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1

[Complications of hypospadias repairs].  

PubMed

Hypospadias is the most common congenital abnormality of the lower urinary tract affecting one of 300 male newborns. More than 300 different surgical hypospadias repair techniques have been described. Currently, tubularized incised plate and meatal advancement and glansplasty integrated repair are the preferred techniques for distal hypospadias, whereas two-staged procedures are most frequently used in proximal forms. Success rates are high in the hands of dedicated surgeons, although studies on long-term results are sparse. The most frequent complications of hypospadias repairs include urethrocutaneous fistulas, meatal stenosis, and urethral strictures. Urological follow-up into puberty is warranted, as well as further studies with standardized reporting of long-term results and complications. PMID:25023236

Soave, A; Riechardt, S; Engel, O; Rink, M; Fisch, M

2014-07-01

2

Salvage hypospadias repairs  

PubMed Central

Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children – buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5–15 years (mean 4.5). Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50%) with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely – a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4–6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

Sripathi, V.; Satheesh, M.; Shubha, K.

2008-01-01

3

Hallucinations after hypospadias repair.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a 4-year-old child who developed hallucinations after hypospadias repair. He was brought to the emergency department the morning after outpatient surgery where the diagnosis of central anticholinergic syndrome was made. We review oxybutynin overdose and the importance of providing clear instruction to parents and caregivers about the administration of medications. PMID:16516613

Swana, Hubert S; Youmans, Sharon L; Kogan, Barry A; Bogetz, Martin S

2006-03-01

4

Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective. The great possibility of variations in the clinical presentation of hypospadia, makes its therapy challenging. This has led to the development of a number of techniques for hypospadia repair. This article assesses past and present concepts and operative techniques with the aim of broadening our understanding of this malformation. Materials and Methods. The article not only reviews hypospadia in general with its development and clinical presentation as well as historical and current concepts in hypospadiologie on the basis of available literature, but it is also based on our own clinical experience in the repair of this malformation. Results and Conclusion. The fact that there are great variations in the presentation and extent of malformations existent makes every hypospadia individual and a proposal of a universal comprehensive algorithm for hypospadia repair difficult. The Snodgrass technique has found wide popularity for the repair of distal hypospadias. As far as proximal hypospadias are concerned, their repair is more challenging because it not only involves urethroplasty, but can also, in some cases, fulfil the dimensions of a complex genital reconstruction. Due to the development of modern operating materials and an improvement in current surgical techniques, there has been a significant decrease in the complication rates. Nonetheless, there still is room and, therefore, need for further improvement in this field.

Djakovic, N.; Nyarangi-Dix, J.; Ozturk, A.; Hohenfellner, M.

2008-01-01

5

Outcome of pediatric hypospadias repair in adulthood  

PubMed Central

Purpose To review the evolution of the technique of hypospadias repair. Methods A search of Pubmed, Medline and the Journal of Pediatric Urology was performed, and papers dealing with surgical techniques for hypospadias repair were critally reviewed. Special emphasis was given to papers on the effects in the long term of hypospadias repair on voiding and sexual dysfunction. Results The techniques for hypospadias repair have evolved over the years. The most popular technique now is tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Long-term results with the use of the new techniques of the hypospadias repair in terms of voiding and sexual problems should be addressed. Conclusion There is a need for valid studies on the outcomes of hypospadias repair in adults that were performed in childhood in terms of cosmetic appearance, voiding and sexual performance.

Chertin, Boris; Prat, Dan; Shenfeld, Ofer Z

2010-01-01

6

Complications of Small Intestinal Submucosa for Corporal Body Grafting for Proximal Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSmall intestinal submucosa (SIS) has been described for corporal body grafting in cases of severe penile curvature. We reviewed our experience with a 2-stage repair using corporal body grafting with SIS for proximal hypospadias and severe chordee.

TREVOR M. SOERGEL; MARK P. CAIN; MARTIN KAEFER; JORDAN GITLIN; ANTHONY J. CASALE; MARY M. DAVIS; RICHARD C. RINK

2003-01-01

7

Snodgrass Hypospadias Repair with Vascularized Dartos Flap: The Perfect Repair for Virgin Cases of Hypospadias?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince its introduction, the Snodgrass hypospadias repair has been applied to virtually all forms of hypospadias repair. However, fistula rates have still been reported to be as high as 5% from large center, multiple surgeon studies and 16% from smaller center studies. We report on the use of the Snodgrass repair in conjunction with routine use of a vascularized dartos

Earl Y. Cheng; Sreenivas N. Vemulapalli; Bradley P. Kropp; John C. Pope; Peter D. Furness; William E. Kaplan; D. Preston Smith

2002-01-01

8

Hypospadias Repair: A Single Centre Experience  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital's database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka) and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate) repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF). The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (P-value = 0.0086). The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair (P value = 0.0001). Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications.

Majeed, Abdul; Ullah, Hidayat; Naz, Shazia; Shah, Syed Asif; Tahmeed, Tahmeedullah; Yousaf, Kanwal; Tahir, Muhammad

2014-01-01

9

COMPLETE REPAIR OF BLADDER EXSTROPHY: MANAGEMENT OF RESULTANT HYPOSPADIAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:In our hands complete primary repair (CPR) of bladder exstrophy results in hypospadias in two-thirds of boys. To our knowledge hypospadias repair following CPR of bladder exstrophy has not been reported previously. We report our experience with hypospadias repair following CPR of bladder exstrophy.

ASHRAF T. HAFEZ; MOHAMED T. EL-SHERBINY

2005-01-01

10

The forked flap repair for hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The “Forked-Flap” repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip–flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit's prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

Chadha, Anil; Singh, Amitabh

2012-01-01

11

Redo hypospadias repair: experience at a tertiary care children's hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective Treatment of patients with failed hypospadias repairs can be challenging. Our study aimed to determine the best type of redo repair depending on the location and size of the urethral meatus, the status of the urethral plate and genital skin, the severity of residual chordee and the amount of scar tissue. Methods The Institutional Review Board approved our retrospective chart review of patients who had a redo hypospadias repair at our institution over the past 6 years. We recorded the type and number of previous repair(s), the type and number of redo procedure(s),as well as the complications and functional outcomes. Results There were 28 patients, aged 1–12 (mean 3.8) years, with failed hypospadias repairs. The initial severity of the hypospadias were as follows: perineal (1), penoscrotal (9), proximal shaft (1), mid-shaft (9), distal shaft (4), coronal (3) and mega-meatus (1). Of all the patients, 24 had 1 repair, 3 had 2 repairs and 1 had 3 repairs. The initial repairs comprised 11 tubularized island flaps (TIFs), 8 Snodgrass tubularized incised plate (TIP) techniques, 5 Mathieu repairs, 1 Meatal Advancement and GlanuloPlasty Incorporated (MAGPI) technique, 1 Pyramid, 1 Arap technique and 1 Thiersch-Duplay repair. Twenty-one of 28 patients had 1 redo operation, 5 had 2 redo operations, 1 had 3 redo operations and 1 had 4 redo operations, for a total of 38 redo operations. Of these, 26 were TIP techniques (68.4%), 3 were Mathieu (7.9%), 3 were TIF repairs (7.9%), 2 were onlay island flaps (5.3%) and 4 were buccal mucosal grafts (10.5%). Follow-up was 1–5 years (mean 3.5 yr). The final locations of urethral meatus included glans (18), corona (6), mid-shaft (3) and penoscrotal (1). Complications after redo surgery comprised 4 urethrocutaneous fistulae, 2 meatal stenoses, 1 urethral stricture and 3 dehiscences. Sixteen patients were followed with yearly uroflow with a Q-mean (mean uroflow) range of 3–14 mL/s (mean 8.1 mL/s). Conclusion The majority of hypospadias failures can be salvaged with one operation. The TIP repair is our procedure of choice in most cases. In the setting of a poor urethral plate, TIF or buccal mucosa may be necessary. Complications are not infrequent in redo procedures.

Al-Sayyad, Ahmed; Pike, John G; Leonard, Michael P

2007-01-01

12

Single-stage repair of hypospadias using longitudinal dorsal island flap: Single-surgeon experience with 102 cases  

PubMed Central

Purpose: There are many techniques of harvesting vascularized skin flaps from penile skin for hypospadias repairs. Here, we review our experience with the use of longitudinal dorsal island flap (LDIF) for mid- and proximal hypospadias repairs and to assess the results and complications of onlay and tubularized repairs. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of all children with hypospadias operated by a single surgeon using the LDIF technique. The severity of hypospadias, technique, complications, and follow-up were assessed. Results: Over a 9.4-year period, 102 children (mean age 4.2 years, range 6 months to 11 years) were operated for primary hypospadias using the LDIF technique. All children had poorly formed urethral plates and hence were considered unsuitable for tubularized incised plate repair. The hypospadias was classified as midpenile, proximal penile/penoscrotal or perineal in 29, 64, and 9 children respectively. Onlay LDIF repair was done in 85 children, while in 17 children, tubularized LDIF repair was performed. At a mean follow-up of 1.8 years, complications occurred in 12 (12%) children. Complications were more common after tubularized repairs than onlay repairs (24% vs. 9.5%). All glans dehiscences occurred after onlay repairs, while meatal stenosis and diverticulum occurred after tubularized repairs. No child had urethral stenosis after onlay repair, and uroflow studies in 16 children demonstrated normal curves and flow rates. Conclusions: We report the use of LDIF for single-stage mid and proximal hypospadias repair with good success and an acceptable complication rate. Onlay repairs had fewer complications than tubularized repairs. Our results indicate that the specific advantages and versatility of LDIF make it a good option to consider in cases of hypospadias with poorly developed urethral plates where onlay or substitution urethroplasty is indicated.

Chandrasekharam, V. V. S.

2013-01-01

13

Nonsurgical factors in the success of hypospadias repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

on the nonsurgical aspects of hypospadias repair are reviewed and compared with the practices of surgeons in the UK, as assessed by a questionnaire. THE TIMING OF SURGERY Early practice guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that children with hypospadias should be operated on after 4 years of age (5). It was felt that the parental separation from

Christopher R. J. Woodhouse; Deborah Christie

2005-01-01

14

Technique for repair of minimal distal balanitic hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesAlthough not pernicious, minimal distal hypospadias is frequently obvious to parents, whose concern that their child be completely normal prompts their request for repair. A simple technique for the repair of this anomaly that results in an elliptical meatus is presented.

John F. Redman

2006-01-01

15

Use of BioGlue Surgical Adhesive in Hypospadias Repair  

PubMed Central

Purpose To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of albumin glutaraldehyde tissue adhesive (BioGlue) in the surgical treatment of patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods Two groups of 20 patients each who underwent hypospadias repair were included in the study. In the first group we utilized BioGlue as an additional protective layer to the suture line of the neo-urethra, while patients in the second group were operated on utilizing a routine surgical technique. Results There were no statistical differences between patients from the 2 groups in terms of surgical complications. Urethrocutaneous fistula was revealed in 4 (20%) patients after repair with BioGlue and in 3 (15%) patients from the control group (p = 0.686), suture line breakdown in 4 (20%) and in 1 (5%) patients (p = 0.478), meatal stenosis in 1 (5%) and in 1 (5%) patient (p = 1). Furthermore more patients in the BioGlue group (n = 12, 60%) demonstrated poor cosmetic results compared to the control group where most patients – 19 (95%) had acceptable cosmetic outcomes (p = 0.007). Conclusions Our data showed no benefits of BioGlue use in hypospadias repair.

Kocherov, Stanislav; Lev, Genady; Chertin, Boris

2013-01-01

16

A modified method for the treatment of urethral fistula after hypospadias repair  

PubMed Central

Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is a common complication of hypospadias surgery for severe hypospadias. We report our experience in the management of UCF following hypospadias surgery with a prepuce-degloving method (PDM). Our study included 87 patients who developed UCF after hypospadias repair from May 2001 to December 2011. Either simple closure or PDM was performed to repair the fistula. In total, 61 patients underwent a simple closure or Y-V plasty of the fistula, and 26 underwent a PDM repair. The success rate was 78.7% for simple closure or Y-V plasty and 96.2% for PDM repair (P<0.05). PDM repair represents a good choice for UCF repair after hypospadias, and our high 96.2% success rate demonstrates its applicability.

Qin, Chao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shang-Qian; Cao, Qiang; Wang, Zeng-Jun; Li, Peng-Chao; Li, Jie; Feng, Ning-Han; Hua, Li-Xin; Yin, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Wei

2012-01-01

17

A modified method for the treatment of urethral fistula after hypospadias repair.  

PubMed

Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is a common complication of hypospadias surgery for severe hypospadias. We report our experience in the management of UCF following hypospadias surgery with a prepuce-degloving method (PDM). Our study included 87 patients who developed UCF after hypospadias repair from May 2001 to December 2011. Either simple closure or PDM was performed to repair the fistula. In total, 61 patients underwent a simple closure or Y-V plasty of the fistula, and 26 underwent a PDM repair. The success rate was 78.7% for simple closure or Y-V plasty and 96.2% for PDM repair (P<0.05). PDM repair represents a good choice for UCF repair after hypospadias, and our high 96.2% success rate demonstrates its applicability. PMID:23064690

Qin, Chao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shang-Qian; Cao, Qiang; Wang, Zeng-Jun; Li, Peng-Chao; Li, Jie; Feng, Ning-Han; Hua, Li-Xin; Yin, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Wei

2012-11-01

18

[Management of hypospadias].  

PubMed

Hypospadias are diagnosed at birth. Counseling of the parents should be performed in detail. Isolated hypospadias has to be differentiated from disorders of sexual development which are mostly associated with cryptorchidism and micropenis. The operation is timed around the first birthday. Preoperative hormonal treatment should be reserved for infants with a small glans penis or for repeat surgery. The most popular method in distal hypospadias repair is preservation of the urethral plate and tubularization with or without midline incision. In proximal cases with severe curvature a two-stage procedure may be preferable. Dripping-stent urinary drainage into a double diaper is the best method in infants. The complication rate after primary distal repair is reported in the literature to be less than 10% and after staged procedures in proximal hypospadias over 25%. PMID:24718908

Riccabona, M

2014-05-01

19

Mathieu repair of distal and midshaft hypospadias: risks and benefits of foreskin reconstruction versus circumcision  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare the risks and benefits of Mathieu repair of hypospadias with or without circumcision in consecutive operated cases. Methods Eighty-six children with midshaft or distal hypospadias were randomly divided into two groups and underwent circumcision (Group A) or preputial reconstruction (Group B) during hypospadias repair. Postoperative complications, outcomes, and parental satisfaction were assessed for circumcised and uncircumcised patients. All patients with midshaft or distal hypospadias with or without minimal chordee were included. Results No statistically significant differences in urethral complications were found between the two groups. Meatal stenosis occurred in one case in Group A and one case in Group B. Fistulae occurred in five cases in Group A and six cases in Group B. Urethral dehiscence occurred in no case in either group. No case of phimosis was seen in Group B. After a mean follow-up of 6 months, all parents of Group A cases stated that they were satisfied with the circumcision for religious and/or social reasons, but no parents of Group B cases were satisfied with preputioplasty (P ? 0.05). No case of hypospadias repair failure was seen in our operated cases. Finally, no cases in Group B required redo hypospadias surgery. Conclusion Mathieu repair with synchronous circumcision is feasible in all patients with distal or midshaft hypospadias with or without minimal chordee, and should be considered in accordance with surgeon preference. In the case of prepuce preservation, parents should be informed that there is a benefit of tissue banking for probable redo hypospadias repair but with an increased risk of complications and a need for another procedure, ie, circumcision.

Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Gilani, Mohammad Ali Sadighi; Shahrokh, Hossein

2011-01-01

20

How do asymptomatic toilet-trained children void following tubularized incised-plate hypospadias repair?  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the functional outcome in the form of urinary flow rates in asymptomatic children following uncomplicated tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU) hypospadias repair. Methods: We reviewed the records of children who underwent TIPU at our institution between April 1997 and September 2007 and included only asymptomatic toilet-trained children who had an uncomplicated postoperative course and had undergone uroflometry not less than 1 year postoperatively. Unfavourable voiding parameters were either a plateau curve, a peak flow below the 5th percentile range in nomogram or a post-void residual (PVR) more than 20% of the total functional capacity of the bladder. Uroflowmetry findings were analyzed against variables, including the surgeon, the severity of hypospadias, the presence of a hypoplastic urethra, the use of double layer closure, the performance of a spongioplasty and the use of a stent. Serial uroflowmetries, when available, were compared with respect to the initial flow study. Results: In total, 59 patients were eligible for the study. The mean age at surgery was 2.4 years. Hypospadias was distal penile in 50 (85%) and mid and proximal penile in 9 (15%). Mean follow-up was 3.3±2 (1–9.5) years. The uroflow curve was bell-shaped in 18 (30%), interrupted in 8 (14%), slightly flattened in 27 (46%) and plateau in 6 (10%). Flow rate nomograms revealed that 40 (68%) were above the 20th percentile, 10 (17%) were below the 5th percentile and 9 (15%) were between these ranges. PVR was >20% of the pre-void volume in 9 children (15%). No patient demonstrated all three unfavourable parameters together. The groups of children with unfavourable functional voiding parameters were compared to the children with favourable parameters specifically with respect to the possible predictors of outcome. Follow-up uroflometry in 17 patients showed improvement in the flow curve, flow rate and PVR with significant improvement of maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and PVR values. Conclusions: Asymptomatic, urodynamic abnormalities were observed in our study following uncomplicated TIPU repair. These abnormalities were not related to the variation of the technique among surgeons. Spontaneous improvement has been noted on serial flow studies.

Eassa, Waleed; Brzezinski, Alex; Capolicchio, J.P.; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

2012-01-01

21

Repair of extensive perineal hypospadias in a Boston terrier using tubularized incised plate urethroplasty  

PubMed Central

This report provides a detailed description of the surgical repair of perineal hypospadias in a Boston terrier. A 2-year patient follow-up, including diagnostic data demonstrating urethral patency and resolution of recurrent urocystitis and urine skin scald are reported.

Adelsberger, Mary E.; Smeak, Daniel D.

2009-01-01

22

Comparative Study of Snodgrass and Mathieu's Procedure for Primary Hypospadias Repair  

PubMed Central

Objective. Present study was undertaken to compare the results of two single stage hypospadias repairs, namely, Tubularized Incised Plate (TIP) repair and Mathieu's repair. Methods. The study included 100 patients of distal penile hypospadias, from January, 2008 to January, 2013. After a detailed history, local examination was performed with reference to the site of meatus, shape of glans, and presence of chordee. TIP repair was performed in 52 patients and Mathieu's repair in 48 patients. On follow-up, the patients were examined for the position of meatus, shape of meatus, urinary stream, urethrocutaneous fistula, and stricture formation. Results. The mean age of presentation was 6.2?±?3.2 years (range 1.5–15years). The mean operative time was 63.7?±?14.3 (45–90) minutes and 95.0?±?19.1 (70–125) minutes in TIP and Mathieu's repair, respectively.Complications after surgery were urethero cutaneous fistula in 3(5.76%) and 7 (14.5%), meatal stenosis in 3(5.33%) and 4(8.33%), wound infection in 19.2% and 8.3% cases in TIP repair and Mathieu repair, respectively. The shape of meatus was slit-like and vertically oriented in 48(92.3%) patients who had undergone TIP repair. Conclusion. The Snodgrass repair is significantly faster, with more natural cosmetic appearance of the meatus than the Mathieu's repair.

Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A.; Shera, Altaf H.

2014-01-01

23

Functional and aesthetic results in hypospadias repair with Hinderer's techniques.  

PubMed

In his editorial to the first issue of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery in 1976, the Managing Editor, Dr. Blair Rogers lays special emphasis on the publication of papers and reports dealing with the increasing role of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery as the final step in the overall rehabilitation of Reconstructive Surgery patients. In genitourinary malformations-hypospadias and epispadias-without any doubt a satisfactory sexual and urinary functional result is essential. However, also a normal aesthetic appearance, resembling a circumcised penis, and with the meatus at the tip of the glans, is becoming increasingly important, notably since the second half of the last century. An abnormal aesthetic appearance affects the patient's body image and has a negative influence on his self-esteem and sexual behaviour. Psychological stress is brought on from genital comparison with school-mates, in adulthood in gym changing rooms and, specifically, in sexual relations. In these days of greater sexual freedom, the knowledge of male genital anatomy and aesthetic appearance has considerably improved. Penile hypoplasia creates a psychological impact perhaps only comparable with that of female mammary hypoplasia. It is therefore unsurprising that not only normal aesthetic appearance after hypospadias surgery is essential, but also the demand for penile lengthening and girth augmentation has progressively increased over these past recent years. PMID:11084694

Hinderer, U T

2000-01-01

24

Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair may be performed in a nearly sutureless fashion and in a more rapid manner than for conventional suturing. The trend towards a decreased rate of complications in the laser group at this time indicates that laser soldering may be an improved method of tissue closure for hypospadias repair. We continue to accrue patients to this study.

Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M.; Zderic, Stephen A.

1998-07-01

25

Hypospadias repair  

MedlinePLUS

... A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Surgery is NOT needed if the condition does ... What drugs your child is taking Include drugs, herbs, and vitamins you bought without a prescription Tell ...

26

Endoscopic Repair of Proximal Hamstring Avulsion  

PubMed Central

Hamstring muscle injuries are common in athletes and mostly consist of sprains at the myotendinous junction, which often respond well to conservative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, though less common, can be severely debilitating. This injury is often seen in water skiers but has been described in many other sports and in middle-aged patients. Complete avulsions in young and active individuals do not respond well to conservative treatment and may require surgical repair. In contrast, many partial tears may be treated nonoperatively. However, when symptoms continue despite a trial of extensive therapy, surgery may be warranted. Traditional surgery for proximal hamstring repair is performed with the patient in the prone position with an incision made longitudinally or along the gluteal fold, followed by identification of the torn tendons and fixation to the ischial tuberosity. We describe a novel surgical technique for endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion injuries.

Domb, Benjamin G.; Linder, Dror; Sharp, Kinzie G.; Sadik, Adam; Gerhardt, Michael B.

2013-01-01

27

Hypospadias: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly of the penis. The problem usually develops sporadically and without an obvious underlying cause. The ectopically positioned urethral meatus lies proximal to the normal site and on the ventral aspect of the penis, and in severe cases opens onto the scrotum or perineum. The foreskin on the ventral surface is deficient, while that

Alexander K. C. Leung; William L. M. Robson

2007-01-01

28

Failed hypospadias in paediatric patients.  

PubMed

Failed hypospadias refers to any hypospadias repair that leads to complications or causes patient dissatisfaction. The complication rate after hypospadias repairs ranges from 5-70%, but the actual incidence of failed hypospadias is unknown as complications can become apparent many years after surgery and series with lifelong follow-up data do not exist. Moreover, little is known about uncomplicated repairs that fail in terms of patient satisfaction. Risk factors for complications include factors related to the hypospadias (severity of the condition and characteristics of the urethral plate), the patient (age at surgery, endocrine environment, and wound healing impairment), the surgeon (technique selection and surgeon expertise), and the procedure (technical details and postoperative management). The most important factors for preventing complications are surgeon expertise (number of cases treated per year), interposition of a barrier layer between the urethroplasty and the skin, and postoperative urinary drainage. Major complications associated with failed hypospadias include residual curvature, healing complications (preputial dehiscence, glans dehiscence, fistula formation, and urethral breakdown), urethral obstruction (meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, and functional obstruction), urethral diverticula, hairy urethra, and penile skin deficiency. PMID:23917119

Cimador, Marcello; Vallasciani, Santiago; Manzoni, Gianantonio; Rigamonti, Waifro; De Grazia, Enrico; Castagnetti, Marco

2013-11-01

29

Asymptomatic hypospadias with tight meatal stricture in the father of twelve children  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is a highly prevalent congenital anomaly. English articles, indexed in PubMed, published the long-term sexual and reproductive outcome following hypospadias repair. Almost all repairable cases of hypospadias are operated in childhood. Although distal hypospadias does not interfere with fertility, it is worthy reporting a case of an elderly man, who fathers 12 children and has no urologic complaint, presented with unrepaired coronal hypospadias and severely tight external urethral meatus.

2013-01-01

30

A modified tubularised incised plate urethroplasty technique and a revised hypospadias algorithm  

PubMed Central

To simplify and standardize surgical management of hypospadias, a modified tubularised incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass) technique has been described and a revised hypospadias management algorithm has been formulated. The study aims to evaluate the viability of the described procedure in different types of hypospadias and tests the validity of the algorithm. The modification described is recruitment of penile and glandular skin lateral to the urethral plate to facilitate tubularisation. The algorithm starts with penile degloving with preservation of urethral plate. Snodgrass repair was done in cases with no chordee and where skin chordee resolved by skin take down. Modified Snodgrass repair was done in cases where urethral plate was narrow. Another modification proposed by us is single layer penile skin closure instead of an added dartos flap, which was done in both classical and modified Snodgrass repair. Cases of severe chordee not resolved by skin take down were repaired by transverse preputial island flap (TPIF) and Bracka's technique. Dorsal plication was not used as an orthoplasty modality. It was possible to repair 68.89% of the cases by Snodgrass repair. These patients either had no chordee or had superficial skin tethering (skin chordee) which resolved on degolving. All these cases were coronal, distal and mid penile hypospadias. Remaining cases were mid, proximal and penoscrotal with true fibrous chordee and were repaired by TPIF or Bracka's technique. The Snodgrass technique had a fistula rate of 9.67%. Acceptably, low fistula rate and simple execution make the proposed modification of classical Snodgrass repair a viable option. The proposed algorithm proves to be a useful tool for standardised and logical preoperative decision making. It also defines indications of the three techniques vis-à-vis the type of hypospadias.

Bhattacharya, Sameek

2010-01-01

31

The effect of experience of surgeon on surgical outcomes of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in distal hypospadias repair Distal hipospadias onariminda tübülarize insize-plate üretroplasti uygulamasinda cerrah deneyiminin cerrahi sonuca olan etkisinin de?erlendirilmesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Tubularized incised-plate urethroplasty (TIPU) is one of the techniques to repair distal hypospadias. We investigated the effect of the experience of the surgeon on overall success in terms of cosmetic and functional outcomes in TIPU. Materials and methods: Records of 123 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Each session was performed based on surgeon status related with experience on TIPU by

Ali Ayyildiz; Emre Huri; Turgay Akgül; Özgür Yücel

32

Endoscopic Proximal Hamstring Repair and Ischial Bursectomy  

PubMed Central

With the significant increase in use of the arthroscope around the hip have come several less invasive techniques to manage pathologies around this joint. This technical note with a video details one such technique that allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now have been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. This procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion.

Dierckman, Brian D.; Guanche, Carlos A.

2012-01-01

33

[Prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias].  

PubMed

Hypospadias is the most common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. After the heart and circulatory system, it is the second most common developmental disorder in males. It is due to a midline fusion defect of the male urethra, which results in a misplaced urethral meatus. Hypospadias may be distal, medial and proximal. It may occur as an isolated defect or it may develop together with other genital disorders (retention of testes in one or both sides, microphallus, bifid scrotum) or with malformation of other organs. In some cases syndromic forms may also occur. Genetic factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of early developmental defect, but endocrine and environmental factors may also be important in the aetiology of hypospadias. It may be associated with various sex and autosomal chromosomal abnormalities. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of hypospadias accounts for about in 30% of all cases, while genetic factors remain unknown in 70% of cases. The authors summarize the development of the male external genitalia, the prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias. They propose that better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease may contribute to the prevention and decreased prevalence of the disease. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(25), 978-985. PMID:24936573

Ságodi, László; Kiss, Akos; Kiss-Tóth, Em?ke; Barkai, László

2014-06-01

34

Endoscopic Transtendinous Repair for Partial-Thickness Proximal Hamstring Tendon Tears  

PubMed Central

Partial tears of the proximal hamstring tendon can successfully be managed with tendon repair in cases of failed conservative management. As in partial-thickness gluteus medius repair, a transtendinous technique can be used to repair partial-thickness undersurface tears of the hamstring origin. This report details an endoscopic transtendinous approach for the treatment of partial-thickness hamstring tendon tears.

Jackson, Timothy J.; Trenga, Anthony; Lindner, Dror; El-Bitar, Youseff; Domb, Benjamin G.

2014-01-01

35

Facts about Hypospadias  

MedlinePLUS

... hypospadias. 2 Fertility treatments: Women who used assisted reproductive technology to help with pregnancy had a higher risk ... and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Assisted reproductive technology and major structural birth defects in the United ...

36

Risk factors for hypospadias.  

PubMed

Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were recruited through the parents of the cases. Both parents of cases and referents completed written questionnaires that they received through the mail. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent contribution of different factors to the risk of hypospadias. The final database included 583 cases and 251 referents. Hypospadias more often occurred in children whose father had hypospadias (OR=9.7; 95%CI: 1.3-74.0) and in children with a low birth weight (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 1.2-4.2). Indications for elevated risks were found when mothers were DES-daughters (OR=3.5; 95%CI: 0.8-15.6), fathers were subfertile (OR=1.8; 95%CI: 0.7-4.5), the parents had undergone fertility treatment (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 0.9-5.8), and in twin or triplet pregnancies (OR=2.0; 95%CI: 0.8-5.1). Maternal use of iron supplements (OR=2.2; 95%CI: 0.8-6.0), maternal smoking (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.0-2.4), paternal prescriptive drug use (OR=2.6; 95%CI: 1.1-6.6), and paternal exposure to pesticides (OR=2.1; 95%CI: 0.6-7.1) during the 3 months immediately prior to conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy also appeared to increase the risk of hypospadias. The associations found in this study support the hypothesis that genetic predisposition, placental insufficiency, and substances that interfere with natural hormones play a role in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:17103190

Brouwers, Marijn M; Feitz, Wouter F J; Roelofs, Luc A J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; de Gier, Robert P E; Roeleveld, Nel

2007-07-01

37

Cyanoacrylate Glue Dressing for Hypospadias Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypospadias repair is a common pediatric operation. Several kinds of dressings are currently available, with their benefits and side effects. Aim: The aim of our study was to introduce a new method of dressing, by pouring several layers of cyanoacrylate (CA) glue as the dressing, in hypospadias surgery. Materials and Methods: Twenty out of the 61 patients with hypospadias, with a mean age of 13.5 months, were enrolled in this study. Forty-one had conventional dressing (pressure wrap dressing), while CA glue was used in 20 patients. CA glue was applied around the penis and its base four times and each time it took one minute to dry. All patients were followed postoperatively for two weeks and six to twelve months, for early and late complications, respectively. Results: One out of 20 developed wound hematoma, one had skin necrosis with infection, and edema was present in all. All these were easily diagnosed and managed rapidly. In the group treated with conventional methods, there were five infections, seven hematomas, all the patients in the group had edema and painful removal of the dressing, and 10 needed repeat dressing. Conclusions: CA glue is impermeable to urine and stool, and prevents edema and hematoma. Used in several layers, it is a good alternative dressing in hypospadias surgery.

Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Rasekhi, Ahmad Reza; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Hedjazi, Arya

2012-01-01

38

Acute skier's thumb repaired with a proximal phalanx suture anchor.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the functional outcome of a surgical technique for the repair of injuries of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb. A 14-point questionnaire was developed to determine functional outcome after surgical repair of acute ulnar collateral ligament rupture. Early ulnar collateral ligament repair was performed on 58 patients with grade III sprains (complete rupture) of the ligament using a new technique that employs a suture anchor for fixation. Forty-five patients were interviewed at a minimum postoperative interval of 12 months and were included in this study. Forty-four patients (98%) believed they had a stable repair, were satisfied with their surgery, and would have it again if necessary. Forty-four patients (98%) were not hindered in their day-to-day activities and had a functional range of motion. Mild discomfort was felt by eight of our patients (17%), but only three patients (7%) had pain with activities. The average time to return to skiing was 1.7 days. The use of a suture anchor provided a strong and stable repair if the surgery was performed early. PMID:9784810

Zeman, C; Hunter, R E; Freeman, J R; Purnell, M L; Mastrangelo, J

1998-01-01

39

Ischemic damage and repair in the rat proximal tubule: Differences among the S1, S2, and S3 segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ischemic damage and repair in the rat proximal tubule: Differences among the S1, S2, and S3 segments. Rats were subjected to 25 min of unilateral renal artery occlusion and were studied at 5, 15, and 30 min and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 hr following ischemia. The patterns of epithelial injury and repair in proximal tubule

Manjeri A Venkatachalam; David B Bernard; John F Donohoe; Norman G Levinsky

1978-01-01

40

Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Beta is Decreased in Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Purpose Estrogenic endocrine disruptors acting via estrogen receptors ? and ? have been implicated in the etiology of hypospadias. However, the expression and distribution of estrogen receptors ? and ? in normal and hypospadiac human foreskins is unknown. We characterized the location and expression of estrogen receptors ? and ? in normal and hypospadiac foreskins. Materials and Methods We prospectively collected excess foreskin from 35 patients undergoing hypospadias repair and 15 patients undergoing elective circumcision. Hypospadias was classified as severe in 18 patients and mild in 17 based on the ectopic position of the meatus. mRNA expression levels in estrogen receptors ? and ? were quantified using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Receptor location was characterized by immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 4 archived human fetal penises. Results Mean ± SD ages were similar for the circumcision (9.5 ± 3 months) and hypospadias repair groups (9 ± 3 months, p = 0.75). mRNA expression levels in estrogen receptors ? and ? were significantly decreased in hypospadiac foreskin cases compared to controls (p <0.001), while no statistically significant differences were seen between foreskins with severe and mild hypospadias. Estrogen receptor ? immunostaining was strong in normal foreskin but weak in hypospadiac foreskin. Estrogen receptor ? immunoreactivity was most intense in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum. Estrogen receptor ? immunostaining was weak in normal and mild hypospadias foreskin, and undetectable in severe hypospadias. Fetal penises expressed strong estrogen receptor ? immunopositivity in the urethral plate epithelium, corpus spongiosum, corpora cavernosa and penile skin, while estrogen receptor ? immunostaining was not detected. Conclusions These data demonstrate a difference in estrogen receptor ? and ? expression and location in the foreskin of patients with hypospadias compared to controls. These findings are consistent with aberrant estrogenic effects having a role in the etiology of hypospadias.

Qiao, Liang; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Weiss, Dana A.; Ferretti, Max; Risbridger, Gail; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

2012-01-01

41

Hypospadias: a transgenerational effect of diethylstilbestrol?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2002, an increased risk of hypospadias was reported for sons of women exposed to diethyl- stilbestrol (DES) in utero, suggesting transgenerational effects of DES. The aim of this study was to further assess the association between parental DES exposure and hypospadias in a case-referent study. METHODS: Cases with hypospadias were retrieved from the hospital information system. Referents were

M. M. Brouwers; W. F. J. Feitz; L. A. J. Roelofs; L. A. L. M. Kiemeney; R. P. E. de Gier; N. Roeleveld

2005-01-01

42

Combined open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for distal arch aneurysms: an alternative to total debranching.  

PubMed

We present herein a novel, combined, simultaneous open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for complex distal aortic arch aneurysms involving the descending aorta. In the first surgical step, the transverse arch is opened during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and a Dacron graft (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) is positioned down the descending aorta in an elephant trunk-like fashion with its proximal free margin sutured circumferentially to the aorta just distal to the left subclavian or left common carotid artery. With the graft serving as the new proximal landing zone, subsequent endovascular repair is performed antegrade during rewarming through the ascending aorta. PMID:19559261

Zierer, Andreas; Sanchez, Luis A; Moon, Marc R

2009-07-01

43

Nutritional factors and hypospadias risks  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We examined whether hypospadias was associated with several aspects of the diet, including intake of animal products, intake of several nutrients and food groups related to a vegetarian diet and estrogen metabolism, and diet quality. The study included deliveries from 1997 to 2005 that were part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire during maternal telephone interviews, and two diet quality indices were developed based on existing indices. Analyses included 1,250 cases with second or third degree hypospadias (urethra opened at the penile shaft, scrotum or perineum) and 3,118 male, liveborn, non-malformed controls. All odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from logistic regression models that included several potential confounders, including energy intake. Intake of animal products was not associated with hypospadias; e.g., the adjusted OR for any versus no intake of meat was 1.0 (95% CI 0.6, 1.6). Frequency of intake of meat or other animal products was also not associated with hypospadias, nor was intake of iron or several nutrients that are potentially related to estrogen metabolism. Diet quality was also not associated with hypospadias; the ORs for diet quality in the highest versus lowest quartile for the two diet quality indices were 1.0 (95% CI 0.6, 1.6) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7, 1.1). In conclusion, this large study does not support an association of a vegetarian diet or worse diet quality with hypospadias.

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Munger, Ronald G.; Olney, Richard S.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Shaw, Gary M.; Correa, Adolfo

2012-01-01

44

Ex-Premature Infant Boys with Hypospadias are Similar in Size to Age-Matched, Ex-Premature Infant Boys Without Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Studies have postulated that hypospadias, prematurity, and low birth weight are linked by defects in androgen signaling. To determine whether premature, hypospadiac boys are small and remain so, we compared their size at birth and at hypospadias repair to premature boys who underwent post-neonatal circumcision. METHODS We identified premature boys admitted to Texas Children's Hospital who underwent either hypospadias repair or circumcision after 4 months of age. Age, weight, and height at birth and surgery were recorded. RESULTS Fifty-four boys had hypospadias and 34 did not. For hypospadiac boys, the mean birth weight and age, height, and weight at surgery were lower than for boys without hypospadias. More importantly, length-for-age and weight-for-age percentiles were also lower for hypospadiac boys. When subset analysis was performed on boys younger than 2 years at surgery, however, there were no significant differences in height or weight between hypospadiac and nonhypospadiac boys. CONCLUSION Our series suggests that premature, hypospadiac boys are born smaller than age-matched, non-hypospadiac controls. However, there were no age-corrected size differences between hypospadiac and non-hypospadiac boys at surgery. This implies that hypospadiac boys exhibit postneonatal ‘rebound’ growth. Global growth deficits, if any, do not persist in hypospadiac boys.

Hsieh, Michael H.; Alonzo, David G.; Gonzales, Edmond T.; Jones, Eric A.; Cisek, Lars J.; Roth, David R.

2010-01-01

45

Use of parenteral testosterone prior to hypospadias surgery.  

PubMed

Surgical correction of genital defects was formerly proposed when the size of the penis was sufficient to permit easy surgical repair. To enlarge penile size, temporary stimulation with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone cream has been used; however, the results were not only inconsistent, but absorption was also variable. We report our experience with parenteral testosterone as an adjunct to reconstructive genital surgery in 25 patients aged 6-18 months from July 1999 to December 2000, including 8 with penile hypospadias, 15 with penoscrotal hypospadias, and 2 with perineal hypospadias. Each had a penis that was significantly smaller than usual. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was given i.m. once per month for a total of three doses before surgical repair. Penile length and glans circumference were measured before therapy and at operation. Side effects such as the development of pubic hair and acne were monitored. Bone age was checked 1 year later. An increase in penile length (from 19.8 +/- 2.4 mm to 23.8 +/- 2.0 mm) and glans circumference (from 27.4 +/- 1.4 mm to 37.84 +/- 2.6 mm) was apparent in all except 2 patients (P < 0.001 for both, paired t-test). Four patients had a significant increase in either penile length or glans circumference after the initial dose so that no further injections were required. No definite secondary effects were found. Preoperative parenteral testosterone therapy thus causes a significant increase in penile length and glans circumference without apparent side effects. We suggest that this therapy prior to microphallic hypospadias repair is appropriate. PMID:12721732

Luo, C C; Lin, J N; Chiu, C H; Lo, F S

2003-04-01

46

[How and when to evaluate hypospadias?].  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a frequent congenital malformation, which severity is connected to the spongiosum divergence. Biological and anatomical explorations are necessary, before the recourse to the surgeon, in posterior hypospadias, familial hypospadias, but also in any type of hypospadias associated with cryptorchidism, bifid scrotum, micropenis less than 20mm (full-term newborn), or any other anomaly (skeletal, renal, cardiac…). The "mini-puberty", occurring in the first 4-6 months of life, is a period of intense gonadotropic activity in male newborns. It allows an easy investigation of the testicular function in boys with hypospadias. Hormonal evaluation (testosterone, AMH) should be done the first day of life. Let us remind that a newborn with "hypospadias" and bilateral cryptorchidism must be considered, until proved otherwise, as a girl with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:23992834

Bouvattier, C

2013-09-01

47

Genetic and environmental factors in hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case control study of hypospadias was performed from 1979 to 1987 in Alsace, north-eastern France. A total of 176 out of 60 847 male infants had hypospadias giving a prevalence at birth of 2.89 per 1000 male newborns; 15.3% of all infants with hypospadias also had other malformations. Renal and urinary tract malformations were present in 37.0% of the

C Stoll; Y Alembik; M P Roth; B Dott

1990-01-01

48

Staged hybrid approach using proximal TEVAR and distal open repair for the treatment of extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Repair of patients with extent I and II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, while repair of more distal extent III and IV TAAAs has a lower risk of mortality and paraplegia. Therefore, we describe an approach using thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) as the index operation to convert extent I and II TAAAs to extent III and IV TAAAs amenable to subsequent open aortic repair to minimize patient risk. Methods Between July 2007 and March 2012, 10 staged hybrid operations were performed to treat 1 extent I and 9 extent II TAAAs. Aortic aneurysm pathology included 5 chronic type B dissections, 3 acute type B dissections, and 2 penetrating aortic ulcers. Initially, the proximal descending thoracic aorta was repaired with TEVAR for coverage of the most proximal fenestration or penetrating ulcer, with 7 elective and 3 emergent repairs. Interval open distal aortic replacement was performed either in a short-term planned setting or for progressive dilation of the distal aortic segment. In the open repair, the proximal end of the graft was sewn directly to the distal end of the TEVAR and outer wall of the aorta. Results Average patient age was 48 years with the majority of patients male (60%). Risk factors included hypertension (80%), current tobacco use (50%), and Marfan syndrome (30%). Postoperative complications following TEVAR included endoleaks [type IA (n=1); type II (n=3)], pleural effusions (n=3), and acute kidney injury (n=1). Endovascular re-interventions were required in 3 cases. In dissection cases, persistent filling of the false lumen was common and associated with distal thoracic aortic dilation. Complications of open repair included acute kidney injury (n=2) but no cardiac, pulmonary, or neurologic morbidity. Median time between TEVAR and open repair was 14 weeks. Most importantly, there was no mortality or neurologic deficit after either procedure with a median follow up of 35 weeks. Conclusions A staged hybrid approach to extensive TAAAs combining proximal TEVAR followed by interval open distal TAAA repair is safe and appears to be an effective alternative to traditional open repair. This approach may decrease the significant morbidity associated with single stage open extent I and II TAAA repairs and may be applicable to many TAAA etiologies.

Johnston, William F.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Tracci, Margaret C.; Cherry, Kenneth J.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kern, John A.

2012-01-01

49

Aristolochic acid suppresses DNA repair and triggers oxidative DNA damage in human kidney proximal tubular cells.  

PubMed

Aristolochic acid (AA), derived from plants of the Aristolochia genus, has been proven to be associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer in AAN patients. In this study, we used toxicogenomic analysis to clarify the molecular mechanism of AA-induced cytotoxicity in normal human kidney proximal tubular (HK-2) cells, the target cells of AA. AA induced cytotoxic effects in a dose-dependent (10, 30, 90 microM for 24 h) and time-dependent manner (30 microM for 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h). The cells from those experiments were then used for microarray experiments in triplicate. Among the differentially expressed genes analyzed by Limma and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that genes in DNA repair processes were the most significantly regulated by all AA treatments. Furthermore, response to DNA damage stimulus, apoptosis, and regulation of cell cycle, were also significantly regulated by AA treatment. Among the differentially expressed genes found in the dose-response and time-course studies that were involved in these biological processes, two up-regulated (GADD45B, NAIP), and six down-regulated genes (TP53, PARP1, OGG1, ERCC1, ERCC2, and MGMT) were con-firmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). AA exposure also caused a down-regulation of the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, AA treatment led to increased frequency of DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine-positive nuclei, and micronuclei in a dose-dependent manner in HK-2 cells, possibly as a result of the inhibition of DNA repair. These data suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in the cytotoxicity of AA. In addition, our results provide insight into the involvement of down-regulation of DNA repair gene expression as a possible mechanism for AA-induced genotoxicity. PMID:20514455

Chen, Ya-Yin; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Hsiu-Ching; Bau, Da-Tian; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Kao, Shung-Te; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun; Chiang, Su-Yin

2010-07-01

50

Mechanism for repair of thymine dimers by photoexcitation of proximal 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.  

PubMed

A wide range of experimental data from earlier studies by other workers are combined with recent data from the Burrows group to interpret that group's thymine dimer (T = T) repair rate data for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG)-containing DNA duplexes. The focus of this effort is to explain (i) how and why the repair rates vary as the sequence location and distance of the OG relative to the T?T is changed and (ii) why the spatial extent over which repair is observed is limited to OG-T?T distances of ~6 Å. It is proposed that, if the OG and T?T are within ~5-6 Å, a Coulomb potential moves the energy of the OG(+)···T?T(-) ion-pair state below the photoexcited OG*···T?T state, even in the absence of full solvent relaxation, thus enhancing forward electron transfer from OG* to T?T by allowing it to occur as a radiationless internal conversion process rather than by overcoming a solvation-related barrier. The rate of this forward electron transfer is estimated to be ~10% of the decay rate of the photoexcited OG*. For OG-to-T?T distances beyond 5-6 Å, electron transfer is still exothermic, but it must occur through solvent reorganization, overcoming an energy barrier, which presumably renders this rate too slow to be detected in the experiments under study here. Once an electron has been injected into the T?T, as many other workers have shown, the reaction proceeds through two low-energy barriers first connecting T?T(-) to an intermediate in which the C(5)-C(5') bond of the cyclobutane unit is cleaved, and onward to where the cyclobutane unit is fully broken and two intact thymine sites are established. Our ab initio data show that the energy landscape for these bond cleavages is altered very little by the presence of the proximal OG(+) cation, which therefore allows us to use data from the earlier studies to conclude that it takes ~100 ps for complete bond cleavage to occur. The experimentally determined overall T?T repair quantum yield of 1% then allows us to estimate the rate at which an electron is transferred from the T?T(-) anion back to the OG(+) cation as 10 times the rate of bond cleavage. The experimental variations in T?T repair rates among several sequences are shown to be reasonably consistent with an exponential OG-to-T?T distance dependence, e(-?R), with a decay parameter of ? = 0.6 Å(-1). Finally, suggestions are offered for experimental studies that would test the predictions offered here and shed further light on the OG-induced T?T repair mechanism. PMID:22894719

Anusiewicz, Iwona; ?wierszcz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

2013-02-14

51

Correction of hypospadias with a vertical preputial island flap: the Göteborg experience of 47 patients.  

PubMed

We report the follow-up of 47 patients with penile hypospadias who were treated by the Scuderi procedure between 1988 and 1998 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. Forty of the patients (85%) had had no previous operations, while the remaining seven had had meatotomy with chordectomy only, or an unsuccessful Dennis-Browne procedure. Hypospadias was distal in 35 (74%), mediopenile in 8 (17%), and proximal in 4 (9%); 21 (45%) showed signs of curvature. After a Scuderi urethroplasty one patient developed a fistula (2%) and 4 developed mild stenosis. The early success rate was therefore 42/47 (89%) and this later increased to 46/47 (98%) after non-surgical treatment of the stenoses. The results support the use of the Scuderi procedure for correction of primary and secondary penile hypospadias with a low complication rate. PMID:11680400

Santanelli, F; Blomqvist, G; Paolini, G; Frati, R

2001-09-01

52

Proximal anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture in a skeletally immature athlete: a case report and method of physeal sparing repair.  

PubMed

Traumatic rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in adulthood is relatively common and surgical reconstruction is frequently required to allow return to high-level activities. There is growing evidence to suggest that ACL rupture in children is more common than previously thought and a poor outcome is associated with conservative management. The site of rupture in childhood is predominantly tibial avulsion, but mid-substance tears have also been reported. We report a case of a proximal ACL avulsion in an 11-year-old athlete and discuss a method of extra-physeal repair. There are very few previous reports of proximal avulsion fractures in skeletally immature patients. PMID:16937153

Edwards, M R; Terry, J; Gibbs, J; Bridle, S

2007-02-01

53

Maternal and Gestational Risk Factors for Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. Objectives Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. Results A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) = 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6–13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) ? 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20–24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy’s risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1–3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2–2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6; 95% CI, 1.1–53). Conclusions A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias.

Akre, Olof; Boyd, Heather A.; Ahlgren, Martin; Wilbrand, Kerstin; Westergaard, Tine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Nordenskjold, Agneta; Ekbom, Anders; Melbye, Mads

2008-01-01

54

The role of two-stage repair in modern hypospadiology  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias surgery continues to evolve. The enthusiasm for flap-based urethroplasty is waning and instead there is an increasing preference for urethroplasty that uses either the urethral plate alone or in combination with grafts. From the vast armamentarium of hypospadias repairs that are still in use, the author suggests a simple protocol of just three closely related procedures with which we can now repair almost all hypospadias. The tubularised incised plate (TIP) repair and the ‘Snodgraft’ modification of the TIP principle are simple and effective one-stage solutions when partial circumference urethroplasty is required. Conversely, the Bracka two-stage graft repair remains an ideal and versatile solution when a full circumference urethroplasty is required. It is particularly appropriate for severe primary hypospadias associated with a poor plate and marked chordee and also to replace a scarred, hairy or balanitis xerotica obliterans diseased urethra in re-operative salvage hypospadias.

Bracka, Aivar

2008-01-01

55

Successful return to high level sports following early surgical repair of complete tears of the proximal hamstring tendons  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical management of acute complete proximal hamstring tendon tears. This was a prospective review of a case series from a tertiary referral centre. Ten patients presenting with complete proximal hamstring tendon tears were confirmed on MRI. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of the torn tendons with the aim of returning to normal activities and sports. Isokinetic muscle testing was performed using a dynamometer. The Cybex dynamometer (Cybex International, Ronkonkowa, NY) testing revealed almost comparable readings for the operated versus the non-operated side. An average peak torque of the operated hamstring muscles of 82.78% (range 47.16–117.88%), compared to the contralateral leg, was noted at six months. An excellent outcome was found in terms of return to normal activities and sports. Early surgical repair and physiotherapy has been noted to be associated with a good outcome and enables an early return to high level sports after complete tear of the proximal hamstring tendons.

Haddad, Fares

2009-01-01

56

Successful return to high level sports following early surgical repair of complete tears of the proximal hamstring tendons.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical management of acute complete proximal hamstring tendon tears. This was a prospective review of a case series from a tertiary referral centre. Ten patients presenting with complete proximal hamstring tendon tears were confirmed on MRI. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of the torn tendons with the aim of returning to normal activities and sports. Isokinetic muscle testing was performed using a dynamometer. The Cybex dynamometer (Cybex International, Ronkonkowa, NY) testing revealed almost comparable readings for the operated versus the non-operated side. An average peak torque of the operated hamstring muscles of 82.78% (range 47.16-117.88%), compared to the contralateral leg, was noted at six months. An excellent outcome was found in terms of return to normal activities and sports. Early surgical repair and physiotherapy has been noted to be associated with a good outcome and enables an early return to high level sports after complete tear of the proximal hamstring tendons. PMID:19252829

Konan, Sujith; Haddad, Fares

2010-02-01

57

Circumcision with the Plastibell Device in Hooded Prepuce or Glanular Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To retrospectively review our experience in infants with glanular hypospadias or hooded prepuce without meatal anomaly, who underwent circumcision with the plastibell device. Although circumcision with the plastibell device is well described, there are no reported experiences pertaining to hooded prepuce or glanular hypospadias that have been operated on by this technique. Materials and Methods. Between September 2002 and September 2008, 21 children with hooded prepuce (age 1 to 11 months, mean 4.6 months) were referred for hypospadias repair. Four of them did not have meatal anomaly. Their parents accepted this small anomaly and requested circumcision without glanuloplasty. In all cases, the circumcision was corrected by a plastibell device. Results. No complications occurred in the circumcised patients, except delayed falling of bell in one case that was removed by a surgeon, after the tenth day. Conclusion. Circumcision with the plastibell device is a suitable method for excision of hooded prepuce. It can also be used successfully in infants, who have miniglanular hypospadias, and whose parents accepted this small anomaly.

Mousavi, Seyed A.; Mohammadjafari, Hamid

2009-01-01

58

Grade III avulsion fracture repair on the UCL of the proximal joint of the thumb.  

PubMed

A technique is presented for repair of grade III avulsion fractures of the ulnar collateral ligament when the bony avulsion fragment in the thumb is too small or too comminuted to allow simple repair. The case presented demonstrates that a single suture-to-bone anchor can provide secure ligament fixation without the need for external pull-out wires or buttons and can make possible an early return to activity. PMID:8196976

Bovard, R S; Derkash, R S; Freeman, J R

1994-02-01

59

Hypospadias: a 30-year personal journey.  

PubMed

Hypospadias represents a spectrum. As such, every child with hypospadias requires a dedicated surgeon who exercises appropriate judgment, and has the experience to correct each variant surgically. Over the past 3 decades, the approach to the boy with hypospadias has evolved due to the employment of newer surgical techniques, in association with an increased understanding of the embryology and anatomy of the penis, embracement of psychological advances, and with the increased safety of anesthesia. Many questions remain unanswered, and thus, surgeons must be amenable to change, as advances continue. Only by properly questioning the long-term results of past and current techniques, will we be able to truly assess the products of our toils. PMID:22182846

Koyle, M A

2011-01-01

60

Hypospadias and maternal intake of phytoestrogens.  

PubMed

Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ?90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

Carmichael, Suzan L; Cogswell, Mary E; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M

2013-08-01

61

Genomic Variants of ATF3 in Patients With Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: ATF3, an estrogen responsive gene expressed during genital development, could be implicated in the etiology of hypospadias. ATF3 is up-regulated in the foreskin of patients with hypospadias and is implicated in suppression of the cell cycle, which may interfere with urethral cell growth. We sought to investigate the sequence of ATF3 in patients with hypospadias. Material and Methods: Direct

Nicolas Kalfa; Benchun Liu; Ophir Klein; Ming-Hsieh Wang; Mei Cao; Laurence S. Baskin

2008-01-01

62

Effect of End-to-side Repair of Proximal Nerve Stumps of Transected Peripheral Nerves on the Development of Neuroma (Experimental Study)  

PubMed Central

Objective Neuroma is a psychologically and physically disabling problematic condition without any current standard therapy. For that reason, we investigated whether end-to-side anastomosis of the proximal end of the transected nerve into the adjacent nerve will prevent the development of neuroma in different types of nerve injuries. Study design In this study, hind legs of 18 Sprague–Dawley female rats were used. Six groups were formed. In group I, peroneal nerves were transected and its proximal end was attached end-to-side through the epineural window to the adjacent tibial nerve. In group II, contrary to group I, an epineural window was created in the tibial nerve and the same number of sutures were employed. In group III, tibial nerve was transected proximal to the end-to-side repair site, whereas in group IV, distal segment of the nerve was cut, and an end-to-end repair procedure was repeated. In group V, unlike group I, an approximately 1-cm segment was resected and removed distal (from tibial nerve) to the end-to-side repair site. In group VI, an epineural window was created in the tibial nerve and the same number of sutures were used, and also a 1-cm distal nerve segment was resected. The rats were followed for 2 months, and then all of the groups were evaluated histopathologically, and weights of the posterior muscle groups of hind legs were evaluated. Findings and Conclusions No neuroma formation was observed in the proximal stumps of peroneal nerve segments in end-to-side repair sites in groups I, III, IV, and V, and proximal stumps of the tibial nerve in group V. In group VI, neuroma formation was observed in the proximal end of the tibial nerve. When weights of the posterior muscle groups of hind legs in groups I and II were comparatively assessed, statistically significant difference was not detected. In conclusion, based on histological data obtained for proximal nerve ends and segments distal to the end-to-side repair sites, we think that end to side neurorrhaphy of the proximal end of the damaged nerve to adjacent nerve will prevent the development of neuroma without injuring the intact nerve segment.

Bora, Arslan; Karakaplan, Mustafa; Inan, Muharrem; Bostan, Bora; Germen, Burak; Zorludemir, Suzan; Atik, Esin

2007-01-01

63

Operations on previously operated patients with hypospadias.  

PubMed

The therapy of severe degrees of hypospadias is exclusively surgical. A great number of different methods have been described; nevertheless, only a few techniques have proved successful. Between 1976 and 1980 21 children with various forms of hypospadias were admitted to our department for primary operation. Nineteen of these 21 children had to have a straightening operation. In 2 children a more pronounced glans defect was corrected in one session by Ombrédanne's method. During the same period 9 patients were admitted for secondary corrections, having been operated on elsewhere for hypospadias. In two patients aged 6 and 7 years respectively, several fistulae had to be closed. In 7 patients a complete secondary correction had to be performed in at least two sessions. The average age of these 7 patients was 19,4 years at the time of the secondary operation. Secondary corrections are also indicated in cases of multiple fistulae, of unremedied chordee, underdevelopment or an abnormal position of the penis, in cases of strictures in the area of the reconstructed urethra, and, finally, in cases with hairball stones due to hair formations on the skin. The fistulae following the reconstruction of the urethra are closed using sliding grafts from the penis or penoscrotal skin. In extensive fistulae, as well as pronounced strictures of the reconstructed urethra, a complete Johansson (1953) procedure is necessary. In large secondary corrections, there are many cases in which the entire armamentarium of plastic surgery must be utilized. PMID:6425982

Frick, J; Kunit, G

1984-01-01

64

[Experiences in the treatment of hypospadias at the University Hospital Center in Treichville (Abidjan)].  

PubMed

From 1984 to 1994, 105 children with hypospadias were seen. Only 52 of them were treated. Hypospadias was distal (glandular subglandular or subcoronal hypospadias) in 38.4% of cases and involved the penile distal shaft or penile midshaft in 38.4% and posterior hypospadias in 23% of cases. Meatotomy with circumcision was performed in 70% of cases of distal hypospadias. The best results were obtained with distal penile shaft hypospadias by Mathieu's method. The fistula rate was high (17.3%). 2-or-3-stage treatment of posterior hypospadias is now performed in one stage using Duckett's or Duplay's method. The results of these methods are discussed. PMID:9509245

Sanni, R B; Denoulet, D; Coulibaly, B; Nandiolo, R; Vodi, L; Mobiot, M L

1997-01-01

65

Propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations in newborns with hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Introduction Of interest is if factors like maternal diet can influence the risk of hypospadias–affected pregnancy. Increased propionylcarnitine (C3) is regarded as a biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine and low methionine in newborns are associated with hypospadias. Material and methods 41 newborns with hypospadias and 90 control newborns without congenital anomalies were investigated. Whole blood propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Results The mean concentration of propionylcarnitine was higher in newborns with hypospadias compared with newborns without congenital anomalies (p = 0.026). The mean methionine level in cases was insignificantly lower than in controls. Conclusion There appears to be an association between decreased vitamin B12, as indexed by an increase of propionylcarnitine, and hypospadias in the investigated group of patients.

Kowal, Andrzej; Mydlak, Dariusz; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Bauer, Anna; Sawicka, Ewa

2013-01-01

66

The Effect of Drill Trajectory on Proximity to the Posterior Interosseous Nerve During Cortical Button Distal Biceps Repair  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that different drill trajectories across the radius have on the proximity of the drill tip to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN). Methods In 10 cadaveric specimens, we drilled from the bicipital tuberosity across the radius using four different trajectories: 1) aiming across the radius at 90° to the longitudinal axis of the radius, 2) distally at 45°, 3) ulnarly, and 4) radially. We measured the distance between the tip of the drill as it exited the dorsal cortex of the radius and the PIN. Results Aiming 90° across the radius and aiming ulnarly across the radius resulted in a distance of 11.2 ±3.2 (95% CI: 8.9, 13.5) mm and 16.0 ±3.8 (95% CI: 13.3, 18.7) mm, respectively, between the drill tip and the PIN. Aiming the drill 45° distally or aiming radially resulted in a distance of only 2.0 ±2.2 (95% CI: 0.5, 3.6) mm and 4.2 ±2.2 (95% CI: 2.6, 5.8) mm, respectively. The differences were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion Based on the results of this anatomic study, when using the cortical button distal biceps repair technique, we recommend drilling across the radius at 90° to its longitudinal axis and aiming from 0-30 degrees ulnarly, with forearm in full supination. This provides an increased margin of safety to prevent injury to the PIN compared to drilling radially or distally.

Lo, Eddie Y; Li, Chin-Shang; Van den Bogaerde, James M.

2011-01-01

67

Use of biocides and insect repellents and risk of hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe relationship between the use of biocides and insect repellents and the risk of hypospadias was examined in a large case–control study in the South East of England.MethodsA case–control study was carried out among 471 cases of hypospadias referred to surgeons, and 490 randomly selected population-based controls, born between 1 January 1997 and 30 September 1998. Telephone interviews were conducted

J Dugas; M J Nieuwenhuijsen; D Martinez; N Iszatt; P Nelson; P Elliott

2010-01-01

68

Screening for mutations in candidate genes for hypospadias.  

PubMed

Hypospadias. a condition with a frontally placed urethral orifice on the penis, is the most common malformation in males. During fetal development several components are necessary for normal male genital development. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone act via the androgen receptor but a defective receptor function results in different degrees of genital malformations. Testosterone-5alpha-reductase converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, which is crucial for normal differentiation, and a total lack of this enzyme results, in syndromes with hypospadias. The Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) gene is expressed in the fetal gonad and genital malformations can occur due to WT1 gene mutations. These genes are therefore strong candidate genes for hypospadias. We have analysed 35 boys with hypopadias and one girl diagnosed as with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, using exon by exon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the AR, WTI and 5alpha-reductase genes and screened for point mutations and performed subsequent DNA sequencing. No mutations in any of these genes were found in the 26 patients with isolated hypospadias. Two patients with severe hypospadias with cryptorchidism were found to carry mutations in the androgen receptor gene. Also the girl with clinically diagnosed complete androgen insensitivity was found to be homozygous for a splice mutation in the 5alpha-reductase gene. In summary, mutations in the WT1, AR and 5alpha-reductase genes are not common causes of isolated hypospadias. PMID:10092153

Nordenskjöld, A; Friedman, E; Tapper-Persson, M; Söderhäll, C; Leviav, A; Svensson, J; Anvret, M

1999-01-01

69

Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection?  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies in the United States, occurring in approximately 1 in 250 newborns or roughly 1 in 125 live male births. It is the result of arrested development of the urethra, foreskin, and ventral surface of the penis where the urethral opening may be anywhere along the shaft, within the scrotum, or in the perineum. The only treatment is surgery. Thus, prevention is imperative. To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine the etiology of hypospadias, the majority of which have been classified as idiopathic. In this paper we briefly describe the normal development of the male external genitalia and review the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of hypospadias. The majority of hypospadias are believed to have a multifactorial etiology, although a small percentage do result from single gene mutations. Recent findings suggest that some hypospadias could be the result of disrupted gene expression. Discoveries about the antiandrogenic mechanisms of action of some contemporary-use chemicals have provided new knowledge about the organization and development of the urogenital system and may provide additional insight into the etiology of hypospadias and direction for prevention.

Baskin, L S; Himes, K; Colborn, T

2001-01-01

70

Proximal Hamstring Avulsion Injuries  

PubMed Central

Proximal hamstring avulsions from the ischium are becoming more frequently recognized, secondary to their disability when treated nonoperatively. The acute repair of these injuries is becoming prevalent given the improved outcomes reported in the literature. Anatomic studies have recently been conducted on the proximal hamstring origin; however, there are few reports on surgical techniques for repair in the setting of injury. The present article describes the technique for proximal hamstring avulsion repair, as performed by the senior author. More than 30 cases have been performed based on this technique, with excellent results.

Pombo, Mathew; Bradley, James P.

2009-01-01

71

Vascularized Dartos Flap in Conjunction with Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty: Single versus Double Flaps for Management of Distal Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the results of Snodgrass repair with single versus double vascularized dartos pedicle flap for neouretheral coverage. Patients and Methods Fifty-eight pediatric patients with mean age 41.5 ± 21 months (range 9–96 months) underwent primary hypospadias repair, 39 uncircumcised and 19 circumcised, classified into 2 groups according to coverage of the neourethra. Single layer coverage (Group I) was performed in 28 (48.3%) while double layers coverage (Group II) was done in 30 (51.7%) cases. Results After mean follow-up 8.6 ± 5.4 months (range 3–24 months), good cosmetic results with vertical slit like meatus at the tip of conical shaped glans were obtained in 53 cases (91.4%). Totally 5 cases occurred postoperative complications, of which 4 cases in Group I [2 (7.1%) with urethrocutaneous fistula, 1 (3.6%) with meatal stenosis and 1 (3.6%) with skin necrosis], 1 case in Group II [glanular dehiscence (3.3%)]. No fistula was observed in Group II. Conclusion The Snodgrass tubularized incised-plate repair in conjunction with double layer coverage of the neourethra could be considered the procedure of choice for distal hypospadias with low complications rate especially urethrocutaneous fistula.

Safwat, Ayman; Al-Adl, Ahmed M.; El-Karamany, Tarek

2012-01-01

72

Effects of combined therapy of alendronate and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on metaphyseal bone repair after osteotomy in the proximal tibia of aged rats.  

PubMed

Bisphosphonates and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) are both known to maintain or promote callus formation during diaphyseal fracture healing. However, the effect of these treatments on the repair of metaphyseal fractures has not been elucidated. To evaluate the effects of bisphosphonates and/or LIPUS on cancellous bone healing, an osteotomy was performed on the proximal tibial metaphysis of 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64). Treatment with alendronate (1 ?g/kg/day), LIPUS (20 min/day), or a combination of both was administered for 2 or 4 weeks, after which changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone histomorphometric parameters, and the rate of cancellous bony bonding were measured. Alendronate suppressed bone resorption parameters at 2 weeks (p = 0.019) and increased bone volume and BMD at 4 weeks (p = 0.034 and p = 0.008, respectively), without affecting bony bonding. LIPUS had no significant effect on any of the histomorphometric parameters at 2 or 4 weeks, but significantly increased in BMD at 4 weeks (p = 0.026) as well as the percentage of bony bonding at both 2 and 4 weeks (p < 0.01). The combined therapy also showed significantly increased BMD compared with the control group at 4 weeks (p = 0.010) and showed a trend toward increased bony bonding. In conclusion, alendronate and LIPUS cause an additive increase in BMD at the affected metaphysis: alendronate increases the bone volume at the osteotomy site without interrupting metaphyseal repair, whereas LIPUS promotes metaphyseal bone repair, without affecting bone histomorphometric parameters. PMID:23921832

Aonuma, Hiroshi; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Kamo, Keiji; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchie, Hiroyuki; Segawa, Toyohito; Shimada, Yoichi

2014-05-01

73

Cleft palate, hypotelorism, and hypospadias: Schilbach-Rott syndrome.  

PubMed

A mother and two sons have cleft palate and facial appearance closely resembling cases described by Schilbach and Rott in 1988. One of the two males has hypospadias and learning disability and, like his mother, is of short stature. The family described by Schilbach and Rott also supports an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. PMID:12400075

Joss, S K; Paterson, W; Donaldson, M D C; Tolmie, J L

2002-11-15

74

Twenty-Four Genes are Upregulated in Patients with Hypospadias.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a congenital hypoplasia of the penis, with displacement of the urethral opening along the ventral surface, and has been reported to be one of the most common congenital anomalies, occurring in approximately 1:250 to 1:300 live births. As hypospadias is reported to be an easily diagnosed malformation at the crossroads of genetics and environment, it is important to study the genetic component in order to elucidate its etiology. In this study, the gene expression profiles both in human hypospadias tissues and normal penile tissues were studied by Human Gene Expression Array. Twenty-four genes were found to be upregulated. Among these, ATF3 and CYR61 have been reported previously. Other genes that have not been previously reported were also found to be upregulated: BTG2, CD69, CD9, DUSP1, EGR1, EIF4A1, FOS, FOSB, HBEGF, HNRNPUL1, IER2, JUN, JUNB, KLF2, NR4A1, NR4A2, PTGS2, RGS1, RTN4, SLC25A25, SOCS3 and ZFP36 (p <0.05). Further studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with expression studies in a large patient group will help us for identifiying the candidate gene(s) in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:24778562

Karabulut, R; Turkyilmaz, Z; Sonmez, K; Kumas, G; Ergun, Sg; Ergun, Ma; Basaklar, Ac

2013-12-01

75

Twenty-Four Genes are Upregulated in Patients with Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is a congenital hypoplasia of the penis, with displacement of the urethral opening along the ventral surface, and has been reported to be one of the most common congenital anomalies, occurring in approximately 1:250 to 1:300 live births. As hypospadias is reported to be an easily diagnosed malformation at the crossroads of genetics and environment, it is important to study the genetic component in order to elucidate its etiology. In this study, the gene expression profiles both in human hypospadias tissues and normal penile tissues were studied by Human Gene Expression Array. Twenty-four genes were found to be upregulated. Among these, ATF3 and CYR61 have been reported previously. Other genes that have not been previously reported were also found to be upregulated: BTG2, CD69, CD9, DUSP1, EGR1, EIF4A1, FOS, FOSB, HBEGF, HNRNPUL1, IER2, JUN, JUNB, KLF2, NR4A1, NR4A2, PTGS2, RGS1, RTN4, SLC25A25, SOCS3 and ZFP36 (p <0.05). Further studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with expression studies in a large patient group will help us for identifiying the candidate gene(s) in the etiology of hypospadias.

Karabulut, R; Turkyilmaz, Z; Sonmez, K; Kumas, G; Ergun, SG; Ergun, MA; Basaklar, AC

2013-01-01

76

Hypospadias and maternal exposure to atrazine via drinking water  

EPA Science Inventory

Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect of the male urinary tract. It is believed to have a multi-factorial etiology, where genetic susceptibility may combine with environmental factors to increase risk. This study considers the role maternal exposure to atrazine (an he...

77

Clinical management and molecular cytogenetic characterization in a 45,X/46,X,idic(Yp) patient with severe hypospadia.  

PubMed

Cryptorchidism and proximal hypospadia in a newborn are highly suspicious for an intersex disorder, and proper investigations should be planned immediately after birth. In some hypospadic patients, the presence of a palpable gonad in the scrotum may induce to assign the male sex, whereas the anatomy of internal and external genitalia could be extremely complex, requiring an accurate evaluation before any definitive attribution of gender. The authors present a case of an infant, referred to the hospital for surgical treatment of a proximal hypospadia, who showed ambiguous external genitalia, absence of the right gonad, a partially dysgenetic left testis, and presence of both müllerian and wolffian structures. Cytogenetic analysis detected a mosaicism with a cell line showing an isodicentric Yp chromosome and a second one, a 45, X chromosomal complement. Because the baby had been assigned previously to male gender, he underwent a staged masculinizing correction of the genital anomalies. The authors discuss the necessity of a careful evaluation of these patients at birth by a multispecialistic team, for appropriate sex assignment and for the assessment of the risk of neoplastic degeneration. PMID:12891509

Marrocco, G; Poscente, M; Majore, S; De Bernardo, C; Rinaldi, R; Del Porto, G; Storniello, G; Grammatico, P

2003-08-01

78

[Hypospadias--a psychological view. Psychosocial and psychosexual implications].  

PubMed

This theoretical research paper refers to the psychological consequences ofhypospadias, a male congenital deficiency of the urethra. Hypospadias is defined as an abnormal opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis and is a frequently found malformation with an incidence of 1 per 300 males. This malformation affects one of the most personal parts of the male anatomy and its psychological repercussions are undeniable. The vast majority of studies concerning this condition are found in the medical domain: surgical and pediatric urology and endocrynology. The difficulty in finding data about psychological implications of hypospadias, along with the lack of opportunities for discussing it was an objective to contribute a modest advancement in the field of psychology. Because of the fact that hypospadias is a psychological condition as well as a physical one, this theoretical paper discusses the influenceses of the condition on the patient's psychosocial (in the view of E. H. Erikson's theory) and psychosexual development (relation to the object theory of O. F. Kernberg). PMID:22827116

Matuszkiewicz, Ewa; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla

2012-01-01

79

Use of autologous platelet rich fibrin in urethracutaneous fistula repair: preliminary report.  

PubMed

Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is one of the most common complications occurring after hypospadias repair. Despite the surgical advancement in hypospadias, multiple failed fistula closures are commonly referred to paediatric urologists. Although several techniques have been described to interpose a waterproof layer between urethral and skin closures, occurrence of urethrocutaneous fistula cannot be eliminated completely. In addition to several local tissue grafts, autologous and homologous fibrin sealants are used to prevent UCF. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is known as an autologous source of growth factors obtained from the sera of the patient. PRF supports collagen synthesis and tissue repair and accelerates wound healing. We aimed to present our initial experience about the use of autologous PRF in a 3-year-old boy with a UCF after hypospadias repair. PMID:22568526

Soyer, Tutku; Çakmak, Murat; Aslan, Mustafa K; ?enyücel, Mine F; Kisa, Üçler

2013-06-01

80

Congenital malformations co-occurring with hypospadias in California, 1983-1997.  

PubMed

Investigations for co-occurring malformations can serve as a first step to discover new risk factors and provide insights into malformation etiologies. Our objective was to explore the risks of occurrence of structural congenital malformation phenotypes in 5,481 infants with hypospadias, using data from a population-based active surveillance system. Ascertainment was performed among 1,816,258 liveborn and 12,203 stillborn male offspring of women who were residents of registry counties during 1983-1997. Malformations other than hypospadias were grouped according to the 3- and 4-digit BPA malformation codes. Prevalences of each malformation grouping were calculated among all births with hypospadias and their three subgroups and all births without hypospadias but with another structural malformation. Relative risks were estimated based on the ratio of two prevalences, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression models. Observed relative risks indicated that all malformation groupings were less likely to co-occur with hypospadias and their three subgroups than with other types of malformations, with relative risks ranging from 0.04 to 0.93. For most malformations, risks were relatively similar among all births with hypospadias and the three subgroups of hypospadias. The observed relative risks were not substantially changed in analyses that adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, and parity. Computations were extended to 4-digit level BPA codes. Almost all observed relative risks for malformations co-occurring with hypospadias overall and three subgroups were less than 1. PMID:17937439

Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Shaw, Gary M

2007-11-15

81

Modified Snodgrass tubularized incised plate urethroplasty prevents fistula formation in hypospadias.  

PubMed

Urethrocutaneous fistula is a common complication after redo urethroplasty for hypospadias, or urethroplasty for patients with thin urethral plate. We modified Snodgrass' tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (STIPU) by stripping the most superficial skin from both sides of the U-shaped incision to expose more subcutaneous tissue along the suture line. Our modified STIPU would appear to be effective in preventing postoperative urethrocutaneous fistula formation in redo urethroplasty for hypospadias, and urethroplasty for patients with thin urethral plate. PMID:22868631

Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Shimotakahara, Akihiro; Koga, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Go; Lane, Geoffrey J; Cazares, Joel; Halibieke, Abudebieke; Okawada, Manabu

2012-09-01

82

19q13.11 cryptic deletion: description of two new cases and indication for a role of WTIP haploinsufficiency in hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Developmental delay/intellectual disabilities, speech disturbance, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, signs of ectodermal dysplasia, and genital malformations in males (hypospadias) represent the phenotypic core of the recent emerging 19q13.11 deletion syndrome. Using array-CGH for genome-wide screening we detected an interstitial deletion of chromosome band 19q13.11 in two patients exhibiting the recognizable pattern of malformations as described in other instances of this submicroscopic genomic imbalance. The deletion detected in our patients has been compared with previously reported cases leading to the refinement of the minimal overlapping region (MOR) for this microdeletion syndrome to 324?kb. This region encompasses five genes: four zinc finger (ZNF) genes belonging to the KRAB-ZNF subfamily (ZNF302, ZNF181, ZNF599, and ZNF30) and LOC400685. On the basis of our male patient 1 and on further six male cases of the literature, we also highlighted that larger 19q13.11 deletions including the Wilms tumor interacting protein (WTIP) gene, proximal to the MOR, results in hypospadias making this gene a possible candidate for this genital abnormality due to its well-known interaction with WT1. Although the mechanism underlying the phenotypic effects of copy number alterations involving KRAB-ZNF genes at 19q13.11 has not clearly been established, we suggest their haploinsufficiency as the most likely candidate for the phenotypic core of the 19q13.11 deletion syndrome. In addition, we hypothesized WTIP gene haploinsufficiency as responsible for hypospadias.

Gana, Simone; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Sciacca, Giusy; Fedeli, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Micieli, Giuseppe; Maghnie, Mohamad; Ciccone, Roberto; Rossi, Elena; Plunkett, Katie; Bi, Weimin; Sutton, Vernon R; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2012-01-01

83

19q13.11 cryptic deletion: description of two new cases and indication for a role of WTIP haploinsufficiency in hypospadias.  

PubMed

Developmental delay/intellectual disabilities, speech disturbance, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, signs of ectodermal dysplasia, and genital malformations in males (hypospadias) represent the phenotypic core of the recent emerging 19q13.11 deletion syndrome. Using array-CGH for genome-wide screening we detected an interstitial deletion of chromosome band 19q13.11 in two patients exhibiting the recognizable pattern of malformations as described in other instances of this submicroscopic genomic imbalance. The deletion detected in our patients has been compared with previously reported cases leading to the refinement of the minimal overlapping region (MOR) for this microdeletion syndrome to 324 kb. This region encompasses five genes: four zinc finger (ZNF) genes belonging to the KRAB-ZNF subfamily (ZNF302, ZNF181, ZNF599, and ZNF30) and LOC400685. On the basis of our male patient 1 and on further six male cases of the literature, we also highlighted that larger 19q13.11 deletions including the Wilms tumor interacting protein (WTIP) gene, proximal to the MOR, results in hypospadias making this gene a possible candidate for this genital abnormality due to its well-known interaction with WT1. Although the mechanism underlying the phenotypic effects of copy number alterations involving KRAB-ZNF genes at 19q13.11 has not clearly been established, we suggest their haploinsufficiency as the most likely candidate for the phenotypic core of the 19q13.11 deletion syndrome. In addition, we hypothesized WTIP gene haploinsufficiency as responsible for hypospadias. PMID:22378287

Gana, Simone; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Sciacca, Giusy; Fedeli, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Micieli, Giuseppe; Maghnie, Mohamad; Ciccone, Roberto; Rossi, Elena; Plunkett, Katie; Bi, Weimin; Sutton, Vernon R; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2012-08-01

84

Dropping of an EndoButton into the knee joint 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament repair using proximal fixation methods.  

PubMed

One of the most discussed subjects regarding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair methods is femoral fixation. One of the materials often used for fixation in recent years is the EndoButton (Acufex Microsurgical, Mansfield, MA), which provides rapid and secure fixation. Although many reports about femoral fixation with EndoButton have been published, insufficient information is available on possible complications. We have used 240 EndoButtons in our clinic for ACL repairs since 1997. The goal of this study was to report a case of ACL repair with an EndoButton, in which we experienced a complication. In this case, the EndoButton dropped into the knee joint after 2 years. PMID:15241318

Yanmi?, Ibrahim; Tunay, Servet; O?uz, Erbil; Yildiz, Cemil; Ozkan, Hüseyin; Kirdemir, Vecihi

2004-07-01

85

Proximal Left Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Presenting Hemoptysis, Hoarseness, and Diplopia: Repair through Partial Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Perfusion of the Left Common Carotid Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated true aneurysm of the subclavian artery is rare and can rupture, thrombose, embolize, or cause symptoms by local compression. We describe a case of a 67-year-old man with proximal left subclavian artery aneurysm presenting with hemoptysis, hoarseness, and diplopia. These symptoms suggested that the aneurysm ruptured, that the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was compressed by it, and that its

Hisato Takagi; Yoshio Mori; Yukio Umeda; Yukiomi Fukumoto; Kakunoshin Yoshida; Kuniyasu Shimokawa; Hajime Hirose

2003-01-01

86

Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiling of CpG Islands in Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Purpose Hypospadias is one of the most frequent genital malformations in the male newborn, and results from abnormal penile and urethral development. The etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown despite intensive investigations. Fetal androgens have a crucial role in genital differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of androgens on the fetus may involve disruption of epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. We assessed whether epigenetic modification of DNA methylation is associated with hypospadias in a case-control study of 12 hypospadias and 8 control subjects. Materials and Methods Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed on the study subjects using the Illumina Infinium® HumanMethylation450 Bead-Chip, which enables the direct investigation of methylation status of more than 485,000 individual CpG sites throughout the genome. The methylation level at each CpG site was compared between cases and controls using the t test and logistic regression. Results We identified 14 CpG sites that were associated with hypospadias with p <0.00001. These CpG sites were in or near the SCARB1, MYBPH, SORBS1, LAMA4, HOXD11, MYO1D, EGFL7, C10orf41, LMAN1L and SULF1 genes. Two CpG sites in SCARB1 and MYBPH genes remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 2.61×10?09, pcorrected = 0.008; p = 3.06×10?08, pcorrected = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate hypospadias using a unique and novel epigenetic approach. Our findings suggest DNA methylation patterns are useful in identifying new genes such as SCARB1 and MYBPH that may be involved in the etiology of hypospadias.

Choudhry, Shweta; Deshpande, Archana; Qiao, Liang; Beckman, Kenneth; Sen, Saunak; Baskin, Laurence S.

2013-01-01

87

Heavy Metal Levels in Adolescent and Maternal Blood: Association with Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background. Hypospadias is a part of testicular digenesis syndrome (TDS) which includes infertility, cryptorchidism, and spermatogenesis. Heavy metals act as endocrine disrupting compounds. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and lead have been associated with male infertility, cryptorchidism, spermatogenesis, cancer, reproductive disorder, and neurological disorder. However, it remains an important issue to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that the role of heavy metals in male reproductive tract disorders. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the possible association of heavy metal and risk of hypospadias by estimating the blood heavy metal levels. Methods. In this case control study, 50 hypospadias boys diagnosed and confirmed by a pediatric urologist and 50 randomly selected age-matched (1–5 years) healthy control boys not suffering from any clinically detectible illness and their mothers have been included and heavy metal levels in the blood of these subjects have been estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Result. Significantly high levels of cadmium and lead have been observed in hypospadias cases; however, all heavy metal levels were present in higher concentration. Conclusion. Higher blood levels of cadmium and lead may be associated with the increased risk of hypospadias.

Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Yadav, Chandra Shekhar; Gupta, Piyush; Sharma, Sunil

2014-01-01

88

Experimental defect in rabbit urethra repaired with acellular aortic matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urethral reconstruction following failed hypospadias repair or post-traumatic chronic stricture requires adequate amounts\\u000a of tissue. Many surgical techniques utilizing different types of biological tissues have been attempted: (a) vascularized\\u000a skin flaps from the prepuce, scrotum or penile shaft; (b) full-thickness free skin grafts; (c) vesical or buccal mucosa grafts;\\u000a (d) ureter; artery; vein and appendix tissue. More recently, biodegradable polymers

P. P. Parnigotto; M. T. Conconi; P. G. Gamba; P. Midrio

2000-01-01

89

PROXIMITY POLITICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Proximity politics' refers to a certain set of new political–cultural problems and issues that the globalization process confronts us with. Specifically it refers to the sort of engagements globalization entails as it draws us all closer together: both 'structurally', via the complex institutional interconnections of globalization, and 'phenomenologically' via the sort of experienced proximity that is provided in time-space bridging

John Tomlinson

2000-01-01

90

Chordee without hypospadias: Operative classification and its management  

PubMed Central

Context: Developing countries. Aims: To propose a operative classification of Chordee without hypospadias (CWH) with its management. Settings and Design: Tertiary referral centre; Retrospective study from January 2000 to January 2011. Materials and Methods: Total 26 patients were classified peroperatively into sixtypes (A: Cutaneous chordee? Degloving skin and dartos (1/26); B: Fibrous chordee? chordectomy (4/26);C: Corporocavernosalchordee? Corporoplasty ± Urethral mobilization (4/26); D: Urethral tethering with Hypoplastic urethra? Urethral mobilization ± urethral reconstruction because of hypoplastic urethra (14/26); E: Congenital short urethra? excision of urethra from the meatus and urethroplasty (2/26); and F: Complex chordee? Degloving ± Corporoplasty ± urethroplasty (1/26 patients). The follow-up over 6 months to 9 years were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS soft ware version 17.0 for Windows. Results: The mean age of surgery was 5.33 ± 0.11 years. The success rate defined on uroflowmetry and voiding cystourethrography was 65.6%. The coronal urethra-cutaneous fistula developed in 26.9% (7/26) {including 7.7% (3/26) of associated metal stenosis}. The urethral stricture developed in 3.8% (1/26). Conclusions: CWH needs stepwise surgical management. The operative classification may help in better understanding and management of this difficult entity. Meticulous tissue handling and urethroplasty is needed for good and promising results.

Singh, Sunita; Rawat, Jiledar; Kureel, Shiv Narayan; Pandey, Anand

2013-01-01

91

Proximal Nephron  

PubMed Central

The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches.

Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

2013-01-01

92

Maternal Pregnancy Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism in Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies cryptorchidism and hypospadias are poorly understood. It has been suggested, however, that in utero hormone levels may be related to risk. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds, may alter hormone levels and thereby affect the fetus. Objectives To examine whether in utero PCB exposure is related to cryptorchidism and hypospadias, we examined PCB levels among pregnant women enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). Methods The CPP enrolled pregnant women at 12 U.S. medical centers between 1959 and 1965. For the present research, we analyzed third-trimester serum samples from the mothers of 230 sons with cryptorchidism, 201 sons with hypospadias, and 593 sons with neither condition. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression and examined the associations of each anomaly with individual PCB congener levels, sum of PCBs, and several functional groupings of PCBs. Results In general, the ORs for cryptorchidism or hypospadias showed no notable associations with individual PCB congener levels or functional groupings of PCBs. However, the ORs and 95% CIs for the sum of PCBs associated with hypospadias were as follows: 0–1.9 ?g/L, reference group; 2–2.9 ?g/L, OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.05–2.34; 3–3.9 ?g/L, OR = 1.45, 95% CI, 0.90–2.34; and ? 4.0 ?g/L, OR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.06–2.68; p-value for trend = 0.08. Conclusions Given the large number of associations examined, these findings do not strongly support the hypothesis that PCBs are associated with cryptorchidism or hypospadias. Because population serum PCB levels at the time of sample collection were considerably higher than levels at present, it is unlikely that current PCB exposure is related to the development of either anomaly.

McGlynn, Katherine A.; Guo, Xuguang; Graubard, Barry I.; Brock, John W.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2009-01-01

93

Deviation of the penoscrotal median raphe: Is it a normal finding or within the spectrum of hypospadias?  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objectives: Hypospadias is the most common congenital abnormality of the penis, and is most commonly diagnosed during the postnatal physical examination. However, milder forms of the condition can be difficult to detect, leading to delayed referral to specialist teams. We aim to determine whether there is an association between hypospadias and the position of the penoscrotal raphe. Materials and Methods: A case — control study was performed where clinical photographs from children undergoing hypospadias correction were compared with a control group of children without the condition. The position of the penoscrotal raphe was documented as midline, left or right. Pearson's chi squared test was used to determine significance. Results: Images for 80 children undergoing hypospadias correction were compared with 80 normal children in the maternity ward. 88.8% of the children with hypospadias had a penoscrotal raphe deviated from the midline compared with only 13.8% in the control group (P < 0.0003). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a significant association between hypospadias and deviation of the penoscrotal raphe from the midline. Consideration should be given to whether to include this finding within the spectrum of abnormalities seen in hypospadias. Examination of the penoscrotal raphe is simple to perform and could aid in the early diagnosis in children with milder forms of the condition.

Mohan, Arvind; Ashton, Laura; Dalal, Milind

2014-01-01

94

Androgen receptor is overexpressed in boys with severe hypospadias, and ZEB1 regulates androgen receptor expression in human foreskin cells  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION ZEB1 is overexpressed in patients with severe hypospadias. We examined the interaction between ZeB1 and the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro and the expression of AR in boys with hypospadias. RESULTS ZEB1 and AR colocalize to the nucleus. Estrogen upregulated ZEB1 and AR expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated that ZEB1 binds to an E-box sequence in the AR gene promoter. AR expression is higher in subjects with severe hypospadias than those with mild hypospadias and control subjects (P < 0.05). ZEB1 physically interacts with AR in human foreskin cells. DISCUSSION AR is overexpressed in patients with severe hypospadias. Environmental estrogenic compounds may increase the risk of hypospadias by facilitating the interaction between ZEB1 and AR. METHODS Hs68 cells, a fibroblast cell line derived from neonatal human foreskin, were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 nmol/l of estrogen, after which the cellular localization of ZEB1 and AR was assessed using immunocytochemistry. To determine if ZEB1 interacted with the AR gene, ChIP was performed using ZEB1 antibody and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for AR. Second, AR expression was quantified using real-time PcR and western blot in normal subjects (n = 32), and subjects with mild (n = 16) and severe hypospadia (n = 16).

Qiao, Liang; Tasian, Gregory E.; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Mei; Ferretti, Max; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

2012-01-01

95

Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

Piascik, Robert S.

2011-01-01

96

Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa

Fabrizio Giannandrea

2009-01-01

97

Literature on the aetiology of hypospadias in the last 5 years: molecular mechanism and environmental factors.  

PubMed

Year-by-year, there has been an increasing number of literature on hypospadias, and most of them are mainly focused on two aspects, namely surgical techniques and aetiology, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. Surgical techniques and nursing levels are being continuously improved. However, in stark contrast, the study of aetiology still lags behind. Up to now, there is still no consensus on the aetiology of hypospadias, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. To obtain an overall and latest result on the aetiology, we reviewed published literature regarding the aetiology of hypospadias including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors in PubMed in the last 5 years. Thirty-seven studies on the aetiology of hypospadias including molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors were found, of which 25 were about associated environmental factors, and they were described according to the aspects of chemicals, parental characteristics, nutrition and hormones. The remaining studies were about the hormone-dependent phase of molecular mechanism, namely androgen-related genes and oestrogen-related genes. Furthermore, the various points of view were classified and discussed in detail. PMID:23822727

Yang, Q; Qu, W Y; Yang, L; Wang, K; Tu, H Y; Wang, J

2014-08-01

98

Proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected

1987-01-01

99

Proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected

Thomas R

1989-01-01

100

Proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proximity fuze system is described. It includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target

1989-01-01

101

Use of a preputial circumferential mucosal flap for hypospadias management in a Boston terrier.  

PubMed

An eight-week-old male Boston terrier presented for penile desiccation and urine pooling in the prepuce due to congenital hypospadias. An advancement flap was created from the dorsal mucosa of the incompletely formed prepuce and sutured circumferentially to construct a longer distal preputial mucosa. V- to Y-plasty of the ventral abdominal skin was utilised to create the preputial skin overlying the mucosal flap. Urethrostomy and partial penile amputation were also performed. Following surgery, the clinical signs of penile desiccation and preputial urine pooling resolved and acceptable cosmetic appearance was achieved. This technique may be considered for glandular or penile hypospadias or following resection of the ventral aspect of the distal prepuce when inadequate tissue is present for a simple two-layer closure of the preputial mucosa and skin. PMID:22276748

Grossman, J; Baltzer, W

2012-05-01

102

Normal postnatal androgen production and action in isolated micropenis and isolated hypospadias.  

PubMed Central

To try and find out if a defect in androgen biosynthesis or action could be responsible for the incomplete virilisation seen in boys with isolated hypospadias and isolated micropenis, androgen receptor binding was studied in genital skin fibroblasts established from 18 boys with isolated micropenis and 19 boys with isolated hypospadias. The production of gonadotrophins and testosterone was also measured in the boys with micropenis. There was no evidence of gonadotrophin deficiency, or of a defect in testosterone biosynthesis in the boys with micropenis, and there was no evidence of a quantitative or qualitative defect of androgen binding in either group. These isolated abnormalities may be the result of transient defects in androgen synthesis or action, or both, during a critical phase of embryogenesis.

Evans, B A; Williams, D M; Hughes, I A

1991-01-01

103

Intermediate-term functional and cosmetic results of the Snodgrass procedure in distal and midpenile hypospadias.  

PubMed

We have evaluated the long-term functional and cosmetic results of the Snodgrass technique in the treatment of anterior and midpenile hypospadias. A total of 70 patients who presented in the period between 1997 and 2002 underwent the Snodgrass procedure for the treatment of hypospadias. Patients who had been operated on 2 or more years previously were recalled for evaluation. Of the 31 cases identified, 19 (61%) were contacted and came for reevaluation. Genital examination and urinary flow measurements were made. Maximum urinary flow rates and voided urine volumes were assessed using the nomograms described by Toguri et al. The mean age of the patients was 6 years (range 2-12) at the time of surgery and 8 years (range 4-17) at the time of evaluation, and the mean follow-up period was 3.1 years (range 2-5). Two patients had had at least one previous surgery, and 17 were primary patients. The hypospadiac meatus was anterior in 16 patients and midpenile in three. Although some patients had urinary spraying due to skin irregularity in the meatus during voiding, 18 patients had normal peak urinary flow rate (Qmax) corresponding to their age group. Only one patient in the equivocally obstructed group had meatal stenosis, which was corrected with meatotomy. All patients had a cosmetic view of a vertical slit tip of the glans. Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU) is a successful technique with good functional and cosmetic long-term results in distal hypospadias. PMID:15064965

Gürdal, Mesut; Tekin, Ali; Kireççi, Sinan; Sengör, Feridun

2004-03-01

104

Variation spatiotemporelle de la cryptorchidie et de l'hypospadias au Qu?bec : Une ?tude exploratoire  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectifs : La majorité des études effectuées au cours des dernières décennies ont mis en évidence une augmentation du nombre de cas de cryptorchidie et d’hypospadias entre 1970 et 1990. De plus, l’importante variabilité géographique de ces anomalies est bien décrite. Cette étude vise à mesurer la prévalence à la naissance de la cryptorchidie et de l’hypospadias au Québec, à vérifier si ces anomalies sont en augmentation et à en évaluer la répartition interrégionale. Méthode : Une étude épidémiologique descriptive a été réalisée à partir du nombre de garçons de cinq ans et moins hospitalisés pour une cryptorchidie ou un hypospadias au Québec de 1989 à 2004 selon les données du fichier administratif d’hospitalisation MED-ÉCHO. Les données sur les naissances provenaient de l’Institut de la statistique du Québec. Résultats : La prévalence annuelle moyenne pour 1000 naissances vivantes de sexe masculin est de 19,1 (IC à 95 % : 18,8–19,4) pour la cryptorchidie et 11,4 (IC à 95 % 11,1–11,6) pour l’hypospadias au Québec. Au cours de la période étudiée, la prévalence de cryptorchidie a légèrement diminué, alors que celle de l’hypospadias est demeurée stable. Comparativement à la province du Québec, des régions présentent une prévalence significativement différente de cryptorchidie et/ou d’hypospadias. . Conclusion : Au Québec, la prévalence de cryptorchidie est en légère diminution alors que celle de l’hypospadias est stable. Des variations régionales significatives sont observables. D’autres études sont nécessaires afin d’évaluer l’hypothèse d’un lien avec les contaminants environnementaux en émergence. L’implantation d’un système de surveillance des anomalies congénitales permettrait une représentation plus valide de la situation.

Guertin, Sophie; Lemieux, Karine-Sylvie; Makhoulian, Natalie; Michaud, Sebastien; Patry, Rose-Marie; Cote, Anne-Andree; Gagnon, Fabien; Ayotte, Pierre; Bolduc, Stephane

2011-01-01

105

Genetics of hypospadias: are single nucleotide polymorphisms in srd5a2, esr1, esr2 and atf3 really associated with the malformation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia with a multifactorial etiology. Little is known about the genes involved in hypospadias. A few genetic associations have been reported but mainly in studies of small sample size. Most of these associations have not been replicated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether previously reported

Loes F. M. Van Der Zanden; Iris A. L. M. Van Rooij; Wout F. J. Feitz; Sita H. H. M. Vermeulen; Lambertus A. L. M. Kiemeney; Nine V. A. M. Knoers; Nel Roeleveld; Barbara Franke

2010-01-01

106

Remarkably low incidence of hypospadias in Greenland despite high exposure to endocrine disrupters; possible protective effect of androgen receptor genotype.  

PubMed

Endocrine disrupters, such as persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) may cause hypospadias, which is a common congenital anomaly in males, affecting 0.2-0.7%. We hypothesized that hypospadias incidence would be high among Greenlanders, who are one of the most POP exposed populations on earth through consumption of contaminated sea mammals. Interestingly, among the 11 076 boys born in Greenland 1982-2002, only two cases of hypospadias were noted (incidence 0.02%; 95% CI: 0.002-0.06). Normal male sexual differentiation is dependent on the androgen receptor (AR). AR function is regulated by polymorphic repeats of CAG and GGN trinucleotide bases. In Greenland 85% were carriers of GGN=23, which in a previous report was less frequent in patients with hypospadias than in the general population. This finding indicates that AR genotype could contribute to a genetic predisposition in Greenlanders, who despite one of the worlds highest body burden of POPs, seem to be protected from hypospadias. PMID:16609370

Giwercman, Yvonne L; Kleist, Knud Erik; Giwercman, Aleksander; Giwercman, Charlotte; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens-Peter; Pedersen, Henning S

2006-05-01

107

Proximity fuze  

DOEpatents

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

Harrison, T.R.

1987-07-10

108

Proximity fuze  

DOEpatents

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

Harrison, Thomas R. (Stockton, CA) [Stockton, CA

1989-08-22

109

Meningocele repair  

MedlinePLUS

... dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... medical team experienced in caring for children with spina bifida. Your baby will likely have an MRI (magnetic ...

110

Volar Plate Arthroplasty for Closed Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy and histology of the volar plate at the proximal interphalangeal joint and the mechanism of fracture\\/subluxation of the base of the middle phalanx in closed proximal interphalangeal joint injuries is reviewed. Our current technique of repair for these injuries and its evolution from Eaton’s original procedure is described. The results of 71 cases of volar plate arthroplasty performed

G. DURHAM-SMITH; G. M. MCCARTEN

1992-01-01

111

A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias.

Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jonsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

2012-01-01

112

Environmental and childhood lead contamination in the proximity of boat-repair yards in southern Thailand--I: pattern and factors related to soil and household dust lead levels.  

PubMed

High blood lead levels have recently been documented in schoolchildren living in communities adjacent to boat-repair yards in southern Thailand. In this study, the spatial pattern of lead contamination of soil and household dust in an area surrounding several boat-repair yards is described, and household factors associated with elevated dust lead are identified. A cross-sectional spatial study was conducted in a coastal residential area within a distance of 2 km from three major boat-repair yards situated on the east coast of peninsular Thailand. Household dust specimens were collected from an undisturbed position in the residences of children, aged 4-14 years, sampled randomly from all children living in the study area. Soil specimens were obtained from the interstices of a square grid, 70 x 70 m2, superimposed on the area. Geographic coordinates of residence and soil sampling positions were recorded and semivariograms and kriging used to contour the spatial distribution of lead in dust and soil. Environmental lead levels were also modeled in terms of direction and minimum distance from a boat-repair yard and, for household dust lead content, in terms of household variables, including occupation of household members in boat-repair work, type of house construction, and general cleanliness. Household dust and soil lead content ranged from 10 to 3025 mg/kg and from 1 to 7700 mg/kg, respectively. The distribution of soil lead peaked at the location of the boat-repair yards, but outside the yards the distribution was generally below 400 mg/kg and irregular. About 24% of household dust lead specimens were equal to or above 400 mg/kg, but showed significant decrease with increasing distance from the boat-repair yards, at rates of between 7% and 14% per 100 m. In houses where a family member was a worker in one of the major boatyards and in houses where occasional repair of small boats was undertaken, household dust lead levels were significantly elevated, by 65% (95% CI: 18-130%) and 31% (95% CI: 5-63%), respectively. Siting of boat-repair yards at a distance from residential areas and measures to reduce the spread of lead-containing dust are recommended to alleviate the problem of elevated household dust lead levels. PMID:16832871

Maharachpong, Nipa; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

2006-07-01

113

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either

Slimane Allali; Jean-Baptiste Muller; Raja Brauner; Diana Lourenço; Radia Boudjenah; Vasiliki Karageorgou; Christine Trivin; Henri Lottmann; Stephen Lortat-Jacob; Claire Nihoul-Fékété; Olivier de Dreuzy; Ken McElreavey; Anu Bashamboo; Joerg Gromoll

2011-01-01

114

Proximal Biceps Tendonitis  

MedlinePLUS

... arm for a few weeks. What Is Biceps Tendonitis? The biceps is the muscle in your upper ... with rest and medication. Signs of Proximal Biceps Tendonitis Proximal biceps tendonitis usually starts out slowly and ...

115

Magnetic Bridge Proximity Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A proximity sensor for indicating the spatial proximity of a ferrous object comprising a magnetic reluctance bridge formed from a plurality of high and low permeability sections and with a ring core flux gate magnetometer disposed therebetween to form the...

F. W. Heemstra

1982-01-01

116

Hallux proximal phalanx Akin-Scarf osteotomy.  

PubMed

Numerous hallux proximal phalanx osteotomies have been described, but the Akin-type varisation or adduction osteotomies are currently the most commonly used by foot and ankle surgeons. This article describes the hallux proximal phalanx Akin-Scarf osteotomy. This osteotomy combines the inherent stability of the Scarf-type osteotomy with the versatility of the Akin-type osteotomies to correct pathologic hallux abductus interphalangeus, hallux equinus, or an abnormal digital length pattern, and it is an invaluable tool during the global surgical approach used for hallux valgus repair. PMID:14729996

Roukis, Thomas S

2004-01-01

117

Proximity and Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torre A. and Rallet A. (2005) Proximity and localization, Regional Studies39, 47- 59. The objective of this paper is to pave the way for an analysis of the relations between proximity and localization of activities and people, two notions that are often mistaken for one another. Our method consists in exploiting the semantic wealth of the notion of proximity. We

Andre Torre; Alain Rallet

2005-01-01

118

Prenatal diagnosis of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-) in association with congenital hypospadias and foot deformity  

PubMed Central

Background Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p-). We report a case in which intrauterine growth restriction, hypospadias and foot deformity were detected by prenatal ultrasound examination at 29 weeks of gestation. Case Presentation A 31-year-old gravida 2 partus 1 woman was referred at 29 weeks' gestation with suspicion of intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic examination revealed deformity of the right lower limb and undescended testes with an irregular distal penis. A cordocentesis was performed and chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY,del(4)(p14) karyotype. Conclusion The prenatal detection of intrauterine growth restriction, hypospadias and foot deformity should lead doctors to suspect the presence of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

Aslan, Halil; Karaca, Nilay; Basaran, Seher; Ermis, Hayri; Ceylan, Yavuz

2003-01-01

119

[Exstrophy of rectal duplication associated with anorectal malformation and penoscrotal transposition with perineal hypospadias. A case report].  

PubMed

We present the case of a male patient who required treaatment due to anorectal agenesis with recto urethral fistula and penoscrotal transposition with perineal hypospadias, associated with a perineal tumor. The perineal tumor was found strongly adhered and contiguous to the rectum which makes it compatible with an exstrophy of rectal duplication. Surgical reconstruction of the birth defect was performed in stages until acceptable biological function and esthetic results were obtained. PMID:24974632

Fernández Fernández, Jesús Angel; Parodi Hueck, Luis; Carrasco Fermín, Joanna

2014-06-01

120

Identification of Novel Low-Dose Bisphenol A Targets in Human Foreskin Fibroblast Cells Derived from Hypospadias Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeThe effect of low-dose bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on human reproductive health is still controversial. To better understand the molecular basis of the effect of BPA on human reproductive health, a genome-wide screen was performed using human foreskin fibroblast cells (hFFCs) derived from child hypospadias (HS) patients to identify novel targets of low-dose BPA exposure.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsGene expression profiles of hFFCs

Xian-Yang Qin; Yoshiyuki Kojima; Kentaro Mizuno; Katsuhiko Ueoka; Koji Muroya; Mami Miyado; Hiroko Zaha; Hiromi Akanuma; Qin Zeng; Tomokazu Fukuda; Jun Yoshinaga; Junzo Yonemoto; Kenjiro Kohri; Yutaro Hayashi; Maki Fukami; Tsutomu Ogata; Hideko Sone

2012-01-01

121

Two Headed Magnetic Proximity Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates generally to magnetic proximity detectors, and more particularly to magnetic proximity switches utilizing a dc magnetic flux as the physical property to be detected. The magnetic proximity sensor detects the proximity of a la...

F. W. Heemstra

1982-01-01

122

Proximal femoral replacement.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the proximal femur after extensive bone loss is clinically challenging. Options for reconstruction depend on the classification and extent of the proximal femoral defect. Although reconstitution of the native proximal femoral bone stock are the traditional goals of most revision techniques for the proximal femur, these techniques lose their effectiveness after numerous revisions due to the severe loss of a sufficient amount of structural bone needed to reconstruct the femur and abductor attachment. Consequently, the proximal femoral bone becomes fragile with extensive bone loss despite bone grafting. Techniques that use allograft-prosthetic composite and femoral megaprosthesis can successfully restore a patient's ambulatory ability despite the absence of significant portions of the proximal femur. PMID:12008848

Cheng, Edward Y; Thompson, Roby C

2002-04-01

123

[Treatment of hypospadias apropos of 557 cases. Evolution of techniques in a care unit of pediatric surgery in a period of 18 years, and current indications].  

PubMed

The authors report their experience with surgical treatment of hypospadias about 557 cases. From 1974 to 1981, only 84 cases were cured by classical procedures (Mathieu, Van der Meulen, Perlemutter, Duplay-Fèvre, Leveuf-Cendron), sometimes with Cahuzac uretroplasty). The age when correction depended from the type of hypospadias and several times were after necessary. From 1981 to 1992, 463 cases were operated, always between 18 month to two years of age, with only one operative with therapeutic indications are actually such proposed: distal meatotomy or modified MAGPI procedure for glandular hypospadias; Duplay uretroplasty for coronal form; Mathieu or onlay island flap for anterior and medial penil types without curvature; Mollard or Duckett uretroplasty for penil forms with chordee; Then, for posterior types, complementary posterior Duplay uretroplasty, or vesical ou buccal grafts. PMID:7995967

Dodat, H; Philibert, M; Takvorian, P; Paulus, C; James-Pangaud, I

1994-01-01

124

Acrania-anencephaly associated with hypospadias. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI diagnosis and molecular folate metabolism pathway analysis.  

PubMed

Acrania may occur as a single isolated malformation or associated with extracranial defects. Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital abnormalities of the genitalia frequently missed on prenatal sonograms. Second trimester two- and three-dimensional ultrasound and MRI diagnosis with necropsy and folate metabolism pathway analysis. The mechanisms leading to closure of both neural and urethral tubes, are far from being demonstrated, and molecular studies of this very rare association are lacking although it might be based on a common genetic mechanism, leading to a disturbed development pathway at the molecular level. PMID:22443204

Tonni, Gabriele; Centini, Giovanni; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Ventura, Alessandro; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Cavalli, Pietro

2012-12-01

125

Proximal Humeral Fractures: Nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating proximal humeral fractures surgically has always been a challenge for the orthopaedic trauma surgeon. The challenge\\u000a was and is due to numerous factors such as the specific anatomy of the proximal humerus, problems of an adequate approach\\u000a and exposure of the fracture and different fracture fragments, possible iatrogenic injuries to the rotator cuff on approach\\u000a and the detrimental effects

Johannes Maria Rueger; Andreas Rücker; Daniel Briem; Lars Grossterlinden; Wolfgang Linhart

2007-01-01

126

Proximal wrist extensor tendinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximal wrist extensor tendinopathy, which is also known as tennis elbow, is pain at or just distal to the lateral humeral\\u000a epicondyle within the proximal wrist extensor tendon. It occurs commonly in certain athletes but can also occur in people\\u000a with jobs that require repetitive movements of the hand and upper limb. In most cases the tendon involved shows no

Joseph Ihm

2008-01-01

127

Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint.  

PubMed

Injury to the proximal tibiofibular joint is typically seen in athletes whose sports require violent twisting motions of the flexed knee. Instability of this joint may be in the anterolateral, posteromedial, or superior directions. With acute injury, patients usually complain of pain and a prominence in the lateral aspect of the knee. A closed reduction should be attempted in patients with acute dislocation. If this is unsuccessful, open reduction and stabilization of the joint with repair of the injured capsule and ligaments can be done. Patients with chronic dislocation or subluxation report lateral knee pain and instability with popping and catching, which may be confused with lateral meniscal injury. Symptoms of subluxation may be treated nonsurgically with physical therapies such as activity modification, supportive straps, and knee strengthening. For patients with chronic pain or instability, surgical options include arthrodesis, fibular head resection, and proximal tibiofibular joint capsule reconstruction. PMID:12670138

Sekiya, Jon K; Kuhn, John E

2003-01-01

128

The realtime operations of the space shuttle orbiter during rendezvous and proximity operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle first demonstrated the capability to perform precision proximity flying in 1983 when the SPAS-01 satellite was deployed and subsequently retrieved. This flight was intended to validate the capability of the Shuttle to perform proximity operations with a co-orbiting vehicle in preparation for the Solar Maximum Repair mission of the next year.

Dougherty, Andrew

1991-01-01

129

Subsequent proximal aortic operations in 123 patients with previous infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Previous studies have reported that 3% to 8% of patients who have had resection of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm will subsequently have development of a new aortic aneurysm proximal to the repair. The actual incidence, pathogenesis, and natural history of these aneurysms are unclear. The purpose of this study is to better characterize subsequent proximal aortic aneurysms and

Joseph S. Coselli; Scott A. LeMaire; Suat Büket; Edward Berzin

1995-01-01

130

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

131

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

132

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis (uterus seen at genitography and/or surgery, n?=?11), ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (n?=?33) or hypospadias (n?=?33). We identified heterozygous NR5A1 mutations in 4 cases of ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (12.1%; p.Trp279Arg, pArg39Pro, c.390delG, c140_141insCACG) and a de novo missense mutation in one case with distal hypospadias (3%; p.Arg313Cys). Mutant proteins showed reduced transactivation activity and mutants p.Arg39Pro and p.Arg313Cys did not synergize with the GATA4 cofactor to stimulate reporter gene activity, although they retained their ability to physically interact with the GATA4 protein. Conclusions/Significance Mutations in NR5A1 were observed in 5/77 (6.5%) cases of 46,XY DSD including hypospadias. Excluding the cases of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis the incidence of NR5A1 mutations was 5/66 (7.6%). An individual with isolated distal hypopadias carried a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, thus extending the range of phenotypes associated with NR5A1 mutations and suggesting that this group of patients should be screened for NR5A1 mutations.

Brauner, Raja; Lourenco, Diana; Boudjenah, Radia; Karageorgou, Vasiliki; Trivin, Christine; Lottmann, Henri; Lortat-Jacob, Stephen; Nihoul-Fekete, Claire; De Dreuzy, Olivier; McElreavey, Ken; Bashamboo, Anu

2011-01-01

133

Visualizing Proximity Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors explore the use of graph layout algorithms for visualizing proximity matrices such as those obtained in cultural domain analysis. Traditionally, multidimensional scaling has been used for this purpose. The authors compare the two approaches to identify conditions when each approach is effective. As might be expected, they find that multidimensional scaling shines when the data

Rich DeJordy; Stephen P. Borgatti; Chris Roussin; Daniel S. Halgin

2007-01-01

134

Eardrum repair  

MedlinePLUS

... a tear or other damage to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). Ossiculoplasty is the repair of the small bones ... The eardrum (tympanic membrane) is between the outer ear and the middle ear. The eardrum vibrates when sound waves strike it. When ...

135

Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

1997-01-01

136

Total Preputial Flap: A Reliable and Versatile Technique for Urethral and Penile Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

We revisit the technique of total preputial flap (TPF) and its application for urethroplasty, penile skin coverage of both and present our results in 43 patients (41 hypospadias, 2 epispadias). There were no instances of flap necrosis. In patients without prior attempts at reconstruction (n?=?36), we observed four urethrocutaneous fistulas. TPF allowed the repair of cases of proximal hypospadias in one stage with an acceptable complication rate.

Ludwikowski, Barbara; Gonzalez, Ricardo

2014-01-01

137

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15

138

Proximity Networks and Epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We presented the basis of a framework to account for the dynamics of contacts in epidemic processes, through the notion of dynamic proximity graphs. By varying the integration time-parameter T, which is the period of infectivity one can give a simple account for some of the differences in the observed contact networks for different diseases, such as smallpox, or AIDS. Our simplistic model also seems to shed some light on the shape of the degree distribution of the measured people-people contact network from the EPISIM data. We certainly do not claim that the simplistic graph integration model above is a good model for dynamic contact graphs. It only contains the essential ingredients for such processes to produce a qualitative agreement with some observations. We expect that further refinements and extensions to this picture, in particular deriving the link-probabilities in the dynamic proximity graph from more realistic contact dynamics should improve the agreement between models and data.

Guclu, Hasan; Toroczkai, Zoltán

2007-03-01

139

Proximal Point Methods Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximal point methods have been widely used in the last decades to approximate the solutions of nonlinear equations associated with monotone operators. Inspired by the iterative procedure defined by B. Martinet (1970), R.T. Rockafellar introduced in 1976 the so-called proximal point algorithm (PPA) for a general maximal monotone operator. The sequence generated by this iterative method is weakly convergent under appropriate conditions, but not necessarily strongly convergent, as proved by O. Güler (1991). This fact explains the introduction of different modified versions of the PPA which generate strongly convergent sequences under appropriate conditions, including the contraction-PPA defined by H.K. Xu in 2002. Here we discuss Xu's modified PPA as well as some of its generalizations. Special attention is paid to the computational errors, in particular the original Rockafellar summability assumption is replaced by the condition that the error sequence converges to zero strongly.

Boikanyo, Oganeditse A.; Moro?anu, Gheorghe

2011-09-01

140

Polymer infrared proximity sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proximity sensor that combines a polymer light-emitting diode and a polymer photodiode is presented. The operation wavelength is in the near infrared from 700 to 850 nm. The infrared emission is obtained by adding a color conversion film of polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer matrix blended with infrared dye 1,1-diethyl-2,2-dicarbocyanine iodide to a red polymer light-emitting diode. The photodetector relies on the

En-Chen Chen; Shin-Rong Tseng; Jia-Hong Ju; Chia-Ming Yang; Hsin-Fei Meng; Sheng-Fu Horng; Ching-Fong Shu

2008-01-01

141

Proximity in agreement errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across languages subject-verb agreement errors have been established when subjects are producing complex (NP PP) noun-phrases (see Bock, 1995, for an overview). Very recently, Haskell & MacDonalds (2002) proposed a locality-based principle, the principle of proximity, to explain a variety of agreement errors in production. They base they argument partly on preferences in verb number marking in sentences with disjunctive

Barbara Hemforth; Robert Schuman

142

Method for mask repair using defect compensation  

DOEpatents

A method for repair of amplitude and/or phase defects in lithographic masks. The method involves modifying or altering a portion of the absorber pattern on the surface of the mask blank proximate to the mask defect to compensate for the local disturbance (amplitude or phase) of the optical field due to the defect.

Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

143

PRIMARY FLEXOR TENDON REPAIR IN ZONE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the results of repair of 102 complete flexor tendon disruptions in zone 1 which were rehabilitated by an early active mobilization technique during a 7 year period from 1992 to 1998. These injuries were subdivided into: distal tendon divisions requiring reinsertion; more proximal tendon divisions but still distal to the A4 pulley; tendon divisions

N. S. MOIEMEN; D. ELLIOT

2000-01-01

144

Proximal tibiofibular dislocation  

PubMed Central

Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation is an uncommon injury, which may be easily missed on plain radiography. If recognised, it can be treated in the emergency department, avoiding surgery and long term problems. The case is presented of a 22 year old male rugby player who was tackled from the left hand side while turning to the left. He heard a “pop” from his knee as he fell to the ground. Clinical examination revealed a prominence in the area of the fibular head. There was no evidence of peroneal nerve injury. Plain x rays confirmed a clinical suspicion for anterior dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation typically occurs when the knee is slightly flexed and the foot is rotated and plantar flexed. Antero lateral dislocation is the most common pattern. Diagnosis is largely clinical, but the findings may be subtle. Plain films may not show any abnormality and computed tomography is the investigation of choice if there is clinical suspicion for the injury. The dislocation should be reduced in the emergency department, but controversy exists whether early mobilisation or casting is the most appropriate course of action.

Horan, J; Quin, G

2006-01-01

145

Proximal tibiofibular dislocation.  

PubMed

Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation is an uncommon injury, which may be easily missed on plain radiography. If recognised, it can be treated in the emergency department, avoiding surgery and long term problems. The case is presented of a 22 year old male rugby player who was tackled from the left hand side while turning to the left. He heard a "pop" from his knee as he fell to the ground. Clinical examination revealed a prominence in the area of the fibular head. There was no evidence of peroneal nerve injury. Plain x rays confirmed a clinical suspicion for anterior dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation typically occurs when the knee is slightly flexed and the foot is rotated and plantar flexed. Antero lateral dislocation is the most common pattern. Diagnosis is largely clinical, but the findings may be subtle. Plain films may not show any abnormality and computed tomography is the investigation of choice if there is clinical suspicion for the injury. The dislocation should be reduced in the emergency department, but controversy exists whether early mobilisation or casting is the most appropriate course of action. PMID:16627827

Horan, J; Quin, G

2006-05-01

146

Motorcycle Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

147

Meniscal Repair  

PubMed Central

The meniscus has several important roles, such as transmission of the load, absorption of the shock in the knee joint, acting as a secondary anteroposterior stabilizer of the knee joint, and contributing to proprioception of the knee joint. Degenerative changes of the knee joint develop in the long-term follow-up even after partial meniscectomy. Thus, there has been growing interest in meniscal repair. In addition, with increased understanding of the important roles of the meniscal root and advancement of diagnostic methods, efforts have been made to ensure preservation of the meniscal roots. In this review article, we will discuss operative techniques and clinical outcomes of arthroscopic repair of the meniscus and the meniscal root and postoperative rehabilitation and complications as well.

Yoon, Kyoung Ho

2014-01-01

148

Meniscal repair.  

PubMed

The meniscus has several important roles, such as transmission of the load, absorption of the shock in the knee joint, acting as a secondary anteroposterior stabilizer of the knee joint, and contributing to proprioception of the knee joint. Degenerative changes of the knee joint develop in the long-term follow-up even after partial meniscectomy. Thus, there has been growing interest in meniscal repair. In addition, with increased understanding of the important roles of the meniscal root and advancement of diagnostic methods, efforts have been made to ensure preservation of the meniscal roots. In this review article, we will discuss operative techniques and clinical outcomes of arthroscopic repair of the meniscus and the meniscal root and postoperative rehabilitation and complications as well. PMID:24944971

Yoon, Kyoung Ho; Park, Keun Ho

2014-06-01

149

Hypospadias in a male (78,XY; SRY-positive) dog and sex reversal female (78,XX; SRY-negative) dogs: clinical, histological and genetic studies.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is rarely reported in dogs. In this study we pre-sent 2 novel cases of this disorder of sexual development and, in addition, a case of hereditary sex reversal in a female with an enlarged clitoris. The first case was a male Moscow watchdog with a normal karyotype (78,XY) and the presence of the SRY gene. In this dog, perineal hypospadias, bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and testes were observed. The second case, representing the Cocker spaniel breed, had a small penis with a hypospadic orifice of the urethra, bilateral cryptorchidism, testis and a rudimentary gonad inside an ovarian bursa, a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene. This animal was classified as a compound sex reversal (78,XX, SRY-negative) with the hypospadias syndrome. The third case was a Cocker spaniel female with an enlarged clitoris and internally located ovotestes. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene, while histology of the gonads showed an ovotesticular structure. This case was classified as a typical hereditary sex reversal syndrome (78,XX, SRY-negative). Molecular studies were focused on coding sequences of the SRY gene (case 1) and 2 candidates for monogenic hypospadias, namely MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain containing 1) and SRD5A2 (steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2). Sequencing of the entire SRY gene, including 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, did not reveal any mutation. The entire coding sequence of MAMLD1 and SRD5A2 was analyzed in all the intersexes, as well as in 4 phenotypically normal control dogs (3 females and 1 male). In MAMLD1 2 SNPs, including 1 missense substitution in exon 1 (c.128A>G, Asp43Ser), were identified, whereas in SRD5A2 7 polymorphisms, including 1 missense SNP (c.358G>A, Ala120Thr), were found. None of the identified polymorphisms cosegregated with the intersexual phenotype, thus, we cannot confirm that hypospadias may be associated with polymorphism in the coding sequence of the studied genes. PMID:21893969

Switonski, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Bartz, M; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Szczerbal, I; Colaço, B; Pires, M A; Ochota, M; Nizanski, W

2012-01-01

150

Volar plate arthroplasty for closed proximal interphalangeal joint injuries.  

PubMed

The anatomy and histology of the volar plate at the proximal interphalangeal joint and the mechanism of fracture/subluxation of the base of the middle phalanx in closed proximal interphalangeal joint injuries is reviewed. Our current technique of repair for these injuries and its evolution from Eaton's original procedure is described. The results of 71 cases of volar plate arthroplasty performed over a five-year period for fracture/subluxations of the proximal interphalangeal joints are presented with follow-up ranging from six months to four years. 62 (87%) patients achieved a stable pain-free joint with a range of motion from 5 degrees to 95 degrees within two months. Complications were uncommon and correctable with an overall eventual patient satisfaction rate of 94%. PMID:1402271

Durham-Smith, G; McCarten, G M

1992-08-01

151

Distributed Optoelectronic Proximity Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optoelectronic proximity sensor comprises seven identical units functioning together to provide partially redundant data on spatial relationship between sensor and nearby diffusely reflecting surface. Provides data on distance, relative orientation, and curvature of surface. Sensor called "Hexeye" because its units exhibit hexagonal symmetry when viewed along optical axes and mounted together in hexagonal close packing. Because all six arrays of photodetectors in unit measure essentially identical distributions of light in operating mode, each provides redundant information averaged to increase accuracy or used to verify operation of others. Malfunctioning photodector identified, and output ignored or replaced by interpolated value. Developed for use in such robotic applications as noncontact probing or scanning of surfaces, localization and recognition of objects, and guiding "smart" robot hands in grasping objects.

Lee, Sukhan; Hahn, Hernsoo

1994-01-01

152

A General Proximity Privacy Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a systematic study of the problem of protecting general proximity privacy, with findings applicable to most existing data models. Our contributions are multi-folded: we highlighted and formulated proximity privacy breaches in a data-model-neutral manner; we proposed a new privacy principle (epsiv,delta)k-dissimilarity, with theoretically guaranteed protection against linking attacks in terms of both exact and proximate QI-SA associations;

Ting Wang; Shicong Meng; Bhuvan Bamba; Ling Liu; Calton Pu

2009-01-01

153

Is it possible to create a slit-like meatus without incising the urethral plate?  

PubMed

A series of hypospadias repairs using the Mathieu and V-incision-sutured (MAVIS) technique, aiming to achieve a normal-looking,vertical, slit-like meatus in 32 patients was reviewed. A Mathieu procedure was performed in 26 patients as a primary repair and in 3 as a rescue operation. In another 3 patients who had severe proximal hypospadias with failed repair, techniques other than Mathieu's were used. Good cosmetic and functional results were achieved in all patients. There were no complications such as fistula or stricture formation. The MAVIS meatoplasty creates a natural-looking, slit-like glanular meatus in both distal and proximal hypospadias, even in complicated cases. PMID:12415377

Tekant, Gonca; Be?ik, Cemile; Emir, Haluk; Büyükünal, S N Cenk

2002-09-01

154

Severe Limb Ischemia Related to Previous Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Induced by Acute Aortic Dissection  

PubMed Central

We described the first case of limb ischemia induced by acute aortic dissection in the patient with previous abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. A 56-year-old male was referred for severe limb ischemia. He underwent AAA repair one month before the referral. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed Stanford type B aortic dissection extended to the proximal anastomosis site of the AAA repair. The false lumen made the complete interruption of antegrade blood flow at the proximal anastomosis site of the AAA repair.

Umeda, Yukio; Imaizumi, Matsuhisa; Mori, Yoshio; Takiya, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

155

Fixed assets repair timetable  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with repairs of fixed assets. Repairs can be current and capital. A repair process model is analyzed under\\u000a some assumptions on the repair process stationarity. The optimal time for the first capital repair is found.

V. V. Ostapenko; D. A. Belyaeva

2009-01-01

156

Metatarsalgia: proximal metatarsal osteotomies.  

PubMed

Metatarsalgia is a blanket term to describe pain in the forefoot that may have many different etiologies and contributory factors. A careful history, examination, and appropriate imaging are required to make an accurate diagnosis and treat the patient appropriately. Metatarsalgia is a common condition and is more common in women. Many nonsurgical treatments can be implemented as a first line but if these fail then surgery may be undertaken. There are several different lesser metatarsal osteotomies described with little published evidence to recommend one over another, leaving the decision as to which one to use largely to surgeon choice. The surgeon, however, must decide, by using a combination of clinical examination and imaging, whether the desired effect of the osteotomy is to shorten or elevate the metatarsal head or both. Whichever method is employed it is important to maintain or restore the metatarsal cascade to keep even pressure under the lesser metatarsal heads and prevent transfer lesions. Proximal osteotomies are more powerful than distal ones but often that can mean that they are more technically demanding. Many early descriptions of osteotomy techniques did not include any fixation but the results in terms of union and relief of symptoms as well as the prevention of transfer pain appear to be better with fixation. More research is required comparing the different osteotomy techniques to ascertain which can most reliably resolve patients’ symptoms with the lowest complication rate. PMID:22118232

Pearce, Christopher J; Calder, James D

2011-12-01

157

Optical Proximity Sensor Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program was to design and develop an Active Optical Proximity Sensor capable of providing a near surface proximity indication and detaonting signal. The sensor was to be designed as a plug-in module to the Impact Short Delay Fuze for u...

F. S. Gemmel

1973-01-01

158

Brain aneurysm repair  

MedlinePLUS

... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened up. A metal clip is placed ...

159

Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular  

MedlinePLUS

EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

160

Link Proximity Analysis - Clustering Websites by Examining Link Proximity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This research-in-progress paper presents a new approach called Link Proximity Analysis (LPA) for identifying related web pages\\u000a based on link analysis. In contrast to current techniques, which ignore intra-page link analysis, the one put forth here examines\\u000a the relative positioning of links to each other within websites. The approach uses the fact that a clear correlation between\\u000a the proximity of

Bela Gipp; Adriana Taylor; Jöran Beel

2010-01-01

161

Aerodynamic characteristics in ground proximity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from recent investigations in the Langley V/STOL tunnel of an externally blown flap and an upper surface blown flap configuration in ground proximity are presented. Comparisons of longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics indicate that in ground proximity, drag is reduced for both configurations, but changes in lift are configuration dependent. Steady state analyses of the landing approach indicate an increase in flight path angle for both configurations in ground proximity because of the drag reduction. Dynamic analyses with a fixed-base simulator indicate that the resultant flight path during landing approach is dependent on the initial flight path angle and the control technique used.

Thomas, J. L.; Hassell, J. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L. T.

1976-01-01

162

The abnormal proximal tibiofibular joint.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of the proximal tibiofibular joint are infrequently encountered. Mostly instability occurs as a result of trauma. Four types of instability are distinguished: subluxation, anterolateral, posteromedial and superior dislocation. Four radiological methods designed to visualize abnormalities of the proximal tibiofibular joint are discussed. Special notice is given to the clinical relevance of a new method. Instability was demonstrated in 19 patients; 16 of these were treated by an operation. History, data obtained by physical examination and ways of treatment are discussed. PMID:6703874

Veth, R P; Kingma, L M; Nielsen, H K

1984-01-01

163

Chitosan adhesive for laser tissue repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background. Laser tissue repair usually relies on haemoderivate solders, based on serum albumin. These solders have intrinsic limitations that impair their widespread use, such as limited repair strength, high solubility, brittleness and viral transmission. Furthermore, the solder activation temperature (65-70 °C) can induce significant damage to tissue. In this study, a new laser-activated biomaterial for tissue repair was developed and tested in vitro and in vivo to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional solders. Materials and Methods. Flexible and insoluble strips of chitosan adhesive (surface area ~34 mm2, thickness ~20 ?m) were developed and bonded on sheep intestine with a laser fluence and irradiance of 52 +/- 2 J/cm2 and ~15 W/cm2 respectively. The temperature between tissue and adhesive was measured using small thermocouples. The strength of repaired tissue was tested by a calibrated tensiometer. The adhesive was also bonded in vivo to the sciatic nerve of rats to assess the thermal damage induced by the laser (fluence = 65 +/- 11 J/cm2, irradiance = 15 W/cm2) four days post-operatively. Results. Chitosan adhesives successfully repaired intestine tissue, achieving a repair strength of 0.50 +/- 0.15 N (shear stress = 14.7 +/- 4.7 KPa, n=30) at a temperature of 60-65 °C. The laser caused demyelination of axons at the operated site; nevertheless, the myelinated axons retained their normal morphology proximally and distally.

Lauto, A.; Stoodley, M.; Avolio, A.; Foster, L. J. R.

2006-03-01

164

Book Repair Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

Milevski, Robert J.

1995-01-01

165

Peritrochanteric Access and Gluteus Medius Repair  

PubMed Central

Access to the peritrochanteric space is simple and reproducible with the technique described in this report. Two anteriorly based portals are placed between the iliotibial band and the greater trochanter. Bursal tissue and debris can be cleared, optimizing visualization of the peritrochanteric space and the anatomic structures. Lesions of the gluteus medius are a common cause of lateral hip pain unresponsive to conservative treatment and have frequently been mischaracterized as recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis. These lesions are often amenable to endoscopic repair with techniques comparable to those used for rotator cuff problems in the shoulder. Portal placement and organization and execution of a gluteus medius repair are highlighted in a video example. Repair is carried out with laterally based portals in the peritrochanteric space. A viewing portal is placed posterior to the vastus lateralis ridge, with a working portal distal to the ridge. Anchors are placed from a proximal position, entering perpendicular to the cortical surface of the trochanter.

Byrd, J. W. Thomas

2013-01-01

166

Neuronal repair  

PubMed Central

The potential of the central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate is regulated by a complex interaction of neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic factors that remain poorly understood. Significant research has been dedicated to identifying these factors to facilitate design of therapies that will treat the functional impairment associated with CNS injuries. Over the last decade, the development of in vivo laser severing of single axons in C. elegans has established an invaluable model for the genetic identification of novel regeneration factors. In a recent study we report the unexpected identification of the core apoptotic proteins CED-4/Apaf-1 and the executioner caspase CED-3 as important factors that promote early events in regeneration in C. elegans. Other upstream regulators of apoptosis do not influence regeneration, indicating the existence of a novel mechanism for activation of CED-4 and CED-3 in neuronal repair. CED-4 and CED-3 function downstream of injury-induced calcium transients and appear to act through the conserved DLK-1 pathway to promote regeneration. We propose a working model for calcium-dependent localized activation of CED-4 and CED-3 caspase and discuss questions raised including mechanisms for spatially regulating activated CED-3 and the possible substrates that it might cleave to initiate regeneration.

Reina, Christopher P.; Driscoll, Monica; Gabel, Christopher V.

2013-01-01

167

Iliorenal artery bypass grafting to facilitate endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective endovascular repair of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) requires adequate proximal and distal landing zones to allow secure endograft attachment. We report a patient with an infrarenal AAA originating 3 mm below the left renal artery with cardiac morbidity that precluded open AAA repair. Left renal artery relocation with retroperitoneal iliorenal bypass grafting was performed to lengthen the

Peter H. Lin; Kenneth Madsen; Ruth L. Bush; Alan B. Lumsden

2003-01-01

168

Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

Haines, Richard F.

1987-01-01

169

Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized

Sae Chul Kim; Su Kyoung Kwon; Yeon Pyo Hong

2011-01-01

170

Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses.

Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

2011-01-01

171

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

172

Primary repair of a neonatal bronchial intubation injury.  

PubMed

Premature infants who require endotracheal intubation may be subject to iatrogenic tracheobronchial injuries. Such injuries are relatively rare, can be difficult to diagnose, and are often associated with poor outcomes. We report our experience with diagnosing and successfully treating a proximal bronchial perforation in a neonate by primary surgical repair. PMID:16516637

McCann, Ulysses; Kane, Kara; Nicolette, Linda; Ratner, Michael; Baesl, Thomas

2006-03-01

173

Identification of Novel Low-Dose Bisphenol A Targets in Human Foreskin Fibroblast Cells Derived from Hypospadias Patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose The effect of low-dose bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on human reproductive health is still controversial. To better understand the molecular basis of the effect of BPA on human reproductive health, a genome-wide screen was performed using human foreskin fibroblast cells (hFFCs) derived from child hypospadias (HS) patients to identify novel targets of low-dose BPA exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene expression profiles of hFFCs were measured after exposure to 10 nM BPA, 0.01 nM 17?-estradiol (E2) or 1 nM 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for 24 h. Differentially expressed genes were identified using an unpaired Student's t test with P value cut off at 0.05 and fold change of more than 1.2. These genes were selected for network generation and pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, Pathway Express and KegArray. Seventy-one genes (42 downregulated and 29 upregulated) were identified as significantly differentially expressed in response to BPA, among which 43 genes were found to be affected exclusively by BPA compared with E2 and TCDD. Of particular interest, real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 11 (MMP11), a well-known effector of development and normal physiology, was found to be inhibited by BPA (0.47-fold and 0.37-fold at 10 nM and 100 nM, respectively). Furthermore, study of hFFCs derived from HS and cryptorchidism (CO) patients (n?=?23 and 11, respectively) indicated that MMP11 expression was significantly lower in the HS group than in the CO group (0.25-fold, P?=?0.0027). Conclusions/Significance This present study suggests that an involvement of BPA in the etiology of HS might be associated with the downregulation of MMP11. Further study to elucidate the function of the novel target genes identified in this study during genital tubercle development might increase our knowledge of the effects of low-dose BPA exposure on human reproductive health.

Qin, Xian-Yang; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Mizuno, Kentaro; Ueoka, Katsuhiko; Muroya, Koji; Miyado, Mami; Zaha, Hiroko; Akanuma, Hiromi; Zeng, Qin; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Yoshinaga, Jun; Yonemoto, Junzo; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Yutaro; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu; Sone, Hideko

2012-01-01

174

Multiclass Proximal Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We propose an extension of proximal support vector machines (PSVM) to the multiclass case. Unlike the one-versus-rest approach that constructs the decision rule based on multiple binary classication tasks, the multiclass PSVM (MPSVM) considers all classes simultaneously and provides a unifying framework when there are either equal or unequal misclassication costs. The MPSVM is built in a regularization framework

Yongqiang Tang; Hao Helen Zhang

2006-01-01

175

Proximal humeral resection and reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resection of the proximal humerus may be required for control of benign, primary malignant, or metastatic neoplasms. The defect created by such a resection may spare the shoulder cuff muscles and deltoid (Malawer type IA) or remove them (Malawer type IB). Reconstruction of these defects and restoration of some degree of shoulder function may be accomplished by a variety of

John M. Harrelson

1999-01-01

176

Driven shielding capacitive proximity sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A capacitive proximity sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage as and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect the field lines away from a grounded robot arm towards an intruding object, thus dramatically increasing the sensor's range and sensitivity.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor); McConnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

177

Proximity problems on moving points  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic data structure for the maintenance of a multidimensional range search tree is introduced. This structure is used as a building block to obtain kinetic data structures for two classical geometric proximity problems in arbitrary dimensions: the first structure maintains the closest pair of a set of continuously moving points, and is provably efficient. The second structure maintains a

Julien Basch; Leonidas J. Guibas; Li Zhang

1997-01-01

178

Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

Zammuto, Raymond F.

179

Hybrid thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair: current perspectives.  

PubMed

Open repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While open repair has remained the mainstay for treatment, this major surgical reconstruction is associated with a variety of complications due to the cardiopulmonary stress of this large-scale operation. Some of these complications include respiratory failure, heart failure, and acute renal failure, as well as spinal cord ischemia. With the progression of endovascular stent-graft technology, the development of a staged hybrid technique was first reported in the literature in 2004. The tenet of the hybrid approach is based on the reduced physiologic stress of operating through one visceral cavity rather than two (abdomen and thorax), which reduces complications and improves the ultimate outcome. This hybrid approach effectively "shifts" the proximal endovascular aortic repair landing zone away from a diseased paravisceral aorta to healthier proximal descending thoracic aorta by means of preceding open retrograde visceral bypass grafts. When thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair became available in 2005, there was much enthusiasm for this hybrid technique to extend the application for these patients with aneurysmal aorta in the paravisceral segment. However, subsequent reports have raised caution about the ultimate outcomes for this hybrid approach due to the major complications that still occur for these commonly infirmed patients. Instead, consideration of preoperative comorbidities, such as renal insufficiency, can influence outcomes. Review of the existing body of evidence identifies multiple small series describing these patients, but there is limited data of controlled trials or reasonable comparisons. We review some of the existing reports and provide our own experience with the hybrid technique of visceral debranching in preparation of a hybrid approach for thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair. We retrospectively evaluated our own experience evaluating hybrid repairs for TAAAs over a 5-year period. Between 2006 and 2010, 18 hybrid TAAA repairs were performed. Thirty-day mortality was 11.1%, with a 30-day visceral graft patency of 94.4%. One patient ruptured between visceral debranching and endovascular TAAA exclusion and is included as one of the two mortalities. Overall spinal cord ischemia occurred in 11.1% of hybrid TAAA repair patients. While fenestrated stent-graft technology continues to develop, the hybrid approach to TAAAs may reduce mortality as well as morbidity, particularly spinal cord ischemia, as supported by the current body of literature. The timing of each component of the staged approach remains to be standardized and long-term graft patency has not been established. PMID:23206567

Yamaguchi, Dean; Jordan, William D

2012-12-01

180

Unexpected and just missed: the separate influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on negative emotions.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that a goal-incongruent outcome leads to more intense negative emotions when it is unexpected and close to a goal-congruent outcome. Until now, however, no studies have disentangled the influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on emotions. We experimentally manipulated each of these variables in 3 slot machine experiments and measured emotions via differences in motivation (i.e., the tendency to repair the goal incongruence) and feelings (i.e., disappointment, frustration, and anger). The experiments consisted of a series of trials that each started with the sequential presentation of 3 symbols. In case of a win trial, all symbols were equal (e.g., AAA) and the participant gained 10 cents; in case of a loss trial, one or more of the symbols differed and the participant gained 0 cents. Three different loss trials were compared: unexpected proximal ones (e.g., AAB), expected proximal ones (e.g., ABA), and expected distal ones (e.g., ABC). The tendency to repair was measured online via behavior as well as retrospectively via self-reports; feelings were measured retrospectively (Experiments 1 and 2) or online (Experiment 3). Unexpected losses seemed to increase the tendency to repair as well as feelings of disappointment (in all experiments) and feelings of frustration and anger (in Experiments 1 and 3). Proximal losses increased only the tendency to repair (in all experiments). This suggests that the appraisals of expectancy and proximity have a distinct influence on emotions. PMID:24364851

Bossuyt, Evelien; Moors, Agnes; De Houwer, Jan

2014-04-01

181

Laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repair of parastomal represents a significant challenge for the hernia surgeon. Repair of these hernias is indicated because of an ill-fitting appliance, cosmetic deformity, inability to maintain proper hygiene and complications from the hernia itself such as incarceration or strangulation. Recent reports in the literature have shown that primary fascial repair can occur in 46% of patients and relocation of

K. A. LeBlanc; D. E. Bellanger; J. M. Whitaker; M. G. Hausmann

2005-01-01

182

Relevance of photobiological repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

From symposium on new trends in photobiology; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (15 ; Jul 1973). A review is presented of photobiological and photochemical studies in ; relation to radiation damage and repair. Some topics discussed are: repair of ; damage induced in DNA by ultraviolet and gamma radiation; the repair of ; chemically induced damage to DNA; uv-induced skin cancer;

Setlow

1973-01-01

183

Intramedullary Chondrosarcoma of Proximal Humerus  

PubMed Central

Primary chondrosarcoma is the third most frequent primary malignancy of bone after myeloma and osteosarcoma. It is ranging from slow growing nonmetastasising lesions to highly aggressive lesions. We report a case of primary intramedullary chondrosarcoma of proximal humerus. A 60-year-old female presented with pain and hard swelling involving the left arm for 5 months. Radiograph showed a lucent expansile intramedullary lesion with matrix calcification and associated soft tissue mass. CT confirmed the finding. MRI showed a lobulated lesion which is hyperintense on T2WI with low signal fibrous septae. Increased tracer uptake was seen on bone scan. Histopathology confirmed the radiology diagnosis. The patient underwent wide resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction of proximal humerus.

Yadav, Pratiksha; Thakkar, Dolly; Thind, S. S.

2012-01-01

184

Plating in Proximal Humeral Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved imaging, updated knowledge regarding humeral head perfusion and adapted fixation techniques with implants having\\u000a better purchase also in osteopenic bone, have influenced the treatment of proximal humeral fractures in recent years. Demographic\\u000a evolution and a more active population even among the older age groups will increase the incidence of this fracture, which\\u000a is already the third most frequent fracture

Reto Babst; Felix Brunner

2007-01-01

185

Feasibility and Outcome of Proximal Catheter Ileostomy - A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Loop ileostomy has high complication rates and causes much patient inconvenience. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a proximal catheter ileostomy in place of loop ileostomy in patients treated by intestinal repair and/or resection-anastomosis.Design: Prospective study.Setting: J. N. Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Patients and Methods: From November 2006 to November 2009, in all patients treated surgically by primary repair and/or resection-anastomosis of small and/or large bowel, we constructed a catheter ileostomy when a defunctioning proximal protective loop ileostomy was considered advisable. Catheter ileostomy was constructed in the fashion of catheter jejunostomy, with postoperative saline irrigation. Results: Catheter ileostomy was performed in 20 patients in the 3-year period. The mean age of the subjects was 28.6 years and the male: female ratio was 1.86:1. Four patients died of septicemia and multiple organ failure unrelated to catheter ileostomy in the immediate postoperative period. Catheter ileostomy started functioning within 48 hours of the operation, and twice-daily irrigation was found sufficient in 81.25% of the surviving patients. Only one patient developed peritubal leak with mild skin excoriation that cleared within 5 days. Another patient with Koch's abdomen underwent conversion to loop colostomy on re-exploration for postoperative adhesive obstruction. There was no instance of intestinal leak. Ileostomy wounds closed spontaneously within 7–14 days of catheter removal, and none required formal closure. Hospital stay ranged from 12–35 days (mean: 23 days). Conclusions: Catheter ileostomy is effective in protecting intestinal anastomosis/repair; there is minimal morbidity and no catheter-related leak/mortality, and we recommend the procedure.

Ansari, Maulana M.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Hasan, Syed H.; Haleem, Shahla

2011-01-01

186

Proximal Humerus Reconstructions for Tumors  

PubMed Central

The optimal method for reconstructing the proximal humerus in patients with tumors is controversial. To determine functional outcomes and complication rates after different types of reconstructions, we reviewed a consecutive series of 49 patients who underwent proximal humerus resection and osteoarticular allograft (17 patients), allograft-prosthetic composite (16), or endoprosthetic (16) reconstruction. Operative indications included primary malignancies (24 patients), metastatic disease (19), and benign aggressive disease (six). Implant revision was more common after osteoarticular reconstruction (five of 17) than after allograft-prosthetic composite (one of 16) or endoprosthetic (zero of 16) reconstructions. At a minimum followup of 24 months (median, 98 months; range, 24–214 months) in surviving patients, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional scores averaged 79% for the allograft-prosthetic composite, 71% for the osteoarticular allograft, and 69% for the endoprosthetic reconstruction cohorts. Shoulder instability was associated with abductor mechanism compromise and was more common after endoprosthetic reconstruction. Allograft fractures occurred in 53% of patients receiving osteoarticular allografts. We recommend allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction for younger patients with primary tumors of bone and endoprosthetic reconstruction for older patients with metastatic disease. Because of the unacceptable complication rate, we do not recommend osteoarticular allograft reconstruction for routine use in the proximal humerus. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Adams, Sheila C.; Pitcher, J. David; Malinin, Theodore I.; Temple, H. Thomas

2008-01-01

187

Proximity operations in space station environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on proximity operations in space station environment are presented. Topics covered include: automated flight; remote manual piloting; task requirements and constraints; problem formulation; and flight parameter flow/pilot interaction for proximity operations task.

Rhodes, Brandt

1990-01-01

188

Proximal muscle atrophy in adult celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding of 2 patients with adult celiac disease and proximal muscle atrophy in whom malabsorption was not at first considered suggests that either malabsorption or adult celiac disease itself should be considered among the possible causes of proximal muscle atrophy. In proximal muscle atrophy of unknown cause, malabsorption should be routinely ruled out.

William Harvey Hall

1968-01-01

189

Successful treatment of endoleak Type I with uncovered EX-L stent after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

Treatment of endoleaks after thoracic endovascular repair remains challenging, particularly when the proximal landing zone is small and partly includes the origin of the neck vessels. We report a Type Ia endoleak, occurring after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, which was successfully treated with a novel uncovered nitinol stent. With this success, we were able to avoid a conventional surgery to treat the endoleak.

Buz, Semih; Zipfel, Burkhart; D'Ancona, Guiseppe; Hetzer, Roland

2013-01-01

190

Optimality in DNA repair  

PubMed Central

DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

2012-01-01

191

The HTV Proximity Communication System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) as an unmanned logistic support vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS). The HTV, which is launched by the H-IIA rocket, transports both pressurized and un-pressurized cargoes to the ISS, reloads disposal items from the ISS and performs destructive reentry over ocean area. NASDA plans the first flight of HTV in 2005 for demonstration. The HTV will contribute the ISS assembly and logistic re-supply operations with international commonality. For unmanned vehicle operation, communication link is critical with commanding and control, especially in proximity region to the ISS. As for the HTV operation, NASDA is developing dedicated communication system installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the ISS, which is called the Proximity Communication System (PROX). The HTV receives commands and transmits telemetry data through the PROX in its proximity operation to the ISS. To achieve this, the PROX can communicate with the HTV on its nominal trajectory within 23km of the ISS. Especially within 3km of the ISS, the PROX has capability to perform omni-directional communication to the HTV. The PROX also has GPS receiver and send GPS data to the HTV to support the HTV navigation for relative GPS navigation used in "far" range (500m away from the ISS). In addition to the above fundamental functions, the PROX has a capability of range and range-rate measurement between the ISS and the HTV by the pseudo noise (PN) code epoch and the Doppler shift frequency. This provides a reference data independent of "main" navigation methods (rendezvous sensor navigation or GPS navigation) of the HTV. The PROX also assists the ISS crew with its commanding device, called the Hardware Command Panel (HCP), to issue time-dependent safety-related critical commands for HTV berthing/un-berthing operation. When a failure occurs somewhere on "communication path" from the PROX Base Band Processor (BBP) to the HTV Guidance and Control Computer (GCC) including data handling and communication equipments, the PROX detects it by monitoring interruption of the "heartbeat" signal and conducts automatic redundancy switching of all the equipments on that "communication path" including those of the HTV. This paper describes the PROX functions such as communication, data handling and GPS navigation and some unique functions for the HTV proximity operation to the ISS.

Harada, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tetsuo

2002-01-01

192

Fundamentals of Airframe Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site, visitors will find introductory materials to airframes and airframe repair for helicopters and airplanes. The resource is divided into two parts; part one discusses the basic components and processes of airframes, and part two covers airframe damage repair. Additionally, each part is broken down into four lessons, including Aviation Hardware, Structural Repair, and Metal-Working Processes. The text of the material is supplemented with helpful labeled drawings to illustrate each part of the airframe. This resource is useful for students who are just beginning in the field of airframe maintenance and repair, or the more general fields of aeronautics or aeronautical engineering.

2006-12-25

193

Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypersonic flows involving two or more bodies travelling in close proximity to one another are encountered in several important situations. The present work seeks to explore one aspect of the resulting flow problem by investigating the forces experienced by a secondary body when it is within the domain of influence of a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds.An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral force coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger than one-sixth of the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with those from numerical simulations and reasonable agreement is observed if an appropriate normalization for the relative lateral displacement of the two bodies is used.Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, with good agreement. A new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities, enabling the experimental simulation of the proximal bodies problem, is described. This technique provides two independent means of measurement, and the agreement observed between the two gives a further degree of confidence in the results obtained.

Laurence, Stuart J.; Deiterding, R.; Hornung, G.

194

Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 ?m). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The early pyroclastic phase of the formation of Kima'Kho, a tuya in northern B.C., Canada produced a subaqueous pyroclastic cone which became emergent during the latter stages of formation. Armoured lapilli are pervasive within the emergent upper third of the sequence. No other types of ash aggregates have been observed. Petrographic and textural analysis of the armoured lapilli shows them to comprise a central 2-30 mm-sized, juvenile, vesiculated pyroclast, concentrically coated by mm-scale layers of 10-250 ?m sized ash particles. At Kima'Kho, the armoured lapilli are shown to be a direct indicator of fallout from a sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured lapilli (no accretionary lapilli) at Kima'Kho and diverse ash aggregates but no armoured lapilli at A418. Here we investigate vent-proximal ash aggregation and the specific conditions which lead to the formation of coated ash pellets and armoured lapilli.

Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

2012-12-01

195

Lateral ankle fracture with missed proximal tibiofibular joint instability (Maisonneuve injury).  

PubMed

We present a case of a soccer player who sustained a lateral ankle fracture and the associated proximal anterolateral tibiofibular joint instability (Maisonneuve injury) was overlooked. After a non-contact injury the (incomplete) diagnosis of a lateral malleolar fracture (type Weber B, AO 44-B1) was made and the patient was surgically treated with open reduction and internal fixation including a distal syndesmosis screw. After removal of the syndesmosis screw (six weeks after surgery) the patient suffered from activity-related pain around the fibular head. After thorough clinical and radiologic examination, temporary screw transfixation of the fibular head and capsular repair under meticulous fluoroscopic control of fibular rotation helped to restore patient's sport activity level. This case report emphasizes the importance of precise clinical examination for detection of a proximal tibiofibular joint instability. Restoration of a well functioning and stable proximal tibiofibular joint may be difficult to achieve in previously operated and missed instabilities. PMID:18712356

Hirschmann, Michael T; Mauch, Christian; Mueller, Claude; Mueller, Werner; Friederich, Niklaus F

2008-10-01

196

New autophagy reporter mice reveal dynamics of proximal tubular autophagy.  

PubMed

The accumulation of autophagosomes in postischemic kidneys may be renoprotective, but whether this accumulation results from the induction of autophagy or from obstruction within the autophagic process is unknown. Utilizing the differential pH sensitivities of red fluorescent protein (RFP; pKa 4.5) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP; pKa 5.9), we generated CAG-RFP-EGFP-LC3 mice to distinguish early autophagic vacuoles from autolysosomes. In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that in response to nutrient deprivation, renal epithelial cells in CAG-RFP-EGFP-LC3 mice produce autophagic vacuoles expressing RFP and EGFP puncta. EGFP fluorescence diminished substantially in the acidic environment of the autolysosomes, whereas bright RFP signals remained. Under normal conditions, nephrons expressed few EGFP and RFP puncta, but ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) led to dynamic changes in the proximal tubules, with increased numbers of RFP and EGFP puncta that peaked at 1 day after IRI. The number of EGFP puncta returned to control levels at 3 days after IRI, whereas the high levels of RFP puncta persisted, indicating autophagy initiation at day 1 and autophagosome clearance during renal recovery at day 3. Notably, proliferation decreased in cells containing RFP puncta, suggesting that autophagic cells are less likely to divide for tubular repair. Furthermore, 87% of proximal tubular cells with activated mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which prevents autophagy, contained no RFP puncta. Conversely, inhibition of mTOR complex 1 induced RFP and EGFP expression and decreased cell proliferation. In summary, our results highlight the dynamic regulation of autophagy in postischemic kidneys and suggest a role of mTOR in autophagy resolution during renal repair. PMID:24179166

Li, Ling; Wang, Zhao V; Hill, Joseph A; Lin, Fangming

2014-02-01

197

Deformed proximity potential for heavy ion reactions  

SciTech Connect

The proximity potential is discussed for the inelastic scattering of a spherical nucleus on a deformed nucleus or the mutual interaction of two deformed nuclei. It is shown that the proximity potential is, in general, geometrically more correct than the usual centerline prescription used in inelastic scattering analyses. For the cases where the proximity potential is inadequate a folding model approach is advocated. Techniques to facilitate the coupled channels analysis are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Baltz, A.J.

1989-09-01

198

Recurrent dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint.  

PubMed

Recurrent dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a rare injury. This report presents a case of bilateral recurrent dislocations of the proximal tibiofibular joint in a jet skier that responded to physical therapy and activity modification. A review of the literature is provided, with attention to the mechanism of injury and other treatment options--including arthrodesis and resection of the proximal fibula. This diagnosis should be considered in jet skiers with lateral-sided knee pain. PMID:1749660

Halbrecht, J L; Jackson, D W

1991-11-01

199

Endovascular repair of peripheral aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, and arteriovenous fistulas.  

PubMed

Endovascular repair of peripheral arterial lesions was performed in 10 patients including two iliac aneurysms, two iliac anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, one subclavian pseudoaneurysm, one axillary anastomotic disruption, two prosthetic pseudoaneurysms, and two posttraumatic arteriovenous (AV) fistulas. The indications for repair were aneurysm size in five cases, massive hematoma in one, threatened prosthetic dialysis graft in two, venous hypertension with non-healing ulcer in one, and arm pain in one. Vascular access was obtained through surgical cutdown in all cases, via the femoral artery in five patients, the proximal brachial artery in three and a prosthetic graft in two. Stented prosthetic grafts were used in five cases (1 polyester and polytetrafluoroethylene 4 [PTFE]), and PTFE-covered stents in five cases. Concomitant procedures were done in four patients including two open repairs of a common femoral artery aneurysm, a transluminal dilatation of a proximal aortic anastomotic stenosis, and an iliac artery transluminal angioplasty. Eight of 10 cases were technically successful. Completion arteriography revealed complete exclusion of all lesions, except for one minimal proximal stented graft leak in a pseudoaneurysm, and an incomplete obliteration of an AV fistula. No complications occurred. Operative time ranged from 45 min to 5 hours. Postoperative hospital stay was 1 day in five patients, 2 days in three patients, and 4 days in two patients. Follow-up contrast CT scan, arteriography, or duplex scanning demonstrated complete exclusion of all lesions except an AV fistula, and decrease in size in three aneurysms. The proximal leak initially present in a stented graft resolved. All grafts and covered stents remained patent at 2-19 months of followup. Endovascular exclusion of peripheral arterial aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, and AV fistulas can be done with a high degree of technical success, low morbidity, and short hospital stay. Short-term follow up is encouraging, however, long term follow up of these procedures is warranted to assess durability of the repair and absence of complications. PMID:9140600

Criado, E; Marston, W A; Ligush, J; Mauro, M A; Keagy, B A

1997-05-01

200

Biased short tract repair of palindromic loop mismatches in mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

Mismatch repair of palindromic loops in the presence or absence of single-base mismatches was investigated in wild-type and mismatch-binding defective mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells. Recombination intermediates with a maximum heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) region of 697 bp contained a centrally located, phenotypically silent 12-base palindromic loop mismatch, and/or five single-base mismatches. In wild-type cells, both loops and single-base mismatches were efficiently repaired (80-100%). When no other mismatches were present in hDNA, loops were retained with a 1.6-1.9:1 bias. However, this bias was eliminated when single-base mismatches were present, perhaps because single-base mismatches signal nick-directed repair. In the multiple marker crosses, most repair tracts were long and continuous, with preferential loss of markers in cis to proximal nicks, consistent with nicks directing most repair in this situation. However, approximately 25% of repair tracts were discontinuous as a result of loop-specific repair, or from segregation or short tract repair of single-base mismatches. In mutant cells, single-base mismatches were repaired less frequently, but the loop was still repaired efficiently and with bias toward loop retention, indicating that the defect in these cells does not affect loop-specific repair. Repair tracts in products from mutant cells showed a wide variety of mosaic patterns reflecting short regions of repair and segregation consistent with reduced nick-directed repair. In mutant cells, single-base mismatches were repaired more efficiently in the presence of the loop than in its absence, a likely consequence of corepair initiated at the loop.

Taghian, D G; Hough, H; Nickoloff, J A

1998-01-01

201

Second metatarsal stress fracture in sport: comparative risk factors between proximal and non-proximal locations  

PubMed Central

Background Stress fractures of the second metatarsal are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. There are two distinct areas in the second metatarsal where stress fractures develop: one proximal (at the base) and the other non?proximal (distal). Diagnosis can be difficult, and there is a difference in prognosis and treatment of the two types of stress fracture. Therefore differentiation of fracture location is warranted. Differences in risk factors and clinical outcomes between proximal and non?proximal stress fractures have not been studied. Objective To determine whether different risk factors and/or clinical outcomes associated with proximal and non?proximal stress fractures of the second metatarsal exist. Methods Patients diagnosed with proximal stress fractures of the second metatarsal were included in the study. Retrospectively, an age?matched control group with a non?proximal stress fracture was selected for comparison. Statistical analysis involved bivariate comparisons of demographic variables and clinical measurement between the two groups. Results Patients with proximal stress fractures were more likely to be chronically affected, usually exhibited an Achilles contracture, showed differences in length of first compared with second metatarsal, were more likely to experience multiple stress fractures, and exhibited low bone mass. In addition, a high degree of training slightly increased the risk of a non?proximal fracture, whereas low training volume was associated with a proximal stress fracture. Conclusion The signs, symptoms and clinical findings associated with proximal metatarsal stress fractures are different from those of non?proximal stress fractures.

Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Cook, Chad; Pietrobon, Ricado; Nunley, James A

2007-01-01

202

EUVL Mask Blank Repair  

SciTech Connect

EUV mask blanks are fabricated by depositing a reflective Mo/Si multilayer film onto super-polished substrates. Small defects in this thin film coating can significantly alter the reflected field and introduce defects in the printed image. Ideally one would want to produce defect-free mask blanks; however, this may be very difficult to achieve in practice. One practical way to increase the yield of mask blanks is to effectively repair multilayer defects, and to this effect they present two complementary defect repair strategies for use on multilayer-coated EUVL mask blanks. A defect is any area on the mask which causes unwanted variations in EUV dose in the aerial image obtained in a printing tool, and defect repair is correspondingly defined as any strategy that renders a defect unprintable during exposure. The term defect mitigation can be adopted to describe any strategy which renders a critical defect non-critical when printed, and in this regard a non-critical defect is one that does not adversely affect device function. Defects in the patterned absorber layer consist of regions where metal, typically chrome, is unintentionally added or removed from the pattern leading to errors in the reflected field. There currently exists a mature technology based on ion beam milling and ion beam assisted deposition for repairing defects in the absorber layer of transmission lithography masks, and it is reasonable to expect that this technology will be extended to the repair of absorber defects in EUVL masks. However, techniques designed for the repair of absorber layers can not be directly applied to the repair of defects in the mask blank, and in particular the multilayer film. In this paper they present for the first time a new technique for the repair of amplitude defects as well as recent results on the repair of phase defects.

Barty, A; Mirkarimi, P; Stearns, D G; Sweeney, D; Chapman, H N; Clift, M; Hector, S; Yi, M

2002-05-22

203

Hybrid aortic arch repair  

PubMed Central

The successes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) have spurned new approaches to addressing thoracic aortic pathologies. These hybrid techniques offer an alternative in patients with multi-segmental thoracic aortic pathologies which would have otherwise required a two-step arch replacement and open descending arch repair. The following article offers a clinical insight to the available hybrid approaches, such as rerouting of supra-aortic vessels. Unique complications to endovascular repairs, and technical risks and issues, are also presented along with management options and strategies to minimize such concerns.

Schmidli, Jurg; Carrel, Thierry; Grimm, Michael

2013-01-01

204

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

205

Severe intellectual disability, omphalocele, hypospadia and high blood pressure associated to a deletion at 2q22.1q22.3: case report  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) platforms have significantly improved the resolution of chromosomal analysis allowing the identification of genomic copy number gains and losses smaller than 5?Mb. Here we report on a young man with unexplained severe mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations comprising hypospadia and omphalocele, and episodes of high blood pressure. An?~?6?Mb interstitial deletion that includes the causative genes is identified by oligonucleotide-based aCGH. Results Our index case exhibited a de novo chromosomal abnormality at 2q22 [del(2)(q22.1q22.3)dn] which was not visible at the 550 haploid band level. The deleted region includes eight genes: HNMT, SPOPL, NXPH2, LOC64702, LRP1B, KYNU, ARHGAP15 and GTDC1. Discussion aCGH revealed an?~?6?Mb deletion in 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 in an as-yet unique clinical case associated with intellectual disability, congenital malformations and autism spectrum disorder. Interestingly, the deletion is co-localized with a fragile site (FRA2K), which could be involved in the formation of this chromosomal aberration. Further studies are needed to determine if deletions of 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 define a new microdeletion syndrome.

2012-01-01

206

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-12-03

207

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

208

Proximal Priority Laser Therapy: PPLT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author has, in the past, classified treatment methods for pain geometrically as point, line, two-dimensional, three-dimensional treatment and has used these over the years. However as a practitioner of western medicine, the author originally treated pain only directed at the painful site, and encountered cases where local treatment did not suffice. The author proved with SPECT and the Rand Phantom that treating the neck which is the midpoint of the brain, the center of the nervous system and the heart, the center of circulation, increased cerebral blood flow and also that laser emitted to neck will reach the spinal chord no matter from where on the neck the laser is emitted. From such research and 25 years of clinical experience, the author has created an anatomy based, systemic treatment method called the Proximal Priority Laser Therapy (PPLT) where not only the cerebral cortex, spinal chord and peripheral nerves are treated but also the tracts of blood vessels and lymph ducts are treated as well. Treatment method and cases are presented herein.

Ohshiro, Toshio

2004-09-01

209

Electrically driven optical proximity correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing optical proximity correction tools aim at minimizing edge placement errors (EPE) due to the optical and resist process by moving mask edges. However, in low-k1 lithography, especially at 45nm and beyond, printing perfect polygons is practically impossible to achieve in addition to incurring prohibitively high mask complexity and cost. Given the impossibility of perfect printing, we argue that aiming to reduce the error of electrical discrepancy between the ideal and the printed contours is a more reasonable strategy. In fact, we show that contours with non-minimal EPE may result in closer match to the desired electrical performance. Towards achieving this objective, we developed a new electrically driven OPC (ED-OPC) algorithm. The tool combines lithography simulation with an accurate contour-based model of shape electrical behavior to predict the on/off current through a transistor gate. The algorithm then guides edge movements to minimize the error in current, rather than in edge placement, between current values for printed and target shapes. The results on industrial 45nm SOI layouts using high-NA immersion lithography models show up to a 5% improvement in accuracy of timing over conventional OPC, while at the same time showing up to 50% reduction in mask complexity for gate regions. The results confirm that better timing accuracy can be achieved despite larger edge placement error.

Banerjee, Shayak; Elakkumanan, Praveen; Liebmann, Lars W.; Culp, James A.; Orshansky, Michael

2008-04-01

210

Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

Chan, Selena

2013-01-01

211

Implications of Proximity Effects for Analog Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two significant proximity effects, well proximity and STI stress, as they relate to analog circuit design. Device performance is impacted by layout features located near, but not part of the device. This adds new complexities to analog design. In either case, bias points can shift by 20-30%, causing potentially catastrophic failures in circuits. We show, for the

P. G. Drennan; M. L. Kniffin; D. R. Locascio

2006-01-01

212

Ensemble: cooperative proximity-based authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensemble is a system that uses a collection of trusted personal devices to provide proximity-based authentication in pervasive environments. Users are able to securely pair their personal devices with previously unknown devices by simply placing them close to each other (e.g., users can pair their phones by just bringing them into proximity). Ensemble leverages a user's growing collection of trusted

Andre Kalamandeen; Adin Scannell; Eyal de Lara; Anmol Sheth; Anthony LaMarca

2010-01-01

213

Grouping by proximity in haptic contour detection.  

PubMed

We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

Overvliet, Krista E; Krampe, Ralf Th; Wagemans, Johan

2013-01-01

214

Repairing Thermal Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small chips and depression in surfaces of surface insulation tiles repaired using Ludox colloidal silica solution and silica powder. No waiting time necessary between mixing filler and using it. Patch cures quickly without heat being applied.

Mccain, C. R., Jr.; Feiler, C. W.

1984-01-01

215

Rotator Cuff Repair  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... CUFF REPAIR DOCTORS HOSPITAL CENTER FOR ORTHOPEDICS AND SPORTS MEDICINE CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA June 18, 2008 00:00: ... Coral Gables, Florida. I'm Dr. John Zvijac, sports medicine and shoulder surgeon here at Doctors Hospital, and ...

216

Rapid Runway Repair Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a series of tests to evaluate a system for rapidly repairing airfield pavement using polymer concrete (synthetic polymer plus aggregate), thermally cured by microwave power. The technique, developed by the Syracuse University Researc...

L. L. Boyko, R. G. Sawyer

1975-01-01

217

Patent urachus repair  

MedlinePLUS

Patent urachal tube repair ... belly. Next, the surgeon will find the urachal tube and remove it. The bladder opening will be ... surgeon uses the tools to remove the urachal tube and close off the bladder and area where ...

218

Structural Repair Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two diagrams from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center show how to create a PVC foam core sandwich and perform structural scarf repair. The diagrams show the materials to use and the dimensions of each.

2011-07-25

219

[Robot-assisted coelioscopic proximal tubal reanastomosis].  

PubMed

We report two cases of robot-assisted coelioscopic proximal tubal reanastomosis after proximal tubal ligature. Patients were aged 43 and 34 years respectively and had previously undergone proximal tubal ligation by coagulation section at 37 years of age for the first patient, and by Filshie clip at 24 years for the second one. Both had regular menstrual cycles and their ovarian reserve was good. Their partners were presenting with normal sperm criteria. Proximal tubal reanastomosis was carried out in September 2010 by robotic coelioscopy with five extramucous vicryl 5-0 stitches on each tube and positive blue testing. Total durations of the interventions were 200 and 220minutes respectively. Postoperative outcomes were simple and patients had spontaneous pregnancy at 4 and 2.5 months respectively. Both pregnancies show normal progress currently. This is a contribution to literature data meant to determine the role of robotics in proximal tubal reanastomosis. PMID:22521989

Carbonnel, M; Roulot, A; Fay, S; Ayoubi, J-M

2013-01-01

220

Autologous Chondrocyte Cartilage Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Articular cartilage injuries are one of the most common types of injuries seen in orthopaedic practice. The treatment of articular\\u000a cartilage damage remains a challenge because cartilage has a limited capacity for spontaneous repair after traumatic insult\\u000a or degenerative joint disease. As a result, several therapeutic strategies have been developed to restore articular cartilage\\u000a and produce a durable repair. Surgical

Stefan Marlovits

221

Repairing Foam Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large holes in polyurethane foam insulation repaired reliably by simple method. Little skill needed to apply method, used for overhead repairs as well as for those in other orientations. Plug positioned in hole to be filled and held in place with mounting fixture. Fresh liquid foam injected through plug to bond it in place. As foam cures and expands, it displaces plug outward. Protrusion later removed.

Corbin, J.; Buras, D.

1986-01-01

222

Ties in proximity and clustering compounds.  

PubMed

Hierarchical clustering algorithms such as Wards or complete-link are commonly used in compound selection and diversity analysis. Many such applications utilize binary representations of chemical structures, such as MACCS keys or Daylight fingerprints, and dissimilarity measures, such as the Euclidean or the Soergel measure. However, hierarchical clustering algorithms can generate ambiguous results owing to what is known in the cluster analysis literature as the ties in proximity problem, i.e., compounds or clusters of compounds that are equidistant from a compound or cluster in a given collection. Ambiguous ties can occur when clustering only a few hundred compounds, and the larger the number of compounds to be clustered, the greater the chance for significant ambiguity. Namely, as the number of "ties in proximity" increases relative to the total number of proximities, the possibility of ambiguity also increases. To ensure that there are no ambiguous ties, we show by a probabilistic argument that the number of compounds needs to be less than 2(n 1/4), where n is the total number of proximities, and the measure used to generate the proximities creates a uniform distribution without statistically preferred values. The common measures do not produce uniformly distributed proximities, but rather statistically preferred values that tend to increase the number of ties in proximity. Hence, the number of possible proximities and the distribution of statistically preferred values of a similarity measure, given a bit vector representation of a specific length, are directly related to the number of ties in proximities for a given data set. We explore the ties in proximity problem, using a number of chemical collections with varying degrees of diversity, given several common similarity measures and clustering algorithms. Our results are consistent with our probabilistic argument and show that this problem is significant for relatively small compound sets. PMID:11206366

MacCuish, J; Nicolaou, C; MacCuish, N E

2001-01-01

223

A Simple Book Repair Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Dartmouth College Library Preservation Services, this handy and straightforward site should appeal to book lovers and collectors. The site is basically an electronic version of the print publication, supplemented by illustrative photos and a Quicktime movie. The manual discusses guiding principles to book repair, tools, practical guidelines, as well as guiding users through nine common repairs. These include torn pages, hinge repair, hinge tightening, corner repair, and spine repair, among others. A glossary and bibliography are also included.

224

Metabolic modulation of chromatin: implications for DNA repair and genomic integrity.  

PubMed

The maintenance of genomic integrity in response to DNA damage is tightly linked to controlled changes in the damage-proximal chromatin environment. Many of the chromatin modifying enzymes involved in DNA repair depend on metabolic intermediates as cofactors, suggesting that changes in cellular metabolism can have direct consequences for repair efficiency and ultimately, genome stability. Here, we discuss how metabolites may contribute to DNA double-strand break repair, and how alterations in cellular metabolism associated with both aging and tumorigenesis may affect the integrity of our genomes. PMID:24065984

Liu, Jinping; Kim, Jeongkyu; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

2013-01-01

225

Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of proximal bodies in hypersonic flow is encountered in several important situations, both natural and man-made. The present work seeks to investigate one aspect of this problem by exploring the forces experienced by a secondary body when some part of it is within the shocked region created by a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds. An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger then one-sixth the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with numerical simulations carried out using the AMROC software and good agreement is obtained if an appropriate normalization for the lateral displacement is used. Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, again with good agreement. In order to model this situation experimentally, a new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities has been developed, and results from the validation experiments are included. Finally, the analytical methodology is used to model two physical situations. First, the entry of a binary asteroid system into the Earth's atmosphere is simulated. Second, a model for a fragmenting meteoroid in a planetary atmosphere is developed, and simulations are carried out to determine whether the secondary scatter patterns in the Sikhote-Alin crater field may be attributed to aerodynamic interactions between fragments rather than to secondary fragmentation. It is found that while aerodynamic interactions lead to increased secondary crater grouping, these groups do not exhibit the typically elliptical shape that we would expect secondary fragmentation to produce.

Laurence, Stuart J.

226

Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area.  

PubMed

This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

2011-09-01

227

End-to-side nerve repair: review of the literature and clinical indications.  

PubMed

End-to-side (ETS) nerve repair, in which the distal stump of a transected nerve is coapted to the side of an uninjured donor nerve, has been suggested as a technique for repair of peripheral nerve injuries where the proximal nerve stump is unavailable or a significant nerve gap exists. Full review of the ETS literature suggests that sensory recovery after ETS repair results in some, but not robust, regeneration. Sensory axons will sprout without deliberate injury. However, motor axons only regenerate after deliberate nerve injury. Experimental and clinical experience with ETS neurorrhaphy has rendered mixed results. Continued research into ETS nerve repair is warranted. ETS techniques should not yet replace safer and more reliable techniques of nerve repair except when some, but not good, sensory recovery is appropriate and a deliberate injury to the donor motor nerve is made. PMID:18928893

Dvali, Linda T; Myckatyn, Terence M

2008-11-01

228

Modified cuffed anastomosis technique to treat pseudoaneurysms following thoracic endovascular aortic repair  

PubMed Central

Pseudoaneurysm after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is very rare. We report a case of thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysms due to flares at the proximal end of a stent graft after TEVAR for ductal aneurysm. We describe a total aortic arch replacement in this case using a modified cuffed anastomosis technique with an elephant trunk procedure leaving the partial stent graft in situ.

Matsuo, Satoshi; Oda, Katsuhiko; Motoyoshi, Naotaka; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

2012-01-01

229

Application of the proximal "elephant trunk" technique in surgical treatment of a patient with an aneurysm of the entire aorta.  

PubMed

Represented herein is an option of successful surgical treatment of a 55-year-old male patient diagnosed with type IIIB aortic dissection and aneurysmatic dilatation of the entire thoracic aorta, being the most vulnerable spot within the area of the descending thoracic aorta, by means of a promising technique of two-stage treatment. The first stage consisted in prosthetic repair of the descending thoracic aorta using the proximal "elephant trunk" technique in order to facilitate the second stage of the reconstruction, i. e. prosthetic repair of the ascending aorta and aortic arch. PMID:19791561

Belov, Iu V; Charchian, E R; Stepanenko, A B; Bobylev, D O

2008-01-01

230

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Mckagan, Sarah B.

2012-05-15

231

Arthroscopic Volar Capsuloligamentous Repair  

PubMed Central

Background?The palmar aspect of the capsuloligamentous complex of the wrist is relatively inaccessible to surgery through an open approach. An all-inside arthroscopic suturing technique is presented that allows suturing of the palmar scapholunate or lunotriquetral ligaments or plication of the space of Poirier. Methods?Eight palmar scapholunate ligaments and four major tears of the volar capsuloligamentous complex of the wrist due to a perilunate dislocation have been repaired. Results?No complications occurred during or after the procedure. It was not possible to separate the effects of the palmar repair from the disparate treatment of the associated pathology. Conclusions?The technique described allows one to suture the palmar aspects of the SL and LT ligaments safely and to repair the space of Poirier structures without need for any special equipment.

del Pinal, Francisco

2013-01-01

232

Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair  

PubMed Central

Labral tears in the hip may cause painful clicking or locking of the hip, reduced range of motion, and disruption to sports and daily activities. The acetabular labrum aids stabilization of the hip joint, particularly during hip motion. The fibrocartilaginous structure extends the acetabular rim and provides a suction seal around the femoroacetabular interface. Treatment options for labral tears include debridement, repair, and reconstruction. Repair of the labrum has been shown to have better results than debridement. Labral refixation is achieved with sutures anchored into the acetabular rim. The acetabular rim is trimmed either to correct pincer impingement or to provide a bleeding bed to improve healing. Labral repair has shown excellent short-term to midterm outcomes and allows patients to return to activities and sports. Arthroscopic rim trimming and labral refixation comprise an effective treatment for labral tears with an underlying diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement and are supported by the peer-reviewed literature.

Philippon, Marc J.; Faucet, Scott C.; Briggs, Karen K.

2013-01-01

233

Process for repairing a cryogenic heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

The patent describes a method for repairing leakage-causing cracks and fissures in a cryogenic heat exchanger. It comprises: reducing the interior pressure of the heat exchanger to a level which does not exceed the external pressure upon the hear exchanger while maintaining the temperature of the heat exchanger at a low level relative to the ambient external temperature; applying a curable liquid filler composition to the surface of the heat exchanger proximal the leakage site for seepage into the cracks and fissures located at the leakage. The composition upon a relatively short period of cure at low temperature forming a solid material which fills the cracks and fissures; curing the filler composition; and, applying a sealant composition to the surface of the heat exchanger at the filled leakage site. The sealant composition having long-term sealing performance under cyrogenic conditions.

Yan, T.Y.

1989-08-22

234

Proximal tibiofibular subluxation relationship to lateral knee pain: a review of proximal tibiofibular joint pathologies.  

PubMed

Proximal tibiofibular subluxation is the symptomatic hypermobility of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Pain along the lateral aspect of the knee must be carefully evaluated as the anatomy and biomechanics of this region are very complex. Anatomical variants of the proximal tibiofibular joint may be key to understanding the pathomechanics and, thus, treatment of this joint. The "horizontal" proximal tibiofibular joint has a higher degree of mobility, while the "oblique" joint is relatively immobile to rotational forces on the fibula. Increased fibular external rotation will result in injury to the anterior capsule and ligaments of the proximal tibiofibular joint causing common complaints of "popping" and lateral knee pain. Treatment of proximal tibiofibular subluxation will involve modifications of a patient's activity level and training programs, utilization of a supportive strap, lower leg strengthening, and modifications in the lower kinetic chain biomechanics. PMID:7787848

Semonian, R H; Denlinger, P M; Duggan, R J

1995-05-01

235

Imperforate anus repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... for passage of stool. Complete absence of an anal opening requires emergency surgery for the newborn. Surgical ... for several months before attempting the more complex anal repair. The anal repair involves an abdominal incision, ...

236

Electric motor model repair specifications  

SciTech Connect

These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

NONE

1995-08-01

237

Bioenvironmental Hazards and DNA Repair.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is needed on mechanisms by which humans respond to exposure of their cellular genes to toxic chemicals in the environment. The principal DNA repair mechanism in organisms is excision repair and evidence has accumulated that these mechanisms ar...

P. D. Smith

1993-01-01

238

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section Sec. 19...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2010-10-01

239

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2012-10-01

240

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section Sec. 19...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2011-10-01

241

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2013-10-01

242

METRRA Repair Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a 13-month program of improvement, repair, and checkout of a Synthetic Aperture Metal Reradiation Reconnaissance Radar System (METRRA/SAR) for the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research, Ft. Belvoir, under Contract DAAK70-77-C-0184. T...

1978-01-01

243

Total pelvic mesh repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: This report describes our technique and experience in restoring the pelvic floor of females with pelvic organ prolapse. METHODS: Total pelvic mesh repair uses a strip of Marlex Mesh® secured between the perineal body and the sacrum. Two additional strips, attached to the first, are tunneled laterally to the pubis and support the vagina and bladder laterally. Candidates for

Eugene S. Sullivan; Christopher J. Longaker; Patrick Y. H. Lee

2001-01-01

244

Repairing cracked glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filing procedure consisting of machined lightweight fused-silica tiles coated with thin-layer of borosilicate glass produces homogeneous seal in thin glass. Procedure is useful in repairing glass envelopes, X-ray tub windows, Dewar flasks, and similar thin glass objects.

Helman, D. D.; Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. V.

1979-01-01

245

Repairing Children's Teeth  

MedlinePLUS

... steel crown. Some dentists also are now using zirconia crowns (which are tooth colored). Either of these types of crowns can be placed in a single visit. Adult crowns usually require two visits. More about Repairing Children's Teeth Managing Anxiety in Children Types of Fillings Used ...

246

Mitral Valve Repair Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... that should be studied, as was in this patient. She underwent coronary studies prior to any decision being made about the ... us probably about 20 minutes to rewarm the patient and get a confirmatory transesophageal echo study to show that our repair worked. I’m ...

247

Repairing CAD models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an algorithm for repairing polyhedral CAD models that have errors in their B-REP. Errors like cracks, degeneracie s, du- plication, holes and overlaps are usually introduced in sol id mod- els due to imprecise arithmetic, model transformations, de signer's fault, programming bugs, etc. Such errors often hamper furt her pro- cessing like finite element analysis, radiosity computatio n

Gill Barequet; Subodh Kumar

1997-01-01

248

Valve Repair or Replacement  

MedlinePLUS

... works harder than the right. They control the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the rest ... valve repair or replacement surgeries. This will keep oxygen-rich blood flowing ... or blood-flow specialist operates the heart-lung machine. Before you ...

249

Strength of Repaired Piles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results from a two-year laboratory study to assess the strength of repaired pile sand to identify measures that would lead to improved efficiency. One third scale model pile specimens fabricated at a commercial prestressing facility w...

J. Fischer G. Mullins R. Sen

2000-01-01

250

Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

Hardway, Jack; And Others

251

Belt Repair System and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A belt repair system and method is used to repair a broken belt, such as a drive belt. The belt repair system includes one or more belt couplers having first and second body portions with belt engaging members. The body portions of each belt coupler exten...

P. E. Moody

1997-01-01

252

Cleft lip repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of the ... Cleft lip repair and cleft palate repair are indicated for: Repair of physical deformity Nursing, feeding, or speech problems resulting from cleft lip or palate

253

An atraumatic suture technique for advancing the proximal end of a severed digital flexor tendon through the pulley system.  

PubMed

One may encounter difficulty in attempting to advance the proximal digital flexor tendon into the pulley system. The use of (1) a purse-string suture around the tendon end, and (2) simultaneous prolonged tension on both the purse-string and repair sutures may be helpful. Tension on the purse-string suture converts the shape of the tendon end from an accordion into a bullet, easing its entry into the pulley tunnel. PMID:3318645

Moss, R A

1987-11-01

254

Large steam turbine repair: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers a survey taken to document the current state-of-the-art in repairs to large steam turbines. One objective was to provide information to assist utilities in making repair or replacement decisions. The survey revealed that a large number of repairs have been successfully repaired involving both mechanical and welding repair techniques. Repair techniques have been improving in recent years

S. J. Findlan; B. Lube

1991-01-01

255

[Secondary repair of the extensor pollicis longus].  

PubMed

Repair of extensor pollicis longus, even when it is imperfect, generally gives fairly good results. This tendon is exposed to injury particularly as it leaves the pulley around Lister's tubercle and especially after a slightly displaced Pouteau-Colles fracture. Very marked retraction of the proximal part of the tendon is almost constant after three weeks and repair by secondary suture is rarely possible. For this reason, a palmaris longus graft or transfer of the intrinsic extensor of the index finger is generally required. The analysis of the results of 23 cases shows that, in order to obtain a perfect result, one should perform secondary suture with light tension when possible or transfer of the intrinsic extensor of the index finger. To improve the results, it is necessary to reconstruct a superficial pulley using the flexor retinaculum of the wrist, which prevents the tendon from sliding laterally. The test of complete cure is the capacity for hyperextension of the thumb with the wrist in complete extension. PMID:3426331

Saffar, P; Fakhoury, B

1987-01-01

256

Surgical treatment of partial tears of the proximal origin of the hamstring muscles  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring injuries are common especially in athletes. Partial and complete tears of the proximal origin may cause pain and functional loss. Objective To evaluate the results of surgical treatment for partial proximal hamstring tears. Methods Between 1994 and 2005, 47 athletes (48 cases, 1 bilateral) with partial proximal hamstring tears were operated on. The cases were retrospectively analysed. Before surgery, 42 of the patients had undergone conservative treatment with unsatisfactory results, whereas in five patients the operation was performed within four weeks of the injury. Results The mean length of the follow up was 36?months (range 6–72). The result of the operation was rated excellent in 33 cases, good in nine, fair in four, and poor in two. Forty one patients were able to return to their former level of sport after an average of five months (range 1–12). Conclusion In most cases, excellent or good results can be expected after surgical repair of partial proximal hamstring tears even after conservative treatment has failed.

Lempainen, L; Sarimo, J; Heikkila, J; Mattila, K; Orava, S

2006-01-01

257

Approaches to Proximal Tibial Bone Harvest Techniques  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives The iliac crest is the standard site for harvesting bone; however, this procedure may require another specialist and a general anaesthetic. The proximal tibial bone harvest has gained popularity for harvesting autogenous bone. An analysis of the clinical literature regarding the various regions for harvesting bone demonstrates that the use of the proximal tibia led to shorter hospital stays, lower morbidity rates, and a shorter learning curve for the surgeon. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical anatomy of a proximal tibial bone harvest graft to provide the anatomical architecture supporting a safe procedure. Materials and Methods Dissection of 58 lower limbs from embalmed cadavers was conducted to determine the anatomy of a proximal tibial bone harvest (PTBH). Results Dissection revealed that the medial approach has fewer clinically relevant neurovascular structures in harms way, and a larger surface area, providing the clinician a confident surgical window to perform the procedure. Conclusions The anatomical basis of this study suggests that the medial proximal tibial bone harvest approach would have fewer serious structures in harm's way compared to the lateral; however, the lateral approach may be preferred for a subgroup of patients.

Ross, Alan; Delamarter, Taylor

2012-01-01

258

Analysis on the characteristics of pulsed laser proximity fuze's echo  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of semiconductor technology and laser technology, a kind of proximity fuze named pulsed laser proximity fuze has been applied. Compared with other fuzes, pulsed laser proximity fuze has high ranging precision and strong resistance to artificial active interference. It is an important development tendency of proximity fuze. The paper analyze the characteristic of target echo of

Kun Wang; Huimin Chen

2011-01-01

259

Evaluation and Management of Proximal Humerus Fractures  

PubMed Central

Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries, especially among older osteoporotic women. Restoration of function requires a thorough understanding of the neurovascular, musculotendinous, and bony anatomy. This paper addresses the relevant anatomy and highlights various management options, including indication for arthroplasty. In the vast majority of cases, proximal humerus fractures may be treated nonoperatively. In the case of displaced fractures, when surgical intervention may be pursued, numerous constructs have been investigated. Of these, the proximal humerus locking plate is the most widely used. Arthroplasty is generally reserved for comminuted 4-part fractures, head-split fractures, or fractures with significant underlying arthritic changes. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reserved for patients with a deficient rotator cuff, or highly comminuted tuberosities.

Khmelnitskaya, Ekaterina; Lamont, Lauren E.; Taylor, Samuel A.; Lorich, Dean G.; Dines, David M.; Dines, Joshua S.

2012-01-01

260

Proximal femoral degeneration in growing broiler fowl.  

PubMed

The pathologies in proximal femora of broilers with lameness attributed to disorders of the proximal femur, including so-called 'femoral head necrosis', are described. Samples were collected from a variety of flocks, farms and production systems. Ten 'normal' broilers were also examined. Birds were identified by a characteristic lameness whereby they used a wing for support during locomotion and hip flexion (i.e. whilst sitting down). The appearance of the proximal femora at post mortem was used to place 67 proximal femora in three categories: (a) gross disintegration of the epiphysis, physis and/or metaphysis (43 samples); (b) epiphysiolysis-separation of the cartilaginous epiphysis from the underlying femoral metaphysis (growth plate) (17 samples) and (c) apparently normal (seven samples). Samples from each category were collected for mycoplasmology, virology and bacteriology. All the samples were negative for Mycoplasma, and there was no correlation between pathology and the presence or absence of viruses, but bacteria were cultured from about half the proximal femora and most of these femora showed histological evidence of bacterial infection. Although bacterial culture was negative, evidence of bacterial infections was seen in tissue sections from a further 15 proximal femora. Serial sections were required to find the foci on bacterial lesions. 'Femoral head necrosis' was not considered appropriate to describe the pathologies seen and the term proximal femoral degeneration (PFD) was adopted. Histological examination showed that PFD was most frequently due to a bacterial chondritis and osteomyelitis, with frequent involvement of surrounding tissues. Non-lame controls all had non-bacterial pathologies in the proximal femur which were also seen in many of the lame birds and may have provided a foci for the establishment of bacterial infections. The non-bacterial pathologies when severe were considered the cause of non-infectious PFD which would cause lameness in some cases. Epiphysiolysis was either a post or peri-mortem artefact, traumatic in origin, or could be attributed to underlying growth plate (physeal) pathology which in some cases was due to bacterial infection. PMID:18671021

Thorp, B H; Whitehead, C C; Dick, L; Bradbury, J M; Jones, R C; Wood, A

1993-06-01

261

Traumatic instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint.  

PubMed

Proximal tibiofibular instability, seems to be an infrequently diagnosed abnormality, which occurs in isolation or in combination with fractures of the leg and ankle. Four types of instability are distinguished: subluxation, anterolateral dislocation, posteromedial dislocation and superior dislocation. The method of treatment depends on the type of dislocation and on the presence or absence of dysfunction of the peroneal nerve. The methods of treatment are described. Ten patients treated for this instability are presented. The use of radiographs to define the lesion is discussed. Radiographs, taken at follow-up, showed degenerative changes in the proximal tibiofibular joint in 8 of the 10 patients. PMID:7327731

Veth, R P; Klasen, H J; Kingma, L M

1981-09-01

262

Existence and convergence of best proximity points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider a self map T defined on the union of two subsets A and B of a metric space and satisfying T(A)[subset of or equal to]B and T(B)[subset of or equal to]A. We give some contraction type existence results for a best proximity point, that is, a point x such that d(x,Tx)=dist(A,B). We also give an algorithm to find a best proximity point for the map T in the setting of a uniformly convex Banach space.

Eldred, A. Anthony; Veeramani, P.

2006-11-01

263

Achilles allograft reconstruction of a chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture.  

PubMed

Complete rupture of the origin of the hamstrings is an uncommon injury. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice, but in some not possible. We present a case of an avid cyclist who had significant disability from a 6-year-old injury. He underwent reconstruction with Achilles allograft and suture anchors. With the knee flexed to 90 degrees and after extensive mobilization, the retracted musculotendinous unit would not reach the ischial tuberosity. Two suture anchors were placed in the ischial tuberosity after soft tissue debridement. One limb of suture from each anchor was placed in the end of an Achilles allograft with a locking suture, with the other end used to pull the end of the graft to the ischial tuberosity. An additional suture was placed in running fashion down each side of the graft. Distally, the graft was fanned out and attached to the retracted hamstrings with interrupted sutures with the knee at 40 degrees and maximal proximal pull on the hamstrings. The patient outcome was excellent. He resumed high level cycling by 6 months after surgery with no symptoms. Isokinetic testing demonstrated a hamstring deficit of 25% at 60 degrees/s, and 20% at 180 degrees/s at 8 months. PMID:19034429

Murray, Patrick J; Lowe, Walter R

2009-11-01

264

Clinical use of a combined grasping and locking core suture technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II.  

PubMed

Previous authors have used either a grasping or a locking technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II. A combined (grasping and locking) 10-strand repair was used by the author in 22 adults (n = 28 fingers) with lacerations of both flexor tendons in zone II. The combined repair is known to be strong (mean tensile strength of 164 N), and the technique was used in selected cases who were thought to be at higher risk of rupture either because of excessive digital oedema (in early tendon repairs) or because of tendon retraction (in late primary tendon repairs). The 10-strand repair was bulky and, hence, only the profundus tendon was repaired; and "venting" of the pulley system was done proximal to the repair site as recommended by other authors. Supervised early active mobilisation was done immediately after the operation. At final follow-up, the outcome was calculated using the original Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures and the final outcome was considered excellent in 19 patients (n = 25 fingers), good in two patients (n = 2 fingers), and fair in the remaining patient (n = 1 finger). It was concluded that the bulky 10-strand repair may be used for zone II finger flexor tendon lacerations as long as a profundus-(?) only repair and "venting" of the pulley system are performed. PMID:23829500

Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

2013-12-01

265

Laparoscopic Hernia Repair - Complications  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic hernioplasty is a technique which can present a number of specific complications. This paper reviews the complications that can occur during laparoscopic hernia repair and ways to avoid them; it also describes the surgical technique used successfully in over 1000 cases. Initial experience suggests that complications can be avoided with adequate knowledge, attention to surgical anatomy and the proper technique of laparoscopic hernioplasty. Early recurrences are rare and invariably result from inadequate surgical technique. Inadequate fixation of the mesh, inadequate mesh size, and failure to cover unidentified wall defects (hernias which have never been repaired), are the main causes of early recurrence of hernia. Experience, knowledge of complications and how to avoid them, adequate training and attention to the anatomy of the inguinal region are the most important factors in correcting inguinal hernia successfully by laparoscopy.

Reusch, Marcus; daRosa, Andre L. M.; Carlos, Jose Roberto B.

1998-01-01

266

Arthroscopic subscapularis repair.  

PubMed

As the largest and most powerful rotator cuff muscle, the subscapularis plays a critical role in proper shoulder function. The diagnosis of subscapularis tears is made based on history and physical examination and confirmed with imaging studies. Historically, subscapularis tears have been addressed in an open fashion. Recent literature has demonstrated successful all-arthroscopic repair of isolated subscapularis tears and anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. Successful arthroscopic treatment follows several critical steps: patient positioning, portal placement, obtaining adequate visualization and working space, identifying and mobilizing the subscapularis tendon, preparation of the tendon edge and lesser tuberosity, appropriate anchor placement, suture passage, and finally, secure knot-tying and fixation. Excellent functional and clinical outcomes following these steps have been demonstrated by various investigators. Additional research is needed, however, because direct comparison between all-arthroscopic and open subscapularis repair is limited, and neither technique has proved to be superior. PMID:24486754

Kuntz, Andrew F; Raphael, Ibrahim; Dougherty, Michael P; Abboud, Joseph A

2014-02-01

267

Percutaneous mitral valve repair.  

PubMed

Nonsurgical treatment of clinically important mitral regurgitation (MR) has evolved tremendously over the past decade. Recent studies of percutaneous mitral valve repair procedures have shown that less invasive procedures are safe and can be effective in selected patients. MitraClip has been studied most extensively. The MitraClip is attached to the middle scallop of the mitral leaflets by a transseptal-transvascular approach. The device approximates the leaflets in an edge-to-edge percutaneous repair technique that diminishes MR, improves functional status, and improves left ventricular remodeling. The subgroup that has the most benefit includes patients with older age, poorer left ventricular function, and functional MR and is considered high risk for surgical valve replacement. Other novel percutaneous mitral valve therapies under investigation include indirect and direct annuloplasty, and ventricular remodeling devices. PMID:24281977

Young, Amelia; Feldman, Ted

2014-01-01

268

Prokaryotic Nucleotide Excision Repair  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation.

Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

2014-01-01

269

Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite numerous attempts to improve the techniques used for hernia repair, current published series show that recurrence\\u000a rates are as high as 5–20%. The complexity of inguinal anatomy, combined with multiple potential areas of weakness, has contributed\\u000a to the difficulty in preventing recurrences. However, the laparoscopic approach to inguinal herniorrhaphy has allowed clear\\u000a visualization of all preperitoneal fascial planes and

B. Ramshaw; F. Wo Shuler; H. B. Jones; T. D. Duncan; J. White; R. Wilson; G. W. Lucas; E. M. Mason

2001-01-01

270

Eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic mismatch repair (MMR) has been shown to require two different heterodimeric complexes of MutS-related proteins: MSH2–MSH3 and MSH2–MSH6. These two complexes have different mispair recognition properties and different abilities to support MMR. Alternative models have been proposed for how these MSH complexes function in MMR. Two different heterodimeric complexes of MutL-related proteins, MLH1–PMS1 (human PMS2) and MLH1–MLH3 (human PMS1)

Richard D Kolodner; Gerald T Marsischky

1999-01-01

271

Gluteus Medius Repair With Double-Row Fixation  

PubMed Central

The merits of double-row tendon fixation have been well defined in the shoulder and may have greater applicability for gluteus medius tears in the hip, in which protection of the repair site can be even more of a challenge because the hip is a weight-bearing extremity. A detailed technique for double-row fixation with a reliable method and implants is highlighted in the accompanying stepwise-approach video. Standard laterally based peritrochanteric portals are used, including a viewing portal posterior to the vastus lateralis ridge and a working portal distal to the ridge, with anchors placed proximally, perpendicular to the cortex of the trochanter. Proximal fixation is accomplished with double-loaded Healicoil anchors (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) by use of sutures placed in a mattress fashion. Distal fixation is accomplished with a Footprint anchor (Smith & Nephew) paired to each Healicoil.

Byrd, J. W. Thomas

2013-01-01

272

Repair of a complex thoracic aneurysm from relapsing polychondritis.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old female with a history of relapsing polychondritis (RP) and open repair of a proximal descending thoracic aneurysm presented with 2 areas of asymptomatic thoracic aortic aneurysmal dilatation. The patient returned 3 months later with symptomatic aneurysm expansion, and she underwent ascending aortic arch replacement. She subsequently underwent staged endovascular repair of the distal descending thoracic aorta. RP is a rare disorder with an incidence of 3.5 per million persons annually, 4% to 7% of whom develop aneurysmal disease. Because of the aneurysmal potential of this disease, it is important for vascular surgeons to be aware of its presentation and treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case describing endovascular technique to treat such a patient. PMID:23657635

Jacobs, Chad E; March, Robert J; Hunt, Peter J; Rivera, Aksim G; Cavanagh, Sherry; McCarthy, Walter J

2013-07-01

273

Repair of Achilles tendon ruptures with Dacron vascular graft.  

PubMed

A technique has been developed for the repair of Achilles tendon ruptures that allows for early mobilization of the patient. A Dacron vascular graft is woven from distal to proximal and across the site of the rupture in a Bunnell-type fashion. The patients are immobilized in a short-leg cast for two weeks and are then fitted for a posterior fiberglass splint. Seven patients with acute ruptures who were treated with repair with the Dacron graft were followed for a period ranging from ten to 38 months. They were allowed to return to their normal level of activity approximately five months after surgery. There have been no reruptures. This technique also holds particular promise for the late reconstruction of an Achilles tendon rupture as well as for the treatment of partial tears in the severely degenerated tendon. PMID:2970358

Lieberman, J R; Lozman, J; Czajka, J; Dougherty, J

1988-09-01

274

Repair of central slip avulsions using Mitek Micro Arc bone anchors. An in vitro biomechanical assessment.  

PubMed

In this study we evaluated the pullout strength of the Mitek Micro Arc anchor for the reconstruction of central slip avulsions at the proximal interphalangeal joint of the finger. Forty paired fresh frozen cadaver fingers were randomized into treatment (anchor) and control groups (horizontal mattress repair) and subjected to tensile loading to failure. The mean (SD) failure loads of the repairs were: Mitek repair group 22.3 (4.7) N, and control group 24.7 (5.5) N. There were no statistically significant differences between the failure loads or the failure mechanisms of the two repairs. The pullout strength of the isolated anchor-bone complex was evaluated by refitting five anchors with stainless steel wire. The mean failure load of the isolated anchor was 400% higher than the tendon-suture-anchor complex, indicating that the weakest link of the system is not the bone-anchor interface. PMID:10672803

Cluett, J; Milne, A D; Yang, D; Morris, S F

1999-12-01

275

Challenging defect repair techniques for maximizing mask repair yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's economic climate it is critical to improve mask yield as materials, processes and tools are more time and cost involved than ever. One way to directly improve mask yield is by reducing the number of masks scrapped due to defects which is one of the major mask yield reducing factors. The MeRiTTM MG 45, with the ability to repair both clear and opaque defects on a variety of masks, is the most comprehensive and versatile repair tool in production today. The cost of owning multiple repair tools can be reduced and time is saved when fast turnaround is required, especially when more than one defect type is present on a single mask. This paper demonstrates the ability to correct repair errors due to human mistakes and presents techniques to repair challenging production line defects with the goal of maximizing mask repair yield and cycle time reduction.

Garetto, Anthony; Oster, Jens; Waiblinger, Markus; Edinger, Klaus

2009-10-01

276

Proximity drawings in polynomial area and volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We introduce a novel technique for drawing proximity graphs in polynomial area and volume. Previously known algorithms produce representations whose size increases exponentially with the size of the graph. This holds even when,we restrict ourselves to binary trees. Our method,is quite general and yields the first algorithms to construct (a) polynomial area weak Gabriel drawings of ternary trees ,(

Paolo Penna; Paola Vocca

2004-01-01

277

Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved capacitive proximity sensors constructed by incorporating one or more additional driven shield(s). Sensitivity and range of sensor altered by adjusting driving signal(s) applied to shield(s). Includes sensing electrode and driven isolating shield that correspond to sensing electrode and driven shield.

Mcconnell, Robert L.

1993-01-01

278

Goal-Proximity Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

2013-01-01

279

Child labor, urban proximity, and household composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using detailed survey data from Nepal, this paper examines the determinants of child labor with a special emphasis on urban proximity. We find that children residing in or near urban centers attend school more and work less in total but are more likely to be involved in wage work or in a small business. The larger the urban center, the

Marcel Fafchamps; Jackline Wahba

2006-01-01

280

Best proximity point on nonlinear contractive condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we obtain some proximity points of two mappings in metric space (X, d) by using (?, phi) contractive condition, where ? and phi are altering distance mappings. Our results generalized several well-known results in the literature. Also, we apply our results to get an application of common fixed point theorem of integral types.

Shatanawi, Wasfi

2013-04-01

281

Can the Proximal Femoral Nail be Improved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Proximal Femoral Nail® (PFN) has an extra hip pin in the head-neck fragment, to prevent rotation of the fracture fragments. However, this hip pin brought along two unexpected complications: medial migration and cutout. In order to reduce the risk of migration and cutout, the hip pin should bear no or minimal load. For this reason, a modified PFN

Roger K. J. Simmermacher; Tobias Hüttl; Röbi Frigg; Peter Messmer; Michael Schütz; Andreas Lenich; Chris van der Werken

2005-01-01

282

Traumatic proximal tibiofibular dislocation with neurovascular injury  

PubMed Central

23 years old male presented with inferolateral dislocation of proximal tibiofibular joint associated with popliteal artery and common peroneal nerve injury. The extension of the injury to involve the interosseus membrane up to the distal tibiofibular joint. The association of popliteal artery injury is not reported before to the best of our knowledge.

Veerappa, Lokesh A; Gopalakrishna, Chetan

2012-01-01

283

Traumatic proximal tibiofibular dislocation with neurovascular injury.  

PubMed

23 years old male presented with inferolateral dislocation of proximal tibiofibular joint associated with popliteal artery and common peroneal nerve injury. The extension of the injury to involve the interosseus membrane up to the distal tibiofibular joint. The association of popliteal artery injury is not reported before to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162155

Veerappa, Lokesh A; Gopalakrishna, Chetan

2012-09-01

284

Proximity: Location, Time, and Opportunity to Communicate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional measures of proximity all share three common weaknesses: (1) they are based on ratio-level measurement of physical distance that may not correspond to "psychological distance;" (2) they measure distance as a fixed rather than variable quantity; and (3) they measure distance between pairs of individuals rather than larger groups of…

Kirste, Kenneth K.; Monge, Peter R.

285

Space Station Proximity Operations and Window Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a...

R. F. Haines

1988-01-01

286

Secluded and Proximate Illiteracy: Comparing Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Triplot is used to portray the three-dimensional concepts--literate, proximate illiterate and secluded illiterate. Pictographic portrayal complemented with a method proposed to calculate distance between situations enhances comparison. Illustration with Indian data explains change over time, rural-urban divide, and social gap.

Mishra, Srijit

2005-01-01

287

Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays.  

PubMed

The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:23933049

Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M

2014-05-01

288

Proximity algorithms for image models: denoising  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel framework for the study of the total-variation model for image denoising. In the model, the denoised image is the proximity operator of the total-variation evaluated at a given noisy image. The total-variation can be viewed as the composition of a convex function (the l1 norm for the anisotropic total-variation or the l2 norm for the isotropic total-variation) with a linear transformation (the first-order difference operator). These two facts lead us to investigate the proximity operator of the composition of a convex function with a linear transformation. Under the assumption that the proximity operator of a given convex function (e.g., the l1 norm or the l2 norm) can be readily obtained, we propose a fixed-point algorithm for computing the proximity operator of the composition of the convex function with a linear transformation. We then specialize this fixed-point methodology to the total-variation denoising models. The resulting algorithms are compared with the Goldstein-Osher split-Bregman denoising algorithm. An important advantage of the fixed-point framework leads us to a convenient analysis for convergence of the proposed algorithms as well as a platform for us to develop efficient numerical algorithms via various fixed-point iterations. Our numerical experience indicates that the methods proposed here perform favorably.

Micchelli, Charles A.; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

2011-04-01

289

Proximal sensory neuropathies of the Leg.  

PubMed

This article addresses the proximal sensory neuropathies of the leg, concentrating on those nerves that are purely sensory or have a predominately sensory onset. These include the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, the ilioinguinal nerve, the genitofemoral nerve, and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The obturator and femoral nerves are also summarily mentioned with respect to their sensory symptoms. PMID:10393758

Reid, V; Cros, D

1999-08-01

290

Proximate Optimality Principle Based Multipoint Tabu Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new Tabu Search with multi search points. In the proposed method, Proximate Optimality Principle (POP) is taken into consideration in order to improve its search efficiency. The proposed method is applied to some traveling salesman problems to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Keiichiro Yasuda; Takaaki Nagaoka; Atsushi Ishigame

2008-01-01

291

Proximate optimality principle based Tabu Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an algorithm-Multi Criteria Tabu Search coordinating the intensification and the diversification based on Proximate Optimality Principle (POP)-which has several advantages for solving combinatorial optimization problems. The proposed algorithm is applied to some traveling salesman problems which are typical combinatorial optimization problems in order to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results indicate that the

Keiichiro Yasuda; Takahiko Kanazawa

2003-01-01

292

Fiber optical ranging sensor for proximity fuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber optical ranging sensor used in laser proximity fuze is described in this paper. In the fuze, pulse laser diode (LD) is used as light source and trigger signal is generated by comparing the reflected light pulses with the reference pulses by a correlator after they were converted into electric signals by PIN photodiodes. Multi-mode fibers and integrated optical

Fang Du; Zeying Chi; Mingjun You; Wenjian Chen

1996-01-01

293

Role of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase in mitochondrial DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are implicated in a broad range of human diseases and in aging. Compared to nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more highly exposed to oxidative damage due to its proximity to the respiratory chain and the lack of protection afforded by chromatin-associated proteins. While repair of oxidative damage to the bases in mtDNA through the base excision repair pathway has been well studied, the repair of oxidatively induced strand breaks in mtDNA has been less thoroughly examined. Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) processes strand-break termini to render them chemically compatible for the subsequent action of DNA polymerases and ligases. Here, we demonstrate that functionally active full-length PNKP is present in mitochondria as well as nuclei. Downregulation of PNKP results in an accumulation of strand breaks in mtDNA of hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. Full restoration of repair of the H2O2-induced strand breaks in mitochondria requires both the kinase and phosphatase activities of PNKP. We also demonstrate that PNKP contains a mitochondrial-targeting signal close to the C-terminus of the protein. We further show that PNKP associates with the mitochondrial protein mitofilin. Interaction with mitofilin may serve to translocate PNKP into mitochondria.

Tahbaz, Nasser; Subedi, Sudip; Weinfeld, Michael

2012-01-01

294

Role of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase in mitochondrial DNA repair.  

PubMed

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are implicated in a broad range of human diseases and in aging. Compared to nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more highly exposed to oxidative damage due to its proximity to the respiratory chain and the lack of protection afforded by chromatin-associated proteins. While repair of oxidative damage to the bases in mtDNA through the base excision repair pathway has been well studied, the repair of oxidatively induced strand breaks in mtDNA has been less thoroughly examined. Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) processes strand-break termini to render them chemically compatible for the subsequent action of DNA polymerases and ligases. Here, we demonstrate that functionally active full-length PNKP is present in mitochondria as well as nuclei. Downregulation of PNKP results in an accumulation of strand breaks in mtDNA of hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. Full restoration of repair of the H(2)O(2)-induced strand breaks in mitochondria requires both the kinase and phosphatase activities of PNKP. We also demonstrate that PNKP contains a mitochondrial-targeting signal close to the C-terminus of the protein. We further show that PNKP associates with the mitochondrial protein mitofilin. Interaction with mitofilin may serve to translocate PNKP into mitochondria. PMID:22210862

Tahbaz, Nasser; Subedi, Sudip; Weinfeld, Michael

2012-04-01

295

Use of tubes in peripheral nerve repair.  

PubMed

The use of tubes as an alternative to primary nerve suture in fresh nerve transections has been introduced as a biologic approach to nerve injuries, creating optimal conditions for axonal regeneration over a short empty space intentionally created between the proximal and distal nerve ends. The idea may seem controversial and has been criticized using the arguments that silicone in itself may create problems like inflammation and the tube may compress the nerve ends. With the use of appropriately sized tubes for bridging a maximum 5-mm gap in human median and ulnar nerves, the authors have found the technique to be useful and persistent at follow-up examinations for up to 4 to 5 years. In addition, from the intellectual point of view, the principle illustrates the concept by which emphasis is placed on the intrinsic healing capacities of the nerve rather than on the technical skill of the surgeon. The thin mesothelial lining found around the silicone tube lacks primary inflammatory signs at follow-up after 1 year, and no signs of compression are seen. It may be an advantage because it allows sliding of the repair site against the surrounding tissues. Tubes made of bioresorbable material may seem ideal, but they may introduce new problems associated with the resorption process in terms of a substantial unrestricted macrophage invasion, fibrosis, and disorganized axonal growth. For an extended nerve defect, the use of autologous nerve grafts is still the gold standard, because no tubular conduit or other conduit has so far proved equal to autologous nerve grafts, at least not for reconstruction of human median and ulnar nerve trunks. Alternatives other than tubes are currently being developed and investigated. For the future, the use of tubes for repair and reconstruction of nerves may have interesting potentials, because such a structure allows several types of tissue engineering. Various matrices containing, for instance, appropriate cells, factors, or other stimulating agents can be introduced in the tube lumen and can also be incorporated in a slow-release form in the walls of the tube and manipulated. Cultured Schwann cells or other cellular components, with or without manipulated production machinery, are probably the cells of choice for introduction in the tubes. Tubes may thus prove to be interesting alternatives to conventional repair techniques for primary repair of nerves and for reconstruction of segmental defects and for neuroma treatment in the future. PMID:11525212

Dahlin, L B; Lundborg, G

2001-04-01

296

Frozen Elephant Trunk Repair for Descending Thoracic Aortic Dissection in a Man with a Hostile Left Pleural Cavity  

PubMed Central

The frozen elephant trunk procedure is a hybrid, single-staged alternative to conventional surgery for repairing diffuse pathologic conditions of the thoracic aorta. This approach is particularly advantageous in patients who have pathologic conditions of the left side of the chest, because the descending thoracic aorta can be repaired without entering a hostile pleural cavity. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone repair of acute type A aortic dissection. He presented with aneurysmal dilation of the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection, a large acute dissection of the proximal ascending aorta, and a large paraesophageal hernia that made him a poor candidate for conventional, 2-staged open aortic repair. We describe the hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique that we used to repair the aorta, and its broader advantages.

Kent, William D.T.; Manjunath, Adarsh

2014-01-01

297

Frozen elephant trunk repair for descending thoracic aortic dissection in a man with a hostile left pleural cavity.  

PubMed

The frozen elephant trunk procedure is a hybrid, single-staged alternative to conventional surgery for repairing diffuse pathologic conditions of the thoracic aorta. This approach is particularly advantageous in patients who have pathologic conditions of the left side of the chest, because the descending thoracic aorta can be repaired without entering a hostile pleural cavity. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone repair of acute type A aortic dissection. He presented with aneurysmal dilation of the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection, a large acute dissection of the proximal ascending aorta, and a large paraesophageal hernia that made him a poor candidate for conventional, 2-staged open aortic repair. We describe the hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique that we used to repair the aorta, and its broader advantages. PMID:24955060

Kent, William D T; Manjunath, Adarsh; Malaisrie, S Chris

2014-06-01

298

Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique.

Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

2007-01-01

299

DNA repair in Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Background DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. Genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of DNA repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. The bacteria of the Mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. A small number of genes make Mollicutes a good model for a “minimal cell” concept. Results In this work we studied the DNA repair system of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic levels. We detected 18 out of 22 members of the DNA repair system on a protein level. We found that abundance of the respective mRNAs is less than one per cell. We studied transcriptional response of DNA repair genes of M. gallisepticum at stress conditions including heat, osmotic, peroxide stresses, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin treatment, stationary phase and heat stress in stationary phase. Conclusions Based on comparative genomic study, we determined that the DNA repair system M. gallisepticum includes a sufficient set of proteins to provide a cell with functional nucleotide and base excision repair and mismatch repair. We identified SOS-response in M. gallisepticum on ciprofloxacin, which is a known SOS-inducer, tetracycline and heat stress in the absence of established regulators. Heat stress was found to be the strongest SOS-inducer. We found that upon transition to stationary phase of culture growth transcription of DNA repair genes decreases dramatically. Heat stress does not induce SOS-response in a stationary phase.

2013-01-01

300

DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

1983-07-01

301

Coil embolization of persistent false lumen after type A dissection repair.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old man with a type A dissection repair 5 years earlier presented with progressive enlargement of the residual arch and thoracic aorta. Flow into the false lumen from the distal aortic suture line was evident on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Through a redo hemisternotomy, the false lumen was accessed directly. An Amplatzer plug was deployed within the narrowed neck of the false lumen proximal to the enlarged false lumen within descending aorta. Interlocking coils were deployed proximal to the Amplatzer plug, resulting in thrombosis of the false lumen. PMID:24882307

Zink, Jill N; Maness, Mandy R; Powell, Charles S; Parker, Frank M; Bogey, William M; Stoner, Michael C; Anderson, Curtis A

2014-06-01

302

Salvage of failed prior endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with fenestrated endovascular stent grafts.  

PubMed

Three patients with type I proximal endoleak after previous endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair were treated with fenestrated endovascular stent grafts. Six renal arteries, three superior mesenteric arteries, and one coeliac axis were targeted for incorporation by graft fenestration. The fenestration-renal ostium interface was secured with balloon-expandable stents and completion angiography demonstrated no endoleaks and antegrade perfusion in all target vessels. All patients made an uncomplicated recovery. Fenestrated endovascular stent grafts can be used to salvage failed prior endovascular AAA repair in patients who are considered unsuitable for other endovascular or open surgical interventions. PMID:17145439

Adam, Donald J; Fitridge, Robert A; Berce, Michael; Hartley, David E; Anderson, John L

2006-12-01

303

Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results  

SciTech Connect

The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany)] [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

2013-12-15

304

Metrics for Small Appliance Repair, Major Appliance Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in small appliance repair and major appliance repair, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

305

Defect repair performance using the nanomachining repair technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanomachining is a new technique for repairing photomask defects. The advantages of this technique are no substrate damage, precise edge placement position and Z height accuracy when compared with current Laser zapper or FIB GAE repair techniques. This technique can be applied to any type of opaque defects at any type of film materials and quartz bump defects on Alternating

Yasutaka Morikawa; Haruo Kokubo; Masaharu Nishiguchi; Naoya Hayashi; Roy White; Ron Bozak; Lee Terrill

2003-01-01

306

GeneRepair - A Repair Operator for Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the outcome of two recent sets of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of a new adjunct genetic operator GeneRepair. This operator was developed to correct invlaid tours which may be generated following crossover or mutation of our particular implementation of the genetic algorithm. Following implementation and testing of our genetic algotihm with GeneRepair we found

George G. Mitchell; Diarmuid O'Donoghue; David Barnes; Mark McCarville

2003-01-01

307

Delayed diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in a patient with severe penoscrotal hypospadias due to two novel P450 side-change cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) mutations (p.R360W; p.R405X)  

PubMed Central

Context Cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) catalyses the first and rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis, the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. CYP11A1 deficiency is commonly associated with adrenal insufficiency, and in 46,XY individuals, with variable degrees of disorder of sex development (DSD). Patient and methods The patient was born with hyperpigmentation, micropenis, penoscrotal hypospadias, and mild cryptorchidism. Biochemical and hormonal findings were normal except for low testosterone and low-borderline cortisol. However, no short synacthen test was undertaken. Development was unremarkable apart from an episode labeled as sepsis with documented hyperkalemia and elevated C-reactive protein at age 15 days. Diagnosis of 46,XY DSD was made at age 2.5 months. Progression of hyperpigmentation prompted further investigations and the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency was established at 2 years with raised ACTH, normal renin activity, and failure of cortisol to respond to short synacthen test. Genetic analyses were performed. The novel CYP11A1 mutations were characterized in vitro and in silico. Results The patient was compound heterozygous for two novel CYP11A1 mutations, p.R360W and p.R405X. p.R360W retained 30–40% of wild-type activity. In silico analyses confirmed these findings and indicated that p.R405X is severe. Conclusions This study demonstrates the pathogenicity of two novel CYP11A1 mutations found in a patient with delayed diagnosis of CYP11A1 deficiency. Patients with partial deficiencies of steroidogenic enzymes are at risk to be misdiagnosed if adrenal function is not assessed. The adrenocortical function should be routinely assessed in all patients with DSD including severe hypospadias of unknown origin to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises.

Parajes, Silvia; Chan, Angel OK; But, W M; Rose, Ian T; Taylor, Angela E; Dhir, Vivek; Arlt, Wiebke; Krone, Nils

2012-01-01

308

[Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures].  

PubMed

Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results. PMID:23515643

Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C

2013-04-01

309

Clinical Impact of Proximal Autosomal Imbalances  

PubMed Central

Centromere-near gain of copy number can be induced by intra- or inter-chromosomal rearrangements or by the presence of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). Interestingly, partial trisomy to hexasomy of euchromatic material may be present in clinically healthy or affected individuals, depending on origin and size of chromosomal material involved. Here we report the known minimal sizes of all centromere-near, i.e., proximal auto-somal regions in humans, which are tolerated; over 100 Mb of coding DNA are comprised in these regions. Additionally, we have summarized the typical symptoms for nine proximal autosomal regions including genes obviously sensitive to copy numbers. Overall, studying the carriers of specific chromosomal imbalances using genomics-based medicine, combined with single cell analysis can provide the genotype-phenotype correlations and can also give hints where copy-number-sensitive genes are located in the human genome.

Hamid, AB; Weise, A; Voigt, M; Bucksch, M; Kosyakova, N; Liehr, T; Klein, E

2012-01-01

310

Dual-Fiberoptic Microcantilever Proximity Sensor  

SciTech Connect

Microcantilevers are key components of many Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Micro-Optical-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) because slight changes to them physically or chemically lead to changes in mechanical characteristics. An inexpensive dual-fiberoptic microcantilever proximity sensor and model to predict its performance are reported here. Motion of a magnetic-material-coated cantilever is the basis of a system under development for measuring magnetic fields. The dual fiber proximity sensor will be used to monitor the motion of the cantilever. The specific goal is to sense induction fields produced by a current carrying conductor. The proximity sensor consists of two fibers side by side with claddings in contact. The fiber core diameter, 50 microns, and cladding thickness, 10 microns, are as small as routinely available commercially with the exception of single mode fiber. Light is launched into one fiber from a light-emitting diode (LED). It emerges from that fiber and reflects from the cantilever into the adjacent receiving fiber connected to a detector. The sensing end is cast molded with a diameter of 3-mm over the last 20-mm, yielding a low profile sensor. This reflective triangulation approach is probably the oldest and simplest fiber proximity sensing approach, yet the novelty here is in demonstrating high sensitivity at low expense from a triangular microstructure with amorphous magnetic coatings of iron, cobalt, permalloy, etc. The signal intensity versus distance curve yields an approximate gaussian shape. For a typical configuration, the signal grows from 10% to 90% of maximum in traversing from 6 to 50 microns from a coated cantilever. With signal levels exceeding a volt, nanometer resolution should be readily achievable for periodic signals.

Goedeke, S.M.

2001-08-08

311

Transport Magnetic Proximity Effects in Platinum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum (Pt) metal, being nonmagnetic and with a strong spin-orbit coupling interaction, has been central in detecting the pure spin current and establishing most of the recent spin-based phenomena. Magnetotransport measurements, both electrical and thermal, conclusively show strong ferromagnetic characteristics in thin Pt films on the ferromagnetic insulator due to the magnetic proximity effects. The pure spin current phenomena measured by Pt, including the inverse spin Hall and the spin Seebeck effects, are thus contaminated and not exclusively established.

Huang, S. Y.; Fan, X.; Qu, D.; Chen, Y. P.; Wang, W. G.; Wu, J.; Chen, T. Y.; Xiao, J. Q.; Chien, C. L.

2012-09-01

312

Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst  

PubMed Central

Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009.

Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

2009-01-01

313

Proximal Splitting Methods in Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The proximity operator of a convex function is a natural extension of the notion of a projection operator onto a convex set.\\u000a This tool, which plays a central role in the analysis and the numerical solution of convex optimization problems, has recently\\u000a been introduced in the arena of inverse problems and, especially, in signal processing, where it has become increasingly

Patrick L. Combettes; Jean-Christophe Pesquet

2009-01-01

314

Proximity algorithms for image models: denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel framework for the study of the total-variation model for image denoising. In the model, the denoised image is the proximity operator of the total-variation evaluated at a given noisy image. The total-variation can be viewed as the composition of a convex function (the l1 norm for the anisotropic total-variation or the l2 norm for the

Charles A. Micchelli; Lixin Shen; Yuesheng Xu

2011-01-01

315

Topological Proximity Effects in Graphene Nanoribbon Heterostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators (TI) are bulk insulators that possess robust chiral conducting states along their interfaces with normal insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to TI-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to many exotic physical phenomena. Here we establish the potential existence of ``topological proximity effect'' at the interface of a topological graphene nanoribbon (GNR) and a normal GNR. Specifically, we show that the location of the topological edge states exhibits versatile tunability as a function of the interface orientation, as well as the strengths of the interface coupling and spin-orbit coupling in the normal GNR. For zigzag and bearded GNRs, the topological edge state can be tuned to be either at the interface or outer edge of the normal ribbon. For armchair GNR, the potential location of the topological edge state can be further enriched to be at the edge of or within the normal ribbon, at the interface, or diving into the topological GNR. We also discuss potential experimental realization of the predicted topological proximity effects, which may pave the way for integrating the salient functionality of TI and graphene in future device applications.

Zhang, Gufeng; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Guangfen; Wang, Jie; Culcer, Dimitrie; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Zhang, Zhenyu

2013-03-01

316

Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability.  

PubMed

Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. PMID:21323280

Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E

2011-02-01

317

Proximal myopathy: diagnostic approach and initial management.  

PubMed

Proximal myopathy presents as symmetrical weakness of proximal upper and/or lower limbs. There is a broad range of underlying causes including drugs, alcohol, thyroid disease, osteomalacia, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), hereditary myopathies, malignancy, infections and sarcoidosis. Clinical assessment should aim to distinguish proximal myopathy from other conditions that can present similarly, identify patients who need prompt attention, like those with cardiac, respiratory or pharyngeal muscle involvement, and determine underlying cause of myopathy. Initial evaluation should include simple tests, like creatine kinase, thyroid function and (25)OH vitamin D levels, but further evaluation including neurophysiological studies, muscle imaging and muscle biopsy should be considered for patients in whom no toxic, metabolic or endocrine cause is found, and in those with clinical features suggestive of inflammatory or hereditary myopathy. Additionally, screening for malignancy and testing for anti-Jo1 antibody is indicated for selected patients with IIM. Management depends on underlying cause, and includes measures, such as removal of offending agent, correction of endocrine or metabolic problem, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy for IIM, and physical therapy, rehabilitation and genetic counselling for muscular dystrophies. PMID:23596213

Suresh, Ernest; Wimalaratna, Sunil

2013-08-01

318

Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications.

Li, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Gu-Feng; Wu, Guang-Fen; Chen, Hua; Dimitrie, Culcer; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

2013-09-01

319

40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005 Protection... National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule....

2010-07-01

320

40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 15 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105 Protection...CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The...

2009-07-01

321

40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105 Protection...CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The...

2010-07-01

322

Industrial motor repair in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

1994-09-01

323

Cost reduction during maintenance & repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-technology equipment test and repair is typically composed of numerous manual actions performed in a series of predetermined steps. This paper describes a recently deployed rework\\/production system that eliminates all of the superfluous 'process control and tracking' effort required during operational system test and maintenance, and allows support personnel to focus on their primary task of testing and repairing operational

H. Smith

2003-01-01

324

A Repairable Item Inventory Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model is defined to account for an inventory system which carries items that are subject to repair after use, wearout or failure and then reissued. Such a system is called a repairable item inventory system and, important as such systems are to military...

J. W. Hatchett P. F. McNall D. A. Schrady

1966-01-01

325

Pipe inspection and repair system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

2004-01-01

326

Laparoscopic repair for groin hernias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy was first described by Ger, Schultz, Corbitt, and Filipi in the early 1990s (1-4) and burst upon the surgical scene just after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It rapidly became popular, and many different techniques for repair were developed. Over the last decade much good work has been done to find which type of laparoscopic repair is best, to determine

Chad J. Davis; Maurice E. Arregui

327

Self-Repair Theory Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Self-Repair Theory Investigation is a study to develop a theory of self repair in digital nets via fault diagnosis and automatic circuit replacement. The technique used is that of the Sequential Prime Implicant Form. This report shows how the factorin...

E. W. Veitch

1967-01-01

328

Self-Repair Theory Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fourth report from a study to develop a theory of self-repair in digital networks via fault diagnosis and automatic circuit replacement. This report goes into further detail concerning one particular self-repair algorithm that has resulted fro...

E. W. Veitch

1968-01-01

329

Hybrid repair of aortic arch pathology.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate a 13-year single-centre experience of arch endovascular aortic repair using the hybrid approach. Between 1999 and 2013, 491 patients were treated with endografts for thoracic aortic pathologies. The aortic arch was involved in 179 (36.5%) patients (128 men; mean age 70.2?±?10.8 years, range 27-84). A hybrid approach was performed for all Zone 0 and 1 procedures and in nearly half of Zone 2 procedures. Early and mid-term outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Overall primary technical success (24?h) was achieved in 162 (90.5%) of the 179 cases; 2 deaths and 15 Type 1 endoleaks were observed. Clinical success at 30 days was achieved in 161 (89.9%) of the 179 patients, with a mortality rate of 4.5% (8/179). Short-term clinical success at 6 months was achieved in 169 (94.4%) of the 179 patients; the rates for the different landing zones did not differ significantly. At a mean follow-up of 27.3?±?15.7 months (range 1-94), the mid-term clinical success was 165 (92.2%) of the 179 patients; the rates among the different proximal zones did not differ significantly. In selected patients, early and mid-term outcomes of arch endovascular aortic repair using the hybrid approach are promising; however, mortality and morbidity are not negligible. Our results may have practical implications for the ongoing evaluation of the hybrid procedure in the aortic arch, as well as for patients fit for traditional surgery. PMID:24876520

Chiesa, Roberto; Bertoglio, Luca; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tshomba, Yamume

2014-01-01

330

Extensor Tendon Injuries and Repairs in the Hand  

PubMed Central

Due to their superficial course, the extensor tendons are frequently lacerated over the dorsum of the hand and fingers. Excellent functional results are obtained in repairs of simple tendon lacerations. ‘Open’ mallet lacerations over the distal IP joint or involving the central extensor slip over the proximal IP joint require more precise suturing methods. More proximal extensor tendon divisions near the wrist involve dissection of the retracted finger extensors or long thumb extensor in the distal forearm and more formal tendon repairs, including a possible tendon transfer to the thumb. ‘Closed injuries’, with varying degrees of extensor tendon disruption, occur at three main sites. The mallet injury at the DIP joint and the boutonnière deformity over the PIP joint are sometimes recognized late, but respond to conservative splinting for a minimum of four weeks with guarded motion avoiding secondary stiffening of the remaining small joints of the hand. Surgery of closed injuries most frequently involves the intra-articular traction fracture type of mallet deformities in which the DIP joint has taken the brunt of the injury.

Kontor, J. A.

1982-01-01

331

Autosite.com Repairs - Maintenance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A subsection of Autosite.com, a for-profit (from ads, the content is free) information source for auto buyers, the maintenance and repair area offers free and detailed information on auto care and repair that is accessible but not simplistic. In the maintenance section, users will find a preventative maintenance checklist, illustrated guides to fluids and exterior systems, a discussion on tires, and FAQs. The Repair section features troubleshooting tips, an illustrated repair guide, a fairly deep Auto Repair Encyclopedia, and several related links. Whether you are a die-hard do-it-yourselfer or just prefer to be forearmed before taking your car to the mechanics, this site can help.

332

Acoustic proximity ranging in the presence of secondary echoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximity ranging is very important in many applications. Ultrasonic sensors have proven to be very cost effective tools for this purpose. Most of the currently available time-of-flight based acoustic proximity ranging systems use the conventional matched filter based time delay estimation approaches to measure short distances between proximity objects. However, in the presence of strong and closely spaced secondary echoes,

Xi Li; Renbiao Wu; Srihari Rasmi; Jian Li; Mark Sheplak

2003-01-01

333

Incidence of Proximal Adjacent Failure in Adult Lumbar Deformity Correction Based on Proximal Fusion Level  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To review the results and proximal adjacent problems of long fusion (more than 4 levels) according to the level of proximal fusion (L2~T9) in adult lumbar deformity using pedicle screw fixation. Overview of Literature There are few written reports concerning proximal adjacent segmental failure according to the level of proximal fusion in adult lumbar deformity. Methods The radiographs and clinical records of thirty-five patients (30 females, 5 males) of adult lumbar deformity with more than 2-year follow-up after surgery were analyzed. The average age was 62 years (range, 38~75). All patients were divided into three groups according to the level of proximal fusion: Group 1 (n=14) fusion up to L1 or L2; Group 2 (n=14) fusion up to T11 or T12; and Group 3 (n=7) fusion up to T9 or T10. Results The preoperative coronal curve of 28±14° was corrected to 9±7° immediately after surgery and 11±7° at the final follow-up. The preoperative local kyphosis of 24±12° was corrected to -1±10° immediately after surgery and 1±11° at the final follow-up. The lumbar lordosis was 14±18° before surgery; 27±11° after surgery; and 16±12° at the final follow- up. The parameters of coronal and sagittal balance were improved in all patients after surgery, except one patient in group 2 who showed coronal imbalance due to over-correction. Sagittal imbalance at the most recent follow-up was detected in 10 patients with significant difference between the groups; 5 (36%) in Group 1, 5 (36%) in Group 2, and none in Group 3. Proximal adjacent segmental problems that are consisted with proximal disc degeneration with kyphosis, compression fractures above the fusion and screw failure proximal to the end of the fusion were observed in 15 patients with significant difference between the groups; 7 (50%) in Group 1, 7 (50%) in Group 2, and 1 (14%) in Group 3. There was 1 superficial infection and 2 transient neurologies. Conclusions Fusion up to throacolumbar junction (L2~T11) in surgical treatment of adult lumbar deformity had more proximal adjacent problems with poorer results. Fusion higher than T10 is recommended for adult lumbar deformity.

Kim, Sung-Soo; Suk, Se-Il

2007-01-01

334

Revision of the Deficient Proximal Femur With a Proximal Femoral Allograft  

PubMed Central

Substantial bone loss is frequently encountered with revision hip arthroplasty. A proximal femoral allograft may be used to reconstitute bone stock in the multiply revised femur with segmental bone loss of greater than 5 cm. We retrospectively reviewed 92 patients (93 hips) who underwent such proximal femoral allografts. The average age at the surgery was 61 years. The average number of previous revision procedures was 2.5. Six patients were lost to followup. Thirty-four of 36 deceased patients had the original proximal femoral allograft at the time of death. The minimum followup for the 50 remaining patients was 15 years (average, 16.2 years; range, 15–22 years). Analysis included survivorship and radiographic assessment. Of the 50 patients reviewed, two had a failed reconstruction due to infection, six for aseptic loosening, three for nonunion, and four for dislocation. Revision of the proximal femoral allograft for all reasons excluding the acetabulum was performed in seven patients. At last followup, 42 patients (84%) had a well-functioning construct. Proximal femoral allograft for revision hip arthroplasty in femoral segmental bone loss is a durable alternative in most patients for a complex problem. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Safir, Oleg; Kellett, Catherine F.; Flint, Michael; Backstein, David

2008-01-01

335

TPS Inspection and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

336

Closed chamber iridodialysis repair using a needle with a distal hole.  

PubMed

We describe a closed-system technique of iridodialysis repair using a 22.0 mm, plastic handled, 27 gauge straight needle with a hole 1.0 mm proximal to the tip. The distal hole is suitable for passage of 9-0 or 10-0 mm polypropylene or nylon sutures. The technique was effective in 8 patients with traumatic iridodialysis in the upper and inferior temporal quadrants. PMID:10683783

Bardak, Y; Ozerturk, Y; Durmus, M; Mensiz, E; Aytuluner, E

2000-02-01

337

Reverse dorsolateral proximal phalangeal island flap: a new versatile technique for coverage of finger defects.  

PubMed

All flaps described for the reconstruction of finger defects have limited indications and many disadvantages. In this study, I successfully developed a reverse digital artery flap raised from the overall side and dorsal aspects of the proximal phalanx, excluding the digital nerve, for closure of fingertip and middle phalangeal defects, and called this the 'reverse dorsolateral proximal phalangeal island flap'. The donor site defect was covered by another flap called the 'dorsal metacarpal V-Y island flap'. The method was used for 12 complicated phalangeal defects in 11 patients. Flap sizes ranged from 2 x 1.5 cm to 3 x 2.5cm. The flap was applied with versatile designs including distal interphalangeal (DIP) (9) or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) anastomoses-based flaps (3); homodigital (10) or heterodigital flaps (2) from the injuries or adjacent finger, respectively; multiple flaps from the two distinct fingers in the same hand (1); and a sensate flap (1). The average follow-up time was 11.5 months. All reverse flaps and V-Y donor site flaps survived completely. Finger lengths and motions were satisfactory with favourable aesthetic results in all cases. The mean value of static two-point discrimination was 9.3mm. I strongly advocate this new flap, as a single versatile flap, for repair of different-sized or complex phalangeal defects. By means of this 'dual-flap manoeuvre', any defect distal to the PIP joint in various dimensions can safely be covered without using a skin graft in the donor area. I also suggest the dorsal metacarpal V-Y island flap alone for dorsal phalangeal defects proximal to this point. PMID:18614410

Tan, Onder

2010-01-01

338

Proximal tibiofibular joint: anatomic-pathologic-radiographic correlation.  

PubMed

An anatomic-pathologic-radiographic study of the proximal tibiofibular joint was undertaken. This synovial articulation between the proximal tibia and fibula may communicate with the knee joint in 10% of adults. Radiography of the normal proximal tibiofibular articulation outlines a consistent relationship between the proximal portions of the tibia and fibula. Disruption of this normal relationship is indicative of anterolateral or posteromedial subluxation or dislocation. Articular disorders of this joint include reheumatoid arthritis and septic arthritis. In the latter, initial alterations of the knee joint may subsequently extend to involve the proximal tibiofibular joint, illustrating the potential communication between these two articulations. PMID:97965

Resnick, D; Newell, J D; Guerra, J; Danzig, L A; Niwayama, G; Goergen, T G

1978-07-01

339

Arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair.  

PubMed

The arthroscopic approach for rotator cuff repair is extensively used worldwide. Different repairing procedures have evolved with the aim of restoring anatomy and function of rotator cuff tendon. Several studies have analyzed biomechanical factors to understand their influence on tendon to bone healing and improve repair configurations. From a biomechanical point of view, single-row anchor techniques are not able to restore all of the original footprint of the rotator cuff, and result in circumferential tension around the tendon. Transosseus simple suture repairs may have greater potential for healing at the tendon-bone interface, because they allow a larger insertion site area and better pressure characteristics. Biomechanically, double-row suture anchor repair increases the area of contact and the initial fixation strength, decreases the load for each suture loop, knot and anchor, and decreases the stress at each suture-cuff contact point. To optimize healing, transosseous-equivalent techniques have been developed. The oblique suture bridges allow greater pressurized contact, low profile, and interconnection between fixation points that permits to shear load. Clinical studies showed equivalent clinical results of single- and double-row suture anchor repair. However, to date, there are no randomized controlled trials on transosseous or transosseous-equivalent techniques for rotator cuff repair. Clearly, studies of higher levels of evidence, including large randomized trials, should be conducted. Future trials should use validated functional and clinical outcomes, adequate methodology, and be sufficiently powered. PMID:21986052

Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Franceschi, Francesco; Berton, Alessandra; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

340

Scintillation proximity assay using polymeric membranes  

SciTech Connect

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is typically used to quantify electron emitting isotopes. In LSC, radioactive samples are dissolved in an organic fluor solution (scintillation cocktail) to ensure that the label is close enough to the fluor molecules to be detected. Although efficient, scintillation cocktail is neither specific or selective for samples labeled with the same radioisotope. Scintillation cocktail is flammable posing significant health risks to the user and is expensive to purchase and discard. Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) is a radioanalytical technique where only those radiochemical entities (RCE's) bound to fluor containing matrices are detected. Only bound RCE's are in close enough proximity the entrapped fluor molecules to induce scintillations. Unbound radioligands are too far removed from the fluor molecules to be detected. The research in this dissertation focused on the development and evaluation of fluor-containing membranes (scintillation proximity membranes, SP membranes) to be used for specific radioanalytical techniques without using scintillation cocktail. Polysulfone and PVC SP membranes prepared in our laboratory were investigated for radioimmunossay (RIA) where only bound radioligand is detected, thereby eliminating the separation step impeding the automation of RIA. These SP membranes performed RIA where the results were nearly identical to commercial SP microbeads. SP membranes functionalized with quaternary ammonium hydroxide moieties were able to trap and quantify [sup 14]CO[sub 2] without using liquid scintillation cocktail. RCE's bound in the pore structure of SP membranes are intimate with the entrapped fluor providing the geometry needed for high detection efficiencies. Absorbent SP membranes were used in radiation surveys and were shown to be as effective as conventional survey techniques using filter paper and scintillation cocktail.

Mansfield, R.K.

1992-01-01

341

Scanner-dependent optical proximity effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging of IC critical designs is impacted by optical proximity effects, OPEs, originating from finite numerical aperture of projection lenses used in modern projectors. The OPE's are caused by filtering of pattern diffraction orders falling outside of the lens band pass. Controlling OPEs is so critical to IC performance, that IC design community implemented optical proximity correction, OPC, modifying the IC mask patterns to provide wafer images matching the IC design intent. The mainstream OPC uses optical models representing fundamental imaging setup and it does not capture the impacts of engineering scanner tool constraints. The OPEs are impacted by scanner lens and illuminator signatures causing CD excursions large in comparison to the CD error budgets(1). The magnitude of the scanner impacts on OPEs necessitated new optical modeling paradigm involving imaging models imbedding scanner signatures representing population of scanners of a given type. These scanner-type based models represent quantum leap in accuracy of lithography simulation technology, resulting in OPE and OPC representing a broad range of realistic scanner characteristics(2). In this context, a relevant question is: to what degree, the signatures of individual scanners impact the accuracy of imaging models and OPE predictions? To answer this question, we analyzed optical proximity responses of hyper-NA scanners represented by their signatures. We first studied a set of OPEs impacted by the scanner-type signatures. We then generated a set of corresponding OPEs impacted by the signatures of individual scanners. We compared the two kinds of OPEs and highlighted the scanner-specific image formation responses.

Tyminski, Jacek K.; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Inoue, Ryuichi

2009-03-01

342

Novel approach to a type I endoleak following a hybrid repair of an arch aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Hybrid surgical and endovascular approaches such as open visceral vessel debranching and subsequent endovascular exclusion of thoracic abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) represents a significant development in treatment of TAAAs. As compared to traditional endovascular aneurysm repair, hybrid repairs commonly have a higher rate of endoleak and other endograft-related complications. In this report, we present a 71 year-old man with significant comorbidities including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and prostate cancer. The patient after undergoing debranching of the thoracic arch followed by endograft repair of an arch aneurysm developed a proximal type I and type II endoleak fed by the previously ligated left subclavian artery. Despite coiling of the left subclavian artery and proximal extension of the endograft, a type I endoleak persisted. Several months after the left subclavian artery was coiled, a catheter was advanced through the coils and beyond the site of ligation directly into the aneurysmal sac. Once in the aneurysmal sac, multiple coils were deployed resulting in successful treatment of the type I endoleak. This report highlights the unique challenges in treating proximal descending thoracic aneurysms and represents the first report of the treatment of a type I endoleak with reaccess through a previously coiled vessel for deployment of embolics directly into the aneurysmal sac. PMID:19628521

Barnett, Brad P; Qazi, Umair; Perler, Bruce A; Malas, Mahmoud B

2009-01-01

343

The cytoplasmic protein Pacsin 2 in kidney development and injury repair  

PubMed Central

The protein kinase C and casein kinase 2 substrate in neurons (Pacsin) is a subfamily of membrane-binding proteins that participates in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton organization. Here, we studied Pacsin 2 in kidney development and repair following injury. In the postnatal developing kidneys, Pacsin 2 was found to be expressed in both ureteric bud- and mesenchyme-derived structures including proximal and distal tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the glomerular tuft. In the adult kidney, its expression was decreased in proximal tubules but increased in glomerular tuft when compared to that in the developing kidneys. Interestingly, Pacsin 2 expression was significantly upregulated during the repair phase after ischemia–reperfusion injury, especially on the apical brush border of proximal tubules that experienced massive damage. Pacsin 2 localized to the primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Pacsin 2 by shRNA did not affect the cell cycle or cell polarity; however, it increased the length of primary cilia, and resulted in significant tubulogenic defects in three-dimensional cell culture. Thus, we propose that Pacsin 2 contributes to kidney development and repair in a nephron-specific manner.

Yao, Gang; Luyten, Annouck; Takakura, Ayumi; Plomann, Markus; Zhou, Jing

2014-01-01

344

Regulation of phosphate transport in proximal tubules.  

PubMed

Homeostasis of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) is primarily an affair of the kidneys. Reabsorption of the bulk of filtered P(i) occurs along the renal proximal tubule and is initiated by apically localized Na(+)-dependent P(i) cotransporters. Tubular P(i) reabsorption and therefore renal excretion of P(i) is controlled by a number of hormones, including phosphatonins, and metabolic factors. In most cases, regulation of P(i) reabsorption is achieved by changing the apical abundance of Na(+)/Pi cotransporters. The regulatory mechanisms involve various signaling pathways and a number of proteins that interact with Na(+)/P(i) cotransporters. PMID:18758808

Biber, J; Hernando, N; Forster, I; Murer, H

2009-05-01

345

Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family.

Doger, Emek; Kopuk, Sule Y.; Cak?roglu, Yigit; Cak?r, Ozgur; Yucesoy, Gulseren

2013-01-01

346

Isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint.  

PubMed

We have reported the case of an anterolateral dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint in a soccer player, apparently the second case in the literature. As in that reported by O'Rourke and McManus, this patient was attempting to gain his balance and this may indeed be an important contributing factor. Ogden's classification is now well accepted and has been reviewed along with a discussion of the mechanisms of injury. The diagnosis can generally be made by clinical examination and confirmed by roentgenographs. Treatment usually consists of closed reduction with 3 weeks of casting. In complicated cases, however, resection of the fibular head may be required. PMID:3944842

Thomason, P A; Linson, M A

1986-02-01

347

Recreation activity monitoring system using proximity sensors.  

PubMed

This paper describes a recreational-activity monitoring system that records the existence of tools (removed or not from a predefined place) that are used in the recreation activities. The system is composed of three types (infrared, ultrasonic, and RFID) of proximity sensors to adapt to various sizes of the target object. The timings of when the target object was removed and returned are monitored. Simple experiments showed that the detectable range of the system was approximately 60 approximately 100 mm, and concluded that the infrared and ultrasonic sensors were useful for relatively large objects, and the RFID technology was suitable for small objects. PMID:19964355

Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Tsumagari, Yuko; Hoshino, Hiroshi; Tamura, Toshiyo

2009-01-01

348

Proximity projection grating structured light illumination microscopy.  

PubMed

Structured illumination has been employed in fluorescence microscopy to extend its lateral resolution. It has been demonstrated that a factor of 2 improvement can be achieved. In this paper, we introduce a novel optical arrangement that can further improve the resolution. It makes use of a fine grating held in close proximity to the sample. The fringe pattern thus projected onto the sample contains grating vectors substantially higher than those that are possible with the conventional structured illumination setup. We will present experimental results to demonstrate the principle of the technique, and will show that, theoretically, it can achieve an imaging NA approaching 4. PMID:21124532

See, Chung W; Chuang, Chin-Jung; Liu, Shugang; Somekh, Michael G

2010-12-01

349

Fiber optical ranging sensor for proximity fuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber optical ranging sensor used in laser proximity fuze is described in this paper. In the fuze, pulse laser diode (LD) is used as light source and trigger signal is generated by comparing the reflected light pulses with the reference pulses by a correlator after they were converted into electric signals by PIN photodiodes. Multi-mode fibers and integrated optical devices are used in the system so that the structure can be more compact. Optical fiber delay line is used to offer precise delay time for reference channel.

Du, Fang; Chi, Zeying; You, Mingjun; Chen, Wenjian

1996-09-01

350

Proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) for treatment of osteoporotic proximal femoral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Unstable trochanteric fractures have been an enigma for the orthopedic surgeon in the community because of unpredictable results.\\u000a Cephalic intramedullary nails with proximal antirotation device are the treatment of choice for such patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  To report outcomes of 36 consecutive patients treated with a proximal femoral nail (PFNA) for osteoporotic trochanteric femoral\\u000a fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The patients included 20 men and 16 women,

A. Raviraj; Ashish Anand; Murali Chakravarthy; Sanjay Pai

351

Cephalomedullary nailing for proximal femoral fractures.  

PubMed

From May 1999 to April 2002, we treated 14 patients with subtrochanteric femoral fractures and seven patients with ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft using a second-generation cephalomedullary interlocked nail. Patients mean age was 36 (20-60) years, and 19 fractures were caused by high-energy trauma. Four patients had associated injuries. The average follow-up was 23 (16-30) months. Per-operatively, we had problems in locating the entry portal in four patients, and one nail was driven through the inter-condylar notch. All fractures except two united. One patient had non-union of the femoral neck and one of both neck and shaft. One patient united with shortening of more than 1.5 cm and varus angulation at the fracture site. Two patients had loosening and backing out of the proximal screw. The second-generation cephalomedullary nail is a suitable treatment option for proximal femoral fractures, but it requires a high degree of accuracy and technical expertise. PMID:15647914

Kakkar, Rahul; Kumar, S; Singh, A K

2005-02-01

352

Artificial Topological Superconductor by the Proximity Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological superconductors (TSCs), featuring fully gapped bulk and gapless surface states as well as Majorana fermions, have potential applications in fault-tolerant topological quantum computing. Because TSCs are very rare in nature, an alternative way to study the TSC is to artificially introduce superconductivity into the surface states of a topological insulator through the proximity effect [X. L. Qi, T. L. Hughse, S. Raghu, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 187001 (2009); L. Fu and C. L. Kane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096407 (2008); J. Alicea, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 076501 (2012); C. W. J. Beenakker, Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 4, 113 (2013)]. Here we report the experimental realization of the proximity effect-induced TSC in Bi2Te3 thin films grown on a NbSe2 substrate, as demonstrated by the density of states probed using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed Abrikosov vortices and Andreev lower energy bound states on the surface of the topological insulator, with the superconducting coherence length depending on the film thickness and the magnetic field. These results also indicate that the topological surface states of Bi2Te3 thin films are superconducting and, thus, that the Bi2Te3/NbSe2 is an artificial TSC. The feasibility of fabricating a TSC with an individual Majorana fermion bound to a superconducting vortex for topological quantum computing is discussed.

Xu, Jin-Peng; Liu, Canhua; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Ge, Jianfeng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Yang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhu-An; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Jia, Jin-Feng

2014-05-01

353

Actions of isoproterenol in frog proximal tubules.  

PubMed

In the present work, we compared biochemical and electrophysiological actions of isoproterenol on frog proximal tubular cells by using tubule suspensions and giant entities obtained by cell fusion. Isoproterenol (ISO) dose-dependently stimulated cAMP production in tubule suspension and depolarized the "giant cell" membrane. Both effects were triggered by beta receptor occupancy, but strongly differed in their concentration-dependency, since depolarization occurred with an ISO concentration as low as 10(-12) mol/l whereas cAMP accumulation could be seen only with more than 10(-8) mol/l ISO. ISO-induced membrane depolarization was mimicked by forskolin which directly stimulated the catalytic subunit of adenylyl cyclase. In both isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated giant cells, membrane depolarization was accompanied by a decrease in membrane conductance, and both effects were inhibited by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). On the other hand, ISO- and forskolin-induced cAMP production were not affected by TEA. The present data thus show that isoproterenol produces two independent effects in frog proximal tubule: it depolarizes the cell membrane by blocking a K+ conductance and activates adenylyl cyclase. PMID:7794685

Belachgar, F; Discala-Blondeau, F; Tondelier, D; Baudouin-Legros, M; Anagnostopoulos, T

1995-02-01

354

Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.  

PubMed

The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills. PMID:15055915

Boyle, E; Johnson, H; Kelly, A; McDonnell, R

2004-01-01

355

Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk?=?0.34; 95% confidence interval?=?0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

2012-01-01

356

Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity. PMID:7418303

Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R

1980-09-01

357

Hfq proximity and orientation controls RNA annealing  

PubMed Central

Regulation of bacterial gene networks by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) requires base pairing with messenger RNA (mRNA) targets, which is facilitated by Hfq protein. Hfq is recruited to sRNAs and mRNAs through U-rich- and A-rich-binding sites, respectively, but their distance from the sRNA–mRNA complementary region varies widely among different genes. To determine whether distance and binding orientation affect Hfq’s chaperone function, we engineered ‘toy’ RNAs containing strong Hfq-binding sites at defined distances from the complementary target site. We show that RNA annealing is fastest when the distal face of Hfq binds an A-rich sequence immediately 3? of the target. This recruitment advantage is lost when Hfq binds >20?nt away from the target, but is partially restored by secondary structure that shortens this distance. Although recruitment through Hfq’s distal face accelerates RNA annealing, tight binding of six Us to Hfq’s proximal face inhibits annealing. Finally, we show that ectopic A-rich motifs dramatically accelerate base pairing between DsrA sRNA and a minimal rpoS mRNA in the presence of Hfq, demonstrating that proximity and orientation predict the activity of Hfq on long RNAs.

Panja, Subrata; Woodson, Sarah A.

2012-01-01

358

Proximal intentional neglect: a case study.  

PubMed Central

Although neglect has been demonstrated in the horizontal, vertical, and radial planes of space and has been attributed to sensory-attentional, motor-intentional, and representational deficits, motor intentional neglect in the radial plane has not been previously described. A patient who had a right parietal infarct was tested with a modified cancellation task that uses a fixed window, thereby controlling attentional demands and allowing one to dissociate between intentional and representational neglect. This patient showed proximal (radial) intentional neglect (a failure to move towards or in proximal space). Unlike controls whose search times decreased with increasing window size, our patient showed no change in search time as a function of window size. This pattern of behaviour suggests that the patient's search strategy does not incorporate factors such as the relation between a fixed target space and a variably sized aperture, but rather was based on the allocation of a certain amount of resources for a fixed period of time after which, regardless of performance, the patient would stop searching.

Gold, M; Shuren, J; Heilman, K M

1994-01-01

359

Bonded composite repair of composite structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repair and maintenance cost drives a large percentage of the lifetime cost of aircraft structures. Understanding repair issues can lead to a structure that significantly lowers the lifetime cost. Advanced composite materials, while offering the potential to increase aircraft capabilities with minimum weight, are more susceptible to repairable damage than conventional aircraft materials. Improved inspection and repair methods are required

Mary A. Mahler

1999-01-01

360

The Use of Double-Loaded Suture Anchors for Labral Repair and Capsular Repair During Hip Arthroscopy  

PubMed Central

With the development of hip joint preservation procedures, the use of hip arthroscopy has grown dramatically over the past decade. However, recent articles have reported cases of hip instability after hip arthroscopy. Little is known about the role of static and dynamic stabilizers on hip joint stability, but there are concerns that an extensile capsulotomy or capsulectomy, osteoplasty of the acetabulum and proximal femur, and labral detachment or debridement during hip arthroscopy could potentially compromise hip stability. The safety parameters for arthroscopic hip surgery have not yet been fully established, and techniques are being developed for labral refixation and capsular repair after arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement in an attempt to decrease the chance of iatrogenic hip instability or microinstability. The surgical technique presented in this article may provide anatomic repair of both the labrum and capsule using a double-loaded suture anchor technique. We believe that this technique increases both operative efficiency and the strength of the overall repair, which may minimize the risk of iatrogenic hip instability after hip arthroscopy.

Slikker, William; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S.; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Nho, Shane J.

2012-01-01

361

Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.

2009-09-01

362

Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair  

SciTech Connect

Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

Ayad, K. E.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F. [Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University (Egypt); El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Bekheet, A. B. [Al Sahel Teaching Hospital, Cairo (Egypt)

2009-09-27

363

Two-stage hybrid repair of a complex symptomatic celiac aneurysm.  

PubMed

We report the case of a novel 2-stage hybrid repair of a complex celiac artery aneurysm. The patient was a 42-year-old man with a proximal celiac artery aneurysm giving rise to distinct right and left hepatic arterial branches. Repair was performed using a staged approach. First, a bifurcated aortohepatic bypass was constructed to the common and left hepatic arteries. After recovering from surgery, he underwent percutaneous embolization of the aneurysm. Completion angiograms demonstrated flow into all celiac branches with successful thrombosis of the aneurysm. At 12-month follow-up, the patient had remained symptom-free with patent bypass grafts and complete aneurysm exclusion. We describe the treatment option we used, which involves repair of a complex celiac aneurysm using a 2-stage, open, endovascular approach. PMID:23871199

Ravin, Reid; Meltzer, Andrew J; Kim, In-Kyong; Shaikh, Fauzia; Dayal, Rajeev; Nowygrod, Roman

2013-10-01

364

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

365

Textile Repair Shop, Trailer Mounted.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides test methods and techniques necessary to determine the technical performance and safety characteristics of trailer mounted textile repair shops, and their associated tools and equipment. (Author)

1968-01-01

366

77 FR 30053 - Repair Stations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...specific elements. Training in human factors, federal regulations, and repair...assigned task, (2) trained in human factors relevant to aviation maintenance...assigned task; (2) Trained in human factors relevant to aviation...

2012-05-21

367

Synovial cyst formation resulting from nonabsorbable meniscal repair devices for meniscal repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several arthroscopic meniscal repair techniques and devices have been developed during the past decade. The Mitek Meniscal Repair System (Mitek, Ethicon, Norderstedt, Germany) is one of these devices. We report a case of synovial cyst formation after medial meniscus repair with a nonabsorbable Mitek Meniscal Repair System. The cyst in the right knee developed 5 months after the meniscus repair.

Atsuo Nakamae; Masataka Deie; Masanori Yasumoto; Kenji Kobayashi; Mitsuo Ochi

2004-01-01

368

Early Days of DNA Repair: Discovery of Nucleotide Excision Repair and Homology-Dependent Recombinational Repair  

PubMed Central

The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

Rupp, W. Dean

2013-01-01

369

Rectocele repair: When and how?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelvic organ prolapse repair poses a unique challenge to the reconstructive pelvic surgeon. Traditional levator plication\\u000a has been promoted for the past century and has recently been shown to create unsatisfactory functional results, among them\\u000a dyspareunia. In an attempt to improve both functional and quality-of-life outcomes, new methods for posterior vaginal wall\\u000a defect repair have been developed and are now

Emily S. Lukacz; Karl M. Luber

2002-01-01

370

Protecting a Patellar Ligament Reconstruction after Proximal Tibial Resection: A Simplified Approach  

PubMed Central

Limb salvage in tumor surgery has encouraged the development of megaprostheses. However, reattaching the ligamentum patellae poses a particular problem: avulsion and/or extensor lag may lead to poor function. We describe a new technique of patellar ligament reconstruction. The technique involves reattachment of the patellar ligament to the tibial tuberosity of the proximal tibial megaprosthesis, which has a porous surface created, and the repair is protected with a cerclage wire through the patella and the prosthesis. In 10 consecutive patients, the range of motion averaged 95° (median, 90°; range, 70°–120°), and the mean extension lag averaged 4° (median, 0°; range, 0°–20°). We had one case of patellar ligament avulsion. This technique resulted in good quadriceps function and a low incidence of complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Titus, Vijay

2008-01-01

371

Protein structure alignment beyond spatial proximity  

PubMed Central

Protein structure alignment is a fundamental problem in computational structure biology. Many programs have been developed for automatic protein structure alignment, but most of them align two protein structures purely based upon geometric similarity without considering evolutionary and functional relationship. As such, these programs may generate structure alignments which are not very biologically meaningful from the evolutionary perspective. This paper presents a novel method DeepAlign for automatic pairwise protein structure alignment. DeepAlign aligns two protein structures using not only spatial proximity of equivalent residues (after rigid-body superposition), but also evolutionary relationship and hydrogen-bonding similarity. Experimental results show that DeepAlign can generate structure alignments much more consistent with manually-curated alignments than other automatic tools especially when proteins under consideration are remote homologs. These results imply that in addition to geometric similarity, evolutionary information and hydrogen-bonding similarity are essential to aligning two protein structures.

Wang, Sheng; Ma, Jianzhu; Peng, Jian; Xu, Jinbo

2013-01-01

372

Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are includes by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

373

Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are included by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

374

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called "proximity force approximation" the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes.

Fosco, César D.; Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

2012-08-01

375

Proximal humeral fracture treatment in adults.  

PubMed

Most proximal humeral fractures affect elderly patients and can be treated nonoperatively with good functional outcomes.The treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures remains controversial and depends on a variety of underlying factors related to the patient (e.g., comorbidity, functional demand), the fracture (e.g., osteoporosis), and the surgeon (e.g., experience).Throughout the literature, open reduction and locking plate osteosynthesis is associated with considerable complication rates, particularly in the presence of osteoporosis.Low local bone mineral density, humeral head ischemia, residual varus displacement, insufficient restoration of the medial column, and nonanatomic reduction promote failure of fixation and impair functional outcome.The outcome of hemiarthroplasty is closely related to tuberosity healing in an anatomic position to enable the restoration of rotator cuff function. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty may provide satisfactory shoulder function in geriatric patients with preexisting rotator cuff dysfunction or after the failure of first-line treatment. PMID:24500588

Maier, Dirk; Jaeger, Martin; Izadpanah, Kaywan; Strohm, Peter C; Suedkamp, Norbert P

2014-02-01

376

[Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].  

PubMed

Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

Rohrbach, J M

2012-10-01

377

Proximity to mining industry and cancer mortality.  

PubMed

Mining installations are releasing toxic substances into the environment which could pose a health problem to populations in their vicinity. We sought to investigate whether there might be excess cancer-related mortality in populations residing in towns lying in the vicinity of Spanish mining industries governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive, and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation, according to the type of extraction method used. An ecologic study was designed to examine municipal mortality due to 32 types of cancer, across the period 1997 through 2006. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Poisson regression models, using the Bayesian conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè and Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations for Bayesian inference, were used: to analyze risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around mining installations; effect of type of industrial activity; and to conduct individual analyses within a 50-kilometer radius of each installation. Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) of colorectal cancer (1.097, 1.041-1.157), lung cancer (1.066, 1.009-1.126) specifically related with proximity to opencast coal mining, bladder cancer (1.106, 1.016-1.203) and leukemia (1.093, 1.003-1.191) related with other opencast mining installations, was detected among the overall population in the vicinity of mining installations. Other tumors also associated in the stratified analysis by type of mine, were: thyroid, gallbladder and liver cancers (underground coal installations); brain cancer (opencast coal mining); stomach cancer (coal and other opencast mining installations); and myeloma (underground mining installations). The results suggested an association between risk of dying due to digestive, respiratory, hematologic and thyroid cancers and proximity to Spanish mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type of mine. PMID:22846765

Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; García-Pérez, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Boldo, Elena; López-Abente, Gonzalo

2012-10-01

378

Metabolic heterogeneity of the proximal and distal kidney tubules.  

PubMed

Proximal and distal tubule suspensions were prepared from kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats by an isolation procedure on a Percoll gradient. The marker enzymes alkaline phosphatase (brush border) and hexokinase (cytoplasmic) as well as p-aminohippurate transport capacity, gluconeogenic activity and electron microscopy were used to characterize the two kidney tubule suspensions. The results of this study indicate that cytochrome P-450 is localized to the proximal tubular cells and that the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin was higher in the proximal than distal fraction. Both proximal and distal tubules showed glucuronidation and deacetylation capacities and a relatively equal distribution of non-protein sulfhydryls. These studies demonstrate metabolic heterogeneity of the nephron, the proximal tubule being the main site of renal xenobiotic metabolism. Understanding of metabolic heterogeneity of proximal and distal kidney tubules should provide important information regarding cell specific mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. PMID:6604212

Cojocel, C; Maita, K; Pasino, D A; Kuo, C H; Hook, J B

1983-08-29

379

Best proximity point theorems generalizing the contraction principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this article is to elicit some interesting extensions of the simple but powerful Banach’s contraction principle to the case of non-self-mappings. In fact, due to the fact that best proximity point theorems fit the bill to this end, the proposed extensions are presented as best proximity point theorems for non-self proximal contractions which are more general

S. Sadiq Basha

2011-01-01

380

Optical proximity stability control of ArF immersion clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once a process is set-up in an integrated circuit (IC) manufacturer's fabrication environment, any drift in the proximity fingerprint of the cluster will negatively impact the yield. In complement to the dose, focus and overlay control of the cluster, it is therefore also of ever growing importance to monitor and maintain the proximity stability (or CD through pitch behavior) of each cluster. In this paper, we report on an experimental proximity stability study of an ASML XT:1900i cluster for a 32 nm poly process from four different angles. First, we demonstrate the proximity stability over time by weekly wafer exposure and CD through pitch measurements. Second, we investigate proximity stability from tool-to-tool. In a third approach, the stability over the exposure field (intra-field through-pitch CD uniformity) is investigated. Finally, we verify that proximity is maintained through the lot when applying lens heating correction. Monitoring and maintaining the scanner's optical proximity through time, through the lot, over the field, and from toolto- tool, involves extensive CD metrology through pitch. In this work, we demonstrate that fast and precise CD through pitch data acquisition can be obtained by scatterometry (ASML YieldStarTM S-100), which significantly reduces the metrology load. The results of this study not only demonstrate the excellent optical proximity stability on a XT:1900i exposure cluster for a 32 nm poly process, but also show how scatterometry enables thorough optical proximity control in a fabrication environment.

van Look, Lieve; Bekaert, Joost; D'Havé, Koen; Laenens, Bart; Vandenberghe, Geert; Cheng, Shaunee; Schreel, Koen; Gemmink, Jan-Willem

2011-03-01

381

Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair  

PubMed Central

At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair.

Guarino, Alyx T.; McKinnon, Randall D.

2013-01-01

382

Macrophage phenotypes during tissue repair  

PubMed Central

Mp are crucial for tissue repair and regeneration but can also contribute to tissue damage and fibrosis. Mp can adopt a variety of functional phenotypes in response to different stimuli; two of the best-characterized in vitro phenotypes are a proinflammatory “M1” phenotype, produced by exposure to IFN-? and TNF-?, and an anti-inflammatory “M2a” phenotype, produced by IL-4 or IL-13. M2a Mp are frequently termed “wound healing” Mp, as they express factors that are important for tissue repair. This review will summarize current knowledge of Mp phenotypes during tissue repair and will argue that these in vivo Mp populations are heterogeneous and temporally regulated and do not conform to existing, in vitro-defined M1 or M2 phenotypes. Mp during the early stages of tissue repair exhibit a more proinflammatory phenotype than their later counterparts, which in turn may exhibit some M2a-associated characteristics. However, phenotypic markers that appear to be coregulated in cultured Mp can be expressed independently of each other in vivo. Additionally, M1- and M2-associated markers may be expressed simultaneously by actual tissue-repair Mp. Improved understanding of Mp phenotypes and their regulation may assist in generation of novel therapies based on manipulating Mp function to improve healing.

Novak, Margaret L.; Koh, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

383

Repairing Solar Max: The Solar Maximum Repair Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology and procedures designed for replacing a faulty attitude control module and scientific instruments on the only orbiting solar observatory are described. The rationale for the repair mission is given and the operations of the flight support system within the cargo bay of the space shuttle are discussed. The use of the manned maneuvering unit in capturing the satellite and of the remote manipulator arm in berthing it are discussed, as well as the space tools to be used for repair operations. The space crew and their responsibilities are identified.

Mcmahan, T.; Neal, V.

1984-01-01

384

Random mutagenesis of proximal mouse chromosome 5 uncovers predominantly embryonic lethal mutations  

PubMed Central

A region-specific ENU mutagenesis screen was conducted to elucidate the functional content of proximal mouse Chr 5. We used the visibly marked, recessive, lethal inversion Rump White (Rw) as a balancer in a three-generation breeding scheme to identify recessive mutations within the ?50 megabases spanned by Rw. A total of 1003 pedigrees were produced, representing the largest inversion screen performed in mice. Test-class animals, homozygous for the ENU-mutagenized proximal Chr 5 and visibly distinguishable from nonhomozygous littermates, were screened for fertility, hearing, vestibular function, DNA repair, behavior, and dysmorphology. Lethals were identifiable by failure to derive test-class animals within a pedigree. Embryonic lethal mutations (total of 34) were overwhelmingly the largest class of mutants recovered. We characterized them with respect to the time of embryonic death, revealing that most act at midgestation (8.5–10.5) or sooner. To position the mutations within the Rw region and to guide allelism tests, we performed complementation analyses with a set of new and existing chromosomal deletions, as well as standard recombinational mapping on a subset of the mutations. By pooling the data from this and other region-specific mutagenesis projects, we calculate that the mouse genome contains ?3479–4825 embryonic lethal genes, or about 13.7%–19% of all genes.

Wilson, Lawriston; Ching, Yung-Hao; Farias, Michael; Hartford, Suzanne A.; Howell, Gareth; Shao, Hongguang; Bucan, Maja; Schimenti, John C.

2005-01-01

385

Proximal metatarsal osteotomy and distal soft tissue reconstruction as treatment for hallux valgus deformity.  

PubMed

The correction of a hallux valgus deformity with a proximal 1(st) metatarsal osteotomy and distal soft tissue repair is achieved with a three-incision technique. A lateral soft tissue release and reconstruction at the first metatarsophalangeal joint releases contracted structures including the lateral capsule, the transverse inter-metatarsal ligament and the conjoint adductor tendon. Rarely is the lateral sesamoid excised. Through a medial incision, the medial eminence or exostosis is resected. The sesamoids are realigned and the medial capsule is reefed. With a third incision, a proximal first metatarsal osteotomy is performed that corrects a widened 1-2 intermetatarsal angle. With correction of the hallux valgus and the 1-2 intermetatarsal angle, pronation of the hallux is corrected. This correction is routinely used for hallux valgus deformities characterized by subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joint. In the presence of a mild hallux valgus deformity an osteotomy may not be necessary. With degenerative arthritis or a congruent metatarsophalangeal joint, alternative surgical procedures are indicated. PMID:16077254

Coughlin, Michael J; Grimes, Speight

2005-06-01

386

Random mutagenesis of proximal mouse chromosome 5 uncovers predominantly embryonic lethal mutations.  

PubMed

A region-specific ENU mutagenesis screen was conducted to elucidate the functional content of proximal mouse Chr 5. We used the visibly marked, recessive, lethal inversion Rump White (Rw) as a balancer in a three-generation breeding scheme to identify recessive mutations within the approximately 50 megabases spanned by Rw. A total of 1003 pedigrees were produced, representing the largest inversion screen performed in mice. Test-class animals, homozygous for the ENU-mutagenized proximal Chr 5 and visibly distinguishable from nonhomozygous littermates, were screened for fertility, hearing, vestibular function, DNA repair, behavior, and dysmorphology. Lethals were identifiable by failure to derive test-class animals within a pedigree. Embryonic lethal mutations (total of 34) were overwhelmingly the largest class of mutants recovered. We characterized them with respect to the time of embryonic death, revealing that most act at midgestation (8.5-10.5) or sooner. To position the mutations within the Rw region and to guide allelism tests, we performed complementation analyses with a set of new and existing chromosomal deletions, as well as standard recombinational mapping on a subset of the mutations. By pooling the data from this and other region-specific mutagenesis projects, we calculate that the mouse genome contains approximately 3479-4825 embryonic lethal genes, or about 13.7%-19% of all genes. PMID:16024820

Wilson, Lawriston; Ching, Yung-Hao; Farias, Michael; Hartford, Suzanne A; Howell, Gareth; Shao, Hongguang; Bucan, Maja; Schimenti, John C

2005-08-01

387

Functional efficacy of tendon repair processes.  

PubMed

Despite various attempts to repair and replace injured tendon, an understanding of the repair processes and a systematic approach to achieving functional efficacy remain elusive. In this review the epidemiology of tendon injury and repair is first examined. Using a traditional paradigm for repair assessment, the biology and biomechanics of normal tendon, natural healing, and repair are then explored. New treatment strategies such as functional tissue engineering are discussed, including a functional approach to treatment that involves the development of in vivo functional design parameters to judge the acceptability of a repair outcome. The paper concludes with future directions. PMID:15255772

Butler, David L; Juncosa, Natalia; Dressler, Matthew R

2004-01-01

388

Osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia: limb-sparing resection and reconstruction with a modular segmental proximal tibia tumor prosthesis.  

PubMed

A limb-sparing resection was performed for osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia in a young patient. A special modular segmental proximal tibial endoprosthesis that includes a hinged total knee component was used for reconstruction. A medial gastrocnemius rotational flap was utilized to reconstruct the extensor mechanism of the knee. The muscle flap aids in covering the prosthesis and helps to protect against infection. Limb-sparing resection for tumors arising from the proximal tibia, and reconstruction with a modular segmental proximal tibia tumor prosthesis and gastrocnemius muscle flap, is a safe and reliable method for treating tumors involving this area. PMID:20607421

Wittig, James C; Villalobos, Camilo E; Hayden, Brett L; Choi, Ikjoon; Silverman, Andrew M; Malawer, Martin

2010-11-01

389

Open Reduction of Proximal Interphalangeal Fracture-Dislocation through a Midlateral Incision Using Absorbable Suture Materials  

PubMed Central

Background Fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is a relatively common injury. Various treatments for fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint have been reported. In the present study, we performed open reduction through a midlateral incision using absorbable sutures to reduce the small bone fragments and performed volar plate repair. Methods We treated nine patients with fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint with small fractured bone fragments too small for pinning or screw fixation. Patients with volar plate injury were treated with open reduction and volar plate repair at the periosteum of the middle phalangeal bone base by the modified Kessler method using absorbable sutures. All patients were placed in a dorsal aluminum extension block splint, which maintained the PIP joint in approximately 30 degrees of flexion to avoid excessive tension on the sutured volar plate. Results At a mean final follow-up of postoperative 9 months, all patients were evaluated radiographically and had adequate alignment of the PIP joint and reduction of the displaced bone fragments. Range of motion was improved and there were no complications. Conclusions This technique is an excellent alternative to the current method of treating patients with fracture-dislocations that include small fragments that are too small for pinning or screw fixation. It is a less invasive surgical method and enables stable reduction and early exercise without noticeable complications.

Lee, Jae Jun; Choi, Hyun Gon; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Uhm, Ki Il

2013-01-01

390

Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the brassboard and proto-type NGAVGS units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

2009-01-01

391

Complications and Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plating for Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique using periarticular locking plates may be a good option for the repair of displaced proximal humeral fractures. However, axillary nerve complications related to this technique may be underestimated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the minimally invasive plating, focusing on the complications. Methods The records of 21 consecutive patients treated for proximal humerus fractures using the MIPO technique with locking plates were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were treated between March 2009 and March 2011 with a minimum one-year follow-up. The clinical function, complications, and radiological bony union were evaluated. Results All of the patients, with one exception, showed at least 90 degrees of flexion and abduction at the shoulder joint six months postoperatively. The average Constant scores at three months, six months, and one year follow-ups were 74.0 (range, 62 to 90), 79.4 (range, 64 to 91), and 82.7 (range, 66 to 92), respectively. All of the patients achieved bony union within the average of 3.2 months (range, 2 to 6 months). There was one case of delayed union, one case of intra-articular screw penetration, and one case of axillary nerve paresis (incomplete injury), which did not completely recover during the one year of follow-up. Conclusions The MIPO technique using periarticular locking plates is a useful option for the treatment of selected cases of displaced proximal humeral fractures. However, nerve complications such as axillary nerve paresis should be considered along with implant-related complications when choosing patients for minimally invasive plating.

Jeong, Seong Yup

2014-01-01

392

Peripheral nerve injury and repair.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and there is no easily available formula for successful treatment. Incomplete injuries are most frequent. Seddon classified nerve injuries into three categories: neurapraxia, axonotmesis, and neurotmesis. After complete axonal transection, the neuron undergoes a number of degenerative processes, followed by attempts at regeneration. A distal growth cone seeks out connections with the degenerated distal fiber. The current surgical standard is epineurial repair with nylon suture. To span gaps that primary repair cannot bridge without excessive tension, nerve-cable interfascicular auto-grafts are employed. Unfortunately, results of nerve repair to date have been no better than fair, with only 50% of patients regaining useful function. There is much ongoing research regarding pharmacologic agents, immune system modulators, enhancing factors, and entubulation chambers. Clinically applicable developments from these investigations will continue to improve the results of treatment of nerve injuries. PMID:10951113

Lee, S K; Wolfe, S W

2000-01-01

393

Long proximal femoral nail in ipsilateral fractures proximal femur and shaft of femur  

PubMed Central

Background: Ipsilateral fractures of the proximal femur and femoral shaft are extremely uncommon injuries which occur in young adults who sustain a high energy trauma. A variety of management modalities have been tried to treat this complex fracture pattern ranging from conservative approach to recently introduced reconstruction nails. All these approaches have their own difficulties. We studied the outcome of long proximal femoral nail (LPFN) in the management of concomitant ipsilateral fracture of the proximal femur and femoral shaft. Materials and Methods: We analysed the prospective data of 36 consecutive patients who had sustained a high energy trauma (30 closed fractures and 6 open shaft fractures) who had concomitant ipsilateral fractures of the femoral shaft associated with proximal femur fractures treated with LPFN between December 2005 and December 2011. The mean age was 39 years (range 28-64 years). Twenty nine males and seven females were enrolled for this study. Results: The patients were followed up at three, six, twelve, and eighteen months. The mean healing time for the neck fractures was 4.8 months and for the shaft fractures was 6.2 months. The greater trochanter was splintered and widened in two cases which eventually consolidated. Two patients had superficial infection, two patients had lateral migration of the screws with coxa vara which was due to severe osteoporosis detected during the followup. We had two cases of nonunion of shaft fracture and one case of nonunion of neck fracture. Two cases of avascular necrosis of femoral head were detected after 2 years of followup. No cases of implant failure were noted. Limb shortening of less than 2 cms was noted in four of our patients. The functional assessment system of Friedman and Wyman was used for evaluating the results. In our series 59.9% (n = 23) were rated as good, 30.6% (n = 11) as fair, and 5.5% (n = 2) as poor. Conclusion: Long PFN is a reliable option for concomitant ipsilateral diaphyseal and proximal femur fractures.

Gadegone, WM; Lokhande, Vijayanand; Salphale, Yogesh; Ramteke, Alankar

2013-01-01

394

A novel technique of lumbar hernia repair using bone anchor fixation.  

PubMed

Lumbar hernias are difficult to repair due to their proximity to bone and inadequate surrounding tissue to buttress the repair. We analyzed the outcome of patients undergoing a novel retromuscular lumbar hernia repair technique. The repair was performed in ten patients using a polypropylene or polytetrafluoroethylene mesh placed in an extraperitoneal, retromuscular position with at least 5 cm overlap of the hernia defect. The mesh was fixed with circumferential, transfascial, permanent sutures and inferiorly fixed to the iliac crest by suture bone anchors. Five hernias were recurrent, and five were incarcerated; seven were incisional hernias, and three were posttraumatic. Back and abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom. Mean hernia size was 227 cm(2) (60-504) with a mesh size of 620 cm(2) (224-936). Mean operative time was 181 min (120-269), with a mean blood loss of 128 ml (50-200). Mean length of stay was 5.2 days (2-10), and morphine equivalent requirement was 200 mg (47-460). There were no postoperative complications or deaths. After a mean follow-up of 40 months (3-99) there have been no recurrences. Our sublay repair of lumbar hernias with permanent suture fixation is safe and to date has resulted in no recurrences. Suture bone anchors ensure secure fixation of the mesh to the iliac crest and may eliminate a common area of recurrence. PMID:15365883

Carbonell, A M; Kercher, K W; Sigmon, L; Matthews, B D; Sing, R F; Kneisl, J S; Heniford, B T

2005-03-01

395

Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair  

PubMed Central

Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies.

Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

2011-01-01

396

Particle Proximity Sensors for Suspension Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonintrusive technique to indicate when noncolloidal particles suspended in a liquid are within a few microns of a solid surface---and therefore can interact with the surface---would be valuable in studying particle deposition and coating processes. We are developing such ``particle proximity sensors'' based upon calcium ion-specific fluorescent indicators, chemical compounds whose fluorescence is triggered by the presence of Ca^++. By coating a solid surface with zeolites that absorb Ca^++, particles dyed with these indicators suspended in a calcium ion-containing solution will stop fluorescing when they enter the Ca^++-depleted mass boundary layer next to this surface. Since these fluorescent indicators are developed for aqueous chemistries, an aqueous model suspension system was developed for non-colloidal PMMA particles (diameters 10--200 ?m) suspended in a liquid mixture of water, glycerine, and ammonium thiocyanate with a viscosity about five times that of water. This refractive-index matched, neutrally-buoyant suspension was characterized for a range of temperatures, volume fractions and chemical compositions. The intensity of fluorescence emitted from Ca^++ indicator-dyed PMMA particles near a zeolite-coated glass surface was measured as a function of distance normal to the surface at various zeolite thicknesses and flow speeds to determine the diffusion characteristics of this zeolite-Ca^++ system.

Bailey, Brent C.; Yoda, Minami

2001-11-01

397

Acidification in the rat proximal jejunum.  

PubMed Central

1. Production of hydrogen ions by the rat proximal jejunum was investigated using the everted sac technique. 2. Acidification occurred in the absence of glucose, increasing on addition of glucose to reach a maximal value. An apparent Km of 1-78 mM was derived for the glucose-dependent process. 3. Acidification in the presence of glucose was inhibited by 10 mM-2:4-dinitrophenol, 10 mM phlorrhizin, 10 mM aminophylline and anaerobiosis. 4. Histamine, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), ouabain and acetazolamide, compounds known to alter acid production in gastric mucosa had no effect on jejunal acidification. 5. Galactose and 3-O-methylglucose failed to increase acidification; in contrast, mannose and fructose did lead to increases, indicating metabolic origin of the hydrogen ions. 6. Serosal and mucosal lactate production were measured and the calculated percentage of hydrogen ions possibly derived from this source was shown to account for only a small proportion of acidification. 7. The greatest increase in acidification with minimal simultaneous production of lactate occurred with ATP which was shown not to enter intestinal tissues. 8. A hypothesis for acidification, that of the break-down at the mucosal surface of ATP from intracellular metabolic sources, is proposed and its relevance to the postulated microclimate is discussed.

Blair, J A; Lucas, M L; Matty, A J

1975-01-01

398

Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive graphical proximity operations planning system was developed, which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in a dynamic multispacecraft environment. Maneuvering takes place in and out of the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of orbital dynamics and complex time-varying operational constraints. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relevant constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of a Space Station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the Station's orbital plane. The operator has control over the two modes of operation: a viewing system mode, which enables the exporation of the spatial situation about the Space Station and thus the ability to choose and zoom in on areas of interest; and a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory that complies with all operational constraints. A first version of this display was completed. An experimental program is planned in which operators will carry out a series of design missions which vary in complexity and constraints.

Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

1988-01-01

399

Scintillation Proximity Assay of Arginine Methylation  

PubMed Central

Methylation of arginine residues, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is one important protein post-translational modification involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. A fast and effective assay for PRMT can provide valuable information for dissecting the biological functions of PRMTs, as well as for screening small-molecule inhibitors of arginine methylation. Currently, among the methods used for PRMT activity measurement, many contain laborious separation procedures, which restrict the applications of these assays for high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery. The authors report here a mix-and-measure method to measure PRMT activity based on the principle of scintillation proximity assay (SPA). In this assay, 3H-AdoMet was used as methyl donor, and biotin-modified histone H4 peptide served as a methylation substrate. Following the methylation reaction catalyzed by PRMTs, streptavidin-coated SPA beads were added to the reaction solution, and SPA signals were detected by a MicroBeta scintillation counter. No separation step is needed, which simplifies the assay procedure and greatly enhances the assay speed. Particularly, the miniaturization and robustness suggest that this method is suited for HTS of PRMT inhibitors.

Wu, Jiang; Xie, Nan; Feng, You; Zheng, Y. George

2011-01-01

400

Proximity-associated errors in contour metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contour metrology the CD-SEM (critical dimension scanning electron microscope) assigns a continuous boundary to extended features in an image. The boundary is typically assigned as a simple function of the signal intensity, for example by a brightness threshold or gradient. However, the neighborhood of different points along the feature boundary may vary considerably. Some parts of the boundary may have close neighboring features while others are relatively isolated. Neighboring features can obstruct the escape of secondary electrons. Varying proximity of neighbors therefore represents an influence on detected intensity. An intensity difference caused by a neighborhood difference can be incorrectly interpreted as a contour shift, for example when the contour passes from an isolated neighborhood to a dense one. The magnitude of this offset variation is estimated using images produced by JMONSEL, a Monte Carlo simulator of SEM secondary electron imaging, from simple model test patterns with varying neighborhoods. Similar structures were subsequently measured by both SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Apparent shifts (i.e., errors) on the order of 0.5 nm to 1.0 nm for each edge were observed in both modeled and measured SEM images as compared to AFM when edge positions were assigned by using a fixed image brightness contour. Assignment of edges by brightness relative to the local background and local maximum brightness resulted in measurements that were less sensitive to neighborhood differences.

Villarrubia, John S.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Vladár, András E.

2010-03-01

401

Acute dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint.  

PubMed

The patient was a 19-year-old female who reported an acute onset of lateral left knee pain while participating in a 3-legged race. The patient reported to the emergency department immediately following the injury. Observation revealed prominence along the lateral aspect of the knee. The patient was unable to bear weight on her left lower extremity and her symptoms were exacerbated with extension of the knee. Although the initial radiographs of the left knee and lower leg showed no apparent fracture, a widening of the interosseous space between the tibia and the fibula and an altered position of the fibular head were noted on the anterior to posterior radiographic view. On the lateral radiographic view there was anterior displacement of the left fibula compared to the right. These radiographic findings suggested an anterolateral dislocation of the fibular head, the diagnosis of which was confirmed upon the completion of axial computed tomography. Successful closed reduction was achieved and the patient was treated with a period of protected weight bearing on crutches, progressing to full weight bearing over 6 weeks. At 1 year following the injury, the patient was participating in all regular activities of daily living without pain or instability. Early detection and immediate reduction of an acute dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint are important to prevent long-term disability. PMID:19881007

Hsieh, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Jian-Chih

2009-11-01

402

[Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus].  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal humerus are typical osteoporotic fractures of the elderly with an increasing incidence. Computed tomography (CT) with 3D reconstruction plays a more and more decisive role in the diagnostics because of an improved understanding of fractures in 3D images. The resulting correct fracture classification has significance for the decision of the best therapy procedure. Currently an extended version of the Codman classification with its four and more fragments is used to give additive information about varus or valgus dislocation, impression or distraction. The comparison of conservative and operative treatment showed no predominance of one of the procedures, therefore both strategies are justified. An operative treatment is recommended in complex fractures. Thus, early functional mobilization, early self-dependence and return to the activities of daily living are possible. Intramedullary nailing is advised in 2-part fractures, in dislocated multipart fractures locking plating or a primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty with refixation of the tuberosities in patients over 75 years. However, the improved plate and nail systems with polyaxiality, calcar screws, modern plate and nails designs as well as the possibility of arthroscopy-assisted nail implantation or plate removal combined with arthroscopic arthrolysis are innovative. PMID:23051983

Lill, H; Ellwein, A; Katthagen, C; Voigt, C

2012-10-01

403

Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health.

Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

2009-01-01

404

Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

1982-06-01

405

Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive, graphical proximity operations planning system was developed which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in the dynamic multispacecraft environment about the space station. Maneuvering takes place in, as well as out of, the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of relative orbital motion trajectories and complex operational constraints, which are both time varying and highly dependent on the mission scenario. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relative constraints in an easily interpretable, graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of the space station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the station's orbital plane. The operator has control over two modes of operation: (1) a viewing system mode, which enables him or her to explore the spatial situation about the space station and thus choose and frame in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way-points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory which complies with all operational constraints. Through a graphical interactive process, the operator will continue to modify the trajectory design until all operational constraints are met. The effectiveness of this display format in complex trajectory design is presently being evaluated in an ongoing experimental program.

Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

1989-01-01

406

Scintillation proximity assay of arginine methylation.  

PubMed

Methylation of arginine residues, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is one important protein posttranslational modification involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. A fast and effective assay for PRMT can provide valuable information for dissecting the biological functions of PRMTs, as well as for screening small-molecule inhibitors of arginine methylation. Currently, among the methods used for PRMT activity measurement, many contain laborious separation procedures, which restrict the applications of these assays for high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery. The authors report here a mix-and-measure method to measure PRMT activity based on the principle of scintillation proximity assay (SPA). In this assay, (3)H-AdoMet was used as methyl donor, and biotin-modified histone H4 peptide served as a methylation substrate. Following the methylation reaction catalyzed by PRMTs, streptavidin-coated SPA beads were added to the reaction solution, and SPA signals were detected by a MicroBeta scintillation counter. No separation step is needed, which simplifies the assay procedure and greatly enhances the assay speed. Particularly, the miniaturization and robustness suggest that this method is suited for HTS of PRMT inhibitors. PMID:21821785

Wu, Jiang; Xie, Nan; Feng, You; Zheng, Y George

2012-02-01

407

Gastric Fullness, Physical Activity, and Proximal Extent of Gastroesophageal Reflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Proximal extent of gastroesophageal reflux (PER) is relevant for symptoms in GERD patients. It has been suggested that PER is determined by the volume of the refluxate that, in turn, might depend on the degree of gastric fullness. Abdominal straining, during ambulation, increases the likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux. We assessed the influence of gastric fullness and ambulation on proximal extent

Sara Emerenziani; Xin Zhang; Kathleen Blondeau; Jiri Silny; Jan Tack; Jozef Janssens; Daniel Sifrim

2005-01-01

408

Fast direction-aware proximity for graph mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study asymmetric proximity measures on directed graphs, which quantify the relationships between two nodes or two groups of nodes. The measures are useful in several graph min- ing tasks, including clustering, link prediction and connection sub- graph discovery. Our proximity measure is based on the concept of escape probability. This way, we strive to summarize the

Hanghang Tong; Christos Faloutsos; Yehuda Koren

2007-01-01

409

Protein detection using proximity-dependent DNA ligation assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of in vitro DNA amplification has enabled rapid acquisition of genomic information. We present here an analogous technique for protein detection, in which the coordinated and proximal binding of a target protein by two DNA aptamers promotes ligation of oligonucleotides linked to each aptamer affinity probe . The ligation of two such proximity probes gives rise to an

Simon Fredriksson; Mats Gullberg; Jonas Jarvius; Charlotta Olsson; Kristian Pietras; Sigrún Margrét Gústafsdóttir; Arne Östman; Ulf Landegren

2002-01-01

410

Moral Education in the Zone of Proximal Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a Vygotskian perspective on moral development. Summarizes Lev Vygotsky's ideas about the "zone of proximal development" and extends them into the domain of moral education, focusing on an extract from the film, "Boyz 'n the Hood." Shows how the zone of proximal development facilitates moral development differently from contemporary…

Tappan, Mark B.

1998-01-01

411

Proximity-based access control for implantable medical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposea proximity-based access control scheme forimplantable medical devices (IMDs). Ourscheme is based onultrasonic distance- bounding and enables an implanted medical device to grant access to its resources only to those devices that are in its close proxim- ity. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach through tests in an emulated patient environment. We show that, although im- planted, IMDs

Kasper Bonne Rasmussen; Claude Castelluccia; Thomas S. Heydt-benjamin; Srdjan Capkun

2009-01-01

412

The Spatial Evolution of Innovation Networks: A Proximity Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an evolutionary perspective on the geography of network formation that is grounded in a dynamic proximity framework. In doing so, we root the proximity concept in an evolutionary approach to the geography of innovation networks. We discuss three topics. The first topic focuses on explaining the structure of networks. The second topic concentrates on explaining the effects of

Ron Boschma; Koen Frenken

2009-01-01

413

Anatomic reconstruction of chronic symptomatic anterolateral proximal tibiofibular joint instability.  

PubMed

Symptomatic chronic proximal tibiofibular joint subluxation is a pathology which is difficult to diagnose and treat. Surgical treatment has not been well defined. A report of two patients successfully treated with an anatomic reconstruction of the posterior aspect of the proximal tibiofibular joint is presented. PMID:20127312

Horst, Patrick K; LaPrade, Robert F

2010-11-01

414

Cytokine detection by antibody-based proximity ligation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and precise detection techniques, along with extensive repertoires of specific binding reagents, will be needed to meet the challenges of proteome analyses. The recently established proximity ligation mechanism enables sensitive high-capacity protein measurements by converting the detection of specific proteins to the analysis of DNA sequences. Proximity probes containing oligonucleotide extensions are designed to bind pairwise to target proteins

Mats Gullberg; Sigrún M. Gústafsdóttir; Edith Schallmeiner; Jonas Jarvius; Mattias Bjarnegård; Christer Betsholtz; Ulf Landegren; Simon Fredriksson

2004-01-01

415

Proximity and territory versus space in regional science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence tends to show that regional development occurs only in certain places. Therefore, one can ask the central question of the role of physical proximity in economic development processes. Economists try to answer this question through the concept of externalities, but this does not explain why certain externalities are linked with physical proximity. In this paper the author tries

O Crevoisier

1996-01-01

416

Multipoint-based tabu search using proximate optimality principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for combinatorial optimization problems. Most of the actual problems that have discrete structure can be formulated as combinatorial optimization problems. It is experientially known that proximate optimality principle (POP) holds in most of the actual combinatorial optimization problems. The concept of proximate optimality principle says that good solutions of most real combinatorial optimization problems

Keisuke Miyamoto; Keiichiro Yasuda

2005-01-01

417

Spot image processing and simulation of the laser proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the problems of the large beam divergence angle and short detection range in the launch system of laser proximity fuze. By analyzing the factors of measuring distance in laser proximity fuze, combined with characteristics of laser's far-field divergence angle, and according to aspheric optical design theory, we carry out image processing and simulation of laser spot by

Lin Gan; He Zhang; Xiang-jin Zhang

2011-01-01

418

A prospective randomized study of conservative versus surgical treatment of unstable palmar plate disruption in the proximal interphalangeal finger joint.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of conservative versus operative treatment for unstable palmar plate disruption in the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the fingers with respect to preservation of joint stability, mobility, and pain. The study was conducted as a prospective study in which 83 patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups: (1) conservative treatment with a rigid splint for 2 weeks, (2) surgical reattachment of the palmar plate in local anesthesia followed by 2 weeks of immobilization in a plaster cast. Both groups were thereafter treated by taping to the neighboring finger for 3 weeks. With regard to hyperextension instability, stiffness, and pain, there is no significant difference in outcome between patients with traumatic palmar plate lesions and hyperextension instability treated with surgical repair and patients treated conservatively with a splint. We do not recommend primary surgical repair of unstable isolated palmar plate lesions in the proximal interphalangeal joints of the 4 ulnar fingers. Type of study/level of evidence Therapeutic, Level II. PMID:23436143

Werlinrud, Jens Christian; Petersen, Kirstin; Lauritsen, Jens; Larsen, Søren; Schrøder, Henrik

2013-04-01

419

Human DNA Repair and Recombination Genes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identi...

L. H. Thompson C. A. Weber N. J. Jones

1988-01-01

420

Summary of Repair Techniques for Aluminum Bridging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the results of an investigation designed to recommend joining processes which could be used in the field to repair aluminum bridging. A literature search was conducted to identify the various aluminum repair processes available. The m...

D. Brockman R. A. Weber

1982-01-01

421

Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

422

Nerve repair, grafting, and nerve transfers.  

PubMed

Advances in the field of peripheral nerve surgery have increased our understanding of the complex cellular and molecular events involved in nerve injury and repair. Application of these important discoveries has led to important developments in the techniques of nerve repair, nerve grafting, nerve allografts, end-to-side repairs, and nerve-to-nerve transfers. As our understanding of this dynamic field increases, further improvement in functional outcomes after nerve injury and repair can be expected. PMID:12737353

Dvali, Linda; Mackinnon, Susan

2003-04-01

423

Erosion of mesh after repair of rectocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital prolapse is a common problem in women. Surgical repair is one of the management options. Traditional repair consists\\u000a of midline plication of endopelvic fascia to reduce the prolapse and create support. A mesh has also been used to augment\\u000a and repair such defects in the pelvic floor. Data on the efficacy and safety of mesh repair for genital prolapse

J. Putran; M. A. Khaled; D. Vinayagam

2010-01-01

424

Arthroscopic Transosseous-Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair  

PubMed Central

Rotator cuff repair techniques continue to evolve in an effort to improve repair biomechanics, maximize the biologic environment for tendon healing, and ultimately improve patient outcomes. The arthroscopic transosseous-equivalent technique was developed to replicate the favorable tendon-bone contact area for healing seen in open transosseous tunnel repair. In this technical note and accompanying video, we present our all-arthroscopic transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair technique with a focus on technical pearls.

Lavery, Kyle P.; Rasmussen, Jeffrey F.; Dhawan, Aman

2013-01-01

425

Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due\\u000a to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and\\/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic\\u000a events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive\\u000a growth factors and BMP-12 on

David Kovacevic; Scott A. Rodeo

2008-01-01

426

Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Using a Suture Bridge Technique: Is the Repair Integrity Actually Maintained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Suture bridge repair has been recognized to have superior biomechanical characteristics, as shown in previous biomechanical studies. However, it is not clear whether the tendon heals better in vivo after suture bridge repair.Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results and repair integrity after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a suture bridge technique for patients with rotator cuff tears.Study Design: Case

Nam Su Cho; Bong Gun Lee; Yong Girl Rhee

2011-01-01

427

Nonstented tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with Y-to-I spongioplasty in non-toilet trained children  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study was designed to evaluate the supportive role of spongioplasty during tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty repair of hypospadias. Methods All non–toilet trained children who underwent TIP repair for primary hypospadias by 1 surgeon over a 30-month period were included in our study. The divergent spongiosa was mobilized off the corpora cavernosa and was rotated toward the midline to wrap the neourethra. A dartos flap was used to cover the neourethra. The neourethra was calibrated immediately after surgery in all patients. A urethral stent was left in place only when difficult calibration was encountered. Complications and cosmetic appearance were documented at last follow-up. Results Thirty-two consecutive patients with a mean age of 18 (standard deviation [SD] 6) months were included in the study. The defects were distal and mid-shaft in 26 patients (81.3%) and proximal-shaft in 6 (18.8%). No intraoperative catheterization difficulties were encountered and all repairs were nonstented. Antibiotics and anticholinergics were not required. Mean follow-up was 9 (SD 6) months. Urinary extravasation developed in 1 patient (3.1%) on the second postoperative day. A urethral catheter was easily inserted and left indwelling for 5 days. One patient presented 6 days postoperatively with suspected voiding difficulty. Urethral calibration was easily performed excluding any mechanical obstruction. There were no urinary fistulae and reoperation was not required. An excellent cosmetic appearance was achieved in all patients. Conclusion TIP urethroplasty is a versatile operation that can be performed in almost all cases of penile hypospadias. A nonstented technique for hypospadias repair simplifies postoperative care and obviates the need for antibiotics and anticholinergics. We believe that spongioplasty provides good support to the neourethra and the hypoplastic distal urethra that may facilitate catheterization in the immediate and early postoperative periods, if required. Future controlled study is warranted to further evaluate the role of spongioplasty.

Almodhen, Fayez; Alzahrani, Ahmed; Jednak, Roman; Capolicchio, Jean Paul; El Sherbiny, Mohamed T

2008-01-01

428

DSB repair: the yeast paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome stability is of primary importance for the survival and proper functioning of all organisms. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) arise spontaneously during growth, or can be created by external insults. In response to even a single DSB, organisms must trigger a series of events to promote repair of the DNA damage in order to survive and restore chromosomal integrity. In doing

Yael Aylon; Martin Kupiec

2004-01-01

429

Metrics for Small Engine Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of small engine repair students, this instructional package is one of four for the transportation occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

430

Delayed Next Turn Repair Initiation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined a form of other-initiated repair which occurs later than next turn, a form which is produced by nonnative speakers of English whose native language is Mandarin. Data consists of transcriptions of naturally occurring conversations from 12 native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) dyads, friends who ordinarily chat. Conversational…

Wong, Jean

431

Computer Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in a course to train students to repair computer equipment and perform related administrative and customer service tasks. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics (with selected subtopics in brackets): performing administrative functions (preparing service bills, maintaining accounts and labor…

Reneau, Fred; And Others

432

Shipboard Maintenance and Repair System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a final report on the design and development of a prototype shipboard maintenance and repair system to meet the needs of industry and the requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard. Based on inputs from operators, a basic system design was developed and...

P. F. Johnson R. E. Kelly C. G. Pohle

1978-01-01

433

Transvesicoscopic Repair of Vesicovaginal Fistula  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Vesicovaginal fistula has been a social and surgical problem for centuries. Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct this abnormality, including transabdominal, transvaginal, and endoscopic approaches. The best approach is probably the one with which the surgeon feels most experienced and comfortable. Laparoscopy has become increasingly popular in urology, reducing the invasiveness of treatment and shortening the period of convalescence. We report our results of transvesicoscopic approach for VVF repair. Materials and Methods. Patients with VVF were offered repair using the transvesicoscopic route. With the patient under general anaesthesia and in modified lithotomy position cystoscopy was performed with gas insufflation. Under cystoscopic guidance the bladder was fixed to anterior abdominal wall and ports inserted into the bladder. The fistula was repaired under endoscopic vision. Results. Four women, who had VVF following abdominal hysterectomy, underwent this procedure. The operating time ranged from 175 to 235 minutes. There was minimal bleeding. Post operative complications included ileus in one and fever in another. No recurrence of VVF was noted in any patient. Conclusions. Transvesicoscopic repair of VVF is feasible, safe, and results in lower morbidity and quicker recovery time.

Nerli, R. B.; Reddy, Mallikarjun

2010-01-01

434

Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

Smreker, Eugene

435

Self-Repair Theory Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the third of a study to develop a theory of self repair in digital nets via fault diagnosis and automatic circuit replacement. The technique of factoring the Sequential Prime Implicant Form of the sequential digital net is extended to show h...

E. W. Veitch

1967-01-01

436

Self-Repair Theory Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the sixth report from a study to develop a theory of self-repair in digital nets via fault diagnosis and automatic circuit replacement using the Sequential Prime Implicant Form for net representation as an analytical tool in net failure detection ...

E. W. Veitch D. C. Roberts

1968-01-01

437

Self-Repair Theory Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fifth report from a study to develop a theory of self-repair in digital nets via fault diagnosis and automatic circuit replacement using the sequential prime implicant form for net representation as an analytical tool for specifying the monito...

E. W. Veitch

1968-01-01

438

Self-Repair Theory Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to develop a theory of self-repair in digital nets via fault diagnosis and automatic circuit replacement. Several theorems are developed concerning which experiments need to be performed on a given net in order to check its proper operati...

E. W. Veitch

1966-01-01

439

Airframe Repair Specialist (AFSC 53153).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This airframe repairman course comprises the self-study portion of an on-the-job training program. It deals with the job-related knowledge requirements for airframe repairs that are required to progress from the 3 to 5 skill level of the career field. It contains five volumes. Volume 1 (27 hours) covers the general subjects related to the…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

440

Induction of FGF-7 after kidney damage: a possible paracrine mechanism for tubule repair.  

PubMed

A member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, keratinocyte growth factor (FGF-7 has unique specificity for epithelial cells. We investigated the role of FGF-7 in repair of proximal tubular damage caused by S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (TFEC). In situ hybridization localized FGF-7 to interstitial cells in the medulla and outer stripe of the outer medulla. Interstitial FGF-7 expression increased throughout the kidney 1 day after TFEC treatment. FGFR2 IIIb mRNA was high in the papilla and medulla and also increased after TFEC administration. By in situ hybridization, FGFR2 IIIb was localized to the tubular epithelium, particularly in collecting ducts. Proliferation of collecting duct epithelial cells increased in adult kidney after damage to the proximal tubule. FGFR2 IIIb, but not FGF-7, mRNA was also expressed by rat proximal tubule epithelial (RPTE) cells in vitro, and FGF-7 increased DNA synthesis in RPTE. Thus FGFR2 IIIb and FGF-7 expression is segregated between epithelial and interstitial cells forming a paracrine growth factor loop. These results raise the possibility that a novel paracrine growth loop is activated by chemical damage and regulates epithelial cell growth during tubular repair. PMID:8945990

Ichimura, T; Finch, P W; Zhang, G; Kan, M; Stevens, J L

1996-11-01

441

Software defect repair times: a multiplicative model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed over 10,000 software defect repair times collected for nine products at Cisco Systems, to confirm our hypothesis that software defect repair times can be characterized by the Laplace Transform of the Lognormal (LTLN) distribution. This hypothesis originated from the observation that software defect repair times are influenced by the multiplicative interplay of several factors. The Lognormal distribution is

Swapna S. Gokhale; Robert E. Mullen

2008-01-01

442

Reliability prediction for repairable redundant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is assumed that the mean time to failure and mean repair time are known for each of the subsystems of a system. The subsystems conform to the usual exponential failure (and repair) laws and their behaviors are mutually independent. The system includes redundant subsystems in active standby status. Whenever, after a system failure, repair of a failed subsystem re-establishes

S. J. Einhorn

1963-01-01

443

Reliability of Some Redundant Systems with Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is established for the reliability of modularly redundant systems with repair. The model allows different hazard rates for active units and for standby units. The hazard rates are assumed to be constant. The cases of constant repair rate and constant repair time for a two unit system are evaluated using the reliability and mean time between failure.

David K. Chow

1973-01-01

444

Simple repair of a giant inguinoscrotal hernia  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a giant inguinoscrotal hernia that extended almost to the patient's knees. Operative repair was through a standard transverse inguinal incision. No debulking or abdominal enlargement procedure had to be performed. The repair was done with a tension-free, onlay, prosthetic mesh repair.

Coetzee, E.; Price, C.; Boutall, A.

2010-01-01

445

40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005 Protection...CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule....

2009-07-01

446

Tire with Self-Repairing Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of tire is presented, in which there is no air leakage when nails puncture the tire. The broken part is repaired automatically by a self-repairing mechanism. The self-repairing unit consists of two rubber sheets with internal lattices. Polymer particles, which expand their volume on adding water, are inserted into the lattices. The unit is adhered to the

Kosuke Nagaya; Sigeo Ikai; Manabu Chiba; Xujing Chao

2006-01-01

447

Standardized Curriculum for Shoe and Boot Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for shoe and boot repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all shoe and boot repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for shoe and boot repair I and II courses. Units in…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

448

Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body