2) and from 37,235.9 to 40,613.1 km(2), respectively, while the cropland coverage decreased from 59,222.8 to 54,007.6 km(2). The conversion direction differed regionally: the targeted croplands in Shanbei, namely, types III and IV, were mainly transformed into grassland while those in Shannan were mainly transformed into forestland. Reforestation was associated with increased inter-landscape aggregation and connection. Despite this large-scale reforestation trend, we found notable and significant differences in the land cover changes at the subprovincial level. PMID:26407858

  4. [Spatial-temporal evolution characteristic of coordination between urbanization and eco-environment in Jilin Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun-tao; Zhang, Ping-yu; Li, Jing; Liu, Shi-wei

    2015-12-01

    By building urbanization and eco-environment evaluation index systems, the levels of urbanization and eco-environment, and the degree of their coupling coordination of Jilin Province from 2000 to 2012 were evaluated. The level of comprehensive urbanization showed a continued growth trend, and the economic urbanization contributed the largest share. The eco-environment comprehensive level fluctuated upward. The eco-environment state, response and pressure increased faster since the implementation of the strategy of revitalizing Northeast China and other old industrial regions. Coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment increased continuously, from uncoordinated status to advanced coordinated status, changing from eco-environment lagged to urbanization lagged. The level of urbanization in central region was higher than east and west regions in Jilin Province, but its eco-environment level was low. Coupling coordination degree in Changchun was the highest, and that of Baishan was the lowest. Coupling coordination degree of Chang-Ji integrated region was always at the leading level, but the level of eco-environment lagged behind was growing since 2000. Coupling coordination degree of Siping, Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Yanbian increased, but that of Baicheng decreased. PMID:27112025

  5. Application of HJ-1A/B and ZY-3 remote sensing data for drought monitoring in Hubei Province China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Fan, Yida; Yang, Siquan; Wen, Qi; Pan, Donghua; Fan, Chunbo; He, Haixia

    2013-10-01

    Drought is one kind of nature disasters in the world. It has characteristics of temporal-spatial inhomogeneity, wide affected areas and periodic happening. The economic loss and affected population caused by different droughts are the largest in all natural disasters. Remote sensing has the advantages of large coverage, frequent observation, repeatable observation, reliable information source and low cost. These advantages make remote sensing a vital contributor for drought disaster risk assessment and monitoring. In this paper, three drought monitoring models, such as Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), and Water Supplying Vegetation Index (WSVI) had been selected to monitor the drought occurred from January 2012 to June 2012 in Hubei province, China. Two kinds of remote sensing data, including HJ-1A/B CCD/IRS and ZY-3, had been employed to assess the integrated risk of Hubei drought based on three drought monitoring models. The results shown that the risk of northwest regions and middle regions in Hubei province were higher than that in the other regions. The results also indicated that the extreme risk regions were located in Shiyan, Xiangyang, Suizhou and Jingmen.

  6. Changes in pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence: evidence from the 2010 population survey in a populous province of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper reports findings from the prevalence survey conducted in Shandong China in 2010, a province with a population of 94 million. This study aimed to estimate TB prevalence of the province in 2010 in comparison with the 2000 survey; and to compare yields of TB cases from different case finding approaches. Methods A population based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using multi-stage random cluster sampling. 54,279 adults participated in the survey with a response rate of 96%. Doctors interviewed and classified participants as suspected TB cases if they presented with persistent cough, abnormal chest X-ray (CXRAY), or both. Three sputum specimens of all suspected cases were collected and sent for smear microscopy and culture. Results Adjusted prevalence rate of bacteriologically confirmed cases was 34 per 100,000 for adults in Shandong in 2010. Compared to the 2000 survey, TB prevalence has declined by 80%. 53% of bacteriologically confirmed cases did not present persistent cough. The yield of bacteriologically confirmed cases was 47% by symptom screening and 95% by CXRAY. Over 50% of TB cases were among over 65’s. Conclusions The prevalence rate of bacteriologically confirmed cases was significantly reduced compared with 2000. The survey raised challenges to identify TB cases without clear symptoms. PMID:24410932

  7. Detection and characterization of carbendazim resistance in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from oilseed rape in Anhui Province of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, D; Pan, Y; Zhang, H; Li, X; Dai, Y; Cao, S; Gao, Z

    2015-01-01

    Stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Anhui Province of China. The fungicide carbendazim (methyl benzimidazole-2-yl carbamate; MBC) has been used to control this fungal disease since the 1980s. In the present study, 74 isolates of S. sclerotiorum from 13 regions of Anhui were collected, and the sensitivities of these isolates to MBC were examined to monitor fungicide resistance. We found that 22 of the 74 isolates showed resistance to MBC, indicating that S. sclerotiorum has developed resistance in parts of Anhui Province. PCR assays and DNA sequence analysis showed that isolates with high MBC resistance had a point mutation at position 198 in the β-tubulin gene that caused a glutamic acid-to-alanine change in the protein. The β-tubulin gene in low-resistance isolates did not have the mutation. These results indicate that the mutation in β-tubulin gene may be associated with high MBC resistance in S. sclerotiorum. The present study also found no correlation between MBC resistance and pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum isolates, suggesting that the pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum isolates on oilseed rape did not vary with MBC resistance status. PMID:26681009

  8. Heavy metals in soils from a typical county in Shanxi Province, China: Levels, sources and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xian-liang; Hou, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg in 128 surface soil samples from Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, China were measured. The concentrations of these eight heavy metals were lower than the critical values in the national soil quality standard. However, these concentrations were found to be slightly higher than their background values in soils in Shanxi Province, indicating enrichment of these metals in soils in Xiangfen County, especially for Hg and Cd. Principal component analysis coupled with cluster analysis was used to analyze the data and identify possible sources of these heavy metals; the results showed that the eight heavy metals in soils from Xiangfen County came from three different sources. Lead, Cd, Cu and Zn mainly arose from agricultural practices and vehicle emissions. Arsenic and Ni arose mainly from parent materials. Industrial practices were the main sources of Cr and Hg. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals varied greatly, and was closely correlated to local anthropogenic activities. This study will be helpful not only for improving local soil environmental quality but will also provide a basis for effectively targeting policies to protect soils from long-term heavy metal accumulation. PMID:26807946

  9. Molecular Characterization and Seroprevalence in Pigs of SC0806, a Cat Que Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiake; Wang, Jinglin; Wang, Lihua; Fu, Shihong; Li, Minghua; Zhao, Guoyan; Zhu, Wuyang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Cat Que virus (CQV), a Simbu serogroup virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae), was first isolated in 2004 from mosquitoes during surveillance of arbovirus activity in acute pediatric encephalitis in northern Vietnam. We report here the complete genome sequence of SC0806 isolated from mosquitoes (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) in Sichuan Province, China. Consistent with the genomic organization of Simbu serogroup viruses, the SC0806 genome comprises three RNA segments—a large (L) segment (6928 nucleotides) that encodes the 2261-amino-acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a medium (M) segment (4481 nucleotides) that encodes the 1433-amino-acid polyprotein, and a small (S) segment (984 nucleotides) that encodes a 234-amino-acid nucleocapsid protein and a 95-amino-acid nonstructural protein. The respective lengths of the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) and 3′-UTR of L, M, and S are 56 and 86, 43 and 136, and 44 and 238 nucleotides. Sequence (nucleotide and deduced amino acid) comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SC0806 was closely related to the reported Vietnam isolate CQV. This is the first time that CQV has been isolated in Sichuan Province, China. Anti-SC0806 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were found in pigs reared locally, indicating that CQV has formed a natural cycle in the local area. Surveillance of the distribution and pathogenicity of SC0806 should be strengthened. PMID:26186514

  10. Establishing and Applying a Schistosomiasis Early Warning Index (SEWI) in the Lower Yangtze River Region of Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Xu, Jun-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Li, Wei; He, Jian; Liang, Song; Bergquist, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background China has made remarkable progress in schistosomiasis control over the past decades. Transmission control has replaced morbidity control as the country moves towards the goal of elimination and the current challenge is to find a sensitive measure capable of gauging transmission risk in low-prevalence areas. The study aims to develop a Schistosomiasis Early Warning Index (SEWI) and demonstrate its use in Jiangsu Province along the lower Yangtze River. Methodology/Principal Findings The Delphi approach, a structured communication technique, was used to develop the SEWI. Two rounds of interviews with 30 public health experts specialized in schistosomiasis control were conducted using 40 indicators that reflected different aspects of schistosomiasis transmission and control. The necessity, feasibility, and sensitivity of each indicator were assessed and the weight value of each indicator determined based on these experts' judgment. The system included 3 first-order indicators, 7 second-order indicators, and 30 third-order indicators. The 3 first-order indicators were endemic status, control measures, social and environmental factors, with the weight values 0.366, 0.343 and 0.291, respectively. For the 7 second-order indicators, the highest weight value was for control measures for snails (0.175) and the lowest for transmission route (0.110). We estimated and mapped the SEWI for endemic areas at the county scale in Jiangsu Province finding that the majority of the endemic areas were characterized as medium transmission risk (SEWI risk values between 0.3 and 0.6), while areas where transmission interruption had been officially declared showed SEWI values <0.30. A few isolated areas (e.g. endemic islands in the Yangtze River) produced SEWI values >0.60. These estimates are largely in agreement with the endemicity levels based on recent epidemiological surveys. Conclusions/Significance The SEWI should be useful for estimation of schistosomiasis transmission

  11. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the porcine kobuvirus VP1 region using infected pigs from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. PKoV is distributed worldwide with high prevalence in clinically healthy pigs and those with diarrhea. Methods Fecal and intestinal samples (n = 163) from pig farms in Sichuan Province, China were obtained to determine the presence of PKoV using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Specific primers were used for the amplification of the gene encoding the PKoV VP1 protein sequence. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to clarify evolutionary relationships with other PKoV strains. Results Approximately 53% (87/163) of pigs tested positive for PKoV. PKoV was widespread in asymptomatic pigs and those with diarrhea. A high prevalence of PKoV was observed in pigs younger than 4 weeks and in pigs with diarrhea. Phylogenetic analysis of 36 PKoV VP1 protein sequences showed that Sichuan PKoV strains formed four distinct clusters. Two pigs with diarrhea were found to be co-infected with multiple PKoV strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed diversity within the same host and between different hosts. Significant recombination breakpoints were observed between the CHN/SC/31-A1 and CHN/SC/31-A3 strains in the VP1 region, which were isolated from the same sample. Conclusion PKoV was endemic in Sichuan Province regardless of whether pigs were healthy or suffering from diarrhea. Based on our statistical analyses, we suggest that PKoV was the likely causative agent of high-mortality diarrhea in China from 2010. For the first time, we provide evidence for the co-existence of multiple PKoV strains in one pig, and possible recombination events in the VP1 region. Our findings provide further insights into the molecular properties of PKoV, along with its epidemiology. PMID:24025093

  12. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  13. Climatic and tectonic controls on Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentation in northeastern Guangdong Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wen, Shu-Nv; Krapež, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    Stratigraphic analyses document climatic and tectonic controls on the filling of a Late Triassic to early Middle Jurassic (T3-J2) basin that developed on top of a young orogenic belt in southeastern South China. About 2700 m of Carnian to Bajocian sedimentary rocks is documented in the Meizhou region, Guangdong Province. The Carnian to Rhaetian sequence is characterized by deltaic facies that are succeeded by Hettangian fluvial, shallow marine and volcaniclastic facies, and by Sinemurian to early Toarcian interdistributary bay and floodplain facies. The late Toarcian to Bajocian sequence comprises proximal alluvial to lacustrine facies that changed upwards to fluvial facies. Fossil assemblages indicate that climatic conditions changed from tropical/subtropical warm humid, to temperate humid, and then to hot arid through the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic. Climatically induced changes (e.g., in precipitation, vegetation and erosion) exerted a strong influence on sediment supply, whereas tectonics played a dominant role in stratigraphic evolution, accommodation generation, sedimentation pattern and volcanism. Tectonostratigraphic analysis shows that the T3-J2 basin was initiated on an orogenic belt during late-stage orogeny, and evolved into shallow-marine and volcanic environments and then back to terrestrial facies during the post-orogenic stage. This was followed by regional uplift and the development of a basin-and-range province. The order of these events is similar to that of the central Rocky Mountains, western North America during the Palaeogene. The Mesozoic basin of South China and the Eocene basins of the central Rocky Mountains highlight the importance of subduction-related subsidence above young and broad orogens.

  14. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  15. The prevalence of helminth and arthropod parasites of warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in South West Africa/Namibia.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Biggs, H C; Hanssen, T S; Hanssen, R E

    1983-06-01

    A total of 38 warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, shot on a farm in northern South West Africa/Namibia were examined for internal and external parasites at monthly intervals over a period of 13 months. They harboured cestodes, 9 nematode species, 6 ixodid tick species and 1 species each of an argasid tick, a flea, a louse and larvae of a dipteran fly. Clear patterns of seasonal abundance could be determined only for the spirurid stomach worm, Physocephalus sexalatus, and the sucking louse, Haematopinus phachoeri. PMID:6634088

  16. Distribution of seismic intensities of the November 6, 1988, Lancang-Gengma earthquakes and their surface ruptures in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Qiang, Zuji; Yuan, Zhuzhong; Wang, Yanglong; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Xiang; Gu, Yishan

    1992-05-01

    On November 6, 1988, two earthquakes with magnitude>7 occurred on the Lancang-Gengma fault zone in south-west China. The extensive destruction and loss of lives resulted mainly from widespread collapse of unreinforced masonry and mud brick structures; the maximum preliminary intensity of the Lancang earthquakes was IX on the Chinese scale, which is similar to the Modified Mercall scale, and the highest preliminary intensity of the Gengma earthquake was probably X. The surface manifestation of tectonic activity of the Lancang earthquake was the occurrence of the earthquake-related extensional ground cracks and small fault scarps in the epicentral region. The cracks with small fault scarps occurred mainly in four relatively continuous north-northwest-trending linear zones that ranged from a few hundred meters to 6 km in length. The area within which the cracks and small scarps occurred is 35 km long by 3 km wide. The maximum net throw and the dextral horizontal offset were 1.5m and 1.4m, respectively. Clear evidence of new surface faulting caused by the Gengma earthquake includes a series of relatively continuous north-northwest-trending linear ground crack zones and a 5 km long section of fault scarps. The total length of the surface rupture zones of the Gengma earthquakes is about 24 km, with 3.5m maximum net throw and 3m maximum right-lateral slip. Both earthquakes were associated with surface faulting showing a combination of normal and right lateral motion. The distribution of seismic intensities and surface rupture characteristics of these two earthquakes are discussed in this paper.

  17. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lengmei; Xue, Xue; Li, Jianqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Yu, Yingchao; Du, Aifang

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II) were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang. PMID:25075975

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of dengue in Guangdong province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenggang; Yang, Weizhong; Fan, Jingchun; Wang, Furong; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue in Guangdong for 1978 to 2010. Time series analysis was performed using data on annual dengue incidence in Guangdong province for 1978-2010. Annual average dengue incidences for each city were mapped for 4 periods by using the geographical information system (GIS). Hot spot analysis was used to identify spatial patterns of dengue cases for 2005-2010 by using the CrimeStat III software. The incidence of dengue in Guangdong province had fallen steadily from 1978 to 2010. The time series was a random sequence without regularity and with no fixed cycle. The geographic range of dengue fever had expanded from 1978 to 2010. Cases were mostly concentrated in Zhanjiang and the developed regions of Pearl River Delta and Shantou. PMID:23467628

  19. Dyslipidemia awareness, treatment, control and influence factors among adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In China, even though the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults increased yearly and dyslipidemia being an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among the Chinese population, however, the awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia are at low levels, and only limited studies on the influence factors associated with the awareness, treatment and control dyslipidemia in China have been carried out. Methods The analysis was based on a representative sample of 7138 adult subjects aged 18 ~ 79 years recruited from a cross-sectional study of chronic disease and risk factors among adults in the Jilin province in 2012. Chi-square test was used to compare the rates of dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control between different characteristics of participants. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed separately for each group to explore the associations between participants’ characteristics and dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control. Results Among participants with dyslipidemia, 11.6% were aware of the diagnosis, 8.4% were receiving treatment, and 34.8% had dyslipidemia controlled. Increase in age and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 were by far the strongest risk factors associated with better awareness and treatment of dyslipidemia. Retirees were more likely to be aware of their dyslipidemia condition (OR = 1.255; 95% CI: 1.046, 1.506) and to be receiving treatment (OR = 1.367; 95% CI: 1.114, 1.676) than manual workers. A family history of dyslipidemia increased the likelihood of awareness (OR = 3.620; 95% CI: 2.816, 4.653) and treatment (OR = 3.298; 95% CI: 2.488, 4.371) of dyslipidemia. Alcohol drinking and physical activity were associated with a lower level of awareness and treatment. Cigarette smokers (OR = 0.501; 95% CI: 0.349, 0.719) and those with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (OR = 0.480; 95% CI: 0.326, 0.706) who received treatment were also associated with poor dyslipidemia control. Conclusion Our

  20. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liping, Ma; Peng, Xu; Haijiang, Lin; Lahong, Ju; Fan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become a concept commonly used in the related research. Using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), this study evaluated the Quality of Life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zhejiang province, China, and assessed the influences of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years in Taizhou municipality, Zhejiang province, China, between August 1 and October 31, 2014. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influential factors. Of 403 subjects, 72.48% were male, 72.46% had received a high- school or above education, 94.79% were of Han ethnicity, and 65.51% were non farmers. The total score of QOL was 15.99±1.99. The scores of QOL in physiological, psychological, social relation, and environmental domains were 14.99 ±2.25, 14.25 ±2.12, 13.22 ±2.37, and 13.31 ±1.99 respectively. Except the total score of QOL and the score of environmental domain (p<0.05), the scores in other domains had no significant difference with the results of the national norm level. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be age (β = -0.045), CD4 count (β = 0.002), and ART adherence(β = 1.231). And it also showed that psychological domain related factors included CD4 count (β = 0.002) and WHO clinical stage (β = -0.437); social domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.704) and ART adherence (β = 1.177); while environmental domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.538), educational status(β = 0.549) and ART adherence(β = 1.078).Those who are young, with higher level of education, higher CD4 count and good access and adherence of ART, are likely to have better QOL among PLWHA in Zhejiang province. This suggests that in addition to ART, many other factors should be taken into consideration

  1. Types of Obesity and Its Association with the Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Jilin Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a serious public health problem in recent years in China. Aggregation of CVD risk factors in one individual increases the risk of CVD and the risk increases substantially with each additional risk factor. This study aims to explore the relationship between the number of clustered CVD risk factors and different types of obesity. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this population-based cross-sectional study in 2012. Information was collected by face to face interviews. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple logistic regression were used in this study. The prevalence of general obesity, central obesity and compound obesity were 0.3%, 36.1% and 14.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in the compound obesity group were higher than those in other groups (compound obesity > central obesity > general obesity > non-obesity), while smoking rate in the non-obesity group was higher than those in other groups (non-obesity > general obesity > central obesity > compound obesity). People with obesity were more likely to have one or more CVD risk factor compared with non-obesity subjects (general obesity (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13–4.56), central obesity (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 2.41–2.89), compound obesity (OR: 5.09, 95% CI: 4.38–5.90). The results were similar when the number of clustered CVD risk factors was ≥ 2 and ≥ 3. As a conclusion, more than half of the residents in Jilin Province have a problem of obesity, especially central obesity. Government and health department should take measures to improve people’s awareness of central obesity in Jilin Province of China. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes are associated with obesity types. Compound obesity has a greater risk to cluster multiple CVD risk factors than central obesity and general obesity. Taking measures to control obesity will

  2. Prediction and Control of Brucellosis Transmission of Dairy Cattle in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang-Dong; Hou, Qiang; Li, Mingtao; Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread. PMID:25386963

  3. Disease Burden from Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianpeng; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Shao, Xiaoping; Tan, Qiu; Xu, Yanjun; Xu, Xiaojun; Zheng, Huizhen; Ma, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the disease burden and financial burden attributed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Guangdong Province. Methods: Based on the data of incidence, mortality and healthcare cost of HBV-related diseases and other socio-economic data in Guangdong Province, we estimated deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and economic cost for the three HBV-related diseases—hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer—in Guangdong following the procedures developed for the global burden of disease study. Then disease burden and economic cost attributed to HBV infection was estimated. Results: HBV infection was estimated to have caused 33,600 (95% confidence interval (CI): 29,300–37,800) premature deaths and the loss of 583,200 (95% CI: 495,200–671,100) DALYs in Guangdong in 2005. The greatest loss of deaths and DALYs were from liver cancer. The 45–59 years age group had the greatest burden attributable to HBV infection. The estimated total annual cost of HBV-related diseases in Guangdong was RMB 10.8 (95% CI: 8.7–13.0) billion,the direct and indirect cost were RMB 2.6 (95% CI: 2.1–3.2) and 8.2 (95% CI: 6.6–9.8) billion. Conclusions: HBV infection is a great medical challenge as well as a significant economic burden to Guangdong Province. The results suggest that substantial health benefits could be gained by extending effective public health and clinical interventions to reduce HBV infection in Guangdong Province. PMID:26540065

  4. Factors associated with chemical burns in Zhejiang province, China: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Methods Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. Results In this study, 417 victims (87.61%) got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58%) worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Conclusions Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns. PMID:21958110

  5. Risk assessment of trace elements in cultured freshwater fishes from Jiangxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Dawen; Wei, Yihua; Luo, Linguan; Dai, Tingcan

    2014-04-01

    The levels of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in eight species of cultured freshwater fishes from Jiangxi province were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. All the studied trace element levels in fish muscles from Jiangxi province did not exceed Chinese national standard and European Union standard, and they were often lower than previous studies. The calculated target hazard quotient values for all the studied trace elements in fish samples were much less than 1, suggesting that the studied trace elements in fish muscles from Jiangxi province had not pose obvious health hazards to consumers. As and Cd concentrations in northern snakehead were much higher than that in other fishes, demonstrating that this fish species could be valuable as a bioindicator of As and Cd in environmental surveys. In addition, the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, and moderate contents of other essential trace elements in crucian carp indicated that crucian carp could be a good nutrient source of essential trace elements for human health. PMID:24258771

  6. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-01-01

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum. PMID:27609555

  7. Evaluation of the radioactive contamination in fungi genus Boletus in the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Pankavec, Sviatlana

    2015-10-01

    Numerous species of wild-grown mushrooms are among the most vulnerable organisms for contamination with radiocesium released from a radioactive fallout. A comparison was made on radiocesium as well as the natural gamma ray-emitting radionuclide ((40)K) activity concentrations in the fruiting bodies of several valued edible Boletus mushrooms collected from the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China. Data available for the first time for Boletus edulis collected in Yunnan, China, showed a very weak contamination with (137)Cs. Radiocesium concentration activity of B. edulis samples that were collected between 2011 and 2014 in Yunnan ranged from 5.2 ± 1.7 to 10 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 4.7 ± 1.3 to 5.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for stipes. The mushrooms Boletus badius, B. edulis, Boletus impolitus, Boletus luridus, Boletus pinophilus, and Boletus reticulatus collected from the European locations between 1995 and 2010 showed two to four orders of magnitude greater radioactivity from (137)Cs compared to B. edulis from Yunnan. The nuclide (40)K in B. badius was equally distributed between the caps and stipes, while for B. edulis, B. impolitus, B. luridus, B. pinophilus, and B. reticulatus, the caps were richer, and for each mushroom, activity concentration seemed to be more or less species-specific. PMID:26048471

  8. Study on the expropriation (requisition) price of cultivated land in China: take Nanyang City, Henan Province as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Liu, Yaolin; Gong, Jian

    2009-10-01

    With currently China's farmland transformation for non-agricultural advancement is speeding up, such disadvantages as low standard and simplified mode of compensation obviously appears in our land expropriation (requisition) system. And land expropriation (requisition) price has been distorted seriously, which has caused a series of social problems aroused more attention from many fields. It's high time to establish new criteria of land compensation. This paper presents a new method to analyze the compensation standard of cultivated-land Expropriation and requisition respectively through defining and normalize the connotation of tenure system and relevant rights of cultivated land in China, and to explore the value composition of rights over cultivated land. Methods of logic analysis, comparison and empirical analysis were applied. The results show that the tenure system of cultivated land is composed of five parts: natural productive price, social security price, social stabilization price, ecological security price and development right price. The values of all these rights vary under different socio-economic conditions, and they have to be embodied gradually in the process of land Expropriation and requisition. Moreover, the new proposed methodology has been applied to a case study of paddy lands located in Nanyang City, Henan Province in order to demonstrate its goodness. From the results of this work we can conclude that the approach proposed stands out as a good alternative to current compensation standard of cultivated-land Expropriation (requisition).

  9. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-01-01

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province,