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1

Outcomes of one-stage techniques for proximal hypospadias repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the success of three preputial flap techniques in the one-stage correction of proximal hypospadias.Methods. From 1993 to 1999, 43 children underwent one-stage proximal hypospadias repair using preputial flaps, which were performed by a single surgeon. Of the 43 patients, 21 (48.8%), 10 (23.2%), and 12 (27.9%) underwent tubularized island flap urethroplasty, double-faced tubularized island flap urethroplasty, and

Turan Kanmaz; Selçuk Yücesan

2001-01-01

2

Double Onlay Preputial Flap for Proximal Hypospadias Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe describe a new technique for primary repair of proximal hypospadias. The double onlay preputial flap combines the principles of onlay urethroplasty and the double face preputial flap, namely preservation of the urethral plate and use of a total preputial flap.

Ricardo Gonzalez; Craig Smith; Enrique D. Denes

1996-01-01

3

Proximal Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Comparative analysis of functional results, complications, cosmesis, operative time and hospital stay between staged urethroplasty and single–stage on–lay island flap for proximal hypospadias.Materials and Methods: Non–randomised single observer study of two groups of patients over a 5–year period with proximal hypospadias. Group 1 had 17 patients (mean age 17.7±1.6 months) who underwent a staged urethroplasty. Urethral plate was tubularised

M. Samuel; S. Capps; A. Worth

2001-01-01

4

The modified Koyanagi hypospadias repair for the one-stage repair of proximal hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Perineal and penoscrotal hypospadias were often managed by two-stage urethroplasty with variable results and significant number of these may need third surgery. Though modified Koyanagi one-stage repair has a learning curve, it has all the advantages of two-stage repair. The aim was to review the results of modified Koyonagi repair from the literature and our own centre experience. PMID:19468399

Jayanthi, Venkata R.

2008-01-01

5

Salvage hypospadias repairs  

PubMed Central

Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children – buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5–15 years (mean 4.5). Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50%) with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely – a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4–6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised. PMID:20011495

Sripathi, V.; Satheesh, M.; Shubha, K.

2008-01-01

6

The Bracka two-stage repair for severe proximal hypospadias: A single center experience  

PubMed Central

Background: Surgical correction of severe proximal hypospadias represents a significant surgical challenge and single-stage corrections are often associated with complications and reoperations. Bracka two-stage repair is an attractive alternative surgical procedure with superior, reliable, and reproducible results. Purpose: To study the feasibility and applicability of Bracka two-stage repair for the severe proximal hypospadias and to analyze the outcomes and complications of this surgical technique. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2013. Bracka two-stage repair was performed using inner preputial skin as a free graft in subjects with proximal hypospadias in whom severe degree of chordee and/or poor urethral plate was present. Only primary cases were included in this study. All subjects received three doses of intra-muscular testosterone 3 weeks apart before first stage. Second stage was performed 6 months after the first stage. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 24 months. Results: A total of 43 patients operated for Bracka repair, out of which 30 patients completed two-stage repair. Mean age of the patients was 4 years and 8 months. We achieved 100% graft uptake and no revision was required. Three patients developed fistula, while two had metal stenosis. Glans dehiscence, urethral stricture and the residual chordee were not found during follow-up and satisfactory cosmetic results with good urinary stream were achieved in all cases. Conclusion: The Bracka two-stage repair is a safe and reliable approach in select patients in whom it is impractical to maintain the axial integrity of the urethral plate, and, therefore, a full circumference urethral reconstruction become necessary. This gives good results both in terms of restoration of normal function with minimal complication. PMID:25829670

Joshi, Rakesh S.; Bachani, Mitesh K.; Uttarwar, Amit M.; Ramji, Jaishri I.

2015-01-01

7

Comparison of Onlay and Tubularized Island Flaps of Inner Preputial Skin for the Repair of Proximal Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTransverse island flaps of inner preputial skin have provided a reliable technique for the repair of proximal hypospadias. The flap may be used to create a neourethra by tubularizing the flap after urethral transection or applying the flap as an onlay patch onto an intact urethral plate. We retrospectively analyzed our experience with these 2 techniques to compare outcomes.

John S. Wiener; Richard W. Sutherland; David R. Roth; Edmond T. Jr. Gonzales

1997-01-01

8

One-Stage Hypospadias Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We evaluated one-stage hypospadias repairs in providing a normal looking penis with a normal functioning urethra. Also we looked critically at the effects of the severity of hypospadias, the type of repair and the experience of the surgeon on the outcome. Materials and Methods: From 1987 to 1996 we performed 578 primary hypospadias repairs. The type and surgical results

A. M. A. Ghali; E. M. A. El-Malik; T. Al-Malki; A. H. Ibrahim

1999-01-01

9

Acute postoperative complications of hypospadias repair  

PubMed Central

Purpose Complications in hypospadias surgery are higher than other reconstructive procedures. The incidence of complications can be reduced if proper preventive measures are taken. The review aims to highlight incidences, causes, and preventive measures of acute complications of hypospadias repair. Materials and Methods Literature reports were reviewed in Pubmed by giving the key word acute complications of hypospadias repair, wound infection, wound dehiscence, flap necrosis, edema, penile torsion, urethral fistula, bleeding and hematoma and urethral stents problems. Summaries of all articles were reviewed with full text of relevant article and results were analyzed. Results Besides mentioning the complications of hypospadias repair in individual articles on the subject, we did not come across any separate article on this subject in the published English literature. Fistula is the commonest complication followed by edema and penile torsion. Conclusions Most acute complications can be prevented with adherence to principles of plastic and microsurgery, meticulous preoperative planning, and judicious postoperative care. Deviation from these principles may lead to disaster and even failure of the repair. The aim in hypospadias surgery should be following these principles and bring down the complication rates < 5% in distal hypospadias and < 10% in proximal hypospadias. PMID:19468404

Bhat, Amilal; Mandal, Arup Kumar

2008-01-01

10

Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective. The great possibility of variations in the clinical presentation of hypospadia, makes its therapy challenging. This has led to the development of a number of techniques for hypospadia repair. This article assesses past and present concepts and operative techniques with the aim of broadening our understanding of this malformation. Materials and Methods. The article not only reviews hypospadia in general with its development and clinical presentation as well as historical and current concepts in hypospadiologie on the basis of available literature, but it is also based on our own clinical experience in the repair of this malformation. Results and Conclusion. The fact that there are great variations in the presentation and extent of malformations existent makes every hypospadia individual and a proposal of a universal comprehensive algorithm for hypospadia repair difficult. The Snodgrass technique has found wide popularity for the repair of distal hypospadias. As far as proximal hypospadias are concerned, their repair is more challenging because it not only involves urethroplasty, but can also, in some cases, fulfil the dimensions of a complex genital reconstruction. Due to the development of modern operating materials and an improvement in current surgical techniques, there has been a significant decrease in the complication rates. Nonetheless, there still is room and, therefore, need for further improvement in this field. PMID:18989369

Djakovic, N.; Nyarangi-Dix, J.; Özturk, A.; Hohenfellner, M.

2008-01-01

11

A new technique for hypospadias one-stage repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for hypospadias one-stage repair is described. The operation is based on a vertical flap with subcutaneous pedicle, from both dorsal and ventral preputial surfaces, used to reconstruct the new urethra. This technique is useful in distal as well as in proximal hypospadias; it gives good results with complete relief of the chordee and the newly formed meatus

N. Scuderi; G. V. Campus

1983-01-01

12

Risk Factors for the Development of Urethrocutaneous Fistula after Hypospadias Repair: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for urethrocutaneous fistula development after hypospadias repair. Materials and Methods Between January 1990 and May 2010, 348 patients underwent hypospadias repair. This study included 294 patients who were followed up for more than 6 months. Potential risk factors for the development of fistula after operation included age, location of hypospadias, type of hypospadias repair, suture materials and methods, methods and duration of catheterization, combined congenital urologic disorders, timing of presentation and repair of fistula, and location of fistula. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Out of 294 patients, 63 patients (21.4%, 63/294) developed urethrocutaneous fistulas after hypospadias repair. In the univariate analysis, fistula formation was statistically related with type of hypospadias and type of hypospadias repair. In the multivariate analysis with stratification by hypospadias site, however, only the location of hypospadias was a significant independent risk factor in urethrocutaneous fistula development after hypospadias repair (p<0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that the risk of developing urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias repair is associated with the location of hypospadias (more proximal-type hypospadias). Type of hypospadias repair, suture materials, suture techniques, and number of other combined urologic disorders were not related to the development of urethrocutaneous fistulas. PMID:23136632

Chung, Jae-Wook; Choi, Seock Hwan; Kim, Bum Soo

2012-01-01

13

Hypospadias repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... penis, or along the inferior aspect of the shaft of the penis. Hypospadias is usually associated with an abnormal curvature ... done while the child is deep asleep and pain-free (using general ... curvature of the penis, and to create a new urethra at the ...

14

Outcome of pediatric hypospadias repair in adulthood  

PubMed Central

Purpose To review the evolution of the technique of hypospadias repair. Methods A search of Pubmed, Medline and the Journal of Pediatric Urology was performed, and papers dealing with surgical techniques for hypospadias repair were critally reviewed. Special emphasis was given to papers on the effects in the long term of hypospadias repair on voiding and sexual dysfunction. Results The techniques for hypospadias repair have evolved over the years. The most popular technique now is tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Long-term results with the use of the new techniques of the hypospadias repair in terms of voiding and sexual problems should be addressed. Conclusion There is a need for valid studies on the outcomes of hypospadias repair in adults that were performed in childhood in terms of cosmetic appearance, voiding and sexual performance. PMID:24198614

Chertin, Boris; Prat, Dan; Shenfeld, Ofer Z

2010-01-01

15

The MAGPI hypospadias repair in 1111 patients.  

PubMed Central

The meatal advancement and glanduloplasty (MAGPI) procedure was first described in 1981 for the repair of distal hypospadias. In the past decade, our experience has grown to more than 1000 procedures. An excellent surgical result requires careful case selection, avoiding cases with thin or rigid ventral parameatal skin or a meatus too proximal or too wide. The glans wrap to support the advanced ventral urethral wall requires a solid tissue approximation in two layers to prevent a retrusive meatus. Meatal stenosis can be avoided by assuring an adequate dorsal Heineke-Mikulicz tissue rearrangement and making an incision from within the urethral meatus well distally into the urethral groove. The MAGPI procedure routinely is performed on an outpatient basis without any urinary diversion. Our experience in 1111 cases during 12 years has required a second procedure in 1.2% of cases. The overall success rate with the MAGPI procedure suggests that it should continue to be used in the repair of distal hypospadias. Images Figs. 2A-I. PMID:2039293

Duckett, J W; Snyder, H M

1991-01-01

16

A versatile two-stage hypospadias repair.  

PubMed

One-stage repair of hypospadias is currently fashionable and is undoubtedly attractive in concept but the methods that are presently available all have inherent limitations and drawbacks. The author presents a two-stage method which offers a unique combination of versatility, reliability and refinement, and can be used for almost any hypospadias deformity, be it primary repair in a child or salvage surgery in an adult. A personal series of 600 cases is analysed. PMID:7551506

Bracka, A

1995-09-01

17

Hypospadias Repair: A Single Centre Experience  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital's database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka) and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate) repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF). The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (P-value = 0.0086). The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair (P value = 0.0001). Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications. PMID:24579043

Majeed, Abdul; Ullah, Hidayat; Naz, Shazia; Shah, Syed Asif; Tahmeed, Tahmeedullah; Yousaf, Kanwal; Tahir, Muhammad

2014-01-01

18

Hypospadias repair: a single centre experience.  

PubMed

Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital's database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka) and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate) repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF). The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (P-value = 0.0086). The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair (P value = 0.0001). Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications. PMID:24579043

Khan, Mansoor; Majeed, Abdul; Hayat, Waqas; Ullah, Hidayat; Naz, Shazia; Shah, Syed Asif; Tahmeed, Tahmeedullah; Yousaf, Kanwal; Tahir, Muhammad

2014-01-01

19

The forked flap repair for hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The “Forked-Flap” repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip–flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit's prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed. PMID:23449992

Chadha, Anil; Singh, Amitabh

2012-01-01

20

Redo hypospadias repair: experience at a tertiary care children's hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective Treatment of patients with failed hypospadias repairs can be challenging. Our study aimed to determine the best type of redo repair depending on the location and size of the urethral meatus, the status of the urethral plate and genital skin, the severity of residual chordee and the amount of scar tissue. Methods The Institutional Review Board approved our retrospective chart review of patients who had a redo hypospadias repair at our institution over the past 6 years. We recorded the type and number of previous repair(s), the type and number of redo procedure(s),as well as the complications and functional outcomes. Results There were 28 patients, aged 1–12 (mean 3.8) years, with failed hypospadias repairs. The initial severity of the hypospadias were as follows: perineal (1), penoscrotal (9), proximal shaft (1), mid-shaft (9), distal shaft (4), coronal (3) and mega-meatus (1). Of all the patients, 24 had 1 repair, 3 had 2 repairs and 1 had 3 repairs. The initial repairs comprised 11 tubularized island flaps (TIFs), 8 Snodgrass tubularized incised plate (TIP) techniques, 5 Mathieu repairs, 1 Meatal Advancement and GlanuloPlasty Incorporated (MAGPI) technique, 1 Pyramid, 1 Arap technique and 1 Thiersch-Duplay repair. Twenty-one of 28 patients had 1 redo operation, 5 had 2 redo operations, 1 had 3 redo operations and 1 had 4 redo operations, for a total of 38 redo operations. Of these, 26 were TIP techniques (68.4%), 3 were Mathieu (7.9%), 3 were TIF repairs (7.9%), 2 were onlay island flaps (5.3%) and 4 were buccal mucosal grafts (10.5%). Follow-up was 1–5 years (mean 3.5 yr). The final locations of urethral meatus included glans (18), corona (6), mid-shaft (3) and penoscrotal (1). Complications after redo surgery comprised 4 urethrocutaneous fistulae, 2 meatal stenoses, 1 urethral stricture and 3 dehiscences. Sixteen patients were followed with yearly uroflow with a Q-mean (mean uroflow) range of 3–14 mL/s (mean 8.1 mL/s). Conclusion The majority of hypospadias failures can be salvaged with one operation. The TIP repair is our procedure of choice in most cases. In the setting of a poor urethral plate, TIF or buccal mucosa may be necessary. Complications are not infrequent in redo procedures. PMID:18542762

Al-Sayyad, Ahmed; Pike, John G; Leonard, Michael P

2007-01-01

21

One-stage repair of severe hypospadias using modified tubularized transverse preputial island flap with V-incision suture  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAlthough hypospadias repair for preserving the urethral plate is popular among pediatric urologists, applying this procedure to severe hypospadias is controversial. We report the outcome of applying additional modifications to the modified tubularized transverse preputial island flap (TPIF) procedure reported previously [Patel RP, Shukla AR, Austin JC and Canning DA. Modified tubularized transverse preputial island flap repair for severe proximal

Katsuya Aoki; Kiyohide Fujimoto; Katsunori Yoshida; Yoshihiko Hirao; Katsuhiko Ueoka

2008-01-01

22

Hypospadias and Residential Proximity to Pesticide Applications  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. METHODS: The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother’s residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. CONCLUSIONS: Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations. PMID:24167181

Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J.; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

23

Hypospadias repair: the two-stage alternative.  

PubMed

One-stage repairs for hypospadias are attractive in concept and are currently in vogue, but many surgeons remain unhappy with their inherent limitations and drawbacks. Two-stage repair, reconstructing the new urethra with a full-thickness skin graft, offers a realistic alternative and the method described here can be applied to almost any degree of deformity, be it a simple primary case or salvage of a multi-operated and skin-deficient hypospadias 'cripple'. From a personal series of over 600 cases the author concludes that a two-stage operation is an acceptable price to pay for a repair that offers unique versatility, excellent reliability and a sophistication of function and aesthetics that is hard to achieve with one-stage methods. PMID:8535768

Bracka, A

1995-12-01

24

Two-stage repair in hypospadias  

PubMed Central

We provide the reader with a nonsystematic review concerning the use of the two-stage approach in hypospadias repairs. A one-stage approach using the tubularized incised plate urethroplasty is a well-standardized approach for the most cases of hypospadias. Nevertheless, in some primary severe cases, in most hypospadias failures and in selected patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans a two-stage approach is preferable. During the first stage the penis is straightened, if necessary and the urethral plate is substituted with a graft of either genital (prepuce) or extragenital origin (oral mucosa or postauricular skin). During the second stage, performed around 6 months later, urethroplasty is accomplished by graft tubulization. Graft take is generally excellent, with only few cases requiring an additional inlay patch at second stage due to graft contracture. A staged approach allows for both excellent cosmetic results and a low morbidity including an overall 6% fistula rate and 2% stricture rate. Complications usually occur in the first year after the second stage and are higher in secondary repairs. Complications tend to decrease as experience increases and use of additional waterproofing layers contributes to reduce the fistula rate significantly. Long-term cosmetic results are excellent, but voiding and ejaculatory problems may occur in as much as 40% of cases if a long urethral tube is constructed. The procedure has a step learning curve but because of its technical simplicity does not require to be confined only to highly specialized centers. PMID:19468402

Haxhirexha, K. N.; Castagnetti, M.; Rigamonti, W.; Manzoni, G. A.

2008-01-01

25

Combination of Tubularized Island Flap and Ventral Skin Flap Techniques in Single-Stage Correction of Severe Proximal Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the success of the combined tubularized island flap (Duckett technique) and Thiersch-Duplay techniques in one-stage correction of proximal hypospadias. Methods: Thirty-four patients underwent surgical treatment for penoscrotal hypospadias in the last 9 years. Combined tubularized island flap (Duckett technique) and tubularized ventral skin (Thiersch-Duplay) procedures were performed in each case. The proximal urethra was repaired by the

Tugrul Tiryaki

2010-01-01

26

THE 2STAGE HYPOSPADIAS REPAIR. IS IT A MISNOMER?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:The repair of penoscrotal or perineal hypospadias with severe chordee may require division of the urethral plate to facilitate repair. While a 2-stage approach to these difficult cases has been advocated, we have used a modified tubularized transverse preputial island flap (TPIF) repair as a 1-stage procedure. We compare our results with both procedures.

ASEEM R. SHUKLA; RAKESH P. PATEL; DOUGLAS A. CANNING

2004-01-01

27

Hypospadias repair using a double onlay preputial flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an anatomical view, a more reasonable blood supply can be achieved in hypospadias repair using a double-faced onlay\\u000a flap. A urethroplasty was performed in 15 patients with middle or posterior hypospadias using a double-faced onlay preputial\\u000a flap (DOPF). In this method, the urethral plate is preserved and a double-faced preputial flap is developed. The inner face\\u000a of the flap

T. W. Chin; C. S. Liu; C. F. Wei

2001-01-01

28

Urethral reconstruction following an unsuccessful one-stage hypospadias repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, essentially all cases of hypospadias may be repaired in a single stage on an outpatient basis or with a single night's stay. Urethrocutaneous fistula, anastomotic stricture, and meatal stenosis are the most common complications. A urethral diverticulum may develop following a transverse preputial island flap if the caliber of the neourethra is too large or secondary to postoperative

Jack S. Elder; John W. Duckett

1987-01-01

29

Modified Byars’ flaps for securing skin closure in proximal and mid-penile hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe a modification for skin closure combined with tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty in the repair of proximal and mid-penile hypospadias. Patients and methods: The study included 47 patients with nondistal hypospadias who underwent a primary TIP procedure from September 2007 to May 2010. Meatal position was mid-shaft (n = 20), penoscrotal (n = 20), and scrotal (n = 7). The patients in the study were divided into two groups according to a modification in the technique of skin closure, which involved incising the prepuce vertically into two halves, then harvesting the dartos flap for covering the repair from one half, leaving the other preputial half to reconstruct the ventral skin without compromising its blood supply. Results: In the standard procedure (n = 19 patients), complications included glanular dehiscence (10.5%), glanular fistula (5%), urethrocutaneous fistula (10.5%), and skin complications (21%). In the modified procedure (n = 28 patients), complications included glanular dehiscence (7%) and glanular fistula (3.6%), but no skin complications or urethrocutaneous fistulae occurred. Conclusion: The modified Byars’ flaps is a useful alternative for skin closure during proximal and mid-shaft TIP urethroplasty, with fewer complications and acceptable cosmetic outcome. PMID:22164194

2011-01-01

30

Modified ASOPA procedure (Hodgson XX) achieves the goals of hypospadias repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several vascularized island flap procedures have been described for the repair of severe hypospadias with chordee. The modified ASOPA (Hodgson XX) procedure, a variant of transverse island flap, employs an inner preputial skin tube for the neourethra while providing simultaneous skin coverage. Since 1988, more than 240 hypospadias repairs have been performed at the authors' institution, including 15 modified ASOPA

P. I Ellsworth; M. A Barraza; P. S Stevens

1996-01-01

31

[Management of hypospadias].  

PubMed

Hypospadias are diagnosed at birth. Counseling of the parents should be performed in detail. Isolated hypospadias has to be differentiated from disorders of sexual development which are mostly associated with cryptorchidism and micropenis. The operation is timed around the first birthday. Preoperative hormonal treatment should be reserved for infants with a small glans penis or for repeat surgery. The most popular method in distal hypospadias repair is preservation of the urethral plate and tubularization with or without midline incision. In proximal cases with severe curvature a two-stage procedure may be preferable. Dripping-stent urinary drainage into a double diaper is the best method in infants. The complication rate after primary distal repair is reported in the literature to be less than 10% and after staged procedures in proximal hypospadias over 25%. PMID:24718908

Riccabona, M

2014-05-01

32

THE ISLAND TUBE AND ISLAND ONLAY HYPOSPADIAS REPAIRS OFFER EXCELLENT LONG-TERM OUTCOMES: A 14YEAR FOLLOWUP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:We have used an inner preputial flap as a transverse island tube (IT) for the 1-stage repair of proximal hypospadias when the urethral plate could not be preserved and as an island onlay flap (IO) when the urethral plate could be preserved for more than 20 years at our institution. We report long-term followup and an outcome comparison of these

RAKESH P. PATEL; ASEEM R. SHUKLA; HOWARD M. SNYDER

2004-01-01

33

Surgical technique for antegrade dissection of the preputial vascular pedicle during hypospadias repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveBoth layers of the prepuce can be used as vascularized flaps in hypospadias repair. The aim of this communication is to describe an antegrade approach to the harvesting of the vascular pedicle.

Hrair-George O. Mesrobian; Douglas A. Canning

34

Snodgrass Hypospadias Repair with Ventral Based Dartos Flap in Combination with Mucosal Collars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:In this study, we report our results of Snodgrass hypospadias repair in conjunction with use of ventral based vascularized dartos flaps. In all repairs, mucosal collars were created and incorporated into the repair to create a more normal appearing circumcised penis, as described by Firlit.

Tarkan Soygur; Nihat Arikan; Ali E. Zumrutbas; Omer Gulpinar

2005-01-01

35

Mathieu repair of distal and midshaft hypospadias: risks and benefits of foreskin reconstruction versus circumcision  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare the risks and benefits of Mathieu repair of hypospadias with or without circumcision in consecutive operated cases. Methods Eighty-six children with midshaft or distal hypospadias were randomly divided into two groups and underwent circumcision (Group A) or preputial reconstruction (Group B) during hypospadias repair. Postoperative complications, outcomes, and parental satisfaction were assessed for circumcised and uncircumcised patients. All patients with midshaft or distal hypospadias with or without minimal chordee were included. Results No statistically significant differences in urethral complications were found between the two groups. Meatal stenosis occurred in one case in Group A and one case in Group B. Fistulae occurred in five cases in Group A and six cases in Group B. Urethral dehiscence occurred in no case in either group. No case of phimosis was seen in Group B. After a mean follow-up of 6 months, all parents of Group A cases stated that they were satisfied with the circumcision for religious and/or social reasons, but no parents of Group B cases were satisfied with preputioplasty (P ? 0.05). No case of hypospadias repair failure was seen in our operated cases. Finally, no cases in Group B required redo hypospadias surgery. Conclusion Mathieu repair with synchronous circumcision is feasible in all patients with distal or midshaft hypospadias with or without minimal chordee, and should be considered in accordance with surgeon preference. In the case of prepuce preservation, parents should be informed that there is a benefit of tissue banking for probable redo hypospadias repair but with an increased risk of complications and a need for another procedure, ie, circumcision. PMID:24198642

Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Gilani, Mohammad Ali Sadighi; Shahrokh, Hossein

2011-01-01

36

Management of severe hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Many classifications of hypospadias have been published, mainly based on the position of the ectopic meatus, which is an insufficient criterion to define the severity of this malformation. What really marks the proximal landmark of this malformation is the level of division of the corpus spongiosum, which is always proximal to the ectopic meatus. In this article, we will focus on the most severe forms of hypospadias which include those with a proximal division of corpus spongiosum (below the midshaft), important chordee and a poor development of the ventral radius, reflecting a marked hypovirilization of the genital tubercle, and cripple hypospadias resulting from several previous failed surgical procedures. The principle of hypospadias surgery will be reviewed together with the outcome of the current surgical techniques. Furthermore, common complications will be outlined. There is no minor or major hypospadias and all forms require a solid experience of the surgeon, as minor looking hypospadias may turn out to be far more complex to repair than they appear once the ventral radius of the penis has been dissected. PMID:19468403

Catti, Massimo; Demčde, Delphine; Valmalle, Anne-Frédérique; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Hameury, Frédéric; Mouriquand, Pierre

2008-01-01

37

Management of severe hypospadias.  

PubMed

Many classifications of hypospadias have been published, mainly based on the position of the ectopic meatus, which is an insufficient criterion to define the severity of this malformation. What really marks the proximal landmark of this malformation is the level of division of the corpus spongiosum, which is always proximal to the ectopic meatus. In this article, we will focus on the most severe forms of hypospadias which include those with a proximal division of corpus spongiosum (below the midshaft), important chordee and a poor development of the ventral radius, reflecting a marked hypovirilization of the genital tubercle, and cripple hypospadias resulting from several previous failed surgical procedures. The principle of hypospadias surgery will be reviewed together with the outcome of the current surgical techniques. Furthermore, common complications will be outlined. There is no minor or major hypospadias and all forms require a solid experience of the surgeon, as minor looking hypospadias may turn out to be far more complex to repair than they appear once the ventral radius of the penis has been dissected. PMID:19468403

Catti, Massimo; Demčde, Delphine; Valmalle, Anne-Frédérique; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Hameury, Frédéric; Mouriquand, Pierre

2008-04-01

38

Adult Urethral Stricture Disease after Childhood Hypospadias Repair  

PubMed Central

Background. Adult patients with urethral stricture after childhood hypospadias surgeries are infrequently discussed in the literature. We report our experience in treating such patients. Materials and Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed. From 2002 through 2007, nine consecutive adult patients who had current urethral stricture and had undergone childhood hypospadias surgeries were included. All adult urethral strictures were managed by a single surgeon. Results. Mean patient age was 38.9 years old. The lag time of urethral stricture presentation ranged from 25 to 57 years after primary hypospadias surgery, with an average of 36 years. Stricture length ranged from 1 to 17 cm (mean: 10.3 cm). Open graft-based urethroplasties were performed in 4/9 cases. Salvage perineal urethrostomy was performed in 2/9 cases. Another 3 cases chose to undergo repeat urethrotomy or dilatations—none of these patients was cured by such treatment. Complications included one urethrostomy stenosis and one urinary tract infection. Conclusion. Urethral stricture may occur decades after initial hypospadias surgery. It can be the most severe form of anterior urethral stricture, and may eventually require salvage treatment such as a perineal urethrostomy. Patients undergoing hypospadias surgery should receive lifelong follow-up protocol to detect latent urethral strictures. PMID:19009025

Tang, Shou-Hung; Hammer, Clarisa C.; Doumanian, Leo; Santucci, Richard A.

2008-01-01

39

Two-stage urethroplasty is a better choice for proximal hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection: a single-center experience  

PubMed Central

It is still debatable whether single- or two-stage urethroplasty is a more suitable technique for treating hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection. This retrospective study evaluated these two techniques. A total of 66 patients of proximal hypospadias with severe chordee were divided into two groups according to the techniques they underwent: 32 and 34 patients underwent single-stage (Duckett) or two-stage urethroplasty, respectively. Median ages at presentation were 7.5 years and 11.0 years in single-stage and two-stage repair groups, respectively. Median follow-ups were 28.5 months (20?60 months) and 35 months (18?60 months) in the single-stage and two-stage groups, respectively. The meatus of the neourethra was located at the top of the glans in all patients. No recurrence of chordee was found during follow-up, and all patients or parents were satisfied with the penile length and appearance. Complications were encountered in eight patients in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between the two techniques. The late complication rate of stricture was higher after the single-stage procedure (18.75% vs 0%). The complication rate after single-stage repairs was significantly lower in the prepubescent subgroup (10.52%) than in the postpubescent cohort (46.15%). These results indicate that the urethral plate transection effectively corrects severe chordee associated with proximal hypospadias during the intermediate follow-up period. Considering the higher rate of stricture after single-stage urethroplasty, two-stage urethroplasty is recommended for proximal hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection. PMID:25248656

Zheng, Da-Chao; Yao, Hai-Jun; Cai, Zhi-Kang; Da, Jun; Chen, Qi; Chen, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Ming-Xi; Lu, Mu-Jun; Wang, Zhong

2015-01-01

40

Repair of extensive perineal hypospadias in a Boston terrier using tubularized incised plate urethroplasty  

PubMed Central

This report provides a detailed description of the surgical repair of perineal hypospadias in a Boston terrier. A 2-year patient follow-up, including diagnostic data demonstrating urethral patency and resolution of recurrent urocystitis and urine skin scald are reported. PMID:19949553

Adelsberger, Mary E.; Smeak, Daniel D.

2009-01-01

41

Hypospadias Repair: An Overview of the Actual Techniques  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital genital anomalies for which surgery early in life is indicated. The surgical treatment is changing progressively, often by repeating treatment strategies that have been used decades ago. Indeed, historically two-stage procedures were replaced by one-stage procedures and nowadays two-stage procedures gain new interest. The same for reconstructions using the urethral plate, which decades ago were based on the Thiersch Duplay principle. In the 1980s, preputial onlay flaps were most often used and today we see a new interest in the use of the urethral plate. The actual surgical approach to hypospadias is described and technical details are given. PMID:22851912

Subramaniam, Ramnath; Spinoit, Anne Francoise; Hoebeke, Piet

2011-01-01

42

Hypospadias repair: an overview of the actual techniques.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital genital anomalies for which surgery early in life is indicated. The surgical treatment is changing progressively, often by repeating treatment strategies that have been used decades ago. Indeed, historically two-stage procedures were replaced by one-stage procedures and nowadays two-stage procedures gain new interest. The same for reconstructions using the urethral plate, which decades ago were based on the Thiersch Duplay principle. In the 1980s, preputial onlay flaps were most often used and today we see a new interest in the use of the urethral plate. The actual surgical approach to hypospadias is described and technical details are given. PMID:22851912

Subramaniam, Ramnath; Spinoit, Anne Francoise; Hoebeke, Piet

2011-08-01

43

Glanuloplasty by ventral skin interposition in hypospadias repair: preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  It was our aim in this study to develop a technique that is rather simple, overcomes the problems of Devine and Horton glanuloplasty\\u000a in patients with small glans, and is flexible to be tailored to any hypospadias surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 11 patients were included in this preliminary report. A triangular skin flap was interpositioned between the developed\\u000a glanular wings

Hassan Shaker; Mahmoud Ezzat

2009-01-01

44

Utilization of urethral plate in hypospadias surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Recognition the urethral plate comprises tissues that normally should have created the urethra was an important milestone in hypospadias surgery, giving rise to new operative repairs - most notably the tubularized incised plate technique. This article reviews the current state of the art for hypospadias repair using tubularized, incised plate (TIP). Materials and Methods Personal experience and literature reports were reviewed to summarize use of TIP urethroplasty for distal, proximal, and re-operative hypospadias repairs. Results The TIP can be used to correct all distal and most proximal hypospadias. The major contraindication is ventral curvature that leads to urethral plate transection for straightening, which is only necessary in some proximal cases. Reoperations can also be performed using TIP provided the urethral plate has been maintained and is not grossly scarred. Complication rates are comparable to previously used techniques, while cosmetic appearance after TIP is considered superior to other available procedures. Conclusions Recognition of the urethral plate and its incorporation into the neourethra has revolutionized hypospadias repair. The most commonly used operative procedure today is TIP. PMID:19468397

Snodgrass, Warren T.

2008-01-01

45

The Cosmetic Results of a Simple Method for Repairing Preputial Skin Defect in Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hypospadias is a common birth defect of the penis. Besides the abnormal position of the urethral opening, there is usually a ventral preputial defect with preputial redundancy in dorsal shaft. There are many flap procedures for correcting this defect. Here, we present our experience of skin coverage procedure with better cosmetic results. Methods: It is a prospective study on patients with mid-shaft to glandular hypospadias operated from June 2008 to December 2012. The operations were performed by one surgeon in two hospitals and the cosmetic results were evaluated by the surgeon, parents, and another pediatric surgeon by a satisfaction questionnaire. In this procedure, inner prepuce was incised curvilinearly, remaining 5 mm in medial and 8 mm in lateral aspects of the inner prepuce. For skin repair, dorsal flaps were approximated in midline along median raphe. Findings: Sixty-three patients with mean age of 25.75±8.46 (7-93) months were followed up for 7.06±3.34 (2-15( months. There were 4 complications. The overall satisfaction with penile skin coverage was 93.7% for parents and 98.4% for surgeons. Patients’ age and primary site of meatus had a significant correlation with cosmetic results (P<0.05), while urethroplasty techniques and post-operative complications were not significant. Conclusion: Reapproximation of dorsal flaps in midline is a simple method and can be used in most cases of uncomplicated primary hypospadias. By this technique a more normal appearance can be achieved. PMID:25755862

Ghavami-Adel, Maryam; Mollaeean, Mansour; Hooman, Nakysa

2014-01-01

46

General considerations in hypospadias surgery  

PubMed Central

Nonsystemic review of the literature was done for timing of surgery, preoperative evaluation and plan, anesthesia, suture materials, magnification, tissue handling, stent and diversion problems, intra and postoperative care, dressing, and follow-up protocol. The best time for hypospadias repair is between 6 and 18 months. Preoperative evaluation in proximal hypospadias includes hormonal and radiological examination for intersex disorders, as well as for upper tract anomalies along with routine evaluation. General anesthesia is a rule but local blocks help in reducing the postoperative pain. Magnification, gentle tissue handling, use of microsurgical instruments, and appropriate-sized stent for adequate period help in improving the results. Hormonal stimulation is useful to improve growth and vascularity of urethral plate and decrease the severity of chordee in poorly developed urethral plate with severe curvature. Urethral plate preservation urethroplasty with spongioplasty is the procedure of choice in both proximal and distal hypospadias. Algorithms are proposed for management of hypospadias both with curvature and without curvature. Two-stage urethroplasty has its own indications. A good surgical outcome may be achieved following basic surgical principles of microsurgery, fine suture materials, choosing one or two-stage repair as appropriate, proper age of surgery, and with good postoperative care. Future of hypospadiology is bright with up coming newer modalities like laser shouldering, robotics, and tissue engineering. PMID:19468396

Bhat, Amilal

2008-01-01

47

The transverse outer preputial (TOP) island flap: an easy method to cover urethroplasties and skin defects in hypospadias repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe transverse outer preputial (TOP) island flap, a simple procedure inspired by the double-faced island flap, is proposed as a substitute for the Byars repair to provide skin coverage for most of the current reconstructive techniques for hypospadias.

R.-B. Galifer; N. Kalfa

2005-01-01

48

Long-term functional outcome and satisfaction of patients with hypospadias repaired in childhood  

PubMed Central

Introduction Potential long-term sequelae of hypospadias and its surgical correction include difficulties in voiding, sexual function, psychosexual adjustment and self-appraisal. These difficulties often evolve long after surgical repair as children grow to adulthood. Despite this, patient-driven data on long-term functional outcomes and satisfaction are limited, leaving the true success of hypospadias surgery essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to address these deficiencies. Methods We conducted a chart review for all patients operated on by a single urologist from 1981 to 1988. Extensive efforts were made to obtain accurate current address information for patients. A database of patient demographics and pathology, operative details and complications was created. A 22-item questionnaire was mailed to study subjects. Telephone follow-up by an independent research nurse bolstered response rates. Responses from returned questionnaires were pooled and analyzed. Results The chart review included 115 patients. Of 100 patients (with address information) who were sent questionnaires, 28 ultimately responded. The chart review group was comparable to groups in other published studies. Despite a slightly higher initial major complication rate (57.2%), respondents reported few long-term complications (11% fistula, 29% persistent chordee and 10% stricture) and excellent urinary and sexual functional results. The most common functional complaints were spraying and hesitancy during micturition. Overall, 86% of patients were satisfied with their surgical result, and 52% wished they had been provided longer follow-up. Conclusion Long-term outcomes data are critical to an honest account of success rates for hypospadias surgery. Obtaining these data remains challenging. In this series, despite high initial complication rates, most patients reported excellent long-term functional results and were quite satisfied with their overall outcome. PMID:18542723

Hoag, Chris C; Gotto, Geoff T; Morrison, Kevin B; Coleman, Gerald U; MacNeily, Andrew E

2008-01-01

49

Two-stage hypospadias repair: audit in a district general hospital.  

PubMed

The number of techniques for hypospadias repair is testament to the challenges associated with this condition. In 1994, the senior author undertook an audit of his repairs using the van der Meulen [Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 59 (1977) 20615] technique and determined that the revision rate of 11% was unsatisfactory and the cosmetic result sub-optimal. He, therefore, retrained and began in 1995, using the two-stage technique popularised by Bracka [Br. J. Plast. Surg. 48 (1995) 345]. We undertook an audit of all corrections performed in the period from September 1995 to March 2002. The computer database in the main theatre suite was used to identify all patients on whom such a repair had been undertaken and those notes retrieved. Data was collected on a number of variables including age at operations, complications such as urinary tract infection and fistulae, and total number of corrective operations. One hundred and nineteen patients were identified, of which seven had no records available. Of the remaining 112, 81 were primary repairs, in whom the complication rate was 2.5% for stage I (graft loss) and 9.8% for stage II (fistula rate 7.4%, stenosis 1.2%, baggy urethra requiring reconstruction 1.2%). The remaining 31 patients were those with unsatisfactory single-stage repairs and in this group, graft loss was seen in three cases (10%). The fistula rate was 4/31 (12.9%) and the stenosis rate 2/31 (6.5%). These results compare favourably with a number of published series from surgeons who have super-specialised in this field. We conclude that the two-stage repair is a useful and reliable technique in the hands of a Plastic Surgeon who has a broader interest. PMID:14615249

Price, R D; Lambe, G F; Jones, R P

2003-12-01

50

Long-term results with a one-stage complex primary hypospadias repair strategy (the three-in-one technique)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeComplex primary hypospadias repair that warrants urethral plate division is treated mostly in two steps, not necessarily in two surgeries. Our aim was to review long-term results with a one-stage strategy based on reconstruction of the urethral plate with buccal mucosa graft and onlay transverse preputial flap anastomosis protected by a tunica vaginalis flap (the three-in-one concept).

Antonio Macedo; Riberto Liguori; Sergio L. Ottoni; Gilmar Garrone; Eulalio Damazio; Ricardo M. Mattos; Valdemar Ortiz

2011-01-01

51

Endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion.  

PubMed

Hamstring muscle injuries are common in athletes and mostly consist of sprains at the myotendinous junction, which often respond well to conservative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, though less common, can be severely debilitating. This injury is often seen in water skiers but has been described in many other sports and in middle-aged patients. Complete avulsions in young and active individuals do not respond well to conservative treatment and may require surgical repair. In contrast, many partial tears may be treated nonoperatively. However, when symptoms continue despite a trial of extensive therapy, surgery may be warranted. Traditional surgery for proximal hamstring repair is performed with the patient in the prone position with an incision made longitudinally or along the gluteal fold, followed by identification of the torn tendons and fixation to the ischial tuberosity. We describe a novel surgical technique for endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. PMID:23767008

Domb, Benjamin G; Linder, Dror; Sharp, Kinzie G; Sadik, Adam; Gerhardt, Michael B

2013-02-01

52

Endoscopic Repair of Proximal Hamstring Avulsion  

PubMed Central

Hamstring muscle injuries are common in athletes and mostly consist of sprains at the myotendinous junction, which often respond well to conservative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, though less common, can be severely debilitating. This injury is often seen in water skiers but has been described in many other sports and in middle-aged patients. Complete avulsions in young and active individuals do not respond well to conservative treatment and may require surgical repair. In contrast, many partial tears may be treated nonoperatively. However, when symptoms continue despite a trial of extensive therapy, surgery may be warranted. Traditional surgery for proximal hamstring repair is performed with the patient in the prone position with an incision made longitudinally or along the gluteal fold, followed by identification of the torn tendons and fixation to the ischial tuberosity. We describe a novel surgical technique for endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. PMID:23767008

Domb, Benjamin G.; Linder, Dror; Sharp, Kinzie G.; Sadik, Adam; Gerhardt, Michael B.

2013-01-01

53

Midterm outcome of the modified Bretteville technique for hypospadias reconstruction.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a common condition affecting approximately one in 300 boys in Scotland. The functional and aesthetic outcome of the many different techniques of repair are being analysed in increasingly critical fashion. However, few techniques have been published with more than short-term follow-up data. The modified Bretteville technique is a two-stage technique that can be used for all degrees of severity of hypospadias. It has certain advantages over other single- and two-stage techniques. We present the midterm results of 74 hypospadias corrections performed by using the modified Bretteville technique. The majority of hypospadias were distal (93%), but the series includes patients with mid-shaft and proximal deformity. The mean follow-up period was 67 months (range: 5-126). The average number of procedures per patient was 2.35, and 78% of patients had only two procedures. The overall fistula rate was 5.4% and the stenosis rate was 6.8%, though this figure has fallen to 2.6% for the fistula rate (n=38) and 0% for the stenosis rate (n=38) over the most recent 5-year follow-up period. One patient needed re-repair using a Bracka technique. We believe that the modified Bretteville technique is a reliable technique for proximal, as well as distal, hypospadias with an excellent cosmetic outcome. PMID:19158007

Jeans, Lindsay; Curnier, Alain; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Stevenson, J Howard

2009-03-01

54

Challenges of surgical repair of hypospadias in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To document the presentation, outcome and challenges of management of hypospadias in a resource-limited setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  For this retrospective study we analyzed the files of all patients with hypospadias managed at the Obafemi Awolowo University\\u000a Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between 1996 and 2006. The parameters studied were the patients’ bio-data, clinical presentation,\\u000a treatment and outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  During the 10-year period

A. O. Olajide; A. O. Sowande; A. A. Salako; F. O. Olajide; O. Adejuyigbe

2009-01-01

55

Recent advances in understanding/management of hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is the second most common birth anomaly, affecting 1 of every 300 males. The abnormal position of the urinary opening, and associated downward curvature of the penis in some cases, potentially impact both urinary and sexual function. Modern surgical correction most often involves tubularization of the urethral plate, those tissues which normally should have completed urethral development. This article discusses recent progress in hypospadias repair. Prospective data collection in consecutive patients promotes better understanding of both patient and technical factors that influence surgical complications. Patients with a proximal urinary opening near or within the scrotum, those failing prior to repairs, and/or those with a small glans diameter have increased likelihood for urethroplasty complications. Quality review of reliable data led to two layer urethroplasty covered with tunica vaginalis in proximal repairs, significantly reducing postoperative fistulas. Neither preoperative androgens used to grow a small diameter glans, nor a change in sutures used to approximate the glans wings reduced wound dehiscence, but a recent technical modification of the glansplasty with more extensive dissection before suturing has. The observation that reoperation increases risk for further complications three-fold suggests the less common proximal repairs and reoperations should be subspecialized so that designated surgeons can gain greater expertise. In addition, surgeons performing hypospadias repair must better define the complications that occur so that scientific reporting of outcomes becomes more standardized. Standardized objective means to assess results are also needed so that surgeons performing different repairs can compare outcomes. PMID:25580255

Bush, Nicol

2014-01-01

56

One-stage complex primary hypospadia repair combining buccal mucosa graft, preputial flap and tunical vaginalis flap (the three-in-one technique)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveComplex hypospadia repair can be performed according to different strategies, mostly in one or two stages. We present a detailed video of one patient operated according to the three-in-one technique, which combines dorsal buccal mucosa grafting for reconstruction of the incised urethral plate and a preputial flap onlay urethroplasty covered by a tunica vaginalis graft.

Antonio Macedo; Riberto Liguori; Gilmar Garrone; Sérgio Ottoni

2011-01-01

57

Further experience with one-stage repair of severe hypospadias and scrotal transposition modifications in the technique and its result in eight cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further experience with one-stage repair of severe hypospadias and scrotal transposition performed in eight patients is reported.\\u000a Primary success was obtained in six, while one patient was cured by secondary repair. While describing the operative technique\\u000a with some modifications it was reassured that our parameatal preputial flap is a well vascularized one which can safely and\\u000a easily be constructed into

T. Koyanagi; K. Imanaka; K. Nonomura; M. Togashi; Y. Asano; K. Tanda

1988-01-01

58

A modification of the TIP procedure for distal hypospadias: The burrowing technique  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) hypospadias repair is a commonly performed procedure for hypospadias. Multiple series document excellent cosmetic outcome in conjunction with low complication rates. We describe a modification that we have named the “burrowing technique.” We believe that this technique facilitates dissection of the glans, which improves mobility, decreases tension with closure, and potentially improves outcomes. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 193 coronal or mid-shaft hypospadias repairs by a single surgeon. The first 98 were performed using the TIP procedure, then the burrowing technique was developed and a subsequent 95 were analyzed for outcomes using this modification. Urethral plate characteristics and glandular size did not influence the choice of surgical technique. Cases were selected to allow for a “learning curve,” and were consecutively accrued. None of the boys had undergone prior hypospadias surgery. Proximal 2 stage repairs and distal (glanular) repairs were excluded. Results: A total of 193 boys underwent repair, 98 with the traditional TIP procedure and 95 using the burrowing modification. In total, 37 (19.2%) patients required re-operation for either fistulas or dehiscence; 23 (23.5%) in the non-burrowing group and 14 (14.7%) in the burrowing group, odds ratio 0.54 (p = 0.10). Conclusions: The TIP procedure has revolutionized the management of distal hypospadias. The burrowing modification increases glandular mobility simplifying the procedure and demonstrates a non-statistically significant trend in reducing reoperation rates. PMID:25024797

Wishart, Erin D.; Metcalfe, Peter D.

2014-01-01

59

A modified tubularised incised plate urethroplasty technique and a revised hypospadias algorithm  

PubMed Central

To simplify and standardize surgical management of hypospadias, a modified tubularised incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass) technique has been described and a revised hypospadias management algorithm has been formulated. The study aims to evaluate the viability of the described procedure in different types of hypospadias and tests the validity of the algorithm. The modification described is recruitment of penile and glandular skin lateral to the urethral plate to facilitate tubularisation. The algorithm starts with penile degloving with preservation of urethral plate. Snodgrass repair was done in cases with no chordee and where skin chordee resolved by skin take down. Modified Snodgrass repair was done in cases where urethral plate was narrow. Another modification proposed by us is single layer penile skin closure instead of an added dartos flap, which was done in both classical and modified Snodgrass repair. Cases of severe chordee not resolved by skin take down were repaired by transverse preputial island flap (TPIF) and Bracka's technique. Dorsal plication was not used as an orthoplasty modality. It was possible to repair 68.89% of the cases by Snodgrass repair. These patients either had no chordee or had superficial skin tethering (skin chordee) which resolved on degolving. All these cases were coronal, distal and mid penile hypospadias. Remaining cases were mid, proximal and penoscrotal with true fibrous chordee and were repaired by TPIF or Bracka's technique. The Snodgrass technique had a fistula rate of 9.67%. Acceptably, low fistula rate and simple execution make the proposed modification of classical Snodgrass repair a viable option. The proposed algorithm proves to be a useful tool for standardised and logical preoperative decision making. It also defines indications of the three techniques vis-ŕ-vis the type of hypospadias. PMID:20924444

Bhattacharya, Sameek

2010-01-01

60

A modified tubularised incised plate urethroplasty technique and a revised hypospadias algorithm.  

PubMed

To simplify and standardize surgical management of hypospadias, a modified tubularised incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass) technique has been described and a revised hypospadias management algorithm has been formulated. The study aims to evaluate the viability of the described procedure in different types of hypospadias and tests the validity of the algorithm. The modification described is recruitment of penile and glandular skin lateral to the urethral plate to facilitate tubularisation. The algorithm starts with penile degloving with preservation of urethral plate. Snodgrass repair was done in cases with no chordee and where skin chordee resolved by skin take down. Modified Snodgrass repair was done in cases where urethral plate was narrow. Another modification proposed by us is single layer penile skin closure instead of an added dartos flap, which was done in both classical and modified Snodgrass repair. Cases of severe chordee not resolved by skin take down were repaired by transverse preputial island flap (TPIF) and Bracka's technique. Dorsal plication was not used as an orthoplasty modality. It was possible to repair 68.89% of the cases by Snodgrass repair. These patients either had no chordee or had superficial skin tethering (skin chordee) which resolved on degolving. All these cases were coronal, distal and mid penile hypospadias. Remaining cases were mid, proximal and penoscrotal with true fibrous chordee and were repaired by TPIF or Bracka's technique. The Snodgrass technique had a fistula rate of 9.67%. Acceptably, low fistula rate and simple execution make the proposed modification of classical Snodgrass repair a viable option. The proposed algorithm proves to be a useful tool for standardised and logical preoperative decision making. It also defines indications of the three techniques vis-ŕ-vis the type of hypospadias. PMID:20924444

Bhattacharya, Sameek

2010-01-01

61

Functional Evaluation of the Results of Hypospadias Surgery with Uroflowmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the role of uroflowmetry in the evaluation of the functional results of hypospadias repair we retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 patients who underwent hypospadias repair with urethral reconstruction (mean age 2.4 years and mean followup 3.6 years). Patients with a plateau pattern and a maximum flow rate 2 standard deviations below the mean for age, body surface

Jorge Tapia Garibay; Churphena Reid; Ricardo Gonzalez

1995-01-01

62

Hypospadias repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... the catheter for 4 hours. Stool gets underneath the dressing (not just on top of it). Infants may do most of their normal activities except for swimming or playing in a sandbox. It is fine to take your baby for ...

63

Staged buccal mucosa urethroplasty in reoperative hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Repeated attempts at surgical repair of serious complications involving either the partial or complete breakdown of the hypospadias repair are less likely to succeed because the penis is densely scarred, or significantly shortened, and the skin over the penis is immobile and hypovascular. Buccal mucosa (BM) has become the preferred material for reconstruction, whenever a child with skin-deficient hypospadias needs reoperation. We report the results of our surgical experience with staged reoperation using BM, in the repair of hypospadias in children with complications after multiple failed repairs. Materials and Methods: Children needing reoperation for hypospadias underwent a staged repair using buccal mucosa. The complications were noted. Results: Twenty-one children aged 3 – 16 years underwent this staged repair during the period May 2000 – April 2010. Two of these 21 children had a failed first stage. One child developed a urethro-cutaneous fistula following the second stage, which was corrected in an additional stage. Conclusions: The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in a child with hypospadias, needing a reoperation, is a successful method, with a low incidence of complications. PMID:21814309

Nerli, R. B.; Neelagund, S. E.; Guntaka, Ajay; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Siddayya C.; Jali, Sujata M.; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

2011-01-01

64

A modified Bretteville technique for hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Bretteville technique for hypospadias repair is presented. This is a two-stage repair, utilising a preputial skin flap. The modification reduces the second stage to a day-case procedure. 40 cases are reported with good early functional and aesthetic results. The only major complications were two fistulae. There were no strictures.

G. Moir; J. H. Stevenson

1996-01-01

65

Facts about Hypospadias  

MedlinePLUS

... larger image Hypospadias is a birth defect in boys in which the opening of the urethra (the ... located at the tip of the penis. In boys with hypospadias, the urethra forms abnormally during weeks ...

66

Comparison of Transverse Island Flap Onlay and Tubularized Incised-Plate Urethroplasties for Primary Proximal Hypospadias: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose This meta-analysis was conducted to compare postoperative outcomes between transverse island flap (TVIF) onlay and tubularized incised-plate (TIP) urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias. Materials and Methods A comprehensive literature search updated to 21st May 2014 was carried out for relevant studies. After literature identification and data extraction, odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidential interval (CI) was calculated to compare postoperative complication rate between TVIF onlay and TIP. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were applied to find potential affective factors. Results A total of 6 studies including 309 patients receiving TVIF onlay and 262 individuals subjected to TIP met inclusion criteria. The synthetic data suggested that TVIF onlay and TIP were comparable in terms of total complication rate (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.56–1.30, p?=?0.461), fistula (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.38–1.21, p?=?0.194), recurrent curvature (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.43–3.12, p?=?0.766), dehiscence (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.33–2.74, p?=?0.920), diverticulum (OR 1.90, 95% CI 0.53–6.78, p?=?0.321), meatal stenosis (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.20–2.77, p?=?0.651) and urethral stricture (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.41–5.50, p?=?0.545), without significant heterogeneity for each comparison group. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses revealed no significant findings. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were stable. No publication bias was detected using both funnel plot and Egger’s test. Also, there were no obvious differences observed in cosmetic and functional outcomes. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that TVIF onlay and TIP urethroplasties are clinically equivalent. Given the inherent limitations of included studies, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution and wait to be confirmed by more well-designed randomized controlled trials with high quality in the future. PMID:25197970

Xiao, Dongdong; Nie, Xin; Wang, Wenyue; Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong; Lu, Mujun

2014-01-01

67

Endoscopic Transtendinous Repair for Partial-Thickness Proximal Hamstring Tendon Tears  

PubMed Central

Partial tears of the proximal hamstring tendon can successfully be managed with tendon repair in cases of failed conservative management. As in partial-thickness gluteus medius repair, a transtendinous technique can be used to repair partial-thickness undersurface tears of the hamstring origin. This report details an endoscopic transtendinous approach for the treatment of partial-thickness hamstring tendon tears. PMID:24749032

Jackson, Timothy J.; Trenga, Anthony; Lindner, Dror; El-Bitar, Youseff; Domb, Benjamin G.

2014-01-01

68

Lack of defects in androgen production in children with hypospadias.  

PubMed

Formation of the male urethra requires the synthesis of testosterone, its activation to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital skin, and binding of DHT to the androgen receptor. Defects in any of those steps can cause hypospadias. To determine whether defects exist in the production of androgens in individuals with hypospadias, we examined enzymatic function of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), P450c17 (17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activity), and type 3 17betaHSD. Sixty-eight subjects participated in the study: 48 patients had hypospadias, and 20 had normal male genitalia. Subjects were stratified into groups based on age and severity of hypospadias, as defined by location of the urethral meatus after correction of penile curvature. Hormonal values in boys with hypospadias were compared by nonparametric analysis with those in age-matched controls. Controls excluded individuals with cryptorchidism, micropenis, known endocrine defects, or receiving steroid supplementation. Morning fasting serum levels of pregnenolone, progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, and DHT were determined. To focus on the proximal steps in androgen biosynthesis, 12 individuals with hypospadias underwent standard ACTH stimulation. No significant differences in the androgen precursors and metabolites were found between controls and individuals with hypospadias. The response to ACTH was variable without a significant difference between the patients with different degrees of hypospadias and/or published controls. These data indicate that enzymatic defects in the steroidogenic steps from cholesterol to DHT are not a common etiology of hypospadias. Routine abnormalities in the androgen biosynthetic pathway are an unlikely cause of any degree of hypospadias in boys without accompanying cryptorchidism or genital malformations. PMID:15181062

Holmes, Nicholas M; Miller, Walter L; Baskin, Laurence S

2004-06-01

69

Unfavourable results in hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias urethroplasty is considered difficult as the complications and unfavourable results are not uncommon. At the turn of the century, due to a better understanding of applied anatomy of hypospadias, new techniques were developed which significantly brought down the complication rate. However unfavourable results are still disturbing. An algorithm for selection of surgery has been presented. Forty three secondary surgeries were performed over 3 years for correction of unfavourable results. The urethrocutaneous fistula was the most common (21%) followed by meatal stenosis (14%) and narrow neourethra (14%). Common unfavourable results have been discussed. On the basis of experience with a large number of hypospadias urethroplasty ‘tips to avoid or minimise unfavourable results’ have been presented. However, one should assess the final outcome of urethroplasty using hypospadias objective scoring evaluation. PMID:24501477

Agrawal, Karoon; Misra, Anshumali

2013-01-01

70

Clinical experiences with different one-staged surgical methods for primary hypospadias cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of various types of operations for primary hypospadias was assessed taking the location of meatus and the degree of chordee as the basis. Totally 258 patients with primary hypospadias were operated: 94 by meatal and urethral advencement, 110 by perimeatal flap and tube repair and 54 by preputial flap.The rates of success in cases with meatal advencement, perimeatal

M. Abdurrahim ?mamo?lu; Hamit Ersoy; Nurettin Sertçelik

2002-01-01

71

A long-term view of hypospadias.  

PubMed

The long-term psychological and physical sequelae of hypospadias and its management were assessed in a study of 213 patients over the age of fifteen. A high level of adult dissatisfaction regarding the quality of their repairs both in terms of function and aesthetics, plus criticism of inadequate guidance, indicates the need for follow-up until at least mid-teens, and the choice of operations which produce a terminal meatus and more natural appearance. PMID:2758195

Bracka, A

1989-05-01

72

Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal hypospadias: A literature review  

PubMed Central

The tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty or Snodgrass procedure has gained worldwide acceptance for distal hypospadias repair due to its low complication rate, good cosmetic result, and technical simplicity. As a result, several articles have been published concerning various aspects and subtle variations of this procedure. The aim of this review is to critically and systematically analyze the published complication rates of TIP repair for distal hypospadias in children. We also reviewed the surgical modifications that have been introduced to the original technique and discussed the potential impact on the final outcome of the Snodgrass procedure. PMID:19468401

Braga, Luis Henrique P.; Lorenzo, Armando J.; Salle, Joao L. Pippi

2008-01-01

73

Endovascular Treatment of Proximal Bilateral Iliac Limb Dislocation and Kinking following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

SciTech Connect

We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a late type 1b endoleak due to proximal migration of both iliac limbs 5 years after endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The endovascular method used to correct bilaterally this condition is described. Final angiographic control shows patency of the stent-graft without signs of endoleak.

Alerci, Mario; Wyttenbach, Rolf [Ospedale San Giovanni, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)], E-mail: rolf.wyttenbach@bluewin.ch; Bogen, Marcel [Ospedale San Giovanni, Department of Surgery (Switzerland); Segesser, Ludwig K. von [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois-CHUV, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Switzerland); Gallino, Augusto [Ospedale San Giovanni, Department of Vascular Medicine (Switzerland); Inglese, Luigi [Ospedale San Donato, Servizio di Emodinamica (Italy)

2005-05-15

74

Clinical dilemmas and surgical treatment of penoscrotal, scrotal and perineal hypospadias.  

PubMed

Hypospadia is the most common congenital malformation of the urinary tract. It is a malformation with the opening of the urethra proximally from the usual site. The meatal opening can be anywhere alone the shaft of the penis, or in more severe forms, within the scrotum, or in the perineum. Consequently the hypospadias can be distal, medial and proximal. The proximal ones can be penoscrotal (PS), scrotal (SC) and perineal (PE). The cause of hypospadias is largely unknown; however, current epidemiology and laboratory studies have shed new light into the etiology of hypospadias. With recent advancements in molecular biology, microarray technology, it appears that hypospadias is potentially related to disrupted gene expression. Currently, the only available treatment is surgery. The aim of this study was to present our results of the surgical correction of hypospadias and methods used to answer the clinical dilemmas about the gender. Authors have used two methods for a surgical resolution of the hypospadia - one-step operation suggested by Snodgrass and two-step operation, employing free graft suggested by Bracka. Clinical dilemmas regarding the gender were answered using cytogenetic assessment through lymphocyte cultivation method, suggested by Seabright. The cytogenetic assessment was carried in 23 patients with proximal hypospadia (penoscrotal, scrotal and perineal). Characteristic male cariotype (46, XY) was found in 22 patients. In one patient, with scrotal hypospadia, we found the characteristic female cariotype. This patient had testicles. The patient with female cariotype had a TDG gene that determines the differentiation of the testicles. Although surgery remains the only therapy for the treatment of the hypospadias, better understanding of the molecular and hormonal mechanisms behind the diseases may contribute to the prevention and the decrease in the incidence of the malformation. Cytogenetic testing in patients with unclear gender is important in planning further treatment. PMID:19754479

Ahmeti, Hasan; Kolgeci, Selim; Arifi, Hysni; Jaha, Luan

2009-08-01

75

Hypospadias surgery: when, what and by whom?  

PubMed

Hypospadias is repaired by paediatric surgeons, paediatric urologists, adult reconstructive urologists and plastic surgeons. This review is unique in representing all four specialities, to provide a unified policy on the management of hypospadias. The surgeon of whichever speciality should have a dedicated interest in this challenging work, ideally having an annual volume of at least 40-50 cases. The ideal time for primary repair is at 6-12 months old, although when this is not practicable there is another opportunity at 3-4 years old. A surgical protocol is presented which emphasises both functional and cosmetic refinement. Using a logical progression of a very few related procedures allows the reliable correction of almost any hypospadias deformity. A one-stage repair is used when the urethral plate does not require transection and its axial integrity can be maintained. Occasionally, when the plate is of adequate width and depth, it can be tubularized directly using the second stage of the two-stage repair. When (usually) the urethral plate is not adequately developed and requires augmentation before it can be tubularized, then that second-stage procedure is modified by adding a dorsal releasing incision +/- a graft (alias Snodgrass and 'Snodgraft' procedures). The two-stage repair offers the most reliable and refined solution for those patients who require transection of the urethral plate and a full circumferential substitution urethroplasty. From available evidence this protocol combines excellent function and cosmesis with optimum reliability. Nevertheless, it would be complacent to assume that these gratifying results will be maintained into adult life. We therefore recommend that there is still a need for active follow-up through to genital maturity. PMID:15613162

Manzoni, Gianantonio; Bracka, Aivar; Palminteri, Enzo; Marrocco, Giacinto

2004-11-01

76

Is Activating Transcription Factor 3 Up-Regulated in Patients with Hypospadias?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Even though hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies, the cause of hypospadias is largely unknown. With regard to molecular biology and microarray technology, it appears that hypospadias is potentially related to disrupted gene expression. Genomic analysis of hypospadiac tissue indicated a potential role for activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the development of this anomaly. This study prospectively examined the expression of ATF3 in tissues from 20 children with hypospadias compared with 26 normal penile skin tissue samples from elective circumcision. Materials and Methods Prepucial tissue was obtained from children who underwent repair of hypospadias for comparison with tissue samples from children who underwent elective circumcision. Skin specimens were evaluated for the expression of ATF3 protein by immunohistochemical staining. Results Immunohistochemical staining for ATF3 in samples from children who underwent repair of hypospadias was significantly greater than in samples from children who underwent elective circumcision (80% vs. 11%, respectively; p<0.05). Conclusions Our results indicate that ATF3 is up-regulated in the penile skin tissue of boys with hypospadias, which suggests a role for this transcription factor in the development of this abnormality. PMID:20733963

Demir, Selamettin; Zemheri, Ebru; Canat, Lutfi; Kilic, Mert; Caskurlu, Turhan

2010-01-01

77

Combined open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for distal arch aneurysms: an alternative to total debranching.  

PubMed

We present herein a novel, combined, simultaneous open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for complex distal aortic arch aneurysms involving the descending aorta. In the first surgical step, the transverse arch is opened during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and a Dacron graft (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) is positioned down the descending aorta in an elephant trunk-like fashion with its proximal free margin sutured circumferentially to the aorta just distal to the left subclavian or left common carotid artery. With the graft serving as the new proximal landing zone, subsequent endovascular repair is performed antegrade during rewarming through the ascending aorta. PMID:19559261

Zierer, Andreas; Sanchez, Luis A; Moon, Marc R

2009-07-01

78

[Two-stage urethral reconstruction with buccal mucosa for hypospadias cripples : Long-term results].  

PubMed

So-called hypospadias cripples are a challenging group of patients who present with multiple previous repair operations with unsatisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Attempts at renewed correction can be carried out with various techniques and different materials and staged repair with buccal mucosa according to Bracka has shown good results. PMID:23982464

Riechardt, S; Isbarn, H; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M

2013-10-01

79

Successful return to high level sports following early surgical repair of complete tears of the proximal hamstring tendons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical management of acute complete proximal hamstring tendon\\u000a tears. This was a prospective review of a case series from a tertiary referral centre. Ten patients presenting with complete\\u000a proximal hamstring tendon tears were confirmed on MRI. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of the torn\\u000a tendons with the

Sujith Konan; Fares Haddad

2010-01-01

80

Novel Use of an Osmotic Self-inflating Tissue Expander for Hypospadias Revision Surgery.  

PubMed

We describe the successful use of an osmotic self-inflating tissue expander for complex pediatric hypospadias repair. A 5-year-old boy, who had undergone previous hypospadias repair and subsequent fistula repair, presented with significant rotation of the penile shaft, with extensive scar tissue but insufficient native penile shaft skin for redo surgery. A 15 × 6 mm Osmed self-inflating cylindrical expander was used to allow excision of scar tissue and cover with expanded native skin. An excellent cosmetic and functional outcome was achieved at clinic review, 18 months postoperatively. The use of self-inflating tissue expanders offers a novel technique to achieve adequate native skin in the management of complex pediatric hypospadias. PMID:25817117

Lansdale, Nick; Henderson, Lucy; Hennayake, Supul

2015-04-01

81

Staged hybrid approach using proximal TEVAR and distal open repair for the treatment of extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Repair of patients with extent I and II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, while repair of more distal extent III and IV TAAAs has a lower risk of mortality and paraplegia. Therefore, we describe an approach using thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) as the index operation to convert extent I and II TAAAs to extent III and IV TAAAs amenable to subsequent open aortic repair to minimize patient risk. Methods Between July 2007 and March 2012, 10 staged hybrid operations were performed to treat 1 extent I and 9 extent II TAAAs. Aortic aneurysm pathology included 5 chronic type B dissections, 3 acute type B dissections, and 2 penetrating aortic ulcers. Initially, the proximal descending thoracic aorta was repaired with TEVAR for coverage of the most proximal fenestration or penetrating ulcer, with 7 elective and 3 emergent repairs. Interval open distal aortic replacement was performed either in a short-term planned setting or for progressive dilation of the distal aortic segment. In the open repair, the proximal end of the graft was sewn directly to the distal end of the TEVAR and outer wall of the aorta. Results Average patient age was 48 years with the majority of patients male (60%). Risk factors included hypertension (80%), current tobacco use (50%), and Marfan syndrome (30%). Postoperative complications following TEVAR included endoleaks [type IA (n=1); type II (n=3)], pleural effusions (n=3), and acute kidney injury (n=1). Endovascular re-interventions were required in 3 cases. In dissection cases, persistent filling of the false lumen was common and associated with distal thoracic aortic dilation. Complications of open repair included acute kidney injury (n=2) but no cardiac, pulmonary, or neurologic morbidity. Median time between TEVAR and open repair was 14 weeks. Most importantly, there was no mortality or neurologic deficit after either procedure with a median follow up of 35 weeks. Conclusions A staged hybrid approach to extensive TAAAs combining proximal TEVAR followed by interval open distal TAAA repair is safe and appears to be an effective alternative to traditional open repair. This approach may decrease the significant morbidity associated with single stage open extent I and II TAAA repairs and may be applicable to many TAAA etiologies. PMID:22832268

Johnston, William F.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Tracci, Margaret C.; Cherry, Kenneth J.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kern, John A.

2012-01-01

82

Blunt traumatic aortic rupture of the proximal ascending aorta repaired by resection and direct anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Traumatic aortic injury represents 15% of motor vehicle related deaths with death occurring at the scene in 85% of the cases. Aortic disruptions usually occur at the isthmus in a transverse fashion with all three of the aortic layers being involved. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year old man with no prior medical history who was struck by a vehicle while riding his bicycle. The ruptured segment of aorta was resected circumferentially and interrupted horizontal mattress pledgeted prolene sutures were used to ensure full thickness aortic integrity of the proximal and distal aortic segments. The aorta was closed with a single-layer technique using 4/0 prolene suture. There were no postoperative complications and patient was discharged on Day 44. The case here discussed demonstrates a rare presentation of blunt aortic injury. The proximal ascending aorta is an unusual site of transection following blunt trauma with few reports in the literature. We were able to repair the aorta with direct suture, thus avoiding the use of artificial material. PMID:23838337

Harmouche, Majid; Slimani, Eric Karim; Heraudeau, Adeline; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe

2013-01-01

83

Effect of hypospadias on sexual function and reproduction  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is a highly prevalent congenital anomaly. The impact of the defect and operative interventions on sexual and reproductive function has been addressed by few publications. It is essential to know the possible outcomes of intervention for appropriate counseling, operative planning, and follow-up. English articles indexed in Pubmed dealing with the long-term sexual and reproductive outcome following hypospadias repair from 1965 to 2007 were reviewed. To our knowledge, there was no prospective trial comparing the impact of various techniques on sexual outcome. There is considerable discordance in literature regarding the effects on sexual function. A few publications report patient and partner dissatisfaction with the appearance of genitalia. Sexual dissatisfaction is often attributed to penile size. Ejaculatory disturbances range between 6 and 37% of operated individuals. There is no convincing evidence for impaired fertility. The long-term follow-up is essential to identify problems and to address them appropriately. Literature documenting the outcome of specific operative procedures and analysis based on severity of hypospadias will be informative. The long-term follow-up of the newer techniques which are more commonly used are awaited. PMID:19468405

Singh, J. Chandra; Jayanthi, Venkata Rama; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

2008-01-01

84

Successful return to high level sports following early surgical repair of complete tears of the proximal hamstring tendons.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical management of acute complete proximal hamstring tendon tears. This was a prospective review of a case series from a tertiary referral centre. Ten patients presenting with complete proximal hamstring tendon tears were confirmed on MRI. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of the torn tendons with the aim of returning to normal activities and sports. Isokinetic muscle testing was performed using a dynamometer. The Cybex dynamometer (Cybex International, Ronkonkowa, NY) testing revealed almost comparable readings for the operated versus the non-operated side. An average peak torque of the operated hamstring muscles of 82.78% (range 47.16-117.88%), compared to the contralateral leg, was noted at six months. An excellent outcome was found in terms of return to normal activities and sports. Early surgical repair and physiotherapy has been noted to be associated with a good outcome and enables an early return to high level sports after complete tear of the proximal hamstring tendons. PMID:19252829

Konan, Sujith; Haddad, Fares

2010-02-01

85

The role of two-stage repair in modern hypospadiology  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias surgery continues to evolve. The enthusiasm for flap-based urethroplasty is waning and instead there is an increasing preference for urethroplasty that uses either the urethral plate alone or in combination with grafts. From the vast armamentarium of hypospadias repairs that are still in use, the author suggests a simple protocol of just three closely related procedures with which we can now repair almost all hypospadias. The tubularised incised plate (TIP) repair and the ‘Snodgraft’ modification of the TIP principle are simple and effective one-stage solutions when partial circumference urethroplasty is required. Conversely, the Bracka two-stage graft repair remains an ideal and versatile solution when a full circumference urethroplasty is required. It is particularly appropriate for severe primary hypospadias associated with a poor plate and marked chordee and also to replace a scarred, hairy or balanitis xerotica obliterans diseased urethra in re-operative salvage hypospadias. PMID:19468400

Bracka, Aivar

2008-01-01

86

The role of two-stage repair in modern hypospadiology.  

PubMed

Hypospadias surgery continues to evolve. The enthusiasm for flap-based urethroplasty is waning and instead there is an increasing preference for urethroplasty that uses either the urethral plate alone or in combination with grafts. From the vast armamentarium of hypospadias repairs that are still in use, the author suggests a simple protocol of just three closely related procedures with which we can now repair almost all hypospadias. The tubularised incised plate (TIP) repair and the 'Snodgraft' modification of the TIP principle are simple and effective one-stage solutions when partial circumference urethroplasty is required. Conversely, the Bracka two-stage graft repair remains an ideal and versatile solution when a full circumference urethroplasty is required. It is particularly appropriate for severe primary hypospadias associated with a poor plate and marked chordee and also to replace a scarred, hairy or balanitis xerotica obliterans diseased urethra in re-operative salvage hypospadias. PMID:19468400

Bracka, Aivar

2008-04-01

87

Repair-Mediated Duplication by Capture of Proximal Chromosomal DNA Has Shaped Vertebrate Genome Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a common form of cellular damage that can lead to cell death if not repaired promptly. Experimental systems have shown that DSB repair in eukaryotic cells is often imperfect and may result in the insertion of extra chromosomal DNA or the duplication of existing DNA at the breakpoint. These events are thought to be a

John K. Pace; Shurjo K. Sen; Mark A. Batzer; Cédric Feschotte

2009-01-01

88

Long-term sexual activity status and influencing factors in men after surgery for hypospadias  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare the long-term postoperative status of hypospadiac patients by analysing their sexual psychology, sexual behaviour, sexual function and influencing factors. A total of 130 hypospadiac patients hospitalized between January 1988 and December 2007 were followed up with questionnaires using Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), a self-designed sexual function questionnaire and a 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). The surveys served to evaluate the effects of hypospadias type, number of operations and surgical procedures on sexual psychology, sexual behaviour and sexual function. The control group consisted of 50 healthy adults. The postoperative SDS / SAS scores and occurrences of depression/anxiety in hypospadiac patients were significantly higher than those of normal controls (P < 0.001). Patients with proximal hypospadias and multiple procedures differed from those with distal hypospadias and a single procedure in all parameters of sexual psychology (P < 0.05). The average penile lengths and circumferences of hypospadiac patients under either erect or flaccid conditions were significantly shorter than those of normal controls (P < 0.001). A similar difference existed between patients with distal and proximal hypospadias (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in any parameter of sexual function between patients with different numbers of operations and surgical procedures. Hypospadiac patients were clearly impaired in sexual psychology and penile development. The severity of hypospadias and number of operations were key factors that influenced the sexual psychology of patients. This finding indicated the importance of long-term follow-up and psychological counselling for hypospadiac patients postoperatively. PMID:19377489

Wang, Wen-Wei; Tu, Xiang-An; Deng, Chun-Hua; Mo, Jia-Cong; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Ling-Wu

2009-01-01

89

Relationship between maternal dietary patterns and hypospadias.  

PubMed

Little is known about the role of maternal nutrition in the development of hypospadias, which is the most common urogenital congenital anomaly. This study investigated the relationship between maternal nutrition and the risk of hypospadias, particularly focusing on maternal food patterns. We compared 471 hypospadias cases with 490 controls in the United Kingdom. A questionnaire including information on life style, occupation, usual maternal diet and dietary supplements was administered using telephone interviews. Cases and controls were compared for individual food item intake and food patterns derived by cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for income, maternal age, low birthweight, smoking and folic acid supplement use was used to assess the relationship between maternal nutrition and hypospadias. Three food patterns were created with the labels 'health conscious', 'mixed' and 'non-health conscious'. 'Non-health conscious' subjects (low frequency of consumption of yoghurt, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, fish, beans and pulses, olive oil and organic food) had a higher risk of hypospadias (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.26) compared with 'health conscious' subjects (high frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit, fresh or frozen fish, beans, pulses, soya products, olive oil and organic food), after adjustment for potential confounders. Intakes of individual foods were not strongly associated with hypospadias. We could not exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and this needs to be further investigated. We found an association between food pattern and hypospadias, with those with less health conscious food patterns having a higher risk. Further study is needed to confirm this association. PMID:21470265

de Kort, Christianne A R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Mendez, Michelle A

2011-05-01

90

Hypospadias  

MedlinePLUS

... March 2013 You are leaving UrologyHealth.org. The Urology Care Foundation has no control over the content of this site. Click OK to proceed. Urology A - Z A Adrenal Gland Disorders Adrenal Medulla ...

91

Risk factors for hypospadias in China  

PubMed Central

This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

2014-01-01

92

Hypospadias surgery in plastic surgery: a snapshot of today with an eye on tomorrow.  

PubMed

The current provision of hypospadias correctional surgery lies across the specialities of paediatric surgery, general surgery, urology and plastic surgery. This study aimed to look at how this provision is structured within plastic surgery, what plastic surgeons are currently doing and how this impacts on training. All plastic surgery units within the UK were contacted via letter and telephone in order to ascertain their current practice with regard to hypospadias surgery. Specialist registrars in the West Midlands Deanery were also questioned on their training in this area. The results indicate that 42 plastic surgeons in the UK carry out hypospadias surgery. The majority of clinicians use the Bracka two-stage repair (88%), with Snodgrass (45%) and MAGPI (43%) widely used. Operations are being carried out across the age spectrum from birth, with 51% favouring intervention at 3 years or more. Approximately two-thirds of plastic surgeons treat less than 25 patients per year. One-third treat 26 to 50, with only two clinicians claiming to treat more than 50 patients per year. Of the specialist registrars questioned in the West Midlands Deanery the majority (74%) were confident with the assessment of new cases and in obtaining consent. One-quarter of registrars (28%) only wished to carry out hypospadias surgery once they were consultants, with only one feeling that they had the necessary training to achieve this now. Plastic surgeons represent about half (52%) of the consultants currently identified in the UK as carrying out hypospadias surgery. If this provision is to be maintained then a greater opportunity for development of skills and experience needs to be created within plastic surgery training. The authors advocate the formulation of a coordinated national framework for the provision of this service, promoting a regional focus for skills and governance. PMID:18562261

Bragg, Thomas W H; Ali, Syed N; Warner, Robert; Park, Alan J

2009-03-01

93

Ten-year review of hypospadias surgery from a single centre.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is more common than cleft lip and palate. However, in comparison to the latter, few units have dedicated any team to its correction. Hence, urologists, paediatric surgeons, plastic surgeons, general surgeons and paediatric urologists keep trying various methods of correcting this deformity. That more than 350 procedures have been described for the correction of one anomaly speaks volumes of dissatisfaction with the results. We describe our humble experience with this anomaly over a period of 10 years during which time we were able to treat 1415 cases. However, this paper only describes results of 1206 patients. We use universally only one technique for hypospadias repair and perform this in two stages. This technique has been described by many but lately popularized by Aivar Bracka from UK. Our overall fistula rate has been 3.8% though most of the fistulae occurred in the earlier period. Other complications included repeated UTI (3%) and hair growth in the urethra (0.2%). PMID:16156002

Obaidullah; Aslam, Mohammed

2005-09-01

94

Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens  

PubMed Central

Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ?90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

95

Role of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias: A study from a teaching hospital in India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial skin and side effects in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: 23 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. An oily solution, each ml of which contained testosterone propionate 25 mg, and testosterone enanthate 110 mg, equivalent to 100 mg of testosterone was given deep intramuscularly 4, 3 and 2 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Increase in penile length, transverse preputial diameter, and diameter at the base of penis were noted. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. In addition, side effect such as development of pubic hair and delay in bone age was noted. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial diameter and diameter at the base of penis was 1.35±0.40 cm (P<0.001), 1.40±0.47 cm (P<0.001), and 0.72±0.47 cm (P<0.001), respectively. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Minimal side effects were noted in form of development of fine pubic hair. Conclusion: We conclude that parenteral testosterone can be safely used to improve the surgical outcome of hypospadias repair. PMID:21976926

Ahmad, Reyaz; Chana, Rajendra Singh; Ali, Syed Manazir; Khan, Shehtaj

2011-01-01

96

Repair of a palmar soft tissue defect of the proximal interphalangeal joint with a transposition flap from the dorsum of the proximal phalanx.  

PubMed

This article describes the use of a transposition flap raised from the dorsum of the proximal phalanx for coverage of the volar defects at the proximal interphalangeal joint. The flap was based on the first dorsal branch of the proper digital artery. From January 2007 to March 2009, 14 digits in 14 patients (10 males and 4 females) were treated. There were 5 index, 6 middle, 2 ring, and 1 little finger. All patients underwent surgery 2-9 hours (mean 5 hours) after injury. Soft tissue defects ranged in size from 1.2 × 1.7 cm to 2.1 × 2.3 cm (mean 1.7 × 2 cm). Flap size ranged from 1.5 × 1.7 cm to 2.4 × 2.7 cm (mean 2 × 2.4 cm). Mean pedicle length was 1.1 cm (range 0.8-1.4 cm). All flaps completely survived. At final follow-up from 24-29 months (mean 26 months), mean active motion arcs of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints were 84° (range 75-91°), 86° (range 65-100°) and 54° (range 32-80°), respectively. Our technique is useful and reliable for coverage of a palmar defect over the proximal interphalangeal joint. PMID:22170242

Zhang, X; Shao, X; Zhu, M; Jiang, R; Feng, Y; Ren, C

2013-05-01

97

Aldosterone synthase deficiency type II with hypospadias.  

PubMed

Aldosterone synthase deficiency (ASD) type II was diagnosed in a 3 week old boy with severe dehydration. Elevated plasma renin activity, low-normal aldosterone, increased levels for 18-OH corticosterone (18-OHB) and 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone were measured. Sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation for c554C > T in exon 3 (p.T185I) (CYP11B2). Hypospadias has so far not been reported in ASD. PMID:22565077

Gucev, Z; Tasic, V; Pop-Jordanova, N; Riepe, F G

2012-04-01

98

Soft tissue covers in hypospadias surgery: Is tunica vaginalis better than dartos flap?  

PubMed Central

Aim: To compare tunica vaginalis with dartos flap as soft tissue cover in primary hypospadias repair. Materials and Methods: 25 cases (age range: 12-132 months; all fresh cases) of primary hypospadias were prospectively repaired by tubularized incised plate (TIP)/TIP + graft urethroplasty using tunica vaginalis flap (TVF) as soft tissue cover to urethroplasty (group A). Their results were compared with another set (group B) of age- and anatomy-matched controls (25 patients operated during the previous 3 years) who had undergone TIP repair using dartos flap as soft tissue cover. Statistical analysis of results was done with Fischer's exact test. Results: Group A: No fistula, skin necrosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture. One case had partial wound dehiscence that resolved on conservative treatment with no sequelae. One case required catheter removal on 3rd day because of severe bladder spasm. There was no testicular atrophy/ascent. Group B: 3 fistulae – all required surgery. There were three cases of superficial skin necrosis that healed spontaneously without sequel. There was no meatal stenosis/urethral stricture. The difference in fistula rate between both the groups, however, was not statistically significant (P = 0.4). Conclusion: TVF may have an edge over dartos fascia for soft tissue coverage of the neourethra. PMID:22279358

Dhua, Anjan Kumar; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar; Sinha, Shandip; Ratan, Simmi K.

2012-01-01

99

Lack of Defects in Androgen Production in Children with Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of the male urethra requires the synthesis of tes- tosterone, its activation to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in gen- ital skin, and binding of DHT to the androgen receptor. De- fects in any of those steps can cause hypospadias. To determine whether defects exist in the production of andro- gens in individuals with hypospadias, we examined enzymatic function of 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

NICHOLAS M. HOLMES; WALTER L. MILLER; LAURENCE S. BASKIN

100

Hinging the urethral plate in hypospadias meatoplasty.  

PubMed

A technique is described for creation of a cosmetically normal, vertical slit-like urethral meatus in conjunction with common hypospadias reconstructions that preserve the urethral plate. The distal portion of the urethral plate is incised longitudinally in the midline. This incision allows the flat and rigid urethral plate to be folded or hinged during glans plasty, molding it into an anatomically correct vertical slit configuration. This modification has been applied successfully to a variety of meatal-based flap and onlay island flap urethroplasties with no increased morbidity and a significant improvement in meatal cosmetic results. PMID:2685370

Rich, M A; Keating, M A; Snyder, H M; Duckett, J W

1989-12-01

101

Characterization of diethylstilbestrol-induced hypospadias in female mice.  

PubMed

The urethral duct and vagina are formed from the urogenital sinus (UGS) during the early neonatal period in mice. Neonatal estrogen exposure results in hypospadias, or the malpositioning of vaginal and urethral openings, with wide cleft clitoris. We sought to characterize diethylstilbestrol (DES) influence on UGS morphogenesis and hypospadias formation. Newborn (day 0) and 1-4-day-old female mice (ICR/Jcl) were given (s.c.) oil or 3.0 microg DES. Animals were killed 24 hr later; then hypospadias formation and epithelial apoptosis and proliferation within the developing UGS were assessed. DES did not alter normal UGS morphogenesis by day 1, in comparison with controls. However, hypospadias formation was observed in DES-treated mice by day 3. In these mice, the distal dorsal urethral duct appeared to fuse with and open into the lower vaginal solid cord region. Further, DES treatment produced a gradual significant increase in dorsal urethral epithelial apoptosis (P < 0.05) just prior to and during fusion and hypospadias formation. DES-induced urethral epithelial and sinus cord proliferation appeared significantly increased (P < 0.05) and unchanged, respectively, just prior to fusion. By day 5, DES-treated mice exhibited wide cleft clitoris. In addition, if DES was given on day 3 or 5, a gradual, distinct caudal shift in the vaginal-urethral junction was observed compared to mice treated on days 0-2. Although hypospadias was not induced when neonates were given DES on day 7, these mice continued to display early vaginal opening. Dose-response analysis indicated that 0.03 microg DES for 5 days is the lowest known critical dose for hypospadias induction. We have shown for the first time that DES-induced hypospadias onset may primarily be the result of changes in developing dorsal urethral epithelial cell apoptotic and proliferative activity, and that the location of DES-induced hypospadias formation is dependent on age at time of exposure. PMID:11748570

Miyagawa, Shinichi; Buchanan, David L; Sato, Tomomi; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Nishina, Yukio; Iguchi, Taisen

2002-01-01

102

Intrauterine growth restriction and hypospadias: is there a connection?  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations of the genitourinary tract in males. It is an incomplete fusion of urethral folds early in fetal development and may be associated with other malformations of the genital tract. The etiology is poorly understood and may be hormonal, genetic, or environmental, but most often is idiopathic or multifactorial. Among many possible risk factors identified, of particular importance is low birth weight, which is defined in various ways in the literature. No mechanism has been identified for the association of low birth weight and hypospadias, but some authors propose placental insufficiency as a common inciting factor. Currently, there is no standardized approach for evaluating children with hypospadias in the setting of intrauterine growth restriction. We reviewed the available published literature on the association of hypospadias and growth restriction to determine whether it should be considered a separate entity within the category of disorders of sexual differentiation. PMID:25337123

2014-01-01

103

Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection?  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies in the United States, occurring in approximately 1 in 250 newborns or roughly 1 in 125 live male births. It is the result of arrested development of the urethra, foreskin, and ventral surface of the penis where the urethral opening may be anywhere along the shaft, within the scrotum, or in the perineum. The only treatment is surgery. Thus, prevention is imperative. To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine the etiology of hypospadias, the majority of which have been classified as idiopathic. In this paper we briefly describe the normal development of the male external genitalia and review the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of hypospadias. The majority of hypospadias are believed to have a multifactorial etiology, although a small percentage do result from single gene mutations. Recent findings suggest that some hypospadias could be the result of disrupted gene expression. Discoveries about the antiandrogenic mechanisms of action of some contemporary-use chemicals have provided new knowledge about the organization and development of the urogenital system and may provide additional insight into the etiology of hypospadias and direction for prevention. PMID:11713004

Baskin, L S; Himes, K; Colborn, T

2001-01-01

104

Iatrogenic hypospadias--a preventable injury?  

PubMed

Iatrogenic hypospadias is a preventable injury to the ventral male urethra produced by the downward pressure of an indwelling urethral catheter. In spite of avoiding long-term urethral catheterisation, we have acquired 16 patients with this injury in the last 9 years either in our unit or discovered in patients referred to our unit. Although not a life endangering complication, the majority of such patients find the penile appearance so produced unacceptable. We have reconstructed any penis that has more than meatal cleavage in a total of six patients, with good results. The majority of patients have been fully investigated so that an alternative therapy to catheterisation may be provided. Where possible a catheter free state has been achieved. If not, a suprapubic catheter has been inserted. Those not reconstructed were due to reasons of ill health, and in two instances, due to patient choice. PMID:9554017

Andrews, H O; Nauth-Misir, R; Shah, P J

1998-03-01

105

Which procedure should be chosen as a salvage operation in anterior hypospadias cases, meatal-based or onlay island flap? a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the outcome of flip-flap procedure (Mathieu procedure) with onlay island urethroplasty after previously failed repairs in anterior hypospadias cases. Charts of patients who underwent salvage flip-flap ( n=58) and onlay procedure ( n=24) were reviewed. Age range was 3–19 years (mean: 9±4.1) and 2–30 years (10.3±5.2) in the onlay and Mathieu groups, respectively ( p>0.05). In the onlay

L. Emir; D. Erol; U. Kuyumcuoglu; C. Germiyano?lu

2004-01-01

106

Vascularized Dartos Flap in Conjunction with Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty: Single versus Double Flaps for Management of Distal Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the results of Snodgrass repair with single versus double vascularized dartos pedicle flap for neouretheral coverage. Patients and Methods Fifty-eight pediatric patients with mean age 41.5 ± 21 months (range 9–96 months) underwent primary hypospadias repair, 39 uncircumcised and 19 circumcised, classified into 2 groups according to coverage of the neourethra. Single layer coverage (Group I) was performed in 28 (48.3%) while double layers coverage (Group II) was done in 30 (51.7%) cases. Results After mean follow-up 8.6 ± 5.4 months (range 3–24 months), good cosmetic results with vertical slit like meatus at the tip of conical shaped glans were obtained in 53 cases (91.4%). Totally 5 cases occurred postoperative complications, of which 4 cases in Group I [2 (7.1%) with urethrocutaneous fistula, 1 (3.6%) with meatal stenosis and 1 (3.6%) with skin necrosis], 1 case in Group II [glanular dehiscence (3.3%)]. No fistula was observed in Group II. Conclusion The Snodgrass tubularized incised-plate repair in conjunction with double layer coverage of the neourethra could be considered the procedure of choice for distal hypospadias with low complications rate especially urethrocutaneous fistula. PMID:24917716

Safwat, Ayman; Al-Adl, Ahmed M.; El-Karamany, Tarek

2012-01-01

107

Snodgrass' urethroplasty in hypospadias surgery in Clinical Hospital Mostar--preliminary report.  

PubMed

Amongst the various methods of reconstructing the hypospadic urethra such as the MAGPI, Mathieu's and Preputial island flap urethroplasty method and the Snodgrass method, the latter is being used more frequently nowadays in patients with the urethral meatus located in the proximity of the penis. In the Pediatric ward at Mostar Clinical Hospital, we have recently adopted the Snodgrass method when reconstructing the hypospadic urethra. We herewith present our research regarding the successful results in adopting the aforementioned method. Success was evaluated according to the frequency of post-operative complications, as well as the patients' satisfaction with the functional and the cosmetic result of the urethra reconstruction. The conclusions relating to our research result in an addition basis from which to evaluate whether the Snodgrass method should receive privileged preference in future operative treatment of the hypospadias over others methods, as can be seen from our research. PMID:17598400

Brekalo, Zdrinko; Kvesi?, Ante; Nikoli?, Harry; Tomi?, Davor; Martinovi?, Vlatka

2007-03-01

108

Do adult men with untreated hypospadias have adverse outcomes? A pilot study using a social media advertised survey  

PubMed Central

Objective Hypospadias is usually treated in childhood. Therefore, the natural history of untreated mild hypospadias is unknown. We hypothesized that men with untreated hypospadias, especially mild, do not have adverse outcomes. Materials Facebook was used to advertise an electronic survey to men older than 18 years. Men with untreated hypospadias identified themselves and indicated the severity of hypospadias with a series of questions. Outcomes included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), penile curvature and difficulty with intercourse, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Penile Perception Score (PPS), psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. Results 736 men completed self-anatomy questions and 52 (7.1%) self-identified with untreated hypospadias. Untreated hypospadias participants reported worse SHIM (p < 0.001) and IPSS scores (p = 0.05), more ventral penile curvature (p = 0.003) and resulting difficulty with intercourse (p < 0.001), worse satisfaction with meatus (p = 0.011) and penile curvature (p = 0.048), and more sitting to urinate (p = 0.07). When stratified by mild and severe hypospadias, severe hypospadias was associated with more adverse outcomes than mild hypospadias. Conclusion Men with untreated hypospadias reported worse outcomes compared with non-hypospadiac men. Mild untreated hypospadias had fewer adverse outcomes than severe hypospadias. Research is needed to determine if treatment of childhood hypospadias improves outcomes in adults, especially for mild hypospadias. PMID:24613143

Schlomer, Bruce; Breyer, Benjamin; Copp, Hillary; Baskin, Laurence; DiSandro, Michael

2014-01-01

109

Assessment of outcome in hypospadias surgery - a review.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

Springer, Alexander

2014-01-01

110

Assessment of Outcome in Hypospadias Surgery – A Review  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

Springer, Alexander

2014-01-01

111

Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Hypospadias (SOT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hypospadias, one of the most common birth defects in human male infants, is a condition in which the urethral opening is misplaced along ventral aspect of the penis. We developed an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and computer simulation that describes the pathogenesis of...

112

Management of hypospadias cripples with two-staged Bracka's technique.  

PubMed

Patients labelled as 'hypospadias cripples' pose a challenge to reconstructive surgeons because of the complexity of the problem and limited options for reconstruction. The two-staged Bracka method is a versatile technique that is relatively easy to learn and applicable in difficult cases of salvage hypospadias. Over a period of 8 years, we applied this technique to 100 patients with hypospadias cripples who had previously undergone multiple (3-16) procedures. In the first stage, a full-thickness graft of skin or buccal mucosa was used for urethral plate reconstruction after release of chordee. Stage II was carried out at least 6 months after the first procedure. Meatal opening at the tip of the glans was achieved in 94 patients, straightening of the penis in 96 and proper urinary stream in 92 patients. Fistula formation occurred in nine patients. In our opinion, the two-staged Bracka technique is a useful strategy to deal with the myriad abnormalities encountered in crippled hypospadias. This technique not only creates a neourethra successfully, but also gives the penis a near-normal shape and appearance. PMID:20359973

Gill, Nauman Ahmad; Hameed, Abdul

2011-01-01

113

Use of autologous platelet rich fibrin in urethracutaneous fistula repair: preliminary report.  

PubMed

Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is one of the most common complications occurring after hypospadias repair. Despite the surgical advancement in hypospadias, multiple failed fistula closures are commonly referred to paediatric urologists. Although several techniques have been described to interpose a waterproof layer between urethral and skin closures, occurrence of urethrocutaneous fistula cannot be eliminated completely. In addition to several local tissue grafts, autologous and homologous fibrin sealants are used to prevent UCF. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is known as an autologous source of growth factors obtained from the sera of the patient. PRF supports collagen synthesis and tissue repair and accelerates wound healing. We aimed to present our initial experience about the use of autologous PRF in a 3-year-old boy with a UCF after hypospadias repair. PMID:22568526

Soyer, Tutku; Çakmak, Murat; Aslan, Mustafa K; ?enyücel, Mine F; Kisa, Üçler

2013-06-01

114

Treatment of Adults with Complications from Previous Hypospadias Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adults with complications from previous hypospadias surgery experience various problems, including urethral stricture, persistent hypospadias and urethrocutaneous fistula. Innate deficiencies of the corpus spongiosum and multiple failed operations makes further management challenging. Materials and Methods We reviewed our prospective urethroplasty database of men who presented with complications of previous hypospadias surgery. Patients were included in study if they had greater than 6 months of followup. Our surgical management was defined as an initial success if there were no urethral complications. The overall success rate included men with the same result after additional treatment. Results A total of 50 men had followup greater than 6 months (median 89) and were included in study. These 50 patients presented with urethral stricture (36), urethrocutaneous fistula (12), persistent hypospadias (7), hair in the urethra (6) and severe penile chordee (7). Patients underwent a total of 74 urethroplasties, including stage 1 urethroplasty in 19, a penile skin flap in 11, stage 2 urethroplasty in 11, urethrocutaneous fistula closure in 9, permanent perineal urethrostomy in 6, excision and primary anastomosis in 6, a 1-stage buccal mucosa onlay in 4, tubularized plate urethroplasty in 3, combined techniques in 3 and chordee correction in 1. In 25 men (50%) treatment was initially successfully. Of the 25 men in whom surgery failed 18 underwent additional procedures, including 13 who were ultimately treated successfully for an overall 76% success rate (38 of 50). Conclusions Managing problems from previous hypospadias surgery is difficult with a high initial failure rate. Additional procedures are commonly needed. PMID:22698621

Myers, Jeremy B.; McAninch, Jack W.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

2013-01-01

115

[Caudal migration of the verumontanum and enlargement of the utricle in hypospadias].  

PubMed

Hypospadias is one of the morphological and functional alterations of the internal urogenital organs under the influence of androgen deficiency. In the time period 1974-1998 a total of 823 cases of hypospadias were surgically treated and the findings of the preoperative X-ray diagnostics with micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) and urethrocystogram (UCG) as well as urethrocystoscopy were analyzed. A caudal migration of the verumontanum could be detected in 55% of cases with hypospadias (453/823) and in 79% (322/403) of middle grade (penoscrotal) and high grade (scrotoperineal) cases of hypospadias. Enlargement of the utricle was present in 31.5% (259/823) cases of hypospadias and in 46.2% (186/423) of middle grade (penoscrotal) and high grade (scrotoperineal) cases of hypospadias. PMID:25142789

Ikoma, F; Hohenfellner, R; Yamamoto, S

2014-09-01

116

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism.  

PubMed

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others. PMID:10090709

Paulozzi, L J

1999-04-01

117

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism.  

PubMed Central

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10090709

Paulozzi, L J

1999-01-01

118

Genital perception of children, adolescents, and adults operated on for hypospadias: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital perception of patients operated on for hypospadias, a congenital anomaly of the penis, was studied through a standardized self?report questionnaire. Genital perception of 73 adults (18 to 38 years) and 116 children and adolescents with hypospadias (9 to 18 years) was compared with that of 50 and 88 age?matched comparison males, respectively, treated for an inguinal hernia. The relationships

Marc A. M. Mureau; Froukje M. E. Slijper; A. Koos Slob; Frank C. Verhulst

1995-01-01

119

Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Hypospadias: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence  

PubMed Central

This review evaluates current knowledge related to trends in the prevalence of hypospadias, the association of hypospadias with endocrine-disrupting exposures, and the potential contribution of genetic susceptibility to its etiology. The review focuses on epidemiologic evidence. Increasing prevalence of hypospadias has been observed, but such increases tend to be localized to specific regions or time periods. Thus, generalized statements that hypospadias is increasing are unsupported. Due to limitations of study designs and inconsistent results, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the association of endocrine-disrupting exposures with hypospadias. Studies with more rigorous study designs (e.g., larger and more detailed phenotypes) and exposure assessment that encompasses more breadth as well as depth (e.g., specific endocrine-related chemicals) will be critical to make better inferences about these important environmental exposures. Many candidate genes for hypospadias have been identified, but few of them have been examined to an extent that enables solid conclusions. Further studies are needed that include larger sample sizes, comparison groups that are more representative of the populations from which the cases were derived, phenotype-specific analyses, and more extensive exploration of variants. In conclusion, examining the associations of environmental and genetic factors with hypospadias remain important areas of inquiry, although our actual understanding of their contribution to hypospadias risk in humans is currently limited. PMID:22678668

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.

2012-01-01

120

‘Batman Excision’ of Ventral Skin in Hypospadias Repair, Clue to Aesthetic Repair (Point of Technique)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars’ flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars’ flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results.Method: The clue in this reconstruction

P. B Hoebeke; P De Kuyper; E Van Laecke

2002-01-01

121

Anogenital Distance and Penile Length in Infants with Hypospadias or Cryptorchidism: Comparison with Normative Data  

PubMed Central

Background: Anogenital distance (AGD) in animals is a sensitive biomarker of fetal endocrine disruption and the associated testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). However, AGD in human infants with cryptorchidism and hypospadias, which are potential manifestations of TDS during childhood, is not clearly described. Objective: Our aim was to compare AGD in boys with cryptorchidism or hypospadias against normative data. Methods: Boys with isolated cryptorchidism (n = 71, age 13.4 ± 5.8 months) or hypospadias (n = 81, age 11.4 ± 6.2 months) were recruited from a tertiary center for measurement of AGD and penile length; they were compared with 487 healthy full-term boys from a birth cohort by deriving age-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). Results: Boys with cryptorchidism were older (p = 0.048) compared with boys with hypospadias. Boys with hypospadias had shorter mean AGD and penile length SDS than healthy boys (both p < 0.0001). Mean AGD and penile length SDS values in boys with cryptorchidism were longer than mean values in boys with hypospadias (both p < 0.01) and shorter than mean values in healthy boys (both p < 0.0001). Mean penile length SDS decreased as the severity of hypospadias increased (ptrend = 0.078). Conclusions: In the study population, AGD and penile length were reduced in boys with hypospadias or cryptorchidism relative to normative data derived from a longitudinal birth cohort. The findings support the use of AGD as a quantitative biomarker to examine the prenatal effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors on the development of the male reproductive tract. Citation: Thankamony A, Lek N, Carroll D, Williams M, Dunger DB, Acerini CL, Ong KK, Hughes IA. 2014. Anogenital distance and penile length in infants with hypospadias or cryptorchidism: comparison with normative data. Environ Health Perspect 122:207–211;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307178 PMID:24316680

Thankamony, Ajay; Lek, Ngee; Carroll, Dan; Williams, Martyn; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

2013-01-01

122

Satisfaction with Penile Appearance after Hypospadias Surgery: The Patient and Surgeon View  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe studied the degree of agreement between hypospadias patient and surgeon satisfaction with the cosmetic surgical result, and the relation between penile length, meatal position and patient satisfaction.

Marc A. M. Mureau; Froukje M. E. Slijper; A. Koos Slob; Frank C. Verhulst; Rien J. M. Nijman

1996-01-01

123

Hypospadias with dorsal chordee: Case report of a novel approach for correction  

PubMed Central

We report a novel surgical technique for correction of dorsal chordee with coronal hypospadias. The bulbar elongation and anastomotic meatoplasty procedure gave an excellent cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:22121317

Mane, Shivaji B.; Arlikar, Jamir D.; Reddy, Suyodhan; Dhende, Nitin P.

2011-01-01

124

A combined tubularized\\/onlay graft technique for total correction of severe hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: A combined tubularized\\/onlay graft technique is described for the complete correction of chordee with urethroplasty in a single stage in cases of severe hypospadias.Methods: Twenty-two patients with severe hypospadias ranging in age from 9 months to 11 years underwent single-stage correction using a technique developed by the author. In this method, chordee is first completely excised by removing all

V. T Joseph

1999-01-01

125

19q13.11 cryptic deletion: description of two new cases and indication for a role of WTIP haploinsufficiency in hypospadias.  

PubMed

Developmental delay/intellectual disabilities, speech disturbance, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, signs of ectodermal dysplasia, and genital malformations in males (hypospadias) represent the phenotypic core of the recent emerging 19q13.11 deletion syndrome. Using array-CGH for genome-wide screening we detected an interstitial deletion of chromosome band 19q13.11 in two patients exhibiting the recognizable pattern of malformations as described in other instances of this submicroscopic genomic imbalance. The deletion detected in our patients has been compared with previously reported cases leading to the refinement of the minimal overlapping region (MOR) for this microdeletion syndrome to 324 kb. This region encompasses five genes: four zinc finger (ZNF) genes belonging to the KRAB-ZNF subfamily (ZNF302, ZNF181, ZNF599, and ZNF30) and LOC400685. On the basis of our male patient 1 and on further six male cases of the literature, we also highlighted that larger 19q13.11 deletions including the Wilms tumor interacting protein (WTIP) gene, proximal to the MOR, results in hypospadias making this gene a possible candidate for this genital abnormality due to its well-known interaction with WT1. Although the mechanism underlying the phenotypic effects of copy number alterations involving KRAB-ZNF genes at 19q13.11 has not clearly been established, we suggest their haploinsufficiency as the most likely candidate for the phenotypic core of the 19q13.11 deletion syndrome. In addition, we hypothesized WTIP gene haploinsufficiency as responsible for hypospadias. PMID:22378287

Gana, Simone; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Sciacca, Giusy; Fedeli, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Micieli, Giuseppe; Maghnie, Mohamad; Ciccone, Roberto; Rossi, Elena; Plunkett, Katie; Bi, Weimin; Sutton, Vernon R; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2012-08-01

126

X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia associated with hypospadias in an Egyptian baby: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia is a rare developmental disorder of the human adrenal cortex and is caused by deletion or mutation of the dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region of the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX-1) gene. Most affected children present with failure to thrive, salt wasting and hypoglycemic convulsions in the first months of life. Hypospadias affects approximately one in 250 live male births. Mutations in the mastermind-like domain-containing 1 (MAMLD1) gene have been implicated as one of the causes of hypospadias in children. To the best of our knowledge, an association between congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to a DAX-1 mutation and hypospadias due to mutation of the MAMLD1 gene has not previously been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 35-day-old male Egyptian baby was referred to our institution for the evaluation of a two-week history of recurrent vomiting associated with electrolyte imbalance. On examination, our patient was found to have hypotension and dehydration. A genital examination showed distal penile hypospadias with chordee and normal testes. He had hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Endocrinological investigations revealed low levels of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and aldosterone, with a high level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. A provisional diagnosis of congenital adrenal hypoplasia associated with hypospadias was made. A molecular genetics study confirmed the diagnosis of X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to DAX-1 mutations and hypospadias due to MAMLD1 mutation. He was started on hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone treatment. After three weeks of treatment, his symptoms improved and his blood sugar, sodium, potassium and cortisol levels normalized. Conclusions We report the case of an Egyptian baby with an association of congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to DAX-1 mutation and hypospadias due to MAMLD1 mutation. Early diagnosis of this association and determining its optimal treatment are vital in helping to avoid its fatal course. PMID:23272655

2012-01-01

127

Proximal Nephron  

PubMed Central

The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

2013-01-01

128

Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

Piascik, Robert S.

2011-01-01

129

Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat.  

PubMed

The incidence of hypospadias is increasing in young boys, but it remains unclear whether human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a role. Risk assessment is based on estimation of no-observed-adverse-effect levels for single compounds, although humans are exposed to combinations of several anti-androgenic chemicals. In a mixture (MIX) study with three androgen receptor antagonists, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with several doses of a MIX of the three chemicals or the chemicals alone. External malformations of the male reproductive organs were assessed on PND 47 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal to marked) for hypospadias. Markedly increased frequencies were observed after exposure to a MIX of the three chemicals compared to administration of the three chemicals alone. Anogenital distance at PND 1, nipple retention at PND 13, and dysgenesis score at PND 16 were highly correlated with the occurrence of hypospadias, and MIX effects were seen at doses where each of the individual chemicals caused no observable effects. Therefore, the results indicate that doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce no hypospadias when judged on their own, may induce a very high frequency of hypospadias when they interact in concert with other anti-androgens. PMID:18315719

Christiansen, S; Scholze, M; Axelstad, M; Boberg, J; Kortenkamp, A; Hass, U

2008-04-01

130

Heavy Metal Levels in Adolescent and Maternal Blood: Association with Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background. Hypospadias is a part of testicular digenesis syndrome (TDS) which includes infertility, cryptorchidism, and spermatogenesis. Heavy metals act as endocrine disrupting compounds. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and lead have been associated with male infertility, cryptorchidism, spermatogenesis, cancer, reproductive disorder, and neurological disorder. However, it remains an important issue to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that the role of heavy metals in male reproductive tract disorders. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the possible association of heavy metal and risk of hypospadias by estimating the blood heavy metal levels. Methods. In this case control study, 50 hypospadias boys diagnosed and confirmed by a pediatric urologist and 50 randomly selected age-matched (1–5 years) healthy control boys not suffering from any clinically detectible illness and their mothers have been included and heavy metal levels in the blood of these subjects have been estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Result. Significantly high levels of cadmium and lead have been observed in hypospadias cases; however, all heavy metal levels were present in higher concentration. Conclusion. Higher blood levels of cadmium and lead may be associated with the increased risk of hypospadias. PMID:24729887

Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Yadav, Chandra Shekhar; Gupta, Piyush; Sharma, Sunil

2014-01-01

131

Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional markers using non-parametric linkage. The fine mapping analysis displayed an increased LOD score on chromosome 8q24.1 and 10p15 in altogether 82 families. On chromosome 10p15, with the highest LOD score, we further studied AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 involved in steroid metabolism, as well as KLF6 expressed in preputial tissue from hypospadias patients. Mutation analysis of the AKR1C3 gene showed a new mutation, c.643G>A (p.(Ala215Thr)), in a boy with penile hypospadias. This mutation is predicted to have an impact on protein function and structure and was not found in controls. Altogether, we homed in on four chromosomal regions likely to harbor genes for hypospadias. Future studies will aim for studying regulatory sequence variants in these regions. PMID:24986825

Söderhäll, Cilla; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Thai, Hanh T T; Cao, Jia; Chen, Yougen; Zhang, Xufeng; Shulu, Zu; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Frisén, Louise; Roeleveld, Nel; Markljung, Ellen; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

2015-04-01

132

Regenerative urethroplasty in reoperative hypospadias: Buried strip principle revisited  

PubMed Central

Aim: Reporting the feasibility of the Denis Browne (buried strip) principle along with tunica vaginalis (TV) pedicled wrapping of the strip in reoperative urethroplasty in hypospadias. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 5 years, 32 patients presented with failure of previous urethroplasty and the range of failure was between 2 and 6 times; mean 2.5 times. Mean age was 12.9 (range 2 to 26 years) years. “Buried strip” urethroplasty (i.e., without tubularization of urethral plate) and wrapping with TV were done along with supra pubic cystostomy (SPC) for diversion of urine. Mean follow-up was 29.8 (range 12 to 56 months) months. Results: One patient had fistula and vertical slit meatus was possible in 26 patients. The flow of urine was satisfactory in 31 patients and one patient developed pouch in penile urethra. Conclusions: The buried strip along with the additional coverage with TV was found to be simple and effective in salvaging the failed urethroplasty. PMID:22529550

Chatterjee, Uday S.; Chatterjee, Subir K.

2012-01-01

133

Chordee without hypospadias: Operative classification and its management  

PubMed Central

Context: Developing countries. Aims: To propose a operative classification of Chordee without hypospadias (CWH) with its management. Settings and Design: Tertiary referral centre; Retrospective study from January 2000 to January 2011. Materials and Methods: Total 26 patients were classified peroperatively into sixtypes (A: Cutaneous chordee? Degloving skin and dartos (1/26); B: Fibrous chordee? chordectomy (4/26);C: Corporocavernosalchordee? Corporoplasty ± Urethral mobilization (4/26); D: Urethral tethering with Hypoplastic urethra? Urethral mobilization ± urethral reconstruction because of hypoplastic urethra (14/26); E: Congenital short urethra? excision of urethra from the meatus and urethroplasty (2/26); and F: Complex chordee? Degloving ± Corporoplasty ± urethroplasty (1/26 patients). The follow-up over 6 months to 9 years were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS soft ware version 17.0 for Windows. Results: The mean age of surgery was 5.33 ± 0.11 years. The success rate defined on uroflowmetry and voiding cystourethrography was 65.6%. The coronal urethra-cutaneous fistula developed in 26.9% (7/26) {including 7.7% (3/26) of associated metal stenosis}. The urethral stricture developed in 3.8% (1/26). Conclusions: CWH needs stepwise surgical management. The operative classification may help in better understanding and management of this difficult entity. Meticulous tissue handling and urethroplasty is needed for good and promising results. PMID:23798865

Singh, Sunita; Rawat, Jiledar; Kureel, Shiv Narayan; Pandey, Anand

2013-01-01

134

Proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proximity fuze system is described. It includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target

1989-01-01

135

Proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected

Thomas R

1989-01-01

136

Proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected

1987-01-01

137

Multiple urethral anomalies: anterior urethral diverticulum, posterior urethral valves, and distal hypospadias.  

PubMed

We report an infant with antenatally detected bilateral hydroureteronephrosis and a penile cyst who was eventually diagnosed with an anterior urethral diverticulum (AUD), subcoronal hypospadias, and posterior urethral valves (PUV) after birth. To our knowledge, there are no reports where all three anomalies have been found to coexist. As per urethral catheterisation was difficult, cystoscopy-guided catheterisation was performed. On retracting the complete foreskin, a subcoronal hypospadias was identified. The AUD was resected partially, and during a cystoscopy for completion of AUD resection, a dilated anterior urethra was found collapsed, and thin PUV were identified and divided. He remains well at nine months with an improving renal cortical thickness. The vesicoureteric reflux had resolved. PMID:23331841

Ranawaka, Ravibindu; Dickson, Alan P

2013-01-01

138

Use of a preputial circumferential mucosal flap for hypospadias management in a Boston terrier.  

PubMed

An eight-week-old male Boston terrier presented for penile desiccation and urine pooling in the prepuce due to congenital hypospadias. An advancement flap was created from the dorsal mucosa of the incompletely formed prepuce and sutured circumferentially to construct a longer distal preputial mucosa. V- to Y-plasty of the ventral abdominal skin was utilised to create the preputial skin overlying the mucosal flap. Urethrostomy and partial penile amputation were also performed. Following surgery, the clinical signs of penile desiccation and preputial urine pooling resolved and acceptable cosmetic appearance was achieved. This technique may be considered for glandular or penile hypospadias or following resection of the ventral aspect of the distal prepuce when inadequate tissue is present for a simple two-layer closure of the preputial mucosa and skin. PMID:22276748

Grossman, J; Baltzer, W

2012-05-01

139

Proximity fuze  

DOEpatents

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

Harrison, Thomas R. (Stockton, CA)

1989-08-22

140

Proximity fuze  

SciTech Connect

A proximity fuze system is described. It includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

Harrison, T.R.

1989-08-22

141

Proximity fuze  

DOEpatents

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

Harrison, T.R.

1987-07-10

142

Hernia Repair  

MedlinePLUS

... through an opening that is several inches long. Laparoscopic hernia repair - In this less-invasive procedure, the surgeon ... slightly increase the possibility of scarring or infection. Laparoscopic hernia repair - In a laparoscopic repair, a harmless gas ...

143

Minor Hypospadias: The “Tip of the Iceberg” of the Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Androgens are critical in male external genital development. Alterations in the androgen sensitivity pathway have been identified in severely undermasculinized boys, and mutations of the androgen receptor gene (AR) are usually found in partial or complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether even the most minor forms of isolated hypospadias are associated with AR mutations and thus whether all types of hypospadias warrant molecular analysis of the AR. Materials and Methods Two hundred and ninety-two Caucasian children presenting with isolated hypospadias without micropenis or cryptorchidism and 345 controls were included prospectively. Mutational analysis of the AR through direct sequencing (exons 1–8) was performed. In silico and luciferase functional assays were performed for unreported variants. Results Five missense mutations of the AR were identified in 9 patients with glandular or penile anterior (n?=?5), penile midshaft (n?=?2) and penile posterior (n?=?2) hypospadias, i.e., 3%: p.Q58L (c.173A>T), 4 cases of p.P392S (c.1174C>T), 2 cases of p.A475V (c.1424C>T), p.D551H (c.1651G>C) and p.Q799E (c.2395C>G). None of these mutations was present in the control group. One mutation has never been reported to date (p.D551H). It was predicted to be damaging based on 6 in silico models, and in vitro functional studies confirmed the lowered transactivation function of the mutated protein. Three mutations have never been reported in patients with genital malformation but only in isolated infertility: p.Q58L, p.P392S, and p.A475V. It is notable that micropenis, a cardinal sign of AIS, was not present in any patient. Conclusion AR mutations may play a role in the cause of isolated hypospadias, even in the most minor forms. Identification of this underlying genetic alteration may be important for proper diagnosis and longer follow-up is necessary to find out if the mutations cause differences in sexual function and fertility later in life. PMID:23637914

Kalfa, Nicolas; Philibert, Pascal; Werner, Ralf; Audran, Françoise; Bashamboo, Anu; Lehors, Hélčne; Haddad, Myriam; Guys, Jean Michel; Reynaud, Rachel; Alessandrini, Pierre; Wagner, Kathy; Kurzenne, Jean Yves; Bastiani, Florence; Bréaud, Jean; Valla, Jean Stéphane; Lacombe, Gérard Morisson; Orsini, Mattea; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Hiort, Olaf; Paris, Françoise; McElreavey, Kenneth; Sultan, Charles

2013-01-01

144

Nature GeNetics VOLUME 46 | NUMBER 9 | SEPTEMBER 2014 957 Hypospadias is a birth defect with a prevalence of about 4.5 cases  

E-print Network

Nature GeNetics VOLUME 46 | NUMBER 9 | SEPTEMBER 2014 957 Hypospadias is a birth defect, with both environmental and genetic risk factors investigated. Environmental factors consistently associated ratios of isolated hypospadias for male twin pairs and the first- and second- degree relatives of a case

Kaski, Samuel

145

Is there a need to do routine sonological, urodynamic study and cystourethroscopic evaluation of patients with simple hypospadias?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To study the patients with hypospadias for urinary tract anomalies, bladder functions and the anatomical changes in the urethra,\\u000a bladder and ureters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  65 cases of untreated hypospadias (14 anterior, 46 mid penile, 5 posterior penile) presenting between 1 and 14 years age were\\u000a evaluated with ultrasonography, urodynamic study, uroflowmetry and intraoperative cystourethroscopy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Ultrasound showed abnormalities in 12\\/65 (18.46%) with

Lucky Gupta; Shilpa Sharma; Devendra K. Gupta

2010-01-01

146

Hallux proximal phalanx Akin-Scarf osteotomy.  

PubMed

Numerous hallux proximal phalanx osteotomies have been described, but the Akin-type varisation or adduction osteotomies are currently the most commonly used by foot and ankle surgeons. This article describes the hallux proximal phalanx Akin-Scarf osteotomy. This osteotomy combines the inherent stability of the Scarf-type osteotomy with the versatility of the Akin-type osteotomies to correct pathologic hallux abductus interphalangeus, hallux equinus, or an abnormal digital length pattern, and it is an invaluable tool during the global surgical approach used for hallux valgus repair. PMID:14729996

Roukis, Thomas S

2004-01-01

147

Prenatal Diagnosis of Penoscrotal Hypospadia in Third Trimester by Two- and Three-Dimensional Ultrasonography: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hypospadia is an abnormal development of the corpus spongiosum, that involves cavernosa urethra, as a result of an inadequate fusion of the urethral folds. The incidence ranges from 0.2 to 4.1 per 1,000 live births. Among the markers of hypospadia, isolated ventral or lateral curvature of the penis associated with shortening are the most important markers and, in severe cases, can result in the classic “tulip sign.” The diagnosis of hypospadia is uncommon unless there is a routine of detailed analysis of fetal genitalia morphology. The prenatal diagnosis is of great importance for genetic counseling and allows better planning of postnatal treatment. The three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) in rendering mode enables better comprehension of the pathology by parents, facilitating postnatal planning. We report a case of penoscrotal hypospadia diagnosed at 33 weeks of gestation, suspected due to the absence of testicles in the scrotum and difficulty of penis visualization. We emphasize the findings of 3DUS and its importance in the pathology compression by parents. PMID:23304621

Rios, Lívia Teresa Moreira; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Hatanaka, Alan Roberto; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Martins, Marília da Glória

2012-01-01

148

Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007  

PubMed Central

Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

2014-01-01

149

Intracellular and nuclear binding of [3H]dihydrotestosterone in cultured genital skin fibroblasts of patients with severe hypospadias.  

PubMed Central

Androgens stimulate the development and growth of the male external genitalia. Because hypospadias is the most common congenital defect of the male urethra and because in most cases the cause of this malformation is unknown, we examined the hypothesis that the etiology of the severe forms of this disorder, which is frequently associated with other genital anomalies, might be explained by receptor abnormalities. Intracellular and nuclear binding of androgens were determined in cultured genital skin fibroblasts from 10 males who underwent circumcision for phimosis (controls A), 2 patients with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency (controls B), and 11 patients with severe forms of hypospadias of unknown etiology. Genital skin fibroblast monolayers were incubated for 60 min at 37 degrees C with varying concentrations of [3H]-dihydrotestosterone ([3H]DHT), and specific binding in whole cells and nuclei was measured. Maximum binding (Bmax) in the whole cell assay averaged 0.88 +/- 0.15 fmol . microgram DNA-1 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (controls A, 0.89 +/- 0.16 fmol . microgram DNA-1; controls B, 0.85 fmol . microgram DNA-1) and 0.7 +/- 0.25 fmol . microgram DNA-1 in the patients with hypospadias. In the latter group, Bmax in six patients was below the minimum values determined in the controls. Maximum specific nuclear binding in the control groups averaged 43% (range, 30-55%) of the corresponding intracellular binding. In contrast, nuclear binding in strains from patients with hypospadias was lower (range, 0-12% of whole cell Bmax). In particular, no high affinity saturable nuclear [3H]DHT binding could be measured in 6 of the 11 patients. We interpret these data to suggest that defective intracellular and/or nuclear binding might be the cause of defective genital development in some patients with severe hypospadias. PMID:2913055

Schweikert, H U; Schlüter, M; Romalo, G

1989-01-01

150

Hypospadias and variants in genes related to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism  

PubMed Central

We examined whether variants in genes related to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism were associated with hypospadias in humans. We examined 332 relatively common tagSNPs in 20 genes. Analyses included 633 cases (84 mild, 322 moderate, 212 severe, 15 undetermined severity) and 855 population-based non-malformed male controls born in California from 1990–2003. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) for each SNP. Several of the 332 studied SNPs had p<0.01: one in CYP3A4, four in HSD17B3, one in HSD3B1, 2 in STARD3 10 in SRD5A2 and seven in STS. In addition, haplotype analyses gave several associations with p<0.01. For HSD17B3, 14-SNP and 5-SNP blocks had ORs of 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.0, p<0.001) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6, 4.8, p<0.001), respectively. For SRD5A2, 9-SNP, 3-SNP and 8-SNP blocks had ORs of 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.2, p<0.001), 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.8, p=0.008) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9, p=0.002), respectively. Our study indicates that several genes that contribute to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism are associated with hypospadias risk. PMID:24281767

Carmichael, SL; Witte, JS; Ma, C; Lammer, EJ; Shaw, GM

2013-01-01

151

Bachelor Project Proximity Alert  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.3.3 Box-Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.3.4 Proximity Alert Metric and Box-Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.4 Views

Lanza, Michele

152

A49T, R227Q and TA repeat polymorphism of steroid 5 alpha-reductase type II gene and Hypospadias risk in North Indian children  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Hypospadias is a common congenital error of genital development, the frequency of which is increasing. As androgens have a significant role in the development of the male urethra, we sought to investigate the association between functional polymorphisms of SRD5A2 gene in relation to hypospadias. Methods We examined DNA samples of 96 cases and 105 controls for SRD5A2-A49T, R227Q and TA repeat gene polymorphisms. Result Absence of 49T locus and 227Q locus was observed in the present study. At the (TA) n repeat site, TA (0) allele was observed to be the most common allele in both cases (91.7%) and controls (90%). TA (9/9) genotype exhibited an odds ratio of 3.03 (95% C.I. = 0.18–50.14, p = 0) with respect to only middle phenotypes. Analysis of the demographic data depicted the agricultural background aspect of the parents of the cases. 72.27% of the cases (affected with Hypospadias) have parents having agriculture as a primary occupation. Conclusion As longer TA repeats are associated with lower enzymatic activity and lower DHT levels as reported among Caucasians, this polymorphism may have an effect (rather small) in predisposing the population of the present study to the risk of Hypospadias of lesser severity. Due to small sample size, the 3.03 O.R. is not significant and a larger sample is needed to validate the results. Large scale screening of Hypospadias and other 46 X,Y disorders of sexual development is needed especially in India, where the majority of the population is from agricultural background. The results of the present study are likely to assist the health planners to initiate screening of Hypospadias among the farmer community to combat the risk of Hypospadias. PMID:25685716

Samtani, Ratika; Bajpai, Minu; Ghosh, P.K.; Saraswathy, K.N.

2014-01-01

153

A 5-year audit of trainees experience and outcomes with two-stage hypospadias surgery.  

PubMed

The results of a 5-year audit of trainee plastic surgeons' experience and outcomes with two-stage hypospadias surgery are presented. Between June 1991 and October 1996, 87 patients had at least one of their operations performed by trainees; 79 patients had completed their surgery and were available for study. All patients underwent two-stage hypospadias correction; median duration of follow-up was 707 days. 69.5% of patients required correction of glans tilt and/or chordee correction; a small meatus was present in 62%. Trainees performed 73.2% of the first stage surgery (23.2% supervised by the consultant and 50% as most senior surgeon). The total complication rate for the first stage was 6.1%; the complications were: residual chordee and/or insufficient skin graft take (4 cases) and haematoma (1 case). Trainees performed 58.2% of the second stage surgery (24.1% supervised by the consultant and 34.2% as most senior surgeon). The fistula rate for the trainee stage 2 cases was 15.2% and the stricture rate 4.3%. All fistulae and strictures were successfully treated by one additional procedure. Complications rates for the first stage were similar between grades; consultant 4.5%; supervised trainee 5.3% and unsupervised trainee 7.3%. However, unsupervised trainees had a much higher complication rate for the second stage: 29.6%, versus consultant 3.0% and supervised trainee 5.3%. These complication rates represent the cumulative learning curve of 17 trainee surgeons. Outcomes for two individual trainees after the same number of cases (47) were studied further. These trainees had the highest and lowest complication rates for the procedure; 24% versus 9%. These figures might better reflect the range of the learning curve of this procedure. A major difference between these two trainees was the time taken to accrue 47 cases; 15 months versus 25. In the former case this concentration of training was felt to be beneficial. Further analysis of one trainee's results suggested that complications occur early in the learning curve and with appropriate supervision acceptable complication rates can be achieved. PMID:9771363

Titley, O G; Bracka, A

1998-07-01

154

Risk factor analysis for proximal and distal reoperations after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine significant risk factors for proximal or distal reoperations after surgical correction of acute type A aortic dissection. Methods: Between 1980 and 2000, a total of 160 consecutive patients (mean age 57.5 ± 13.3 years, 126 men) underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. Proximal repair was performed by means of ascending aorta

Matthias Kirsch; Céline Soustelle; Rémi Houël; Marie Line Hillion; Daniel Loisance

2002-01-01

155

Myoglobin inhibits proliferation of cultured human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myoglobin inhibits proliferation of cultured human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells. Following nephrotoxic injury, renal repair is dependent on tubular regeneration. In the case of myoglobinuric acute renal failure (ARF), persistence of myoglobin within tubular cells, or sublethal injury sustained at the height of exposure to it, might retard this process. To test this hypothesis, a human proximal tubular cell line

Mineo Iwata; Richard A Zager

1996-01-01

156

Proximal Tibial Bone Graft  

MedlinePLUS

Injections and other Procedures Treatments of the Ankle Treatments of the Big Toe Treatments of the Heel Treatments of the Midfoot Treatments of the Smaller Toes AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial ...

157

Method for mask repair using defect compensation  

SciTech Connect

A method for repair of amplitude and/or phase defects in lithographic masks. The method involves modifying or altering a portion of the absorber pattern on the surface of the mask blank proximate to the mask defect to compensate for the local disturbance (amplitude or phase) of the optical field due to the defect.

Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

158

Proximal interphalangeal joint sprains.  

PubMed

We report the first series of proximal interphalangeal joint sprains and reviewed 50 sprains in 48 patients. The majority of patients were males injured at work. The radial collateral ligament was injured about twice as often as the ulnar ligaments. The little finger was injured significantly less than the others. Proximal interphalangeal joint sprains can be diagnosed by the following: pain localized to the injured ligament, swelling greatest at the site of the injured ligament, tenderness greatest at the site of the injured ligament, pain at the site of the injured ligament during lateral stress, and/or mild lateral instability on radiographs or physical examination during stress testing. All patients required several different splints for treatment; in decreasing frequency, we used immobilizing, coupling, dynamic proximal interphalangeal flexion, dynamic proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal flexion, and dynamic proximal interphalangeal extension splints. The mean active range of motion before treatment was 70 degrees and after treatment was 95 degrees. Significantly more patients had loss of full extension than had loss of full flexion. Forty-six percent of the patients had no pain after treatment, 46 percent had mild pain, 8 percent had moderate pain, and none had severe pain. Patients treated within 4 weeks of their injury (group 1) gained significantly greater range of motion (35 degrees) than those treated between 5 and 14 weeks after their injury (10 degrees) (group 2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6739583

Wray, R C; Young, V L; Holtman, B

1984-07-01

159

Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures.  

PubMed

The most common fracture of the foot is a fracture of the proximal fifth metatarsal. In general, there are 3 types of fractures involving the proximal fifth metatarsal area, including a proximal diaphyseal stress fracture, a Jones fracture, and an avulsion fracture of the tuberosity. Some fractures of the fifth metatarsal heal without difficulty, whereas some have the potential for nonunion or delayed healing. Each fracture has some variation in the anatomical location on the fifth metatarsal, the mechanism of injury, the radiographic findings, and the treatment plan. Avulsion fractures of the tuberosity often heal without difficulty, yet fractures distal to the area of insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon are prone to nonunion and delayed healing (). Differential diagnosis of a fifth metatarsal midfoot injury includes ankle sprains, midfoot sprains, plantar facial ruptures, peroneus tendon ruptures, and other foot fractures. PMID:24176827

Ramponi, Denise R

2013-01-01

160

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

161

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

162

Snowmobile Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

Helbling, Wayne

163

Motorcycle Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

164

Craniosynostosis repair  

MedlinePLUS

... operating room under general anesthesia. This means your child will be asleep and will not feel pain. Traditional surgery is called open repair. It includes these steps: The most common place for a surgical cut to be made is over the ...

165

Railroad Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, sneaky Hacker has removed some of the tracks on the Trans-Cyberspace Railroad. Learners must repair the tracks so the Cybertrain can get back to Central Station. Learners add decimals and drag spare tracks to fill the missing spaces.

2013-12-04

166

Railroad Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sneaky Hacker has removed some of the tracks on the trans-cyberspace railroad. It's up to you to repair the tracks so the cybertrain can get back to Central Station. You’ll need to drag spare tracks to fill the missing spaces. To successfully fill the missing spaces you must add decimals together. Good luck!

2008-01-01

167

Chromatin dynamics in DNA double-strand break repair  

PubMed Central

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occur in the context of a highly organized chromatin environment and are, thus, a significant threat to the epigenomic integrity of eukaryotic cells. Changes in break-proximal chromatin structure are thought to be a prerequisite for efficient DNA repair and may help protect the structural integrity of the nucleus. Unlike most bona fide DNA repair factors, chromatin influences the repair process at several levels: the existing chromatin context at the site of damage directly affects the access and kinetics of the repair machinery; DSB induced chromatin modifications influence the choice of repair factors, thereby modulating repair outcome; lastly, DNA damage can have a significant impact on chromatin beyond the site of damage. We will discuss recent findings that highlight both the complexity and importance of dynamic and tightly orchestrated chromatin reorganization to ensure efficient DSB repair and nuclear integrity. PMID:22285574

Shi, Lei; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

2012-01-01

168

Total Preputial Flap: A Reliable and Versatile Technique for Urethral and Penile Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

We revisit the technique of total preputial flap (TPF) and its application for urethroplasty, penile skin coverage of both and present our results in 43 patients (41 hypospadias, 2 epispadias). There were no instances of flap necrosis. In patients without prior attempts at reconstruction (n?=?36), we observed four urethrocutaneous fistulas. TPF allowed the repair of cases of proximal hypospadias in one stage with an acceptable complication rate. PMID:24860798

Ludwikowski, Barbara; González, Ricardo

2014-01-01

169

Total preputial flap: a reliable and versatile technique for urethral and penile reconstruction.  

PubMed

We revisit the technique of total preputial flap (TPF) and its application for urethroplasty, penile skin coverage of both and present our results in 43 patients (41 hypospadias, 2 epispadias). There were no instances of flap necrosis. In patients without prior attempts at reconstruction (n?=?36), we observed four urethrocutaneous fistulas. TPF allowed the repair of cases of proximal hypospadias in one stage with an acceptable complication rate. PMID:24860798

Ludwikowski, Barbara; González, Ricardo

2014-01-01

170

Proximate Analysis of Coal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

171

Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

1997-01-01

172

Single vs. Double Dartos Interposition Flaps in Preventing Urethrocutaneous Fistula after Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty in Primary Distal Hypospadias: A Prospective Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: This prospective study was designed to compare symmetrical overlapping double flaps with a single dartos flap in regard to fistula formation as an adjunct to tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU). Patients and Methods: 77 consecutive children with primary coronal or subcoronal hypospadias were randomized into 2 groups. A single layer dartos flap was used to cover the anastomotic site

Ali Erol; Ali Kayikci; Omur Memik; Kamil Cam; Yavuz Akman

2009-01-01

173

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Hypospadias is one of the most frequent male congenital anomalies. Its surgical correction is under permanent review and it is always controversial. The best surgical technique can only be chosen intraoperatively, since it is the level of corpus spongiosum division what marks the severity of the case, although it is essential to evaluate position of the meatus, penile curvature, quality of the preputial skin and penile size. It is recommended treatment age between 6-12 months. Nowadays, The most frequently used technique for hypospadias repair is the Snodgrass tubularized incised urethral plate (TIP). Moreover, distal and medial hypospadias may be treated with urethral advance or flap techniques and proximal hypospadias with modifications of these in one-step or two-step procedures. Nevertheless, there are other controversies about hypospadias, such as to preserve or not the prepuce, the use of central or peripheral anesthesia blockade, or the use of wound dressings. PMID:24531671

Díaz Naranjo, S; Crespo Martínez, L; García-Matres, M J; González-Chamorro Ladrón de Guevara, F

2014-01-01

174

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15

175

Proximity Networks and Epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We presented the basis of a framework to account for the dynamics of contacts in epidemic processes, through the notion of dynamic proximity graphs. By varying the integration time-parameter T, which is the period of infectivity one can give a simple account for some of the differences in the observed contact networks for different diseases, such as smallpox, or AIDS. Our simplistic model also seems to shed some light on the shape of the degree distribution of the measured people-people contact network from the EPISIM data. We certainly do not claim that the simplistic graph integration model above is a good model for dynamic contact graphs. It only contains the essential ingredients for such processes to produce a qualitative agreement with some observations. We expect that further refinements and extensions to this picture, in particular deriving the link-probabilities in the dynamic proximity graph from more realistic contact dynamics should improve the agreement between models and data.

Guclu, Hasan; Toroczkai, Zoltán

2007-03-01

176

Multiplexed protein detection by proximity  

E-print Network

Multiplexed protein detection by proximity ligation for cancer biomarker validation Simon a proximity ligation­based multiplexed protein detection procedure in which several selected proteins can that for proteins. Proximity ligation has been developed in an attempt to bridge this gap and thereby improve

Cai, Long

177

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

178

Brain aneurysm repair  

MedlinePLUS

... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened up. A metal clip is placed ...

179

Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular  

MedlinePLUS

EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

180

Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces  

PubMed Central

We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft ?-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities.

Demir, ?zzettin; Özbak?r, Oya Bedre

2015-01-01

181

Distributed Optoelectronic Proximity Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optoelectronic proximity sensor comprises seven identical units functioning together to provide partially redundant data on spatial relationship between sensor and nearby diffusely reflecting surface. Provides data on distance, relative orientation, and curvature of surface. Sensor called "Hexeye" because its units exhibit hexagonal symmetry when viewed along optical axes and mounted together in hexagonal close packing. Because all six arrays of photodetectors in unit measure essentially identical distributions of light in operating mode, each provides redundant information averaged to increase accuracy or used to verify operation of others. Malfunctioning photodector identified, and output ignored or replaced by interpolated value. Developed for use in such robotic applications as noncontact probing or scanning of surfaces, localization and recognition of objects, and guiding "smart" robot hands in grasping objects.

Lee, Sukhan; Hahn, Hernsoo

1994-01-01

182

Peritrochanteric Access and Gluteus Medius Repair  

PubMed Central

Access to the peritrochanteric space is simple and reproducible with the technique described in this report. Two anteriorly based portals are placed between the iliotibial band and the greater trochanter. Bursal tissue and debris can be cleared, optimizing visualization of the peritrochanteric space and the anatomic structures. Lesions of the gluteus medius are a common cause of lateral hip pain unresponsive to conservative treatment and have frequently been mischaracterized as recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis. These lesions are often amenable to endoscopic repair with techniques comparable to those used for rotator cuff problems in the shoulder. Portal placement and organization and execution of a gluteus medius repair are highlighted in a video example. Repair is carried out with laterally based portals in the peritrochanteric space. A viewing portal is placed posterior to the vastus lateralis ridge, with a working portal distal to the ridge. Anchors are placed from a proximal position, entering perpendicular to the cortical surface of the trochanter. PMID:24265992

Byrd, J. W. Thomas

2013-01-01

183

Neuronal repair  

PubMed Central

The potential of the central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate is regulated by a complex interaction of neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic factors that remain poorly understood. Significant research has been dedicated to identifying these factors to facilitate design of therapies that will treat the functional impairment associated with CNS injuries. Over the last decade, the development of in vivo laser severing of single axons in C. elegans has established an invaluable model for the genetic identification of novel regeneration factors. In a recent study we report the unexpected identification of the core apoptotic proteins CED-4/Apaf-1 and the executioner caspase CED-3 as important factors that promote early events in regeneration in C. elegans. Other upstream regulators of apoptosis do not influence regeneration, indicating the existence of a novel mechanism for activation of CED-4 and CED-3 in neuronal repair. CED-4 and CED-3 function downstream of injury-induced calcium transients and appear to act through the conserved DLK-1 pathway to promote regeneration. We propose a working model for calcium-dependent localized activation of CED-4 and CED-3 caspase and discuss questions raised including mechanisms for spatially regulating activated CED-3 and the possible substrates that it might cleave to initiate regeneration. PMID:24058867

Reina, Christopher P.; Driscoll, Monica; Gabel, Christopher V.

2013-01-01

184

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal  

E-print Network

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal Point Methods Yves Lucet & Warren Hare July 24, 2013 1 / 26 #12;Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Outline 1

185

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

186

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

187

Direct Repair vs. Overlapping Sphincter Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the results of two surgical techniques (direct end-to-end vs. overlapping) of delayed repair of a localized anterior defect of external anal sphincter after an obstetric trauma. METHODS: During a five-year period, 23 patients were randomly assigned to direct end-to-end repair (n = 12) or overlapping sphincter repair (n = 11), using

J. J. Tjandra; W. R. Han; J. Goh; M. Carey; P. Dwyer

2003-01-01

188

Rotator cuff repair  

MedlinePLUS

... Three common techniques are used to repair a rotator cuff tear: During open repair, surgical incision is made and ... when: You have a large or a complete rotator cuff tear. A tear was caused by a recent injury. ...

189

Repairing Broken Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how biomedical engineers aid doctors in repairing severely broken bones. They learn about using pins, plates, rods and screws to repair fractures. They do this by designing, creating and testing their own prototype devices to repair broken turkey bones.

2014-09-18

190

Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

Haines, Richard F.

1987-01-01

191

No more shoulders: Technical modification of Byars' flaps  

PubMed Central

The repair of midshaft or more proximal hypospadias generally leads to a deficiency of ventral penile skin. Transposition of dorsal/lateral skin flaps may lead to redundant skin folds or shoulders. In most cases, redundant skin can be avoided by appropriate tailoring and positioning of the flaps. We describe a simple method to correct these folds when they are unavoidable. PMID:19468411

Kurzrock, Eric A.; Hellenthal, Nicholas

2008-01-01

192

Shaping chromatin for repair.  

PubMed

To counteract the adverse effects of various DNA lesions, cells have evolved an array of diverse repair pathways to restore DNA structure and to coordinate repair with cell cycle regulation. Chromatin changes are an integral part of the DNA damage response, particularly with regard to the types of repair that involve assembly of large multiprotein complexes such as those involved in double strand break (DSB) repair and nucleotide excision repair (NER). A number of phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation and chromatin remodeling events modulate chromatin structure at the lesion site. These changes demarcate chromatin neighboring the lesion, afford accessibility and binding surfaces to repair factors and provide on-the-spot means to coordinate repair and damage signaling. Thus, the hierarchical assembly of repair factors at a double strand break is mostly due to their regulated interactions with posttranslational modifications of histones. A large number of chromatin remodelers are required at different stages of DSB repair and NER. Remodelers physically interact with proteins involved in repair processes, suggesting that chromatin remodeling is a requisite for repair factors to access the damaged site. Together, recent findings define the roles of histone post-translational modifications and chromatin remodeling in the DNA damage response and underscore possible differences in the requirements for these events in relation to the chromatin context. PMID:23085398

Gospodinov, Anastas; Herceg, Zdenko

2013-01-01

193

Standard Snodgrass technique in conjunction with double-layer covering of the neourethra with dorsal dartos flap is the therapy of first choice for hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate the validity of the standard tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty technique for different kinds of hypospadia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  From June 2002 to December 2003 and from March 2006 to October 2007 38 patients aged 1–22 years (average 7.34) were operated\\u000a using the concept of TIP urethroplasty. The hypospadiac meatus were subcoronal in 28 patients (73.68%), midshaft in six (15.78%),

Mahmoud Mustafa; Bassem S. Wadie; Hassan Abol-Enein

2008-01-01

194

Bilateral uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension with site-specific endopelvic fascia defect repair for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The anatomic and functional success of suspension of the vaginal cuff to the proximal uterosacral ligaments is described. Study Design: Forty-six women underwent vaginal site-specific repair of endopelvic fascia defects with suspension of the vaginal cuff to the proximal uterosacral ligaments for pelvic organ prolapse. Outcome measures included operative complications, pelvic organ prolapse quantitation, and assessment of pelvic floor

Matthew D. Barber; Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Cindy L. Amundsen; Richard C. Bump

2000-01-01

195

Optimality in DNA repair  

PubMed Central

DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge. PMID:21945337

Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

2012-01-01

196

Optimality in DNA repair.  

PubMed

DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge. PMID:21945337

Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

2012-01-01

197

Fundamentals of Airframe Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site, visitors will find introductory materials to airframes and airframe repair for helicopters and airplanes. The resource is divided into two parts; part one discusses the basic components and processes of airframes, and part two covers airframe damage repair. Additionally, each part is broken down into four lessons, including Aviation Hardware, Structural Repair, and Metal-Working Processes. The text of the material is supplemented with helpful labeled drawings to illustrate each part of the airframe. This resource is useful for students who are just beginning in the field of airframe maintenance and repair, or the more general fields of aeronautics or aeronautical engineering.

198

Alternating proximal regularized dictionary learning.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for dictionary learning that is based on the alternating proximal algorithm studied by Attouch, Bolte, Redont, and Soubeyran (2010), coupled with a reliable and efficient dual algorithm for computation of the related proximity operators. This algorithm is suitable for a general dictionary learning model composed of a Bregman-type data fit term that accounts for the goodness of the representation and several convex penalization terms on the coefficients and atoms, explaining the prior knowledge at hand. As Attouch et al. recently proved, an alternating proximal scheme ensures better convergence properties than the simpler alternating minimization. We take care of the issue of inexactness in the computation of the involved proximity operators, giving a sound stopping criterion for the dual inner algorithm, which keeps under control the related errors, unavoidable for such a complex penalty terms, providing ultimately an overall effective procedure. Thanks to the generality of the proposed framework, we give an application in the context of genome-wide data understanding, revising the model proposed by Nowak, Hastie, Pollack, and Tibshirani (2011). The aim is to extract latent features (atoms) and perform segmentation on array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data. We improve several important aspects that increase the quality and interpretability of the results. We show the effectiveness of the proposed model with two experiments on synthetic data, which highlight the enhancements over the original model. PMID:25248086

Salzo, Saverio; Masecchia, Salvatore; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

2014-12-01

199

Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

Zammuto, Raymond F.

200

Radio Proximity-Fuze Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general principles governing the design of radio proximity fuzes are presented. The paper deals primarily with fuzes for smooth-bore projectiles, such as bombs, rockets, and mortars. Illustrations and descriptions of the various fuzes in this category which were developed during World War II are given. Within security regulations, there is a reasonably detailed discussion of the performance and constraction

C. Brunetti

1946-01-01

201

Proximity Sensors Make Robot Dexterous  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control system enables robot hand to grasp objects of varied shapes. Key features of system: reflective proximity sensors furnishing data on position, orientation, and distance of object and software protocol controlling sequence of operations in approaching and grasping objects. Reflected-beam sensing concept applied to simple opposed-jaw industrial grippers as well as to dexterous robot hands.

Hess, Cliff; Li, Larry C. H.

1990-01-01

202

Hypertelorism and hypospadias associated with a de novo apparently balanced translocation between 8q22.3-23 and 20p13  

SciTech Connect

A de novo apparently balanced translocation involving chromosomes 8 and 20 was found in a 14-year-old boy with minor anomalies, mild skeletal abnormalities and ambiguous external genitalia including perineoscrotal hypospadias, rudimentary fused labioscrotal folds, bilateral cryptorchidism, and small penis. The karyotype was 46,XY, t(8;20)(q22.3-23;p13). No signs of other conditions known to be associated with structural anomalies of either chromosome 8 or 20 were present and incomplete masculinisation of the external genitalia appears to be the main component of the phenotype. Clinical and biological studies showed apparently normal testicular function in utero and after birth. Examinations excluded 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency or a block in any enzymatic steps of testosterone, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid biosynthesis. Coding sequences of the sex-determining gene (SRY) and androgen receptor gene (AR) were found to be identical to those of a normal male excluding their role in the cause of the present condition. Since several other reports describe the association of hypospadias and hypertelorism with deletions or translocations involving 8q, we suggest that a locus necessary for male sex differentiation is located at distal 8q. 24 refs., 3 figs.

Tar, A. [Buda Children`s Hospital, Budapest (Hungary)] [Buda Children`s Hospital, Budapest (Hungary); Ion, A. [Hopital St. Vincent de Paul, Paris (France)] [Hopital St. Vincent de Paul, Paris (France); Gyoervari, B.; Solyom, J. [Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary)] [and others] [Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary); and others

1997-01-20

203

Androgens augment proximal tubule transport.  

PubMed

The proximal tubule contains an autonomous renin-angiotensin system that regulates transport independently of circulating angiotensin II. Androgens are known to increase expression of angiotensinogen, but the effect of androgens on proximal tubule transport is unknown. In this in vivo microperfusion study, we examined the effect of androgens on proximal tubule transport. The volume reabsorptive rate in Sprague-Dawley rats given dihydrotestosterone (DHT) injections was significantly higher than in control rats given vehicle injections (4.57 +/- 0.31 vs. 3.31 +/- 0.23 nl x min(-1) x mm(-1), P < 0.01). Luminally perfusing with either enalaprilat (10(-4) M) to inhibit production of angiotensin II or losartan (10(-8) M) to block the angiotensin receptor decreased the proximal tubule volume reabsorptive rate in DHT-treated rats to a significantly greater degree than in control vehicle-injected rats. The renal expression of angiotensinogen was shown to be higher in the DHT-treated animals, using Northern blot analysis. The expression of angiotensin receptors, determined by specific binding of angiotensin II, was not different in the two groups of animals. Brush-border membrane protein abundance of the Na/H exchanger, a membrane transport protein under angiotensin II regulation, was also higher in DHT-treated rats vs. control rats. Rats that received DHT had higher blood pressures than the control rats but had no change in their glomerular filtration rate. In addition, serum angiotensin II levels were lower in DHT-treated vs. control rats. These results suggest that androgens may directly upregulate the proximal tubule renin-angiotensin system, increase the volume reabsorptive rate, and thereby increase extracellular volume and blood pressure and secondarily decrease serum angiotensin II levels. PMID:15100096

Quan, Albert; Chakravarty, Sumana; Chen, Jian-Kang; Chen, Jian-Chun; Loleh, Samer; Saini, Neel; Harris, Ray C; Capdevila, Jorge; Quigley, Raymond

2004-09-01

204

Repairs of composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and the host composite structure.

Roh, Hee Seok

205

Feasibility and Outcome of Proximal Catheter Ileostomy – A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Loop ileostomy has high complication rates and causes much patient inconvenience. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a proximal catheter ileostomy in place of loop ileostomy in patients treated by intestinal repair and/or resection-anastomosis.Design: Prospective study.Setting: J. N. Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Patients and Methods: From November 2006 to November 2009, in all patients treated surgically by primary repair and/or resection-anastomosis of small and/or large bowel, we constructed a catheter ileostomy when a defunctioning proximal protective loop ileostomy was considered advisable. Catheter ileostomy was constructed in the fashion of catheter jejunostomy, with postoperative saline irrigation. Results: Catheter ileostomy was performed in 20 patients in the 3-year period. The mean age of the subjects was 28.6 years and the male: female ratio was 1.86:1. Four patients died of septicemia and multiple organ failure unrelated to catheter ileostomy in the immediate postoperative period. Catheter ileostomy started functioning within 48 hours of the operation, and twice-daily irrigation was found sufficient in 81.25% of the surviving patients. Only one patient developed peritubal leak with mild skin excoriation that cleared within 5 days. Another patient with Koch's abdomen underwent conversion to loop colostomy on re-exploration for postoperative adhesive obstruction. There was no instance of intestinal leak. Ileostomy wounds closed spontaneously within 7–14 days of catheter removal, and none required formal closure. Hospital stay ranged from 12–35 days (mean: 23 days). Conclusions: Catheter ileostomy is effective in protecting intestinal anastomosis/repair; there is minimal morbidity and no catheter-related leak/mortality, and we recommend the procedure. PMID:21727735

Ansari, Maulana M.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Hasan, Syed H.; Haleem, Shahla

2011-01-01

206

Allograft reconstruction for symptomatic chronic complete proximal hamstring tendon avulsion.  

PubMed

Complete proximal hamstring tendon avulsion is an uncommon injury that can cause significant disability in young, athletic individuals. Surgical reattachment is recommended and can be performed on a delayed basis if the tissue is sufficiently mobile. We report 2-year follow up for two cases where interpositional allograft tissue was used for reconstruction because the tendon was too retracted for primary repair. Two 30-year-old patients with complete proximal hamstring avulsion at least 2 years earlier reported severe hamstring weakness and restrictions with respect to sport and recreational activities. Proximal hamstring tendon reconstruction with Achilles tendon allograft was performed for both patients. They were immobilized for 8 weeks with the hip in extension and the knee in flexion using a custom orthosis, followed by physical therapy and weight bearing as tolerated. The patients were followed for over 2 years after the surgery and were evaluated with physical examination, isokinetic strength testing and detailed questions about their function. Following the procedure, both patients returned to a more active lifestyle that was greatly improved with respect to participation in sport and function. This procedure should be considered as a salvage operation as the patients did not return to completely normal function and demonstrated hamstring weakness on the operated side. PMID:18682918

Marx, Robert G; Fives, Gregory; Chu, Samuel K; Daluiski, Aaron; Wolfe, Scott W

2009-01-01

207

Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

208

Wound repair and regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repair of wounds is one of the most complex biological processes that occur during human life. After an injury, multiple biological pathways immediately become activated and are synchronized to respond. In human adults, the wound repair process commonly leads to a non-functioning mass of fibrotic tissue known as a scar. By contrast, early in gestation, injured fetal tissues can

Geoffrey C. Gurtner; Sabine Werner; Yann Barrandon; Michael T. Longaker

2008-01-01

209

Home Appliance Repair Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This link in the howstuffworks website includes seven major topics to repairing major appliances, from â??Major Appliance Repair Basicsâ?ť to â??Repairing Pilot Lights and Thermocopules.â?ť Each topic contains multiple paragraphs to explain how to accomplish a task, general hints on repairing such devices easier and making them more trouble-free. In general, each topic contains numerous pictures or diagrams to aid in understanding the process. It should also be noted that when more difficult topics are discussed, even further in-depth explanations are included. Links are also provided in the navigation bar to similar articles that may also be of interest to the user. All the information contained on the site is free and well organized, making it a fantastic means to learn and understand the topics of Appliance Repair. [TB

210

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

2005-07-20

211

Inflammation and wound repair.  

PubMed

Wound repair requires the integration of complex cellular networks to restore tissue homeostasis. Defects in wound repair are associated with human disease including pyoderma gangrenosum, a heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by unhealed wounds and chronic inflammation of unclear etiology. Despite its clinical importance, there remain significant gaps in understanding how different types of cells communicate to integrate inflammation and wound repair. Recent progress in wound and regenerative biology has been gained by studying genetically tractable model organisms, like zebrafish, that retain the ability to regenerate. The optical transparency and ease of genetic manipulation make zebrafish an ideal model system to dissect multi-cellular and tissue level interactions during wound repair. The focus of this review is on recent advances in understanding how inflammation and wound repair are orchestrated and integrated to achieve wound resolution and tissue regeneration using zebrafish. PMID:24853879

LeBert, Danny C; Huttenlocher, Anna

2014-08-01

212

Hypoxia and DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of solid tumors and occurs very early in neoplastic development. Hypoxia transforms cell physiology in multiple ways, with profound changes in cell metabolism, cell growth, susceptibility to apoptosis, induction of angiogenesis, and increased motility. Over the past 20 years, our lab has determined that hypoxia also induces genetic instability. We have conducted a large series of experiments revealing that this instability occurs through the alteration of DNA repair pathways, including nucleotide excision repair, DNA mismatch repair, and homology dependent repair. Our work suggests that hypoxia, as a key component of solid tumors, can drive cancer progression through its impact on genomic integrity. However, the acquired changes in DNA repair that are induced by hypoxia may also render hypoxic cancer cells vulnerable to tailored strategies designed to exploit these changes. PMID:24348208

Glazer, Peter M.; Hegan, Denise C.; Lu, Yuhong; Czochor, Jennifer; Scanlon, Susan E.

2013-01-01

213

Reusing Cadaveric Humeri for Fracture Testing After Testing Simulated Rotator Cuff Tendon Repairs  

PubMed Central

Abstract The financial cost of using human tissues in biomedical testing and surgical reconstruction is predicted to increase at a rate that is disproportionately greater than other materials used in biomechanical testing. Our first hypothesis is that cadaveric proximal humeri that had undergone monotonic failure testing of simulated rotator cuff repairs would not differ in ultimate fracture loads or in energy absorbed to fracture when compared to controls (i.e., bones without cuff repairs). Our second hypothesis is that there can be substantial cost savings if these cadaveric proximal humeri, with simulated cuff repairs, can be re-used for fracture testing. Results of fracture tests (conducted in a backwards fall configuration) and cost analysis support both hypotheses. Hence, the bones that had undergone monotonic failure tests of various rotator cuff repair techniques can be re-used in fracture tests because their load-carrying capacity is not significantly reduced. PMID:25371862

Pitts, Todd C.; Knight, Alex N.; Burkhead, Wayne Z.

2014-01-01

214

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-12-31

215

Proximate and polyphenolic characterization of cranberry pomace  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The proximate composition and identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds in dried cranberry pomace were determined. Proximate analysis was conducted based on AOAC methods for moisture, protein, fat, and ash. Total carbohydrates were determined by the difference method. Polyphenolic ...

216

Micropower RF material proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is of the sensor. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt's configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

217

Micropower RF material proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is disclosed. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt`s configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna. 5 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1998-11-10

218

Proximal Humerus Reconstructions for Tumors  

PubMed Central

The optimal method for reconstructing the proximal humerus in patients with tumors is controversial. To determine functional outcomes and complication rates after different types of reconstructions, we reviewed a consecutive series of 49 patients who underwent proximal humerus resection and osteoarticular allograft (17 patients), allograft-prosthetic composite (16), or endoprosthetic (16) reconstruction. Operative indications included primary malignancies (24 patients), metastatic disease (19), and benign aggressive disease (six). Implant revision was more common after osteoarticular reconstruction (five of 17) than after allograft-prosthetic composite (one of 16) or endoprosthetic (zero of 16) reconstructions. At a minimum followup of 24 months (median, 98 months; range, 24–214 months) in surviving patients, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional scores averaged 79% for the allograft-prosthetic composite, 71% for the osteoarticular allograft, and 69% for the endoprosthetic reconstruction cohorts. Shoulder instability was associated with abductor mechanism compromise and was more common after endoprosthetic reconstruction. Allograft fractures occurred in 53% of patients receiving osteoarticular allografts. We recommend allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction for younger patients with primary tumors of bone and endoprosthetic reconstruction for older patients with metastatic disease. Because of the unacceptable complication rate, we do not recommend osteoarticular allograft reconstruction for routine use in the proximal humerus. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18820983

Adams, Sheila C.; Pitcher, J. David; Malinin, Theodore I.; Temple, H. Thomas

2008-01-01

219

Acute bilateral renal artery chimney stent thrombosis after endovascular repair of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

The use of "chimney" stents to augment the proximal landing zone for endovascular aneurysm repair has been increasingly reported. Despite mounting enthusiasm for this technique, the durability of this type of repair and capability to preserve perfusion to target branches remains a paramount concern. Here, we report management of a patient presenting with acute bilateral renal chimney stent thrombosis and a type Ia endoleak. PMID:24246538

Scali, Salvatore T; Feezor, Robert J; Huber, Thomas S; Beck, Adam W

2015-04-01

220

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-08-17

221

Proximity and Innovation: From Statics to Dynamics  

E-print Network

Proximity and Innovation: From Statics to Dynamics PIERRE-ALEXANDRE BALLAND*, RON BOSCHMA* and KOEN remained essentially static. A dynamic extension of the proximity framework is proposed that accounts: in revised form January 2014) BALLAND P.-A., BOSCHMA R. and FRENKEN K. Proximity and innovation: from statics

Balland, Pierre-Alexandre

222

A Scalarization Proximal Point Method for Quasiconvex ...  

E-print Network

Program New Frontiers UFRJ/UFT. †Federal University of ... [6], proposed an interior proximal algorithm inspired by the logarithmic- quadratic proximal method for linearly constrained quasiconvex minimization problems. For that method ... point method to solve the quasiconvex multiobjective problem (1). The proximal point ...

2014-07-24

223

Investigation of proximity coupled antenna structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximity coupled microstrip patch antennas (D.M. Pozar and B. Kaufman, Electron. Lett. vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 369-369, 1987) offer various advantages over conventional edge or probe fed patches. In this paper we investigate the standard proximity coupled printed antenna design and highlight the critical design parameters. We also present a stacked proximity coupled antenna, which achieves a broad bandwidth

W. S. T. Rowe; R. B. Waterhouse

2003-01-01

224

Rectal prolapse repair  

MedlinePLUS

Rectal prolapse repair is surgery to fix a rectal prolapse . This is a condition in which the last part ... Rectal prolapse may be partial, involving only the mucosa . Or it may be complete, involving the entire wall of ...

225

Retinal detachment repair  

MedlinePLUS

... around it. This article describes the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. These occur due to a hole ... Connolly BP, Regillo CD. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. In: ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3, ...

226

Repairing ceramic insulating tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

1980-01-01

227

Structural Repair Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two diagrams from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center show how to create a PVC foam core sandwich and perform structural scarf repair. The diagrams show the materials to use and the dimensions of each.

228

Rotator Cuff Repair  

MedlinePLUS

... CUFF REPAIR DOCTORS HOSPITAL CENTER FOR ORTHOPEDICS AND SPORTS MEDICINE CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA June 18, 2008 00:00: ... Coral Gables, Florida. I'm Dr. John Zvijac, sports medicine and shoulder surgeon here at Doctors Hospital, and ...

229

Femur fracture repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

You had a fracture (break) in the femur, also called the thigh bone, in your leg. You may have needed surgery to repair ... surgeon will make a cut to open your fracture. Your surgeon will then use special metal devices ...

230

Responses of Proximal Tubular Cells to Injury in Congenital Renal Disease: Fight or Flight  

PubMed Central

Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The PCY mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knock out mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial “fight” response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a “flight” response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration. PMID:23949631

Chevalier, Robert L.; Forbes, Michael S.; Galarreta, Carolina I.; Thornhill, Barbara A.

2013-01-01

231

Responses of proximal tubular cells to injury in congenital renal disease: fight or flight.  

PubMed

Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The polycystic kidney and fibrosis (pcy)-mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knockout mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial "fight" response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a "flight" response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration. PMID:23949631

Chevalier, Robert L; Forbes, Michael S; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A

2014-04-01

232

Autologous Chondrocyte Cartilage Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Articular cartilage injuries are one of the most common types of injuries seen in orthopaedic practice. The treatment of articular\\u000a cartilage damage remains a challenge because cartilage has a limited capacity for spontaneous repair after traumatic insult\\u000a or degenerative joint disease. As a result, several therapeutic strategies have been developed to restore articular cartilage\\u000a and produce a durable repair. Surgical

Stefan Marlovits

233

A Simple Book Repair Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Dartmouth College Library Preservation Services, this handy and straightforward site should appeal to book lovers and collectors. The site is basically an electronic version of the print publication, supplemented by illustrative photos and a Quicktime movie. The manual discusses guiding principles to book repair, tools, practical guidelines, as well as guiding users through nine common repairs. These include torn pages, hinge repair, hinge tightening, corner repair, and spine repair, among others. A glossary and bibliography are also included.

234

The HTV Proximity Communication System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) as an unmanned logistic support vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS). The HTV, which is launched by the H-IIA rocket, transports both pressurized and un-pressurized cargoes to the ISS, reloads disposal items from the ISS and performs destructive reentry over ocean area. NASDA plans the first flight of HTV in 2005 for demonstration. The HTV will contribute the ISS assembly and logistic re-supply operations with international commonality. For unmanned vehicle operation, communication link is critical with commanding and control, especially in proximity region to the ISS. As for the HTV operation, NASDA is developing dedicated communication system installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the ISS, which is called the Proximity Communication System (PROX). The HTV receives commands and transmits telemetry data through the PROX in its proximity operation to the ISS. To achieve this, the PROX can communicate with the HTV on its nominal trajectory within 23km of the ISS. Especially within 3km of the ISS, the PROX has capability to perform omni-directional communication to the HTV. The PROX also has GPS receiver and send GPS data to the HTV to support the HTV navigation for relative GPS navigation used in "far" range (500m away from the ISS). In addition to the above fundamental functions, the PROX has a capability of range and range-rate measurement between the ISS and the HTV by the pseudo noise (PN) code epoch and the Doppler shift frequency. This provides a reference data independent of "main" navigation methods (rendezvous sensor navigation or GPS navigation) of the HTV. The PROX also assists the ISS crew with its commanding device, called the Hardware Command Panel (HCP), to issue time-dependent safety-related critical commands for HTV berthing/un-berthing operation. When a failure occurs somewhere on "communication path" from the PROX Base Band Processor (BBP) to the HTV Guidance and Control Computer (GCC) including data handling and communication equipments, the PROX detects it by monitoring interruption of the "heartbeat" signal and conducts automatic redundancy switching of all the equipments on that "communication path" including those of the HTV. This paper describes the PROX functions such as communication, data handling and GPS navigation and some unique functions for the HTV proximity operation to the ISS.

Harada, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tetsuo

2002-01-01

235

Automated rendezvous and proximity operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IR&D efforts in recent years have focused on effective means of performing automated rendezvous and proximity operations. The primary focus for application has been to the Space Shuttle Orbiter and potential derivations, such as the Reusable Cargo Vehicle (RCV), studied in FY 1990. All candidate vehicle mission scenarios have included approach to docking or berthing with the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Results to date indicate that application of appropriate guidance algorithms can reduce docking contact or relative offset conditions, resulting in potential simplification of capture systems.

Flecklin, Anton F., II

1991-01-01

236

Metabolic modulation of chromatin: implications for DNA repair and genomic integrity  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of genomic integrity in response to DNA damage is tightly linked to controlled changes in the damage-proximal chromatin environment. Many of the chromatin modifying enzymes involved in DNA repair depend on metabolic intermediates as cofactors, suggesting that changes in cellular metabolism can have direct consequences for repair efficiency and ultimately, genome stability. Here, we discuss how metabolites may contribute to DNA double-strand break repair, and how alterations in cellular metabolism associated with both aging and tumorigenesis may affect the integrity of our genomes. PMID:24065984

Liu, Jinping; Kim, Jeongkyu; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

2013-01-01

237

Outcome of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with spongioplasty alone as additional tissue cover: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Additional cover after neourethra formation to decrease the fistula rate, has been described using the dartos, tunica, denuded skin and corpus spongiosum. The use of corpus spongiosum alone to cover the neourethra is infrequent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of spongioplasty alone as an intervening layer in the prevention of urethral fistula following tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU). Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed including 113 primary hypospadias cases undergoing TIPU with spongioplasty from June 2010 to March 2012. Correction of chordee was carried out by penile degloving alone in 5, mobilization of urethral plate with spongiosum in 22 and combination of both in 45 cases. Intra-operatively, spongiosum was taken to be poorly developed if it was thin and fibrous, moderate if good spongiosal tissue with good vascularization and well-developed if healthy robust spongiosum, which became bulkier than native spongiosum after tubularisation. Spongioplasty was done in a single layer after mobilization of spongiosum, starting just proximal to the native meatus and into the glans distally. Results: The mean age of the patients was 11.53 years. The type of hypospadias was distal, mid and proximal in 81, 12 and 20 cases respectively. Spongiosum was poorly developed in 13, moderate in 53 and well-developed in 47 cases. The mean hospital stay was 8-10 days and follow-up ranged from 6 months to 2 years. Urethral fistula was seen in six patients (11.3%) with moderate spongiosum (distal 1, mid 1 and proximal 4), and three (23.03%) with poorly developed spongiosum (one each in distal, mid and proximal) with an overall 7.96% fistula rate. None of the patients with well-developed spongiosum developed a fistula. Poorer spongiosum correlated with a greater number of complications (P = 0.011). Five out of thirteen cases with poor spongiosum (38.46%) had proximal hypospadias, i.e. more proximal was the hypospadias, poorer was the development of the spongiosum (P = 0.05). Meatal stenosis was seen in two patients (1.76%) with proximal hypospadias, one with moderate and the other with poorly developed spongiosum. More proximal was the hypospadias, greater were the number of complications (P = 0.0019). Conclusion: TIPU with spongioplasty reconstructs a near normal urethra with low complications. Better developed and thicker spongiosum results in lower incidence of fistula and meatal stenosis. More proximal hypospadias is associated with poorer spongiosum. We recommend spongioplasty to be incorporated as an essential step in all patients undergoing tubularized incised-plate repair for hypospadias. PMID:25378820

Bhat, Amilal; Sabharwal, Karamveer; Bhat, Mahakshit; Saran, Ramakishan; Singla, Manish; Kumar, Vinay

2014-01-01

238

Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

2011-01-01

239

Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypersonic flows involving two or more bodies travelling in close proximity to one another are encountered in several important situations. The present work seeks to explore one aspect of the resulting flow problem by investigating the forces experienced by a secondary body when it is within the domain of influence of a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds.An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral force coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger than one-sixth of the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with those from numerical simulations and reasonable agreement is observed if an appropriate normalization for the relative lateral displacement of the two bodies is used.Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, with good agreement. A new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities, enabling the experimental simulation of the proximal bodies problem, is described. This technique provides two independent means of measurement, and the agreement observed between the two gives a further degree of confidence in the results obtained.

Laurence, Stuart J.; Deiterding, R.; Hornung, G.

240

Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 ?m). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The early pyroclastic phase of the formation of Kima'Kho, a tuya in northern B.C., Canada produced a subaqueous pyroclastic cone which became emergent during the latter stages of formation. Armoured lapilli are pervasive within the emergent upper third of the sequence. No other types of ash aggregates have been observed. Petrographic and textural analysis of the armoured lapilli shows them to comprise a central 2-30 mm-sized, juvenile, vesiculated pyroclast, concentrically coated by mm-scale layers of 10-250 ?m sized ash particles. At Kima'Kho, the armoured lapilli are shown to be a direct indicator of fallout from a sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured lapilli (no accretionary lapilli) at Kima'Kho and diverse ash aggregates but no armoured lapilli at A418. Here we investigate vent-proximal ash aggregation and the specific conditions which lead to the formation of coated ash pellets and armoured lapilli.

Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

2012-12-01

241

New autophagy reporter mice reveal dynamics of proximal tubular autophagy.  

PubMed

The accumulation of autophagosomes in postischemic kidneys may be renoprotective, but whether this accumulation results from the induction of autophagy or from obstruction within the autophagic process is unknown. Utilizing the differential pH sensitivities of red fluorescent protein (RFP; pKa 4.5) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP; pKa 5.9), we generated CAG-RFP-EGFP-LC3 mice to distinguish early autophagic vacuoles from autolysosomes. In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that in response to nutrient deprivation, renal epithelial cells in CAG-RFP-EGFP-LC3 mice produce autophagic vacuoles expressing RFP and EGFP puncta. EGFP fluorescence diminished substantially in the acidic environment of the autolysosomes, whereas bright RFP signals remained. Under normal conditions, nephrons expressed few EGFP and RFP puncta, but ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) led to dynamic changes in the proximal tubules, with increased numbers of RFP and EGFP puncta that peaked at 1 day after IRI. The number of EGFP puncta returned to control levels at 3 days after IRI, whereas the high levels of RFP puncta persisted, indicating autophagy initiation at day 1 and autophagosome clearance during renal recovery at day 3. Notably, proliferation decreased in cells containing RFP puncta, suggesting that autophagic cells are less likely to divide for tubular repair. Furthermore, 87% of proximal tubular cells with activated mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which prevents autophagy, contained no RFP puncta. Conversely, inhibition of mTOR complex 1 induced RFP and EGFP expression and decreased cell proliferation. In summary, our results highlight the dynamic regulation of autophagy in postischemic kidneys and suggest a role of mTOR in autophagy resolution during renal repair. PMID:24179166

Li, Ling; Wang, Zhao V; Hill, Joseph A; Lin, Fangming

2014-02-01

242

Subacromial Internal Spacer for Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair: “The Balloon Technique”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral reattachment of the rotator cuff and the more recent introduction of the double-row rotator cuff repair technique require adequate visualization to define the rotator cuff footprint and the greater tuberosity. In many cases extensive debridement in this area is required to remove the overlying subdeltoid bursa, which can impair visualization laterally on the proximal humerus. Inadequate visualization laterally may

Alexandre S. Kilinc; Mohammad H. Ebrahimzadeh; Laurent Lafosse

2009-01-01

243

Adverse consequences of internal iliac artery occlusion during endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Embolization of the internal iliac artery (IIA) may be performed during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair if aneurysmal disease of the common iliac artery precludes graft placement proximal to the IIA orifice. The IIA may also be unintentionally occluded because of iliac trauma or coverage by the endograft. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence,

Laura A. Karch; Kim J. Hodgson; Mark A. Mattos; William T. Bohannon; Don E. Ramsey; Robert B. McLafferty

2000-01-01

244

Recurrent dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint.  

PubMed

Recurrent dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a rare injury. This report presents a case of bilateral recurrent dislocations of the proximal tibiofibular joint in a jet skier that responded to physical therapy and activity modification. A review of the literature is provided, with attention to the mechanism of injury and other treatment options--including arthrodesis and resection of the proximal fibula. This diagnosis should be considered in jet skiers with lateral-sided knee pain. PMID:1749660

Halbrecht, J L; Jackson, D W

1991-11-01

245

Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair  

PubMed Central

Labral tears in the hip may cause painful clicking or locking of the hip, reduced range of motion, and disruption to sports and daily activities. The acetabular labrum aids stabilization of the hip joint, particularly during hip motion. The fibrocartilaginous structure extends the acetabular rim and provides a suction seal around the femoroacetabular interface. Treatment options for labral tears include debridement, repair, and reconstruction. Repair of the labrum has been shown to have better results than debridement. Labral refixation is achieved with sutures anchored into the acetabular rim. The acetabular rim is trimmed either to correct pincer impingement or to provide a bleeding bed to improve healing. Labral repair has shown excellent short-term to midterm outcomes and allows patients to return to activities and sports. Arthroscopic rim trimming and labral refixation comprise an effective treatment for labral tears with an underlying diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement and are supported by the peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23875153

Philippon, Marc J.; Faucet, Scott C.; Briggs, Karen K.

2013-01-01

246

Postreplicative Mismatch Repair  

PubMed Central

The mismatch repair (MMR) system detects non-Watson–Crick base pairs and strand misalignments arising during DNA replication and mediates their removal by catalyzing excision of the mispair-containing tract of nascent DNA and its error-free resynthesis. In this way, MMR improves the fidelity of replication by several orders of magnitude. It also addresses mispairs and strand misalignments arising during recombination and prevents synapses between nonidentical DNA sequences. Unsurprisingly, MMR malfunction brings about genomic instability that leads to cancer in mammals. But MMR proteins have recently been implicated also in other processes of DNA metabolism, such as DNA damage signaling, antibody diversification, and repair of interstrand cross-links and oxidative DNA damage, in which their functions remain to be elucidated. This article reviews the progress in our understanding of the mechanism of replication error repair made during the past decade. PMID:23545421

Jiricny, Josef

2013-01-01

247

Base Excision Repair  

PubMed Central

Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA damage from oxidation, deamination and alkylation. Such base lesions cause little distortion to the DNA helix structure. BER is initiated by a DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes the damaged base, leaving an abasic site that is further processed by short-patch repair or long-patch repair that largely uses different proteins to complete BER. At least 11 distinct mammalian DNA glycosylases are known, each recognizing a few related lesions, frequently with some overlap in specificities. Impressively, the damaged bases are rapidly identified in a vast excess of normal bases, without a supply of energy. BER protects against cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration and takes place both in nuclei and mitochondria. More recently, an important role of uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 in adaptive immunity was revealed. Furthermore, other DNA glycosylases may have important roles in epigenetics, thus expanding the repertoire of BER proteins. PMID:23545420

Krokan, Hans E.; Bjřrĺs, Magnar

2013-01-01

248

Which end is up? Terminology for terminolateral (end-to-side) nerve repair: a review.  

PubMed

By convention, we "come from" and "go to." A flap has a donor site and goes to a recipient site. A transplant comes from a donor and goes to a recipient. Neural regeneration proceeds from proximal to distal. It seems most appropriate then for a nerve repair description to follow this logical order. Therefore an "end-to-side" repair would mean that the donor nerve, the nerve that is providing the axons with which to neurotize the recipient nerve, should be the nerve named first. An end-to-side repair would therefore require that the nerve whose end is sutured into the side of the recipient nerve be the nerve that is bringing the proximal axons to regenerate distally, for whatever that purpose may be, sensory or motor. A side-to-end repair would therefore require that the nerve whose side is sutured to the end of the recipient nerve be the nerve that is bringing the proximal axons to regenerate distally, for whatever that purpose may be, sensory or motor. The full descriptive phrase must include whether the intent is to reinnervate a skin target and is, therefore, a sensory repair, or to reinnervate a motor target. The names of both the donor and the recipient nerves must be specified. Illustrations of these logical possibilities are shown in this review of the modern history of "end-to-side" or "side-to-end" nerve coaptations. PMID:20143303

Dellon, A Lee; Ferreira, Marcus Castro; Williams, Eric H; Rosson, Gedge D

2010-07-01

249

Rescheduling with iterative repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

1992-01-01

250

Rescheduling with iterative repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, and produce modified schedules quickly. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

1992-01-01

251

Appliance Repair, Tips & Help  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site, visitors can find information about common household appliance parts and repair - categorized by type - including kitchen appliances, laundry equipment, and refrigerators. By clicking on the images of the individual machines, visitors can find more information including parts, how they work, common problems, and maintenance tips. There are also helpfully labeled images for particular brands and models of each appliance, which indicate the different features and parts of those particular machines. While some of the site is commercial (such as the links to appliance accessories), there is plenty of free and handy information for students working toward a career in appliance installation and repair.

252

Joking Repair and the Organization of Repair in Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis looks at the humorous use of second-speaker repeats to initiate conversational repair. It is proposed that consideration of joking repeats forces reanalysis of the organization of conversational repair. The preference analysis theory is rejected in favor of a locally governed analysis of conversational repair in which participants…

Norrick, Neal R.

253

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2014-10-01

254

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2012-10-01

255

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2011-10-01

256

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2013-10-01

257

A prospective review of open central slip laceration repair and rehabilitation.  

PubMed

A prospective review was carried out to evaluate the outcome of surgically repaired open central slip (zone III) injuries which were treated with 3 weeks of proximal interphalangeal joint immobilization within a cylinder splint and then with 3 weeks of controlled mobilization within a Capener coil splint. Thirty-one fingers in 27 patients were assessed by the same independent therapist. All fingers achieved an excellent or good recovery with a mean proximal interphalangeal joint flexion of 94 degrees (range 70-110 degrees) and a mean distal interphalangeal joint flexion of 57 degrees (range 30-81 degrees). Extension deficits of the proximal interphalangeal joint were noted in five fingers (mean 6 degrees, range 3-15 degrees). The results show that a combination of immobilization and controlled mobilization is an effective rehabilitation regime for surgically repaired open central slip injuries. PMID:12475509

Pratt, A L; Burr, N; Grobbelaar, A O

2002-12-01

258

Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria  

E-print Network

Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria: Postreplication Kevin P Rice,University of Wisconsin Recombinational DNA repair represents the primary function for homologous DNA recombination in bacteria. Most of genetic diversity, primarily during conjugation, homologous DNA recombination in bacteria is now

Cox, Michael M.

259

Transcript-RNA-templated DNA recombination and repair.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination is a molecular process that has multiple important roles in DNA metabolism, both for DNA repair and genetic variation in all forms of life. Generally, homologous recombination involves the exchange of genetic information between two identical or nearly identical DNA molecules; however, homologous recombination can also occur between RNA molecules, as shown for RNA viruses. Previous research showed that synthetic RNA oligonucleotides can act as templates for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in yeast and human cells, and artificial long RNA templates injected in ciliate cells can guide genomic rearrangements. Here we report that endogenous transcript RNA mediates homologous recombination with chromosomal DNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed a system to detect the events of homologous recombination initiated by transcript RNA following the repair of a chromosomal DSB occurring either in a homologous but remote locus, or in the same transcript-generating locus in reverse-transcription-defective yeast strains. We found that RNA-DNA recombination is blocked by ribonucleases H1 and H2. In the presence of H-type ribonucleases, DSB repair proceeds through a complementary DNA intermediate, whereas in their absence, it proceeds directly through RNA. The proximity of the transcript to its chromosomal DNA partner in the same locus facilitates Rad52-driven homologous recombination during DSB repair. We demonstrate that yeast and human Rad52 proteins efficiently catalyse annealing of RNA to a DSB-like DNA end in vitro. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of homologous recombination and DNA repair in which transcript RNA is used as a template for DSB repair. Thus, considering the abundance of RNA transcripts in cells, RNA may have a marked impact on genomic stability and plasticity. PMID:25186730

Keskin, Havva; Shen, Ying; Huang, Fei; Patel, Mikir; Yang, Taehwan; Ashley, Katie; Mazin, Alexander V; Storici, Francesca

2014-11-20

260

Cleft lip repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A cleft lip is an abnormal opening in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the ... Cleft lip repair and cleft palate repair are indicated for: Repair of physical deformity Nursing, feeding, or speech problems ...

261

Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

Hardway, Jack; And Others

262

Repairing CAD models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an algorithm for repairing polyhedral CAD models that have errors in their B-REP. Errors like cracks, degeneracie s, du- plication, holes and overlaps are usually introduced in sol id mod- els due to imprecise arithmetic, model transformations, de signer's fault, programming bugs, etc. Such errors often hamper furt her pro- cessing like finite element analysis, radiosity computatio n

Gill Barequet; Subodh Kumar

1997-01-01

263

Basic Book Repair Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

Schechter, Abraham A.

264

Repair of proboscis lateralis.  

PubMed

We report an 8-year-old girl presented with a proboscis on the right nasal nostril, right heminasal hypoplasia, hypertelorism, and cleft lip and palate on the other side. After repair of the cleft lip and palate and the hypertelorism, we successfully reconstructed the heminose with a V-Y advancement flap containing the proboscis tube. PMID:16019753

U?urlu, Kemal; Kar?idag, Semra; Ozçelik, Derya; Sadiko?lu, Bu?ra; Ba?, Lütfü

2005-01-01

265

Automotive Body Repair Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

D'Armond, Jack; And Others

266

Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

Hires, Bill; And Others

267

Proximity sensing with wavelet-generated video  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce wavelet video processing of proximity sensor signals. Proximity sensing is required for a wide range of military and commercial applications, including weapon fuzing, robotics, and automotive collision a voidance. While ou r proposed method temporarily increases s ignal dimension, it eventually performs data compression through the extraction of salient signal features. This data compression in

Steven E. Noel; Harold H. Szu

1998-01-01

268

Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

Chan, Selena

2013-01-01

269

Keratinocyte Growth Factor Improves Repair in the Injured Tracheal Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a critical growth factor in lung development and is a protective agent after lung injury, although the exact mechanisms of this protective effect have not yet been elucidated. Our laboratory has shown that circulating epithelial progenitor cells can traffic to the airway and that they appear to be derived from the bone marrow. On this basis, we hypothesized that KGF and its putative receptor (KGFR) would be important to these cells. We showed that the KGFR, which is found almost exclusively on epithelial cells, was present on cells in the bone marrow and circulation of mice that identified a subpopulation of cytokeratin 5+ circulating epithelial progenitor cells (CEPC). In addition, the KGFR co-localized with a population of cytokeratin 5+ basal cells in the repairing proximal airway. Systemic administration of KGF resulted in a significant increase in mobilization of cytokeratin 5+ CEPC at 6 h after injection. Administration of KGF to mouse recipients of heterotopic syngeneic tracheal transplants resulted in protection and more rapid repair of the tracheal epithelium, with an increase in the number of CEPC in the epithelium of the airway, and this effect was abrogated by blocking CEPC with anti-CXCL12 antibodies. KGF therefore appears to be an important growth factor for local resident progenitor epithelial cell repair and for mobilization and enhanced engraftment of CEPC to the injured proximal airway epithelium. PMID:17332441

Gomperts, Brigitte N.; Belperio, John A.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Keane, Michael P.; Burdick, Marie D.; Strieter, Robert M.

2007-01-01

270

Keratinocyte growth factor improves repair in the injured tracheal epithelium.  

PubMed

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a critical growth factor in lung development and is a protective agent after lung injury, although the exact mechanisms of this protective effect have not yet been elucidated. Our laboratory has shown that circulating epithelial progenitor cells can traffic to the airway and that they appear to be derived from the bone marrow. On this basis, we hypothesized that KGF and its putative receptor (KGFR) would be important to these cells. We showed that the KGFR, which is found almost exclusively on epithelial cells, was present on cells in the bone marrow and circulation of mice that identified a subpopulation of cytokeratin 5+ circulating epithelial progenitor cells (CEPC). In addition, the KGFR co-localized with a population of cytokeratin 5+ basal cells in the repairing proximal airway. Systemic administration of KGF resulted in a significant increase in mobilization of cytokeratin 5+ CEPC at 6 h after injection. Administration of KGF to mouse recipients of heterotopic syngeneic tracheal transplants resulted in protection and more rapid repair of the tracheal epithelium, with an increase in the number of CEPC in the epithelium of the airway, and this effect was abrogated by blocking CEPC with anti-CXCL12 antibodies. KGF therefore appears to be an important growth factor for local resident progenitor epithelial cell repair and for mobilization and enhanced engraftment of CEPC to the injured proximal airway epithelium. PMID:17332441

Gomperts, Brigitte N; Belperio, John A; Fishbein, Michael C; Keane, Michael P; Burdick, Marie D; Strieter, Robert M

2007-07-01

271

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

272

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-12-03

273

Biomechanics of integrative cartilage repair.  

PubMed

Cartilage repair is required in a number of orthopaedic conditions and rheumatic diseases. From a macroscopic viewpoint, the complete repair of an articular cartilage defect requires integration of opposing cartilage surfaces or the integration of repair tissue with the surrounding host cartilage. However, integrative cartilage repair does not occur readily or predictably in vivo. Consideration of the 'integrative cartilage repair process', at least in the relatively early stages, as the formation of a adhesive suggests several biomechanical approaches for characterizing the properties of the repair tissue. Both strength of materials and fracture mechanics approaches for characterizing adhesives have recently been applied to the study of integrative cartilage repair. Experimental configurations, such as the single-lap adhesive test, have been adapted to determine the strength of the biological repair that occurs between sections of bovine cartilage during explant culture, as well as the strength of adhesive materials that are applied to opposing cartilage surfaces. A variety of fracture mechanics test procedures, such as the (modified) single edge notch, 'T' peel, dynamic shear, and trouser tear tests, have been used to assess Mode I, II, and III fracture toughness values of normal articular cartilage and, in some cases, cartilaginous tissue undergoing integrative repair. The relationships between adhesive biomechanical properties and underlying cellular and molecular processes during integrative cartilage repair remain to be elucidated. The determination of such relationships may allow the design of tissue engineering procedures to stimulate integrative cartilage repair. PMID:10367013

Ahsan, T; Sah, R L

1999-01-01

274

Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of proximal bodies in hypersonic flow is encountered in several important situations, both natural and man-made. The present work seeks to investigate one aspect of this problem by exploring the forces experienced by a secondary body when some part of it is within the shocked region created by a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds. An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger then one-sixth the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with numerical simulations carried out using the AMROC software and good agreement is obtained if an appropriate normalization for the lateral displacement is used. Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, again with good agreement. In order to model this situation experimentally, a new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities has been developed, and results from the validation experiments are included. Finally, the analytical methodology is used to model two physical situations. First, the entry of a binary asteroid system into the Earth's atmosphere is simulated. Second, a model for a fragmenting meteoroid in a planetary atmosphere is developed, and simulations are carried out to determine whether the secondary scatter patterns in the Sikhote-Alin crater field may be attributed to aerodynamic interactions between fragments rather than to secondary fragmentation. It is found that while aerodynamic interactions lead to increased secondary crater grouping, these groups do not exhibit the typically elliptical shape that we would expect secondary fragmentation to produce.

Laurence, Stuart J.

275

Repair of recurrent prolapse.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of prolapse and the requirements for a successful surgical outcome vary from one person to another. The importance of traditional risk factors is questionable, but failed previous repair is definitely an adverse prognosticator. An ideal operation should re-attach apical support to the pelvic skeleton, restore integrity within anterior and posterior suspensory hammocks and re-distribute some of the expulsive load back onto the pelvic diaphragm. Reasons for failure are best analysed by location; recurrence within the operated compartment should also be distinguished from recurrence in a different compartment. There is no all-encompassing secret to re-operating on recurrent prolapse. Success depends on sound strategic planning and using tactics to negate the greater technical difficulty and reduced collagen strength in women with prior operative failure. If an augmented repair is to be carried out, choice of biomaterials must reflect surgical objectives, movement dynamics and functional anatomy at the intended implantation site. PMID:21353645

Reid, Richard I

2011-04-01

276

Prokaryotic Nucleotide Excision Repair  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation. PMID:23457260

Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

2013-01-01

277

Proximal phalangeal osteotomies for hallux abductovalgus deformity.  

PubMed

The primary indication for an osteotomy of the hallux proximal phalanx to correct hallux abductovalgus (HAV) deformities is increased hallux interphalangeus. The typical osteotomy is the Akin osteotomy or a variation. The Akin is a medial closing wedge osteotomy in the proximal phalanx. An Akin-type osteotomy is usually used as an adjunctive procedure for HAV to correct deformity within the great toe. When first metatarsal procedures and soft tissue balancing are not sufficient for realigning the first metatarsophalangeal joint, an Akin can be useful. A hallux proximal phalanx osteotomy is not indicated as the primary correction for HAV deformities. PMID:24685188

Rettedal, David; Lowery, Nicholas J

2014-04-01

278

Repair of isolated double-chambered right ventricle.  

PubMed

The finding of a double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is exceptionally rare as an isolated anomaly. It is a congenital cardiac anomaly in which the right ventricle is separated into two chambers, a proximal high-pressure chamber and a distal low-pressure chamber, by anomalous muscles or fibrous tissues in the right ventricular cavity. We report the case of a 6-year-old infant who was admitted for growth retardation. The patient was diagnosed with an isolated DCRV without any other associated congenital anomalies. The patient underwent a successful cardiac surgical procedure of enlargement repair; he was discharged in good clinical condition with a normal cardiac function. PMID:23860078

El Kouache, M; Babakhoya, A; Labib, S; El Madi, A; Atmani, S; Harandou, M; Abouabdilah, Y; Hida, M

2013-01-01

279

Casimir forces beyond the proximity approximation  

E-print Network

The proximity force approximation (PFA) relates the interaction between closely spaced, smoothly curved objects to the force between parallel plates. Precision experiments on Casimir forces necessitate, and spur research ...

Bimonte, G.

280

A fast distributed proximal-gradient method  

E-print Network

We present a distributed proximal-gradient method for optimizing the average of convex functions, each of which is the private local objective of an agent in a network with time-varying topology. The local objectives have ...

Chen, Annie I.

281

Control of spacecraft in proximity orbits  

E-print Network

Formation flying of spacecraft and autonomous rendezvous and docking of spacecraft are two missions in which satellites operate in close proximity and their relative trajectories are critically important. Both classes of ...

Breger, Louis Scott, 1979-

2007-01-01

282

Opportunistic, collaborative and synchronized, proximal device ecology  

E-print Network

CoSync is an on-device software framework for coordinating proximal consumer electronic devices in order to create a synchronized, opportunistic and collaborative device ecology. The CoSync device ecology combines multiple ...

Toledano, Eyal

2013-01-01

283

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

2012-02-01

284

Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

1998-01-01

285

Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experience from several recent spacecraft development programs, such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) has shown the need for factoring proximity operations considerations into the vehicle design process. Proximity operations, those orbital maneuvers and procedures which involve operation of two or more spacecraft at ranges of less than one nautical mile, are essential to the construction, servicing, and operation of complex spacecraft. Typical proximity operations considerations which drive spacecraft design may be broken into two broad categories; flight profile characteristics and concerns, and use of various spacecraft systems during proximity operations. Proximity operations flight profile concerns include the following: (1) relative approach/separation line; (2) relative orientation of the vehicles; (3) relative translational and rotational rates; (4) vehicle interaction, in the form of thruster plume impingement, mating or demating operations, or uncontrolled contact/collision; and (5) active vehicle piloting. Spacecraft systems used during proximity operations include the following: (1) sensors, such as radar, laser ranging devices, or optical ranging systems; (2) effector hardware, such as thrusters; (3) flight control software; and (4) mating hardware, needed for docking or berthing operations. A discussion of how these factors affect vehicle design follows, addressing both active and passive/cooperative vehicles.

Staas, Steven K.

1991-01-01

286

49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property... § 1242.42 Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

2014-10-01

287

49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property... § 1242.42 Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

2012-10-01

288

49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property... § 1242.42 Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

2011-10-01

289

49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property... § 1242.42 Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

2010-10-01

290

49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property... § 1242.42 Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

2013-10-01

291

Results of the megaprosthesis replacement reconstruction proximal femoral resection bone tumors.  

PubMed

Background. Proximal femur defects resulting from tumor resections can be repaired with various types of hip endoprostheses. Major surgical procedures involving muscle detachments and extensive endoprosthesis implantation are prone to deep infections and the hip instability. The purpose of our study was to assess the outcome of hip prosthesoplasty after resection of large tumors from the proximal femur. Material and methods. Over the last 5 years, 49 patients have undergone hip prosthesoplasty after tumor resection in the proximal femur for 37 bone metastases and 12 primary neoplasms during the last 5 years. Three total megaprostheses were used, as well as 34 conventional long stem endoprostheses, including 26 bipolar and 12 Austin Moore prostheses. Results. Two patients died shortly after surgery, and another 4 were nonambulatory due to diffusion of the cancer. There were 3 cases of endoprosthesis luxation, 1 deep implant infection and 1 metastasis recurrence. We had 28% excellent functional outcomes and 60% good; the latter were complicated by Trendelenburg gait. Conclusions. Hip instability is the most common complication in prosthesoplasty after tumor resection in the proximal femur. PMID:17611420

Mazurkiewicz, Tomasz; Warda, Edward; Kopacz, Jacek; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

2005-12-30

292

Frozen Elephant Trunk Repair for Descending Thoracic Aortic Dissection in a Man with a Hostile Left Pleural Cavity  

PubMed Central

The frozen elephant trunk procedure is a hybrid, single-staged alternative to conventional surgery for repairing diffuse pathologic conditions of the thoracic aorta. This approach is particularly advantageous in patients who have pathologic conditions of the left side of the chest, because the descending thoracic aorta can be repaired without entering a hostile pleural cavity. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone repair of acute type A aortic dissection. He presented with aneurysmal dilation of the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection, a large acute dissection of the proximal ascending aorta, and a large paraesophageal hernia that made him a poor candidate for conventional, 2-staged open aortic repair. We describe the hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique that we used to repair the aorta, and its broader advantages. PMID:24955060

Kent, William D.T.; Manjunath, Adarsh

2014-01-01

293

DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

1983-07-01

294

Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Composition of Bone during Microdamage Repair  

PubMed Central

Under normal conditions, loading activities result in microdamage in the living skeleton, which is repaired by bone remodeling. However, microdamage accumulation can affect the mechanical properties of bone and increase the risk of fracture. This study aimed to determine the effect of microdamage on the mechanical properties and composition of bone. Fourteen male goats aged 28 months were used in the present study. Cortical bone screws were placed in the tibiae to induce microdamage around the implant. The goats were euthanized, and 3 bone segments with the screws in each goat were removed at 0 days, 21 days, 4 months, and 8 months after implantation. The bone segments were used for observing microdamage and bone remodeling, as well as nanoindentation and bone composition, separately. Two regions were measured: the first region (R1), located 1.5 mm from the interface between the screw hole and bone; and the second region (R2), located>1.5 mm from the bone-screw interface. Both diffuse and linear microdamage decreased significantly with increasing time after surgery, with the diffuse microdamage disappearing after 8 months. Thus, screw implantation results in increased bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone, which repairs the microdamage. Moreover, bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, especially in the proximal bone tissue. Bone composition changed greatly during the production and repair of microdamage, especially for the C (Carbon) and Ca (Calcium) in the R1 region. In conclusion, the presence of mechanical microdamage accelerates bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone. The bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, with the micromechanical properties being restored on complete repair of the microdamage. Changes in bone composition may contribute to changes in bone mechanical properties. PMID:25313565

Yu, Zhifeng

2014-01-01

295

The Quadriga Effect Revisited: Designing a “Safety Incision” to Prevent Tendon Repair Rupture and Gap Formation in a Canine Model In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Loss of experimental animals due to tendon repair failure results in the need for additional animals to complete the study. We designed a relief proximal to the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon repair site to serve as a “safety incision” to prevent repair site ruptures and maximize safety incision-to-suture strength. The FDP tendons were dissected in 24 canine forepaws. The 2nd and 5th tendons were lacerated at the proximal interphalangeal joint level and sutured using a modified Kessler technique and peripheral running suture. Tendon width was measured where the FDP tendon separates into each individual digit and a safety incision, equal to the 2nd and 5th tendon widths, was performed 3, 4, or 5 mm (Groups 1, 2, and 3) proximal to the separation. The tendons were pulled at a rate of 1 mm/s until either the “safety incision” ruptured or the repair failed. There was no gap formation at the repair site in Groups 1 and 2. However, all Group 3 tendons failed by repair site rupture with the safety incision intact. An adequate safety incision to protect repair gap and rupture and maintain tendon tension for the FDP animal model should be about 4 mm from where the FDP tendon separates. PMID:20872585

Giambini, Hugo; Ikeda, Jun; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

2012-01-01

296

MG53-mediated cell membrane repair protects against acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Injury to the renal proximal tubular epithelium (PTE) represents the underlying consequence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after exposure to various stressors, including nephrotoxins and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Although the kidney has the ability to repair itself after mild injury, insufficient repair of PTE cells may trigger inflammatory and fibrotic responses, leading to chronic renal failure. We report that MG53, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, participates in repair of injured PTE cells and protects against the development of AKI. We show that MG53 translocates to acute injury sites on PTE cells and forms a repair patch. Ablation of MG53 leads to defective membrane repair. MG53-deficient mice develop pronounced tubulointerstitial injury and increased susceptibility to I/R-induced AKI compared to wild-type mice. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein can target injury sites on PTE cells to facilitate repair after I/R injury or nephrotoxin exposure. Moreover, in animal studies, intravenous delivery of rhMG53 ameliorates cisplatin-induced AKI without affecting the tumor suppressor efficacy of cisplatin. These findings identify MG53 as a vital component of reno-protection, and targeting MG53-mediated repair of PTE cells represents a potential approach to prevention and treatment of AKI. PMID:25787762

Duann, Pu; Li, Haichang; Lin, Peihui; Tan, Tao; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Ken; Zhou, Xinyu; Gumpper, Kristyn; Zhu, Hua; Ludwig, Thomas; Mohler, Peter J; Rovin, Brad; Abraham, William T; Zeng, Chunyu; Ma, Jianjie

2015-03-18

297

Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results  

SciTech Connect

The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany)] [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

2013-12-15

298

Advances in nerve repair.  

PubMed

Patients with peripheral nerve injuries face unpredictable and often suboptimal functional outcome, even following standard microsurgical nerve repair. The challenge of improving such outcomes following nerve surgical procedures has interested many research teams, in both clinical and fundamental fields. Some innovative treatments are presently being applied to a widening range of patients, whereas others will require further development before translation to human subjects. This article presents several recent advances in emerging therapies at various stages of clinical application. Nerve transfers have been successfully used in clinical settings, but new indications are being described, enlarging the range of patients who might benefit from them. Brief direct nerve electrical stimulation has been shown to improve nerve regeneration and outcome in animal models and in a small cohort of patients. Further clinical trials are warranted to prove the efficacy of this exciting and easily applicable approach. Animal studies also suggest a tremendous potential for stem and precursor cell therapy. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of their mechanisms of action in nerve repair and potential applications for human patients. PMID:23250767

Khuong, Helene T; Midha, Rajiv

2013-01-01

299

Single-Port Onlay Mesh Repair of Recurrent Inguinal Hernias after Failed Anterior and Laparoscopic Repairs  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Despite the exponential increase in the use of laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy, overall recurrence rates have remained unchanged. Therefore, a growing number of patients are presenting with recurrent hernias after conventional anterior and laparoscopic repairs have failed. This study reports our experience with single-incision laparoscopic (SIL) intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair of these hernias. Methods: Patients referred with two or more recurrences of inguinal hernia underwent SIL-IPOM from November 1, 2009, to June 24, 2014. A 2.5-cm infraumbilical incision was made, and an SIL port was placed intraperitoneally. Modified dissection techniques were used: chopstick and inline dissection, 5.5-mm/52-cm/30° angled laparoscope, and conventional straight dissecting instruments. The peritoneum was incised above the pubic symphysis, and dissection was continued laterally and proximally, raising the inferior flap below the previous extraperitoneal mesh while reducing any direct, indirect, femoral, or cord lipoma before placement of antiadhesive mesh, which was fixed to the pubic ramus, as well as superiorly, with nonabsorbable tacks before the inferior border was fixed with fibrin sealant. The inferior peritoneal flap was then tacked back onto the mesh. Results: Nine male patients underwent SIL-IPOM. Their mean age was 53 years and mean body mass index was 26.8 kg/m2. Mean mesh size was 275 cm2. Mean operation time was 125 minutes, with a hospital stay of 1 day. The umbilical scar length was 23 mm at the 6-week follow-up. There were no intra-/postoperative complications, port-site hernias, chronic groin pain, or recurrence of the hernia during a mean follow-up of 24 months. Conclusion: Inguinal hernias recurring after two or more failed conventional anterior and laparoscopic repairs can be safely and efficiently treated with SIL-IPOM.

Tran, Kim; Zajkowska, Marta; Lam, Vincent; Hawthorne, Wayne J.

2015-01-01

300

RNA-templated DNA repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA can act as a template for DNA synthesis in the reverse transcription of retroviruses and retrotransposons and in the elongation of telomeres. Despite its abundance in the nucleus, there has been no evidence for a direct role of RNA as a template in the repair of any chromosomal DNA lesions, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are repaired in

Francesca Storici; Katarzyna Bebenek; Thomas A. Kunkel; Dmitry A. Gordenin; Michael A. Resnick

2007-01-01

301

Successful overlapping anal sphincter repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fecal incontinence from single anal sphincter defects are surgically remedial and commonly the result of obstetric injuries. Overlapping anal sphincter repair has previously been associated in small series with good results in 69 to 97 percent of patients. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the results of overlapping anal sphincter repair in one institution and to

Christopher J. Young; Manu N. Mathur; Anthony A. Eyers; Michael J. Solomon

1998-01-01

302

Laparoscopic Repair of Perineal Hernia  

PubMed Central

Perineal hernia is a rare but known complication following major pelvic surgery. It may occur spontaneously or following abdominoperineal resection, sacrectomy, or pelvic exenteration. Very little is known about spontaneous perineal hernia. Surgical repair via open transabdominal and transperineal approaches has been previously described. We report laparoscopic repair of spontaneous and postoperative perineal hernia in 2 patients. PMID:19660225

Rayhanabad, Jessica; Sassani, Pejvak

2009-01-01

303

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

304

Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

305

Drug resistance and DNA repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair confers resistance to anticancer drugs which kill cells by reacting with DNA. A review of our current information on the topic will be presented here. Our understanding of the molecular biology of repair of 06-alkylguanine adducts in DNA has advanced as a result of the molecular cloning of the E. coli ada gene but the precise role of

Margaret Fox; John J. Roberts

1987-01-01

306

Pipe inspection and repair system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

2004-01-01

307

Analysis on the characteristics of pulsed laser proximity fuze's echo  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of semiconductor technology and laser technology, a kind of proximity fuze named pulsed laser proximity fuze has been applied. Compared with other fuzes, pulsed laser proximity fuze has high ranging precision and strong resistance to artificial active interference. It is an important development tendency of proximity fuze. The paper analyze the characteristic of target echo of

Kun Wang; Huimin Chen

2011-01-01

308

Achilles allograft reconstruction of a chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture.  

PubMed

Complete rupture of the origin of the hamstrings is an uncommon injury. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice, but in some not possible. We present a case of an avid cyclist who had significant disability from a 6-year-old injury. He underwent reconstruction with Achilles allograft and suture anchors. With the knee flexed to 90 degrees and after extensive mobilization, the retracted musculotendinous unit would not reach the ischial tuberosity. Two suture anchors were placed in the ischial tuberosity after soft tissue debridement. One limb of suture from each anchor was placed in the end of an Achilles allograft with a locking suture, with the other end used to pull the end of the graft to the ischial tuberosity. An additional suture was placed in running fashion down each side of the graft. Distally, the graft was fanned out and attached to the retracted hamstrings with interrupted sutures with the knee at 40 degrees and maximal proximal pull on the hamstrings. The patient outcome was excellent. He resumed high level cycling by 6 months after surgery with no symptoms. Isokinetic testing demonstrated a hamstring deficit of 25% at 60 degrees/s, and 20% at 180 degrees/s at 8 months. PMID:19034429

Murray, Patrick J; Lowe, Walter R

2009-11-01

309

Cytoskeleton Responses in Wound Repair  

PubMed Central

Wound repair on the cellular and multicellular levels is essential to the survival of complex organisms. In order to avoid further damage, prevent infection, and restore normal function, cells and tissues must rapidly seal and remodel the wounded area. The cytoskeleton is an important component of wound repair, needed for actomyosin contraction, recruitment of repair machineries, and cell migration. Recent use of model systems and high-resolution microscopy has provided new insight into molecular aspects of the cytoskeletal response during wound repair. Here we discuss the role of the cytoskeleton in single cell, embryonic, and adult repair, as well as the striking resemblance of these processes to normal developmental events and many diseases. PMID:22349211

Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Watts, James J.; Verboon, Jeffrey M.; Parkhurst, Susan M.

2012-01-01

310

Autosite.com Repairs - Maintenance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A subsection of Autosite.com, a for-profit (from ads, the content is free) information source for auto buyers, the maintenance and repair area offers free and detailed information on auto care and repair that is accessible but not simplistic. In the maintenance section, users will find a preventative maintenance checklist, illustrated guides to fluids and exterior systems, a discussion on tires, and FAQs. The Repair section features troubleshooting tips, an illustrated repair guide, a fairly deep Auto Repair Encyclopedia, and several related links. Whether you are a die-hard do-it-yourselfer or just prefer to be forearmed before taking your car to the mechanics, this site can help.

311

Vascularized proximal fibular epiphyseal transfer: two cases.  

PubMed

Vascularized proximal fibular epiphyseal transfer in children enables reconstruction of long-bone epiphyseal defect, while conserving axial growth potential. This technique was applied in two children for diaphyseal-epiphyseal reconstruction of the proximal humerus and distal radius respectively, using a graft vascularized only by the anterior tibial artery. There were no major complications during harvesting. Both cases showed transplant growth, of a mean 0.5cm/year. Joint function in the proximal humerus reconstruction was satisfactory, with functional range of motion. In the distal radius reconstruction, range of motion was almost zero; insufficient transplant growth induced radial club hand, requiring partial correction by progressive lengthening using an external fixator. In case of severe bone loss, fibular epiphyseal-diaphyseal graft vascularized only by the anterior tibial artery is a feasible attitude. PMID:23000036

Medrykowski, F; Barbary, S; Gibert, N; Lascombes, P; Dautel, G

2012-10-01

312

Proximity operations concept design study, task 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using optical technology to perform the mission of the proximity operations communications subsystem on Space Station Freedom was determined. Proximity operations mission requirements are determined and the relationship to the overall operational environment of the space station is defined. From this information, the design requirements of the communication subsystem are derived. Based on these requirements, a preliminary design is developed and the feasibility of implementation determined. To support the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and National Space Transportation System, the optical system development is straightforward. The requirements on extra-vehicular activity are such as to allow large fields of uncertainty, thus exacerbating the acquisition problem; however, an approach is given that could mitigate this problem. In general, it is found that such a system could indeed perform the proximity operations mission requirement, with some development required to support extra-vehicular activity.

Williams, A. N.

1990-01-01

313

Simple and uniform technique for combined repair of aortic arch and root replacement.  

PubMed

We present herein a simple and uniform repair technique for combined aortic arch and root aneurysms. Our method is performed under an open distal procedure and includes selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, adequate myocardial preservation, a four-branched composite valve graft, and a long elephant trunk anastomosis proximal to the innominate artery. The technique was designed to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with aortic arch and root replacements, as well as allow for easier performance of subsequent downstream operations. PMID:17643669

Taniguchi, Kazuhiro; Kuki, Satoru; Takahashi, Toshiki; Masai, Takafumi; Toda, Koichi; Matsue, Hajime; Hata, Hiroki

2007-08-01

314

DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.  

PubMed

Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage. PMID:15100997

Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

2004-01-01

315

DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

Jeppesen, Dennis Kjřlhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

2011-01-01

316

Proximal humerus fractures in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Proximal humerus fractures are rare in paediatric traumatology. Metaphyseal fractures account for about 70% of cases and epiphyseal separation for the remaining 30%. The development and anatomy of the proximal humerus explain the various fracture types, displacements, and potential complications; and also help in interpreting the radiographic findings, most notably in young children. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of an underlying lesion or pathological fracture requiring appropriate diagnostic investigations, and they should consider child abuse in very young paediatric patients. Although the management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial, the extraordinary remodelling potential of the proximal humerus in skeletally immature patients often allows non-operative treatment without prior reduction. When the displacement exceeds the remodelling potential suggested by the extent of impaction, angulation, and patient age, retrograde elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) provides effective stabilisation. As a result, the thoraco-brachial abduction cast is less often used, although this method remains a valid option. Retrograde ESIN must be performed by a surgeon who is thoroughly conversant with the fundamental underlying principles. Direct percutaneous pinning is a fall-back option when the surgeon's experience with ESIN is insufficient. Finally, open reduction is very rarely required and should be reserved for severely displaced fractures after failure of closed reduction. When these indications are followed, long-term outcomes are usually excellent, with prompt resumption of previous activities and a low rate of residual abnormalities. PMID:24394917

Lefčvre, Y; Journeau, P; Angelliaume, A; Bouty, A; Dobremez, E

2014-02-01

317

Fiber optical ranging sensor for proximity fuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber optical ranging sensor used in laser proximity fuze is described in this paper. In the fuze, pulse laser diode (LD) is used as light source and trigger signal is generated by comparing the reflected light pulses with the reference pulses by a correlator after they were converted into electric signals by PIN photodiodes. Multi-mode fibers and integrated optical

Fang Du; Zeying Chi; Mingjun You; Wenjian Chen

1996-01-01

318

The origins of the proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor quality of antiaircraft artillery in 1940 could be traced to the uncertainties in determining the range to the target and in setting a time fuze accordingly. The proximity fuze eliminated these problems by sensing the presence of the aircraft

L. Brown

1998-01-01

319

The Zone of Proximal "Teacher" Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toward the end of his short life, Lev Vygotsky found himself teaching teachers in a remote part of the USSR. Though his influence as a developmental psychologist is well-established, little is known about his approach to teacher development. This article applies the researcher's core concept, the zone of proximal development to teacher education.…

Warford, Mark K.

2011-01-01

320

Isosmotic volume reabsorption in rat proximal tubule  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model incorporating both active and passive forces has been developed for fluid reabsorption from split oil droplets in rat inter- mediate and late proximal tubule. Of necessity, simplifying assumptions have been introduced; we have assumed that the epithelium can be treated as a single membrane and that the membrane \\

R. R. Warner; C. LECHENE

1980-01-01

321

Proximity and collaboration: measuring workplace configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe how to measure workplace configuration, show its application in, and the results of, a field experiment aimed at improving collaborative knowledge work and identify and discuss larger problems involved with research on workplace configuration. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews recent thought on density, proximity and problems with evaluating configuration. It

M. Gordon Brown

2008-01-01

322

Autonomous proximity awareness of Bluetooth devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on designing autonomous device discovery algorithms for Bluetooth networks. We first extend the conventional asymmetric Bluetooth link model to three point-to-point symmetric link models. Their performances are compared analytically. To achieve proximity awareness among a group of Bluetooth devices, three control information exchanging methods are also proposed. Combining with the three link models, this gives 9 possible

Changlei Liu; Kwan L. Yeung

2005-01-01

323

Efficient k-word proximity search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the ldquoaddedrdquo use of proximity search to a Web search query for narrowing down the set of documents returned as answers to a keyword based search query. This approach adds value to Web search query results by allowing users to better express what they are looking for. Most of the current search engines provide limited

Chirag Gupta; Gultekin Özsoyoglu; Z. Meral Özsoyoglu

2009-01-01

324

Traumatic proximal tibiofibular dislocation with neurovascular injury  

PubMed Central

23 years old male presented with inferolateral dislocation of proximal tibiofibular joint associated with popliteal artery and common peroneal nerve injury. The extension of the injury to involve the interosseus membrane up to the distal tibiofibular joint. The association of popliteal artery injury is not reported before to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162155

Veerappa, Lokesh A; Gopalakrishna, Chetan

2012-01-01

325

Proximal Ureteral Calculi: Shock Wave or Ureterolithotripsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the success rates and efficiency of ureterolithotripsy (URL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for proximal ureteric stones. Casuistry and Methods: A prospective non-randomized study was performed between 1999 and 2004. Of a total of 235 patients, 121 underwent SWL and 114 had ureteroscopy with ultrasonic lithotripsy. There were no significant differences between the groups. The success

Renato N. Pedro

2008-01-01

326

Efficiently Matching Proximity Relationships in Spatial Databases  

E-print Network

of real applications, such as real-estate marketing, urban planning, weather fore- casting, medical image, weather pattern analysis, urban plan- ning, transportation management, etc. While processing of typicalEfficiently Matching Proximity Relationships in Spatial Databases Xuemin Lin1 , Xiaomei Zhou1

Lin, Xuemin

327

[Open transscaphoid perilunate dislocation with proximal displacement of the lunate and proximal scaphoid].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of dorsal transscaphoid perilunate dislocation which is noteworthy because there was significant anterior displacement of the lunate together with the proximal part of the scaphoid. The lunate was propelled in front of the radial epiphysis and the proximal part of the scaphoid ended up in front of the metaphyseal part of the radius. An emergency partial proximal row carpectomy was performed, preserving the distal part of the scaphoid. Good anatomic and functional result was observed at 6 years follow-up. PMID:19233703

Razafimahandry, H J C; Rakoto-Ratsimba, H N; Gille, O

2009-04-01

328

Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair

Torpey, Elka Maria

2010-01-01

329

The Use of Double-Loaded Suture Anchors for Labral Repair and Capsular Repair During Hip Arthroscopy  

PubMed Central

With the development of hip joint preservation procedures, the use of hip arthroscopy has grown dramatically over the past decade. However, recent articles have reported cases of hip instability after hip arthroscopy. Little is known about the role of static and dynamic stabilizers on hip joint stability, but there are concerns that an extensile capsulotomy or capsulectomy, osteoplasty of the acetabulum and proximal femur, and labral detachment or debridement during hip arthroscopy could potentially compromise hip stability. The safety parameters for arthroscopic hip surgery have not yet been fully established, and techniques are being developed for labral refixation and capsular repair after arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement in an attempt to decrease the chance of iatrogenic hip instability or microinstability. The surgical technique presented in this article may provide anatomic repair of both the labrum and capsule using a double-loaded suture anchor technique. We believe that this technique increases both operative efficiency and the strength of the overall repair, which may minimize the risk of iatrogenic hip instability after hip arthroscopy. PMID:23766998

Slikker, William; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S.; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Nho, Shane J.

2012-01-01

330

Rotator cuff repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff is usually very successful at relieving pain in the shoulder. The procedure is less predictable at returning strength to the shoulder. Recovery time often depends on the extent of the tear.

331

Umbilical hernia repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment. The indications for umbilical hernia repair include: incarcerated (strangulated) umbilical hernia defects not spontaneously closed by 4 to 5 years of age children under 2 with very large defects unacceptable to parents for cosmetic reasons

332

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

333

Contemporary management of the demanding infra-renal neck in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

Proximal infrarenal neck anatomy is a crucial factor in determining outcome of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Unfavorable or demanding infrarenal neck anatomy significantly increases the complexity of both standard endovascular and open repair resulting in increased rates of morbidity and mortality. While technological improvements and expanding institutional experience have resulted in an increased proportion of patients with an AAA with unfavorable infrarenal neck treated by (fenestrated) endovascular techniques, open repair has also remained a valid technique. The purpose of this manuscript was to describe the wide array of endovascular and open techniques in use to treat patients with an AAA with a demanding infrarenal neck and discuss their results and indications. PMID:25592277

Mees, B M; Peppelenbosch, A G; De Haan, M W; Jacobs, M J; Schurink, G W

2015-04-01

334

Differential effect of adriamycin on DNA replicative and repair synthesis in cultured neonatal rat cardiac cells.  

PubMed

The effect of the potent antitumor antiobiotic Adriamycin (ADM) on DNA replication and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured rat cardiac cells was investigated. Autoradiography and [3H]thymidine incorporation studies were carried out on parallel cultures. DNA replication was depressed for up to 6 days following a 3-hr pulse of ADM administration. An ADM concentration of 1 microgram/ml which was effective in reducing replicative DNA synthesis by as much as 75% did not reduce the ability of cardiac cells to repair UV-damaged DNA. However, cells exposed to higher ADM concentrations failed to undergo significant UV-induced repair. In the absence of UV treatment, ADM did not stimulate unscheduled DNA synthesis. To account for the differential response of the cardiac cell cultures to replicate and repair DNA, we propose that ADM exerts a localized effect on DNA synthesis covering a region proximal to its primary intercalation site. PMID:421215

Fialkoff, H; Goodman, M F; Seraydarian, M W

1979-04-01

335

Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.

2009-09-01

336

Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair  

SciTech Connect

Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

Ayad, K. E.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F. [Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University (Egypt); El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Bekheet, A. B. [Al Sahel Teaching Hospital, Cairo (Egypt)

2009-09-27

337

Laparoscopic Repair of Inguinal Hernias  

Microsoft Academic Search

For patients with recurrent inguinal hernia, or bilateral inguinal hernia, or for women, laparoscopic repair offers significant\\u000a advantages over open techniques with regard to recurrence risk, pain, and recovery. For unilateral first-time hernias, either\\u000a laparoscopic or open repair with mesh can offer excellent results. The major drawback of laparoscopy is that the technique\\u000a requires a significant number of cases to

Jonathan Carter; Quan-Yang Duh

338

Proximal Tubular Hypertrophy and Enlarged Glomerular and Proximal Tubular Urinary Space in Obese Subjects with Proteinuria  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. Objective To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. Methods Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman’s space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. Results Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03). Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001), a 94% higher Bowman’s space volume (P=0.003), a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02) and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01). The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. Conclusions Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related renal disease. PMID:24086563

Benchetrit, Sydney; Milo, Gai; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Zingerman, Boris; Lev, Netta; Gafter, Uzi; Chagnac, Avry

2013-01-01

339

Injection repair of composite delaminations  

SciTech Connect

Composites are used extensively in Naval aircraft for increased strength and weight savings. These aircraft contain many composite access panels that require frequent removal for servicing equipment. Often during removal and replacement the edges of these panels are damaged from prying the panel off, impacting the edge of the panel, and excessive fastener torque. A proposed method for repairing these panels is to inject resin into the delaminations. The type of resin that can be used for repair must be ambient storable in the navy environment, have a low injection viscosity, and restore the structural integrity. Developmental efforts at the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Warminster, Pennsylvania supporting naval aircraft in the fleet led to the evaluation of four injection resins for delamination repair. The resins, including Dexter Hysol EA 9390, Dexter Hysol EA9396, Magnolia Plastics Magnobond 108-134, and Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) Delamination Repair Epoxy, were tested to determine compatibility with repair procedures, mechanical strength, and thermal stability in a 180 F wet environment. Results of the evaluation for the repair materials are presented.

Mehrkam, P.A.; Alley, D. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, PA (United States). Aircraft Division

1995-12-31

340

Angiomyogenesis for Myocardial Repair  

PubMed Central

Abstract The conventional therapeutic modalities for myocardial infarction have limited success in preventing the progression of left ventricular remodeling and congestive heart failure. The heart cell therapy and therapeutic angiogenesis are two promising strategies for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. After extensive assessment of safety and effectiveness in vitro and in experimental animal studies, both of these approaches have accomplished the stage of clinical utility, albeit with limited success due to the inherent limitations and problems of each approach. Neomyogenesis without restoration of regional blood flow may be less meaningful. A combined stem-cell and gene-therapy approach of angiomyogenesis is expected to yield better results as compared with either of the approaches as a monotherapy. The combined therapy approach will help to restore the mechanical contractile function of the weakened myocardium and alleviate ischemic condition by restoration of regional blood flow. In providing an overview of both stem cell therapy and gene therapy, this article is an in-depth and critical appreciation of combined cell and gene therapy approach for myocardial repair. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1929–1944. PMID:19361254

Akbar, Syed Ali; Ashraf, Muhammad

2009-01-01

341

Proximity-induced topological state in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of topologically protected states at the surface of an ordinary insulator is a rare occurrence and to date only a handful of materials are known for having this property. An intriguing question concerns the possibility of forming topologically protected interfaces between different materials. Here we propose that a topological phase can be transferred to graphene by proximity with the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3. By using density functional and transport theory, we prove that, at the verge of the chemical bond formation, a hybrid state forms at the graphene/Bi2Se3 interface. The state has Dirac-cone-like dispersion at the ? point and a well defined helical spin texture, indicating its topologically protected nature. This demonstrates that proximity can transfer the topological phase from Bi2Se3 to graphene.

Popov, Igor; Mantega, Mauro; Narayan, Awadhesh; Sanvito, Stefano

2014-07-01

342

Goal-proximity decision-making.  

PubMed

Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed mechanism, Goal-Proximity Decision-making (GPD), is implemented within the ACT-R cognitive framework. GPD is found to be more efficient than RL in three maze-navigation simulations. GPD advantages over RL seem to grow as task difficulty is increased. An experiment is presented where participants are asked to make choices in the absence of prior reward. GPD captures human performance in this experiment better than RL. PMID:23551486

Veksler, Vladislav D; Gray, Wayne D; Schoelles, Michael J

2013-01-01

343

Clinical Impact of Proximal Autosomal Imbalances  

PubMed Central

Centromere-near gain of copy number can be induced by intra- or inter-chromosomal rearrangements or by the presence of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). Interestingly, partial trisomy to hexasomy of euchromatic material may be present in clinically healthy or affected individuals, depending on origin and size of chromosomal material involved. Here we report the known minimal sizes of all centromere-near, i.e., proximal auto-somal regions in humans, which are tolerated; over 100 Mb of coding DNA are comprised in these regions. Additionally, we have summarized the typical symptoms for nine proximal autosomal regions including genes obviously sensitive to copy numbers. Overall, studying the carriers of specific chromosomal imbalances using genomics-based medicine, combined with single cell analysis can provide the genotype-phenotype correlations and can also give hints where copy-number-sensitive genes are located in the human genome. PMID:24052727

Hamid, AB; Weise, A; Voigt, M; Bucksch, M; Kosyakova, N; Liehr, T; Klein, E

2012-01-01

344

Reduced heart rate variability following repair of tetralogy of Fallot  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine autonomic function as assessed by heart rate variability in patients 10 or more years after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and to relate this to cardiac structure, function, and electrocardiographic indices.?METHODS—Heart rate variability was measured by standard time domain techniques on a 24 hour Holter ECG in 28 patients, aged 12 to 34 years (mean 19.5), who had undergone repair of tetralogy of Fallot at least 10 years previously. Echocardiography was performed to assess left ventricular size and function, right ventricular size and pressure, and any proximal pulmonary arterial stenosis. Right ventricular function was evaluated by radionuclide scan. QRS duration, QT interval, and QT dispersion were measured on a standard 12 lead ECG. Measurements of heart rate variability were compared with values from 28 age matched healthy controls (mean age 19.9 years). Interrelations between variables were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analysis.?RESULTS—Heart rate variability was reduced, compared with values for age matched normal controls, in 12 of the 28 patients. Reduced heart rate variability was associated with increased age, increased right ventricular size and pressure, and widening of the QRS complex.?CONCLUSIONS—Reduced heart rate variability is a feature following repair of tetralogy of Fallot. It is associated with increasing age, impaired right ventricular haemodynamics, and widening of the QRS complex. Under these circumstances, reduced heart rate variability may be a marker for deteriorating right ventricular function. Increased QRS duration has been identified as a risk factor for sudden death following repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and impaired cardiac autonomic control may be one of the mechanisms involved.???Keywords: tetralogy of Fallot; heart rate variability; right ventricular function; congenital heart disease PMID:10336928

McLeod, K; Hillis, W; Houston, A; Wilson, N; Trainer, A; Neilson, J; Doig, W

1999-01-01

345

Proximity and Investment: Evidence from Plant-Level Data  

E-print Network

Proximity to plants makes it easier for headquarters to monitor and acquire information about plants. In this article, I estimate the effects of headquarters’ proximity to plants on plant-level investment and productivity. ...

Giroud, Xavier

346

REACH : the local social favor exchange : a proximal messaging system  

E-print Network

We define proximal messaging as that category of information transaction that takes into account the physical, social and temporal proximity between the sender and recipient as it relates to the content of the message. We ...

Kizelshteyn, Boris G. (Boris Grigory)

2012-01-01

347

[Peptic ulcer recurrence after selective proximal vagotomy].  

PubMed

A study of the structure of recurrences of ulcer disease was made on the basis of long-term follow-up results in 257 patients with selective proximal vagotomies. Real (with the presence of an ulcer) and false (without ulcer) recurrences are distinguished. The clinical aspects of the course and diagnosis of real and false recurrences are described. The principles of prophylaxis and treatment of ulcer disease recurrences are outlined. PMID:2756674

Polous, Iu M; Shidlovski?, V A; Gorbunova, V I; Va?sberg, G R

1989-04-01

348

Ranging\\/tracking system for proximity operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m\\/s (0.1 ft\\/s). Size

P. Nilsen; S. Udalov

1982-01-01

349

Space robotic system for proximity operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key to an efficient accomplishment of space station servicing operations is the development of a scenario where the presence of man in space is well integrated with the capability of teleoperated and automatic robot system outside the stations. Results focusing on mission requirements, trajectory sequences, propulsion subsystem features, and manipulative kit characteristics relevant to proximity servicing during a Man Tended Free Flyers Robotic Mission (MTFF-RM) are illustrated.

Magnani, P. G.; Colomba, M.

1989-01-01

350

Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults  

PubMed Central

The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes. PMID:25405098

Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

2014-01-01

351

Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults.  

PubMed

The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes. PMID:25405098

Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

2014-11-18

352

Lateral stability of the proximal interphalangeal joint.  

PubMed

Current diagnostic criteria and therapeutic guidelines for injuries to the collateral ligaments of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint are imprecise and vague. Laxity determinations, failure analysis, radiographic stress testing, and microscopic dissections were performed on 112 PIP joints. The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) is the primary restraint to varus and valgus angulation of the PIP joint. Its palmar fibers are tight in joint extension and provide the first line of resistance to lateral angulation. Failure of the LCL almost always occurs proximally in a sequential fashion that begins with the palmar fibers and progresses to the more dorsal bundles. Proximal LCL disruption is followed by separation of the accessory collateral-LCL junction and finally by failure of the distal palmar plate. Midsubstance tears of the LCL are rare. If the lateral stress test shows more than 20 degrees of varus or valgus angulation, the LCL can be presumed to be completely disrupted. Angulation of less than 20 degrees is associated with a 53% chance of partial LCL failure and a 47% chance of complete disruption, but the proper position of the LCL will be maintained by the overlying connective tissues. A clinical investigation will be necessary to define the criteria for surgical intervention. PMID:3760491

Kiefhaber, T R; Stern, P J; Grood, E S

1986-09-01

353

Ferromagnet proximity effect in graphene bilayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-known effect of ferromagnet proximity in metallic thin film results in the giant magneto-resistance (GMR). In case of graphene monolayer, the effect of dielectric ferromagnet layer (DFL) proximity leads to formation of spin-dependent electron potential and electron spin rotation in effective exchange field. We theoretically consider the ferromagnet proximity effect in graphene bilayer (GBL), where bottom and top layers are affected by arbitrary oriented DFL. Our calculations show a drastic reconstruction of energy band structure with the top DFL magnetization rotation compared to the bottom one, which is assumed to be fixed by an antiferromagnetic substrate. If the top and bottom magnetic moments are parallel and equal, we obtain a simple spin split gapless band structure. As soon as symmetry between the top and the bottom GBL is broken by rotation of top DFL magnetization, the gap is opening; it reaches the magnitude of exchange field at antiparallel configuration. Calculated conductivity of GBL strongly depends on magnetic configuration demonstrating efficiency of the new mechanism of GMR.

Semenov, Yuriy; Zavada, John; Kim, Ki Wook

2008-03-01

354

Proximity sensing with wavelet generated video Steven E. Noel  

E-print Network

Proximity sensing with wavelet generated video Steven E. Noel The Center for Advanced Computer wavelet video processing of proximity sensor signals. Proximity sensing is required for a wide range of military and commercial applications, including weapon fuzing, robotics, and automotive collision avoidance

Noel, Steven

355

Triplet Supercurrents in Half Metals and Unconventional Proximity Effects  

E-print Network

-range Proximity effect and the effect of disorder in the half metal. #12;Odd frequency components #12;Leading is the decay length of the triplet components into the superconductor. #12;Proximity components in Half metalTriplet Supercurrents in Half Metals and Unconventional Proximity Effects Matthias Eschrig

Fominov, Yakov

356

Proximity and Interactive Learning in University-Firm Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the question of whether proximity is always necessary for interactive learning, as proposed by recent European innovation theory. Recent research has provided a refined conceptualization of proximity, but there is little empirically-based knowledge about the actual role that proximity plays in relationships intended to foster…

Thune, Taran

2009-01-01

357

Inferring Mobile Trajectories using a Network of Binary Proximity Sensors  

E-print Network

Inferring Mobile Trajectories using a Network of Binary Proximity Sensors Eunjoon Cho, Kevin Wong movement. In our work, we show that we can use a network of binary proximity sensors to detect paths-world office building. I. INTRODUCTION A network of binary proximity sensors has been shown to successfully

Gnawali, Omprakash

358

Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations  

E-print Network

Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations Brent Edward Tweddle, David W. Miller February 2010 SSL # 1-10 #12;#12;Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity of Technology. #12;2 #12;Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations by Brent Edward

359

Efficient Text Classification by Weighted Proximal SVM* Dong Zhuang1  

E-print Network

Efficient Text Classification by Weighted Proximal SVM* Dong Zhuang1 , Benyu Zhang2 , Qiang Yang3 and fast training speed. Our method is based on a novel extension of the proximal SVM mode [3]. Previous studies on proximal SVM have focused on classification for low dimensional data and did not consider

Yang, Qiang

360

Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair  

PubMed Central

At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair. PMID:24961526

Guarino, Alyx T.; McKinnon, Randall D.

2013-01-01

361

Techniques of peripheral nerve repair.  

PubMed

Nerve injuries extend from simple nerve compression lesions to complete nerve injuries and severe lacerations of the nerve trunks. A specific problem is brachial plexus injuries where nerve roots can be ruptured, or even avulsed from the spinal cord, by traction. An early and correct diagnosis of a nerve injury is important. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the peripheral nerve trunk as well as of basic neurobiological alterations in neurons and Schwann cells induced by the injury are crucial for the surgeon in making adequate decisions on how to repair and reconstruct nerves. The technique of peripheral nerve repair includes four important steps (preparation of nerve end, approximation, coaptation and maintenance). Nerves are usually repaired primarily with sutures applied in the different tissue components, but various tubes are available. Nerve grafts and nerve transfers are alternatives when the injury induces a nerve defect. Timing of nerve repair is essential. An early repair is preferable since it is advantageous for neurobiological reasons. Postoperative rehabilitation, utilising the patients' own coping strategies, with evaluation of outcome are additional important steps in treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. in the rehabilitation phase adequate handling of pain, allodynia and cold intolerance are emphasised. PMID:19211385

Dahlin, L B

2008-01-01

362

Protein damage, repair and proteolysis.  

PubMed

Proteins are continuously affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Damaged proteins influence several intracellular pathways and result in different disorders and diseases. Aggregation of damaged proteins depends on the balance between their generation and their reversal or elimination by protein repair systems and degradation, respectively. With regard to protein repair, only few repair mechanisms have been evidenced including the reduction of methionine sulfoxide residues by the methionine sulfoxide reductases, the conversion of isoaspartyl residues to L-aspartate by L-isoaspartate methyl transferase and deglycation by phosphorylation of protein-bound fructosamine by fructosamine-3-kinase. Protein degradation is orchestrated by two major proteolytic systems, namely the lysosome and the proteasome. Alteration of the function for both systems has been involved in all aspects of cellular metabolic networks linked to either normal or pathological processes. Given the importance of protein repair and degradation, great effort has recently been made regarding the modulation of these systems in various physiological conditions such as aging, as well as in diseases. Genetic modulation has produced promising results in the area of protein repair enzymes but there are not yet any identified potent inhibitors, and, to our knowledge, only one activating compound has been reported so far. In contrast, different drugs as well as natural compounds that interfere with proteolysis have been identified and/or developed resulting in homeostatic maintenance and/or the delay of disease progression. PMID:23107776

Chondrogianni, Niki; Petropoulos, Isabelle; Grimm, Stefanie; Georgila, Konstantina; Catalgol, Betul; Friguet, Bertrand; Grune, Tilman; Gonos, Efstathios S

2014-02-01

363

Reprogramming cells for brain repair.  

PubMed

At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair. PMID:24961526

Guarino, Alyx T; McKinnon, Randall D

2013-01-01

364

Revision of the Deficient Proximal Femur With a Proximal Femoral Allograft  

PubMed Central

Substantial bone loss is frequently encountered with revision hip arthroplasty. A proximal femoral allograft may be used to reconstitute bone stock in the multiply revised femur with segmental bone loss of greater than 5 cm. We retrospectively reviewed 92 patients (93 hips) who underwent such proximal femoral allografts. The average age at the surgery was 61 years. The average number of previous revision procedures was 2.5. Six patients were lost to followup. Thirty-four of 36 deceased patients had the original proximal femoral allograft at the time of death. The minimum followup for the 50 remaining patients was 15 years (average, 16.2 years; range, 15–22 years). Analysis included survivorship and radiographic assessment. Of the 50 patients reviewed, two had a failed reconstruction due to infection, six for aseptic loosening, three for nonunion, and four for dislocation. Revision of the proximal femoral allograft for all reasons excluding the acetabulum was performed in seven patients. At last followup, 42 patients (84%) had a well-functioning construct. Proximal femoral allograft for revision hip arthroplasty in femoral segmental bone loss is a durable alternative in most patients for a complex problem. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18972178

Safir, Oleg; Kellett, Catherine F.; Flint, Michael; Backstein, David

2008-01-01

365

Proximal Tubule Function and Response to Acidosis  

PubMed Central

Summary The human kidneys produce approximately 160–170 L of ultrafiltrate per day. The proximal tubule contributes to fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient homeostasis by reabsorbing approximately 60%–70% of the water and NaCl, a greater proportion of the NaHCO3, and nearly all of the nutrients in the ultrafiltrate. The proximal tubule is also the site of active solute secretion, hormone production, and many of the metabolic functions of the kidney. This review discusses the transport of NaCl, NaHCO3, glucose, amino acids, and two clinically important anions, citrate and phosphate. NaCl and the accompanying water are reabsorbed in an isotonic fashion. The energy that drives this process is generated largely by the basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase, which creates an inward negative membrane potential and Na+-gradient. Various Na+-dependent countertransporters and cotransporters use the energy of this gradient to promote the uptake of HCO3? and various solutes, respectively. A Na+-dependent cotransporter mediates the movement of HCO3? across the basolateral membrane, whereas various Na+-independent passive transporters accomplish the export of various other solutes. To illustrate its homeostatic feat, the proximal tubule alters its metabolism and transport properties in response to metabolic acidosis. The uptake and catabolism of glutamine and citrate are increased during acidosis, whereas the recovery of phosphate from the ultrafiltrate is decreased. The increased catabolism of glutamine results in increased ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Excretion of the resulting ammonium ions facilitates the excretion of acid, whereas the combined pathways accomplish the net production of HCO3? ions that are added to the plasma to partially restore acid-base balance. PMID:23908456

2014-01-01

366

Proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) for treatment of osteoporotic proximal femoral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Unstable trochanteric fractures have been an enigma for the orthopedic surgeon in the community because of unpredictable results.\\u000a Cephalic intramedullary nails with proximal antirotation device are the treatment of choice for such patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  To report outcomes of 36 consecutive patients treated with a proximal femoral nail (PFNA) for osteoporotic trochanteric femoral\\u000a fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The patients included 20 men and 16 women,

A. Raviraj; Ashish Anand; Murali Chakravarthy; Sanjay Pai

367

Fiber optical ranging sensor for proximity fuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber optical ranging sensor used in laser proximity fuze is described in this paper. In the fuze, pulse laser diode (LD) is used as light source and trigger signal is generated by comparing the reflected light pulses with the reference pulses by a correlator after they were converted into electric signals by PIN photodiodes. Multi-mode fibers and integrated optical devices are used in the system so that the structure can be more compact. Optical fiber delay line is used to offer precise delay time for reference channel.

Du, Fang; Chi, Zeying; You, Mingjun; Chen, Wenjian

1996-09-01

368

Proximity-induced superconductivity in DNA.  

PubMed

Conductivity measurements on double-stranded DNA molecules deposited by a combing process across a submicron slit between rhenium/carbon metallic contacts reveal conduction to be ohmic between room temperature and 1 kelvin. The resistance per molecule is less than 100 kilohm and varies weakly with temperature. Below the superconducting transition temperature (1 kelvin) of the contacts, proximity-induced superconductivity is observed. These results imply that DNA molecules can be conducting down to millikelvin temperature and that phase coherence is maintained over several hundred nanometers. PMID:11209072

Kasumov, A Y; Kociak, M; Guéron, S; Reulet, B; Volkov, V T; Klinov, D V; Bouchiat, H

2001-01-12

369

Metastatic disease of the proximal femur.  

PubMed

Since January 1999, ten patients had undergone surgical treatment for metastatic bony lesions of proximal femur at this centre. Seven of these patients were treated for complete pathological fractures, one for impending fracture and one for revision of internal fixation and loosening of hemiarthroplasty. Primary malignancies were located in breast in four cases, prostate in three and one in lung, thyroid and neurofibrosarcoma. Two patients had died within six months after surgery, four after 1 year while the remaining four were still alive. The mean duration of survival was eleven months. Nine patients had been ambulating pain free and there were no failure of reconstruction. PMID:14556337

Faisham, W I; Zulmi, W; Biswal, B M

2003-03-01

370

Automotive Repair Shops Case Study ME 4171 Automotive Repair Shops  

E-print Network

, antifreeze, and corrosive wastes from lead batteries. Very few automotive paint and body shops conduct in this study were selected from the industry classifications which include top and body shops and paint shops on collision repair and painting. These shops are distributed throughout the state. The heaviest concentrations

371

Flexor tendon repairs: techniques, eponyms, and evidence.  

PubMed

The evolution in surgical technique and suture technology has provided an abundance of options for flexor tendon repairs. Multiple biomechanical studies have attempted to identify the best surgical technique based on suture properties, technical modifications, and repair configurations. However, the burgeoning amount of research on flexor tendon repairs has made it difficult to follow, and no gold standard has been determined for the optimal repair algorithm. Therefore, it seems that repairs are usually chosen based on a combination of familiarity from training, popularity, and technical difficulty. We will discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and technical aspects of some of the most common core flexor tendon repairs in the literature. We will also highlight the nomenclature carried through the years, drawings of the repairs referred to by that nomenclature, and the data that support those repairs. PMID:25154573

Chauhan, Aakash; Palmer, Bradley A; Merrell, Gregory A

2014-09-01

372

Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999  

SciTech Connect

The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

Walker, Graham C.

2001-05-30

373

Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

374

Mismatch repair protein expression in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Alterations in at least six of the genes that encode proteins involved in the mismatch repair (MMR) system have been identified in either HNPCC or sporadic colon cancer. We aimed to analyse the proportion of patients with colorectal cancer with loss of immunostaining for MMR proteins in order to determine the feasibility of molecular screening for the loss of MMR proteins through the study of unselected patients with colorectal cancer. Methods A group of 33 patients with colorectal cancer was randomly selected from the department of surgery bio-bank to determine the expression of MMR proteins in their FFPE tumour tissues using immunohistochemistry techniques. Changes in protein expression following transfection of colorectal tissues were observed in stained cells using Olympus BX60 microscope and image analySIS software. Results Of the tissue specimens in which acceptable immunostaining was achieved, three samples showed loss of one or more of the MMR proteins. Both hMLH1 and hPMS2 proteins were not expressed in a 36 years old woman with cancer of the caecum. The expression of hMSH6 protein was undetermined in tumour tissues retrieved from a 61 years old man with cancer of the proximal colon. The third case was a 77 years old man with no documented family history of cancer, who had carcinoma of the rectum. He showed loss of hMLH1 expression in the tumour tissues Conclusions Our findings and the previous reports pointed out the importance of molecular screening of patients with colorectal cancer for MSI using immunohistochemistry. This strategy managed to identify mutations in patients otherwise would not have been detected. PMID:24294512

Miller, Nicola; Chang, Kah Hoong; Curran, Catherine; Hennessey, Emer; Sheehan, Margaret; Kerin, Michael J

2013-01-01

375

Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due\\u000a to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and\\/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic\\u000a events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive\\u000a growth factors and BMP-12 on

David Kovacevic; Scott A. Rodeo

2008-01-01

376

Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk?=?0.34; 95% confidence interval?=?0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

2012-01-01

377

Intraosseous neurilemmoma of the proximal ulna  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Neurilemmoma is a benign nerve sheath neoplasm commonly located in the soft tissue. Intraosseous neurilemmoma is rare, constituting less than 1% of primary bone tumors. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 21 year-old woman was presented with left elbow pain of 1-month duration. Plain radiographs showed a well-defined, lytic and expansile lesion of the proximal ulna. Computed tomography revealed cortical destruction and soft tissue extension. Because the tissue of origin for the tumor was uncertain, an open biopsy was performed. The specimens demonstrated a benign spindle cell tumor suggestive of a neurilemmoma, similar to a soft tissue neurilemmoma. The diagnosis of intraosseous neurilemmoma was established. Marginal excision of the soft tissue component and curettage of the lesion in the bone were performed. After 3.5 years of follow up, there is no clinical or radiographic finding to suggest any recurrence. DISCUSSION The major site of intraosseous neurilemmoma is the mandible. Occurrence in the long bone is particularly rare. Only two cases of intraosseous neurilemmoma involving the bones around the elbow have been reported to our knowledge; these cases arose in the distal humerus. We describe the first case of intraosseous neurilemmoma of the proximal ulna of the left elbow. The recommended treatment is conservative resection and bone grafting, as malignant change is extremely rare. CONCLUSION Although very rare, intraosseous neurilemmoma should be taken under consideration in the differential diagnosis of painful, radiographically benign-appearing osseous tumor around the elbow. PMID:25460435

Kito, Munehisa; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Isobe, Ken’ichi; Aoki, Kaoru; Momose, Takashige; Kato, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

378

Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

1991-01-01

379

Proximal tibial osteotomy 1970-1995.  

PubMed Central

Proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) as a surgical treatment for selected cases of unicompartmental knee joint arthritis has been performed by the author since 1970. The results of the first 113 cases were reported in October, 1978, at the Iowa Orthopaedic Society meeting. The study was continued through 1995 to include a total of 279 osteotomies in 230 patients. Each operation was performed by the author using the surgical technique as described by Coventry. Postoperative rehabilitation and follow-up remained constant throughout the 25 year period. A detailed retrospective review of all clinical records was undertaken to determine the long term results of PTO, using revision to total knee replacement or death as end points. Eighty-three patients died and 19 were lost to follow-up. A questionnaire regarding pain, function, and the necessity of further surgery was sent to the remainder. Each patient was contacted and invited back for a clinical evaluation and radiographs. At an average 13 year follow-up, 116 patients (42%) had no symptoms and were considered a good result. This long-term review revealed that, with strict adherence to the surgical principles of obtaining and maintaining proper alignment, proximal tibial osteotomy for unicompartmental arthritis can result in good function and symptomatic relief for an average of ten to 14 years. Images Figure 1 Figure 2A Figure 2B Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9807708

Fisher, D. E.

1998-01-01

380

Mismatch repair and drug responses in cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in mismatch repair contribute to development of approximately 15% of colon cancers and to origination of endometrial, gastric and other cancers. Tumors with defects in mismatch repair exhibit marked resistance to alkylators and a variety of anticancer agents that modify DNA to create substrates for the mismatch repair system. These altered drug responses appear to derive from requirements for

W. David Sedwick; Sanford D. Markowitz; Martina L. Veigl

1999-01-01

381

MICROSURGICAL REPAIR OF THE ADOLESCENT VARICOCELE  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince clinically apparent varicoceles may affect testicular volume and sperm production, early repair has been advocated. However, repair of the pediatric varicocele with conventional nonmagnified techniques may result in persistence of the varicocele after up to 16% of these procedures. Also testicular artery injury and postoperative hydrocele formation can occur after nonmagnified repair. The microsurgical technique has been successfully completed

GARY E. LEMACK; ROBERT G. UZZO; PETER N. SCHLEGEL; MARC GOLDSTEIN

1998-01-01

382

Bringing mask repair to the next level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. These challenges require sophisticated technologies to bring mask repair to the next level. For high end masks ion-beam based and e-based repair technologies are the obvious choice when it comes to the repair of small features. Both technologies have their pro and cons. The scope of this paper is to review and compare the performance of ion-beam based mask repair to e-beam based mask repair. We will analyze the limits of both technologies theoretically and experimentally and show mask repair related performance data. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair tools.

Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Auth, N.; Spies, P.; Oster, J.; Schneider, H.; Budach, M.; Hofmann, T.; Waiblinger, M.

2014-10-01

383

Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

384

How nucleotide excision repair protects against cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells can repair many types of DNA damage. Among the known DNA repair processes in humans, one type — nucleotide excision repair (NER) — specifically protects against mutations caused indirectly by environmental carcinogens. Humans with a hereditary defect in NER suffer from xeroderma pigmentosum and have a marked predisposition to skin cancer caused by sunlight exposure. How does NER

Errol C. Friedberg

2001-01-01

385

Care needed in repairing safety valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the need for adequate repairs of ASME\\/National Board stamped safety and safety relief valves, the National Board Executive Committee approved procedures in January 1977 for the issuance of a National Board Certificate of Authorization for the use of a valve repair ''VR'' stamp. The intent of these procedures was to establish realistic standards by which proper repairs could be

Hurrison

1984-01-01

386

Standardized Curriculum for Small Engine Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for small engine repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all small engine repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for small engine repair I and II courses. Units in course I…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

387

Laparoscopic arcuate line hernia repair.  

PubMed

Arcuate line hernia is considered a surgical rarity. This type of hernia is characterized by protrusion of intraperitoneal structures in a concave parietal fold in the abdominal wall. In this report, we aim to describe the diagnostic images of 2 cases of arcuate line hernia. Laparoscopic repair using a polypropylene mesh with a preattached inflatable balloon has been illustrated as well. PMID:24710227

Messaoudi, Nouredin; Amajoud, Zainab; Mahieu, Geert; Bestman, Raymond; Pauli, Steven; Van Cleemput, Marc

2014-06-01

388

Cleft lip and palate repair  

MedlinePLUS

Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects of the upper lip and palate (roof of the mouth). ... A cleft lip is a birth defect: A cleft lip may be just a small notch in the lip. It may ...

389

Umbilical and epigastric hernia repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

''You see things; and you say, Why? But I dream things that never were; and I say, Why not? ''-George Bernard Shaw, ''Back to Methuselah'' (1921), Part 1, Act 1 About 10% of all primary hernias consist of umbilical and epigastric hernias (1). Their repair therefore represents an important task in pediatric and adult surgery. Surprisingly, there is no consensus

Ulrike Muschaweck

390

Computer Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in a course to train students to repair computer equipment and perform related administrative and customer service tasks. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics (with selected subtopics in brackets): performing administrative functions (preparing service bills, maintaining accounts and labor…

Reneau, Fred; And Others

391

Verification of Motor Repair Quality  

E-print Network

Motor testing at Advanced Energy has shown that a motor that has not suffered irreparable damage as a result of failure can be repaired to perform as well as before the failure. But the only way to achieve the performance level of an energy...

Butler, K.

392

Current and future perspectives in the repair of aneurysms involving the aortic arch.  

PubMed

The repair of aneurysms involving the aortic arch is technically and physiologically demanding. Historically, these aneurysms have been treated using open surgical techniques that require cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Many patients have been deemed "untreatable" and among those selected for surgery there are reported risks of death in 2% to 16.5% and stroke rates ranging from 2% to 18%. "Hybrid arch repair" combines one of a number of open surgical procedures (to secure a proximal landing zone for an endograft) with subsequent or immediate placement of an endograft in the arch and descending aorta. Although this concept is described as "minimally invasive" because it avoids aortic cross-clamping and hypothermic circulatory arrest, the morbidity and mortality rates remain considerable (mortality 0% to 15%, stroke 0% to 11%). Ongoing development of endograft technology has enabled total endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms involving the visceral segment, using fenestrated and branched endografts. Encouraging early results in this anatomy have inspired extension of the concept to include the aortic arch and great vessels. These strategies can be considered in patients generally at high-risk for the conventional procedures. However, the endeavour is at an early stage of its development and the arch poses unique challenges including the potential for stroke, angulation of the arch and the great vessel ostia to the arch, extremely high volume flow, three-dimensional pulsation and rotation with the cardiac cycle and the proximity of the aortic valve and coronary arteries. PMID:25644831

Maurel, B; Sobocinski, J; Spear, R; Azzaoui, R; Koussa, M; Prat, A; Tyrrell, M R; Hertault, A; Haulon, S

2015-04-01

393

Revisiting subclavian flap repair for neonates and small infants  

PubMed Central

Objective: We have utilized subclavian flap angioplasty (SFA) frequently in infants with coarctation particularly in patients with arch hypoplasia which is quite frequent. We have followed these patients with serial echocardiography and have analyzed our results in this study to determine recoartation rates, recurrent hypertension and left arm development. Methods: Thirty eight infants less than 3 months age (22 boys and 16 girls, mean age was 28±22.6 days) operated at Dokuz Eylul University Hospital between August 2007 - December 2013. Twelve (32%) patients with pulmonary banding due to accompanying VSD or AVSD were included to the study, those infants with complex pathologies such as transposition of great arteries or single ventricle, while the patients less than 1000 gram in weight were excluded. Results: The mean follow-up time was 21 months (1-76 months). Twelve (32%) patients had aortic arch hypoplasia proximal to the left subclavian artery. Operative mortality was found 7.7% for isolated coarctation, 16% for coarctation repair with pulmonary banding. In 5 patients, a residual gradient was detected and re intervention was required in 7.8% patients with balloon angioplasty. Conclusion: Subclavian flap angioplasty is a safe repair technique in small infants and neonates. High gradients and intervention more likely depends on the anatomy of the aortic arch rather than the subclavian flap angioplasty technique.

Kir, Mustafa; Ugurlu, Baran; Unal, Nurettin; Metin, Kivanç; Yilmaz, Nuh; Kizilca, Ozgur

2015-01-01

394

Anatomical Considerations of the Suprascapular Nerve in Rotator Cuff Repairs  

PubMed Central

Introduction. When using the double interval slide technique for arthroscopic repair of chronic large or massive rotator cuff tears, the posterior interval release is directed toward the scapular spine until the fat pad that protects the suprascapular nerve is reached. Injury to the suprascapular nerve can occur due to the nerve's proximity to the operative field. This study aimed to identify safe margins for avoiding injury to the suprascapular nerve. Materials and Methods. For 20 shoulders in ten cadavers, the distance was measured from the suprascapular notch to the glenoid rim, the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and the lateral border of the acromion. Results. From the suprascapular notch, the suprascapular nerve coursed an average of 3.42?cm to the glenoid rim, 5.34?cm to the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and 6.09?cm to the lateral border of the acromion. Conclusions. The results of this study define a safe zone, using anatomic landmarks, to help surgeons avoid iatrogenic injury to the suprascapular nerve when employing the double interval slide technique in arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff. PMID:24724030

Tom, James A.; Shah, Mitesh P.; Lee, Dan J.; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Amin, Nirav H.

2014-01-01

395

Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Degenerative aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are increasing in prevalence; open repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Repair of isolated descending thoracic aortic aneurysms using stent grafts was introduced in 1995, and in an anatomically suitable subgroup of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, repair with endovascular stent graft provides favorable outcomes, with decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality relative to open repair. The cornerstones of successful thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair are appropriate patient selection, thorough preprocedural planning, and cautious procedural execution, the elements of which are discussed here. PMID:22379281

Findeiss, Laura K.; Cody, Michael E.

2011-01-01

396

Shuttle orbiter TPS flight repair kit development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and application of a TPS repair kit is presented. The repair kit is designed for on orbit use by a crew member working in the manned maneuvering unit (MMU). The kit includes the necessary equipment and materials to accomplish the repair tasks which include the following: HRSI emittance coating repair, damaged tile repair, missing tile repair, and multiple tile repair. Two types of repair materials required to do the small area repair and the large area repair are described. The materials area cure in place, silicone base ablator for small damaged areas and precured ablator tile for repair of larger damaged areas is examined. The cure in place ablator is also used as an adhesive to bond the precured tiles in place. An applicator for the cure in place ablator, designed to contain a two-part silicon compound, mix the two components at correct ratio, and dispense the materials at rates compatible with mission timelines established for the EVA is described.

1979-01-01

397

Current biomechanical concepts for rotator cuff repair.  

PubMed

For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

Lee, Thay Q

2013-06-01

398

A High-Throughput Scintillation Proximity-Based Assay for Human DNA Ligase IV  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ionizing radiation (IR) and certain chemotherapeutic drugs are designed to generate cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cancer cells. Inhibition of the major DSB repair pathway, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), will enhance the cytotoxicity of these agents. Screening for inhibitors of the DNA ligase IV (Lig4), which mediates the final ligation step in NHEJ, offers a novel target-based drug discovery opportunity. For this purpose, we have developed an enzymatic assay to identify chemicals that block the transfer of [?-33P]-AMP from the complex Lig4-[?-33P]-AMP onto the 5? end of a double-stranded DNA substrate and adapted it to a scintillation proximity assay (SPA). A screen was performed against a collection of 5,280 compounds. Assay statistics show an average Z? value of 0.73, indicative of a robust assay in this SPA format. Using a threshold of >20% inhibition, 10 compounds were initially scored as positive hits. A follow-up screen confirmed four compounds with IC50 values ranging from 1 to 30??M. Rabeprazole and U73122 were found to specifically block the adenylate transfer step and DNA rejoining; in whole live cell assays, these compounds were found to inhibit the repair of DSBs generated by IR. The ability to screen and identify Lig4 inhibitors suggests that they may have utility as chemo- and radio-sensitizers in combination therapy and provides a rationale for using this screening strategy to identify additional inhibitors. PMID:22192310

Tseng, Hui-Min; Shum, David; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Escobar, Sindy; Veomett, Nicholas J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Gin, David Y.

2012-01-01

399

Open Reduction of Proximal Interphalangeal Fracture-Dislocation through a Midlateral Incision Using Absorbable Suture Materials  

PubMed Central

Background Fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is a relatively common injury. Various treatments for fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint have been reported. In the present study, we performed open reduction through a midlateral incision using absorbable sutures to reduce the small bone fragments and performed volar plate repair. Methods We treated nine patients with fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint with small fractured bone fragments too small for pinning or screw fixation. Patients with volar plate injury were treated with open reduction and volar plate repair at the periosteum of the middle phalangeal bone base by the modified Kessler method using absorbable sutures. All patients were placed in a dorsal aluminum extension block splint, which maintained the PIP joint in approximately 30 degrees of flexion to avoid excessive tension on the sutured volar plate. Results At a mean final follow-up of postoperative 9 months, all patients were evaluated radiographically and had adequate alignment of the PIP joint and reduction of the displaced bone fragments. Range of motion was improved and there were no complications. Conclusions This technique is an excellent alternative to the current method of treating patients with fracture-dislocations that include small fragments that are too small for pinning or screw fixation. It is a less invasive surgical method and enables stable reduction and early exercise without noticeable complications. PMID:23898438

Lee, Jae Jun; Choi, Hyun Gon; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Uhm, Ki Il

2013-01-01

400

Protein structure alignment beyond spatial proximity  

PubMed Central

Protein structure alignment is a fundamental problem in computational structure biology. Many programs have been developed for automatic protein structure alignment, but most of them align two protein structures purely based upon geometric similarity without considering evolutionary and functional relationship. As such, these programs may generate structure alignments which are not very biologically meaningful from the evolutionary perspective. This paper presents a novel method DeepAlign for automatic pairwise protein structure alignment. DeepAlign aligns two protein structures using not only spatial proximity of equivalent residues (after rigid-body superposition), but also evolutionary relationship and hydrogen-bonding similarity. Experimental results show that DeepAlign can generate structure alignments much more consistent with manually-curated alignments than other automatic tools especially when proteins under consideration are remote homologs. These results imply that in addition to geometric similarity, evolutionary information and hydrogen-bonding similarity are essential to aligning two protein structures. PMID:23486213

Wang, Sheng; Ma, Jianzhu; Peng, Jian; Xu, Jinbo

2013-01-01

401

Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in proximal diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

A 57-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 10 years showed progressive loss of muscle strength in both legs, pain and muscle atrophy in the femoral region and significant weight loss. On admission, he could not stand alone and used a wheelchair. He also complained of severe pain in the lower extremities. He was diagnosed with proximal diabetic neuropathy (PDN) by characteristic clinical and electrophysiological features. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg 0.4 g/kg×5 days) markedly reduced the severe pain and muscle weakness in the legs. Eventually, pain assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale was relieved by 80% and muscle strength was also well recovered, thereby enabling the patient to walk with a cane. The present case suggests that IVIg therapy may be effective for the relief of pain in PDN. PMID:21686696

Kawagashira, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Oki, Yumiko; Iijima, Masahiro; Koike, Haruki; Hattori, Naoki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

2009-01-01

402

Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are included by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

403

Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are includes by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

404

Ecology: the proximate cause of frog declines?  

PubMed

Pounds et al. argue that global warming contributes to amphibian declines by encouraging outbreaks of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Although our findings agree with the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis, this pathogen is probably not the only proximate factor in such cases: in the Trasimeno Lake area of Umbria in central Italy, for example, the water frog Rana lessonae first declined in the late 1990s, yet chytridiomycosis was not observed until 2003 (refs 5, 6). Here we show that the chytrid was common there throughout 1999-2002, in a previously unknown form that did not cause disease. We therefore think that the focus by Pounds et al. on a single pathogen is hard to justify because the host-parasite ecology is at present so poorly understood. PMID:17538572

Di Rosa, Ines; Simoncelli, Francesca; Fagotti, Anna; Pascolini, Rita

2007-05-31

405

[Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].  

PubMed

Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

Rohrbach, J M

2012-10-01

406

The interior proximal extragradient method for solving equilibrium problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present a new and efficient method for solving equilibrium problems on polyhedra. The method is based on\\u000a an interior-quadratic proximal term which replaces the usual quadratic proximal term. This leads to an interior proximal type\\u000a algorithm. Each iteration consists in a prediction step followed by a correction step as in the extragradient method. In a\\u000a first

Thi Thu Van Nguyen; Jean-jacques Strodiot; Van Hien Nguyen

2009-01-01

407

Proximity to mining industry and cancer mortality.  

PubMed

Mining installations are releasing toxic substances into the environment which could pose a health problem to populations in their vicinity. We sought to investigate whether there might be excess cancer-related mortality in populations residing in towns lying in the vicinity of Spanish mining industries governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive, and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation, according to the type of extraction method used. An ecologic study was designed to examine municipal mortality due to 32 types of cancer, across the period 1997 through 2006. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Poisson regression models, using the Bayesian conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Mollič and Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations for Bayesian inference, were used: to analyze risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around mining installations; effect of type of industrial activity; and to conduct individual analyses within a 50-kilometer radius of each installation. Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) of colorectal cancer (1.097, 1.041-1.157), lung cancer (1.066, 1.009-1.126) specifically related with proximity to opencast coal mining, bladder cancer (1.106, 1.016-1.203) and leukemia (1.093, 1.003-1.191) related with other opencast mining installations, was detected among the overall population in the vicinity of mining installations. Other tumors also associated in the stratified analysis by type of mine, were: thyroid, gallbladder and liver cancers (underground coal installations); brain cancer (opencast coal mining); stomach cancer (coal and other opencast mining installations); and myeloma (underground mining installations). The results suggested an association between risk of dying due to digestive, respiratory, hematologic and thyroid cancers and proximity to Spanish mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type of mine. PMID:22846765

Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; García-Pérez, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Boldo, Elena; López-Abente, Gonzalo

2012-10-01

408

Complications and Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plating for Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique using periarticular locking plates may be a good option for the repair of displaced proximal humeral fractures. However, axillary nerve complications related to this technique may be underestimated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the minimally invasive plating, focusing on the complications. Methods The records of 21 consecutive patients treated for proximal humerus fractures using the MIPO technique with locking plates were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were treated between March 2009 and March 2011 with a minimum one-year follow-up. The clinical function, complications, and radiological bony union were evaluated. Results All of the patients, with one exception, showed at least 90 degrees of flexion and abduction at the shoulder joint six months postoperatively. The average Constant scores at three months, six months, and one year follow-ups were 74.0 (range, 62 to 90), 79.4 (range, 64 to 91), and 82.7 (range, 66 to 92), respectively. All of the patients achieved bony union within the average of 3.2 months (range, 2 to 6 months). There was one case of delayed union, one case of intra-articular screw penetration, and one case of axillary nerve paresis (incomplete injury), which did not completely recover during the one year of follow-up. Conclusions The MIPO technique using periarticular locking plates is a useful option for the treatment of selected cases of displaced proximal humeral fractures. However, nerve complications such as axillary nerve paresis should be considered along with implant-related complications when choosing patients for minimally invasive plating. PMID:24900894

Jeong, Seong Yup

2014-01-01

409

Investigation on Flexure Test of Composite Beam of Repair Materials and Substrate Concrete for Durable Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted on composite beam of repair materials and substrate concrete to investigate the failures of concrete repair due to differences in strength of repair materials and substrate concrete. In this investigation the flexural strength, load-deflection curves and failure patterns of the composite beam specimens are studied for the durability of the concrete repair. Flexure test was conducted to simulate tensile stress in the concrete repair material. Compressive strength and split tensile strength of the repair materials and substrate concrete are investigated to aid in the analysis of the concrete repair. It was observed that the repair materials of higher compressive strength than the substrate concrete are causing an incompatible failure in the concrete repair.

Pattnaik, Rashmi R.; Rangaraju, Prasada Rao

2014-12-01

410

A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ZEISS AIMS™ platform is well established as the industry standard for qualifying the printability of mask features based on the aerial image. Typically the critical dimension (CD) and intensity at a certain through-focus range are the parameters which are monitored in order to verify printability or to ensure a successful repair. This information is essential in determining if a feature will pass printability, but in the case that the feature does fail, other metrology is often required in order to isolate the reason why the failure occurred, e.g., quartz level deviates from nominal. Photronics-nanoFab, in collaboration with Carl Zeiss, demonstrate the ability to use AIMSTM to provide quantitative feedback on a given repair process; beyond simple pass/fail of the repair. This technique is used in lieu of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to determine if failing post-repair regions are "under-repaired" (too little material removed) or "over-repaired" (too much material removed). Using the ZEISS MeRiT E-beam repair tool as the test platform, the AIMSTM technique is used to characterize a series of opaque repairs with differing repair times for each. The AIMSTM technique provides a means to determine the etch depth based on through-focus response of the Bossung plot and further to predict the amount of MeRiT® recipe change required in order to bring out of spec repairs to a passing state.

Uzzel, Doug; Garetto, Anthony; Magnusson, Krister; Tabbone, Gilles

2013-09-01

411

Long-term implications of emergency versus elective proximal aortic surgery in Marfan syndrome patients in the GenTAC Registry  

PubMed Central

Objective Marfan syndrome patients with aortic root aneurysms undergo elective aortic root replacement to avoid the life-threatening outcomes of aortic dissection and emergency repair. The long-term implications of failed aortic surveillance leading to acute dissection and emergency repair are poorly defined. We compared the long-term clinical courses of Marfan syndrome patients who survive emergency versus elective proximal aortic surgery. Methods The GenTAC Registry is an NIH-funded, multicenter database and biorepository that enrolls patients with genetically triggered thoracic aortic aneurysms. Of the 635 patients with Marfan syndrome enrolled as of March 2011, 194 had undergone proximal aortic replacement. Patients were grouped according to emergent (n=47) or elective (n=147) status at the time of surgery. Results Patients in the emergent group were more likely to have incomplete proximal aortic resection; 83% of emergency procedures included aortic root replacement, compared with 95% of elective procedures. At long-term follow-up (mean, >6 years), emergent patients had a higher incidence of chronic dissection of the distal aorta and had significantly larger diameters in distal aortic segments than elective patients. Additionally, emergent patients had undergone more operations (1.31 vs 1.11 procedures/patient; P=0.01) and had lower activity scores on a health-related quality-of-life survey. Conclusions For Marfan syndrome patients, failed aortic surveillance and consequent emergency dissection repair have important long-term implications with regard to status of the distal aorta, the need for multiple procedures, and quality of life. These findings emphasize the importance of aortic surveillance and timely elective aortic root aneurysm repair for Marfan syndrome patients. PMID:22104675

Song, Howard K.; Kindem, Mark; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Dietz, Harry C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Devereux, Richard B.; Eagle, Kim A.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Kroner, Barbara L.; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Holmes, Kathryn W.; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.; Menashe, Victor; Ravekes, William; LeMaire, Scott A.

2011-01-01

412

Methods of repairing a substrate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

413

Nailing proximal femur fractures: how to choose starting point and proximal screw configuration.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal femur can be a challenging treatment dilemma for the orthopaedic surgeon. Complex mechanical forces and anatomic variables in this region combine to make treatment of these injuries difficult and can often result in serious complications. The decision to treat this fracture with an intramedullary device requires the surgeon evaluate many variables in the context of the specific fracture pattern. These include the choice of implant, starting portal location, and positioning of the patient. Assessment of the fracture pattern and its 3 dimensional orientation is usually accomplished with the aid of advanced imaging. The patient's physiological status, body habitus and bone quality must also be incorporated into the treatment algorithm. We review these issues and how they factor into the decision making process in order to develop a successful operative plan for these injuries. We will review the starting portal selection, reduction and insertion techniques and examine options for proximal locking screw configurations. PMID:25756823

Nicolaou, Daemeon; Watson, J Tracy

2015-04-01

414

Wnt Signaling and Injury Repair  

PubMed Central

Wnt signaling is activated by wounding and participates in every subsequent stage of the healing process from the control of inflammation and programmed cell death, to the mobilization of stem cell reservoirs within the wound site. In this review we summarize recent data elucidating the roles that the Wnt pathway plays in the injury repair process. These data provide a foundation for potential Wnt-based therapeutic strategies aimed at stimulating tissue regeneration. PMID:22723493

Whyte, Jemima L.; Smith, Andrew A.; Helms, Jill A.

2012-01-01

415

Tendon healing: repair and regeneration.  

PubMed

Injury and degeneration of tendon, the soft tissue that mechanically links muscle and bone, can cause substantial pain and loss of function. This review discusses the composition and function of healthy tendon and describes the structural, biological, and mechanical changes initiated during the process of tendon healing. Biochemical pathways activated during repair, experimental injury models, and parallels between tendon healing and tendon development are emphasized, and cutting-edge strategies for the enhancement of tendon healing are discussed. PMID:22809137

Voleti, Pramod B; Buckley, Mark R; Soslowsky, Louis J

2012-01-01

416

Metallic Biomaterials in Skeletal Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic biomaterials are becoming increasingly important in skeletal repair. The goal of this review article is to present\\u000a an overview of metallic implant materials currently used in trauma and orthopedic surgery. Further, new research trends and\\u000a future clinical concepts are described and discussed. Titanium, titanium alloys, stainless steels and CoCr alloys are used\\u000a as bone implants in orthopedic and trauma

Karl-Heinz Frosch; Klaus Michael Stürmer

2006-01-01

417

Laparoscopic Repair of Paraesophageal Hernias  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Laparoscopy has quickly become the standard surgical approach to repair paraesophageal hernias. Although many centers routinely perform this procedure, relatively high recurrence rates have led many surgeons to question this approach. We sought to evaluate outcomes in our cohort of patients with an emphasis on recurrence rates and symptom improvement and their correlation with true radiologic recurrence seen on contrast imaging. Methods: We retrospectively identified 126 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of a large paraesophageal hernia between 2000 and 2010. Clinical outcomes were reviewed, and data were collected regarding operative details, perioperative and postoperative complications, symptoms, and follow-up imaging. Radiologic evidence of any size hiatal hernia was considered to indicate a recurrence. Results: There were 95 female and 31 male patients with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 71 ± 14 years. Laparoscopic repair was completed successfully in 120 of 126 patients, with 6 operations converted to open procedures. Crural reinforcement with mesh was performed in 79% of patients, and 11% underwent a Collis gastroplasty. Fundoplications were performed in 90% of patients: Nissen (112), Dor (1), and Toupet (1). Radiographic surveillance, obtained at a mean time interval of 23 months postoperatively, was available in 89 of 126 patients (71%). Radiographic evidence of a recurrence was present in 19 patients (21%). Reoperation was necessary in 6 patients (5%): 5 for symptomatic recurrence (4%) and 1 for dysphagia (1%). The median length of stay was 4 days. Conclusion: Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair results in an excellent outcome with a short length of stay when performed at an experienced center. Radiologic recurrence is observed relatively frequently with routine surveillance; however, many of these recurrences are small, and few patients require correction of the recurrence. Furthermore, these small recurrent hernias are often asymptomatic and do not seem to be associated with the same risk of severe complications developing as the initial paraesophageal hernia. PMID:25392650

Borao, Frank; Squillaro, Anthony; Mansson, Jonas; Barker, William; Baker, Thomas

2014-01-01

418

Nucleotide excision repair in yeast.  

PubMed

In nucleotide excision repair (NER) in eukaryotes, DNA is incised on both sides of the lesion, resulting in the removal of a fragment approximately 25-30 nucleotides long. This is followed by repair synthesis and ligation. The proteins encoded by the various yeast NER genes have been purified, and the incision reaction reconstituted in vitro. This reaction requires the damage binding factors Rad14, RPA, and the Rad4-Rad23 complex, the transcription factor TFIIH which contains the two DNA helicases Rad3 and Rad25, essential for creating a bubble structure, and the two endonucleases, the Rad1-Rad10 complex and Rad2, which incise the damaged DNA strand on the 5'- and 3'-side of the lesion, respectively. Addition of the Rad7-Rad16 complex to this reconstituted system stimulates the incision reaction many fold. The various NER proteins exist in vivo as part of multiprotein subassemblies which have been named NEFs (nucleotide excision repair factors). Rad14 and Rad1-Rad10 form one subassembly called NEF1, the Rad4-Rad23 complex is named NEF2, Rad2 and TFIIH constitute NEF3, and the Rad7-Rad16 complex is called NEF4. Although much has been learned from yeast about the function of NER genes and proteins in eukaryotes, the underlying mechanisms by which damage is recognized, NEFs are assembled at the damage site, and the DNA is unwound and incised, remain to be elucidated. PMID:10915862

Prakash, S; Prakash, L

2000-06-30

419

Animal models of cartilage repair  

PubMed Central

Cartilage repair in terms of replacement, or regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage with functional tissue, is the ‘holy grail’ of joint surgery. A wide spectrum of strategies for cartilage repair currently exists and several of these techniques have been reported to be associated with successful clinical outcomes for appropriately selected indications. However, based on respective advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, no single strategy, or even combination of strategies, provides surgeons with viable options for attaining successful long-term outcomes in the majority of patients. As such, development of novel techniques and optimisation of current techniques need to be, and are, the focus of a great deal of research from the basic science level to clinical trials. Translational research that bridges scientific discoveries to clinical application involves the use of animal models in order to assess safety and efficacy for regulatory approval for human use. This review article provides an overview of animal models for cartilage repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;4:89–94. PMID:24695750

Cook, J. L.; Hung, C. T.; Kuroki, K.; Stoker, A. M.; Cook, C. R.; Pfeiffer, F. M.; Sherman, S. L.; Stannard, J. P.

2014-01-01

420

Optimizing imaging for aortic repair.  

PubMed

Imaging is an integral part of an aortic program. Careful preoperative planning is essential to successful evaluation and treatment of aortic pathology. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the dominant modality for such preoperative planning. The use of a dedicated workstation for 3D postprocessing is very favorable and is considered mandatory when treating complex aortic pathology. Intraoperative imaging during aortic repair still depends heavily on standard fluoroscopy and angiography. However, the introduction of image fusion has the potential to reduce the use of both contrast and radiation, for the benefit of both patients and operators. Using cross-sectional imaging intraoperatively also has the potential to reduce the need for early imaging follow-up and to reduce the technical failures of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Imaging follow-up after EVAR has changed dramatically since the introduction of minimally invasive aortic repair. CTA remains the gold standard but a significant shift towards ultrasound surveillance has occurred. With the introduction of newer generation EVAR devices, results have improved and a trend towards less rigorous follow-up is expected. PMID:25644824

Törnqvist, P; Dias, N V; Resch, T

2015-04-01

421

A technique for increased accuracy in the placement of the "giant" Palmaz stent for treatment of type IA endoleak after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

We report a deployment technique that eliminates "watermelon seeding" of the "giant" Palmaz stent in the treatment of type IA endoleak after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair. A 5010 Palmaz stent (Cordis Corp, Miami Lakes, Fla) is asymmetrically hand-crimped on an appropriately sized valvuloplasty balloon that assures that the proximal (cranial) aspect will deploy first. A long 16 to 20F sheath is placed distal to the target area. Once the balloon and stent assembly is in position, the sheath is partially retracted to allow only the proximal (cranial) half of the balloon to expand, flaring the unsheathed proximal stent. The expanded proximal balloon prevents cranial stent migration. The sheath prevents distal (caudal) stent migration. Full retraction of the sheath allows the distal balloon and stent to expand, completing the stent deployment. PMID:18727977

Kim, Jason K; Noll, Robert E; Tonnessen, Britt H; Sternbergh, W Charles

2008-09-01

422

Mechanism and evolution of recombinational repair  

SciTech Connect

Recently, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), and its free-radical product the hydroxyl radical (OH{centered dot}), have been identified as major sources of DNA damage in living organisms. We examined DNA repair of hydrogen peroxide damage, using a standard bacteriophage T4 tests system in which several different types of repair could be determined. Post-replication recombinational repair and den V-dependent excision repair had little or no effect on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} damage. Also, an enzyme important in repair of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced DNA damage in the E. coli host cells, exonuclease III, was not utilized in repair of lethal H{sub 2}O{sub 2} damage to the phage. However, multiplicity reactivation, a form of recombinational repair between multiply infecting phage genomes, was found to repair H{sub 2}O{sub 2} damages efficiently. The RAD52 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and genes 46 and 47 of bacteriophage T4 are essential for most recombination and recombinational repair in their respective organisms. The RAD52 gene was introduced into expression vectors which were used to transform E. coli. RAD52 expression was induced, and its ability to complement either gene 46 or gene 47 phage mutants was determined with respect to phage growth, recombination, and recombinational repair.

Chen, D.S.H.

1988-01-01

423

Primary repair vs. colostomy for the treatment of penetrating colon injuries.  

PubMed

The charts of 81 consecutive patients with penetrating colonic trauma were reviewed. Sixty-five patients were considered for evaluation. Penetrating abdominal trauma index, associated injuries, length of operative procedure, wounding agent, length of hospital stay, method of treatment, and septic complications were evaluated. Twenty-eight patients were treated with colostomy at the site of injury: five with diverting colostomy proximal to repair, 30 with primary repair (either single or multiple injuries), and two with exteriorization and early drop back. Overall septic morbidity was 15 of 65 (23 percent) patients. No statistically significant difference was found in morbidity between colostomy, 9 of 33 (27 percent), and primary repair, 6 of 30 (20 percent). The two patients with exteriorized repairs had no morbidity. No deaths were reported among the 65 patients studied. Thirty-two of the 33 (97 percent) colostomies were later closed with morbidity in 7 of 32 (22 percent). The mean length of stay for primary repair patients was 10.3 +/- 2.8 days and for colostomy patients, 25.7 +/- 3.8 days, counting days for both initial and colostomy closure admissions (P less than .05). Colostomy was not mandated by anatomic location or number of colonic injuries, circumference of colonic wall involved, presence of fecal contamination, or involvement of mesenteric blood supply. This study indicates that primary repair does not carry an increased risk of septic complications and saves the patient the significant risk and increased hospital stay of colostomy closure. Prospective studies addressing this area are indicated. PMID:2591279

Ridgeway, C A; Frame, S B; Rice, J C; Timberlake, G A; McSwain, N E; Kerstein, M D

1989-12-01

424

JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair  

SciTech Connect

An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

Ricci, Carmelo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Radiologia Interventistica (Italy); Ceccherini, Claudio, E-mail: claudiocec@hotmail.it; Leonini, Sara [Radiologia Universitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte (Italy); Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Radiologia Interventistica (Italy); Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Chirurgia dell'Aorta Toracica (Italy)

2012-02-15

425

Endovascular Stent-Graft Repair as a Late Secondary Procedure After Previous Aortic Grafts  

SciTech Connect

Thoracic and abdominal aortic endovascular procedures as alternatives to aortic reoperations were studied in three different cases. An anastomotic aneurysm after previous thoracic aortic graft for coarctation, a second-stage elephant trunk repair (descending thoracic aortic aneurysm), and a secondary aneurysm proximal to a previous abdominal aortic graft were successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafts. During the follow-up period no lethal events or major aortic or graft-related complications were observed, except a type II endoleak in the anastomotic aortic aneurysm case. An endovascular stent-graft can be safely deployed into a previously implanted vascular graft, avoiding repeat surgery.

Matsagas, Miltiadis I. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Surgery - Vascular Surgery Unit (Greece)], E-mail: mimats@cc.uoi.gr; Anagnostopoulos, Constantine E. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Papakostas, John C. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Surgery - Vascular Surgery Unit (Greece); DeRose, Joseph J. [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Siminelakis, Stavros [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Katsouras, Christos S. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiology (Greece); Toumpoulis, Ioannis K.; Drossos, George E. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Michalis, Lampros K. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiology (Greece)

2006-08-15

426

Principles of nerve repair in complex wounds of the upper extremity.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve injuries are common in the setting of complex upper extremity trauma. Early identification of nerve injuries and intervention is critical for maximizing return of function. In this review, the principles of nerve injury, patient evaluation, and surgical management are discussed. An evidence-based approach to nerve reconstruction is reviewed, including the benefits and limitations of direct repair and nerve gap reconstruction with the use of autografts, processed nerve allografts, and conduits. Further, the principles and indications of commonly used nerve transfers in proximal nerve injuries are also addressed. PMID:25685102

Moore, Amy M; Wagner, I Janelle; Fox, Ida K

2015-02-01

427

Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the brassboard and proto-type NGAVGS units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

2009-01-01

428

Proximal tubular lactate transport in rat kidney: A micropuncture study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximal tubular lactate transport in rat kidney: A micropuncture study. Micropuncture studies of renal lactate behavior in the rat showed free filtration across the glomerular membrane. Under free-flow conditions, 95% of the filtered load was reabsorbed by the proximal tubule, thus generating a transtubular concentration gradient. In the absence of volume changes, an intratubular steady-state concentration of lactate was established

Bernhard Höhmann; Peter P Frohnert; Rolf Kinne; Karl Baumann; F Papavassiliou; M Wagner

1974-01-01

429

Linking people through physical proximity in a conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has studied offline proximity such as co-location and online social connections such as friendship individually. People form social relationships based on certain characteristics they possess, called social selection. When people change their social behavior due to interaction with others, social influence is at work. However, few researchers have examined the relationship that exists between offline proximity and online

Alvin Chin; Bin Xu; Hao Wang; Xia Wang

2012-01-01

430

Spot image processing and simulation of the laser proximity fuze  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the problems of the large beam divergence angle and short detection range in the launch system of laser proximity fuze. By analyzing the factors of measuring distance in laser proximity fuze, combined with characteristics of laser's far-field divergence angle, and according to aspheric optical design theory, we carry out image processing and simulation of laser spot by

Lin Gan; He Zhang; Xiang-jin Zhang

2011-01-01

431

Group Proximity Measure for Recommending Groups in Online Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently, thousands of online social networks (OSN) available, each of which hosts millions of users. Users make new friendship links, join groups on diverse topics, share opinions and thus help in building a big knowledge repository. In this paper we study the problem of defining proximity measure between groups (communities) of OSN. Understanding the proximity among the groups

Barna Saha; Lise Getoor

432

Palliation of proximal malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

For four years up to December 1987, 190 patients (median age 73 years) with proximal malignant biliary obstruction were treated by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. Altogether 101 had cholangiocarcinoma, 21 gall bladder carcinoma, 20 local spread of pancreatic carcinoma, and 48 metastatic malignancy. Fifty eight patients had type I, 54 type II, and 78 type III proximal biliary strictures (Bismuth classification).

A A Polydorou; S R Cairns; J F Dowsett; A R Hatfield; P R Salmon; P B Cotton; R C Russell

1991-01-01

433

Explicit trade-off rules in proximate adaptive agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms in nature are both proximate (operating by rules of thumb) and adapted (the rules influenced by natural selection). We introduce new methods that can be used to study in silico versions of organisms behaving according to proximate adapted rules. Our approach goes beyond neural networks and offers an alternative to optimization methods. It is based on the idea that

Jarl Giske; Marc Mangel; Per Jakobsen; Geir Huse; Chris Wilcox; Espen Strand

2003-01-01

434

Mechanisms of fluid absorption during proximal tubule development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of fluid absorption during proximal tubule development. Passive permeation characteristics and paracellular pathway ultrastructure were studied in vitro by perfusion of rabbit isolated proximal convoluted tubules during postnatal ontogenesis. The influence upon net volume flow (Jv) of transepithelial hydrostatic and protein osmotic pressure was significantly higher during early postnatal maturation than in the mature tubule. Hydraulic hydrostatic conductance (×10?3

Michael Horster; Lars Larsson

1976-01-01

435

The Spatial Evolution of Innovation Networks: A Proximity Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an evolutionary perspective on the geography of network formation that is grounded in a dynamic proximity framework. In doing so, we root the proximity concept in an evolutionary approach to the geography of innovation networks. We discuss three topics. The first topic focuses on explaining the structure of networks. The second topic concentrates on explaining the effects of

Ron Boschma; Koen Frenken

2009-01-01

436

Scalable proximity estimation and link prediction in online social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximity measures quantify the closeness or similarity between nodes in a social network and form the basis of a range of appli- cations in social sciences, business, information technology, com- puter networks, and cyber security. It is challenging to estimate proximity measures in online social networks due to their massive scale (with millions of users) and dynamic nature (with hundreds

Han Hee Song; Tae Won Cho; Vacha Dave; Yin Zhang; Lili Qiu

2009-01-01

437

Proximity and territory versus space in regional science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence tends to show that regional development occurs only in certain places. Therefore, one can ask the central question of the role of physical proximity in economic development processes. Economists try to answer this question through the concept of externalities, but this does not explain why certain externalities are linked with physical proximity. In this paper the author tries

O Crevoisier

1996-01-01

438

Generalized ligament laxity associated with isolated proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are a rare orthopaedic injury. It is one that is easily missed if one does not have high clinical suspicion for such an injury. This report discusses two cases of proximal tibiofibular dislocations that presented to the emergency department. In both cases, the patients fulfilled the criteria for having generalized ligamentous laxity—including passive apposition of thumb to

Royce Ekkawit Paschkewitz; Buddhika Balalla; Peter John Papantoniou; Siew-Piau Tan

2006-01-01

439

Proximal Probes Based Nanorobotic Drawing of Polymer Micro\\/Nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a nanorobotic fiber fabrication method which uses proximal probes to draw polymer fibers down to few hundred nanometers in diameter and several hundred micrometers in length. Using proximal probes such as Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) or glass micropipettes, liquid polymers dissolved in a solvent are drawn. During drawing, the solvent evaporates in

Amrinder Singh Nain; Cristina Amon; Metin Sitti

2006-01-01

440

Trabecular Bone Contributes to Strength of the Proximal Femur Under  

E-print Network

to fracture the whole proximal femur in mediolateral impacts (from 0.37 joule in controls to 0.20 joule after fractures per year in the United States 1,2 . The initial bone loss in the proxi- mal femur is of trabecularTrabecular Bone Contributes to Strength of the Proximal Femur Under Mediolateral Impact

Gefen, Amit

441

Pointless Mobilities: Rethinking Proximity Through the Loops of Neighbourhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important tasks of mobile sociology is to attend to the diverse proximities that are generated through the interplay of multiple forms of mobility. In answering to this challenge, mobilities researchers have illuminated how multiple forms of mobility have given rise to different physical and virtual proximities, involving corporal travel and new communication devices. However, in spite of

David Bissell

2012-01-01

442

Nucleotide excision repair rates in rat tissues.  

PubMed

We have determined and compared nucleotide excision repair capability of several rat tissues by a method based on restoration of the transformation activity of UV-irradiated pBlueScript by incubation in repair-competent protein extracts. After 3 h of incubation, plasmid DNA was isolated and used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Damaged plasmids showed low transformation efficiency prior to incubation in repair-competent extracts. After incubation the transformation efficiency was restored to different extents permitting calculation of the repair capacity of the extracts. Our results showed that rapidly proliferating tissues such as liver, kidney and testis showed higher nucleotide excision repair capacity than slowly proliferating tissues such as heart, muscle, lung and spleen. When liver and splenocytes were stimulated to proliferation by partial hepatectomy and mitogen stimulation, their repair capability increased in parallel with the respective proliferative rates. PMID:12603333

Gospodinov, Anastas; Ivanov, Rumen; Anachkova, Boyka; Russev, George

2003-03-01

443

Does DNA repair occur during somatic hypermutation?  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates a flood of DNA damage in the immunoglobulin loci, leading to abasic sites, single-strand breaks and mismatches. It is compelling that some proteins in the canonical base excision and mismatch repair pathways have been hijacked to increase mutagenesis during somatic hypermutation. Thus, the AID-induced mutagenic pathways involve a mix of DNA repair proteins and low fidelity DNA polymerases to create antibody diversity. In this review, we analyze the roles of base excision repair, mismatch repair, and mutagenesis during somatic hypermutation of rearranged variable genes. The emerging view is that faithful base excision repair occurs simultaneously with mutagenesis, whereas faithful mismatch repair is mostly absent. PMID:22728014

Saribasak, Huseyin; Gearhart, Patricia J.

2012-01-01

444

Single molecule Studies of DNA Mismatch Repair  

PubMed Central

DNA mismatch repair involves is a widely conserved set of proteins that is essential to limit genetic drift in all organisms. The same system of proteins plays key roles in many cancer related cellular transactions in humans. Although the basic process has been reconstituted in vitro using purified components, many fundamental aspects of DNA mismatch repair remain hidden due in part to the complexity and transient nature of the interactions between the mismatch repair proteins and DNA substrates. Single molecule methods offer the capability to uncover these transient but complex interactions and allow novel insights into mechanisms that underlie DNA mismatch repair. In this review, we discuss applications of single molecule methodology including electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, particle tracking, FRET, and optical trapping to studies of DNA mismatch repair. These studies have led to formulation of mechanistic models of how proteins identify single base mismatches in the vast background of matched DNA and signal for their repair. PMID:24746644

Erie, Dorothy A.; Weninger, Keith R.

2015-01-01

445

Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

1982-06-01

446

Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

1982-01-01

447

Outcome of pyrocarbon proximal interphalangeal joint replacement.  

PubMed

Pyrocarbon arthroplasty of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) has been reported to provide excellent pain relief when treating osteoarthritis of the hand. We retrospectively reviewed 20 PIPJ arthroplasties performed on 14 patients by a single surgeon using Ascension prosthesis. The mean follow up period was 3.5 years (range 1-7 years). Excellent pain relief was noted at the final follows-up. The mean range of motion improved from 40° pre-operatively to 70° post-operatively which was statistically significant. Twelve patients had significant improvement in quality of life and would consider similar procedure for other fingers. Radiological assessment revealed an average of 1 mm subsidence and there was no correlation noted between subsidence, migration and ROM at the final follow-up. Stiffness was the main complication and was comparable with other studies. The results of this series are encouraging and demonstrate excellent to good outcome in 86% of patients at the mid-term follow-up. PMID:24641745

Desai, Aravind; Gould, Fraser J; Mackay, David C

2014-01-01

448

Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

2009-01-01

449

Effects of thrust reversing in ground proximity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in stability and control characteristics encountered by a thrust reversing aircraft during its final approach, landing, and ground roll are described. These changes include a strong pitch-up accompanied by the loss of horizontal tail and aileron control effectiveness. The magnitude of reverser induced changes in ground effect are much larger than corresponding changes in free air. Some unexpected unsteady motions exhibited in wind tunnel by an aircraft model with reversers operating in ground proximity are also described. The cause of this oscillatory behavior was determined to be an unsteady interaction between the wall jets formed by impingement of reverser jets on the ground and the on-coming free stream. Time histories of rolling moments measured by the wind tunnel balance or support system were removed and frequencies were scaled by Strouhal number to full scale. Corrected time series were used to simulate the motion of a fighter aircraft with thrust reversers in ground effect. The simulation predicted large roll angles and nose down attitude at touchdown. Some phenomena of jet attachment to solid surfaces are discussed and areas for future research are recommended.

Joshi, P. B.; Hughes, R. V.

1987-01-01

450

Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

2014-01-30

451

The Proximal Tubule and Albuminuria: Really!  

PubMed Central

Recent data highlight the role of the proximal tubule (PT) in reabsorbing, processing, and transcytosing urinary albumin from the glomerular filtrate. Innovative techniques and approaches have provided exciting insights into these processes, and numerous investigators have shown that selective PT cell defects lead to significant albuminuria, even reaching nephrotic range in animal models. Thus, the mechanisms of albumin reabsorption and transcytosis are undergoing intense study. Working in concert with megalin and cubilin, a nonselective multireceptor complex that predominantly directs proteins for lysosomal degradation, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) located at the brush border of the apical membrane has been implicated as the “receptor” mediating albumin transcytosis. The FcRn pathway facilitates reabsorption and mediates transcytosis by its pH-dependent binding affinity in endosomal compartments. This also allows for selective albumin sorting within the PT cell. This reclamation pathway minimizes urinary losses and catabolism of albumin, thus prolonging its serum half-life. It may also serve as a molecular sorter to preserve and reclaim normal albumin while allowing “altered” albumin to be catabolized via lysosomal pathways. Here, we critically review the data supporting this novel mechanism. PMID:24408874

Dickson, Landon E.; Wagner, Mark C.; Sandoval, Ruben M.

2014-01-01

452

Scintillation Proximity Assay of Arginine Methylation  

PubMed Central

Methylation of arginine residues, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is one important protein post-translational modification involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. A fast and effective assay for PRMT can provide valuable information for dissecting the biological functions of PRMTs, as well as for screening small-molecule inhibitors of arginine methylation. Currently, among the methods used for PRMT activity measurement, many contain laborious separation procedures, which restrict the applications of these assays for high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery. The authors report here a mix-and-measure method to measure PRMT activity based on the principle of scintillation proximity assay (SPA). In this assay, 3H-AdoMet was used as methyl donor, and biotin-modified histone H4 peptide served as a methylation substrate. Following the methylation reaction catalyzed by PRMTs, streptavidin-coated SPA beads were added to the reaction solution, and SPA signals were detected by a MicroBeta scintillation counter. No separation step is needed, which simplifies the assay procedure and greatly enhances the assay speed. Particularly, the miniaturization and robustness suggest that this method is suited for HTS of PRMT inhibitors. PMID:21821785

Wu, Jiang; Xie, Nan; Feng, You; Zheng, Y. George

2011-01-01

453

Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive graphical proximity operations planning system was developed, which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in a dynamic multispacecraft environment. Maneuvering takes place in and out of the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of orbital dynamics and complex time-varying operational constraints. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relevant constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of a Space Station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the Station's orbital plane. The operator has control over the two modes of operation: a viewing system mode, which enables the exporation of the spatial situation about the Space Station and thus the ability to choose and zoom in on areas of interest; and a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory that complies with all operational constraints. A first version of this display was completed. An experimental program is planned in which operators will carry out a series of design missions which vary in complexity and constraints.

Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

1988-01-01

454

Current strategies and approaches to meniscal repair.  

PubMed

Repair of symptomatic meniscal tears in the appropriate patient has demonstrated successful mid and long-term results with a variety of different repair techniques. These techniques have undergone much evolution and innovation, from the initial open repairs to a variety of inside-out, outside-in, and all-inside techniques and devices. This article focuses on patient presentation, selection, current treatments, and surgical techniques including pearls and pitfalls, and discusses the most recent published outcomes and complications. PMID:25068846

Goodwillie, Andrew D; Myers, Kevin; Sgaglione, Nicholas A

2014-12-01

455

Nucleotide excision repair in differentiated cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the principal pathway for the removal of a wide range of DNA helix-distorting lesions and operates via two NER subpathways, i.e. global genome repair (GGR) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Although detailed information is available on expression and efficiency of NER in established mammalian cell lines, little is known about the expression of NER pathways in

Caroline van der Wees; Jacob Jansen; Harry Vrieling; Arnoud van der Laarse; Albert Van Zeeland; Leon Mullenders

2007-01-01

456

Base excision repair in nucleosome substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells must repair DNA lesions within the context of chromatin. Much of our current understanding regarding the\\u000a activity of enzymes involved in DNA repair processes comes from in-vitro studies utilizing naked DNA as a substrate. Here we review current literature investigating how enzymes involved in base\\u000a excision repair (BER) contend with nucleosome substrates, and discuss the possibility that some

Indu Jagannathan; Hope A. Cole; Jeffrey J. Hayes

2006-01-01

457

Repairing sealing surfaces on aluminum castings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approach using stylus nickel plating instead of copper and cadmium plating has simplified repair procedure. Damaged sealing surfaces are stylus nickelplated in one step. Superficial scratches and porous areas are removed more easily from repaired surface by simply lapping sealing areas to required finish. Although method is aimed for aerospace components, it may be easily incorporated into conventional aluminumcasting technology. One-step repair can be considered for cast-aluminum automobile and aircraft engines to reduce time and costs.

Hanna, T. L.

1980-01-01

458

Thermal protection system repair kit program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and conceptual design aspects of repair materials and procedures for in orbit repair of the space shuttle orbiter TPS tiles are investigated. Material studies to investigate cure in place materials are described including catalyst and cure studies, ablation tests and evaluations, and support mixing and applicator design. The feasibility of the repair procedures, the storage of the TPS, dispensing, and cure problems are addressed.

1979-01-01

459

Results of All-Inside Meniscal Repair With the FasT-Fix Meniscal Repair System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The goal of this prospective study was to evaluate the results of arthroscopic meniscal repair using the FasT-Fix repair system. Type of Study: Prospective case series. Methods: Sixty-one meniscal repairs with the FasT-Fix meniscal repair system in 58 patients with a mean age of 32.6 years were performed between 2001 and 2002. Concurrent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed

Elias S. Kotsovolos; Michael E. Hantes; Dimitrios S. Mastrokalos; Olaf Lorbach; Hans H. Paessler

2006-01-01

460

Repair of boron/aluminum composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was performed to determine the repairability of boron/aluminum aerospace structural components. During the program, a list of repair guidelines was prepared to aid in determining the proper repair techniques for a given structure. These guidelines included specifying types of repair material and their applicability, corrosion prevention procedures, design criteria, and inspection criteria. Six sets of boron/aluminum structural components were repaired and tested to compare as-fabricated and repaired performance. The specimens included a honeycomb-stiffened panel, elastically buckled tubes, a skin-stringer panel, a tube combining bending and tension, a splice joint specimen, and a tension field panel. All but one set of specimens, when repaired, exceeded the strength of the original specimens. The repairs resulted in an average weight increase per structure of 9% and an average performance increase of 27%. It is concluded that metal-matrix composite material, damaged in service, can be repaired by techniques not very different from those currently in use for conventional materials.

Christian, J. L.; Miller, M. F.; Doyal, F. H.

1975-01-01