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  1. Renewable Energy Opportunties at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Horner, Jacob A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Nesse, Ronald J.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-05-31

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Dugway Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment.

  2. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  3. Preparing for Mars: The Evolvable Mars Campaign 'Proving Ground' Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Rob P.; Sibille, Laurent; Vangen, Scott; Williams-Byrd, Julie

    2015-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit, we are in the early stages of planning missions within the framework of an Evolvable Mars Campaign. Initial missions would be conducted in near-Earth cis-lunar space and would eventually culminate in extended duration crewed missions on the surface of Mars. To enable such exploration missions, critical technologies and capabilities must be identified, developed, and tested. NASA has followed a principled approach to identify critical capabilities and a "Proving Ground" approach is emerging to address testing needs. The Proving Ground is a period subsequent to current International Space Station activities wherein exploration-enabling capabilities and technologies are developed and the foundation is laid for sustained human presence in space. The Proving Ground domain essentially includes missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that will provide increasing mission capability while reducing technical risks. Proving Ground missions also provide valuable experience with deep space operations and support the transition from "Earth-dependence" to "Earth-independence" required for sustainable space exploration. A Technology Development Assessment Team identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support the cadence of exploration missions. Discussions among mission planners, vehicle developers, subject-matter-experts, and technologists were used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of required technologies and capabilities. Within System Maturation Teams, known challenges were identified and expressed as specific performance gaps in critical capabilities, which were then refined and activities required to close these critical gaps were identified. Analysis was performed to identify test and demonstration opportunities for critical technical capabilities across the Proving Ground spectrum of missions. This suite of critical capabilities is expected to

  4. Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

  5. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  6. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

  7. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  8. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  9. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic nose'' extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 [Omega]-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  10. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  11. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  12. Geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1991-07-01

    integration of data from surveys using three geophysical technologies has provided information used to define the locations of buried utilities, tanks, vaults, and debris near building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles indicate the presence of buried pipes, tanks, reinforcement rods (rebar), and remnants of railroad tracks. A magnetic map constructed from a detailed magnetic survey on the north side of the building outlines buried iron-rich objects that are interpreted to be iron pipes, tank, and other debris of uncertain origin at relatively shallow depths. Horizontal electrical resistivity surveys and vertical electrical resistivity soundings essentially corroborated the findings obtained with the magnetometer and GPR. In addition, a highly resistance layer was observed on the east side of the building where a former railroad bed with a thick grave fill is believed to immediately underlie the lawn. The resistivity data show no evidence of a conductive leachate plume. Geophysical measurements from three techniques over a buried concrete slab approximately 130 ft north of Building E5032 give geophysical signatures interpreted to be due to the presence of a large iron tank or vault. An attempt was made to gather meaningful magnetic data on the east, west, and south sides of the building; however, the quality of subsurface interpretations in those areas was poor because of the influence of surficial iron lids, pipes, grates, and the effects of the corrugated iron building itself. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  14. Environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Daudt, C.R.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    Geophysical data collected at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, were used in the characterization of the natural hydrogeologic framework of the J-Field area and in the identification of buried disturbances (trenches and other evidences of contamination). Seismic refraction and reflection data and electrical resistivity data have aided in the characterization of the leaky confining unit at the base of the surficial aquifer (designated Unit B of the Tertiary Talbot Formation). Excellent reflectors have been observed for both upper and lower surfaces of Unit B that correspond to stratigraphic units observed in boreholes and on gamma logs. Elevation maps of both surfaces and an isopach map of Unit B, created from reflection data at the toxic burning pits site, show a thickening of Unit B to the east. Abnormally low seismic compressional-wave velocities suggest that Unit B consists of gassy sediments whose gases are not being flushed by upward or downward moving groundwater. The presence of gases suggests that Unit B serves as an efficient aquitard that should not be penetrated by drilling or other activities. Electromagnetic, total-intensity magnetic, and ground-penetrating radar surveys have aided in delineating the limits of two buried trenches, the VX burning pit and the liquid smoke disposal pit, both located at the toxic burning pits site. The techniques have also aided in determining the extent of several other disturbed areas where soils and materials were pushed out of disposal pits during trenching activities. Surveys conducted from the Prototype Building west to the Gunpowder River did not reveal any buried trenches.

  15. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H. ); Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H. . Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing.

  16. Potential Cislunar and Interplanetary Proving Ground Excursion Trajectory Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Burke, Laura M.; MacDonald, Mark A.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Landau, Damon F.; Lantoine, Gregory; Hack, Kurt J.; Lopez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been investigating potential translunar excursion concepts to take place in the 2020s that would be used to test and demonstrate long duration life support and other systems needed for eventual Mars missions in the 2030s. These potential trajectory concepts could be conducted in the proving ground, a region of cislunar and near-Earth interplanetary space where international space agencies could cooperate to develop the technologies needed for interplanetary spaceflight. Enabled by high power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technologies, the excursion trajectory concepts studied are grouped into three classes of increasing distance from the Earth and increasing technical difficulty: the first class of excursion trajectory concepts would represent a 90-120 day round trip trajectory with abort to Earth options throughout the entire length, the second class would be a 180-210 day round trip trajectory with periods in which aborts would not be available, and the third would be a 300-400 day round trip trajectory without aborts for most of the length of the trip. This paper provides a top-level summary of the trajectory and mission design of representative example missions of these three classes of excursion trajectory concepts.

  17. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.; Mandell, W.A.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  18. Yuma proving grounds automatic UXO detection using biomorphic robots

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.W.

    1996-07-01

    The current variety and dispersion of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) is a daunting technological problem for current sensory and extraction techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a live UXO has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals, farmers, or Yuma field personnel, this paper details a non-biological approach to developing inexpensive, automatic machines that will find, tag, and may eventually remove UXO from a variety of terrains by several proposed methods. The Yuma proving grounds (Arizona) has been pelted with bombs, mines, missiles, and shells since the 1940s. The idea of automatic machines that can clean up after such testing is an old one but as yet unrealized because of the daunting cost, power and complexity requirements of capable robot mechanisms. A researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory has invented and developed a new variety of living robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Networks (Nv), allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as Biomorphic robots, or Biomechs for short) that rather than work from task principles use instead a survival-based design philosophy. This allows Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs and sensors have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation (fighting to proceed, as it were). They are not programmed, and indeed, the twelve transistor Nv controller keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that advanced forms of these machines in huge numbers may be an interesting, capable solution to the problem of general and specific UXO identification, tagging, and removal.

  19. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  20. 76 FR 30319 - Real Property Master Plan Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, at Yuma Proving Ground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Ground, Arizona AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: The Department of...), including test areas and training activities at Yuma Proving Ground. ADDRESSES: For questions concerning the RPMP PEIS, please contact Mr. Sergio Obregon, U.S. Army Garrison Yuma Proving Ground,...

  1. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Eppler, D. B.; Kennedy, K. J.; Lewis, R.; Spann, J. F.; Sullivan, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground.

  2. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, and...

  3. The Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Proving Ground Program: Teaming Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoberg, B.; Goldberg, M.; Guch, I.

    2012-12-01

    The JPSS Proving Ground Program's primary objective is to maximize the benefits and performance of Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP)/JPSS data, algorithms, and products for downstream operational and research users (gateways to the public) through three themes: 1. Detailed characterization of data attributes such as uncertainty (accuracy and precision) and long-term stability 2. Engaging users to enhance their applications (and develop new ones) by working together to facilitate optimal utilization of JPSS data, algorithms and products in combination with other data sources through onsite/offsite demonstrations, experimental data streams, and intercomparisons of enhancements with baselines 3. Education, Training and Outreach The JPSS Proving Ground Program has begun to identify opportunities to team with other national and international satellite programs to bring fused data products into a wide-variety of operational environments. The first initiative is with the Alaskan High Latitude and Arctic Proving Ground. The JPSS Program is working with National Weather Service organizations in Alaska and the GOES-R Program to establish a robust winter satellite proving ground project in 2012-2013. Lessons learned from this initiative will help guide the planning for future joint projects.

  4. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report. Jefferson Proving Ground, Madison, Indiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ethridge, M.; Kang, J.; Young, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Technology Corporation (TETC) at Jefferson Proving Ground, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure, (BRAC) Commission under Public Laws 100-526 and 101-510. Under CERFA (Public Law 102-426), Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where-no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. The Jefferson Proving Ground is an approximately 56,156-acre site located in Jennings, Ripley, and Jefferson Counties, Indiana, approximately 7 miles north of Madison, Indiana. The installation's primary mission is to perform production and post production tests of both ammunition components and final ammunition products. Propellants, mines, cartridge cases, artillery projectiles, mortar rounds, grenades, tank ammunition, bombs, boosters, and rockets have been tested at Jefferson Proving Ground. Environmentally significant operations may be divided into activities related to munitions testing activities, hazardous substances/waste associated with facility maintenance activities, and miscellaneous solid waste such as office trash. Jefferson Proving Ground, CERFA, Base closure, BRAC.

  5. Proving Ground Potential Mission and Flight Test Objectives and Near Term Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Marshall; Craig, Douglas A.; Lopez, Pedro Jr.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a Pioneering Space Strategy to expand human and robotic presence further into the solar system, not just to explore and visit, but to stay. NASA's strategy is designed to meet technical and non-technical challenges, leverage current and near-term activities, and lead to a future where humans can work, learn, operate, and thrive safely in space for an extended, and eventually indefinite, period of time. An important aspect of this strategy is the implementation of proving ground activities needed to ensure confidence in both Mars systems and deep space operations prior to embarking on the journey to the Mars. As part of the proving ground development, NASA is assessing potential mission concepts that could validate the required capabilities needed to expand human presence into the solar system. The first step identified in the proving ground is to establish human presence in the cis-lunar vicinity to enable development and testing of systems and operations required to land humans on Mars and to reach other deep space destinations. These capabilities may also be leveraged to support potential commercial and international objectives for Lunar Surface missions. This paper will discuss a series of potential proving ground mission and flight test objectives that support NASA's journey to Mars and can be leveraged for commercial and international goals. The paper will discuss how early missions will begin to satisfy these objectives, including extensibility and applicability to Mars. The initial capability provided by the launch vehicle will be described as well as planned upgrades required to support longer and more complex missions. Potential architectures and mission concepts will be examined as options to satisfy proving ground objectives. In addition, these architectures will be assessed on commercial and international participation opportunities and on how well they develop capabilities and operations applicable to Mars vicinity missions.

  6. Concept of Operations for a Prospective "Proving Ground" in the Lunar Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Hill, James J.; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2016-01-01

    NASA is studying conceptual architectures for a "Proving Ground" near the Moon or in high lunar orbit to conduct human space exploration missions that bridge the gap between today's operations with the International Space Station (ISS) and future human exploration of Mars beginning in the 2030s. This paper describes the framework of a concept of operations ("Conops") for candidate activities in the Proving Ground. The Conops discusses broad goals that the Proving Ground might address, such as participation from commercial entities, support for human landings on the Moon, use of mature technologies, and growth of capability through a steady cadence of increasingly ambitious piloted missions. Additional Proving Ground objectives are outlined in a companion paper. Key elements in the Conops include the Orion spacecraft (with mission kits for docking and other specialized operations) and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket. Potential additions include a new space suit, commercial launch vehicles and logistics carriers, Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stages to move elements between different orbits and eventually take them on excursions to deep space, a core module with multiple docking ports, a habitation block, and robotic and piloted lunar landers. The landers might include reusable ascent modules which could remain docked to in-space elements between lunar sorties. A module providing advanced regenerative life support functions could launch to the ISS, and later move to the Proving Ground. The architecture will include infrastructure for launch preparation, communication, mission control, and range safety. The Conops describes notional missions chosen to guide the design of the architecture and its elements. One such mission might be the delivery of a approximately 10-t Transit Habitat element, comanifested with Orion on a Block 1B SLS launcher, to the Proving Ground. In another mission, the architecture might participate in direct human exploration of

  7. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Building E5375

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; Tome, C.

    1993-06-01

    As part of a building decommissioning and demolition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, a detailed inspection of each target building is being conducted in order to characterize and describe the state of the building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. Room surfaces, drains and sumps, remaining equipment, and such associated exterior aboveground and underground appurtenances as tanks and pipelines are among the features, generically termed compartments, that may be potentially contaminated. Detailed drawings are being prepared for each building to illustrate the existing structure. This report presents the results of the inspection of Building E5375 in the Edgewood/Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Nine potentially contaminated compartments were identified in this building and its vicinity.

  8. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Building E5190

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; Tome, C.

    1993-10-01

    As part of a building decommissioning and demolition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, a detailed inspection of each target building is conducted in order to characterize and describe the state of the building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. Room surfaces, drains and sumps, remaining equipment, and such associated exterior aboveground and underground appurtenances as tanks and pipelines are among the features, generically termed compartments, that may be potentially contaminated. Detailed drawings are prepared to illustrate the existing structure of each building. This report presents the results of the inspection of building E5190 in the Edgewood/Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. This building houses a 10,000-gal tank formerly used to store xylene. Eleven potentially contaminated compartments were identified in this building and its vicinity.

  9. GSA's Green Proving Ground: Identifying, Testing and Evaluating Innovative Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Lowell, M.

    2012-05-01

    GSA's Green Proving Ground (GPG) program utilizes GSA's real estate portfolio to test and evaluate innovative and underutilized sustainable building technologies and practices. Findings are used to support the development of GSA performance specifications and inform decision making within GSA, other federal agencies, and the real estate industry. The program aims to drive innovation in environmental performance in federal buildings and help lead market transformation through deployment of new technologies.

  10. Concept of Operations for a Prospective "Proving Ground" in the Lunar Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Hill, James J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is studying a "Proving Ground" near the Moon to conduct human space exploration missions in preparation for future flights to Mars. This paper describes a concept of operations ("conops") for activities in the Proving Ground, focusing on the construction and use of a mobile Cislunar Transit Habitat capable of months-long excursions within and beyond the Earth-Moon system. Key elements in the conops include the Orion spacecraft (with mission kits for docking and other specialized operations) and the Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket. Potential additions include commercial launch vehicles and logistics carriers, solar electric propulsion stages to move elements between different orbits and eventually take them on excursions to deep space, a node module with multiple docking ports, habitation and life support blocks, and international robotic and piloted lunar landers. The landers might include reusable ascent modules which could remain docked to in-space elements between lunar sorties. The architecture will include infrastructure for launch preparation, communication, mission control, and range safety. The conops describes "case studies" of notional missions chosen to guide the design of the architecture and its elements. One such mission is the delivery of a 10-ton pressurized element, co-manifested with an Orion on a Block 1B Space Launch System rocket, to the Proving Ground. With a large solar electric propulsion stage, the architecture could enable a year-long mission to land humans on a near-Earth asteroid. In the last case, after returning to near-lunar space, two of the asteroid explorers could join two crewmembers freshly arrived from Earth for a Moon landing, helping to safely quantify the risk of landing deconditioned crews on Mars. The conops also discusses aborts and contingency operations. Early return to Earth may be difficult, especially during later Proving Ground missions. While adding risk, limited-abort conditions provide needed practice

  11. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  12. Ground-water flow and the possible effects of remedial actions at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, has been used since World War II to test and dispose of explosives, chemical warfare agents, and industrial chemicals resulting in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contami- nation. The U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model was used to better understand ground-water flow at the site and to simulate the effects of remedial actions. A surficial aquifer and a confined aquifer were simulated with the model. A confining unit separates these units and is represented by leakance between the layers. The area modeled is 3.65 mi2; the model was constructed with a variably spaced 40 X 38 grid. The horizontal and lower boundaries of the model are all no-flow boundaries. Steady-state conditions were used. Ground water at the areas under investigation flows from disposal pit areas toward discharge areas in adjacent estuaries or wetlands. Simulations indicate that capping disposal areas with an impermeable cover effectively slows advective ground water flow by 0.7 to 0.5 times. Barriers to lateral ground-water flow were simulated and effectively prevented the movement of ground water toward discharge areas. Extraction wells were simulated as a way to contain ground-water contamination and to extract ground water for treatment. Two wells pumping 5 gallons per minute each at the toxic-materials disposal area and a single well pumping 2.5 gallons per minute at the riot-control-agent disposal area effectively contained contamination at these sites. A combi- nation of barriers to horizontal flow east and south of the toxic-materials disposal area, and a single extraction well pumping at 5 gallons per minute can extract contaminated ground water and prevent pumpage of marsh water.

  13. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  14. Satellite Proving Ground for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Gurka, James; Bruning, E. C.; Blakeslee, J. R.; Rabin, Robert; Buechler, D.

    2009-01-01

    The key mission of the Satellite Proving Ground is to demonstrate new satellite observing data, products and capabilities in the operational environment to be ready on Day 1 to use the GOES-R suite of measurements. Algorithms, tools, and techniques must be tested, validated, and assessed by end users for their utility before they are finalized and incorporated into forecast operations. The GOES-R Proving Ground for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) focuses on evaluating how the infusion of the new technology, algorithms, decision aids, or tailored products integrate with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks; nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing forecasts and warning products. Additionally, the testing concept fosters operation and development staff interactions which will improve training materials and support documentation development. Real-time proxy total lightning data from regional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMA) in Northern Alabama, Central Oklahoma, Cape Canaveral Florida, and the Washington, DC Greater Metropolitan Area are the cornerstone for the GLM Proving Ground. The proxy data will simulate the 8 km Event, Group and Flash data that will be generated by GLM. Tailored products such as total flash density at 1-2 minute intervals will be provided for display in AWIPS-2 to select NWS forecast offices and national centers such as the Storm Prediction Center. Additional temporal / spatial combinations are being investigated in coordination with operational needs and case-study proxy data and prototype visualizations may also be generated from the NASA heritage Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector data. End users will provide feedback on the utility of products in their operational environment, identify use cases and spatial/temporal scales of interest, and provide feedback to the developers for adjusted or

  15. Source localization results for airborne acoustic platforms in the 2010 Yuma Proving Ground test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Collier, Sandra L.; Reiff, Christian G.; Cheinet, Sylvain; Ligon, David A.; Wilson, D. Keith; Noble, John M.; Alberts, William C.

    2013-05-01

    Acoustic sensors are being employed on airborne platforms, such as Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) and Persistent Ground Surveillance System (PGSS), for source localization. Under certain atmospheric conditions, airborne sensors offer a distinct advantage over ground sensors. Among other factors, the performance of airborne sensors is affected by refraction of sound signals due to vertical gradients in temperature and wind velocity. A comprehensive experiment in source localization with an aerostat-mounted acoustic system was conducted in summer of 2010 at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). Acoustic sources on the ground consisted of one-pound TNT denotations and small arms firings. The height of the aerostat was approximately 1 km above the ground. In this paper, horizontal, azimuthal, and elevation errors in source localization and their statistics are studied in detail. Initially, straight-line propagation is assumed; then refraction corrections are introduced to improve source localization and decrease the errors. The corrections are based on a recently developed theory [Ostashev, et. al, JASA 2008] which accounts for sound refraction due to vertical profiles of temperature and wind velocity. During the 2010 YPG field test, the vertical profiles were measured only up to a height of approximately 100 m. Therefore, the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to generate the profiles for July of 2010.

  16. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base,...

  17. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul B.; Eppler, Dean B.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Lewis, Ruthan.; Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting research objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support staging of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  18. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  19. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  20. Site investigation of Cluster 3, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M.K.; Kean, T.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is currently involved in investigating several sites at the Edgewood Area (EA) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. These investigations consist of placing monitoring wells and periodically collecting samples for laboratory analysis. Additionally, several of the sites are to be investigated geophysically to determine if any anomalous areas exist. One of the sites, Cluster 3, a suspected landfill area is the focus of this report. Geophysical surveys were conducted to help delineate any anomalies indicative of buried waste, waste containers, boundaries of burial trenches, and the depth to water table. The geophysical methods utilized at the site were electromagnetic induction (EM), magnetics, and seismic refraction.

  1. Ground-water flow and the potential effects of remediation at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, F.J.; Fleck, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water in the east-central part of Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent test facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The U.S. Geological Survey's finite- difference model was used to help understand ground-water flow and simulate the effects of alternative remedial actions to clean up the ground water. Scenarios to simulate unstressed conditions and three extraction well con- figurations were used to compare alternative remedial actions on the contaminant plume. The scenarios indicate that contaminants could migrate from their present location to wetland areas within 10 years under unstressed conditions. Pumping 7 gal/min (gallons per minute) from one well upgradient of the plume will not result in containment or removal of the highest contaminant concentrations. Pumping 7 gal/min from three wells along the central axis of the plume should result in containment and removal of dissolved contami- nants, as should pumping 7 gal/min from three wells at the leading edge of the plume while injecting 7 gal/min back into an upgradient well.

  2. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  3. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  4. Environmental geophysics: Building E3640 Decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Borden, H.M.; Benson, M.A.; Thompson, M.D.; Padar, C.A.; Daudt, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Building E3640 is a potentially contaminated site in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical survey techniques, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were used as part of a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the building. Complex and large-amplitude anomalies caused by aboveground metal in this area obscure many smaller features produced by subsurface sources. No underground storage tanks were found in the areas surveyed. Major anomalies produced by subsurface sources include the following: EM-61 and EM-31 lineaments caused by a water line extending north from the south fence; a broad positive magnetic anomaly caused by magnetic fill north of the material and drum storage area and northeast of E3640; a 30-ft-wide band of EM-31 anomalies extending from the front gate to the southeast comer of E3640 and a coincident EM-61 anomaly produced by buried utilities; ground-penetrating radar images along three lines extending from a sump at the northeast comer of E3640 to the eastern fence; and EM-61, EM-31, and magnetic anomalies caused by overhead and underground pipes extending south from the north fence. Smaller, unidentified, localized anomalies observed throughout the survey area are also described in this report.

  5. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic.

  6. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  7. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

  8. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Smith, Barrett L.; Johnson, Mark A.; Fleck, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water contaminant plumes that are flowing toward or currently discharging to wetland areas present unique remediation problems because of the hydrologic connections between ground water and surface water and the sensitive habitats in wetlands. Because wetlands typically have a large diversity of microorganisms and redox conditions that could enhance biodegradation, they are ideal environments for natural attenuation of organic contaminants, which is a treatment method that would leave the ecosystem largely undisturbed and be cost effective. During 1992-97, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in a contaminant plume that discharges from a sand aquifer to a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Characterization of the hydrogeology and geochemistry along flowpaths in the wetland area and determination of the occurrence and rates of biodegradation and sorption show that natural attenuation could be a feasible remediation method for the contaminant plume that extends along the West Branch Canal Creek.

  9. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  10. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal at the old O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at the Old O-Field landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, beginning prior to World War II and continuing until at least the 1950?s. Soil, ground water, surface water, and wetland sediments in the Old O-Field area were contaminated by the disposal of these materials. The site is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and is characterized by a complex series of Pleistocene and Holocene sediments formed in various fluvial, estuarine, and marine-marginal hydrogeologic environments. A previously constructed transient finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to simulate ground-water flow and the effects of a pump-and-treat remediation system designed to prevent contaminated ground water from flowing into Watson Creek (a tidal estuary and a tributary to the Gunpowder River). The remediation system consists of 14 extraction wells located between the Old O-Field landfill and Watson Creek.Linear programming techniques were applied to the results of the flow-model simulations to identify optimal pumping strategies for the remediation system. The optimal management objective is to minimize total withdrawal from the water-table aquifer, while adhering to the following constraints: (1) ground-water flow from the landfill should be prevented from reaching Watson Creek, (2) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate that exceeds its capacity, and (3) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate below its minimum capacity, the minimum rate at which an Old O-Field pump can function. Water withdrawal is minimized by varying the rate and frequency of pumping at each of the 14 extraction wells over time. This minimizes the costs of both pumping and water treatment, thus providing the least-cost remediation alternative while simultaneously meeting all operating constraints.The optimal strategy identified using this objective and constraint set involved operating 13 of the 14

  11. Remediation application strategies for depleted uranium contaminated soils at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Vandel, D.S.; Medina, S.M.; Weidner, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), located in the southwest portion of Arizona conducts firing of projectiles into the Gunpoint (GP-20) firing range. The penetrators are composed of titanium and DU. The purpose of this project was to determine feasible cleanup technologies and disposal alternatives for the cleanup of the depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils at YPG. The project was split up into several tasks that include (a) collecting and analyzing samples representative of the GP-20 soils, (b) evaluating the data results, (c) conducting a literature search of existing proven technologies for soil remediation, and (0) making final recommendations for implementation of this technology to the site. As a result of this study, several alternatives for the separation, treatment, and disposal procedures are identified that would result in meeting the cleanup levels defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for unrestricted use of soils and would result in a significant cost savings over the life of the firing range.

  12. Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

  13. Subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Bryan, J.B.; Glenn, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Ground are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Attempts to explain the difference in terms of device yield (which was much larger in the Pacific tests than at NTS) have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 41 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  14. Contamination source review for Building E5974, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Emken, M.E.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the results of a contamination source review of Building E5974 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The primary mission at APG has been the testing and evaluation of US Army warfare materials. Since its beginning in 1917, the Edgewood Area of APG has been the principal location for chemical warfare agent research, development, and testing in the US. APG was also used for producing chemical warfare agents during both world wars, and it has been a center for the storage of chemical warfare material. An attempt was made to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples.

  15. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  16. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic ``nose`` extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 {Omega}-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  17. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  18. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  19. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  20. Phase II environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Thompson, M.D.; Yuen, C.R.

    1995-09-01

    Geophysical studies were conducted at eight sites on the tip of Gunpowder Neck (J-Field) in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The results of the studies were used to delineate the extent of three former burning pits and help determine the necessity of further investigation at five potential areas of concern (PAOCs). Intensive investigations were performed at the three former burning pits and two of the PAOCs by using electromagnetic (EM-31 and EM-61), total field magnetometry, and ground-penetrating radar geophysical techniques. The successful integration of the four data sets characterized the extent, the approximate depth and nature of fill material, and the location of metallic debris at the three former burning pits. At the two PAOC sites that were intensively investigated, no continuous areas of metallic debris, indicating organized burials, were present. Less extensive exploratory profiles conducted at three other PAOC sites indicated the presence of buried metal objects, but they were inconclusive in defining the nature and extent of buried materials.

  1. Nitrate behavior in ground water of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate-attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is {lt}0.05 mg L{sup {minus}1}, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L{sup {minus}1} and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L{sup {minus}1}.

  2. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  3. Contamination source review for Building E3613, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Emken, M.E.; Muir-Ploense, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3613 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the U.S. Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building, The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3613 (APG designation) is located in the Canal Creek Area of APG. The building was constructed in 1954 for use as a change house, office, and storage building in support of the white phosphorus smoke program. The building has not been used since 1988. During an inspection in 1988, asbestos was listed as the only potential contaminant. The physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E3613 were completed in November 1994. At the time of the inspection, Building E3613 was inactive and in disrepair. The single-story, rectangular structure contains five rooms and measures 16 ft 2 in. by 32 ft. The building is wood frame construction with a gabled roof. The exterior walls and roof are constructed of wood covered with asphalt sheeting. The building rests on a concrete foundation. The interior walls are 6-in.-thick wood, and the ceiling is assumed to be white drywall nailed to a wooden frame. Overhead steam pipes supported by vertical pipes traverse the area. Two concrete footings for guy wires that support the overhead steam pipes are located north and west of the building. Four additional vertical pipes exit the ground east of the building.

  4. Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.

  5. Contamination source review for Building E3180, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3180 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, collection of air samples, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E3180. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994. Building,E3180 (current APG designation) is located near the eastern end of Kings Creek Road, north of Kings Creek, and about 0.5 miles east of the airstrip within APG`s Edgewood Area. The building was constructed in 1944 as a facsimile of a Japanese pillbox and used for the development of flame weapons systems until 1957 (EAI Corporation 1989). The building was not used from 1957 until 1965, when it was converted and used as a flame and incendiary laboratory. During the 1970s, the building was converted to a machine (metal) shop and used for that purpose until 1988.

  6. Contamination source review for Building E1489, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.; Draugelis, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E1489 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the U.S. Army-in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. The field investigations were performed in 1994-1995. Building E1489 located in J-Field on the Gunpowder Peninsula in APG`s Edgewood Area housed a power generator that supplied electricity to a nearby observation tower. Building E1489 and the generator were abandoned in 1974, demolished by APG personnel and removed from real estate records. A physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E1489 were completed by ANL staff during November 1994. In 1994, ANL staff conducted geophysical surveys in the immediate vicinity of Building E1489 by using several nonintrusive methods. Survey results suggest the presence of some underground objects near Building E1489, but they do not provide conclusive evidence of the source of geophysical anomalies observed during the survey. No air monitoring was conducted at the site, and no information on underground storage tanks associated with Building E1489 was available.

  7. Spatial relationships among soil biota in a contaminated grassland ecosystem at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.; Williams, G.; Parmelee, R.

    1995-12-31

    Spatial relationships among soil nematodes and soil microorganisms were investigated in a grassland ecosystem contaminated with heavy metals in the US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground. The study quantified fungal and bacterial biomass, the abundance of soil protozoa, and nematodes. Geostatistical techniques were used to determine spatial distributions of these parameters and to evaluate various cross-correlations. The cross-correlations among soil biota numbers were analyzed using two methods: a cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram showed a negative correlation between the abundance of fungivore nematodes and fungal biomass, the abundance of bacterivore nematodes and bacterial biomass, the abundance of omnivore/predator nematodes and numbers of protozoa, and between numbers of protozoa and both fungal and bacterial biomass. The negative cross-correlation between soil biota and metal concentrations showed that soil fungi were particularly sensitive to heavy metal concentrations and can be used for quantitative ecological risk assessment of metal-contaminated soils. This study found that geostatistics are a useful tool for describing and analyzing spatial relationships among components of food webs in the soil community.

  8. Contamination source review for Building E3236, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3236. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot- scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  9. Hydrogeology and soil gas at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    Disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has contaminated soil, groundwater and surface water. Seven exploratory borings and 38 observation wells were drilled to define the hydrogeologic framework at J-Field and to determine the type, extent, and movement of contaminants. The geologic units beneath J-Field consist of Coastal Plain sediments of the Cretaceous Patapsco Formation and Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The Patapsco Formation contains several laterally discontinuous aquifers and confining units. The Pleistocene deposits were divided into 3 hydrogeologic units--a surficial aquifer, a confining unit, and a confined aquifer. Water in the surficial aquifer flows laterally from topographically high areas to discharge areas in marshes and streams, and vertically to the underlying confined aquifer. In offshore areas, water flows from the deeper confined aquifers upward toward discharge areas in the Gunpowder River and Chesapeake Bay. Analyses of soil-gas samples showed high relative-flux values of chlorinated solvents, phthalates, and hydrocarbons at the toxic-materials disposal area, white-phosphorus disposal area, and riot-control-agent disposal area. The highest flux values were located downgradient of the toxic materials and white phosphorus disposal areas, indicating that groundwater contaminants are moving from source areas beneath the disposal pits toward discharge points in the marshes and estuaries. Elevated relative-flux values were measured upgradient and downgradient of the riot-control agent disposal area, and possibly result from soil and (or) groundwater contamination.

  10. An accelerated remedial strategy developed for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wrobel, J.

    1995-06-01

    For an installation with many disposal sites and multiple contaminant sources, successful remediation at minimum cost can be complicated by insufficient geologic and hydrogeologic information, incomplete records of historical disposal activities, and uncertainty about the effectiveness of different investigative methods. To reduce these uncertainties and to increase the probability of successful remediation at minimum cost, a ``Phased and pilot`` accelerated remedial strategy has been developed for the J-Field area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The strategy includes four phases. First, the most contaminated site is selected as a pilot for detailed investigation. Second, the most contaminated areas within the pilot site are chosen as a pilot source area for interim action study, and a remedial action is developed to remove the primary contaminant sources. The subsequent sitewide investigation uses the effective tools developed in the first phase. Third, a cleanup operation is initiated in the pilot source area, while a sitewide feasibility study is developed by taking advantage of lessons learned in the interim action. Fourth, a sitewide cleanup operation proceeds.

  11. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  12. Contamination source review for Building E3642, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, M.N.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of these buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG. The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with the building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3642.

  13. Contamination source review for Building E5485, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E5485 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. Building E5485 (APG designation) is located in the drainage basin of the west branch of Canal Creek in the Edgewood Area of APG. The building was constructed in 1922 and used as a fan house for agent operations in Building E5487 from 1925 to 1966. Building E5485 was then used as a laboratory to support manufacturing and storage of flammable agents and chemical warfare agents from 1966 until 1967, when it was placed on the inactive list. Air quality samples were collected upwind, downwind, and inside Building E5485 in November 1994. Analytical results showed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample collected inside Building E5485. These results indicate that Building E5485 is not a source of volatile organic compound contamination.

  14. Contamination source review for Building E6891, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of various APG buildings. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E6891. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. This building is part of the Lauderick Creek Concrete Slab Test Site, located in the Lauderick Creek Area in the Edgewood Area. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances the potential exists` for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  15. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950' s. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well- cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. Bottom- sediment data include inorganic properties and constituents; organic chemistry; detection limits for organic chemicals; a compilation of information on acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water- level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. (USGS)

  16. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  17. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  18. An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

  19. Contamination source review for Building E3163, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Draugelis, A.K.; Muir-Ploense, K.L.; Glennon, M.A.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3163 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3163 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War II. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment. Building E3163, constructed in 1946, was used for toxicological studies on animals until 1965. All agent testing was done using laboratory-scale quantities of agents. All operational data were destroyed; total quantities and types of agents used during the testing are unknown. No experimentation has been conducted in the building since 1965. However, the building was used as overflow office space until the late 1980s. Since that time, the building has been unoccupied.

  20. Contamination source review for Building E3641, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the results of a contamination source review of Building E3641 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The primary mission at APG has been the testing and evaluation of US Army warfare materials. Since its beginning in 1917, the Edgewood Area of APG has been the principal location for chemical warfare agent research, development, and testing in the US. APG was also used for producing chemical warfare agents during both world wars, and it has been a center for the storage of chemical warfare material. An attempt was made to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building.

  1. Monitoring for PCBs at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Cohut, V.J.; Hayes, D.C.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-07-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents. The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of the development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of a number of chemical warfare agents. The objective of this study was to determine if there is polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the PPC. The results of screening done by Argonne indicate that PCBs in the air of the PPC are well below acceptable levels. The total PCB burden of the surfaces in the PPC appears to be well below the 50-ppM regulatory level. However, the study identified contaminated floor surfaces that exceed the acceptable level of 10 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2} for a workplace. Areas in Building E5618 exceed 1,000 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2}, with a high reading of 21,100 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2} in room C103. Building E5625 has several areas where PCBs exceed 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Contamination source review for Building E7995, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, M.N.; Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition, of the buildings. The source contamination review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, investigation of potential hazardous materials facilities (HMFs), and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E7995. any of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings, and associated structures or appurtenances, may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  3. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  4. Ecological risk assessment at a hazardous waste site on Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Iohowskyi, I.; Hayse, J.W.; Kuperman, R.; Lonkhuyzen, R. van

    1995-12-31

    The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area of the J-Field site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was used in the past for disposal and destruction of munitions and chemical agents. The TBP area, located at the end of a large peninsula on Chesapeake Bay, covers about 9 acres adjacent to a marsh containing a large freshwater pond. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted at the site to determine whether current levels of contamination at the site are producing demonstrable ecological effects, whether contaminated media are toxic to biota, and to estimate potential risks to biota from direct and indirect contaminant uptake from site media. The ERA incorporated field studies, tissue residue analyses, media toxicity tests, and uptake modeling for wildlife species. Areas with contaminated soil had lower abundance, diversity, and biomass of terrestrial vegetation and soil-dwelling invertebrates; altered trophic structure of nematode communities; reduced soil respiration and litter decomposition rates; and reduced soil microbial enzyme activities. Test showed that contaminated soils were toxic to vegetation, insect eggs, and earthworms. Contamination and toxicity of aquatic media were limited to adjacent portions of the marsh that receive surface runoff from the TBP area. Uptake modeling indicated current contamination levels at the TBP area may pose unacceptable risks to several wildlife species and that the risks are associated primarily with soil-based uptake pathways. The ERA results identified soil to be the medium posing the greatest risk to ecological receptors, and the assessment results are currently being used to assist in the development and evaluation of remedial alternatives for the contaminated soil.

  5. Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.

  6. A deer study at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Project planning, data assimilation, and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, J.; Leach, G.; Lee, R.

    1995-12-31

    For more than 75 years, Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) has been in the business of research, development, and testing of munitions and military vehicles for the US Army. Currently, APG is on the National Priorities List and an installation wide human health risk assessment is underway. Like many Department of the Army facilities, APG has an active hunting program. Hunters harvest approximately 800 whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginanus) from APG annually. To assure public safety, the authors completed a study during the 1993 hunting season to identify any potential human health hazards associated with consumption of venison from APG. This paper will discuss the unique strategy behind the experimental design, the actual assimilation of the data, and the results of the human health risk assessment to establish an appropriate contaminant levels in APG deer. Also, based on information in the literature, the authors considered gender, age, and season in the study design. The list of chemicals for residue analysis included explosives, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg). Of the 150 deer sampled, metals were the only chemicals detected. The authors compared these data to metal levels in deer collected from an off post background site. Metal levels did not differ significantly between APG deer and off post deer. Finally, the authors completed a health risk assessment of eating deer harvested from both APG and off post. From a survey distributed to the hunters, they incorporated actual consumption data into the exposure assessment. Their findings concluded that the risk of eating APG deer was no higher than eating off post deer; however, total arsenic levels in muscle did appear to elevate the risk.

  7. Contamination source review for Building E5032, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, M.N.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Smits, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) documents results of a contamination source review of Building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E5032. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E5032 (APG designation), originally known as Building 99, is located at the northwest comer of the intersection of Hoadley Road and Magnolia Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. It was constructed during World War I as an incendiary bomb filling plant and in 1920s and 1930s maintained as a filling facility. During World War II the building was a pilot plant for the development of a dry white phosphorus filling process. Since then the building has been used for white phosphorus filling pilot studies. Most of the dry filling methods were developed in Building E5032 between 1965 and 1970. Other filling operations in Building E5032 have included mustard during the period shortly after World War II and triethyl aluminum (TEA) during the late 1960s and early 1970s. During the World War II period, the building was connected to the sanitary sewer system with one large and at least one small interior sump. There are also seven sumps adjacent to the exterior of the building: two on the west elevation, four near the four bays on the south elevation, and one at the northeast corner of the building. All of these sumps are connected with the chemical sewer system and received most, if not all, of the production operation wastewater. The discharge from this system was released into the east branch of Canal Creek; the discharge pipe was located southeast of Building E5032. There are no records indicating the use of Building E5032 after 1974, and it is assumed that the building has been out of service since that time.

  8. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    SciTech Connect

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  9. Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. ); Bowers, J.F. )

    1991-10-01

    The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  10. GSA's Green Proving Ground: Identifying, Testing and Evaluating Innovative Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Lowell, M.

    2012-05-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the GPG program and its objectives as well as a summary and status update of the 16 technologies selected for enhanced testing and evaluation in 2011. The federal government's General Services Administration's (GSA) Public Buildings Service (PBS) acquires space on behalf of the federal government through new construction and leasing, and acts as a caretaker for federal properties across the country. PBS owns or leases 9,624 assets and maintains an inventory of more than 370.2 million square feet of workspace, and as such has enormous potential for implementing energy efficient and renewable energy technologies to reduce energy and water use and associated emissions. The Green Proving Ground (GPG) program utilizes GSA's real estate portfolio to test and evaluate innovative and underutilized sustainable building technologies and practices. Findings are used to support the development of GSA performance specifications and inform decision making within GSA, other federal agencies, and the real estate industry. The program aims to drive innovation in environmental performance in federal buildings and help lead market transformation through deployment of new technologies. In 2011, the GPG program selected 16 technologies or practices for rigorous testing and evaluation. Evaluations are currently being performed in collaboration with the Department of Energy's National Laboratories, and a steady stream of results will be forthcoming throughout 2012. This paper will provide an overview of the GPG program and its objectives as well as a summary and status update of the 16 technologies selected for enhanced testing and evaluation in 2011. Lastly, it provides a general overview of the 2012 program.

  11. RCRA delisting of agent-decontaminated waste at Dugway Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Green, D.R.; Lopez, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The State of Utah has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues are listed as hazardous waste in Utah and several other States, but are not listed under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pursuant to the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the US These residues are identified as hazardous waste due to corrosivity, reactivity, chronic toxicity, and acute toxicity, and are designated as Hazardous Waste No. F999. The RCRA regulations (40 CFR 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other State hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous, but allow generators to petition the regulator to ``delist`` if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The US Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) has initiated a project with the Argonne National Laboratory to demonstrate that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous waste and to achieve delisting. The initial focus is on delisting specific residues from decontamination of wastes generated during materials testing activities and contaminated soil at the US Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. This activity is referred to as Phase I of the delisting program. Subsequent phases of the delisting program will address additional waste streams at DPG and other Army installations. The purpose of this paper is to outline the Phase I TECOM delisting effort at DPG, identify some of the important technical issues associated with the delisting, and to discuss overall progress to date.

  12. Remote sensing and field test capabilities at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James T.; Herron, Joshua P.; Marshall, Martin S.

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) with the mission of testing chemical and biological defense systems and materials. DPG facilities include state-of-the-art laboratories, extensive test grids, controlled environment calibration facilities, and a variety of referee instruments for required test measurements. Among these referee instruments, DPG has built up a significant remote sensing capability for both chemical and biological detection. Technologies employed for remote sensing include FTIR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, Raman-shifted eye-safe lidar, and other elastic backscatter lidar systems. These systems provide referee data for bio-simulants, chemical simulants, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and toxic industrial materials (TIMs). In order to realize a successful large scale open-air test, each type of system requires calibration and characterization. DPG has developed specific calibration facilities to meet this need. These facilities are the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT), and the Active Standoff Chamber (ASC). The JABT and ASC are open ended controlled environment tunnels. Each includes validation instrumentation to characterize simulants that are disseminated. Standoff systems are positioned at typical field test distances to measure characterized simulants within the tunnel. Data from different types of systems can be easily correlated using this method, making later open air test results more meaningful. DPG has a variety of large scale test grids available for field tests. After and during testing, data from the various referee instruments is provided in a visual format to more easily draw conclusions on the results. This presentation provides an overview of DPG's standoff testing facilities and capabilities, as well as example data from different test scenarios.

  13. Remote sensing and field test capabilities at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James T.; Herron, Joshua P.; Marshall, Martin S.

    2012-05-01

    U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) with the mission of testing chemical and biological defense systems and materials. DPG facilities include state-of-the-art laboratories, extensive test grids, controlled environment calibration facilities, and a variety of referee instruments for required test measurements. Among these referee instruments, DPG has built up a significant remote sensing capability for both chemical and biological detection. Technologies employed for remote sensing include FTIR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, Raman-shifted eye-safe lidar, and other elastic backscatter lidar systems. These systems provide referee data for bio-simulants, chemical simulants, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and toxic industrial materials (TIMs). In order to realize a successful large scale open-air test, each type of system requires calibration and characterization. DPG has developed specific calibration facilities to meet this need. These facilities are the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT), and the Active Standoff Chamber (ASC). The JABT and ASC are open ended controlled environment tunnels. Each includes validation instrumentation to characterize simulants that are disseminated. Standoff systems are positioned at typical field test distances to measure characterized simulants within the tunnel. Data from different types of systems can be easily correlated using this method, making later open air test results more meaningful. DPG has a variety of large scale test grids available for field tests. After and during testing, data from the various referee instruments is provided in a visual format to more easily draw conclusions on the results. This presentation provides an overview of DPG's standoff testing facilities and capabilities, as well as example data from different test scenarios.

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring plan for depleted uranium and beryllium areas, Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-05-11

    This Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan (ERM) discusses sampling soils, vegetation, and biota for depleted uranium (DU) and beryllium (Be) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). The existing ERM plan was used and modified to more adequately assess the potential of DU and Be migration through the YPG ecosystem. The potential pathways for DU and Be migration are discussed and include soil to vegetation, soil to animals, vegetation to animals, animals to animals, and animals to man. Sample collection will show DU deposition and will be used to estimate DU migration. The number of samples from each area varies and depends on if the firing range of interest is currently used for DU testing (GP 17A) or if the range is not used currently for DU testing (GP 20). Twenty to thirty-five individual mammals or lizards will be sampled from each transect. Air samples and samples of dust in the air fall will be collected in three locations in the active ranges. Thirty to forty-five sediment samples will be collected from different locations in the arroys near the impact areas. DU and Be sampling in the Hard Impact and Soft Impact areas changed only slightly from the existing ERM. The modifications are changes in sample locations, addition of two sediment transport locations, addition of vegetation samples, mammal samples, and air sampling from three to five positions on the impact areas. Analysis of samples for DU or total U by inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), cc spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and kinetic phosphorimetric analysis (KPA) are discussed, and analysis for Be by ICP/MS are recommended. Acquiring total U (no isotope data) from a large number of samples and analysis of those samples with relatively high total U concentrations results in fewer isotopic identifications but more information on U distribution. From previous studies, total U concentrations greater than about 3 times natural background are usually DU by isotopic confirmation.

  15. Inorganic and organic ground-water chemistry in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, M.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at

  16. An Analysis of the Extratropical Transition of Hurricane Arthur (2014) from a JPSS Proving Ground Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Halverson, J. B.; Dunion, J. P.; Goldberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Proving Grounds, multiple proxy and operational products were available to analyze and forecast the complex evolution of Hurricane Arthur (2014). The National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Weather Prediction Center, and NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch were able to monitor the tropical and extratropical transition of Arthur using various convective and red, green, blue (RGB) products that have been introduced in recent years. During the extratropical transition, the Air Mass RGB (AM RGB) product and AIRS/CrIS ozone products were available as a compliment to water vapor imagery to identify the upper-level low with associated stratospheric drying that absorbed much of Arthur's energy. The AM RGB product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses that are combined into a single image and can help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. Even though this product provides a wealth of qualitative information about the horizontal distribution of synoptic features, forecasters are also interested in more quantitative information such as the vertical distribution of temperature, moisture, and ozone which impact the coloring of the resulting AM RGB. Currently, NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture soundings are available in AWIPS-II as a point-based display. Traditionally, soundings are used to anticipate and forecast severe convection, however unique and valuable information can be gained from soundings for other forecasting applications, such as extratropical transition, especially in data sparse regions. Additional research has been conducted to look at how NUCAPS soundings might help forecasters identify the pre-extratropical transition environment, leading to earlier diagnosis and better public advisories. NUCAPS soundings, AIRS soundings, NOAA G-IV GPS

  17. The Space Launch System and the Proving Ground: Pathways to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability. We focus on mission concepts relevant to NASA’s Cislunar Proving Ground and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): ARM in part is a mission to the lunar vicinity. The ARM mission requirements result in system design based on a modified version of our 702 spacecraft. Including a NASA Docking System (NDS) on the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle allows for easier crewed exploration integration and execution. Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM): Crew operations at a redirected asteroid could be significantly enhanced by providing additional systems and EVA capabilities beyond those available from the Orion only. An EAM located with the asteroid would improve the science and technical return of the mission while also increasing Orion capability through resource provision, abort location and safe haven for contingencies. The EAM could be repurposed as a cislunar exploration platform that advances scientific research, enables lunar surface exploration and provides a deep space vehicle assembly and servicing site. International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past several years on concepts for using ISS development methods and assets to support a broad range of exploration missions.Lunar Surface: The mission objectives are to provide lunar surface access for crew and cargo and to provide as much system reuse as possible. Subsequent missions to the surface can reuse the same lander and Lunar Transfer Vehicle.Mars Vicinity: The International space community has declared that our unified horizon goal is for a human mission to Mars. Translunar infrastructure and heavy lift capability are key to this approach. The moons of Mars would provide an excellent stepping stone to the surface. As a “shake-down” cruise before landing, a mission to Deimos or Phobos would test all of the

  18. The Space Launch System and the Proving Ground: Pathways to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability. We present mission concepts relevant to NASA's Cislunar Proving Ground and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): ARM in part is a mission to the lunar vicinity. The ARM mission requirements result in system design based on a modified version of our 702 spacecraft. Including a NASA Docking System (NDS) on the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle allows for easier crewed exploration integration and execution. Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM): Crew operations at a redirected asteroid could be significantly enhanced by providing additional systems and EVA capabilities beyond those available from the Orion only. An EAM located with the asteroid would improve the science and technical return of the asteroid mission while also increasing Orion capability through resource provision and providing an abort location and safe haven for contingencies. The EAM could be repurposed as a cislunar exploration platform that advances scientific research, enables lunar surface exploration and provides a deep space vehicle assembly and servicing site. International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past several years on concepts for using ISS development methods and assets to support a broad range of missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's SLS and Orion for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system or Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO).Lunar Surface: The mission objectives are to provide lunar surface access for crew and cargo and to provide as much reuse as possible. Subsequent missions to the surface can reuse the same lander and Lunar Transfer Vehicle.Mars Vicinity: The International space community has declared that our unified horizon goal is for a human mission to Mars. Translunar infrastructure and heavy lift capability are key to this

  19. A hierarchical approach to ecological assessment of contaminated soils at Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Despite the expansion of environmental toxicology studies over the past decade, soil ecosystems have largely been ignored in ecotoxicological studies in the United States. The objective of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a comprehensive methodology for assessing ecological impacts of soil contamination. A hierarchical approach that integrates biotic parameters and ecosystem processes was used to give insight into the mechanisms that lead to alterations in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in contaminated areas. This approach involved (1) a thorough survey of the soil biota to determine community structure, (2) laboratory and field tests on critical ecosystem processes, (3) toxicity trials, and (4) the use of spatial analyses to provide input to the decision-making, process. This methodology appears to, offer an efficient and potentially cost-saving tool for remedial investigations of contaminated sites.

  20. Screening methods for chemical warfare agents in environmental samples at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, E.M.; Borland, M.M.; Norris, L.; Lattin, F.G.; Wrobel, J.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground Support Activity, Directorate of Safety, Health and the Environment and SciTech Services Inc., an independent contractor, have developed an approach for screening environmental samples for the presence of chemical warfare agents. Since 1918, the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a research and testing ground for toxic agent compounds. Since these materials are considered highly toxic, screening for their presence in environmental samples is necessary for safe shipment to contract laboratories for testing by EPA guidelines. The screening ensures worker safety and maintains U.S. Army standards for transportation of materials potentially contaminated with chemical warfare agents. This paper describes the screening methodology.

  1. Using the WRF model to simulate the playa breeze over Dugway Proving Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spade, Daniela Maria

    The aim of this model and observation based study is to investigate the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model's (WRF-ARW, although WRF from hereout) ability to simulate the three-dimensional structure of playa breezes and drainage flows occurring in Dugway Proving Ground, Utah using sub-km nesting in addition to improved land use and terrain datasets (as compared to the default datasets provided with WRF), in addition to studying the diurnal cycle and interactions between the playa breeze and drainage flows. A playa breeze is a thermally forced air circulation system that develops near the edge of playas, which have properties distinct from the surrounding land cover, including a higher thermal conductivity, a higher albedo due to the presence of a thin salt crust at the surface, sparse vegetation cover relative to the surrounding land cover, and a higher latent heat flux. The combination of each of these characteristics produces a thermally direct circulation, with low-level flow away from the playa during the day and toward the playa at night, the result of a cooler playa during the day and a warmer playa at night. Five model runs were performed using the Noah land Surface model, each employing a four telescoping nest strategy. Each model run was given a different set of physical parameterizations, with some using GFS model output and others using NAM model output. The object behind utilizing five model runs was to isolate the impacts made by the differing model parameterization schemes used for each simulation. This was accomplished by comparing the model run output to in situ weather observations, provided courtesy of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observation Program (MATERHORN), an ongoing Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) sponsored by the Office of Naval Research with the University of Notre Dame acting as Project Lead. It was found that each of the five model simulations tended to produce a longer

  2. Hydrogeologic, soil, and water-quality data for j-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1989-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Disposal of chemical-warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination. This report presents data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Novembr 1989 through September 1994 as part of a remedial investigation of J-Field in response to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Hydrogeologic data, soil-gas and soil-quality data, and water-qualtiy data are included.

  3. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  4. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  5. Contamination source review for Building E5978, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Mosqueda, G.; Dougherty, J.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the results of a contamination source review of Building E5978 at the Aberdeen Proving Group (APG) in Maryland. The primary mission at APG has been the testing and evaluation of US Army warfare materials. Since its beginning in 1917, the Edgewood Area of APG has been the principal location for chemical warfare agent research, development, and testing in the US. APG was also used for producing chemical warfare agents during both world wars, and it has been a center for the storage of chemical warfare material. An attempt was made to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples for the presence of volatile organic compounds.

  6. SPoRT Participation in the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.

  7. Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.

    1996-05-01

    A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination area, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the burning pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation

  8. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  9. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  10. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 13 surface-water samples and 3 replicates from 5 sites in the West Branch Canal Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground from February through August 1999, as a part of an investigation of ground-water contamination and natural attenuation processes. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, which are the four major contaminants that were detected in ground water in the Canal Creek area in earlier USGS studies. Field blanks were collected during the sampling period to assess sample bias. Field replicates were used to assess sample variability, which was expressed as relative percent difference. The mean variability of the surface-water replicate analyses was larger (35.4 percent) than the mean variability of ground-water replicate analyses (14.6 percent) determined for West Branch Canal Creek from 1995 through 1996. The higher variability in surface-water analyses is probably due to heterogeneities in the composition of the surface water rather than differences in sampling or analytical procedures. The most frequently detected volatile organic compound was 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane, which was detected in every sample and in two of the replicates. The surface-water contamination is likely the result of cross-media transfer of contaminants from the ground water and sediments along the West Branch Canal Creek. The full extent of surface-water contamination in West Branch Canal Creek and the locations of probable contaminant sources cannot be determined from this limited set of data. Tidal mixing, creek flow patterns, and potential effects of a drought that occurred during the sampling period also complicate the evaluation of surface-water contamination.

  11. Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-05-01

    Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

  12. Toxicity of sediments surrounding the Gunpowder Neck Superfund Site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report, August 1992-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Anthony, J.S.; Chester, N.A.; Kurnas, C.W.

    1995-07-01

    From the late 1940s through the 1960s, the standard practice for disposing of toxic chemicals at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was open burning. This disposal site has since been placed on the National Priority List (NPt) by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the spring 1992, sediment samples were taken from waterways that surround that disposal area. Chemical analysis and sediment toxicity assays (Ampelisca abdita) were conducted. Toxicity comparison, with sediment leachate from an Adapted Toxicity Characteristic teaching Procedure (ATCLP), were made using Daphnia magna and a fluorescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum in MICROTOX assays. Amphipods showed a wide range of mortality in mud as well as coarser sediments indicating substrate preference is not critical to the outcome of the assay. Toxicity results from the leachates showed the sediments were not toxic to daphnia and MICROTOX assays.

  13. Thermal energy supply optimization for Edgewood Area, US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground: Energy supply alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, T.L.; Dilks, C.L.; Savoie, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    Relatively poor performance at the aging central heating plants (OH Ps) and planned changes in steam demand at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) Edgewood Area, Aberdeen, MD warranted an investigation of alternatives for providing thermal energy to the installation. This study: (1) evaluated the condition of the APG CHPs and heat distribution system, (2) identified thermal energy supply problems and cost-effective technologies to maintain APG`s capability to produce and distribute the needed thermal energy, and (3) recommended renovation and modernization projects for the system. Heating loads were analyzed using computer simulations, and life cycle costs were developed for each alternative. Recommended alternatives included upgrading the existing system, installing new boilers, consolidating the central heating plants, and introducing the use of absorption chilling.

  14. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  15. DYNAMIC PROJECT COLLABORATION TOOLS FOR UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE (UXO) REMOVAL Case Study: Jefferson Proving Ground UXO Removal Projector

    SciTech Connect

    Daffron, James Y.

    2003-02-27

    Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) removal and investigation projects typically involve multiple organizations including Government entities, private contractors, and technical experts. Resources are split into functional ''teams'' who perform the work and interface with the clients. The projects typically generate large amounts of data that must be shared among the project team members, the clients, and the public. The ability to efficiently communicate and control information is essential to project success. Web-based project collaboration is an effective management and communication tool when applied to ordnance and explosives (OE) projects. During a recent UXO/OE removal project at the Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) in Madison, IN, American Technologies, Inc. (ATI) successfully used the Project Commander(reg sign) (www.ProCommander.com) project collaboration website as a dynamic project and information management tool.

  16. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  17. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  18. JPSS Proving Ground Activities with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. A.; Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Stano, G. T.; LeRoy, A.; Berndt, E.

    2015-12-01

    Instruments aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites will provide imagery and other data sets relevant to operational weather forecasts. To prepare current and future weather forecasters in application of these data sets, Proving Ground activities have been established that demonstrate future JPSS capabilities through use of similar sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and the S-NPP mission. As part of these efforts, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama partners with near real-time providers of S-NPP products (e.g., NASA, UW/CIMSS, UAF/GINA, etc.) to demonstrate future capabilities of JPSS. This includes training materials and product distribution of multi-spectral false color composites of the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands of MODIS and VIIRS. These are designed to highlight phenomena of interest to help forecasters digest the multispectral data provided by the VIIRS sensor. In addition, forecasters have been trained on the use of the VIIRS day-night band, which provides imagery of moonlit clouds, surface, and lights emitted by human activities. Hyperspectral information from the S-NPP/CrIS instrument provides thermodynamic profiles that aid in the detection of extremely cold air aloft, helping to map specific aviation hazards at high latitudes. Hyperspectral data also support the estimation of ozone concentration, which can highlight the presence of much drier stratospheric air, and map its interaction with mid-latitude or tropical cyclones to improve predictions of their strengthening or decay. Proving Ground activities are reviewed, including training materials and methods that have been provided to forecasters, and forecaster feedback on these products that has been acquired through formal, detailed assessment of their applicability to a given forecast threat or task. Future opportunities for collaborations around the delivery of training are proposed

  19. Design and analysis of a natural-gradient ground-water tracer test in a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times

  20. Changes in ground-water quality in the Canal Creek Aquifer between 1995 and 2000-2001, West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower

  1. Characterization of Preferential Ground-Water Seepage From a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer to West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds

  2. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, November 1999-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Senus, Michael P.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from November 1999 through September 2000. The report describes the differences between years with below normal and normal precipitation, the effects of seasons, tide stages, and location on volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water, and provides estimates of volatile organic concentration loads to the tidal Gunpowder River. Eighty-four environmental samples from 20 surface-water sites were analyzed. As many as 13 different volatile organic compounds were detected in the samples. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples ranged from below the reporting limit of 0.5 micrograms per liter to a maximum of 50.2 micrograms per liter for chloroform. Chloroform was detected most frequently, and was found in 55 percent of the environmental samples that were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (46 of 84 samples). Carbon tetrachloride was detected in 56 percent of the surface-water samples in the tidal part of the creek (34 of 61 samples), but was only detected in 3 of 23 samples in the nontidal part of the creek. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was detected in 43 percent of the tidal samples (26 of 61 samples), but was detected at only two nontidal sites and only during November 1999. Three samples were collected from the tidal Gunpowder River about 300 feet from the mouth of Canal Creek in May 2000, and none of the samples contained volatile organic compound concentrations above detection levels. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water were highest in the reaches of the creek adjacent to the areas with the highest known levels of ground-water contamination. The load of total volatile organic compounds from Canal Creek to the Gunpowder River is approximately 1.85 pounds per day (0

  3. Thermal energy supply optimization for aberdeen proving ground - edgewood area. Distribution system condition assessment and recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricum, V.L.; Marsh, C.P.; Hock, V.F.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study by the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories to assess the condition of the steam heat distribution system at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG)-Edgewood Area (EA), MD. This report documents the portion of the study that addressed widespread corrosion and deterioration existing throughout the aging system. A physical inventory of the steam distribution system piping and manholes was conducted. A visual condition assessment of a significant portion of the system was performed. Factors that impact the deterioration of the system were assessed, including soil chemistry, cathodic protection, and chemistry of the products conveyed by the system. The authors developed a detailed set of recommendations that includes (1) replacement or rehabilitation of severely deteriorated, unsafe or improperly functioning components. (2) implementation of an effective ongoing maintenance program tailored to the specific corrosion and deterioration problems at APG-EA, and (3) recommendations to ensure that new construction is performed in accordance with current Army standards and guidance.

  4. X-ray fluorescence investigation of surface lead in the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; O`Neill, H.J.; Parks, J.E.; Rueda, J.F.; Schneider, J.F.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents the results and findings from a field measurement program undertaken in the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, to address the potential contamination of the PPC structures with lead in paint. A portable x-ray fluorescence device was used to measure the lead loading at approximately 1,000 locations on painted surfaces in the PPC buildings. The device performed well, although external calibration was necessary for accurate results. The principal conclusion is that the amount of lead present in all the buildings examined presents no regulatory waste disposal problems. The analysis showed that the estimated lead concentration in the amount of rubble expected from each building is far below the regulatory limit, even assuming that all the lead present would be leached during the test procedure (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The level of confidence for this conclusion exceeds 95%. The frequency distributions of the data were markedly skewed; the most probable values were quite low, but significant tails were detected. Evidence for at least three different sub-populations of lead loading values was found, and no simple curve is adequate to describe the observed distributions.

  5. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  6. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Missile Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Daniel Steven; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn; Pater, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60- A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the missile launch and detonation. The primary stressor associated with this activity was sound. Other minor stressors included the detonation impact, shrapnel, and fire. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using the Army sound contour program BNOISE2, as well as distances from the explosion to deer. Few effects data were available from related studies. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of human "disturbance" and hearing damage thresholds in units of C-weighted decibels (sound exposure level) and a distance-based No Observed Adverse Effects Level for moose and cannonfire. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the missile firing was likely for a negligible number of deer, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  7. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Helicopter Overflight

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    A multi-stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper focuses on the wildlife risk assessment for the helicopter overflight. The primary stressors were sound and the view of the aircraft. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using Air Force sound contour programs NOISEMAP and MR_NMAP, which gave very different results. Slant distance from helicopters to deer was also used as a measure of exposure that integrated risk from sound and view of the aircraft. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of behavioral thresholds in sound exposure level or maximum sound level units or slant distance. Available sound thresholds were limited for desert mule deer, but a distribution of slant-distance thresholds was available for ungulates. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the Apache overflight is uncertain, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  8. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  9. RCRA delisting of agent-decontaminated waste and remediation waste at Dugway Proving Ground: A program update

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; O`Neill, H.J.

    1996-03-01

    In July 1988, the state of Utah issued regulations that declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues were designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). These residues are not listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which is the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. The RCRAI regulations (40 CFR 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. In 1994, the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command FECOM initiated a project with the Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to demonstrate that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous waste and to achieve delisting. The initial focus is on delisting agent-decontaminated residues and soil with a history of contamination at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. An overview of the DPG delisting program was presented at the 1995 American Defense Preparedness Association Environmental Symposium. Since that time, much progress has been made. The purpose of this paper is to review the DPG delisting program and discuss overall progress. Emphasis is placed on progress with regard to analytical methods that will be used to demonstrate that the target residues do not contain hazardous amounts of chemical agent.

  10. Collecting single and multichannel seismic-reflection data in shallow water near Aberdeen Proving Ground, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Haeni, F.P.; Banks, W.L.; Versteeg, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    In August and September 1994, single- and multi-channel seismic-reflection data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), to support a regional hydrogeologic framework study at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. Data were collected in Chesapeake Bay, as well as in the Bush, Gunpowder, and Sassafras Rivers, which are tributaries to Chesapeake Bay. Data were collected along the shoreline in very shallow water, usually less than 1 m. Approximately 100 km of single-channel seismic-reflection data were collected using a water gun and an electromechanical plate as sound sources; about 50 percent of these data contained usable geologic information. A prominent channel in the Quaternary sediments at a depth of 61 m is clearly evident, and the depth to bedrock ranges from approximately 184 to 223 m. Approximately 14 km of multi-channel data were collected in the Gunpowder and Bush Rivers and in Chesapeake Bay; about 40 percent of these data showed subsurface reflectors, often in small, discontinuous segments. Data were processed using established processing techniques. Numerous reflectors were present in the data that were continuous over long distances. The multi-channel data contained more detail and significantly less noise than the single-channel data. The quality and continuity of the single- and multi-channel data were best in shallow water (less than 1 m) where the presence of gassing organic sediments was at a minimum.

  11. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  12. Agrichemicals in ground water of the midwestern USA: Relations to soil characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Jaquis, R.J.; Cole, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive set of soil characteristics were examined to determine the effect of soil on the transport of agrichemicals to ground water. This paper examines the relation of local soil characteristics to concentrations and occurrence of nitrate, atrazine (2-chloro-4 ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-trazine), and atrazine residue [atrazine + deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) + deisopropylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine)] from 99 wells completed in unconsolidated aquifers across the midwestern USA. The occurrence and concentrations of nitrate and atrazine in ground water were directly related to soil characteristics that determine the rate of water movement. The substantial differences in the relations found among soil characteristics and nitrate and atrazine in ground water suggest that different processes affect the transformation, adsorption, and transport of these contaminants. A multivariate analysis determined that the soil characteristics examined explained the amount of variability in concentrations for nitrate (19.0%), atrazine (33.4%), and atrazine residue (28.6%). These results document that, although soils do affect the transport of agrichemicals to ground water, other factors such as hydrology, land use, and climate must also be considered to understand the occurrence of agrichemicals in ground water.

  13. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).

  14. In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, L.; Cho, E.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-10-01

    Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers.

  15. Ground Motion Measurement in the Lake Mead Area (Nevada, USA), by Temporal Analysis of Multiple Interferograms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, M.; Cavalie, O.; Lasserre, C.; Briole, P.

    2005-12-01

    SAR interferometry has proven to be a reliable method for detecting small displacements due to ground subsidence. In this study, we measure ground motion around the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) using InSAR. This artificial lake has been filled with water in 1935. An earlier study, based on leveling measurements, has shown that the load associated with lake impoundment has induced a delayed subsidence of 17 centimeters. This relaxation process has been argued to be due to viscous displacement in the uppermost mantle, analogous to the postglacial rebound, but at a smaller spatial scale and with a much lower viscous relaxation scale. To quantify the deformation and thus constrain the crust and mantle rheological parameters in the lake area, we analyse multiple interferograms (~280) based on 43 ERS images acquired between 1992 and 2001 and on 12 Envisat images acquired between 2003 and 2005. ERS-Envisat interferograms are performed to merge the two data sets in one time series. With baselines smaller than 300 m, all interferograms have a very good coherence due to the desert region. Most interferograms show strong atmospheric artefacts that are partly due to the variation of water vapor vertical stratification between two satellite passes. Tropospheric delay is computed for each interferogram using the correlation between phase and elevation far from the lake area. It is then inverted for each date of SAR images before interferograms correction. These corrections are validated using data from global atmospheric models (ERA40). Corrected interferograms are then inverted to solve for time series of the expected deformation in the lake Mead area . The linear inversion treats each pixel independently from its neighbours and use the data redundancy to reduce errors such as local decorrelations. Smoothing constraints added in the inversion efficiently eliminate local atmospheric artefacts. We obtain a time series of the expected deformation in the lake Mead area. The analysis of

  16. Installation restoration research program: Assessment of geophysical methods for subsurface geologic mapping, cluster 13, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.K.; Sharp, M.K.; Sjostrom, K.J.; Simms, J.E.; Llopis, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at a portion of Cluster 13, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Seismic refraction cross sections map the topsoil layer and the water table (saturated zone). The water table elevations from the seismic surveys correlate closely with water table elevations in nearby monitoring wells. Electrical resistivity cross sections reveal a very complicated distribution of sandy and clayey facies in the upper 10 - 15 m of the subsurface. A continuous surficial (topsoil) layer correlates with the surficial layer of the seismic section and nearby boring logs. The complexity and details of the electrical resistivity cross section correlate well with boring and geophysical logs from nearby wells. The transient electromagnetic surveys map the Pleistocene-Cretaceous boundary, the saprolite, and the top of the Precambrian crystalline rocks. Conducting the transient electromagnetic surveys on a grid pattern allows the construction of a three-dimensional representation of subsurface geology (as represented by variations of electrical resistivity). Thickness and depth of the saprolitic layer and depth to top of the Precambrian rocks are consistent with generalized geologic cross sections for the Edgewood Area and depths projected from reported depths at the Aberdeen Proving Ground NW boundary using regional dips.

  17. Ground motion measurement in the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) area by temporal analysis of multiple interferograms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalie, O.; Doin, M.; Lasserre, C.; Briole, P.

    2004-12-01

    SAR interferometry has proven to be a reliable method for detecting small displacements due to ground subsidence. In this study, we propose to measure ground motion around the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) using InSAR. This artificial lake has been filled with water in 1935. An earlier studie, based on levelling measurements, has shown that the lake impoundement has induced a subsidence of 17 centimeters (Kaufmann et al., 2000). This relaxation process is analogous to the postglacial rebound, but at a smaller scale. To quantify the deformation and constrain the crust and mantle rheological parameters in the lake area, we have analysed multiple interferograms (245) based on 45 ERS images between 1992 and 2001. The interferometric phase contains information about deformation occurring between two satellite passes, as well as satellite orbits errors, topographic, and atmospheric artefacts. The topographic signature is removed using the 3-arc seconds SRTM data. To correct for orbital errors, we remove a best fitting linear ramp. Atmospheric artefact, in our interferograms, are mainly due to the variation of water vapor vertical stratification between the two passes. This results in a interferometric phase correlation with altitude which we remove by minimization. These corrections are then refined through an iterative procedure and validated using data from global atmospheric models. Corrected interferograms are then inverted to solve for deformation using a method based on the large spatial coverage of coherent pixels, allowing to strengthen the signal to noise ratio (Schmidt and Burgmann, 2003). This data inversion provides a time series of the expected deformation in the lake Mead area. The analysis of the deformation evolution during the period covered by the ERS satellites (1992-2001) shows a correlation between the vertical motion and the water level changes. So, we observe a subsidence of up to 1.5 cm between 1996 and 1998, followed by an uplift due to the drop of the

  18. Preliminary assessment of microbial communities and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in wetlands at Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the microbial communities and biodegradation processes for chlorinated volatile organic compounds was con-ducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in wetlands at the Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The U.S. Geological Survey collected wetland sediment samples from 11 sites in the Lauderick Creek area for microbial analyses, and used existing data to evaluate biodegradation processes and rates. The bacterial and methanogen communities in the Lauderick Creek wetland sediments were similar to those observed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study at the West Branch Canal Creek wet-land area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Evaluation of the degradation rate of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and the daughter compounds produced also showed similar results for the two wetlands. How-ever, a vertical profile of contaminant concentra-tions in the wetlands was available at only one site in the Lauderick Creek area, and flow velocities in the wetland sediment are unknown. To better evaluate natural attenuation processes and rates in the wetland sediments at Lauderick Creek, chemi-cal and hydrologic measurements are needed along ground-water flowpaths in the wetland at additional sites and during different seasons. Nat-ural attenuation in the wetlands, enhanced biore-mediation, and constructed wetlands could be feasible remediation methods for the chlorinated volatile organic compounds discharging in the Lauderick Creek area. The similarities in the microbial communities and biodegradation pro-cesses at the Lauderick Creek and West Branch Canal Creek areas indicate that enhanced bioreme-diation techniques currently being developed for the West Branch Canal Creek wetland area would be transferable to this area.

  19. Water-quality and water-level data for a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, October 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Mount, Mastin M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents water-quality data for ground-water and surface-water samples and water-level data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1998 through September 1999 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network includes 88 wells or piezometers, including four 2-inch wells, two 4-inch wells, thirty 0.75-inch piezo-meters, and fifty-two 0.25-inch piezometers. Water levels were measured in 105 wells or piezometers. Surface-water samples were collected at five sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents during three sampling rounds: March, May through June, and July through August of 1999. Inorganic constituents and organic constituents were analyzed in samples collected from 0.25-inch piezometers during three sampling rounds in February through March, May, and September of 1999. Water levels were measured in October and November of 1998, and in February and May of 1999. Surface-water samples were collected between February and August of 1999 for analysis of organic constituents.

  20. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Evaluation of multiple-incinerator air-quality impacts, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Final report, November 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term additive ambient impact of certain toxic air pollutants that will potentially be emitted from the Chemical Agent Incinerator (AI) proposed for the Edgewood Area (EA) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland and from three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on the EA. This impact was determined in consideration of the existence and operation of three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on EA. Based on air-dispersion modeling conducted as part of an original analysis, emissions were estimated of chlorinated organics from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center Decontamination/Detoxification Municipal Waste Incinerator (MWI), for downwind distances as great as the distance to the nearest boundary of the EA. Consequently, for this evaluation, only the MWI is considered to emit chlorinated organics.

  1. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J.

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  2. [Around the Semipalatinsk proving grounds: the radioecological situation and the population radiation doses in Semipalatinsk Province (based on data from the report of the Interdepartmental Commission)].

    PubMed

    Tsyb, A F; Stepanenko, V F; Pitkevich, V A; Ispenkov, E A; Sevan'kaev, A V; Orlov, M Iu; Dmitriev, E V; Sarapul'tsev, I A; Zhigareva, T L; Prokof'ev, O N

    1990-12-01

    The paper represents some results of a joint commission, organized by the USSR Ministry of Health by order of the USSR Council of Ministers at public requests. The commission worked in the area neighbouring the proving ground at Semipalatinsk in the period of May-July 1988. A radiological situation there was investigated after underground nuclear testing on July 8, 1989. The results of measurements and archive data were used to estimate doses of radiation exposure of the population in the period of 1949 (nuclear testing on the ground and in the atmosphere) and in the period of underground testing, It was shown that in the period of 1949-1963 approximately 10,000 people received increased doses of external and internal irradiation. A high level of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations was noted among them. The highest effective equivalent doses of external and internal irradiation were received by the residents in the villages of Folon' (1.6 Gy during the first testing in 1949), Karaul (0.37 Gy), Sarzhal (0.20 Gy), Semenovka (0.02 Gy). The annual effective equivalent doses at that period did not exceed 0.0056 Gy (the highest value) for the Semipalatinsk residents. Proceeding from the values of collective doses probable long-term effects (malignant tumors) were assessed. Recommendations and conclusions of the commission are presented. PMID:2148364

  3. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  4. The use of innovative screening-level techniques for the bioassessment of estuarine sediments at U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, R.J.; Thebeau, L.; Paul, J.

    1994-12-31

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is a primarily undeveloped installation on the upper Chesapeake bay in Maryland. The bush and Gunpowder Rivers are two sub-estuaries that run through the installation before emptying into the Chesapeake Bay. Past activities at EA APG include pilot-scale chemical agent manufacturing, munitions testing, smoke/incendiary manufacturing, domestic and rubble landfilling, and disposal of chemical warfare agents as well as other materials. It was determined that if contamination of the Gunpowder River exists from these previous activities on EA APG it was most likely to be found in the sediments. The initial phase was to conduct a sediment survey of the river to determine the spatial distribution of sediment types and the suitability of the benthos for the proposed methodologies. The second phase was to combine innovative screening-level investigative methodologies as well as sediment chemical and physical analyses into one survey of the benthos and sediments of the Gunpowder River. This phase used the Microtox luminescent bioassay and Daphnia magna IQ Toxicity Test, Surface and Profile Image (SPI) photography, analysis of sediment physical characteristics, and limited chemical analysis to identify locations that warrant a more focused investigation.

  5. New and improved methods for monitoring air quality and the terrestrial environment: Applications at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area. Annual report, 1 April--14 November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.

    1998-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.

  6. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  7. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  8. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Introduction and Problem Formulation for a Multiple Stressor Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Peterson, Mark J; Jones, Daniel Steven; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF). The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. The problem formulation for the assessment included conceptual models for three component activities of the test, helicopter overflight, missile firing, and tracked vehicle movement, and two ecological endpoint entities, woody desert wash communities and desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) populations. An activity-specific risk assessment framework was available to provide guidance for assessing risks associated with aircraft overflights. Key environmental features of the study area include barren desert pavement and tree-lined desert washes. The primary stressors associated with helicopter overflights were sound and the view of the aircraft. The primary stressor associated with Hellfire missile firing was sound. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased ponding, infiltrationand/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. A plan for estimating integrated risks from the three military activities was included in the problem formulation.

  9. Operational use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals along with the RGB Airmass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, M.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass product has been demonstrated in the GOES ]R Proving Ground as a possible decision aid. Forecasters have been trained on the usefulness of identifying stratospheric intrusions and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that can lead to explosive cyclogenesis, genesis of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), or the transition of tropical cyclones to extratropical cyclones. It has also been demonstrated to distinguish different air mass types from warm, low ozone air masses to cool, high ozone air masses and the various interactions with the PV anomalies. To assist the forecasters in understanding the stratospheric contribution to high impact weather systems, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Total Column Ozone Retrievals have been made available as an operational tool. These AIRS retrievals provide additional information on the amount of ozone that is associated with the red coloring seen in the RGB Air Mass product. This paper discusses how the AIRS retrievals can be used to quantify the red coloring in RGB Air Mass product. These retrievals can be used to diagnose the depth of the stratospheric intrusions associated with different types of weather systems and provide the forecasters decision aid tools that can improve the quality of forecast products.

  10. Concepts and procedures required for successful reduction of tensor magnetic gradiometer data obtained from an unexploded ordnance detection demonstration at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bracken, Robert E.; Brown, Philip J., II

    2006-01-01

    On March 12, 2003, data were gathered at Yuma Proving Grounds, in Arizona, using a Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer System (TMGS). This report shows how these data were processed and explains concepts required for successful TMGS data reduction. Important concepts discussed include extreme attitudinal sensitivity of vector measurements, low attitudinal sensitivity of gradient measurements, leakage of the common-mode field into gradient measurements, consequences of thermal drift, and effects of field curvature. Spatial-data collection procedures and a spin-calibration method are addressed. Discussions of data-reduction procedures include tracking of axial data by mathematically matching transfer functions among the axes, derivation and application of calibration coefficients, calculation of sensor-pair gradients, thermal-drift corrections, and gradient collocation. For presentation, the magnetic tensor at each data station is converted to a scalar quantity, the I2 tensor invariant, which is easily found by calculating the determinant of the tensor. At important processing junctures, the determinants for all stations in the mapped area are shown in shaded relief map-view. Final processed results are compared to a mathematical model to show the validity of the assumptions made during processing and the reasonableness of the ultimate answer obtained.

  11. Effect of Fe(III) on 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane degradation and vinyl chloride accumulation in wetland sediments of the Aberdeen proving ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Lorah, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) contaminated groundwater at the Aberdeen Proving Ground discharges through an anaerobic wetland in West Branch Canal Creek, MD, where dechlorination occurred. Two microbially mediated pathways, dichloroelimination and hydrogenolysis, account for most of the TeCA degradation at this site. The dichloroelimination pathways led to the formation of vinyl chloride (VC), a recalcitrant carcinogen of great concern. The effect of adding Fe(III) to TeCA-amended microcosms of wetland sediment was studied. Differences were identified in the TeCA degradation pathway between microcosms treated with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO-treated) and untreated (no AFO) microcosms. TeCA degradation was accompanied by a lower accumulation of VC in AFO-treated microcosms than no AFO microcosms. The microcosm incubations and subsequent experiments with the microcosm materials showed that AFO treatment resulted in lower production of VC by shifting TeCA degradation from dichloroelimination pathways to production of a greater proportion of chlorinated ethane products, and decreasing the microbial capability to produce VC from 1,2-dichloroethylene. VC degradation was not stimulated in the presence of Fe(III). Rather, VC degradation occurred readily under methanogenic conditions and was inhibited under Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  12. Use and Evaluation of Psuedo-Geostationary Lightning Mapping Data within the 2010 Experimental Warning Program and GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. M.; Siewert, C.; Stano, G. T.; Bruning, E. C.; Kingfield, D.; Baranowski, B.

    2010-12-01

    The primary objective of the Experimental Warning Program (EWP) is to evaluate the accuracy and the operational utility of new science, technology, and products in a testbed setting in order to gain feedback for improvements prior to their potential implementation into National Weather Service (NWS) operations. A developmental product for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) was demonstrated during the Spring 2010 EWP as part of the GOES-R Proving Ground. This product was created using data from ground-based Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) networks sorted into flashes and displayed at the 8 km resolution expected with the GLM. During the EWP, forecasters were able to examine the lightning data in AWIPS in conjunction with radar and other multi-sensor products as part of their warning-decision process for both real-time and archive events. Forecasters were then asked to provide feedback through both online surveys following the event and discussion with lead scientists. In general, the PGLM products provided a strong support tool for the forecasters and helped increase forecaster confidence to warn or not warn on a storm. Forecasters viewed future GLM data as a “great tool” or a possible “mainstream product” for “situational awareness.” Multiple forecaster comments echoed the idea of using the GLM data as an additional tool to radar, particularly during the early stages of storm development. Suggestions were given regarding display of the data as well as for future product integration. This feedback will help shape the design of the products and educational tools concerning lightning data ahead of the availability of GOES-R data in the local NWS offices. In addition to the individual forecaster feedback, all warnings issued by the forecasters during the EWP have been scored (POD, FAR) and compared with the official NWS warnings to determine what type of influence the GOES-R products may have had on the warning decision process as well as on

  13. Design and Performance of an Enhanced Bioremediation Pilot Test in a Tidal Wetland Seep, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majcher, Emily H.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Phelan, Daniel J.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of a lack of available in situ remediation methods for sensitive wetland environments where contaminated groundwater discharges, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, conceived, designed, and pilot tested a permeable reactive mat that can be placed horizontally at the groundwater/surface-water interface. Development of the reactive mat was part of an enhanced bioremediation study in a tidal wetland area along West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where localized areas of preferential discharge (seeps) transport groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane from the Canal Creek aquifer to land surface. The reactive mat consisted of a mixture of commercially available organic- and nutrient-rich peat and compost that was bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium, WBC-2, developed for this study. Due to elevated chlorinated methane concentrations in the pilot test site, a layer of zero-valent iron mixed with the peat and compost was added at the base of the reactive mat to promote simultaneous abiotic and biotic degradation. The reactive mat for the pilot test area was designed to optimize chlorinated volatile organic compound degradation efficiency without altering the geotechnical and hydraulic characteristics, or creating undesirable water quality in the surrounding wetland area, which is referred to in this report as achieving geotechnical, hydraulic, and water-quality compatibility. Optimization of degradation efficiency was achieved through the selection of a sustainable organic reactive matrix, electron donor, and bioaugmentation method. Consideration of geotechnical compatibility through design calculations of bearing capacity, settlement, and geotextile selection showed that a 2- to 3-feet tolerable thickness of the mat was possible, with 0.17 feet settlement predicted for

  14. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  15. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Tracked Vehicle Movement across Desert Pavement

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing program. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. The simulated exposure of wash vegetation to water loss was quantified using estimates of exposed land area from a digital ortho quarter quad aerial photo and field observations, a 30 30 m digital elevation model, the flow accumulation feature of ESRI ArcInfo, and a two-step process in which runoff was estimated from direct precipitation to a land area and from water that flowed from upgradient to a land area. In all simulated scenarios, absolute water loss decreased with distance from the disturbance, downgradient in the washes; however, percentage water loss was greatest in land areas immediately downgradient of a disturbance. Potential effects on growth and survival of wash trees were quantified by using an empirical relationship derived from a local unpublished study of water infiltration rates. The risk characterization concluded that neither risk to wash vegetation growth or survival nor risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction was expected. The risk characterization was negative for both the incremental risk of the test program and the combination of the test and pretest disturbances.

  16. Mammoth Lakes earthquakes and ground uplift: precursors to possible volcanic activity ( USA)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent seismicity and ground uplift in the area are described. A comparison with other areas in the Cascades is made and the possibility of the Long Valley Magma Chamber as a source for eruptions is discussed. -P.N.Chroston

  17. Interactions between ground water and wetlands, southern shore of Lake Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedlock, Robert J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Cohen, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Wetlands between, and within, dune-beach complexes along the south shore of Lake Michigan are strongly affected by ground water. The hydrogeology of the glacial drift aquifer system in a 26 km 2 area was investigated to determine the effects of ground water on the hydrology and hydrochemistry of Cowles Bog and its adjacent wetlands. The investigation showed that ground water from intermediate- and regional-scale flow systems discharges to Cowles Bog from confined aquifers that underlie the wetland. These flow systems are recharged in moraines south of the dune-beach complexes. Water from the confined aquifers discharges into the surficial aquifer mainly by upward leakage through a buried till sheet that serves as the confining layer. However, the till sheet is breached below a raised peat mound in Cowles Bog, allowing direct upward discharge from the confinef aquifer into the surficial sand, marl, and peat. The shallow ground and wetland water in the area influenced by this leakage is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, with low tritium concentrations consistent with mixing of older ground water and more recent precipitation. Ground water and wetland water from surrounding areas are less mineralized and have higher tritium concentrations characteristic of precipitation in the late 1970s. The results of this study suggest that wetlands in complex hydrogeologic settings may be influenced by multiple ground-water flow systems that are affected by geomorphic features, stratigraphic discontinuities, and changes in sediment types. Discharge and recharge zones may both occur in the same wetland. Multidisciplinary studies incorporating hydrological, hydrochemical, geophysical, and sedimentological data are necessary to identify such complexities in wetland hydrology.

  18. 3-D Waveguide Effects of Topographical Structural Variation on Full Waveform Propagation: 3-D Finite Difference Modeling Comparisons with Field Data From Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. S.; Miller, R.; Greenfield, R.; Fisk, D.

    2002-12-01

    The propagation of seismic waves through regions of complex topography is not thoroughly understood. Surface waves, are of particular interest, as they are large in amplitude and can characterize the source depth, magnitude, and frequency content. The amplitude and frequency content of seismic waves that propagate in regions with large topographical variations are affected by both the scattering and blockage of the wave energy. The ability to predict the 3-d scattering due to topography will improve the understanding of both regional scale surface wave magnitudes, and refine surface wave discriminants as well as at the local scale (<2 km ) where it will aid in the development of rule of thumb guide lines for array sensor placement for real time sensing technologies. Ideally, when validating the numerical accuracy of a propagation model against field data, the input geologic parameters would be known and thus eliminates geology as a source of error in the calculation. In March of 2001, Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) performed a detailed seismic site characterization at the Smart Weapons Test Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The result of the KGS characterization study is a high-resolution 3-d model that is used in our seismic simulations. The velocities Vs, Vp are calculated by tomography and refraction, attenuation coefficients estimated from the surface wave and from p-waves and are provided in a model with attributes resolved in 3-d to 0.5 meters. In the present work, we present comparisons of synthetic data with seismic data collected at the Smart Weapons Test Range to benchmark the accuracy achieved in simulating 3-d wave propagation in the vicinity of a topographical anomaly (trench). Synthetic seismograms are generated using a 3-d 8th order staggered grid visco-elastic finite difference code that accounts for topography. The geologic model is based on the Yuma site characterization. The size of these calculations required use of the DoD High Performance

  19. PREDICTING SUSTAINABLE GROUND WATER TO CONSTRUCTED RIPARIAN WETLANDS: SHAKER TRACE, OHIO, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water isotopy is introduced as a best management practice for the prediction of sustained ground water inflows to prospective constructed wetlands. A primer and application of the stable isotopes, 18O and 2H, are discussed for riparian wetland restoration ar...

  20. Interactions between ground water and wetlands, southern shore of Lake Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Robert J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Cohen, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that wetlands in complex hydrogeologic settings may be influenced by multiple ground-water flow systems that are affected by geomorphic features, stratigraphic discontinuities, and changes in sediment types. Discharge and recharge zones may both occur in the same wetland. Multidisciplinary studies incorporating hydrological, hydrochemical, geophysical, and sedimentological data are necessary to identify such complexities in wetland hydrology.

  1. Implications of ground-deformation measurements across earth fissures in subsidence areas in the southwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Ground deformation was monitored at earth fissures in areas of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction in the southwestern United States. The ground deformation is consistent with the mechanism that fissures are caused by horizontal strains generated by bending of overburden in response to localized differential compaction. Subsidence profiles indicated that localized differential subsidence occurred across the fissures and that maximum convex-upward curvature was at the fissure. The overall shape of the profile stayed similar with time, and maximum curvature remained stationary at the fissure. Horizontal displacements were largest near the fissure, and generally were small to negligible away from the fissure. Maximum tensile horizontal strains were at the fissure and coincided with maximum curvature in the subsidence profiles. Horizontal tensile strain continued to accumulate at fissures after they formed with rates of opening ranging from 30 to 120 microstrain/year at fissures in Arizona.

  2. Comparison of local- to regional-scale estimates of ground-water recharge in Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Healy, R.W.; Lorenz, D.L.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Regional ground-water recharge estimates for Minnesota were compared to estimates made on the basis of four local- and basin-scale methods. Three local-scale methods (unsaturated-zone water balance, water-table fluctuations (WTF) using three approaches, and age dating of ground water) yielded point estimates of recharge that represent spatial scales from about 1 to about 1000 m2. A fourth method (RORA, a basin-scale analysis of streamflow records using a recession-curve-displacement technique) yielded recharge estimates at a scale of 10–1000s of km2. The RORA basin-scale recharge estimates were regionalized to estimate recharge for the entire State of Minnesota on the basis of a regional regression recharge (RRR) model that also incorporated soil and climate data. Recharge rates estimated by the RRR model compared favorably to the local and basin-scale recharge estimates. RRR estimates at study locations were about 41% less on average than the unsaturated-zone water-balance estimates, ranged from 44% greater to 12% less than estimates that were based on the three WTF approaches, were about 4% less than the age dating of ground-water estimates, and were about 5% greater than the RORA estimates. Of the methods used in this study, the WTF method is the simplest and easiest to apply. Recharge estimates made on the basis of the UZWB method were inconsistent with the results from the other methods. Recharge estimates using the RRR model could be a good source of input for regional ground-water flow models; RRR model results currently are being applied for this purpose in USGS studies elsewhere.

  3. Comparison of local- to regional-scale estimates of ground-water recharge in Minnesota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Healy, Richard W.; Lorenz, David L.; Nimmo, John R.

    2007-02-01

    SummaryRegional ground-water recharge estimates for Minnesota were compared to estimates made on the basis of four local- and basin-scale methods. Three local-scale methods (unsaturated-zone water balance, water-table fluctuations (WTF) using three approaches, and age dating of ground water) yielded point estimates of recharge that represent spatial scales from about 1 to about 1000 m 2. A fourth method (RORA, a basin-scale analysis of streamflow records using a recession-curve-displacement technique) yielded recharge estimates at a scale of 10-1000s of km 2. The RORA basin-scale recharge estimates were regionalized to estimate recharge for the entire State of Minnesota on the basis of a regional regression recharge (RRR) model that also incorporated soil and climate data. Recharge rates estimated by the RRR model compared favorably to the local and basin-scale recharge estimates. RRR estimates at study locations were about 41% less on average than the unsaturated-zone water-balance estimates, ranged from 44% greater to 12% less than estimates that were based on the three WTF approaches, were about 4% less than the age dating of ground-water estimates, and were about 5% greater than the RORA estimates. Of the methods used in this study, the WTF method is the simplest and easiest to apply. Recharge estimates made on the basis of the UZWB method were inconsistent with the results from the other methods. Recharge estimates using the RRR model could be a good source of input for regional ground-water flow models; RRR model results currently are being applied for this purpose in USGS studies elsewhere.

  4. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated ground water at the Old O-Field site at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim report, Jul 90-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Turley, S.D.

    1991-11-01

    The toxicity of contaminated Old O-Field (Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground) groundwater and the reduction and/or elimination of toxicity by various treatment processes were evaluated. The study was divided into a bench scale and pilot scale study. The bench scale studies consisted of 48-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with daphnid neonates (Daphnia magna) and juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by (1) metals precipitation, (2) UV oxidation (H2O ), (3) carbon adsorption, and (4) carbon adsorption/biological sludge. The pilot scale studies consisted of (1) several 96-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with two freshwater and two saltwater invertebrates and fish and (2) Ames mutagenicity assays. Acute toxicity tests were run on untreated Old 0-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by (1) metals precipitation, (2) UV oxidation (H2O2), (3) air stripping, and (4) carbon adsorption during the pilot scale study. The freshwater invertebrate and fish used in the study were daphnid neonates and juvenile fathead minnows, respectively.

  5. Pesticides in shallow ground water in the forested wetland riparian area of the Beasley Lake Watershed, Mississippi, USA, 2001-2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the movement of pesticides into shallow ground water in a Mississippi Delta forested natural wetland riparian area in the Beasley Lake watershed (Sunflower County, Mississippi, USA). Four well sites were established, each with depths of 0.6, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.6 m (2’, 5’, 10’, and 15’, re...

  6. Plans for a new ground based space radiation research facility in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger, P. ||

    1993-12-31

    The availability of energetic heavy ion beams at particle accelerator laboratories is essential to simulate components of the space radiation environment. Such ion beams are needed for radiobiological research, to assess radiation shielding requirements for space missions, to calculate spacecraft radiation detectors, and to study space radiation effects on electronic devices and systems. Such ground-based studies are complementary to obviously more realistic, but also much more difficult and more expensive space-based research. The purity of the accelerator beam and their monoenergetic and unidirectional nature are indispensible to gain a detailed understanding of the effecst caused by the complex radiation fields encountered in space.

  7. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.

  8. Stratigraphy and geophysical logs from a corehole drilled to bedrock at Robins Point, J-Field, Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous core was recovered from a 961-foot- deep stratigraphic corehole at Robins Point, located at the southeastern tip of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula, Harford County, Maryland. A 2-inch- diameter ground-water-quality observation well was installed with the screen set at a depth of 392 to 402 feet (ft). Geophysical logs obtained from thecorehole include: natural gamma, multipoint normal resistivity (16-inch and 64-inch), 4-ft-guard focused resistivity, acoustic (sonic) velocity, and caliper. Pollen analysis of 34 samples provided relativestratigraphic ages. Lithologies encountered in ascending order (surface elevation 4 ft above mean sea level), include: 72.4 ft of weatheredmetamorphic rock and saprolie, 711.4 ft of lower and upper Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic deposits, and 145.9 ft of Pleistocene and 31.3 ft of Holocene(?) fluvial and estuarine deposits. Aquifers and confining units identified include, in descending order: 41.8 ft of surficial aquifer, 90.9 ft of upper paleochannel confining unit, 28.8 ft of paleochannel confined aquifer, 15.7 ft of lower paleochannel confining unit, 123.7 ft of Upper Patapsco aquifer, 44.6 ft of Upper Patapsco confining unit, 92.8 ft of Middle Patapsco aquifer, 57.3 ft of Lower Patapsco confining unit, 151.7 ft of Lower Patapsco aquifer, 115.4 ft of Potomac confining unit, 126.4 ft of Patuxent aquifer, an aquifer of 23.4 ft of saprolite, and 48.7 ft of weathered-rock/saprolite confining unit.

  9. Tarawa Landing: Proving Ground for Pacific Victory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Points out the importance of the Tarawa landing in the Gilbert Islands during World War II, and recommends teaching about the event. Provides detailed analysis of the November 21-24, 1943, amphibious assault by U.S. Marines. Examines the rationale for the location, timing, and type of attack. Identifies key personnel. Includes intelligence map of…

  10. Ground penetrating radar: 2-D and 3-D subsurface imaging of a coastal barrier spit, Long Beach, WA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jol, Harry M.; Lawton, Don C.; Smith, Derald G.

    2003-07-01

    The ability to effectively interpret and reconstruct geomorphic environments has been significantly aided by the subsurface imaging capabilities of ground penetrating radar (GPR). The GPR method, which is based on the propagation and reflection of pulsed high frequency electromagnetic energy, provides high resolution (cm to m scale) and shallow subsurface (0-60 m), near continuous profiles of many coarser-grained deposits (sediments of low electrical conductivity). This paper presents 2-D and 3-D GPR results from an experiment on a regressive modern barrier spit at Willapa Bay, WA, USA. The medium-grained sand spit is 38 km long, up to 2-3.5 km wide, and is influenced by a 3.7-m tidal range (spring) as well as high energy longshore transport and high wave energy depositional processes. The spit has a freshwater aquifer recharged by rainfall. The GPR acquisition system used for the test was a portable, digital pulseEKKO™ system with antennae frequency ranging from 25 to 200 MHz and transmitter voltages ranging from 400 to 1000 V. Step sizes and antennae separation varied depending on the test requirements. In addition, 100-MHz antennae were used for conducting antennae orientation tests and collecting a detailed grid of data (50×50 m sampled every meter). The 2-D digital profiles were processed and plotted using pulseEKKO™ software. The 3-D datasets, after initial processing, were entered into a LANDMARK™ workstation that allowed for unique 3-D perspectives of the subsurface. To provide depth, near-surface velocity measurements were calculated from common midpoint (CMP) surveys. Results from the present study demonstrate higher resolution from the 200-MHz antennae for the top 5-6 m, whereas the 25- and 50-MHz antennae show deeper penetration to >10 m. For the study site, 100-MHz antennae provided acceptable resolution, continuity of reflections, and penetration. The dip profiles show a shingle-like accretionary depositional pattern, whereas strike profiles

  11. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Gorai, A. K.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations. PMID:25755687

  12. Comparison of ground-water flow model particle-tracking results and isotopic data in the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Stamos, C.L.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2004-01-01

    Flow-path and time-of-travel results for the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, calculated using the ground-water flow model MODFLOW and particle-tracking model MODPATH were similar to flow path and time-of-travel interpretations derived from delta-deuterium and carbon-14 data. Model and isotopic data both show short flow paths and young ground-water ages throughout the floodplain aquifer along most the Mojave River. Longer flow paths and older ground-water ages as great as 10,000 years before present were measured and simulated in the floodplain aquifer near the Mojave Valley. Model and isotopic data also show movement of water between the floodplain and regional aquifer and subsequent discharge of water from the river to dry lakes in some areas. It was not possible to simulate the isotopic composition of ground-water in the regional aquifer away from the front of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains - because recharge in these areas does not occur under the present-day climatic conditions used for calibration of the model.

  13. Modeling the spatial differentiation in cloud-to-ground lightning: A case study in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strikas, Ona

    Urban cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning enhancement has been well documented for Atlanta, Georgia. This study builds on those investigations using modeling techniques. Numerous styles of analyses and regressions were conducted to establish patterns of CG lightning over the North Georgia region. CG lightning demonstrated clustering for all years of data: 1995--2008. However, the first strike of each day with lightning was randomly distributed according to a Poisson distribution, demonstrating the clustering is not due to permanent features. Attempts were unsuccessful to model CG lightning clusters as either a Matern or Thomas Poisson point process. Regressions of CG lightning with built environment covariates---FAA aviation obstacle locations and heights, population density, road length density, distance to the center of Atlanta, PM10 emissions data, distance to highways, and coal plant locations---as well as natural variables such as projected coordinate easting, northing, and NWS severe thunderstorm status were executed at resolutions of 1km, 2km, 4km, and 8km. Analyses demonstrated significantly higher flash frequency near FAA aviation obstacles. With an R2 value of 0.22, taller obstacles are struck more frequently than shorter obstacles. Regressions with road length density revealed little explanatory power (maximum R2=0.19), but demonstrated a positive correlation independent of scale. A multi-level visualization technique demonstrates the road length density correlation loses accuracy within dense urban corridors. Distance from Atlanta shows a negative correlation, but only at larger scales. Subsetting both regressions by direction reveals a significant difference on the Eastern and Western sides of Atlanta. Subsetting both regressions only to Gwinnett County, Georgia illustrates road length density has no correlation with flash frequency, and distance to Atlanta is still a scale dependent process. PM10 emissions analysis suggests that CG amplification is most

  14. Stream air temperature relations to classify stream ground water interactions in a karst setting, central Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, Michael A.; DeWalle, David R.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryStream-ground water interactions in karst vary from complete losses through swallow holes, to reemergences from springs. Our study objective was to compare stream-air temperature and energy exchange relationships across various stream-ground water relationships in a carbonate watershed. It was hypothesized that ground water-fed stream segments could be distinguished from perched/losing segments using stream-air temperature relationships. Two types of computations were conducted: (1) comparisons of stream-air temperature relationships for the period of October 1999-September 2002 at 12 sites in the Spring Creek drainage and (2) detailed energy budget computations for the same period for ground water-dominated Thompson Run and Lower Buffalo Run, a stream with negligible ground water inputs. Weekly average air temperatures and stream temperatures were highly correlated, but slopes and intercepts of the relationship varied for the 12 sites. Slopes ranged from 0.19 to 0.67 and intercepts ranged from 3.23 to 9.07 °C. A two-component mixing model with end members of ground water and actual stream temperatures indicated that the slope and intercept of the stream-air temperature relationship was controlled by ground water inputs. Streams with large ground water inputs had greater intercepts and lesser slopes than streams that were seasonally losing, perched, and/or distant from ground water inputs. Energy fluxes across the air-water interface were greatest for the ground water-fed stream due to increased longwave, latent, and sensible heat losses from the stream in winter when large temperature and vapor pressure differences existed between the stream and air. Advection of ground water was an important source and sink for heat in the ground water-fed stream, depending on season. In contrast, along the seasonally losing stream reach, advection was of minimal importance and stream temperatures were dominated by energy exchange across the air- water interface. Overall

  15. Effects of agricultural practices and vadose zone stratigraphy on nitrate concentration in ground water in Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Townsend, M.A.; Sleezer, R.O.; Macko, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in nitrate-N concentrations in,around water in Kansas can be explained by variations in agricultural practices and vadose-zone stratigraphy. In northwestern Kansas, past use of a local stream for tailwater runoff from irrigation and high fertilizer applications for sugar-beet farming resulted in high nitrate-N concentrations (12-60 mg L-1; in both soil and ground water. Nitrogen isotope values from the soil and ground water range from +4 to +8? which is typical for a fertilizer source. In parts of south-central Kansas, the use of crop rotation and the presence of both continuous fine-textured layers and a reducing ground-water chemistry resulted in ground-water nitrate-N values of 10 mg L-1; in both soil and grounwater. Nitrogen isotope values of +3 to +7? indicate a fertilizer source. Crop rotation decreased nitrate-N values in the shallow ground water (9 m). However, deeper ground water showed increasing nitrate-N concentrations as a result of past farming practices.

  16. Late Quaternary paleoenvironments of an ephemeral wetland in North Dakota, USA: Relative interactions of ground-water hydrology and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yansa, C.H.; Dean, W.E.; Murphy, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of fossils (pollen, plant macrofossils, stomata and fish) and sediments (lithostratigraphy and geochemistry) from the Wendel site in North Dakota, USA, emphasizes the importance of considering ground-water hydrology when deciphering paleoclimate signals from lakes in postglacial landscapes. The Wendel site was a paleolake from about 11,500 14C yr BP to 11,100 14C yr BP. Afterwards, the lake-level lowered until it became a prairie marsh by 9,300 14C yr BP and finally, at 8,500 14C yr BP, an ephemeral wetland as it is today. Meanwhile, the vegetation changed from a white spruce parkland (11,500 to 10,500 14C yr BP) to deciduous parkland, followed by grassland at 9,300 14C yr BP. The pattern and timing of these aquatic and terrestrial changes are similar to coeval kettle lake records from adjacent uplands, providing a regional aridity signal. However, two local sources of ground water were identified from the fossil and geochemical data, which mediated atmospheric inputs to the Wendel basin. First, the paleolake received water from the melting of stagnant ice buried under local till for about 900 years after glacier recession. Later, Holocene droughts probably caused the lower-elevation Wendel site to capture the ground water of up-gradient lakes. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  17. Late Pleistocene paleoecology of arctic ground squirrel ( Urocitellus parryii) caches and nests from Interior Alaska's mammoth steppe ecosystem, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Barnes, Brian M.; Zazula, Grant D.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2011-11-01

    Botanical analyses of fossil and modern arctic ground squirrel ( Urocitellus parryii) caches and nests have been used to reconstruct the past vegetation from some parts of Beringia, but such archives are understudied in Alaska. Five modern and four fossil samples from arctic ground squirrel caches and nests provide information on late Pleistocene vegetation in Eastern Beringia. Modern arctic ground squirrel caches from Alaska's arctic tundra were dominated by willow and grass leaves and grass seeds and bearberries, which were widespread in the local vegetation as confirmed by vegetation surveys. Late Pleistocene caches from Interior Alaska were primarily composed of steppe and dry tundra graminoid and herb seeds. Graminoid cuticle analysis of fossil leaves identified Calamagrostis canadensis, Koeleria sp. and Carex albonigra as being common in the fossil samples. Stable carbon isotopes analysis of these graminoid specimens indicated that plants using the C 3 photosynthetic pathways were present and functioning with medium to high water-use efficiency. Fossil plant taxa and environments from ground squirrel caches in Alaska are similar to other macrofossil assemblages from the Yukon Territory, which supports the existence of a widespread mammoth steppe ecosystem type in Eastern Beringia that persisted throughout much of the late Pleistocene.

  18. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Chelette, A.R.; Pratt, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO3 values (1.7-13.8???) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (??15N-NO3=5.3-8.9???) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index, and phosphate in springs and deep water (>45 m) relative to a shallow zone (<45 m) were associated with longer ground-water transit times (50-90 years). Chemical differences with depth in the aquifer result from deep regional flow of water recharged through low permeability sediments (clays and clayey sands of the Hawthorn Formation) that overlie the UFA

  19. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Chelette, Angela R.; Pratt, Thomas R.

    2004-04-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m 3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO 3 values (1.7-13.8‰) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (δ 15N-NO 3=5.3-8.9‰) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (<0.02-16 mg/l) were highly variable both spatially and vertically in the oxic UFA, based on water samples from 46 wells and four springs collected from 1997 to 2000. During high-flow conditions, spring waters had decreased nitrate and increased DOC concentrations that resulted from mixtures of 20-95% surface water. Although higher nitrate-N concentrations (>1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index

  20. Aquifer-scale controls on the distribution of nitrate and ammonium in ground water near La Pine, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, S.R.; Böhlke, J.K.; Duff, J.H.; Morgan, D.S.; Weick, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Geochemical and isotopic tools were applied at aquifer, transect, and subtransect scales to provide a framework for understanding sources, transport, and fate of dissolved inorganic N in a sandy aquifer near La Pine, Oregon. NO3 is a common contaminant in shallow ground water in this area, whereas high concentrations of NH4-N (up to 39 mg/L) are present in deep ground water. N concentrations, N/Cl ratios, tracer-based apparent ground-water ages, N isotope data, and hydraulic gradients indicate that septic tank effluent is the primary source of NO3. N isotope data, N/Cl and N/C relations, 3H data, and hydraulic considerations point to a natural, sedimentary organic matter source for the high concentrations of NH4, and are inconsistent with an origin as septic tank N. Low recharge rates and flow velocities have largely restricted anthropogenic NO3 to isolated plumes within several meters of the water table. A variety of geochemical and isotopic data indicate that denitrification also affects NO3 gradients in the aquifer. Ground water in the La Pine aquifer evolves from oxic to increasingly reduced conditions. Suboxic conditions are achieved after about 15-30 y of transport below the water table. NO3 is denitrified near the oxic/suboxic boundary. Denitrification in the La Pine aquifer is characterized well at the aquifer scale with a redox boundary approach that inherently captures spatial variability in the distribution of electron donors. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) fire product to ground-based fire records in Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuefei; Yu, Chao; Tian, Di; Ruminski, Mark; Robertson, Kevin; Waller, Lance A.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Biomass burning has a significant and adverse impact on air quality, climate change, and various ecosystems. The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) detects fires using data from multiple satellite sensors in order to maximize its fire detection rate. However, to date, the detection rate of the HMS fire product for small fires has not been well studied, especially using ground-based fire records. This paper utilizes the 2011 fire information compiled from ground observations and burn authorizations in Georgia to assess the comprehensiveness of the HMS active fire product. The results show that detection rates of the hybrid HMS increase substantially by integrating multiple satellite instruments. The detection rate increases dramatically from 3% to 80% with an increase in fire size from less than 0.02 km2 to larger than 2 km2, resulting in detection of approximately 12% of all recorded fires which represent approximately 57% of the total area burned. The spatial pattern of detection rates reveals that grid cells with high detection rates are generally located in areas where large fires occur frequently. The seasonal analysis shows that overall detection rates in winter and spring (12% and 13%, respectively) are higher than those in summer and fall (3% and 6%, respectively), mainly because of higher percentages of large fires (>0.19 km2) that occurred in winter and spring. The land cover analysis shows that detection rates are 2-7 percentage points higher in land cover types that are prone to large fires such as forestland and shrub land.

  2. On Mathematical Proving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaneas, Petros; Vandoulakis, Ioannis M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper outlines a logical representation of certain aspects of the process of mathematical proving that are important from the point of view of Artificial Intelligence. Our starting-point is the concept of proof-event or proving, introduced by Goguen, instead of the traditional concept of mathematical proof. The reason behind this choice is that in contrast to the traditional static concept of mathematical proof, proof-events are understood as processes, which enables their use in Artificial Intelligence in such contexts, in which problem-solving procedures and strategies are studied. We represent proof-events as problem-centered spatio-temporal processes by means of the language of the calculus of events, which captures adequately certain temporal aspects of proof-events (i.e. that they have history and form sequences of proof-events evolving in time). Further, we suggest a "loose" semantics for the proof-events, by means of Kolmogorov's calculus of problems. Finally, we expose the intented interpretations for our logical model from the fields of automated theorem-proving and Web-based collective proving.

  3. Geochemical processes controlling selenium in ground water after mining, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Rice, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Geochemical data for samples of overburden from three mines in the Powder River Basin indicate a statistically significant (0.01 confidence level) positive correlation (r = 0.74) between Se and organic C. Results of factor analysis with varimax rotation on the major and trace element data from the rock samples indicate large (>50) varimax loadings for Se in two of the three factors. In Factor 1, the association of Se with constituents common to detrital grains indicates that water transporting the detrital particles into the Powder River Basin also carried dissolved Se. The large (>50) varimax loadings of Se and organic C in Factor 2 probably are due to the organic affinities characteristic of Se. Dissolved Se concentrations in water samples collected at one coal mine are directly related to the dissolved organic C concentrations. Hydrophilic acid concentrations in the water samples from the mine ranged from 35 to 43% of the total dissolved organic C, and hydrophobic acid concentrations ranged from 40 to 49% of the total dissolved organic C. The largest dissolved organic C concentrations in water from the same mine (34-302 mg/l), coupled with the large proportion of acidic components, may saturate adsorption sites on geothite and similar minerals that comprise the aquifer material, thus decreasing the extent of selenite (SeO32-) adsorption as a sink for Se as the redox state of ground water decreases. ?? 1989.

  4. Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based lightning detections to identify lightning fires across the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with lightning detections from the National Lightning Detection Network to identify lightning fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected lightning strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between lightning strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of lightning fire occurrence, and especially lightning fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of lightning fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.

  5. Estimating irrigation water use and withdrawal of ground water on the High Plains, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James R.

    In four decades following the Dust Bowl days of the 1930's, extensive areas of dry farming and rangeland on the semi-arid U.S. High Plains were transformed into a vast region of irrigated oases, producing meat and grain for much of the world. The agricultural economy has experienced such rapid growth in part because of the availability of ground water and because of development of new irrigation technology to use that water for agriculture. However, more water is being used than is being replaced. To estimate both the volume of water withdrawn and the regional scope of the problem a technique has been developed that combines multispectral data from Earth-orbiting satellite with known pumpage data for the same growing season. The location and extent of irrigated cropland-some with different crops watered at different times-is inventoried using computer-assisted analysis of the data from Landsat. The amount of water used is estimated by multiplying and summing surface area of irrigated agriculture and the average measured pumpage from sampled sites. Published findings to date are cited in the Selected References. All suggest transferability of a promising technology to the study of land transformation processes elsewhere.

  6. GAMMA-PULSE-HEIGHT EVALUATION OF A USA SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BURIAL GROUND SPECIAL CONFIGURATION WASTE ITEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Sigg, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Burial Ground had a container labeled as Box 33 for which they had no reliable solid waste stream designation. The container consisted of an outer box of dimensions 48-inch x 46-inch x 66-inch and an inner box that contained high density and high radiation dose material. From the outer box Radiation Control measured an extremity dose rate of 22 mrem/h. With the lid removed from the outer box, the maximum dose rate measured from the inner box was 100 mrem/h extremity and 80 mrem/h whole body. From the outer box the material was sufficiently high in density that the Solid Waste Management operators were unable to obtain a Co-60 radiograph of the contents. Solid Waste Management requested that the Analytical Development Section of Savannah River National Laboratory perform a {gamma}-ray assay of the item to evaluate the radioactive content and possibly to designate a solid waste stream. This paper contains the results of three models used to analyze the measured {gamma}-ray data acquired in an unusual configuration.

  7. Estimating irrigation water use and withdrawal of ground water on the High Plains, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In four decades following the Dust Bowl days of the 1930's, extensive areas of dry farming and rangeland on the semi-arid U.S. High Plains were transformed into a vast region of irrigated oases, producing meat and grain for much of the world. The agricultural economy has experienced such rapid growth in part because of the availability of ground water and because of development of new irrigation technology to use that water for agriculture. However, more water is being used than is being replaced. To estimate both the volume of water withdrawn and the regional scope of the problem a technique has been developed that combines multispectral data from Earth-orbiting satellite with known pumpage data for the same growing season. The location and extent of irrigated cropland-some with different crops watered at different times-is inventoried using computer-assisted analysis of the data from Landsat. The amount of water used is estimated by multiplying and summing surface area of irrigated agriculture and the average measured pumpage from sampled sites. Published findings to date are cited in the Selected References. All suggest transferability of a promising technology to the study of land transformation processes elsewhere. ?? 1983.

  8. Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska, USA, are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Trust, K.A.; Matz, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska declined 53% during 1977-1993. We compare concentrations of environmental contaminants in red-throated loons among four nesting areas in Alaska and discuss potential ramifications of exposure on reproductive success and population trends. Eggs from the four areas had similar total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations, but eggs from the Arctic coastal plain had different congener profiles and greater toxic equivalents (TEQs) than eggs from elsewhere. Satellite telemetry data indicate that red-throated loons from the Arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska winter in southeast Asia, while those breeding elsewhere in Alaska winter in North America. Different wintering areas may lead to differential PCB accumulation among red-throated loon populations. For eggs from the Arctic coastal plain, TEQs were great enough to postulate PCB-associated reproductive effects in piscivores. The correlation between migration patterns and PCB profiles suggests that red-throated loons breeding in northern Alaska are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and association with microbial communities in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland : laboratory experiments and comparisons to field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Jones, Elizabeth J., (Phillips)

    2003-01-01

    Defining biodegradation rates and processes is a critical part of assessing the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a remediation method for ground water containing organic contaminants. During 1998?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a microbial study at a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, as part of an investigation of natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the wetland sediments. Geochemical analyses and molecular biology techniques were used to investigate factors controlling anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), and to characterize the microbial communities that potentially are important in its degradation. Rapid TeCA and daughter product degradation observed in laboratory experiments and estimated with field data confirm that natural attenuation is a feasible remediation method at this site. The diverse microbial community that seems to be involved in TeCA degradation in the wetland sediments varies with changing spatial and seasonal conditions, allowing continued effective natural attenuation throughout the year. Rates of TeCA degradation in anaerobic microcosm experiments conducted with wetland sediment collected from two different sites (WB23 and WB30) and during three different seasons (March?April 1999, July?August 1999, and October?November 2000) showed little spatial variability but high seasonal variability. Initial first-order degradation rate constants for TeCA ranged from 0.10?0.01 to 0.16?0.05 per day (half-lives of 4.3 to 6.9 days) for March?April 1999 and October?November 2000 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius, whereas lower rate constants of 0 ? 0.03 and 0.06 ? 0.03 per day were obtained in July?August 1999 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius. Microbial community profiles showed that low microbial biomass and microbial diversity in the summer, possibly due to competition for nutrients by the

  10. A new Ordovician arthropod from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa (USA) reveals the ground plan of eurypterids and chasmataspidids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsdell, James C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Witzke, Brian J.; McKay, Robert M.

    2015-10-01

    Euchelicerates were a major component of Palaeozoic faunas, but their basal relationships are uncertain: it has been suggested that Xiphosura—xiphosurids (horseshoe crabs) and similar Palaeozoic forms, the synziphosurines—may not represent a natural group. Basal euchelicerates are rare in the fossil record, however, particularly during the initial Ordovician radiation of the group. Here, we describe Winneshiekia youngae gen. et sp. nov., a euchelicerate from the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa, USA. Winneshiekia shares features with both xiphosurans (a large, semicircular carapace and ophthalmic ridges) and dekatriatan euchelicerates such as chasmataspidids and eurypterids (an opisthosoma of 13 tergites). Phylogenetic analysis resolves Winneshiekia at the base of Dekatriata, as sister taxon to a clade comprising chasmataspidids, eurypterids, arachnids, and Houia. Winneshiekia provides further support for the polyphyly of synziphosurines, traditionally considered the stem lineage to xiphosurid horseshoe crabs, and by extension the paraphyly of Xiphosura. The new taxon reveals the ground pattern of Dekatriata and provides evidence of character polarity in chasmataspidids and eurypterids. The Winneshiek Lagerstätte thus represents an important palaeontological window into early chelicerate evolution.

  11. A new Ordovician arthropod from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa (USA) reveals the ground plan of eurypterids and chasmataspidids.

    PubMed

    Lamsdell, James C; Briggs, Derek E G; Liu, Huaibao P; Witzke, Brian J; McKay, Robert M

    2015-10-01

    Euchelicerates were a major component of Palaeozoic faunas, but their basal relationships are uncertain: it has been suggested that Xiphosura-xiphosurids (horseshoe crabs) and similar Palaeozoic forms, the synziphosurines-may not represent a natural group. Basal euchelicerates are rare in the fossil record, however, particularly during the initial Ordovician radiation of the group. Here, we describe Winneshiekia youngae gen. et sp. nov., a euchelicerate from the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa, USA. Winneshiekia shares features with both xiphosurans (a large, semicircular carapace and ophthalmic ridges) and dekatriatan euchelicerates such as chasmataspidids and eurypterids (an opisthosoma of 13 tergites). Phylogenetic analysis resolves Winneshiekia at the base of Dekatriata, as sister taxon to a clade comprising chasmataspidids, eurypterids, arachnids, and Houia. Winneshiekia provides further support for the polyphyly of synziphosurines, traditionally considered the stem lineage to xiphosurid horseshoe crabs, and by extension the paraphyly of Xiphosura. The new taxon reveals the ground pattern of Dekatriata and provides evidence of character polarity in chasmataspidids and eurypterids. The Winneshiek Lagerstätte thus represents an important palaeontological window into early chelicerate evolution. PMID:26391849

  12. Ground Motion Measurement in the Lake Mead Area (Nevada, USA), by DinSAR Time Series Analysis : Probing of the Lithosphere Rheological Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, M.; Cavalié, O.; Laserre, C.; Briole, P.

    2006-12-01

    SAR interferometry has proven to be a reliable method for detecting small displacements due to ground subsidence. In this study, we measure ground motion around the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) using InSAR. This artificial lake has been filled with water in 1935. An earlier study, based on leveling measurements, has shown that the load associated with lake impoundement induced a subsidence of 17 centimeters. This relaxation process has been argued as analogous to the postglacial rebound, but at a smaller spatial scale and with a much lower viscous relaxation scale. To quantify the deformation and thus constrain the crust and mantle rheological parameters in the lake area, we analyze multiple interferograms (241) based on 43 ERS images acquired between 1992 and 2001. With baselines smaller than 300 m, all interferograms have a very good coherence due to the desert region. Most of interferograms show strong atmospheric artefacts that are partly due to the variation of water vapor vertical stratification between two satellite passes. This tropospheric delay is computed for each interferogram and then inverted for each date of SAR images before interferogram correction. These corrections are validated using data from global atmospheric models (ERA40). Corrected interferograms are then inverted to solve for the time series of ground motion in the lake Mead area. The linear inversion treats each pixel independently from its neighbours and uses the data redundancy to reduce errors such as local decorrelations. Additionnal constraints such as temporal smoothing allow to reduce the local atmospheric artefacts. We obtain a time series of the deformation in the lake Mead area with a millimetric accuracy. The deformation is non linear in time and spreads over a large spatial scale. In particular, we observe a subsidence of up to 16 mm between 1995 and 1998 due to a 10 meters water level increase, followed by an uplift due to the drop of the water level after 2000. The deformation

  13. Proving Coriolis flowmeters

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, C.

    1995-12-01

    Coriolis meters provide significant advantages for custody transfer measurement of fluids. The most obvious feature is the Coriolis meter`s ability to provide a direct mass flow measurement. This makes Coriolis meters ideally suited to measuring products which are commonly accounted for on a mass basis, such as LPG, NGL, ethylene, liquid CO{sub 2}. Using a single Coriolis meter simplifies the metering system by replacing a volumetric flowmeter, densitometer, and flow computer, with a single measurement device. Another unique feature of Coriolis meters is their ability to measure fluid density independently of mass flow rate. The density measurement is determined in the same manner as any vibrating tube densitometer. By measuring both the mass flow rate ({center_dot}m) and density ({rho}), the Coriolis meter can provide a volumetric flow measurement (q) by performing the following calculation: q = {center_dot}m / {rho}. Coriolis meters have no rotating parts such as bearings or gears, that wear with time. This reduces maintenance costs. Since solids can flow through the meters without damage, strainers are generally unnecessary. Also, gas or vapor in the process fluid which can damage turbine meters due to overspin, will not harm Coriolis meters. The measurement accuracy of Coriolis meters, {+-}0.15%, is suitable for custody transfer measurement. The meters are capable of measuring flow bi-directionally. This is particularly advantageous for loading rack and cavern storage applications. Flowmeters which are used for custody transfer measurement, generally require some means to prove meter accuracy. The principles of operation of Coriolis meters are fundamentally different than those of turbine or positive displacement meters. In order to properly prove these meters it is important to understand some basics about the meters operation and output signals.

  14. Above-ground sulfur cycling in adjacent coniferous and deciduous forest and watershed sulfur retention in the Georgia Piedmont, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappellato, R.; Peters, N.E.; Meyers, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and above-ground cycling of sulfur (S) were evaluated in adjacent deciduous and coniferous forests at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), Georgia U.S.A. Total atmospheric S deposition (wet plus dry) was 12.9 and 12.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, from October 1987 through November 1989. Dry deposition contributes more than 40% to the total atmospheric S deposition, and SO2 is the major source (~55%) of total dry S deposition. Dry deposition to these canopies is similar to regional estimates suggesting that 60-km proximity to emission sources does not noticeably impact dry deposition at PMRW. Below-canopy S fluxes (throughfall plus stemflow) in each forest are 37% higher annually in the deciduous forest than in the coniferous forest. An excess in below-canopy S flux in the deciduous forest is attributed to leaching and higher dry deposition than in the coniferous forest. Total S deposition to the forest floor by throughfall, stemflow and litterfall was 2.4 and 2.8 times higher in the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, than annual S growth requirement for foliage and wood. Although A deposition exceeds growth requirement, more than 95% of the total atmospheric S deposition was retained by the watershed in 1988 and 1989. The S retention at PMRW is primarily due to SO2+4 adsorption by iron oxides and hydroxides in watershed soils. The S content in while oak and loblolly pine boles have increased more than 200% in the last 20 yr, possibly reflecting increases in emissions.

  15. δ15N of nitrate derived from explosive sources in a karst aquifer beneath the Ammunition Burning Ground, Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGnazio, Frank J.; Krothe, Noel C.; Baedke, Steve J.; Spalding, Roy F.

    1998-05-01

    Military institutions involved in the production and demolition of explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics have the potential to degrade groundwater aquifers through the addition of numerous contaminants including nitrate. A nitrate plume has been identified in a karst aquifer beneath the Ammunition Burning Ground (ABG) at the Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indiana, USA. Wells located in the vicinity of surface impoundments and burn pans used for treatment of explosive materials show the highest concentrations of nitrate ranging from 11.2 to 19.6 mg 1 -1 as NO 3-. Little is known about the isotopic composition of nitrates originating from these processes. Eight wells within the ABG were sampled and analyzed for nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate. An enrichment in the δ15N ( δ15N = +8.9, +12.0, +13.1, and +13.5‰) occurred at four wells located near the primary areas of disposal activities within the ABG. Four wells located near the outer limits of the ABG had δ15N values significantly lower than those observed in the central area of the ABG ( δ15N = +4.0, +4.1, +4.6, and +2.0‰). Soil samples and burn-pan ash samples were collected and analyzed for the nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate. Three soil nitrate samples had low δ15N values of -1.7, -1.8, and +2.2‰. The burn-pan ash sample produced nitrate with a δ15N value of +2.9‰. The observed enrichment in δ15N from samples taken from wells located near the ABG has been postulated to be a result of photodegradation or biochemical modification of RDX and TNT contaminated sludges and volatilization of NH 3 in storage lagoons within the ABG.

  16. Building Common Ground through Safe Spaces of Dialog: Transforming Perceptions on Intercultural Competence among Future Primary and Secondary School Leaders in Chicago, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Gabriel Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights critical pedagogical methods used in a community relations class that introduces intercultural education concepts to current K-12 educators who are enrolled in a Masters of Education program at Northeastern Illinois University, which is located in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA. The purpose of the class is to teach future…

  17. Limnological characteristics of selected lakes in the Nebraska sandhills, U.S.A., and their relation to chemical characteristics of adjacent ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Baugh, James W.

    1986-10-01

    Limnological characteristics of Crane, Hackberry, Island and Roundup Lakes, and chemical characteristics of shallow ground water, within the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, western Nebraska, were determined during a preliminary investigation of the interaction between lakes and ground water in this study area between 1980 and 1984. When ice cover was absent, the lakes were well-mixed vertically, regardless of season. Depth to which 1% of surface illumination penetrated was commonly less than 1m. Variability in light penetration, as measured by Secchidisk transparency, appeared to be unrelated to changes in algal biomass, even though algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, varied seasonally within a two-order-of-magnitude range. Blue-green algae were the most abundant phytoplankton; this condition occurred most often when the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus in the lakes' water was less than 29. Although rotifers and copepod naupli commonly were the most abundant zooplankton in the lakes, cladocerans were dominant occasionally. Either sodium or calcium was the most abundant cation, and bicarbonate was the most abundant anion, in water from water-table wells and lakes sampled during the study. The second most abundant cation in the ground water was related to the location of the sampled well within the ground-water system. The lakes were a source of dissolved organic carbon seeping to ground water. Chemical and hydrologic data indicate there is interaction between lakes and ground water in the study area.

  18. The effect of terrace geology on ground-water movement and on the interaction of ground water and surface water on a mountainside near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.; Shattuck, P.C.; Harte, P.T.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Goode, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The west watershed of Mirror Lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire contains several terraces that are at different altitudes and have different geologic compositions. The lowest terrace (FSE) has 5 m of sand overlying 9 m of till. The two next successively higher terraces (FS2 and FS1) consist entirely of sand and have maximum thicknesses of about 7 m. A fourth, and highest, terrace (FS3) lies in the north-west watershed directly adjacent to the west watershed. This highest terrace has 2 m of sand overlying 8 m of till. All terraces overlie fractured crystalline bedrock. Numerical models of hypothetical settings simulating ground-water flow in a mountainside indicated that the presence of a terrace can cause local ground-water flow cells to develop, and that the flow patterns differ based on the geologic composition of the terrace. For example, more ground water moves from the bedrock to the glacial deposits beneath terraces consisting completely of sand than beneath terraces that have sand underlain by till. Field data from Mirror Lake watersheds corroborate the numerical experiments. The geology of the terraces also affects how the stream draining the west watershed interacts with ground water. The stream turns part way down the mountainside and passes between the two sand terraces, essentially transecting the movement of ground water down the valley side. Transects of water-table wells were installed across the stream's riparian zone above, between, and below the sand terraces. Head data from these wells indicated that the stream gains ground water on both sides above and below the sand terraces. However, where it flows between the sand terraces the stream gains ground water on its uphill side and loses water on its downhill side. Biogeochemical processes in the riparian zone of the flow-through reach have resulted in anoxic ground water beneath the lower sand terrace. Results of this study indicate that it is useful to understand patterns of ground

  19. A consolidated environmental monitoring plan for Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1997-04-01

    The US Army operates facilities in Edgewood and Aberdeen under several licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Compliance with each license is time consuming and could potentially result in duplicated efforts to demonstrate compliance with existing environmental regulations. The goal of the ERM plan is to provide the sampling necessary to ensure that operations at Edgewood and Aberdeen are within applicable regulatory guidelines and to provide a means of ensuring that adverse effects to the environment are minimized. Existing sampling plans and environmental data generated from those plans are briefly reviewed as part of the development of the present ERM plan. The new ERM plan was designed to provide data that can be used for assessing risks to the environment and to humans using Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. Existing sampling is modified and new sampling is proposed based on the results of the long-term DU fate study. In that study, different environmental pathways were identified that would show transport of DU at Aberdeen. Those pathways would also be impacted by other radioactive constituents from Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. The ERM plan presented in this document includes sampling from Edgewood and Aberdeen facilities. The main radioactive constituents of concern at Edgewood are C, P, N, S, H, I, Co, Cs, Ca, Sr and U that are used in radiolabeling different compounds and tracers for different reactions and syntheses. Air and water sampling are the thrust of efforts at the Edgewood area.

  20. Aerosol tests conducted at Aberdeen Proving Grounds MD.

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

    2012-06-01

    Test data are reported that demonstrate the deposition from a spray dispersion system (Illinois Tool Works inductively charging rotary atomization nozzle) for application of decontamination solution to various surfaces in the passenger cabin of a Boeing 737 aircraft. The decontamination solution (EnviroTru) was tagged with a known concentration of fluorescein permitting determination of both airborne decontaminant concentration and surface deposited decontaminant solution so that the effective deposition rates and surface coverage could be determined and correlated with the amount of material sprayed. Six aerosol dispersion tests were conducted. In each test, aluminum foil deposition coupons were set out throughout the passenger area and the aerosol was dispersed. The aerosol concentration was measured with filter samplers as well as with optical techniques Average aerosol deposition ranged from 3 to 15 grams of decontamination solution per square meter. Some disagreement was observed between various instruments utilizing different measurement principles. These results demonstrate a potentially effective method to disperse decontaminant to interior surfaces of a passenger aircraft.

  1. The Proving Grounds: School "Rheeform" in Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingerson, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Washington, D.C., is leading the transformation of urban public education across the country--at least according to "Time" magazine, which featured D.C. Schools Chancellor Michelle Rhee on its cover, wearing black and holding a broom. But there is nothing remarkably visionary going on in Washington. The model of school reform that is being…

  2. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  3. SUBSURFACE RESIDENCE TIMES AS AN ALGORITHM FOR AQUIFER SENSITIVITY MAPPING: TESTING THE CONCEPT WITH ANALYTIC ELEMENT GROUND WATER MODELS IN THE CONTENTNEA CREEK BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to test the utility of simple functions of spatially integrated and temporally averaged ground water residence times in shallow "groundwatersheds" with field observations and more detailed computer simulations. The residence time of water in the...

  4. Aquifer composition and the tendency toward scale-deposit formation during reverse osmosis desalination - Examples from saline ground water in New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Desalination is expected to make a substantial contribution to water supply in the United States by 2020. Currently, reverse osmosis is one of the most cost effective and widely used desalination technologies. The tendency to form scale deposits during reverse osmosis is an important factor in determining the suitability of input waters for use in desalination. The tendency toward scale formation of samples of saline ground water from selected geologic units in New Mexico was assessed using simulated evaporation. All saline water samples showed a strong tendency to form CaCO3 scale deposits. Saline ground water samples from the Yeso Formation and the San Andres Limestone showed relatively stronger tendencies to form CaSO4 2H2O scale deposits and relatively weaker tendencies to form SiO2(a) scale deposits than saline ground water samples from the Rio Grande alluvium. Tendencies toward scale formation in saline ground water samples from the Dockum Group were highly variable. The tendencies toward scale formation of saline waters from the Yeso Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Rio Grande alluvium appear to correlate with the mineralogical composition of the geologic units, suggesting that scale-forming tendencies are governed by aquifer composition and water-rock interaction. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Paleohydrology of variable-density ground-water flow systems in mature sedimentary basins: example of the Palo Duro basin, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, Rainer K.

    1993-11-01

    The paleohydrology of mature sedimentary basins undergoing uplift and tilting, deposition, and erosion is studied by numerically modeling the flow of variable-density ground water. In regional flow systems consisting of both shallow freshwater aquifers and deep saline aquifers, complex ground-water flow patterns can exist, when buoyancy forces dominate the hydraulic head gradients arising from topographic relief. The relative magnitude of the two driving forces, hydraulic gradient and buoyancy, changes during the hydrodynamic development of a sedimentary basin that is undergoing topographic changes. The relationship between the two driving forces and their effect on flow and transport is studied through coupled flow and solute transport simulations using an idealized model scenario. Modeling shows that increases in recharge rates can rapidly change hydrodynamic conditions from buoyancy-dominated flow governed by variable density to gravity-driven flow governed by topography. Because the dissolved mass responds much slower to changes in hydrologic boundary condition than does fluid pressure, transient conditions occur whereby the solute distribution may not correspond to the simulated ground-water flow pattern. Hydrodynamic scenarios were examined in the Palo Duro basin, Texas, where observed fluid densities range between 1000 and 1150 kg m -3. The Palo Duro basin was affected by Cenozoic uplift, deposition, and erosion, causing modifications in topography and major changes in regional hydrodynamics during the last 15 Myear. Although fluid pressures have largely equilibrated with topographic changes in the recent geologic past, the distribution of dissolved mass evolves over a much longer time, and the observed solute distribution in the basin, as suggested by the geochemistry of the deep basin brines, may represent some past state of the hydrodynamic system. Paleohydrologic simulations describe buoyancy-dominated flow phenomena in the recent geologic past, when the

  6. Proving Stabilization of Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Byron; Fisher, Jasmin; Krepska, Elzbieta; Piterman, Nir

    We describe an efficient procedure for proving stabilization of biological systems modeled as qualitative networks or genetic regulatory networks. For scalability, our procedure uses modular proof techniques, where state-space exploration is applied only locally to small pieces of the system rather than the entire system as a whole. Our procedure exploits the observation that, in practice, the form of modular proofs can be restricted to a very limited set. For completeness, our technique falls back on a non-compositional counterexample search. Using our new procedure, we have solved a number of challenging published examples, including: a 3-D model of the mammalian epidermis; a model of metabolic networks operating in type-2 diabetes; a model of fate determination of vulval precursor cells in the C. elegans worm; and a model of pair-rule regulation during segmentation in the Drosophila embryo. Our results show many orders of magnitude speedup in cases where previous stabilization proving techniques were known to succeed, and new results in cases where tools had previously failed.

  7. Use of Nitrogen-15 Isotope Method in Soils and Ground Water to Determine Potential Nitrogen Sources Affecting a Municipal Water Supply in Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, M. A.; Macko, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate-N concentrations have increased to greater than 10 mg/L in a municipal water supply in western Kansas from 1995 to 2002. A study was done by the Kansas Geological Survey using the nitrogen-15 natural abundance isotope method to determine potential sources for the increasing nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results of the isotope analyses on water samples suggest that animal waste and/or denitrification enrichment has affected the water supply. Soil samples from areas near the wells that were not treated with manure show a general increase of nitrogen-15 signature (+9 to +15 \\permil) to a depth of 5 m. Soils are silt loams with measurable carbonate (0.8 to 2 % by weight) in the profile, which may permit volatilization enrichment to occur in the soil profile. Wells in the area range from 11 to 20 m in alluvial deposits with depth to water at approximately 9 m). Nitrate-N values range from 8 to 26 mg/L. Nitrogen-15 values range from (+17 to +28 \\permil) with no obvious source of animal waste near the well sites. There are potential nearby long-term sources of animal waste - an abandoned sewage treatment plant and an agricultural testing farm. One well has a reducing chemistry with a nitrate value of 0.9 mg/L and a nitrogen-15 value of +17 \\permil suggesting that alluvial sediment variation also has an impact on the water quality in the study area. The other wells show values of nitrate and nitrogen-15 that are much greater than the associated soils. The use of nitrogen-15 alone permited limited evaluation of sources of nitrate to ground water particularly in areas with carbonate in the soils. Use of oxygen-18 on nitrate will permit the delineation of the processes affecting the nitrogen in the soil profile and determination of the probable sources and the processes that have affected the nitrogen in the ground water. Final results of the nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18 analyses will be presented.

  8. High resolution shallow geologic characterization of a late Pleistocene eolian environment using ground penetrating radar and optically stimulated luminescence techniques: North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallinson, D.; Mahan, S.; Moore, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Geophysical surveys, sedimentology, and optically-stimulated luminescence age analyses were used to assess the geologic development of a coastal system near Swansboro, NC. This area is a significant Woodland Period Native American habitation and is designated the "Broad Reach" archaeological site. 2-d and 3-d subsurface geophysical surveys were performed using a ground penetrating radar system to define the stratigraphic framework and depositional facies. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for grain-size to determine depositional environments. Samples were acquired and analyzed using optically stimulated luminescence techniques to derive the depositional age of the various features. The data support a low eolian to shallow subtidal coastal depositional setting for this area. Li-DAR data reveal ridge and swale topography, most likely related to beach ridges, and eolian features including low-relief, low-angle transverse and parabolic dunes, blowouts, and a low-relief eolian sand sheet. Geophysical data reveal dominantly seaward dipping units, and low-angle mounded features. Sedimentological data reveal mostly moderately-well to well-sorted fine-grained symmetrical to coarse skewed sands, suggesting initial aqueous transport and deposition, followed by eolian reworking and bioturbation. OSL data indicate initial coastal deposition prior to ca. 45,000 yBP, followed by eolian reworking and low dune stabilization at ca. 13,000 to 11,500 yBP, and again at ca. 10,000 yBP (during, and slightly after the Younger Dryas chronozone).

  9. Evolution of a highly dilatant fault zone in the grabens of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA - integrating fieldwork, ground-penetrating radar and airborne imagery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, M.; Grützner, C.; van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.; Reicherter, K.; Mertens, J.

    2015-07-01

    The grabens of Canyonlands National Park are a young and active system of sub-parallel, arcuate grabens, whose evolution is the result of salt movement in the subsurface and a slight regional tilt of the faulted strata. We present results of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys in combination with field observations and analysis of high-resolution airborne imagery. GPR data show intense faulting of the Quaternary sediments at the flat graben floors, implying a more complex fault structure than visible at the surface. Direct measurements of heave and throw at several locations to infer fault dips at depth, combined with observations of primary joint surfaces in the upper 100 m, suggest a highly dilatant fault geometry. Sinkholes observed in the field as well as in airborne imagery give insights in local dilatancy and show where water and sediments are transported underground. Based on correlations of paleosols observed in outcrops and GPR profiles, we argue that either the grabens in Canyonlands National Park are older than previously assumed or that sedimentation rates were much higher in the Pleistocene.

  10. Ground Penetrating Radar Investigation of Sinter Deposits at Old Faithful Geyser and Immediately Adjacent Hydrothermal Features, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, D.; Lynne, B. Y.; Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H.; Smith, G.; Smith, I.

    2015-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to evaluate the characteristics of the shallow subsurface siliceous sinter deposits around Old Faithful Geyser. Zones of fractures, areas of subsurface alteration and pre-eruption hydrologic changes at Old Faithful Geyser and surrounding hydrothermal mounds were observed. Despite being viewed directly by about 3,000,000 people a year, shallow subsurface geologic and hydrologic conditions on and near Old Faithful Geyser are poorly characterized. GPR transects of 5754 ft (1754m) show strong horizontal to sub-horizontal reflections, which are interpreted as 2.5 to 4.5 meters of sinter. Some discontinuities in reflections are interpreted as fractures in the sinter, some of which line up with known hydrothermal features and some of which have little to no surface expression. Zones with moderate and weak amplitude reflections are interpreted as sinter that has been hydrothermally altered. Temporal changes from stronger to weaker reflections are correlated with the eruption cycle of Old Faithful Geyser, and are interpreted as post-eruption draining of shallow fractures, followed by pre-eruption fracture filling with liquid or vapor thermal fluids.

  11. The Denudation Of Oahu, Hawaii USA By Ground And Surface Waters: The Effects Of Climate, Soil Thickness, And Water Contact Times On Ocean Island Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. T.; Tingey, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Access, size, basalt as the dominant bedrock, and climate variation (rainfall varies by 10x) make Oahu, Hawaii, USA an ideal locality for investigating chemical weathering driven denudation rates. New and compiled surface and groundwater solute data permit calculation of mass balances for solutes from Oahu, revealing that groundwater solute fluxes dominate surface water by a factor of 3 to 12, neglecting if biogenic silica removal by streams. Weathering reactions consistent with the observed mineralogy of Oahu soils and the calculated mineralogy of shield-forming tholeiitic basalts permit denudation rates to be partitioned between dissolved and suspended loads where long term erosion via streams and soil formation rates are assumed to be in a steady state. Aerially averaged denudation rates, indexed to the leaching of SiO2, vary from 0.016 to 0.063 m/ka, with about 70% of denudation due to dissolved fluxes. Thus, groundwater appears to be the single most important source of mass flux to the ocean from ocean islands. Dry regions of Oahu have distinctly lower denudation rates, and areas with thick soil profiles have suppressed solute loads in streams because laterites and subjacent saprolites have already been largely depleted in mobile elements. However, systematic differences also exist due to different contact times between groundwater and aquifer materials. The short, shallow circulation of stream base flows permits less extensive reaction with basalt resulting in lower solute loads even in areas where thick soils are largely absent. In addition to larger total water fluxes, deep groundwaters exhibit elevated solute loads across Oahu. Indexing denudation in basaltic terranes to dissolved SiO2, a minor component in seawater, rather than other solutes leads to improved estimates of weathering rates in ocean islands. Other approaches require correction for the atmospheric depositions of sea salts based on Cl- abundances in waters that are assumed to derive solely

  12. Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital optical borehole images, and cores for characterization of porosity hydraulic conductivity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents examples of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data from two study sites in southeastern Florida where karstic Pleistocene platform carbonates that comprise the unconfined Biscayne aquifer were imaged. Important features shown on resultant GPR profiles include: (1) upward and lateral qualitative interpretative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity; (2) paleotopographic relief on karstic subaerial exposure surfaces; and (3) vertical stacking of chronostratigraphic high-frequency cycles (HFCs). These characteristics were verified by comparison to rock properties observed and measured in core samples, and identified in digital optical borehole images. Results demonstrate that an empirical relation exists between measured whole-core porosity and hydraulic conductivity, observed porosity on digital optical borehole images, formation conductivity, and GPR reflection amplitudes-as porosity and hydraulic conductivity determined from core and borehole images increases, formation conductivity increases, and GPR reflection amplitude decreases. This relation allows for qualitative interpretation of the vertical and lateral distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs. Two subtidal HFCs in the uppermost Biscayne aquifer have significantly unique populations of whole-core porosity values and vertical hydraulic conductivity values. Porosity measurements from one cycle has a median value about two to three times greater than the values from the other HFC, and median values of vertical hydraulic-conductivity about three orders of magnitude higher than the other HFC. The HFC with the higher porosity and hydraulic conductivity values is shown as a discrete package of relatively low-amplitude reflections, whereas the HFC characterized by lower porosity and hydraulic-conductivity measurements is expressed by higher amplitude reflections. Porosity and hydraulic-conductivity values measured from whole-core samples, and vuggy porosity

  13. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  14. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wallace M.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B.; Brantley, Sandra L.; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E.; Hall, W. Eugene; Olson, Carl A.; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M.; Brusca, Richard C.; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11–25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  15. The Mathematical Nature of Reasoning-and-Proving Opportunities in Geometry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Samuel; Gilbertson, Nicholas J.; Males, Lorraine M.; Clark, D. Lee

    2014-01-01

    International calls have been made for reasoning-and-proving to permeate school mathematics. It is important that efforts to heed this call are grounded in an understanding of the opportunities to reason-and-prove that already exist, especially in secondary-level geometry where reasoning-and-proving opportunities are prevalent but not thoroughly…

  16. Louisville, KY, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The meandering Ohio River bisecting this image is the border between Kentucky and Indiana. Louisville, KY (38.5N, 86.0W) on the south shore, is the main city seen in this predominately agricultural region where much of the native hardwood forests have been preserved in the hilly terrain. The main crops in this region include corn, alfalfa, wheat and soybeans. The dark rectangle in south Indiana near the river is The U.S. Army's Jefferson Proving Ground.

  17. The Role of Dissolved Loads Partitioned Between Surface and Ground Waters in the Chemical Weathering Rates of Tropical Islands Under Varied Climates: A Preliminary Assessment from Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaistre, M. J.; Nelson, S.; Tingey, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    The island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA is an ideal natural laboratory for understanding the role of climate, surface waters, and ground waters in the erosion and ultimate disappearance of ocean islands. This island is in a post-constructional phase, is composed entirely (or nearly so) of a single rock type (tholeiitic basalt), and rainfall totals vary by about an order of magnitude. On portions of the windward Koolau Range, rain exceeds 7 m annually, whereas portions of the southern island receive less than 0.8 m per year. There is considerable variability in the geochemical facies and total dissolve solid (TDS) content of surface and groundwaters, even among samples from similar climatic settings. Most waters tend to be of the Na-Mg-Cl type. However, ground waters tend to have higher TDS loads than surface waters, indicative of longer contact times with rock. 3H contents of wells average 0.6 TU, streams 1.2 TU, and rain 1.7 TU. Thus, the mean residence of groundwater may be on the order of 15-20 yr. Portions of Oahu such as the north central agricultural region have extremely well-developed soils, and TDS contents are very low on average (<70 mg/L) and similar to rainwater. Ground waters exhibit elevated solute loads, but when corrected for solutes in precipitation, only 50 to 60 additional mg/L have been acquired through water-rock interaction. By contrast, windward Oahu is dominated by the steep slopes of the Koolau Range where thick soils cannot accumulate, and relatively fresh rock is continuously exposed to weathering. When corrected for the contribution of rain, windward ground waters average >600 mg/L derived from water-rock interaction. Oahu has been subdivided into 5 major hydrographic regions and existing water budgets for Oahu can be coupled with mean solute loads for ground and surface water to estimate denudation rates via dissolved loads. Weathering products removed by surface waters are not considered here. Windward and south central Oahu are eroding at

  18. Proving allelopathy in crop-weed interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allelopathy (plant/plant chemical warfare) is difficult to prove, especially when competition for resources is the dominant component of plant/plant interference (interference = allelopathy +competition). This paper describes experimental approaches for proving allelopathy and points out common pit...

  19. Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The batch execution modes of PVS are powerful, but highly technical, features of the system that are mostly accessible to expert users. This paper presents a PVS tool, called ProofLite, that extends the theorem prover interface with a batch proving utility and a proof scripting notation. ProofLite enables a semi-literate proving style where specification and proof scripts reside in the same file. The goal of ProofLite is to provide batch proving and proof scripting capabilities to regular, non-expert, users of PVS.

  20. Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

  1. Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

  2. The Role of Abduction in Proving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedemonte, Bettina; Reid, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes. Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students' mathematical activity and extend Toulmin's model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students'…

  3. Engaging Secondary Students in Reasoning and Proving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    In mathematics, the generation and validation of new knowledge frequently involves alternating between two major activities: (1) making generalizations; and (2) developing arguments. Engaging students in reasoning-and-proving is a challenging goal, but also an important one for deep learning and sense making in mathematics. In this article, the…

  4. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  5. Phenotypes and Virulence among Staphylococcus aureus USA100, USA200, USA300, USA400, and USA600 Clonal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    King, Jessica M.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Stach, Christopher S.; Vu, Bao G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus diseases affect ~500,000 individuals per year in the United States. Worldwide, the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages cause many of the life-threatening S. aureus infections, such as bacteremia, infective endocarditis, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, and surgical site infections. However, the virulence mechanisms associated with these clonal lineages, in particular the USA100 and USA600 isolates, have been severely understudied. We investigated the virulence of these strains, in addition to strains in the USA200, USA300, and USA400 types, in well-established in vitro assays and in vivo in the rabbit model of infective endocarditis and sepsis. We show in the infective endocarditis and sepsis model that strains in the USA100 and USA600 lineages cause high lethality and are proficient in causing native valve infective endocarditis. Strains with high cytolytic activity or producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) or staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) caused lethal sepsis, even with low cytolytic activity. Strains in the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages consistently contained genes that encode for the enterotoxin gene cluster proteins, SEC, or TSST-1 and were proficient at causing infective endocarditis, while the USA300 strains lacked these toxins and were deficient in promoting vegetation growth. The USA100, USA200, and USA400 strains in our collection formed strong biofilms in vitro, whereas the USA200 and USA600 strains exhibited increased blood survival. Hence, infective endocarditis and lethal sepsis are multifactorial and not intrinsic to any one individual clonal group, further highlighting the importance of expanding our knowledge of S. aureus pathogenesis to clonal lineages causative of invasive disease. IMPORTANCE S. aureus is the leading cause of infective endocarditis in the developed world, affecting ~40,000 individuals each year in the United States, and the second leading cause of bacteremia (D

  6. Phenotypes and Virulence among Staphylococcus aureus USA100, USA200, USA300, USA400, and USA600 Clonal Lineages.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica M; Kulhankova, Katarina; Stach, Christopher S; Vu, Bao G; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus diseases affect ~500,000 individuals per year in the United States. Worldwide, the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages cause many of the life-threatening S. aureus infections, such as bacteremia, infective endocarditis, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, and surgical site infections. However, the virulence mechanisms associated with these clonal lineages, in particular the USA100 and USA600 isolates, have been severely understudied. We investigated the virulence of these strains, in addition to strains in the USA200, USA300, and USA400 types, in well-established in vitro assays and in vivo in the rabbit model of infective endocarditis and sepsis. We show in the infective endocarditis and sepsis model that strains in the USA100 and USA600 lineages cause high lethality and are proficient in causing native valve infective endocarditis. Strains with high cytolytic activity or producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) or staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) caused lethal sepsis, even with low cytolytic activity. Strains in the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages consistently contained genes that encode for the enterotoxin gene cluster proteins, SEC, or TSST-1 and were proficient at causing infective endocarditis, while the USA300 strains lacked these toxins and were deficient in promoting vegetation growth. The USA100, USA200, and USA400 strains in our collection formed strong biofilms in vitro, whereas the USA200 and USA600 strains exhibited increased blood survival. Hence, infective endocarditis and lethal sepsis are multifactorial and not intrinsic to any one individual clonal group, further highlighting the importance of expanding our knowledge of S. aureus pathogenesis to clonal lineages causative of invasive disease. IMPORTANCE S. aureus is the leading cause of infective endocarditis in the developed world, affecting ~40,000 individuals each year in the United States, and the second leading cause of bacteremia (D. R

  7. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

    2002-01-01

    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  8. Effect of ground-water recharge on configuration of the water table beneath sand dunes and on seepage in lakes in the sandhills of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1986-10-01

    Analysis of water-level fluctuations in about 30 observation wells and 5 lakes in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the sandhills of Nebraska indicates water-table configuration beneath sand dunes in this area varies considerably, depending on the configuration of the topography of the dunes. If the topography of an interlake dunal area is hummocky, ground-water recharge is focused at topographic lows causing formation of water-table mounds. These mounds prevent ground-water movement from topographically high lakes to adjacent lower lakes. If a dune ridge is sharp, the opportunity for focused recharge does not exist, resulting in water-table troughs between lakes. Lakes aligned in descending altitudes, parallel to the principal direction of regional ground-water movement, generally have seepage from higher lakes toward lower lakes.

  9. Effect of ground-water recharge on configuration of the water table beneath sand dunes and on seepage in lakes in the sandhills of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of water-level fluctuations in about 30 observation wells and 5 lakes in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the sandhills of Nebraska indicates water-table configuration beneath sand dunes in this area varies considerably, depending on the configuration of the topography of the dunes. If the topography of an interlake dunal area is hummocky, ground-water recharge is focused at topographic lows causing formation of water-table mounds. These mounds prevent ground-water movement from topographically high lakes to adjacent lower lakes. If a dune ridge is sharp, the opportunity for focused recharge does not exist, resulting in water-table troughs between lakes. Lakes aligned in descending altitudes, parallel to the principal direction of regional ground-water movement, generally have seepage from higher lakes toward lower lakes. ?? 1986.

  10. Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Leary, John

    2009-01-01

    For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.

  11. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  12. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  13. Proving Program Termination With Matrix Weighted Digraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Program termination analysis is an important task in logic and computer science. While determining if a program terminates is known to be undecidable in general, there has been a significant amount of attention given to finding sufficient and computationally practical conditions to prove termination. One such method takes a program and builds from it a matrix weighted digraph. These are directed graphs whose edges are labeled by square matrices with entries in {-1,0,1}, equipped with a nonstandard matrix multiplication. Certain properties of this digraph are known to imply the termination of the related program. In particular, termination of the program can be determined from the weights of the circuits in the digraph. In this talk, the motivation for addressing termination and how matrix weighted digraphs arise will be briefly discussed. The remainder of the talk will describe an efficient method for bounding the weights of a finite set of the circuits in a matrix weighted digraph, which allows termination of the related program to be deduced.

  14. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  15. Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Integrated Space Transportation; 2) Fourth Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Research; 3) Ground Operations; 4) Ground Operations Technologies; 5) Sensors; and 6) Umbilicals. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Ground truth versus no ground truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    The area of study was the southeastern Arizona test site and three areas within the site were studied in detail: Safford, Point of Pines, and Fort Apache-White River. These areas have terrain contrast ranging from flat arid regions to high alpine mountains. Data were obtained from the Apollo 9 photographic missions, high altitude aerial photography, and simulated ERTS-A data from high altitude aircraft. Various monoscopic and steroscopic devices were used to analyze the features, and film density variations were studied. No ground-based data were permitted. Thematic maps were prepared for geology, geomorphology, vegetation, hydrology, and soils. Interpreted boundaries were delineated, with no collaborative data used in the interpretation. Ground-based data were gathered during the overflight of high altitude aerial photography. A further study was made using the ground truth, and the data gathered on the ground were compared with original mapping. 80% to 85% of the interpretations in the areas checked were correct. It was proved that it is possible to monitor gross features of the vigor of crop lands and vegetative cover, to type soils and classify geologic features, and to determine hydrologic conditions.

  17. Operation Ivy. Report of commander, Task Group 132. 1. Pacific Proving Grounds. Joint Task Force 132

    SciTech Connect

    Burriss, S.W.

    1984-10-31

    The mission of the Task Group included the responsibilities to conduct experimental measurement programs on Shots Mike and King and to conduct the radiological safety program. Programs were established to make radiochemical analysis of bomb debris; to follow the progress of the nuclear reaction; to make neutron, gamma-ray, blast, thermal radiation, and electromagnetic measurements; and to make a preliminary geophysical and marine survey of the test area. The organizational structure and command relations to accomplish the mission are outlined.

  18. Mathematics Education as a Proving-Ground for Information-Processing Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Brian, Ed.; Verschaffel, Lieven, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Five papers discuss the current and potential contributions of information-processing theory to our understanding of mathematical thinking as those contributions affect the practice of mathematics education. It is concluded that information-processing theories need to be supplemented in various ways to more adequately reflect the complexity of…

  19. Human genetics after the bomb: Archives, clinics, proving grounds and board rooms.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I track the history of post-1945 human genetics and genomics emphasizing the importance of ideas about risk to the scientific study and medical management of human heredity. Drawing on my own scholarship as it is refracted through important new work by other scholars both junior and senior, I explore how radiation risk and then later disease risk mattered to the development of genetics and genomics, particularly in the United States. In this context I excavate one of the central ironies of post-war human genetics: while studies of DNA as the origin and cause of diseases have been lavishly supported by public institutions and private investment around the world, the day-to-day labor of intensive clinical innovation has played a far more important role in the actual human experience of genetic disease and genetic risk for affected families. This has implications for the archival record, where clinical interactions are less readily accessible to historians. This paper then suggests that modern genomics grew out of radiation risk; that it was and remains a risk assessment science; that it is temporally embedded as a form of both prediction and historical reconstruction; and that it has become a big business focused more on risk and prediction (which can be readily marketed) than on effective clinical intervention. PMID:26456508

  20. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approximately 9,275 yards S. 51°04′ W. to a point in Chesapeake Bay about 1,700 yards due east from Taylor... Bush River from Pond Point to Chelsea Chimney are closed for fishing purposes. (2) The remainder of the... purposes of water skiing as outlined above) including, but not limited to, swimming, scuba diving, or...

  1. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approximately 9,275 yards S. 51°04′ W. to a point in Chesapeake Bay about 1,700 yards due east from Taylor... Bush River from Pond Point to Chelsea Chimney are closed for fishing purposes. (2) The remainder of the... purposes of water skiing as outlined above) including, but not limited to, swimming, scuba diving, or...

  2. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approximately 9,275 yards S. 51°04′ W. to a point in Chesapeake Bay about 1,700 yards due east from Taylor... Bush River from Pond Point to Chelsea Chimney are closed for fishing purposes. (2) The remainder of the... purposes of water skiing as outlined above) including, but not limited to, swimming, scuba diving, or...

  3. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approximately 9,275 yards S. 51°04′ W. to a point in Chesapeake Bay about 1,700 yards due east from Taylor... Bush River from Pond Point to Chelsea Chimney are closed for fishing purposes. (2) The remainder of the... purposes of water skiing as outlined above) including, but not limited to, swimming, scuba diving, or...

  4. Demand reduction attachments for Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Aberdeen, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This group of attachments includes: Electric Rates and Riders; BGE Substation Requirements; Electric Utility Bills; BGE `Billing Interface Data`; Metering Data; Incremental Cost Calculations; Electric Submeter Readings; Natural Gas Bills LCCID Data; LCCID - Energy Escalation Values; Scope of Architect and Engineer Services; Interim Review Comments; Interim Review Responses; Interim Review Meeting Minutes; Telephone Conversation Minutes and Conversations; and Pre-Final Review Comments.

  5. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Swan Creek, Harford County, Maryland, the most northerly point of the reservation known as Plum... the boundary of the reservation to Swan Creek; and thence in a straight line to Plum Point. (The...

  6. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Haffenden, R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an RI/FS is to characterize the nature and extent of the risks posed by contaminants present at a site and to develop and evaluate options for remedial actions. The overall objective of the RI is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of site conditions, types and quantities of contaminants present, release mechanisms and migration pathways, target populations, and risks to human health and the environment. The information developed during the RI provides the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions during the FS. The purpose of this RI Work Plan is to define the tasks that will direct the remedial investigation of the J-Field site at APG.

  7. 78 FR 60238 - Proposed Modification and Establishment of Restricted Areas; Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Aerostats. The Aerostat is a 243-foot long balloon that resembles a blimp in appearance. The balloons would... Maryland. The purpose of the proposed R-4001C is to contain two moored balloons, called Aerostats that... Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone: (202) 267-8783....

  8. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program... tests. However, pilot flight training may be conducted during the proving tests. (d) Validation...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program... tests. However, pilot flight training may be conducted during the proving tests. (d) Validation...

  10. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  11. CHILD HEALTH USA 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Child Health USA 2002, the thirteenth annual report on the health status and service needs of America's children is presented by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). To assess the bureau's progress toward achieving its vision...

  12. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a detailed look at the national seashore recreation area with its many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago.

  13. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.5W) is a detailed look at the national seashore recreation area with its many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago.

  14. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  15. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    U.S. crude oil proved reserves increased in 2014 for the sixth year in a row with a net addition of 3.4 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (a 9% increase), according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2014, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). U.S. natural gas proved reserves increased 10% in 2014, raising the U.S. total to a record 388.8 trillion cubic feet.

  16. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  17. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  18. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots...

  20. A New Approach for Proving or Generating Combinatorial Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A new method for proving, in an immediate way, many combinatorial identities is presented. The method is based on a simple recursive combinatorial formula involving n + 1 arbitrary real parameters. Moreover, this formula enables one not only to prove, but also generate many different combinatorial identities (not being required to know them "a…

  1. Generating and Using Examples in the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, J.; Mason, J.; Stylianides, G. J.; Watson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on our analysis of data from a dataset of 26 videotapes of university students working in groups of 2 and 3 on different proving problems. Our aim is to understand the role of example generation in the proving process, focusing on deliberate changes in representation and symbol manipulation. We suggest and illustrate four aspects of…

  2. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions towards Proof and Proving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersen, Zeynep Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Since mathematical proof and proving are in the center of mathematics; preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions against these concepts have a great importance. Therefore, the study aimed to determine preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions towards proof and proving through metaphors. The participants consisted of 192 preservice…

  3. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Art

    1998-01-01

    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  4. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  5. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  6. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  7. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  8. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  9. Procedures and equipment for field proving Coriolis meters

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, C.; Liu, K.T.; Shen, J.J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As one of the fastest growing flowmeter technologies, Coriolis meters are now gaining wider usage in the petroleum and petrochemical industries for custody transfer measurement. As with other traditional custody transfer flowmeters, periodic on-line proving of the Coriolis meter is required. At present, volumetric provers, such as conventional pipe provers and small volume provers, are regarded as the only practical means for flowmeter proving. Depending on how the Coriolis meter`s output is configured, proving techniques differ. In general, if a Coriolis meter is configured to provide mass flow output, an accurate fluid density during proving will need to be determined for volume-to-mass conversion calculations. If a Coriolis meter is configured to provide volumetric flow output, then the same proving procedure for conventional volumetric flowmeters can be adopted. This paper describes the procedures and associated equipment needed for field proving of Coriolis meters. Field proving data collected from several meter installations has shown acceptable proving repeatability and meter factor stability.

  10. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No certificate holder may...) Validation testing is required to determine that a certificate holder is capable of conducting...

  11. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No certificate holder may...) Validation testing is required to determine that a certificate holder is capable of conducting...

  12. Reasoning-and-Proving in School Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread agreement that the activity of "reasoning-and-proving" should be central to all students' mathematical experiences, many students face serious difficulties with this activity. Mathematics textbooks can play an important role in students' opportunities to engage in reasoning-and-proving: research suggests that many decisions that…

  13. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  14. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.5W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  15. Ground Zero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozada, Marlene

    1998-01-01

    Many public school districts have adopted a policy of zero tolerance toward drug use, weapon possession, and sexual harassment on school grounds. Although a study by the National Center for Education Statistics reported no evidence that zero tolerance policies have lowered school crime rates, prominent education groups favor them. (JOW)

  16. Ground control for highwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C.

    2007-09-15

    Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

  17. GSTAMIDS ground-penetrating radar: hardware description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sower, Gary D.; Eberly, John; Christy, Ed

    2001-10-01

    The Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) is now in the Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) Block 0 phase for USA CECOM. The Mine Detection Subsystem (MDS) presently utilizes three different sensor technologies to detect buried anti-tank (AT) land mines; Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI), and passive infrared (IR). The GSTAMIDS hardware and software architectures are designed so that other technologies can readily be incorporated when and if they prove viable. Each sensor suite is designed to detect the buried mines and to discriminate against various clutter and background objects. Sensor data fusion of the outputs of the individual sensor suites then enhances the detection probability while reducing the false alarm rate from clutter objects. The metal detector is an essential tool for buried mine detection, as metal land mines still account for a large percentage of land mines. Technologies such as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR or QR) are presently being developed to detect or confirm the presence of explosive material in buried land mines, particularly the so-called plastic mines; unfortunately, the radio frequency signals required cannot penetrate into a metal land mine. The limitation of the metal detector is not in detection of the metal mines, but in the additional detection of metal clutter. A metal detector has been developed using singular value decomposition (SVD) extraction techniques to discriminate the mines from the clutter, thereby greatly reducing false alarm rates. This mine detector is designed to characterize the impulse response function of the metal objects, based on a parametric three-pole model of the response, and to use pattern recognition to determine the match of the responses to known mines. In addition to discrimination against clutter, the system can also generally tell one mine type from another. This paper describes the PMI sensor suite hardware and its physical incorporation

  18. Development of Cyberinfrastructure to Support the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. E.; Hruby, T. H.; Meymaris, K.; Grunberg, W.; Crom, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership among academic communities, federal agencies, and volunteers. The USA-NPN consists of four components, representing different levels of spatial coverage and quality/quantity of phenological and related environmental information: 1) Locally intensive sites focused on process studies; 2) Spatially extensive scientific networks focused on large- scale phenomena; 3) Volunteer and Education Networks; and 4) remote sensing products that can be validated against ground observations and assimilated to extend surface phenological observations to the continental- scale. A critical challenge for the USA-NPN is the development of a robust and cost-effective cyberinfrastructure which supports the distributed collection and management of phenological data across these differing components. In this presentation, we will present the Phase I cyberinfrastructure for USA-NPN, designed to support the most critical needs across these tiers, as well as the structure planned for Phases II and III. Phase I is based on a range of technologies leveraged from several efforts, including the Plant Phenology Network, the National Biological Information Infrastructure Metadata Clearinghouse, Project BudBurst, and the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center.

  19. Proving the mechanical integrity of solution mined caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Van Fossan, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-523) specifies an Underground Injection Control (UIC) program be promulgated to satisfy certain requirements of the act. Underground storage wells are covered by the act. The most crucial item in any UIC program is the requirement of proving the mechanical integrity of a storage system. This work enumerates the individual elements of a hydrocarbon underground storage system in domal salt, addresses the nature and magnitude of the maximum forces which may be exerted on each element, and proposes tests which will prove that each element is capable of resisting these forces. Appropriate safety factors also are proposed.

  20. Dengue in Florida (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.

    2014-01-01

    Florida (USA), particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases), and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes. PMID:26462955

  1. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121.163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  2. Learning to prove: from examples to general statements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovitz, Buma; Berezina, Miryam; Berman, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we describe a method for teaching students to prove some mathematical statements independently, by using specially designed auxiliary assignments. The assignments are designed as homework problems and can be adapted for online learning. We illustrate our method using examples from calculus and differential equations.

  3. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reserves. 229.1203 Section 229.1203 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1203 (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves. (a) Disclose the...

  4. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reserves. 229.1203 Section 229.1203 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1203 (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves. (a) Disclose the...

  5. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reserves. 229.1203 Section 229.1203 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1203 (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves. (a) Disclose the...

  6. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reserves. 229.1203 Section 229.1203 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1203 (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves. (a) Disclose the...

  7. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reserves. 229.1203 Section 229.1203 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1203 (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves. (a) Disclose the...

  8. Not All Opportunities to Prove Are the Same

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.; Otten, Samuel; Males, Lorraine M.; Clark, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Confusion can arise from the subtle difference between proving a general and a particular statement, especially when general statements are presented by textbooks in ways that make them appear particular in nature. The authors discuss the implications for teaching proof in light of the current opportunities in high school geometry textbooks.

  9. Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving.

    PubMed

    Hipólito, Inês

    2015-12-01

    Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: "the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)". This "exact replica" brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving process? What is the ontological status of a mathematical proof? Can computer assisted provers output a proof? Taking a naturalized world account, I will assess the relationship between mathematics, the physical world and consciousness by introducing a significant conceptual distinction between proving and proof. I will propose that proving is a phenomenological conscious experience. This experience involves a combination of what Kurt Gödel called intuition, and what Husserl called intentionality. In contrast, proof is a function of that process - the mathematical phenomenon - that objectively self-presents a property in the world, and that results from a spatiotemporal unity being subject to the exact laws of nature. In this essay, I apply phenomenology to mathematical proving as a performance of consciousness, that is, a lived experience expressed and formalized in language, in which there is the possibility of formulating intersubjectively shareable meanings. PMID:26160643

  10. Prove It! Putting Together the Evidence-Based Practice Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Hannah Byrd

    2015-01-01

    Why is it important to prove that school libraries add value to the school program? The National Center for Education Statistics reports that 20 percent of U.S. public schools lack a full or part-time certified librarian (NCES 2013). In California the ratio of certified school librarians to students is 1:7,374 (California Department of Education…

  11. Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.

  12. Three Lectures on Theorem-proving and Program Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning theorem proving and program verification are discussed with particlar emphasis on the Boyer/Moore theorem prover, and approaches to program verification such as the functional and interpreter methods and the inductive assertion approach. A history of the discipline and specific program examples are included.

  13. Solving open questions with an automated theorem-proving program

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of using an automated theorem-proving program as an automated reasoning assistant. Such usage is not merely a matter of conjecture. As evidence, we cite a number of open questions which were solved with the aid of a theorem-proving program. The open questions are taken from studies of ternary boolean algebra, finite semigroups, equivalential calculus, and the design of digital circuits. Despite the variety of successes, no doubt there still exists many who are very skeptical of the value of automating any form of deep reasoning. It is the nature of this skepticism which brings us to the second objective of the paper. The secondary objective is that of dispelling, at least in part, some of the resistance to such automation. To do this, we discuss two myths which form the basis for the inaccurate evaluation of both the usefulness and the potential of automated theorem proving. Rejection of the two myths removes an important obstacle to assigning to an automated theorem-proving program its proper role - the role of colleague and assistant.

  14. FrogwatchUSA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  15. Using Theorem Proving to Verify Properties of Agent Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alechina, N.; Dastani, M.; Khan, F.; Logan, B.; Meyer, J.-J. Ch.

    We present a sound and complete logic for automatic verification of simpleAPL programs. simpleAPL is a simplified version of agent programming languages such as 3APL and 2APL designed for the implementation of cognitive agents with beliefs, goals and plans. Our logic is a variant of PDL, and allows the specification of safety and liveness properties of agent programs. We prove a correspondence between the operational semantics of simpleAPL and the models of the logic for two example program execution strategies. We show how to translate agent programs written in simpleAPL into expressions of the logic, and give an example in which we show how to verify correctness properties for a simple agent program using theorem-proving.

  16. Unicorns do exist: a tutorial on "proving" the null hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Streiner, David L

    2003-12-01

    Introductory statistics classes teach us that we can never prove the null hypothesis; all we can do is reject or fail to reject it. However, there are times when it is necessary to try to prove the nonexistence of a difference between groups. This most often happens within the context of comparing a new treatment against an established one and showing that the new intervention is not inferior to the standard. This article first outlines the logic of "noninferiority" testing by differentiating between the null hypothesis (that which we are trying to nullify) and the "nill" hypothesis (there is no difference), reversing the role of the null and alternate hypotheses, and defining an interval within which groups are said to be equivalent. We then work through an example and show how to calculate sample sizes for noninferiority studies. PMID:14733457

  17. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  18. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  19. An entry in the 1992 Overbeek theorem-proving contest

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE) has been for nearly twenty years a meeting where both theoreticians and system implementors present their work. Feeling perhaps that the conference was becoming dominated by the theoreticians, Ross Overbeek proposed at CADE-10 in 1990 a contest to stimulate work on the implementation and use of theorem-proving systems. The challenge was to prove a set of theorems, and do so with a uniform approach. That is, it was not allowed to set parameters in the system to specialize it for individual problems. There were actually two separate contests, one represented by a set of seven problems designed to test basic inference components, and the other represented by a set of ten problems designed to test equality-based systems. This paper describes our experiences in preparing to enter the contest with OTTER and Roo, two systems developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Roo is a parallel version of OTTER, but has such different behavior in some cases that we treat them as separate entries. We entered each of them in both contests. Some of the problems are difficult ones; and although many of the problems had been done before with OTTER, in each case we had set OTTER'S many input parameters in a way customized to the problem at hand, and chosen a set of support that appeared to us to be most natural. It was a challenge to come up with a uniform set of parameter settings and a information algorithm for picking the set of support that would allow OTTER to prove each of the theorems.

  20. An entry in the 1992 Overbeek theorem-proving contest

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE) has been for nearly twenty years a meeting where both theoreticians and system implementors present their work. Feeling perhaps that the conference was becoming dominated by the theoreticians, Ross Overbeek proposed at CADE-10 in 1990 a contest to stimulate work on the implementation and use of theorem-proving systems. The challenge was to prove a set of theorems, and do so with a uniform approach. That is, it was not allowed to set parameters in the system to specialize it for individual problems. There were actually two separate contests, one represented by a set of seven problems designed to test basic inference components, and the other represented by a set of ten problems designed to test equality-based systems. This paper describes our experiences in preparing to enter the contest with OTTER and Roo, two systems developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Roo is a parallel version of OTTER, but has such different behavior in some cases that we treat them as separate entries. We entered each of them in both contests. Some of the problems are difficult ones; and although many of the problems had been done before with OTTER, in each case we had set OTTER`S many input parameters in a way customized to the problem at hand, and chosen a set of support that appeared to us to be most natural. It was a challenge to come up with a uniform set of parameter settings and a information algorithm for picking the set of support that would allow OTTER to prove each of the theorems.

  1. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Goo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff's right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  2. The ultimate challenge: prove B. F. Skinner wrong.

    PubMed

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  3. Strategy-Enhanced Interactive Proving and Arithmetic Simplification for PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to strategy-based proving for improved interactive deduction in specialized domains. An experimental package of strategies (tactics) and support functions called Manip has been developed for PVS to reduce the tedium of arithmetic manipulation. Included are strategies aimed at algebraic simplification of real-valued expressions. A general deduction architecture is described in which domain-specific strategies, such as those for algebraic manipulation, are supported by more generic features, such as term-access techniques applicable in arbitrary settings. An extended expression language provides access to subterms within a sequent.

  4. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  5. Reasoning by analogy as an aid to heuristic theorem proving.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kling, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    When heuristic problem-solving programs are faced with large data bases that contain numbers of facts far in excess of those needed to solve any particular problem, their performance rapidly deteriorates. In this paper, the correspondence between a new unsolved problem and a previously solved analogous problem is computed and invoked to tailor large data bases to manageable sizes. This paper outlines the design of an algorithm for generating and exploiting analogies between theorems posed to a resolution-logic system. These algorithms are believed to be the first computationally feasible development of reasoning by analogy to be applied to heuristic theorem proving.

  6. Research in advanced formal theorem-proving techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rulifson, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The present status is summarized of a continuing research program aimed at the design and implementation of a language for expressing problem-solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence, including program synthesis, robot planning, and theorem proving. Notations, concepts, and procedures common to the representation and solution of many of these problems were abstracted and incorporated as features into the language. The areas of research covered are described, and abstracts of six papers that contain extensive description and technical detail of the work are presented.

  7. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  8. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  9. Improving water-use efficiency for ictalurid catfish pond aquaculture in Northwest Mississippi, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a 50-year (1961-2010) daily record of precipitation and evaporation in a hydrological model to simulate ground water withdrawal for the foodfish grow-out phase of ictalurid catfish culture in northwest Mississippi, USA. The model examined the effects of seepage, reusing water for multiple y...

  10. The X-33 Program, Proving Single Stage to Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Robert E.; Rising, Jerry J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33, NASA's flagship for reusable space plane technology demonstration, is on course to permit a crucial decision for the nation by the end of this decade. Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, NASA's partner in this effort, has led a dedicated and talented industry and government team that have met and solved numerous challenges within the first 26 months. This program began by accepting the mandate that included two unprecedented and highly challenging goals: 1) demonstrate single stage to orbit technologies in flight and ground demonstration in less than 42 months and 2) demonstrate a new government and industry management relationship working together with industry in the lead.

  11. Thomas Cragg Proves to Be a Good Observer (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.; Clette, F.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Thomas Cragg proves to be a good observer, enough to be included in the restricted club of 21 long-duration stations without major stability problems over the interval 1945-2015. Although, his counts seem to make a slight downward jump in 1983, and there is a sharp decline in the last two years of his observing career (aging?). Cragg's observations will be used for the equivalent comparison with the new reconstructed sunspot number that is produced from the 21 stations showing the same features in the past six solar cycles. This reconstructed number is fully independent from the original Zürich sunspot number. It actually confirms the corrections being applied to the original sunspot number series (a more simple approach simply multiplying the original series by the correction factor established for the Locarno Observatory's drift), as published in the 2014 paper, by Frédéric Clette, SILSO, Royal Observatory of Belgium.

  12. Methods for proving the equivalency of detonator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, Alan C; Akinci, Adrian A; Thomas, Keith A; Clarke, Steve A; Martin, Eric S; Murphy, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges facing engineers is developing newer, safer detonators that are equivalent to devices currently in use. There is no clear consensus on an exact method for drawing equivalence of detonators. This paper summarizes our current efforts to develop diagnostics addressing various aspects of detonator design to better quantify and prove equivalency. We consider various optical techniques to quantify the output pressure and output wave shape. The development of a unique interpretation of streak camera breakouts, known as the apparent center of initiation, will be discussed as a metric for detonation wave shape. Specific examples apply these techniques to the comparison of a new laser-driven detonator with an existing exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. Successes and short-comings of the techniques will be discussed.

  13. Model Checking Failed Conjectures in Theorem Proving: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee; Miner, Paul; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    Interactive mechanical theorem proving can provide high assurance of correct design, but it can also be a slow iterative process. Much time is spent determining why a proof of a conjecture is not forthcoming. In some cases, the conjecture is false and in others, the attempted proof is insufficient. In this case study, we use the SAL family of model checkers to generate a concrete counterexample to an unproven conjecture specified in the mechanical theorem prover, PVS. The focus of our case study is the ROBUS Interactive Consistency Protocol. We combine the use of a mechanical theorem prover and a model checker to expose a subtle flaw in the protocol that occurs under a particular scenario of faults and processor states. Uncovering the flaw allows us to mend the protocol and complete its general verification in PVS.

  14. HIGH ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS AND ENRICHED SULFUR AND OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN A FRACTURED-BEDROCK GROUND-WATER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated arsenic concentrations are coincident with enriched sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in bedrock ground water within Kelly's Cove watershed, Northport, Maine, USA. Interpretation of the data is complicated by the lack of correlations between sulfate concentrations an...

  15. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

    Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

    Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

    The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

    The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on

  16. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

    Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

    Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

    The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

    The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on

  17. Carbon fiber plume sampling for large scale fire tests at Dugway Proving Ground. [fiber release during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovit, A. R.; Lieberman, P.; Freeman, D. E.; Beggs, W. C.; Millavec, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber sampling instruments were developed: passive collectors made of sticky bridal veil mesh, and active instruments using a light emitting diode (LED) source. These instruments measured the number or number rate of carbon fibers released from carbon/graphite composite material when the material was burned in a 10.7 m (35 ft) dia JP-4 pool fire for approximately 20 minutes. The instruments were placed in an array suspended from a 305 m by 305 m (1000 ft by 1000 ft) Jacob's Ladder net held vertically aloft by balloons and oriented crosswind approximately 140 meters downwind of the pool fire. Three tests were conducted during which released carbon fiber data were acquired. These data were reduced and analyzed to obtain the characteristics of the released fibers including their spatial and size distributions and estimates of the number and total mass of fibers released. The results of the data analyses showed that 2.5 to 3.5 x 10 to the 8th power single carbon fibers were released during the 20 minute burn of 30 to 50 kg mass of initial, unburned carbon fiber material. The mass released as single carbon fibers was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.2% of the initial, unburned fiber mass.

  18. Work Plan for the Feasibility Study for Remedial Action at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Haffenden, R.; Goyette, M.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Yuen, C.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the feasibility study is to gather sufficient information to develop and evaluate alternative remedial actions to address contamination at J-Field in compliance with the NCP, CERCLA, and SARA. This FS Work Plan summarizes existing environmental data for each AOC and outlines the tasks to be performed to evaluate and select remedial technologies. The tasks to be performed will include (1) developing remedial action objectives and identifying response actions to meet these objectives; (2) identifying and screening remedial action technologies on the basis of effectiveness, implementability, and cost; (3) assembling technologies into comprehensive alternatives for J-Field; (4) evaluating, in detail, each alternative against the nine EPA evaluation criteria and comparing the alternatives to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses; and (5) selecting the preferred alternative for each operable unit.

  19. 76 FR 7585 - General Motors Corporation Milford Proving Grounds Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adroit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 39046). The workers supply support services related to the production of..., Non-IT Business Development and Engineering Application Support Teams Milford, MI; Amended... investigation shows that workers of the Non-IT Business Development Team and the Engineering...

  20. Combining ER and GPR surveys for evidence of prehistoric landscape construction: case study at Mound City, Ohio, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, B. B.; Mandel, R. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.; De Vore, S. L.; Lynott, M.

    2016-06-01

    Mound City, located at the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park in south-central Ohio, USA, is a prehistoric earthwork (200 BC-500 AD) that consists of 24 mounds enclosed in a square embankment wall and is surrounded by eight pits. Recent excavation of two of these pits resulted in the discovery of a clay loam liner that appears to have been placed on the floor of the pits by a prehistoric society known as the Hopewell. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial pattern of this liner in one of the pits using non-invasive geophysical techniques, specifically electrical resistivity and ground-penetrating radar. Minimally invasive soil augers and a test trench yielded information that was used to corroborate interpretations of the geophysical data. The geophysical methods proved to be useful in locating and defining the remnants of the prehistoric clay loam liner, and the results of our investigation indicate that almost 50% of the liner still remains in the pit today. This discovery supports a new interpretation that the Hopewell excavated and preserved the pits at the Mound City site because they served as cultural landscape features.

  1. Proving refinement transformations for deriving high-assurance software

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.; Boyle, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The construction of a high-assurance system requires some evidence, ideally a proof, that the system as implemented will behave as required. Direct proofs of implementations do not scale up well as systems become more complex and therefore are of limited value. In recent years, refinement-based approaches have been investigated as a means to manage the complexity inherent in the verification process. In a refinement-based approach, a high-level specification is converted into an implementation through a number of refinement steps. The hope is that the proofs of the individual refinement steps will be easier than a direct proof of the implementation. However, if stepwise refinement is performed manually, the number of steps is severely limited, implying that the size of each step is large. If refinement steps are large, then proofs of their correctness will not be much easier than a direct proof of the implementation. The authors describe an approach to refinement-based software development that is based on automatic application of refinements, expressed as program transformations. This automation has the desirable effect that the refinement steps can be extremely small and, thus, easy to prove correct. They give an overview of the TAMPR transformation system that the use for automated refinement. They then focus on some aspects of the semantic framework that they have been developing to enable proofs that TAMPR transformations are correctness preserving. With this framework, proofs of correctness for transformations can be obtained with the assistance of an automated reasoning system.

  2. Claim of largest flood on record proves false

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffer, N. A.; Enzel, Y.; Waldmann, N.; Grodek, T.; Benito, G.

    A study of paleofloods in the Gardon River in southern France reveals the occurrence of past extreme floods that were larger than any observed historically. From 8 to 9 September 2002, during the course of the study by a complete coincidence, an extreme flood claimed the lives of 21 people and caused millions of dollars worth of damage to the towns and villages along the river. This flood was larger in magnitude than any flood on record, according to gaged data since 1890.An autumn storm, which is typical of this region, struck with immense force. The rain cell migrated from the lower reaches of the basin on the evening of 8 September to the upper parts of the basin, producing 680 mm of rain in 20 hours.The flood's peak discharge is preliminary estimated at 6000 m3 s-1. This flood is now considered by the media and professionals to be “The largest flood on record.” However, our research proves otherwise.

  3. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  4. Ground difference compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  5. Ground test experiment for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollison, D. K.; Waites, H. B.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a new body of control theory has been developed for the design of control systems for Large Space Structures (LSS). The problems of testing this theory on LSS hardware are aggravated by the expense and risk of actual in orbit tests. Ground tests on large space structures can provide a proving ground for candidate control systems, but such tests require a unique facility for their execution. The current development of such a facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the subject of this report.

  6. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  7. Ground state energy of large polaron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benguria, Rafael D.; Frank, Rupert L.; Lieb, Elliott H.

    2015-02-15

    The last unsolved problem about the many-polaron system, in the Pekar–Tomasevich approximation, is the case of bosons with the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion of strength exactly 1 (the “neutral case”). We prove that the ground state energy, for large N, goes exactly as −N{sup 7/5}, and we give upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic coefficient that agree to within a factor of 2{sup 2/5}.

  8. Ground state degeneracy of interacting spinless fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhong-Chao; Han, Xing-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Xiang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    We propose an eigenoperator scheme to study the lattice model of interacting spinless fermions at half filling and show that this model possesses a hidden form of reflection positivity in its Majorana fermion representation. Based on this observation, we prove rigourously that the ground state of this model is either unique or doubly degenerate if the lattice size N is even, and is always doubly degenerate if N is odd. This proof holds in all dimensions with arbitrary lattice structures.

  9. Cannabinoids in hair: strategy to prove marijuana/hashish consumption.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Michael; Sachs, Hans

    2004-10-29

    a THC outcome. The most appropriate strategy to prove cannabis consumption is immunochemical initial test followed by a GC/MS/MS confirmation of THCA. PMID:15451086

  10. Longwall - USA: International exhibition & conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Longwall-USA International Exhibition and Conference was held June 4-6, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA. Seventeen papers are included in the proceedings that covered such topics as health and safety, development of gate roads, telemetry monitoring systems, fires, longwall miners, roof support technologies, dust control, moving car bunker systems, reducing longwall noise, vibration of longwall equipment, and the USBM`s strategic structures testing laboratory. A separate abstract with indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Reduction in size and unsteadiness of a VTOL ground vortex by ground fences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbala, John M.; Billet, Michael L.; Harman, Todd B.

    1993-01-01

    A ground vortex, produced when a jet impinges on the ground in the presence of cross flow, is encountered by V/STOL aircraft hovering near the ground and is known to be hazardous to the aircraft. The objective of this research was to identify a ground-based technique by which both the mean size and fluctuation in size of the ground vortex could be reduced. A simple passive method was identified and examined in the laboratory. Specifically, one or two fine wire mesh screens (ground fences) bent in a horseshoe shape and located on the ground in front of the jet impingement point proved to be very effective. The ground fences work by decreasing the momentum of the upstream-traveling wall jet, effectively causing a higher freestream-to-jet velocity ratio (V(sub infinity)/V(sub j)) and thus, a ground vortex smaller in size and unsteadiness. At(V(sub infinity)/V(sub j)) = 0.15, the addition of a single ground fence resulted in a 70 percent reduction in mean size of the ground vortex. With two ground fences, the mean size decreased by about 85 percent. Fluctuations in size decreased nearly in proportion to the mean size, for both the single and double fence configurations. These results were consistent over a wide range of jet Reynolds number (10(exp 4) less than Re(sub jet) less than 10(exp 5)); further development and full-scale Reynolds number testing are required, however, to determine if this technique can be made practical for the case of actual VTOL aircraft.

  12. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  13. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  14. Rainfed farming systems in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter on rainfed farming systems in the USA describes characteristics of four major rainfed farming regions in the USA: Great Plains wheat-sorghum-cattle region, midwestern corn-soybean-hogs region, southern cotton-peanut-poultry region, and coastal diversified crops-dairy region. Rainfed fa...

  15. WOMEN-S HEALTH USA 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women's Health USA 2002, the first annual report on the health status of America's women is presented by the HRSA's Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) and the Office of Women's Health. This first edition of the Women's Health USA data book brings together key facts and figur...

  16. "USA Today": Can the Nation's Newspaper Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Robert H.

    The failure of 17 newspaper markets between 1957 and 1975 raises the question of whether the 1982 entrance of "USA Today" into the newspaper market demonstrated fiscal prudence. A 20-month advertising content analysis was conducted to assess advertising trends in "USA Today." These data were compared with industry statistics obtained from Media…

  17. Dyslexia laws in the USA.

    PubMed

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and regulations for both identification and treatment, and the provision of equal access to students who are diagnosed with dyslexia. The majority of states, however, have not developed such laws and guidelines. The purposes of this article are to review the present status and content of these dyslexia laws, highlight some differences among the laws and regulations across states, and suggest strategies for initiating such laws. PMID:23086699

  18. Photocopy of panoramic photograph entitled "Ground Breaking, April 27, 1918, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of panoramic photograph entitled "Ground Breaking, April 27, 1918, U.S.A. General Hospital no. 21…". Photograph by Rocky Mountain photo and is in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Public Affairs Office, building 120. Photograph in public domain as it is not copyrighted. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  20. Common Grounds for Modelling Mathematics in Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuper, Walther

    2010-01-01

    Two kinds of software, CAS and DGS, are starting to work towards mutual integration. This paper envisages common grounds for such integration based on principles of computer theorem proving (CTP). Presently, the CTP community seems to lack awareness as to which of their products' features might serve mathematics education from high-school to…

  1. Gaining Ground in Understanding the Play-Literacy Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Christie, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Many in the field of early literacy development and learning believe strongly that play and literacy share common ground, but they have found the idea difficult to prove. While some primary research indicates a positive relationship, the impact of play seems to occur at different levels of development, which complicates how researchers view its…

  2. Ground characterization for JAPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attenborough, Keith; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    1993-01-01

    Above-ground propagation modelling at the JAPE (Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment) site requires a reasonably accurate model for the acoustical properties of the ground. Various models for the JAPE site are offered based on theoretical fits to short range data and to longer range data obtained with random noise and pure tones respectively from a loudspeaker under approximately quiescent isothermal conditions.

  3. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  4. Ground energy coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  5. Florida Everglades and Keys, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Though much of southern Florida is covered by clouds, the Florida Everglades and Keys (25.0N, 82.0W) remain relatively clear in this nearly vertical view. The view covers the Gulf of Mexico port city of Ft. Myers, and Lake Okeechobee, at the top of the scene, in the north, The Everglades, in the center and the entire Florida Key Chain at the bottom. Even with the many popcorn clouds, ground detail and the city of Miami is easily discerned.

  6. Parkfield, California, liquefaction prediction ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.; Youd, T.L.; Chen, A.T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The primary purpose of this short note is to formally record the liquefaction prediction (Holzer et al., 1986) made in connection with this predicted earthquake. In addition, this note serves to alert the seismic engineering community to special instrumentation being installed at the prediction site. The instrumentation will consist of 4 downhole accelerometers at depths ranging from 3-30 m, a surface accelerometer, 7 dynamic piezometers distributed in the sand strata between depths of 5 and 15 m, and a network of bench marks for measuring permanent ground deformation.-from Authors

  7. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  8. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  9. Streamlining shuttle ground operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbold, R. L.; Reichert, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    To meet NASA Space Transportation System goals the Shuttle Processing Contractors have to reduce Space Transportation System ground processing time and ground processing costs. These objectives must be met without compromising safety of flight or safety during assembly, test, and service operations. Ground processing requirements are analyzed to determine critical serial flow paths and costly labor-intensive tasks. Processing improvements are realized by improvements in processing methodology, by application of computer-aided technology, and by modernization of KSC facilities. Ongoing improvement efforts are outlined and progress-to-date is described.

  10. Sexual and Alcohol Risk Behaviours of Immigrant Latino Men in the South-eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    RHODES, SCOTT D.; HERGENRATHER, KENNETH C.; GRIFFITH, DEREK; YEE, LELAND J.; ZOMETA, CARLOS S.; MONTAÑO, JAIME; VISSMAN, ARRON T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity, and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the United States (USA). Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants’ photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men’s sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development. PMID:19234948

  11. SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF AIR SPARGING TO REMEDIATE ETHYLENE DEBROMIDE (EDB) IN GROUND WATER INKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) was banned in conventional motor fuel in the USA by 1990, EDB continues to contaminate ground water at many old gasoline service station sites. Although EDB contamination is widespread, there is little performance data on technology to remediat...

  12. Site characterization to support risk assessment of contaminated ground-water- some case studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the USA, “risk assessment" generally refers to an evaluation of the impact of a known concentration of a hazardous material in ground water on human health or environmental quality. This presentation is different. It deals with the impact of a spill or release of hazardous m...

  13. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents and Fuel Components (BTEX and MTBE) in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation is widely used in the USA to deal with ground water contamination from fuel components such as the BTEX compounds or MTBE or TBA and from chlorinated solvents such as PCE, TCE, and TCA. This presentation reviews the theory and practice of MNA in the...

  14. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  15. Ground State Spin Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James; Faccin, Mauro; Biamonte, Jacob

    2013-03-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground-state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground-state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground-state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground-state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  16. Dynamic ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gilbert, William P.

    1990-01-01

    A research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effect of rate of descent on ground effects. A series of powered models were tested in the Vortex Research Facility under conditions with rate of descent and in the 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel under identical conditions but without rate of descent. These results indicate that the rate of descent can have a significant impact on ground effects particularly if vectored or reversed thrust is used.

  17. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  18. Prospective Teachers' Challenges in Teaching Reasoning-and-Proving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.; Shilling-Traina, Leah N.

    2013-01-01

    The activity of "reasoning-and-proving" is at the heart of mathematical sense making and is important for all students' learning as early as the elementary grades. Yet, reasoning-and-proving tends to have a marginal place in elementary school classrooms. This situation can be partly attributed to the fact that many (prospective)…

  19. 18 CFR 1309.8 - Who has the burden of proving that an action is excepted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who has the burden of proving that an action is excepted? 1309.8 Section 1309.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309.8 Who has the burden of proving...

  20. 25 CFR 15.7 - What is a self-proved will?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a self-proved will? 15.7 Section 15.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE PROBATE OF INDIAN ESTATES, EXCEPT FOR MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE NATION AND THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES Introduction § 15.7 What is a self-proved...

  1. 25 CFR 15.7 - What is a self-proved will?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a self-proved will? 15.7 Section 15.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE PROBATE OF INDIAN ESTATES, EXCEPT FOR MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE NATION AND THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES Introduction § 15.7 What is a self-proved...

  2. Agricultural Virtual Water Flows in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Dang, Q.; Lin, X.

    2014-12-01

    Global virtual water trade is an important research topic that has yielded several interesting insights. In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of virtual water flows within the USA, a country with global importance as a major agricultural producer and trade power. This is the first study of domestic virtual water flows based upon intra-national food flow data and it provides insight into how the properties of virtual water flows vary across scales. We find that both the value and volume of food flows within the USA are roughly equivalent to half that of international flows. However, USA food flows are more water intensive than international food trade, due to the higher fraction of water-intensive meat trade within the USA. The USA virtual water flow network is more social, homogeneous, and equitable than the global virtual water trade network, although it is still not perfectly equitable. Importantly, a core group of U.S. States is central to the network structure, indicating that both domestic and international trade may be vulnerable to disruptive climate or economic shocks in these U.S. States.

  3. Characterizing Ground-Water Flow Paths in High-Altitude Fractured Rock Settings Impacted by Mining Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wireman, M.; Williams, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Rocky Mountains of the western USA have tens of thousands of abandoned, inactive and active precious-metal(gold,silver,copper)mine sites. Most of these sites occur in fractured rock hydrogeologic settings. Mining activities often resulted in mobilization and transport of associated heavy metals (zinc,cadmium,lead) which pose a significant threat to aquatic communities in mountain streams.Transport of heavy metals from mine related sources (waste rock piles,tailings impoudments,underground workings, mine pits)can occur along numerous hydrological pathways including complex fracture controlled ground-water pathways. Since 1991, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology and the University of Colorado (INSTAAR)have been conducting applied hydrologic research at the Mary Murphy underground mine. The mine is in the Chalk Creek mining district which is located on the southwestern flanks of the Mount Princeton Batholith, a Tertiary age intrusive comprised primarily of quartz monzonite.The Mount Princeton batholith comprises a large portion of the southern part of the Collegiate Range west of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, CO. Chalk Creek and its 14 tributaries drain about 24,900 hectares of the eastern slopes of the Range including the mining district. Within the mining district, ground-water flow is controlled by the distribution, orientation and permeability of discontinuities within the bedrock. Important discontinuities include faults, joints and weathered zones. Local and intermediate flow systems are perturbed by extensive underground excavations associated with mining (adits, shafts, stopes, drifts,, etc.). During the past 12 years numerous hydrological investigations have been completed. The investigations have been focused on developing tools for characterizing ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of hard-rock mines in fractured-rock settings. In addition, the results from these

  4. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.376 Grounded distribution systems... ground, regardless of the number of power sources. This ground connection must be at the switchboard or at the common ground plate, which must be accessible. (b) Each propulsion, power, lighting,...

  5. Ground Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of humankind, every space adventure, great or small, has begun on the ground. While this seems to be stating the obvious, mission and flight hardware designers who have overlooked this fact have paid a high price, either in loss or damage to the hardware pre-launch, or in mission failure or reduction. Designers may risk not only their flight hardware, but they may also risk their lives, their co-workers lives and even the general public by not heeding safety on the ground. Their eyes may be on the stars but their feet are on the ground! This discussion applies to all forms of flight hardware from the largest rockets to the smallest spare parts.

  6. Utilization of tea grounds as feedstuff for ruminant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Researches on tea have been developed for decades, which prove that tea, especially green tea, has multiple functional components. With the rapid development of beverage industry, the resultant large amounts of tea grounds attract great attention. However, unreasonable utilization of tea grounds would lead to great waste and environmental pollution, especially in summer. In view of the high nutritive value and multiple functional components, tea grounds could be used as feedstuff. By now, researches of tea grounds as feedstuff are mainly on ruminant, as the utilization on other animals is limited to lower level due to high fiber content. Therefore, the following review will begin with a brief introduction of tea grounds and the possible utilization of tea grounds as feedstuff, and then elaborate on the application of ensiling and total mixed ration on ruminant. Apart from the fermentation quality, nutritive value is also provided to assess feasibilities of using tea grounds as feedstuff resources. Finally, a summary on the utilization situation and future direction of using tea grounds as feedstuff is provided in this review. PMID:24369099

  7. Methods for monitoring land subsidence and earth fissures in the Western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, K. C.; Rucker, M. L.; Panda, B. B.

    2015-11-01

    Depletion of groundwater resources in many deep alluvial basin aquifers in the Western USA is causing land subsidence, as it does in many regions worldwide. Land subsidence can severely and adversely impact infrastructure by changing the ground elevation, ground slope (grade) and through the development of ground cracks known as earth fissures that can erode into large gullies. Earth fissures have the potential to compromise the foundations of dams, levees, and other infrastructure and cause failure. Subsequent to an evaluation of the overall subsidence experienced in the vicinity of subsidence-impacted infrastructure, a detailed investigation to search for earth fissures, and design and/or mitigation of potentially effected infrastructure, a focused monitoring system should be designed and implemented. Its purpose is to provide data, and ultimately knowledge, to reduce the potential adverse impacts of land subsidence and earth fissure development to the pertinent infrastructure. This risk reduction is realized by quantifying the rate and distribution of ground deformation, and to detect ground rupture if it occurs, in the vicinity of the infrastructure. The authors have successfully designed and implemented monitoring systems capable of quantifying rates and distributions of ground subsidence and detection of ground rupture at multiple locations throughout the Western USA for several types of infrastructure including dams, levees, channels, basins, roadways, and mining facilities. Effective subsidence and earth fissure monitoring requires understanding and quantification of historic subsidence, estimation of potential future subsidence, delineation of the risk for earth fissures that could impact infrastructure, and motivation and resources to continue monitoring through time. A successful monitoring system provides the means to measure ground deformation, grade changes, displacement, and anticipate and assess the potential for earth fissuring. Employing multiple

  8. Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakis, Spyridon; Hamza, Eman; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.

  9. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Selective service registration record. (9) Census record. (10) School record. (11) Vaccination record. (12... individual is trying to prove. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  10. "Built-in" Merchandising Principles Prove Highly Effective for New University of Utah Bookstore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Colin; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The University of Utah bookstore's expansion incorporated a number of features that have proved valuable, including the single-level floor design, creative signs, movable floor fixtures, removable shelving, and see-through book display units. (LBH)

  11. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  12. Storage tanks: Going above ground

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.C. )

    1994-03-01

    This article examines the trend toward above ground storage tanks for petroleum products and certain hazardous substances. The topics of the article include the advantages and disadvantages of above ground storage tanks, regulations for use of above ground storage tanks, design options, safety issues, and a description of typical users of above ground storage tanks.

  13. Echoes at Ground Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An excerpt from the opening piece in "Everything That Rises: A Book of Convergences" by Lawrence Weschler is presented where the author is talking with Joel Meyerowitz, the only photographer granted unimpeded access to the clean-up operations at ground zero after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The two discuss the parallels between…

  14. Technology at Ground Zero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the robots used to aid in rescue and recovery at Ground Zero after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. The robots were developed as a result of national Science Foundation Quick Response Research Awards. Describes several awards that were made following the attack. (JOW)

  15. Four frequency ground scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The FM-CW Radar, used as a microwave scatterometer is described. Scatterometer system design, scatterometer system calibration, parameter calculation and correction for data acquisition, ground scatterometer data acquistion at Jornada Experimental Range, and Kansas radar cross-calibration test are discussed.

  16. Informed Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  17. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor environments.…

  18. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  19. Kids Voting USA: Bringing Out the Vote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Sydele E.

    1997-01-01

    Kids Voting USA is a grass roots, community-driven voter education program. A Kids Voting community must mobilize corporate sponsors, election officials, media representatives, and administrative staff to print curricula, train teachers, prepare students, welcome them to polling precincts, and count and report their votes. Children become…

  20. SWITCHGRASS FOR BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK IN THE USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as a model herbaceous energy crop for the USA. Intensive research on switchgrass as a biomass feedstock in the 1990s greatly improved our understanding of the adaptation of switchgrass cultivars, production practices, and environmental benefits. ...

  1. The Normalisation of Homeschooling in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2003-01-01

    Home education emerged as a deviant practice in the USA in the late 1970s and became an acceptable alternative to conventional schooling in a remarkably short period of time. This paper argues that the trajectory of normalisation has been shaped by cultural and institutional features peculiar to the US national context. The paper also offers…

  2. Powassan Meningoencephalitis, New York, New York, USA

    PubMed Central

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Whittier, Susan; Kulas, Karen; Kramer, Laura D.; Flam, Robin; Roberts, James Kirkland; Tsiouris, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Disease caused by Powassan virus (POWV), a tick-borne flavivirus, ranges from asymptomatic to severe neurologic compromise and death. Two cases of POWV meningoencephalitis in New York, USA, highlight diagnostic techniques, neurologic outcomes, and the effect of POWV on communities to which it is endemic. PMID:23969017

  3. The USA PATRIOT Act: Archival Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkaus-Randall, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    In October 2001, Congress passed the USA PATRIOT Act to strengthen the ability of the U.S. government to combat terrorism. Unfortunately, some sections of the Act strike at core values and practices of libraries and archives, especially in the areas of record keeping, privacy, confidentiality, security, and access to the collections. This article…

  4. Arctic ecosystem functional zones: identification and quantification using an above and below ground monitoring strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Susan S.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Dou, Shan; Kneafsey, Tim J.; Peterson, John E.; Tas, Neslihan; Torn, Margaret S.; Phuong Tran, Anh; Ulrich, Craig; Wainwright, Haruko; Wu, Yuxin; Wullschleger, Stan

    2015-04-01

    Although accurate prediction of ecosystem feedbacks to climate requires characterization of the properties that influence terrestrial carbon cycling, performing such characterization is challenging due to the disparity of scales involved. This is particularly true in vulnerable Arctic ecosystems, where microbial activities leading to the production of greenhouse gasses are a function of small-scale hydrological, geochemical, and thermal conditions influenced by geomorphology and seasonal dynamics. As part of the DOE Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE-Arctic), we are advancing two approaches to improve the characterization of complex Arctic ecosystems, with an initial application to an ice-wedge polygon dominated tundra site near Barrow, AK, USA. The first advance focuses on developing a new strategy to jointly monitor above- and below- ground properties critical for carbon cycling in the tundra. The strategy includes co-characterization of properties within the three critical ecosystem compartments: land surface (vegetation, water inundation, snow thickness, and geomorphology); active layer (peat thickness, soil moisture, soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, soil temperature, and geochemistry); and permafrost (mineral soil and ice content, nature, and distribution). Using a nested sampling strategy, a wide range of measurements have been collected at the study site over the past three years, including: above-ground imagery (LiDAR, visible, near infrared, NDVI) from various platforms, surface geophysical datasets (electrical, electromagnetic, ground penetrating radar, seismic), and point measurements (such as CO2 and methane fluxes, soil properties, microbial community composition). A subset of the coincident datasets is autonomously collected daily. Laboratory experiments and new inversion approaches are used to improve interpretation of the field geophysical datasets in terms of ecosystem properties. The new strategy has significantly advanced our ability

  5. 78 FR 49270 - Information Collection; MyUSA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ..., and as detailed in the MyUSA System of Records Notice ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-05/pdf... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; MyUSA AGENCY: Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies... request to review and approve a new information collection requirement regarding MyUSA. DATES:...

  6. Advancing adolescent capacity to consent to transgender-related health care in Colombia and the USA.

    PubMed

    Romero, Katherine; Reingold, Rebecca

    2013-05-01

    Many sexual and reproductive health care services, including gender reassignment treatment, facilitate reproductive autonomy and self-determination of gender identity. Individuals who are unable to refuse or consent to these services on their own behalf, such as adolescents, are at risk of violations of their rights to privacy and self-determination. This paper explores the issue of adolescent capacity to consent to transgender-related health care in Colombia and the United States (USA), focusing on the two countries' struggles to balance the rights of adolescents to make autonomous and confidential decisions with the rights of their parents. Unfortunately, many countries, including Colombia and the USA, have been slow to develop jurisprudence and legislation that explicitly protect transgender adolescents' capacity to consent to gender assignment treatment. Courts in Colombia, however, have developed jurisprudence that restricts parents' ability to make medical decisions on behalf of their infant intersex children, which lays a strong normative foundation for advancing adolescent capacity to consent to transgender-related health care. It is a strategy that may prove effective in other countries in the Americas, even those with different frameworks for adolescent medical decision-making capacity, such as the USA. PMID:23684201

  7. Multiyear Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Waterfowl from Wintering Grounds, Texas Coast, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Pamela J.; Budke, Christine M.; Peterson, Markus J.; Cox, Dayna; Roltsch, Emily; Merendino, Todd; Nelson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of influenza A virus in wintering waterfowl from the Central Flyway on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Of 5,363 hunter-harvested migratory and resident waterfowl and wetland-associated game birds sampled during 3 consecutive hunting seasons (September–January 2006–07, 2007–08, and 2008–09), real-time reverse transcription–PCR detected influenza A matrix sequences in 8.5% of samples, H5 in 0.7%, and H7 in 0.6%. Virus isolation yielded 134 influenza A viruses, including N1–N9, H1–H7, H10, and H11 subtypes. Low-pathogenicity H7 subtype was isolated during January, September, and November 2007 and January 2008; low-pathogenicity H5 subtype was isolated during November and December 2007. PMID:20678315

  8. Ground vortex flow field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.

  9. Ground-state entanglement in the XXZ model

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Shijian; Lin Haiqing; Tian Guangshan

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate spin entanglement in the XXZ model defined on a d-dimensional bipartite lattice. The concurrence, a measure of the entanglement between two spins, is analyzed. We prove rigorously that the ground-state concurrence reaches maximum at the isotropic point. For dimensionality d{>=}2, the concurrence develops a cusp at the isotropic point and we attribute it to the existence of magnetic long-range order.

  10. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  11. Goddard Ground System Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center's work in providing the Ground System Infrastructure to allow for standard interfaces, and allow for a mix of heritage and new components. This software has been used by NASA and other Government users. Telemetry and command services are also provided as are mission planning and scheduling systems. Other areas that the presentation covers are work on trending systems, and data management system.

  12. Geological hazards programs and research in the U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and major ground failures in populated regions have been viewed as natural disasters that were unpredictable and producing effects that were unavoidable. research over the past few decades has led to an increased understanding of the effects and causes of geological hazards and to a widening recognition that measures can be taken to reduce their impacts on people and structures. Thus, today, in the U.S.A and elsewhere, formal government programs have been established to study these hazrads, not only to explain and understand the phenomena themselves, but also to provide a basis for warning and mitigation strategies that will reduce losses and suffering. 

  13. Challenge problems focusing on equality and combinatory logic: Evaluating automated theorem-proving programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a set of problems for evaluating the power of automated theorem-proving programs and the potential of new ideas. Since the problems published in the proceedings of the first CADE conference proved to be so useful, and since researchers are now far more disposed to implementing and testing their ideas, a new set of problems to complement those that have been widely studied is in order. In general, the new problems provide a far greater challenge for an automated theorem-proving program than those in the first set do. Indeed, to our knowledge, five of the six problems we propose for study have never been proved with a theorem-proving program. For each problem, we give a set of statements that can easily be translated into a standard set of clauses. We also state each problem in its mathematical and logical form. In many cases, we also provide a proof of the theorem from which a problem is taken so that one can measure a program's progress in its attempt to solve the problem. Two of the theorems we discuss are of especial interest in that they answer questions that had been open concerning the constructibility of two types of combinator. We also include a brief description of a new strategy for restricting the application of paramodulation. All of the problems we propose for study emphasize the role of equality. This paper is tutorial in nature.

  14. Effects of temporal variability in ground data collection on classification accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoch, G.A.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This research tested whether the timing of ground data collection can significantly impact the accuracy of land cover classification. Ft. Riley Military Reservation, Kansas, USA was used to test this hypothesis. The U.S. Army's Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) data annually collected at military bases was used to ground truth disturbance patterns. Ground data collected over an entire growing season and data collected one year after the imagery had a kappa statistic of 0.33. When using ground data from only within two weeks of image acquisition the kappa statistic improved to 0.55. Potential sources of this discrepancy are identified. These data demonstrate that there can be significant amounts of land cover change within a narrow time window on military reservations. To accurately conduct land cover classification at military reservations, ground data need to be collected in as narrow a window of time as possible and be closely synchronized with the date of the satellite imagery.

  15. Grounded spatial belief revision.

    PubMed

    Nejasmic, Jelica; Bucher, Leandra; Knauff, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs frequently undergo revisions, especially when new pieces of information are true but inconsistent with current beliefs. In previous studies, we showed that linguistic asymmetries provided by relational statements, play a crucial role in spatial belief revision. Located objects (LO) are preferably revised compared to reference objects (RO), known as the LO-principle. Here we establish a connection between spatial belief revision and grounded cognition. In three experiments, we explored whether imagined physical object properties influence which object is relocated and which remains at its initial position. Participants mentally revised beliefs about the arrangements of objects which could be envisaged as light and heavy (Experiment 1), small and large (Experiment 2), or movable and immovable (Experiment 3). The results show that intrinsic object properties are differently taken into account during spatial belief revision. Object weight did not alter the LO-principle (Experiment 1), whereas object size was found to influence which object was preferably relocated (Experiment 2). Object movability did not affect relocation preferences but had an effect on relocation durations (Experiment 3). The findings support the simulation hypothesis within the grounded cognition approach and create new connections between the spatial mental model theory of reasoning and the idea of grounded cognition. PMID:25796056

  16. The LOFT ground segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barret, D.; Binko, Pavel; Brandt, S.; Cavazzuti, E.; Courvoisier, T.; den Herder, J. W.; Feroci, M.; Ferrigno, C.; Giommi, P.; Götz, D.; Guy, L.; Hernanz, M.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Klochkov, D.; Kuulkers, Erik; Motch, C.; Lumb, D.; Papitto, A.; Pittori, Carlotta; Rohlfs, R.; Santangelo, A.; Schmid, C.; Schwope, A. D.; Smith, P. J.; Webb, N. A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.

    2014-07-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book1. We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving and distribution. Despite LOFT was not selected for launch within the M3 call, its long assessment phase ( >2 years) led to a very solid mission design and an efficient planning of its ground operations.

  17. 50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground floor (bottom) level of milk room - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  18. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L.; Spychala, Caressa N.; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  19. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  20. Population diversity in Pacific herring of the Puget Sound, USA.

    PubMed

    Siple, Margaret C; Francis, Tessa B

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, functional, or habitat diversity can confer stability on populations via portfolio effects (PEs) that integrate across multiple ecological responses and buffer against environmental impacts. The prevalence of these PEs in aquatic organisms is as yet unknown, and can be difficult to quantify; however, understanding mechanisms that stabilize populations in the face of environmental change is a key concern in ecology. Here, we examine PEs in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Puget Sound (USA) using a 40-year time series of biomass data for 19 distinct spawning population units collected using two survey types. Multivariate auto-regressive state-space models show independent dynamics among spawning subpopulations, suggesting that variation in herring production is partially driven by local effects at spawning grounds or during the earliest life history stages. This independence at the subpopulation level confers a stabilizing effect on the overall Puget Sound spawning stock, with herring being as much as three times more stable in the face of environmental perturbation than a single population unit of the same size. Herring populations within Puget Sound are highly asynchronous but share a common negative growth rate and may be influenced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The biocomplexity in the herring stock shown here demonstrates that preserving spatial and demographic diversity can increase the stability of this herring population and its availability as a resource for consumers. PMID:26427990

  1. A native ground nesting bee, Nomia melanderi, sustainably managed to pollinate alfalfa across an intensively agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The world’s only intensively managed ground-nesting bee, the alkali bee (Nomia melanderi Cockerell), has been used for >50 years as an effective pollinator of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown for seed across the western USA. Throughout the 240 km2 Touchet Valley alfalfa farmin...

  2. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  3. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  4. GRC Ground Support Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintOnge, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The ISS Program is conducting an "ISS Research Academy' at JSC the first week of August 2010. This Academy will be a tutorial for new Users of the International Space Station, focused primarily on the new ISS National Laboratory and its members including Non-Profit Organizations, other government agencies and commercial users. Presentations on the on-orbit research facilities accommodations and capabilities will be made, as well as ground based hardware development, integration and test facilities and capabilities. This presentation describes the GRC Hardware development, test and laboratory facilities.

  5. Real-time monitoring of bluff stability at Woodway, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, R.L.; Harp, E.L.; Likos, W.J.; Powers, P.S.; LaHusen, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    On January 15, 1997, a landslide of approximately 100,000-m3 from a coastal bluff swept five cars of a freight train into Puget Sound at Woodway, Washington, USA, 25 km north of downtown Seattle. The landslide resulted from failure of a sequence of dense sands and hard silts of glacial and non-glacial origin, including the Lawton Clay, a hard, jointed clayey silt that rarely fails in natural slopes. Joints controlled ground-water seepage through the silt and break-up of the landslide mass. During September of 1997, the US Geological Survey began measuring rainfall, ground-water pressures, and slope movement at the bluff where the landslide occurred. Data are collected every 15 minutes and updated hourly on the World-Wide-Web. Pore pressures observed from September 1997 to February 1998 generally were low and pressures near the bluff face, in the upper few meters of the hard clayey silt, increased gradually.

  6. Liquefaction caused by the 2009 Olancha, California (USA), M5.2 earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Jayko, A.S.; Hauksson, E.; Fletcher, J.P.B.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.; Dietel, C.M.; Hudnut, K.W.

    2010-01-01

    The October 3, 2009 (01:16:00 UTC), Olancha M5.2 earthquake caused extensive liquefaction as well as permanent horizontal ground deformation within a 1.2 km2area earthquake in Owens Valley in eastern California (USA). Such liquefaction is rarely observed during earthquakes of M ≤ 5.2. We conclude that subsurface conditions, not unusual ground motion, were the primary factors contributing to the liquefaction. The liquefaction occurred in very liquefiable sands at shallow depth (< 2 m) in an area where the water table was near the land surface. Our investigation is relevant to both geotechnical engineering and geology. The standard engineering method for assessing liquefaction potential, the Seed–Idriss simplified procedure, successfully predicted the liquefaction despite the small earthquake magnitude. The field observations of liquefaction effects highlight a need for caution by earthquake geologists when inferring prehistoric earthquake magnitudes from paleoliquefaction features because small magnitude events may cause such features.

  7. Microstructure and surface properties of fibrous and ground cellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Csiszár, Emília; Fekete, Erika

    2011-07-01

    Cotton and linen fibers were ground in a ball-mill, and the effect of grinding on the microstructure and surface properties of the fibers was determined by combining a couple of simple tests with powerful techniques of surface and structure analysis. Results clearly proved that the effect of grinding on cotton fiber was much less severe than on linen. For both fibers, the degree of polymerization reduced (by 14.5% and 30.5% for cotton and linen, respectively) with a simultaneous increase in copper number. The increased water sorption capacity of the ground substrates was in good agreement with the X-ray results, which proved a less perfect crystalline structure in the ground samples. Data from XPS and SEM-EDS methods revealed that the concentration of oxygen atoms (bonded especially in acetal and/or carbonyl groups) on the ground surfaces increased significantly, resulting in an increase in oxygen/carbon atomic ratio (XPS data: from 0.11 to 0.14 and from 0.16 to 0.29 for cotton and linen, respectively). Although grinding created new surfaces rich in O atoms, the probable higher energy of the surface could not be measured by IGC, most likely due to the limited adsorption of the n-alkane probes on the less perfect crystalline surfaces. PMID:21657257

  8. Novel Cryptosporidium bat genotypes III and IV in bats from the USA and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Hořická, Anna; Sak, Bohumil; Prediger, Jitka; Salát, Jiří; Širmarová, Jana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Clark, Mark; Chelladurai, Jeba Rose Jennifer Jesudoss; Gillam, Erin; McEvoy, John

    2015-10-01

    Bats from the families Rhinolophidae (n = 90) and Vespertilionidae (n = 191) in the USA and Czech Republic were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by microscopic and molecular analysis of faecal samples collected from rectum of dissected animals and from the ground beneath roosting sites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 281 faecal specimens examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Nested PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA and actin genes were used to identify isolates and infer evolutionary relationships. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in a western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) from the USA and a common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from the Czech Republic. Two novel genotypes were identified and named Cryptosporidium bat genotype III and IV. Bat genotype III was found in two big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from the USA. Bat genotype IV was detected in two common pipistrelle bats from the Czech Republic. PMID:26255170

  9. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  10. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  11. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  12. What "Picture in Mind" Do Secondary Students Have about Defining, Proving, and Modelling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Victoria; Garcia, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The present study tries to identify the "picture in mind" that students' have about defining, proving and modelling. We access to it through external representations of their mental representations; in particular, from the way in which these representations are expressed in written form (sentences and situations). In the study we have identified…

  13. Enhancing an Intellectual Need for Defining and Proving: A Case of Impossible Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koichu, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Identifying mathematical and didactical conditions under which mathematics learners can encounter an intellectual need for defining and proving is recognized as a challenging research enterprise. This paper presents a particular configuration of conditions under which a group of pre-service mathematics teachers successfully constructed a…

  14. A Gas Chromatography Experiment for Proving the Application of Quantum Symmetry Restrictions in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosiere, M.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment in which gas chromatography is used to prove the application of quantum symmetry restrictions in homonuclear diatomic molecules. Comparisons between experimental results and theoretical computed values show good agreement, within one to two…

  15. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment with Undergraduate Student by Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…

  16. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  17. Proof and Proving: Logic, Impasses, and the Relationship to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Milos

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a skillful prover is critical for success in advanced undergraduate and graduate mathematics courses. In this dissertation, I report my investigations of proof and the proving process in three separate studies. In the first study, I examined the amount of logic used in student-constructed proofs to help in the design of…

  18. 25 CFR 15.8 - May I make my will, codicil, or revocation self-proved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May I make my will, codicil, or revocation self-proved? 15.8 Section 15.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE PROBATE OF INDIAN ESTATES, EXCEPT FOR MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE NATION AND THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES Introduction §...

  19. 25 CFR 15.8 - May I make my will, codicil, or revocation self-proved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May I make my will, codicil, or revocation self-proved? 15.8 Section 15.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE PROBATE OF INDIAN ESTATES, EXCEPT FOR MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE NATION AND THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES Introduction §...

  20. Toward proving a new identity for Green's functions in N = 1 supersymmetric electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanyantz, K. V.

    2009-01-15

    A method that may underlie an attempt at proving the previously proposed new identity for Green's functions is described for N = 1 supersymmetric massless electrodynamics regularized by higher derivatives. With the aid of this method, it is shown that some contributions to the identity in question do indeed vanish.

  1. Teaching Proving by Coordinating Aspects of Proofs with Students' Abilities. Technical Report. No. 2007-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2007-01-01

    We introduce some concepts for analyzing proofs, including various structures, and for analyzing undergraduate and beginning graduate mathematics students' proving abilities. We then discuss how the coordination of these two analyses might be used to improve students' ability to construct proofs. For this purpose, we need a richer framework for…

  2. 3D lithography modeling for ground rule development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Chandra; Bailey, Todd; Lyons, Adam; Shao, Dongbing

    2011-04-01

    The ability to incorporate the effect of patterned underlayers in a 3-dimensional physical resist model that truly mimics the process on real wafers could be used to formulate robust ground rules for design. We have shown as an example block level simulations, where the resist critical dimension is determined by the presence of STI (shallow trench isolation) and/or patterned gate level underneath & their relative spacing, as confirmed on wafer. We will demonstrate how the results of such study could be used for creating ground rules which are truly dependent on the interaction between the current layer resist & the patterned layers underneath. We have also developed a new way to visualize lithographic process variations in 3-D space that is useful for simulation analysis that can prove very helpful in ground rule development and process optimization. Such visualization capability in the dataprep flow to flag issues or dispose critical structures increases speed and efficiency in the mask tapeout process.

  3. Ground based infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic instrumentation has been developed for ground-based measurements of astrophysical objects in the intermediate infrared. A conventional Michelson interferometer is limited for astronomical applications in the intermediate infrared by quantum noise fluctuations in the radiation form the source and/or background incident on the detector, and the multiplex advantage is no longer available. One feasible approach to recovering the multiplex advantage is post-dispersion. The infrared signal after passing through telescope and interferometer, is dispersed by a low resolution grating spectrometer onto an array of detectors. The feasibility of the post-dispersion system has been demonstrated with observations of astrophysical objects in the 5 and 10 micrometer atmospheric windows from ground-based telescopes. During FY87/88 the post-disperser was used at the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope and McMath telescope with facility Fourier transform spectrometers. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were observed. On Jupiter, the resolution at 12 micrometer was 0.01/cm, considerably higher than had been acheived previously. The spectrum contains Jovian ethane and acetylene emission. Construction was begun on the large cryogenic grating spectrometer.

  4. A thermal ground cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  5. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    In view of complex environmental/energy decisions, the Environmental Impacts Division of the Office of Technology Impacts develops analytical methods for conducting policy analyses supporting decision making. The methods development process often begins with a workshop of leading experts and specialists in the relevant disciplines and issue areas; workshop findings are subsequently utilized by OTI to form a more solid foundation for viable policies. The National Workshop on Ground Water and Energy Production was envisioned as a tool through which OTI could obtain insights, information, and methods (on environmental, economical, physical, political, legal, and social issues) to use in its analyses, models, and assessments. To accomplish this, the Workshop comprised both plenary sessions and individual working groups. The former provided opportunities for all participants to explore issues from a broad perspective, whereas the latter enabled participants to focus on the three following areas: ground water supply; conflicts and barriers to its use; and alternatives or solutions to the various issues. This report summarizes information and insights gained by the Office of Technology Impacts during the course of the Workshop. The Key Findings section summarizes the most important facts discovered during the Workshop. The three general topics that follow (Supply, Conflicts and Barriers, and Alternatives) are those described in the Core Issues statements. The statements are reflective of the recommendations and analyses prepared by the several working groups.

  6. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

  7. 20 CFR 1002.22 - Who has the burden of proving discrimination or retaliation in violation of USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who has the burden of proving discrimination... Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.22 Who has the burden of proving discrimination or retaliation in violation of USERRA? The individual has the burden of proving that a status...

  8. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 × 1026 W of radiation, of which ≈37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather. Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types. Ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range were obtained from the United Kingdom Meteorology Office. Based on available weather reports, five days of clear sky observations were selected. These data are compared to the predictions of the two models. We find that neither of the models provide an accurate treatment during twilight conditions when the Sun is at or a few degrees below the horizon. When the Sun is above the horizon, the Shapiro model straddles the observed data, ranging between 90% and 120% of the recorded illuminance. During the same times, the Brown model is between 70% and 90% of the

  9. Operation Upshot-Knothole. Project 29. 1. Comparison and evaluation of dosimetry methods applicable to gamma radiation, Nevada Proving Ground. Report for March-June 1953

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, G.V.; Sigoloff, S.C.; Douglas, C.H.; Paglia, D.E.; Heller, C.J.

    1984-10-31

    The three major objectives and parts of this project were to compare and evaluate the accuracy and practicality of chemical vs film and other methods of gamma dosimetry for radiations encountered under bomb conditions at sites receiving (1) either prompt- or residual-gamma exposures or mixtures of both, (2) only residualgamma radiations, either neutron induced or from fission-product fallout, and (3) mixed neutron-gamma irradiation plus correlation with biological effects.

  10. AMMRC (Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center) mobile-accelerator neutron-radiography system operations at US Army Yuma Proving Ground. Interim technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Dance, W.E.; Carollo, S.F.

    1984-04-15

    The mobile neutron radiography system designed and fabricated for the Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center was transported for exploratory evaluation by YPG radiography personnel. Objectives of the field operations were to demonstrate applicability of neutron radiography for inspection of specific Army ordnance items, to provide Army personnel with on-site experience and a data base for defining future neutron radiography and facility requirements, and to evaluate the reliability of this new type of mobile neutron radiography system in a non-laboratory or field environment. Neutron radiographs were compared with X-ray radiographs of the test items. Areas were noted where only the neutron images yielded useful NDI information, and others noted where X-ray is needed. The complementary nature of the results from the two radiographic techniques was well illustrated. Several neutron converter/film combinations were used during the operations to determine the optimum combination for producing good images in reasonable exposure times, using a relatively low-flux system. The system operated reliably during the six weeks period in the non-laboratory environment, and safety of operation of the mobile inspection unit was demonstrated.

  11. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked to stratosphere-troposphere exchange (WMO, 1985).

  12. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to.... The waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of a circular area...

  13. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to.... The waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of a circular area...

  14. Ground-state cooling of quantum systems via a one-shot measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyshkin, P. V.; Luo, Da-Wei; You, J. Q.; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-03-01

    We prove that there exists a family of quantum systems that can be cooled to their ground states by a one-shot projective measurement on the ancillas coupled to these systems. Consequently, this proof gives rise to the conditions for achieving the one-shot measurement ground-state cooling (OSMGSC). We also propose a general procedure for finding unitary propagators and corresponding Hamiltonians to realize such cooling by means of inverse engineering techniques.

  15. Contemporary approaches to studying and mapping of active water exchange zone of ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, C. Ye

    2016-03-01

    The article deals with a zone of ground water active exchange. New principles of the zone study and mapping under the platform hydrogeological condition are discussed. The assessment and distribution techniques are suggested for the active water exchange zone under the condition of hydrogeological parameterization uncertainty. The efficiency and significance of the suggested techniques are proved using the example of ground water in the southwest of Black Sea artesian basin.

  16. Novel technique for measuring grounding capacitance and grounding fault resistance in ineffectively grounded power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiangjun; Yin, Xianggen; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Deshu; Yu, Yongyuan

    2000-05-01

    A new principle for resonance measurement based on injecting resonant frequency signal is presented in this paper. By this principle, the grounding capacitance and grounding resistance can be measured on-line in ineffectively grounding power system. Based on it, Petersen-coil automatically tuning is implemented, and 100% stator grounding fault protection for generator stator windings is also proposed. The prototype for Petersen-coil tuning has been tested on the network for many years. As well as the new method for generator stator grounding fault is verified by simulation.

  17. Characterization of Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide with Narrow Ground Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1997-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide with finite width ground planes is characterized through measurements, conformal mapping, and the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique for the purpose of determining the optimum ground plane width. The attenuation and effective permittivity of the lines are related to its geometry. It is found that the characteristics of the Finite Ground Coplanar line (FGC) are not dependent on the ground plane width if it is greater than twice the center conductor width, but less than lambda(sub d)/8. In addition, electromagnetic field plots are presented which show for the first time that electric fields in the plane of the substrate terminate on the outer edge of the ground plane, and that the magnitude of these fields is related to the ground plane width.

  18. Preventing ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.

    1985-07-12

    A recent Office of Technology Assessment report to Congress indicates that the associated health risks from ground water contamination are likely to increase because federal and state laws provide inadequate protection. Road de-icing salts, pesticide runoff, septic tanks, and seepage from livestock manure and fertilizers are all major causes that are difficult to control. A primary source that can be corrected is improper or unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes that are dumped into landfills or surface ponds or injected into deep wells. Congress has tried to deal with the problem by strengthening existing and introducing new legislation. Because getting rid of hazardous waste is increasingly expensive and difficult, companies are beginning to look for ways to prevent pollution at the source by using new technologies that are economically sound. 17 references, 4 figures.

  19. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Zachery W.; Zevenbergen, Gary A.

    2012-04-03

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  20. Economical ground data delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, Richard W.; Byrne, Russell H.; Bromberg, Daniel E.

    1994-01-01

    Data delivery in the Deep Space Network (DSN) involves transmission of a small amount of constant, high-priority traffic and a large amount of bursty, low priority data. The bursty traffic may be initially buffered and then metered back slowly as bandwidth becomes available. Today both types of data are transmitted over dedicated leased circuits. The authors investigated the potential of saving money by designing a hybrid communications architecture that uses leased circuits for high-priority network communications and dial-up circuits for low-priority traffic. Such an architecture may significantly reduce costs and provide an emergency backup. The architecture presented here may also be applied to any ground station-to-customer network within the range of a common carrier. The authors compare estimated costs for various scenarios and suggest security safeguards that should be considered.

  1. Autonomous docking ground demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

  2. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  3. Ground-penetrating rada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuma, W. R.

    The theory and applications of digital Ground-Penetrating Radar were discussed at a 5-day seminar held at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan, People's Republic of China, in April. Cohosted by the Department of Applied Geophysics and Canada-China Geoscience, more than 60 senior geophysicists, engineers, technical specialists, university professors and researchers attended.Focus of the meeting was the expanded uses of the new deep-penetrating fully digital PulseEKKO, which is gaining wide acceptance around the world. Attendees showed intense interest in this new and unique technology. Applications covered were groundwater and mineral exploration; engineering, construction and toxic waste site surveying; tunnel and underground mine probing for potential geological hazards, blind ore zones, karst cavities and solution pathways; and locating buried objects such as petroleum storage tanks, unexploded bombs and archeological remains.

  4. LISA Pathfinder ground testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Felipe; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2010-01-01

    The space-based gravitational wave observatory LISA is a joint NASA-ESA mission that requires challenging technology to ensure pure geodetic trajectories of test masses and the interferometric measurement of distance variations between them. The LISA Pathfinder mission is an ESA-launched technology demonstrator of key LISA subsystems such as spacecraft control with micronewton thrusters, test mass drag-free control, and precision laser interferometry between free-flying test masses. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Gravitational Reference Sensor and Optical Metrology subsystems is currently ongoing. Studies have been carried out on very sensitive torsion pendulums that effectively reproduce a free-fall condition for the test mass within a horizontal plane in the lab, down to frequencies < 0.1 mHz. Thermal gradient induced effects, impact of gas molecules, noisy charging, surface charge patches, and other effects have been investigated and their physical models consolidated. A final upper limit on non-modeled disturbances has also been obtained within one order of magnitude of LISA requirements at 1 mHz. The interferometry system has also been extensively studied to identify noise sources and develop approaches to mitigate them. Engineering models of the optical bench, laser head and laser modulators have been interconnected and tested for functionality and noise level in closed-loop operation, demonstrating the required optical metrology sensitivity to test mass displacement. This poster presents the current status in the development and implementation of LISA Pathfinder pre-flight systems and latest results of the ongoing ground testing efforts.

  5. Analytical Results for Municipal Biosolids Samples from a Monitoring Program near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.), 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Since late 1993, the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.). In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring ground water at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program recently has been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of streambed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This report will present only analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed during 2007. We have presented earlier a compilation of analytical results for the biosolids samples collected and analyzed for 1999 through 2006. More information about the other monitoring components is presented elsewhere in the literature. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity. Nitrogen and chromium also were priority parameters for ground water and sediment components. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of priority parameters (1

  6. Wind-induced ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  7. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diepeveen, N. F. B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near maximum aerodynamic efficiency for below rated wind speeds. The experiments with a small horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor, coupled to a hydraulic circuit, were conducted at the Open Jet Facility of the Delft University of Technology. In theory, the placement of a nozzle at the end of the hydraulic circuit causes the pressure and hence the rotor torque to increase quadratically with flow speed and hence rotation speed. The rotor torque is limited by a pressure relief valve. Results from the experiments proved the functionality of this passive speed control concept. By selecting the correct nozzle outlet area the rotor operates at or near the optimum tip speed ratio.

  8. Cape Cod, Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  9. First 765-kV SF/sub 6/ station proves successful

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The experience gained by American Electric Power Service Corp during the design, construction, and operation of the worlds first 765-kV gas-insulated substation proves the effectiveness of this design. Although the cost effectiveness of SF/sub 6/ insulated design increases as the voltage level increases, the combined cost of the 765-kV station and its associated 138-kV station was greater than the cost of equivalent air-insulated substations.

  10. A Transformational Approach for Proving Properties of the CHR Constraint Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilozzi, Paolo; Schrijvers, Tom; Bruynooghe, Maurice

    Proving termination of, or generating efficient control for Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) programs requires information about the kinds of constraints that can show up in the CHR constraint store. In contrast to Logic Programming (LP), there are not many tools available for deriving such information for CHR. Hence, instead of building analyses for CHR from scratch, we define a transformation from CHR to Prolog and reuse existing analysis tools for Prolog.

  11. Research in advanced formal theorem-proving techniques. [design and implementation of computer languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, B.; Fikes, R.; Waldinger, R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are summarised of a project aimed at the design and implementation of computer languages to aid in expressing problem solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence including automatic programming, theorem proving, and robot planning. The principal results of the project were the design and implementation of two complete systems, QA4 and QLISP, and their preliminary experimental use. The various applications of both QA4 and QLISP are given.

  12. Can antiosteoporotic therapy reduce mortality in MRI-proved acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures?

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chou; Su, Fu-Mei; Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Lin, Wei-Che; Lui, Chun-Chung

    2016-05-01

    Patients with MRI-proved acute painful vertebral fractures in whom conservative pain management fails are frequently referred for vertebroplasty. This study investigated the effects of treating osteoporosis on the mortality rate of patients with MRI-proved acute osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures who had undergone vertebroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of osteoporosis patients with MRI-proved acute vertebral fractures who had been treated with vertebroplasty from January 2001 to December 2007. The long-term outcomes of the patients who received antiosteoporotic therapy were compared with those of patients who received no therapy. A total of 304 patients (247 female patients and 57 male patients; mean age, 74.1 ± 7.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The patients who received antiosteoporotic therapy had a significantly lower mortality rate than did patients who did not receive antiosteoporotic therapy (P = 0.001; hazard ratio, 0.396, 95 % confidence interval, 0.273-0.575). At the end of the study, 183 patients were alive, and 121 had died. Effective treatment for osteoporosis may improve survival in patients with osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures after vertebroplasty. PMID:26040410

  13. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... call center services related to customer care and technical support. The Department's Notice was published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2011 (76 FR 7587). On its own motion, the Department..., Virginia location of StarTek USA, Inc. supplied call center services such as sales and technical...

  14. Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground control is required to georeferenced airborne and spaceborne images. The production of ortho-photogrammetric data requires ground control that is traditionally provided as Ground Control Points (GCPs) by GNSS measurements in the field. However, it can be difficult to acquire accurate ground control points due to required turn-around time, high costs or impossible access. CompassData, Inc. a specialist in ground control, has expanded its service to deliver Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points (RSGCPs®). TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X are two satellites with such high accuracy of their orbital positions and SAR data that RSGCPs® can be produced to a sub-meter quality depending on certain parameters and circumstances. The technology and required parameters are discussed in this paper as well as the resulting accuracies.

  15. Studying the Formation Mechanism of New Ground Strike Points in Natural Negative Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Cummins, K. L.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Data from three-dimensional VHF mapping, high-speed video and slow electric field antenna of multiple ground contact flashes (MGCFs) have been analyzed in an attempt to characterize the process through which new ground terminations in natural lightning are formed. The three-dimensional VHF mapping data (obtained by a Lightning Mapping Array, LMA) provided valuable information on the processes that occurred inside the cloud during the interval between strokes. Detailed case studies of over 30 MGCFs observed in the vicinity of a wind farm in Kansas, USA, have allowed the identification and qualitative description of three mechanisms through which a given flash may touch ground at different locations. In events of Type I, the dart leader that initiates the subsequent stroke starts in the original channel and then diverges from the original path of the first stroke, ionizing a new channel and reaching ground at a different location. In high-speed video records, these events eventually have their "diverging" point visible below cloud base and their strike locations are separated by a few hundreds of meters. Type II, on the other hand, comprises flashes in which the subsequent stroke is initiated in an in-cloud branch that is farther from the inception region of the first return stroke, moving in another direction and touching ground at farther distances (up to more than 10 km from the initial strike location). Finally, Type III flashes typically gave rise to several return strokes, each with different ground strike points. Stepped leaders initiated in the same general region in the cloud give rise to these strokes with typical interstroke intervals below 100 milliseconds but no common channel branches among them could be conclusively identified. Representative events of each type are discussed in detail.

  16. Homeopathic drug proving of Okoubaka aubrevillei: a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Homeopathic drug proving is a basic concept in homeopathy. This study aimed to record symptoms produced by a homeopathic drug compared with placebo. Methods This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial consisted of a 7-day run-in period, a 5-day intervention period and a 16-day post-intervention observation period. Subjects, investigators and statisticians were blinded for intervention groups and identity of the homeopathic drug. Subjects in the intervention group received Okoubaka aubrevillei (potency C12) and subjects in the placebo group received the optically identical sucrose globules. Dosage in both groups was five globules taken five times per day over a maximum period of 5 days. Subjects documented the symptoms they experienced in a semistructured online diary. The primary outcome parameter was the number of characteristic proving symptoms compared with placebo after a period of 3 weeks. Characteristic symptoms were categorised using content analysis. Secondary outcome parameters were the qualitative differences in profiles of characteristic and proving symptoms and the total number of all proving symptoms. The number of symptoms was quantitatively analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using analyses of covariance with the subject’s expectation and baseline values as covariates. Results Thirty-one subjects were included (19 Okoubaka and 12 placebo). Data for 29 participants could be analysed. No significant differences in number of characteristic symptoms in both groups were observed between Okoubaka (mean ± standard deviation 5.4 ± 6.0) and placebo (4.9 ± 5.6). The odds ratio for observation of a characteristic symptom was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 3.05, P = 0.843). Females and subjects expecting a higher number of symptoms at baseline or feeling more sensitive to homeopathic drugs experienced more characteristic symptoms regardless of allocation. The qualitative analysis showed

  17. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  18. Method of locating ground faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, Allen H.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention discloses a method of detecting and locating current imbalances such as ground faults in multiwire systems using the Faraday effect. As an example, for 2-wire or 3-wire (1 ground wire) electrical systems, light is transmitted along an optical path which is exposed to magnetic fields produced by currents flowing in the hot and neutral wires. The rotations produced by these two magnetic fields cancel each other, therefore light on the optical path does not read the effect of either. However, when a ground fault occurs, the optical path is exposed to a net Faraday effect rotation due to the current imbalance thereby exposing the ground fault.

  19. Method of locating ground faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L. (Inventor); Rose, Allen H. (Inventor); Cull, Ronald C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of detecting and locating current imbalances such as ground faults in multiwire systems using the Faraday effect. As an example, for 2-wire or 3-wire (1 ground wire) electrical systems, light is transmitted along an optical path which is exposed to magnetic fields produced by currents flowing in the hot and neutral wires. The rotations produced by these two magnetic fields cancel each other, therefore light on the optical path does not read the effect of either. However, when a ground fault occurs, the optical path is exposed to a net Faraday effect rotation due to the current imbalance thereby exposing the ground fault.

  20. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.376... must be only one connection to ground, regardless of the number of power sources. This ground... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the...

  1. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  2. HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER VOLUME I: GROUND WATER AND CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an extensively revised version of the Ground Water Handbook, originally published in 1987 as EPA/625/6-87/016. It has been published in two volumes: Volume I: Ground Water and Contamination, EPA/625/6-90/016a, and Volume II: Methodology, EPA/625/6-90/016b. Volume...

  3. Acoustic ground impedance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    A compact, portable instrument was developed to measure the acoustic impedance of the ground, or other surfaces, by direct pressure-volume velocity measurement. A Helmholz resonator, constructed of heavy-walled stainless steel but open at the bottom, is positioned over the surface having the unknown impedance. The sound source, a cam-driven piston of known stroke and thus known volume velocity, is located in the neck of the resonator. The cam speed is a variable up to a maximum 3600 rpm. The sound pressure at the test surface is measured by means of a microphone flush-mounted in the wall of the chamber. An optical monitor of the piston displacement permits measurement of the phase angle between the volume velocity and the sound pressure, from which the real and imaginary parts of the impedance can be evaluated. Measurements using a 5-lobed cam can be made up to 300 Hz. Detailed design criteria and results on a soil sample are presented.

  4. Ground point filtering of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Seijmonsbergen, Arie; Masselink, Rens; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have proved invaluable for generating high-resolution and multi-temporal imagery. Based on photographic surveys, 3D surface reconstructions can be derived photogrammetrically so producing point clouds, orthophotos and surface models. For geomorphological or ecological applications it may be necessary to separate ground points from vegetation points. Existing filtering methods are designed for point clouds derived using other methods, e.g. laser scanning. The purpose of this paper is to test three filtering algorithms for the extraction of ground points from point clouds derived from low-altitude aerial photography. Three subareas were selected from a single flight which represent different scenarios: 1) low relief, sparsely vegetated area, 2) low relief, moderately vegetated area, 3) medium relief and moderately vegetated area. The three filtering methods are used to classify ground points in different ways, based on 1) RGB color values from training samples, 2) TIN densification as implemented in LAStools, and 3) an iterative surface lowering algorithm. Ground points are then interpolated into a digital terrain model using inverse distance weighting. The results suggest that different landscapes require different filtering methods for optimal ground point extraction. While iterative surface lowering and TIN densification are fully automated, color-based classification require fine-tuning in order to optimize the filtering results. Finally, we conclude that filtering photogrammetric point clouds could provide a cheap alternative to laser scan surveys for creating digital terrain models in sparsely vegetated areas.

  5. Change Detection Module for New Orleans City of USA Using

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dharmendra

    Internationally, Scientists strive to integrate existing and emerging Earth observation systems into a global network, with enhanced data distribution, models and decision supporting modules. Remote sensing poses an effective tool for this increasing need of a synoptic frame work. The entire earth can be treated as a system that evolves from the interactions of its environment. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry allows us, in principle, to measure very small movements of the ground over time and almost continuous monitoring of large areas of Earth's surface is made possible by the availability of data from remote sensing satellites such as ERS (European Remote Sensing (ERS) and RADARSAT. The study area considered is the New Orleans city of USA. New Orleans is located in Southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River. This city is among the worst affected area due to land subsidence. Subsidence rate of New Orleans and its surrounding area is computed with on-the-ground measurements using man made reference points. Even though bench marks are carefully chosen, scientists doubt whether reference points are also sinking as well. Subsidence monitoring using satellite images especially SAR interferometry offers a viable alternative by which accurate surface deformations can be calculated. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent imaging technique capable of generating fine-resolution images of the scene. RADARSAT C-band images are generally unhindered by atmospheric conditions. SAR Interferometry, utilizing phase information also along with intensity, is capable of producing 3-D information about the scene. Repeat pass Interferometry makes use of SAR images of same scene acquired from the same position at different times and this helps in the measurement of small scale deformations of earth's surface. SAR/ SAR Interferometry, hence, offer a powerful mapping tool to measure deformation of earth at an unprecedented spatial details and

  6. Evapotranspiration Parameterizations at a Grass Site in Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizou, M.; Sumner, D. M.; Nnadi, F.

    2007-05-01

    In spite of the fact that grasslands account for about 40% of the ice-free global terrestrial land cover, their contribution to the surface exchanges of energy and water in local and regional scale is so far uncertain. In this study, the sensitivity of evapotranspiration (ET) and other energy fluxes to wetness variables, namely the volumetric Soil Water Content (SWC) and Antecedent Precipitation Index (API), over a non-irrigated grass site in Central Florida, USA (28.049 N, 81.400 W) were investigated. Eddy correlation and soil water content measurements were taken by USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) at the grass study site, within 100 m of a SFWMD (South Florida Water Management District) weather station. The soil is composed of fine sands and it is mainly covered by Paspalum notatum (bahia grass). Variable soil wetness conditions with API bounds of about 2 to 160 mm and water table levels of 0.03 to 1.22 m below ground surface, respectively, were observed throughout the year 2004. The Bowen ratio exhibited an average of 1 and values larger than 2 during few dry days. The daytime average ET was classified into two stages, first stage (energy-limited) and second stage (water- limited) based on the water availability. The critical values of API and SWC were found to be about 56 mm and 0.17 respectively, with the second one being approximately 33% of the SWC at saturation. The ET values estimated by the simple Priestley-Taylor (PT) method were compared to the actual values. The PT coefficient varied from a low bound of approximately 0.4 to a peak of 1.21. Simple relationships for the PT empirical factor were employed in terms of SWC and API to improve the accuracy of the second stage observations. The results of the ET parameterizations closely match eddy-covariance flux values on daily and longer time steps.

  7. Evapotranspiration parameterizations at a grass site in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizou, M.; Sumner, David M.; Nnadi, F.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the fact that grasslands account for about 40% of the ice-free global terrestrial land cover, their contribution to the surface exchanges of energy and water in local and regional scale is so far uncertain. In this study, the sensitivity of evapotranspiration (ET) and other energy fluxes to wetness variables, namely the volumetric Soil Water Content (SWC) and Antecedent Precipitation Index (API), over a non-irrigated grass site in Central Florida, USA (28.049 N, 81.400 W) were investigated. Eddy correlation and soil water content measurements were taken by USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) at the grass study site, within 100 m of a SFWMD (South Florida Water Management District) weather station. The soil is composed of fine sands and it is mainly covered by Paspalum notatum (bahia grass). Variable soil wetness conditions with API bounds of about 2 to 160 mm and water table levels of 0.03 to 1.22 m below ground surface, respectively, were observed throughout the year 2004. The Bowen ratio exhibited an average of 1 and values larger than 2 during few dry days. The daytime average ET was classified into two stages, first stage (energy-limited) and second stage (water- limited) based on the water availability. The critical values of API and SWC were found to be about 56 mm and 0.17 respectively, with the second one being approximately 33% of the SWC at saturation. The ET values estimated by the simple Priestley-Taylor (PT) method were compared to the actual values. The PT coefficient varied from a low bound of approximately 0.4 to a peak of 1.21. Simple relationships for the PT empirical factor were employed in terms of SWC and API to improve the accuracy of the second stage observations. The results of the ET parameterizations closely match eddy-covariance flux values on daily and longer time steps.

  8. Airborne Gas Surveillance of Volcanoes in Western USA and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, T. M.; McGee, K. A.; Doukas, M. P.

    2002-05-01

    Volcanoes of the western USA and Alaska pose challenges to gas surveillance of volcano unrest. Locations are remote, and ground access is generally difficult. Wet climates and melt from glaciers and thick winter snowpack foster hydrothermal and ground waters that can scrub acid gases (SO2, HCl, HF) before they reach the surface, thereby masking their degassing from shallow vapor-saturated subvolcanic magma. These gases may not exhibit significant increases in emission rates until dry pathways or magma itself reaches the surface. Background or low emissions of the acid gases may thus give a false sense of security. CO2 is more likely to give early indication of subvolcanic magma degassing. It is the second most abundant magmatic volatile; it is among the least soluble magmatic volatiles; and it is far less susceptible to scrubbing than SO2, HCl, or HF. Rising H2S emissions are also a plausible early warning, since unlike SO2, HCl and HF, H2S is strongly volatilized from boiling water. Unfortunately, remote sensing of early increases in volcanic CO2 and H2S emissions is usually problematic, owing to high atmospheric CO2 levels, water vapor interference, and poor H2S infrared absorbance. We have therefore developed an aircraft-mounted system that directly measures these gases by extraction sampling of plumes. The system includes an infrared spectrometer for CO2 and an electrochemical sensor for H2S, in addition to a COSPEC and high-precision barometer, temperature probe, and GPS receiver. Measurements are made at different elevations along traverses orthogonal to plume direction or along orbits around a volcano if plume is not visible. Data for all gases are recorded in a data logger at 1-s intervals and tagged with clock time, latitude, longitude, altitude, temperature, and pressure. In-flight wind data are also acquired. Plume cross-sections are constructed with mapping software and used to calculate emission rates. Several campaigns to date show that emission rates

  9. Operational Guidelines for Grounds Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA.

    This book offers guidelines intended to help both new and experienced grounds managers create operational and staffing-level plans that can be the basis of discussion with all grounds management stakeholders. In its various chapters, the book: (1) explains the differences between zone and broadcast maintenance practices that are essential to plan…

  10. English for Airport Ground Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  11. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  12. Designing the Successful Grounds Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratto, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The most important component of any service organization is people. This is especially true of grounds management, because effective maintenance is dependent on good supervision and knowledgeable people. The grounds management function, therefore, must have personnel who are competent and committed. They must fully understand the scope of their …

  13. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  14. Basque Diaspora in the USA and Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasagabaster, David

    2008-01-01

    The Basques first immigrated on a large scale to the USA during the Gold Rush of 1848. After immigrating to the USA, they settled in pockets throughout the West, especially in California, Nevada and Idaho, and it is currently estimated that more than 35,000 Basque-Americans live in these three states. This represents one of the largest…

  15. 76 FR 35715 - Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ..., 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-15443 Filed 6-17-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13577 of June 15, 2011 Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative By the... consistent information, and removing unnecessary obstacles to investment. Sec. 2. SelectUSA Initiative....

  16. Why Does the USA Dominate University League Tables?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei; Shankar, Sriram; Tang, Kam Ki

    2011-01-01

    According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the world's top 500 universities are located in only 38 countries, with the USA alone having 157 of them. This article investigates the socioeconomic determinants of the wide performance gap between countries, and whether the USA's dominance is largely due to its economic power. A large…

  17. 75 FR 9592 - National Grid USA; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Grid USA; Notice of Filing February 24, 2010. Take notice that on February 10, 2010, National Grid USA submitted a request for waiver of certain FERC Form No. 1...

  18. Comparative Review of UK-USA Industry-University Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore significant historical changes, legislation and policy in the UK and USA from the 1960s to present day relating to university-industry relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a review of papers, reports and policy documents from the UK and USA drawing comparisons of…

  19. FY2015 Analysis of the Teamwork USA Program. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Research and Evaluation (DRE) has completed an analysis of the performance of students who participated in the Teamwork USA Program, administered in FY2014 at three District schools. Teamwork USA hopes to improve student achievement at select Title I elementary schools via its Instrumental Music Program grant. This memorandum to…

  20. The Sixth U.S.A. Mathematical Olympiad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greitzer, Samuel L.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and seven students of 365,000 students given the annual High School Mathematics Examination took part in the sixth U.S.A. Mathematical Olympiad. The top eight scores are listed along with comparative Exam and Olympiad scores for the group and individual problem scores. The problems proposed on the U.S.A. Olympiad on an International…

  1. Distribution, hosts and identification of Meloidogyne partityla in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan, Carya illinoensis, is an economically important nut crop and member of the Juglandaceae native to the southern USA. Discovered in South Africa in 1986, Meloidogyne partityla was first found infecting pecan in USA in 1996 and currently occurs in Texas, New Mexico, Georgia, Arizona, Oklahoma a...

  2. Proving the correctness of the flight director program EADIFD, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. J.; Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    EADIFD is written in symbolic assembly language for execution on the C4000 airborne computer. It is a subprogram of an aircraft navigation and guidance program and is used to generate pitch and roll command signals for use in terminal airspace. The proof of EADIFD was carried out by an inductive assertion method consisting of two parts, a verification condition generator and a source language independent proof checker. With the specifications provided by NASA, EADIFD was proved correct. The termination of the program is guaranteed and the program contains no instructions that can modify it under any conditions.

  3. LASRE ground hotfire #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    operation characteristics. The first of these flights occurred March 4, 1998. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards, California, at 12:13 p.m. PST. During further flights in the spring and summer of 1998, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. In addition, two engine hot firings were conducted on the ground. It was decided not to do a final hot-fire flight test as a result of the liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The ground firings and the airborne cryogenic gas flow tests provided enough information to predict the hot gas effects of an aerospike engine firing during flight. The experiment itself was a small, half-span model that contained eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium and instrumentation. The model, engine and canoe together were called the 'pod.' The entire pod was 41 feet in length and weighed 14,300 pounds. The experimental pod was mounted on NASA's SR-71, on loan to NASA from the U.S. Air Force. Lockheed Martin may use information gained from LASRE and the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator to develop a potential future reusable launch vehicle. NASA and Lockheed Martin are partners in the X-33 program through a cooperative agreement.The goal of the X-33 program, and a major goal for NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology, has been to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that will improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The program implements the National Space Transportation Policy, which was designed to accelerate the development of new launch technologies and concepts that contribute to the continuing commercialization of the national space launch industry. Both the flagship X-33 and the smaller X-34 technology testbed

  4. Snowpack ground-truth manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1983-01-01

    As remote sensing increasingly becomes more of an operational tool in the field of snow management and snow hydrology, there is need for some degree of standardization of ""snowpack ground truth'' techniques. This manual provides a first step in standardizing these procedures and was prepared to meet the needs of remote sensing researchers in planning missions requiring ground truth as well as those providing the ground truth. Focus is on ground truth for remote sensors primarily operating in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; nevertheless, the manual should be of value to other types of sensor programs. This first edition of ground truth procedures must be updated as new or modified techniques are developed.

  5. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  6. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  7. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: immunization research in health maintenance organizations in the USA.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, R. T.; DeStefano, F.; Davis, R. L.; Jackson, L. A.; Thompson, R. S.; Mullooly, J. P.; Black, S. B.; Shinefield, H. R.; Vadheim, C. M.; Ward, J. I.; Marcy, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaborative project involving the National Immunization Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several large health maintenance organizations in the USA. The project began in 1990 with the primary purpose of rigorously evaluating concerns about the safety of vaccines. Computerized data on vaccination, medical outcome (e.g. outpatient visits, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and deaths) and covariates (e.g. birth certificates, census data) are prospectively collected and linked under joint protocol at multiple health maintenance organizations for analysis. Approximately 6 million persons (2% of the population of the USA) are now members of health maintenance organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, which has proved to be a valuable resource providing important information on a number of vaccine safety issues. The databases and infrastructure created for the Vaccine Safety Datalink have also provided opportunities to address vaccination coverage, cost-effectiveness and other matters connected with immunization as well as matters outside this field. PMID:10743283

  8. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock. PMID:23023117

  9. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  10. Living donor liver transplantation in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007

  11. Pharmacovigilance Considerations for Biosimilars in the USA.

    PubMed

    Grampp, Gustavo; Felix, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    In 2015, five or more biosimilars may be approved in the USA. Because no two biologic medicines are identical, postapproval safety monitoring will be critical to detect potential differences in safety signals between a biosimilar, its reference product, and other biosimilars. Postapproval safety monitoring in the USA uses two signal detection systems: spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) and active surveillance (AS) systems. Both depend on accurate identification of the specific product(s) dispensed or administered to patients, which may be compromised when products from multiple manufacturers share common drug nomenclature or coding. Product identification can present challenges across different healthcare settings, including inpatient and ambulatory care. Common oral-dosage drugs are predominantly dispensed directly to patients by pharmacists, whereas most injectable drugs, including biologics, are administered to patients by healthcare professionals in outpatient clinics or hospitals. Thus, the effectiveness of SRS and AS mechanisms in both pharmacy and medical channels must be given greater consideration as biotechnology matures. In this article, we describe these systems and their limitations. We identify challenges and opportunities for product-specific safety surveillance of biologics in both the pharmacy and medical settings and provide recommendations to improve biologic safety surveillance under the current and future systems envisioned in the Drug Quality and Security Act. As biosimilars are integrated into existing pharmacovigilance systems, distinguishable nonproprietary names and codes for all biologics, as well as other opportunities to improve traceability (e.g., increased use of barcodes), must be considered to ensure patient safety and confidence in this new class of drugs. PMID:26419971

  12. Field trial of composite fiber-optic overhead ground wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, S.; Kawahira, H.; Nakajima, T.; Matsubara, I.; Saito, Y.; Kitayama, Y.

    A composite fiber-optic ground wire (OPGW), which provides additional communication capabilities for system protection and control of overhead power transmission systems has been developed. After laboratory tests, the OPGW was strung along a live power transmission line in a mountainous region and has been confirmed to have sufficient performance to establish a high-speed digital transmission network able to withstand actual conditions. The field line, constructed substantially by existing techniques, has proved that the new OPGW, accessories such as clamps and joint boxes, installation technique, and on-tower splicing method can be effectively utilized to produce a protection and control system with extremely stable characteristics.

  13. Ground state solutions for non-autonomous fractional Choquard equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Hong; Liu, Chungen

    2016-06-01

    We consider the following nonlinear fractional Choquard equation, {(‑Δ)su+u=(1+a(x))(Iα ∗ (|u| p))|u| p‑2uin RN,u(x)→0as |x|→∞, here s\\in (0,1) , α \\in (0,N) , p\\in ≤ft[2,∞ \\right) and \\frac{N-2s}{N+α}<\\frac{1}{p}<\\frac{N}{N+α} . Assume {{\\lim}|x|\\to ∞}a(x)=0 and satisfying suitable assumptions but not requiring any symmetry property on a(x), we prove the existence of ground state solutions for (0.1).

  14. Further Studies of Ground-Level Auroral Kilometric Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labelle, J. W.; Yan, X.; Pasternak, S.; Broughton, M.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Kojima, H.; Anderson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Following up initial observations of coincident ground-level AKR-like signals and outgoing AKR measured with the GEOTAIL satellite [LaBelle and Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett., L04104, doi:10.1029/2010GL046411, 2011], investigation of 2008 data from four Antarctic observatories yields 37 additional examples. The occurrence rate of the ground-level AKR-like signals peaks near 22 UT similar to that of AKR. Because the distant satellite observes AKR from many sources, and because many effects can hinder transmission of AKR from the sources to either the distant satellite or the ground, a perfect correlation between ground-level AKR-like signals and outgoing AKR at GEOTAIL is not expected, and indeed correlation analysis of the ten longest-duration events suggests an imperfect correlation with 2-3 sigma significance, although at time much better correlations occur. Statistical analysis of the existing data is therefore suggestive but not does not prove a connection between the ground-level AKR-like signals and outgoing AKR. Two other methods provide strong evidence in favor of a connection between the phenomena, however. The first full-resolution measurements of ground-level AKR using a digital receiver at South Pole Station show that its fine structure closely resembles that of AKR measured by spacecraft receivers and is completely different from that of auroral hiss, the other auroral emission in the kilometric wavelength range. The digital receiver also determined the polarization of the AKR-like emissions to be right-hand, implying propagation in the whistler mode in the ionosphere. A weaker form of evidence comes from considering the locations of the ground station, satellite, and active aurora during coincident events. Two case studies suggest that the location of the active aurora, presumed connected with the AKR sources, controls whether or not the ground station detects the AKR, or which of several ground stations detects it most strongly. Taken together, these

  15. Ground Effect - Theory and Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistolesi, E

    1937-01-01

    The conclusion of a previous article by Pistolesi is that the increment of lift due to ground effect is largely attributable to the effect of induction of the free vortices, and is practically equivalent to a virtual increase in aspect ratio. The ground clearance was of the order of magnitude comparable to the wing chord. New reports by Le Seur and Datwyler treat the case of minimum distance from the ground and is confined to the plane problem only. The author briefly reviews these reports and also one by Timotika. References to all the reviewed reports are in the attached bibliography.

  16. 76 FR 22938 - Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a Child

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a Child AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0206, Evidence to Prove Dependency....Benson@opm.gov or faxed to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-37, Evidence to...

  17. 20 CFR 30.221 - How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty? 30.221 Section 30.221 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... Eeoicpa § 30.221 How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty? (a) Proof of...

  18. 20 CFR 30.221 - How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty? 30.221 Section 30.221 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... Eeoicpa § 30.221 How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty? (a) Proof of...

  19. 20 CFR 30.221 - How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty? 30.221 Section 30.221 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... Eeoicpa § 30.221 How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty? (a) Proof of...

  20. 20 CFR 30.221 - How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty? 30.221 Section 30.221 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... Eeoicpa § 30.221 How does a claimant prove exposure to silica in the performance of duty? (a) Proof of...