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1

The modified Koyanagi hypospadias repair for the one-stage repair of proximal hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Perineal and penoscrotal hypospadias were often managed by two-stage urethroplasty with variable results and significant number of these may need third surgery. Though modified Koyanagi one-stage repair has a learning curve, it has all the advantages of two-stage repair. The aim was to review the results of modified Koyonagi repair from the literature and our own centre experience. PMID:19468399

Jayanthi, Venkata R.

2008-01-01

2

Glandular hypospadias repair.  

PubMed

Glandular hypospadias represents approximately 15% of the hypospadias variants seen. This article will examine common surgical approaches applicable to the child with glandular hypospadias. Hypospadias repairs discussed in this article will include urethromeatoplasty, MAGPI, the GAP procedure, MIV glans plasty, urethral advancement procedure, and parameatal based flap variants, including the Mathieu and Barcat procedures. Because these anomalies are cosmetically less aberrant than more proximal variants, only those surgical techniques which assure a normal-appearing penis should be undertaken. PMID:12371221

Zaontz, Mark R; Dean, Gregory E

2002-05-01

3

Hypospadias repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... penis. Hypospadias is usually associated with an abnormal curvature of the penis, called "chordee". Hypospadias is one ... of the surgery are to repair the abnormal curvature of the penis, and to create a new ...

4

Hallucinations after hypospadias repair.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a 4-year-old child who developed hallucinations after hypospadias repair. He was brought to the emergency department the morning after outpatient surgery where the diagnosis of central anticholinergic syndrome was made. We review oxybutynin overdose and the importance of providing clear instruction to parents and caregivers about the administration of medications. PMID:16516613

Swana, Hubert S; Youmans, Sharon L; Kogan, Barry A; Bogetz, Martin S

2006-03-01

5

Two-Stage Repair for Severe Proximal Hypospadias Using Oral Mucosal Grafts: Combination of a Modified Bracka Method and a Modified Byars Flap Method.  

PubMed

One-stage repair is a conventional treatment of hypospadias. If hypospadias is severe as in the scrotal type and perineal type, penile curvature sometimes cannot be corrected by dorsal midline plication alone. In addition to resection of the urethral plate, ventral grafting becomes necessary for insufficient skin and subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in 2-stage repair for such severe cases and salvage of failed cases with scarring. In the present study, novel 2-stage urethroplasty was performed in 6 cases to repair severe proximal hypospadias which required resection of the urethral plate. This novel method consisted of a combination of a modified Bracka method using oral mucosal grafts and a modified Byars flap of the dorsal foreskin. Good results were obtained using this novel method. PMID:23759975

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Akita, Shinsuke; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kuriyama, Motone; Satoh, Kaneshige

2013-06-12

6

Modified koyanagi repair for severe hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Aim: To report the results of an early series of patients who underwent modified Koyanagi repair for severe hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 boys (age: 9 months to 11 years) with proximal hypospadias, chordee, and poor urethral plate underwent modified Koyanagi repair between September 2008 and January 2012. Nine boys had associated penoscrotal transposition that was corrected simultaneously. Vascularized parameatal based foreskin flap was used to correct the hypospadias in a single stage. The follow-up ranged from 6 months to 3.5 years. Results: A total of 13 of the 24 children had a good outcome and were voiding normally, while 11 boys developed complications, 3 of which were major and 8 minor. The major complications were complete breakdown (n = 1), meatal and distal neourethral stenosis requiring laying open of distal urethra (n = 1), and glans breakdown (n = 1). The minor complications included fistulae (n = 5), meatal stenosis amenable to dilatation (n = 1), and lateral chordee (n = 1). Majority of the complications were in the initial patients, with successful outcomes in the last 1 year. Most of these complications were successfully managed by minor second procedures. Conclusion: Modified Koyanagi repair not only corrects severe hypospadias with chordee but also corrects the associated penoscrotal transposition in a single stage. The results are good once the learning curve is crossed. PMID:24019639

Vepakomma, Deepti; Alladi, Anand; Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Akhtar, Tanveer

2013-01-01

7

Two-stage repair for severe hypospadias.  

PubMed

In 39 patients a 2-stage modified Belt-Fuqua repair was performed for severe hypospadias and chordee. Patient age at initial surgery averaged 2 years and stage 2 was done 7 months later. Testosterone was given before stage 1 to 22 patients (56%) and before both stages to 13 (33%). Of 5 patients with intersex 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 1 was a true hermaphrodite and 2 were 46 XX male subjects. The preoperative meatal location was subglanular in 9 cases, mid shaft in 8, proximal shaft in 2, penoscrotal in 15 and perineal in 5. Those with subglanular meatus had hypoplastic distal urethras and severe chordee. A dorsal Nesbit procedure for chordee correction was done in 24 cases (62%). Neourethral length ranged from 3 to 7 cm. (average 4 cm.) and average followup was 16 months. Neourethral diverticula developed in 8 cases (21%) and they were repaired uneventfully an average of 7 months (range 2 to 24) after stage 2. Minor urethral strictures (3 distal and 4 proximal) were treated with a single visual internal urethrotomy and there was 1 (2.5%) urethrocutaneous fistula. All children had excellent cosmetic and functional outcomes. A staged approach allows for cosmetic reconstruction of the glans and mucosal collar during stage 1 and offers 2 opportunities to augment penile size with testosterone. Bladder or buccal mucosal grafts are avoided since the prepuce is always adequate. There are no hypospadias deformities, penile shaft torsion or asymmetry. Fistula formation is minimal and strictures are minor. The 2-stage repair remains a safe, reliable alternative for boys with severe hypospadias. PMID:8015102

Greenfield, S P; Sadler, B T; Wan, J

1994-08-01

8

The MAGPI hypospadias repair in 1111 patients.  

PubMed

The meatal advancement and glanduloplasty (MAGPI) procedure was first described in 1981 for the repair of distal hypospadias. In the past decade, our experience has grown to more than 1000 procedures. An excellent surgical result requires careful case selection, avoiding cases with thin or rigid ventral parameatal skin or a meatus too proximal or too wide. The glans wrap to support the advanced ventral urethral wall requires a solid tissue approximation in two layers to prevent a retrusive meatus. Meatal stenosis can be avoided by assuring an adequate dorsal Heineke-Mikulicz tissue rearrangement and making an incision from within the urethral meatus well distally into the urethral groove. The MAGPI procedure routinely is performed on an outpatient basis without any urinary diversion. Our experience in 1111 cases during 12 years has required a second procedure in 1.2% of cases. The overall success rate with the MAGPI procedure suggests that it should continue to be used in the repair of distal hypospadias. PMID:2039293

Duckett, J W; Snyder, H M

1991-06-01

9

The MAGPI hypospadias repair in 1111 patients.  

PubMed Central

The meatal advancement and glanduloplasty (MAGPI) procedure was first described in 1981 for the repair of distal hypospadias. In the past decade, our experience has grown to more than 1000 procedures. An excellent surgical result requires careful case selection, avoiding cases with thin or rigid ventral parameatal skin or a meatus too proximal or too wide. The glans wrap to support the advanced ventral urethral wall requires a solid tissue approximation in two layers to prevent a retrusive meatus. Meatal stenosis can be avoided by assuring an adequate dorsal Heineke-Mikulicz tissue rearrangement and making an incision from within the urethral meatus well distally into the urethral groove. The MAGPI procedure routinely is performed on an outpatient basis without any urinary diversion. Our experience in 1111 cases during 12 years has required a second procedure in 1.2% of cases. The overall success rate with the MAGPI procedure suggests that it should continue to be used in the repair of distal hypospadias. Images Figs. 2A-I. PMID:2039293

Duckett, J W; Snyder, H M

1991-01-01

10

Lessons learned using Snodgrass hypospadias repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This is a review of our experience with the Snodgrass technique for distal hypospadias repair and we point to lessons learned\\u000a in improving results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We reviewed all patients who underwent Snodgrass hypospadias repair for distal hypospadias over a four-year period by a single\\u000a surgeon. Chart review followed by parental telephone interview was used to determine voiding function, cosmesis and complication

K. M. O’Connor; E. A. Kiely

2006-01-01

11

Hypospadias and Residential Proximity to Pesticide Applications  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. METHODS: The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother’s residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. CONCLUSIONS: Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations. PMID:24167181

Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J.; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

12

One-stage repair of perineal hypospadias and scrotal transposition.  

PubMed

Our experience with one-stage repair of severe perineal hypospadias and scrotal transposition is described. In essence the urethra is formed by our (extended parameatal) wing flap-flipping method, while the scrotum is normally repositioned with skin closure. Comparison is made with other repairs, while the safety of the extended parameatal pedicle flap is stressed. PMID:6529948

Koyanagi, T; Nonomura, K; Gotoh, T; Nakanishi, S; Kakizaki, H

1984-01-01

13

Mathieu repair of distal and midshaft hypospadias: risks and benefits of foreskin reconstruction versus circumcision  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare the risks and benefits of Mathieu repair of hypospadias with or without circumcision in consecutive operated cases. Methods Eighty-six children with midshaft or distal hypospadias were randomly divided into two groups and underwent circumcision (Group A) or preputial reconstruction (Group B) during hypospadias repair. Postoperative complications, outcomes, and parental satisfaction were assessed for circumcised and uncircumcised patients. All patients with midshaft or distal hypospadias with or without minimal chordee were included. Results No statistically significant differences in urethral complications were found between the two groups. Meatal stenosis occurred in one case in Group A and one case in Group B. Fistulae occurred in five cases in Group A and six cases in Group B. Urethral dehiscence occurred in no case in either group. No case of phimosis was seen in Group B. After a mean follow-up of 6 months, all parents of Group A cases stated that they were satisfied with the circumcision for religious and/or social reasons, but no parents of Group B cases were satisfied with preputioplasty (P ? 0.05). No case of hypospadias repair failure was seen in our operated cases. Finally, no cases in Group B required redo hypospadias surgery. Conclusion Mathieu repair with synchronous circumcision is feasible in all patients with distal or midshaft hypospadias with or without minimal chordee, and should be considered in accordance with surgeon preference. In the case of prepuce preservation, parents should be informed that there is a benefit of tissue banking for probable redo hypospadias repair but with an increased risk of complications and a need for another procedure, ie, circumcision. PMID:24198642

Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Gilani, Mohammad Ali Sadighi; Shahrokh, Hossein

2011-01-01

14

One-stage repair of hypospadias: is there no simple method universally applicable to all types of hypospadias?  

PubMed

A simple method of hypospadias repair is described. The operative technique consists of 7 steps, including 1) outlining the skin incision and dartos mobilization; 2) artificial erection, harvesting parameatal foreskin flap and release of chordee as needed; 3) glans splitting and creation of glanular wings; 4) 1-stage urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin flap; 5) meatal glanuloplasty; 6) creation of Byars' flaps of the skin, and 7) skin closure. Central to the technique is the feasibility of the choice of 1-stage urethroplasty with meatal based manta-wing flap or with parameatal based and fully extended circumferential foreskin flap even after the skin incision is made, which enables its application to all types of hypospadias. Of 120 patients the 1-stage urethroplasty was performed with meatal based manta-wing flap in 50, and with parameatal based and fully extended circumferential foreskin flap in 70. Primary success was obtained in 82% of the cases with meatal based manta-wing flap, and in 53% with parameatal based and fully extended circumferential foreskin flap. Complications requiring secondary repair occurred in 42 cases (9 with meatal based manta-wing flap, and 33 with parameatal based and fully extended circumferential foreskin flap) but repair was successful in 32. Thus, the overall success rate was 91% (96% with meatal based manta-wing flap, and 87% with parameatal based and fully extended circumferential foreskin flap). Additional repair (10 secondary, 2 tertiary and 1 quaternary) is planned in 13 cases. The technique of 1-stage urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin flap is recommended as a simple and reliable treatment for hypospadias with a reasonable success rate. PMID:8072111

Koyanagi, T; Nonomura, K; Yamashita, T; Kanagawa, K; Kakizaki, H

1994-10-01

15

One-stage total repair of severe hypospadias with scrotal transposition: experience in 18 cases.  

PubMed

This is a report detailing further experience with our one-stage repair of severe hypospadias and scrotal transposition performed on 18 patients. Initial success was obtained in 12 cases, while two more were improved by secondary repair. The operative technique, as modified, assures a parameatal preputial flap, which is well vascularized and easily constructed into a neourethra. The advantages of this improved "glanulomeatoplasty" and scrotoplasty are discussed. The method is recommended as an excellent functional and cosmetic procedure for one-stage correction of severe hypospadias. PMID:3343654

Nonomura, K; Koyanagi, T; Imanaka, K; Togashi, M; Asano, Y; Tanda, K

1988-02-01

16

A new use of scrotal septal skin flap in repairing hypospadias.  

PubMed

In our study, we introduce the use of a scrotal septal skin flaps in repair of hypospadias. Between June 2006 and October 2008, 30 patients were treated by using a penile local flap to reconstruct the urethra, and a scrotal septal skin flap to cover the wound located on the ventral side of the penis. Of 30 patients, 4 presented with urine leakage, but this condition healed spontaneously after 2 to 4 weeks. Urine leakage healed without problem in the remaining patients, and they had unobstructed urinary flow. Additionally, they all were satisfied with genital appearance after the reconstruction. We conclude that our method is a convenient means to cover the wound at the ventral side of the reconstructed urethra by using a scrotal septal skin flap during hypospadias repair. This procedure provides good urinary function and satisfactory appearance to the patients. In addition, this method solves the problem of very limited local tissue for urethral reconstruction in the hypospadias patient. PMID:21407073

Liu, Xinhai; Li, Yangqun; Li, Senkai; Tang, Yong; Li, Qiang

2011-08-01

17

Current concepts in hypospadias surgery.  

PubMed

Anatomical anomalies in hypospadias are an abnormal ventral opening of the urethral meatus, abnormal ventral curvature of the penis and abnormal distribution of the foreskin around the glans with a ventrally deficient hooded foreskin. The techniques of hypospadias surgery continue to evolve. The current standard of care for hypospadias repair includes not only a functional penis adequate for sexual intercourse and urethral reconstruction offering the ability to stand to urinate, but also a satisfactory cosmetic result. Tubularized incised plate repair has been the mainstay for distal hypospadias. In cases of proximal hypospadias, one-stage repairs such as the Duckett repair or the Koyanagi repair have been well established, while two-stage repairs remain important alternatives. Whether dorsal plication or ventral lengthening should be used to correct penile curvature is still controversial, and long-term results are required. Efforts have been made in this decade to improve cosmetic appearance, constructing a slit-like meatus or performing foreskin reconstruction, and to prevent onerous complications. PMID:18522675

Hayashi, Yutaro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

2008-08-01

18

Functional and Aesthetic Results in Hypospadias Repair with Hinderer's Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In his editorial to the first issue of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery in 1976, the Managing Editor, Dr. Blair Rogers lays special emphasis on the publication of papers and reports dealing with\\u000a the increasing role of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery as the final step in the overall rehabilitation of Reconstructive Surgery\\u000a patients. In genitourinary malformations—hypospadias and epispadias—without any doubt a satisfactory

Ulrich T. Hinderer

2000-01-01

19

Functional and aesthetic results in hypospadias repair with Hinderer's techniques.  

PubMed

In his editorial to the first issue of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery in 1976, the Managing Editor, Dr. Blair Rogers lays special emphasis on the publication of papers and reports dealing with the increasing role of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery as the final step in the overall rehabilitation of Reconstructive Surgery patients. In genitourinary malformations-hypospadias and epispadias-without any doubt a satisfactory sexual and urinary functional result is essential. However, also a normal aesthetic appearance, resembling a circumcised penis, and with the meatus at the tip of the glans, is becoming increasingly important, notably since the second half of the last century. An abnormal aesthetic appearance affects the patient's body image and has a negative influence on his self-esteem and sexual behaviour. Psychological stress is brought on from genital comparison with school-mates, in adulthood in gym changing rooms and, specifically, in sexual relations. In these days of greater sexual freedom, the knowledge of male genital anatomy and aesthetic appearance has considerably improved. Penile hypoplasia creates a psychological impact perhaps only comparable with that of female mammary hypoplasia. It is therefore unsurprising that not only normal aesthetic appearance after hypospadias surgery is essential, but also the demand for penile lengthening and girth augmentation has progressively increased over these past recent years. PMID:11084694

Hinderer, U T

2000-01-01

20

Measurement of blood flow in the parameatal foreskin flap for urethroplasty in hypospadias repair.  

PubMed

During the one-stage repair of hypospadias the blood flow of the parameatal-based foreskin flap was measured in 30 patients by using laser Doppler velocimetry. The mean blood flow in the penile foreskin was estimated to be 15 ml/min/100 g and it increased to 150-200% after the induction of anesthesia, and then decreased to 72% at the tip of the created parameatal foreskin flap. Topical application of papaverine hydrochloride restored the flow to the preincision level in half of the cases. The parameatal foreskin flap, both in the form of a manta-wing and in extended circumferential form, appears to have an enough microcirculation suitable for one-stage repair (OUPF II and OUPF IV, respectively) of hypospadias. PMID:1499616

Nonomura, K; Koyanagi, T; Imanaka, K; Asano, Y

1992-01-01

21

Meatal advancement and glanuloplasty hypospadias repair after 1,000 cases: avoidance of meatal stenosis and regression.  

PubMed

We first described the meatal advancement and glanuloplasty (MAGPI) procedure in 1981 as a technique to repair distal hypospadias. During the last 10 years our experience has increased to more than 1,000 cases. Case selection is critical to surgical outcome. Excessively thin or rigid ventral parameatal skin, or a meatus that is too proximal or too wide must be avoided. To prevent the ventral meatal wall from falling back and leaving a retrusive meatus, the glans wrap to support the advanced ventral urethral wall requires a solid approximation of glans tissue in 2 layers. Meatal stenosis may be avoided by an adequately deep dorsal Heineke-Mikulicz tissue rearrangement, making the incision from within the urethral meatus distally into the glanular urethral groove. The MAGPI procedure is routinely performed on an outpatient basis without urinary diversion. A review of our experience with 1,111 cases during a 12-year period reveals that a secondary procedure was required in only 1.2%. The overall success rate with the MAGPI procedure suggests that it should continue to be an important operation in the reconstruction of distal hypospadias. PMID:1538452

Duckett, J W; Snyder, H M

1992-03-01

22

Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair may be performed in a nearly sutureless fashion and in a more rapid manner than for conventional suturing. The trend towards a decreased rate of complications in the laser group at this time indicates that laser soldering may be an improved method of tissue closure for hypospadias repair. We continue to accrue patients to this study.

Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M., III; Zderic, Stephen A.

1998-07-01

23

Urethroplasty by Use of Turnover Flaps (Modified Mathieu Procedure) for Distal Hypospadias Repair in Adolescents: Comparison With the Tubularized Incised Plate Procedure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine whether urethroplasty with a turnover flap, as an alternative method of distal hypospadias repair in adolescents, improves the outcome of surgery. Materials and Methods Between January 2004 and December 2013, a total of 38 adolescents (aged 11-17 years) underwent distal hypospadias repair with either the tubularized incised plate (TIP) procedure (n=25) or the turnover flap procedure (n=13). The turnover flap procedure was performed with a proximal, ventral penile flap that was turned over to cover the urethral plate. Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes, complications, and postoperative uroflowmetry in each surgical group were analyzed retrospectively. Results The patient demographics were similar in the two groups. There were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes between the groups, including mean operative time, duration of hospital stay, and urethral catheterization. The number of patients with at least one complication, including wound dehiscence, urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, and urethral stricture, was lower in the turnover flap group (1/13, 7.7%) than in the TIP group (11/25, 44%, p=0.030). The incidence of meatal stenosis was lower in the turnover flap group (0/12, 0%) than in the TIP group (6/25, 24%). In postoperative uroflowmetry, the plateau-shaped curve rate was lower in the turnover flap group (1/12, 8.3%) than in the TIP group (5/19, 26.3%); the peak flow was higher (p=0.030). Conclusions The turnover flap procedure is clinically useful for repairing adolescent distal hypospadias because it offers lower complication rates and better functional outcomes than TIP.

Bae, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae

2014-01-01

24

A new technique for skin closure in hypospadias: ipsilateral penoscrotal approximation for closure.  

PubMed

Sixteen patients, between 2 and 45 years old, with hypospadias underwent repair with our new skin closure procedure called ipsilateral penoscrotal approximation for closure (IPSAC). Complete functional success was obtained in all 6 patients with distal hypospadias and in 7 of 10 patients with proximal hypospadias. Meatal regression and urethrocutaneous fistula were complications in one-stage repair. Another urethrocutaneous fistula resulted from fifth-stage repair in the case of an adult hypospadias cripple. Cosmetically, there were two cases with unsightly thickening of the base of the penis in this early series. It was found that this IPSAC procedure had two major advantages: it provided (1) a tension-relieving skin closure, and (2) correction of scrotal deformity, especially in one-stage repair with the parameatal flap and in multi-staged repair with absolute penile skin deficiency. PMID:3314058

Nonomura, K; Koyanagi, T; Sakakibara, N

1987-01-01

25

Further experience with one-stage repair of severe hypospadias and scrotal transposition. Modifications in the technique and its result in eight cases.  

PubMed

Further experience with one-stage repair of severe hypospadias and scrotal transposition performed in eight patients is reported. Primary success was obtained in six, while one patient was cured by secondary repair. While describing the operative technique with some modifications it was reassured that our parameatal preputial flap is a well vascularized one which can safely and easily be constructed into a neourethra. Advantages of improved "glanulomeatoplasty" and scrotoplasty are also discussed. The method is recommended as highly successful to attain excellent functional and cosmetic results in one stage for severe hypospadias. PMID:3384611

Koyanagi, T; Imanaka, K; Nonomura, K; Togashi, M; Asano, Y; Tanda, K

1988-01-01

26

Long-term outcome of penile appearance and sexual function after hypospadias repairs: situation and relation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to assess the long-term cosmetic and sexual outcomes of hypospadias surgery performed in childhood\\u000a and to analyze the relation between them.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A long-term follow-up was made to 174 patients who were operated for hypospadias in this institute between 1984 and 1992.\\u000a Their records were analyzed retrospectively, and a detailed questionnaire was mailed to them.

Chenwei Jiao; Rongde Wu; Xiaoqing Xu; Qihai Yu

2011-01-01

27

Experience with Repair of Hypospadias Using Bladder Mucosa in Adolescents and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1984 to January 1994, 113 hypospadias operations were performed using a free bladder mucosa graft. There were 31 primary cases and 82 secondary cases in which prior operations had been done. The meatus was penile in 33 patients, penoscrotal in 72 and perineal in 8. The cosmetic and functional results were satisfactory. Postoperative complications included 8 fistulas that

Long-Cheng Li; Xu Zhang; Si-Wei Zhou; Xi-Cai Zhou; Wei-Ming Yang; Yong-Shang Zhang

1995-01-01

28

Endoscopic Proximal Hamstring Repair and Ischial Bursectomy  

PubMed Central

With the significant increase in use of the arthroscope around the hip have come several less invasive techniques to manage pathologies around this joint. This technical note with a video details one such technique that allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now have been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. This procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:23766996

Dierckman, Brian D.; Guanche, Carlos A.

2012-01-01

29

Clinical results of one-stage urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin flap for hypospadias.  

PubMed

We investigated the usefulness of one-stage urethroplasty by the parameatal foreskin flap method (OUPF procedure), which is useful for repairing all types of hypospadias. Between June 1992 and March 2001, the OUPF procedure was performed on 18 patients with hypospadias: 10 patients with distal and 8 with proximal hypospadias. The follow-up periods ranged from 33-75 months, with an average of 52 months. The duration of surgery, the catheter indwelling period, and the postoperative complications of each patient were analyzed. The median age of the patients at the time of surgery was 3 years and 8 months. The length of surgery for OUPF II ranged from 150-230 min (average 186 min), and from 190-365 min (average 267 min) for OUPF IV. Postoperative complications were confirmed in 3 of the 18 patients (16.6%). Two patients had fistulas, and one had a meatal regression. The fistulas were successfully closed by the simple multilayered closure method. After adopting DuoDerm dressings instead of elastic bandages for protection of the wound, no fistulization occurred. DuoDerm dressings are useful in the healing of wounds without complications. To date, the longest follow-up period has been 75 months, and during that time there have been no late complications such as urethral stenosis or penile curvature. OUPF is a useful method in the treatment of hypospadias with a low incidence of early and late complications. PMID:16049554

Nagai, Atsushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Masami; Kusumi, Norihiro; Tsuboi, Hiromu; Kumon, Hiromi

2005-04-01

30

Unfavourable results in hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias urethroplasty is considered difficult as the complications and unfavourable results are not uncommon. At the turn of the century, due to a better understanding of applied anatomy of hypospadias, new techniques were developed which significantly brought down the complication rate. However unfavourable results are still disturbing. An algorithm for selection of surgery has been presented. Forty three secondary surgeries were performed over 3 years for correction of unfavourable results. The urethrocutaneous fistula was the most common (21%) followed by meatal stenosis (14%) and narrow neourethra (14%). Common unfavourable results have been discussed. On the basis of experience with a large number of hypospadias urethroplasty ‘tips to avoid or minimise unfavourable results’ have been presented. However, one should assess the final outcome of urethroplasty using hypospadias objective scoring evaluation. PMID:24501477

Agrawal, Karoon; Misra, Anshumali

2013-01-01

31

Risk factors for hypospadias.  

PubMed

Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were recruited through the parents of the cases. Both parents of cases and referents completed written questionnaires that they received through the mail. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent contribution of different factors to the risk of hypospadias. The final database included 583 cases and 251 referents. Hypospadias more often occurred in children whose father had hypospadias (OR=9.7; 95%CI: 1.3-74.0) and in children with a low birth weight (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 1.2-4.2). Indications for elevated risks were found when mothers were DES-daughters (OR=3.5; 95%CI: 0.8-15.6), fathers were subfertile (OR=1.8; 95%CI: 0.7-4.5), the parents had undergone fertility treatment (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 0.9-5.8), and in twin or triplet pregnancies (OR=2.0; 95%CI: 0.8-5.1). Maternal use of iron supplements (OR=2.2; 95%CI: 0.8-6.0), maternal smoking (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.0-2.4), paternal prescriptive drug use (OR=2.6; 95%CI: 1.1-6.6), and paternal exposure to pesticides (OR=2.1; 95%CI: 0.6-7.1) during the 3 months immediately prior to conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy also appeared to increase the risk of hypospadias. The associations found in this study support the hypothesis that genetic predisposition, placental insufficiency, and substances that interfere with natural hormones play a role in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:17103190

Brouwers, Marijn M; Feitz, Wouter F J; Roelofs, Luc A J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; de Gier, Robert P E; Roeleveld, Nel

2007-07-01

32

Early Surgical Repair of Acute Complete Rupture of the Proximal Hamstring Tendons  

PubMed Central

Hamstring injuries are common forms of muscle strains in athletes but a complete rupture of a proximal hamstring origin is rare. Often there is a considerable delay in diagnosis and stringent treatment because of its rarity, difficulty in clinical diagnosis, and initial attempts of conservative care. We report two cases of acute complete rupture of the proximal hamstring tendons treated with early surgical repair. The diagnosis and treatment of this unusual injury are discussed. PMID:21909474

Kwak, Ho Yoon; Choi, Yun Sun; Jang, Mun Suk

2011-01-01

33

Psychosocial Adaptation of Middle Childhood Boys With Hypospadias After Genital Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the psychosocial adaptation of boys with hypospadias after genital surgery to a community sample. Methods: Boys (6 to 10 years) with a history of hypospadias repair (n 175) were compared with a commu- nity sample (n 333) in a postal questionnaire survey using the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Few significant differences between cases and controls emerged. Boys

David E. Sandberg; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Terry W. Hensle

2001-01-01

34

Onlay urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin flap for distal hypospadias.  

PubMed

A new technique of onlay flap urethroplasty is described. The cosmetic and functional results of this logical extension of our one-stage urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin-flap have been good. The onlay urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin flap was recommended for the repair of distal hypospadias without chordee. PMID:1855528

Koyanagi, T; Nonomura, K; Asano, Y; Gotoh, T; Togashi, M

1991-01-01

35

Tissue-Engineered Transplants for the Treatment of Severe Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surgical treatment of severe hypospadias can be very challenging. In selected cases with severe lack of tissue, cultured autologous urothelial cells can be used to create a transplanted neourethra. The algorithm for using tissue-engineering techniques for the surgical repair of the male urethra includes 3 main steps. First, the autologous urothelial cells are harvested from the patient, e.g. by

Magdalena Fossum; Agneta Nordenskjöld

2010-01-01

36

Multiple hypoplastic duplicated urethral hydrodistension and simple end-to-end anastomosis to penoscrotal hypospadias: a novel technique.  

PubMed

Complete urethral duplication is a rare congenital genitourinary anomaly with various symptoms. Since anatomical place of urethra greatly varies between cases, surgical management of the patients is personalized according to the type of the duplication and requires a careful workup before planning for any intervention. In this case report, a 4-year-old boy with finding of complete proximal hypospadiac urethral duplication is presented with double-stream voiding. He was passing a normal stream of urine through the hypospadiac tract, while a thin stream came out from the normal meatal site. Examination revealed a hypoplastic orthotopic urethra with an accessory penoscrotal hypospadiac urethra. The patient was successfully managed with hydrodistension technique which was used to resolve the stricture of hypoplastic dorsal urethra followed by end-to-end anastomosis to penoscrotal hypospadias. This approach gives an insight that the technique could be possibly considered as a simple alternative to avoid proximal hypospadias repair which is comparatively a challenging surgical task. PMID:24859321

Mazaheri, Tina; Rad, Mona Vahidi; Fareghi, Mehdi; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

2014-09-01

37

Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Beta is Decreased in Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Purpose Estrogenic endocrine disruptors acting via estrogen receptors ? and ? have been implicated in the etiology of hypospadias. However, the expression and distribution of estrogen receptors ? and ? in normal and hypospadiac human foreskins is unknown. We characterized the location and expression of estrogen receptors ? and ? in normal and hypospadiac foreskins. Materials and Methods We prospectively collected excess foreskin from 35 patients undergoing hypospadias repair and 15 patients undergoing elective circumcision. Hypospadias was classified as severe in 18 patients and mild in 17 based on the ectopic position of the meatus. mRNA expression levels in estrogen receptors ? and ? were quantified using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Receptor location was characterized by immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 4 archived human fetal penises. Results Mean ± SD ages were similar for the circumcision (9.5 ± 3 months) and hypospadias repair groups (9 ± 3 months, p = 0.75). mRNA expression levels in estrogen receptors ? and ? were significantly decreased in hypospadiac foreskin cases compared to controls (p <0.001), while no statistically significant differences were seen between foreskins with severe and mild hypospadias. Estrogen receptor ? immunostaining was strong in normal foreskin but weak in hypospadiac foreskin. Estrogen receptor ? immunoreactivity was most intense in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum. Estrogen receptor ? immunostaining was weak in normal and mild hypospadias foreskin, and undetectable in severe hypospadias. Fetal penises expressed strong estrogen receptor ? immunopositivity in the urethral plate epithelium, corpus spongiosum, corpora cavernosa and penile skin, while estrogen receptor ? immunostaining was not detected. Conclusions These data demonstrate a difference in estrogen receptor ? and ? expression and location in the foreskin of patients with hypospadias compared to controls. These findings are consistent with aberrant estrogenic effects having a role in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:22341273

Qiao, Liang; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Weiss, Dana A.; Ferretti, Max; Risbridger, Gail; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

2012-01-01

38

Agricultural Pesticide Use and Hypospadias in Eastern Arkansas  

PubMed Central

Introduction We assessed the relationship between hypospadias and proximity to agricultural pesticide applications using a GIS-based exposure method. Methods We obtained information for 354 cases of hypospadias born between 1998 and 2002 in eastern Arkansas; 727 controls were selected from birth certificates. We classified exposure on pounds of pesticides (estimated by crop type) applied or persisting within 500 m of each subject’s home during gestational weeks 6 to 16. We restricted our analyses to 38 pesticides with some evidence of reproductive, developmental, estrogenic, and/or antiandrogenic effects. We estimated timing of pesticide applications using crop phenology and published records. Results Gestational age at birth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–0.99], parity (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.95), and delaying prenatal care until the third trimester (OR = 4.04; 95% CI, 1.46–11.23) were significantly associated with hypospadias. Risk of hypospadias increased by 8% for every 0.05-pound increase in estimated exposure to diclofop-methyl use (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01–1.15). Pesticide applications in aggregate (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70–0.96) and applications of alachlor (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.89) and permethrin (OR = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.86) were negatively associated with hypospadias. Conclusions Except for diclofop-methyl, we did not find evidence that estimated exposure to pesticides known to have reproductive, developmental, or endocrine-disrupting effects increases risk of hypospadias. Further research on the potential effects of exposure to diclofop-methyl is recommended. PMID:17035148

Meyer, Kristy J.; Reif, John S.; Veeramachaneni, D.N. Rao; Luben, Thomas J.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Nuckols, John R.

2006-01-01

39

Tissue-engineered transplants for the treatment of severe hypospadias.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of severe hypospadias can be very challenging. In selected cases with severe lack of tissue, cultured autologous urothelial cells can be used to create a transplanted neourethra. The algorithm for using tissue-engineering techniques for the surgical repair of the male urethra includes 3 main steps. First, the autologous urothelial cells are harvested from the patient, e.g. by bladder washing through a catheter with sterile saline. Second, the cells are propagated and expanded in the laboratory environment. Finally, the cells are transplanted back to the patient in the final surgical repair. We have used this technique in a clinical setting in severe hypospadias. Transplants for creation of the neourethra were used ventrally in an on-lay fashion with remaining skin dorsally in the urethra. Our follow-up shows a good clinical result including data concerning voiding position, urinary flow, artificial erection, cosmetic appearance, urethroscopy and biopsies. Tissue-engineering techniques can, however, benefit from further improvement and, thus, be developed for additional applications. We conclude that in hypospadias repair with cultured autologous urothelial cells is an option for the surgical treatment when there is a lack of local tissue for the repair. PMID:20190553

Fossum, Magdalena; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

2010-01-01

40

Blunt traumatic aortic rupture of the proximal ascending aorta repaired by resection and direct anastomosis.  

PubMed

Traumatic aortic injury represents 15% of motor vehicle related deaths with death occurring at the scene in 85% of the cases. Aortic disruptions usually occur at the isthmus in a transverse fashion with all three of the aortic layers being involved. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year old man with no prior medical history who was struck by a vehicle while riding his bicycle. The ruptured segment of aorta was resected circumferentially and interrupted horizontal mattress pledgeted prolene sutures were used to ensure full thickness aortic integrity of the proximal and distal aortic segments. The aorta was closed with a single-layer technique using 4/0 prolene suture. There were no postoperative complications and patient was discharged on Day 44. The case here discussed demonstrates a rare presentation of blunt aortic injury. The proximal ascending aorta is an unusual site of transection following blunt trauma with few reports in the literature. We were able to repair the aorta with direct suture, thus avoiding the use of artificial material. PMID:23838337

Harmouche, Majid; Slimani, Eric Karim; Heraudeau, Adeline; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe

2013-10-01

41

Staged hybrid approach using proximal TEVAR and distal open repair for the treatment of extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Repair of patients with extent I and II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, while repair of more distal extent III and IV TAAAs has a lower risk of mortality and paraplegia. Therefore, we describe an approach using thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) as the index operation to convert extent I and II TAAAs to extent III and IV TAAAs amenable to subsequent open aortic repair to minimize patient risk. Methods Between July 2007 and March 2012, 10 staged hybrid operations were performed to treat 1 extent I and 9 extent II TAAAs. Aortic aneurysm pathology included 5 chronic type B dissections, 3 acute type B dissections, and 2 penetrating aortic ulcers. Initially, the proximal descending thoracic aorta was repaired with TEVAR for coverage of the most proximal fenestration or penetrating ulcer, with 7 elective and 3 emergent repairs. Interval open distal aortic replacement was performed either in a short-term planned setting or for progressive dilation of the distal aortic segment. In the open repair, the proximal end of the graft was sewn directly to the distal end of the TEVAR and outer wall of the aorta. Results Average patient age was 48 years with the majority of patients male (60%). Risk factors included hypertension (80%), current tobacco use (50%), and Marfan syndrome (30%). Postoperative complications following TEVAR included endoleaks [type IA (n=1); type II (n=3)], pleural effusions (n=3), and acute kidney injury (n=1). Endovascular re-interventions were required in 3 cases. In dissection cases, persistent filling of the false lumen was common and associated with distal thoracic aortic dilation. Complications of open repair included acute kidney injury (n=2) but no cardiac, pulmonary, or neurologic morbidity. Median time between TEVAR and open repair was 14 weeks. Most importantly, there was no mortality or neurologic deficit after either procedure with a median follow up of 35 weeks. Conclusions A staged hybrid approach to extensive TAAAs combining proximal TEVAR followed by interval open distal TAAA repair is safe and appears to be an effective alternative to traditional open repair. This approach may decrease the significant morbidity associated with single stage open extent I and II TAAA repairs and may be applicable to many TAAA etiologies. PMID:22832268

Johnston, William F.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Tracci, Margaret C.; Cherry, Kenneth J.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kern, John A.

2012-01-01

42

Aristolochic acid suppresses DNA repair and triggers oxidative DNA damage in human kidney proximal tubular cells.  

PubMed

Aristolochic acid (AA), derived from plants of the Aristolochia genus, has been proven to be associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer in AAN patients. In this study, we used toxicogenomic analysis to clarify the molecular mechanism of AA-induced cytotoxicity in normal human kidney proximal tubular (HK-2) cells, the target cells of AA. AA induced cytotoxic effects in a dose-dependent (10, 30, 90 microM for 24 h) and time-dependent manner (30 microM for 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h). The cells from those experiments were then used for microarray experiments in triplicate. Among the differentially expressed genes analyzed by Limma and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that genes in DNA repair processes were the most significantly regulated by all AA treatments. Furthermore, response to DNA damage stimulus, apoptosis, and regulation of cell cycle, were also significantly regulated by AA treatment. Among the differentially expressed genes found in the dose-response and time-course studies that were involved in these biological processes, two up-regulated (GADD45B, NAIP), and six down-regulated genes (TP53, PARP1, OGG1, ERCC1, ERCC2, and MGMT) were con-firmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). AA exposure also caused a down-regulation of the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, AA treatment led to increased frequency of DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine-positive nuclei, and micronuclei in a dose-dependent manner in HK-2 cells, possibly as a result of the inhibition of DNA repair. These data suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in the cytotoxicity of AA. In addition, our results provide insight into the involvement of down-regulation of DNA repair gene expression as a possible mechanism for AA-induced genotoxicity. PMID:20514455

Chen, Ya-Yin; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Hsiu-Ching; Bau, Da-Tian; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Kao, Shung-Te; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun; Chiang, Su-Yin

2010-07-01

43

Mechanism for repair of thymine dimers by photoexcitation of proximal 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.  

PubMed

A wide range of experimental data from earlier studies by other workers are combined with recent data from the Burrows group to interpret that group's thymine dimer (T = T) repair rate data for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG)-containing DNA duplexes. The focus of this effort is to explain (i) how and why the repair rates vary as the sequence location and distance of the OG relative to the T?T is changed and (ii) why the spatial extent over which repair is observed is limited to OG-T?T distances of ~6 Å. It is proposed that, if the OG and T?T are within ~5-6 Å, a Coulomb potential moves the energy of the OG(+)···T?T(-) ion-pair state below the photoexcited OG*···T?T state, even in the absence of full solvent relaxation, thus enhancing forward electron transfer from OG* to T?T by allowing it to occur as a radiationless internal conversion process rather than by overcoming a solvation-related barrier. The rate of this forward electron transfer is estimated to be ~10% of the decay rate of the photoexcited OG*. For OG-to-T?T distances beyond 5-6 Å, electron transfer is still exothermic, but it must occur through solvent reorganization, overcoming an energy barrier, which presumably renders this rate too slow to be detected in the experiments under study here. Once an electron has been injected into the T?T, as many other workers have shown, the reaction proceeds through two low-energy barriers first connecting T?T(-) to an intermediate in which the C(5)-C(5') bond of the cyclobutane unit is cleaved, and onward to where the cyclobutane unit is fully broken and two intact thymine sites are established. Our ab initio data show that the energy landscape for these bond cleavages is altered very little by the presence of the proximal OG(+) cation, which therefore allows us to use data from the earlier studies to conclude that it takes ~100 ps for complete bond cleavage to occur. The experimentally determined overall T?T repair quantum yield of 1% then allows us to estimate the rate at which an electron is transferred from the T?T(-) anion back to the OG(+) cation as 10 times the rate of bond cleavage. The experimental variations in T?T repair rates among several sequences are shown to be reasonably consistent with an exponential OG-to-T?T distance dependence, e(-?R), with a decay parameter of ? = 0.6 Å(-1). Finally, suggestions are offered for experimental studies that would test the predictions offered here and shed further light on the OG-induced T?T repair mechanism. PMID:22894719

Anusiewicz, Iwona; ?wierszcz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

2013-02-14

44

The telecanthus-hypospadias syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The telecanthus-hypospadias (BBB) syndrome is characterised by widely spaced inner ocular canthi and hypospadias of variable degree. Heterozygous females have telecanthus. We have summarised the historical and phenotypic findings of 21 patients in seven previous publications. We have also had the opportunity to evaluate personally 12 families with a total of 18 affected males. The most frequent anomalies in patients previously reported are telecanthus 21/21, hypospadias 19/21, cleft lip/palate or uvula 7/21, high, broad nasal bridge 15/15, cranial abnormality 6/21, congenital heart defect 5/21, cryptorchidism 9/21, and mental retardation 11/17. In our series, the most frequent anomalies include telecanthus 18/18, hypospadias 18/18, cleft lip/palate or uvula 8/18, high, broad nasal bridge 10/11, cranial abnormality 12/18, congenital heart defect 3/18, upper urinary tract anomaly 4/9, and mental retardation 10/12. There is also an increased incidence of like-sex twinning, 11/18 in our families. This syndrome must be more common than reflected in published reports. Based upon the observation that males are much more severely affected than females and the lack of male to male transmission, it appears that this condition is most likely to be inherited in an X linked fashion. Further elucidation of the phenotype and documentation of the inheritance is needed. The distinction between the telecanthus-hypospadias syndrome and the G syndrome also needs further clarification. Images PMID:3050099

Stevens, C A; Wilroy, R S

1988-01-01

45

Maternal Corticosteroid Use and Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether women who reported corticosteroid use during pregnancy were more likely to deliver an infant with hypospadias than women who did not. Study design The analysis encompassed data on deliveries with an estimated due date between 1997 and 2004 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based, case-control study conducted in the United States. Included were 1165 cases of moderate to severe hypospadias and 3000 nonmalformed male controls. Results The mothers of 39 cases (3.3%) and 62 controls (2.1%) reported using a corticosteroid medication during the period extending from 4 weeks before conception to 14 weeks after conception. The odds ratio (OR) for any corticosteroid exposure versus no corticosteroid exposure was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 2.5); after adjustment for maternal race/ethnicity, education, age, and study site, it was 1.3 (95% CI = 0.8 to 2.0). Analyses by route of administration and specific component suggest that elevated ORs occurred only for nasal spray/inhaled corticosteroids (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.6). Conclusions Maternal use of corticosteroid medications was weakly associated with risk of hypospadias, but the association was negligible after adjustment for potential confounders. PMID:19394038

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Werler, Martha M.; Olney, Richard S.; Shaw, Gary M.

2009-01-01

46

Birth prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in northern England, 1993-2000  

PubMed Central

Aim There is much debate as to whether the prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias are increasing. To address this issue we investigated the birth prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the northern region of England during the period 1993–2000. Methods Cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias were identified from northern region hospital episodes statistics (HES). Trends in birth prevalence, based on the number of male live births, were assessed using linear regression. Results Prevalence was 7.6 per 1000 male live births for cryptorchidism and 3.1 per 1000 male live births for hypospadias. The orchidopexy rates for 0–4?year olds and 5–14?year olds were 1.8 and 0.8 per 1000 male population, respectively. The rates for hypospadias repair for 0–4?year olds and 5–14?year olds were 0.6 and 0.1 per 1000 male population, respectively. There was a statistically significant decreasing temporal trend for the corrective procedure in cryptorchidism of 0.1 per 1000 male population aged under 5?years per annum (95% confidence interval: ?0.01 to ?0.05, p<0.001), but no temporal change for the corrective procedure in hypospadias (p?=?0.60). Conclusion HES data were of high quality for the study period. There was no significant change in the prevalence of surgically corrected hypospadias. However, there was an apparent decline in the prevalence of surgically corrected cryptorchidism that may reflect a decrease in the prevalence of the condition or may be due to a decrease in the rate of surgical intervention. PMID:17142312

Abdullah, N A; Pearce, M S; Parker, L; Wilkinson, J R; Jaffray, B; McNally, R J Q

2007-01-01

47

Hypospadias  

MedlinePLUS

... March 2013 You are leaving UrologyHealth.org. The Urology Care Foundation has no control over the content of this site. Click OK to proceed. Urology A - Z A Adrenal Gland Disorders Adrenal Medulla ...

48

Primary Repair of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Elbow in Young AthletesA Case Series of Injuries to the Proximal and Distal Ends of the Ligament  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little data exist regarding the treatment of young high school and college athletes with medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency of the elbow. It would be logical to assume that younger patients would have less damage to the ligament, allowing the possibility of repair.Hypothesis: Many young athletes with injuries to the medial ulnar collateral ligament have proximal or distal injuries

Felix H. Savoie; Scott W. Trenhaile; John Roberts; Larry D. Field; J. Randall Ramsey

2008-01-01

49

Risk factors for hypospadias in China  

PubMed Central

This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

2014-01-01

50

Risk factors for hypospadias in China.  

PubMed

This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

2014-01-01

51

Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens  

PubMed Central

Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ?90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

52

A de-epithelialised 'turnover dartos flap' in the repair of urethral fistula.  

PubMed

We report our experience in the management of urethrocutaneous fistulae following hypospadias repair by using a turnover, de-epithelialiszed dartos flap. From May 2003 to June 2007 we operated on 10 patients with urethral fistulae following hypospadias repair. Their ages ranged from 4 to 25 years (mean: 7 years). Four of these patients had their urethroplasty done elsewhere and reported for fistula repair alone. These four patients had no record of the urethroplasty procedure that was used. A solitary fistula was located at the corona in two patients, on the mid-shaft in three patients, and proximal penile in one patient. Two patients had multiple fistulae on the shaft, one patient had two fistulae on the shaft, and one patient had a long fistula from the proximal penile to peno-scrotal region. The technique involves using a circumscribing incision around the fistula and closing the inner skin edges by an inverting subcuticular stitch to form the urethral layer. A flap is marked on the skin adjacent to the circumscribing incision and de-epithelialised. It is raised with underlying dartos fascia/muscle and turned over the first layer of closure and secured. The vascular supply to the flap is based on a hinge of tissue around the defect. A long skin flap developed from shaft or the scrotum is approximated over this layer to complete the repair. Alternatively, the skin is closed in a 'pants over vest' technique. An indwelling catheter is placed for 3-4 days. Nine patients healed without complications, and one patient with multiple fistulae on the shaft had a residual tiny pin-point fistula which closed spontaneously. Thus, the success rate with this technique was 100%. Although dartos flaps have been used for many years as a waterproofing layer in urethroplasties or while repairing urethrocutaneous fistulae, their use as a 'de-epithelialised turnover flap' provides another reliable tool in the surgical repertoire. PMID:18640885

Ahuja, Rajeev B

2009-03-01

53

[Penoscrotal hypospadias with XXYY chromosome pattern].  

PubMed

This is the report of a boy, 2 years and 4 months of age who presented with an penoscrotal hypospadia with normal appearing testes. Physical examination and routine laboratory tests revealed--besides a broad base of the nose and clinodactyly--no abnormality. The boy exhibits a normal speech development with retarded global intellectual development. Investigation of the hormon status revealed a disturbance of testosteron secretion and a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Chromosomal analysis in lymphocyte cultures revealed a XXYY karyotyp. This chromosomal pattern is seen in 3% of patients with Klinefelter syndrom; the estimated frequency is 1 in 25,000 population. A combination of an XXYY chromosomal pattern with a penoscrotal hypospadia has not been reported in the literature so far. PMID:1905392

Neugebauer, H; Steichen-Gersdorf, E; Glatzl, J

1991-01-01

54

Pseudo-iatrogenic hypospadias: the megameatus intact-prepuce hypospadias variant.  

PubMed

This article presents the authors' experience with 21 patients with the megameatus variant of hypospadias who were treated during an 8-year period. In nine of the cases, the parents were convinced that the defect was a complication of circumcision, and the patients were examined in consultations in preparation for litigation. Seven of those nine patients had been previously examined by either a plastic surgeon or a urologist, who failed to recognize this variant. The typical appearance of the defect and how to differentiate this congenital deformity from true iatrogenic hypospadias are described. The features of the megameatus intact-prepuce variant of hypospadias include a wide spatulated glans, a deep groove, a large wide patulous meatus at the subglanular groove, an intact prepuce before circumcision, no evidence of glanular scarring, and no history of bleeding at the time of circumcision. PMID:12621189

Peretz, Dora; Westreich, Melvyn

2003-03-01

55

Body image and sexuality in adolescents after hypospadias surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePatients operated on for hypospadias often display a range of emotional and functional postoperative problems at an early age. This study explores the social, psychosocial and sexual development of adolescent boys operated on for hypospadias at an early age.

Stéphanie Vandendriessche; Dieter Baeyens; Eline Van Hoecke; Astrid Indekeu; Piet Hoebeke

2010-01-01

56

Propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations in newborns with hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Introduction Of interest is if factors like maternal diet can influence the risk of hypospadias–affected pregnancy. Increased propionylcarnitine (C3) is regarded as a biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine and low methionine in newborns are associated with hypospadias. Material and methods 41 newborns with hypospadias and 90 control newborns without congenital anomalies were investigated. Whole blood propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Results The mean concentration of propionylcarnitine was higher in newborns with hypospadias compared with newborns without congenital anomalies (p = 0.026). The mean methionine level in cases was insignificantly lower than in controls. Conclusion There appears to be an association between decreased vitamin B12, as indexed by an increase of propionylcarnitine, and hypospadias in the investigated group of patients. PMID:24707392

Kowal, Andrzej; Mydlak, Dariusz; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Bauer, Anna; Sawicka, Ewa

2013-01-01

57

Intrauterine growth restriction and hypospadias: is there a connection?  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations of the genitourinary tract in males. It is an incomplete fusion of urethral folds early in fetal development and may be associated with other malformations of the genital tract. The etiology is poorly understood and may be hormonal, genetic, or environmental, but most often is idiopathic or multifactorial. Among many possible risk factors identified, of particular importance is low birth weight, which is defined in various ways in the literature. No mechanism has been identified for the association of low birth weight and hypospadias, but some authors propose placental insufficiency as a common inciting factor. Currently, there is no standardized approach for evaluating children with hypospadias in the setting of intrauterine growth restriction. We reviewed the available published literature on the association of hypospadias and growth restriction to determine whether it should be considered a separate entity within the category of disorders of sexual differentiation. PMID:25337123

2014-01-01

58

Application of an anisotropic bone-remodelling model based on a damage-repair theory to the analysis of the proximal femur before and after total hip replacement.  

PubMed

In this work, a new model for internal anisotropic bone remodelling is applied to the study of the remodelling behaviour of the proximal femur before and after total hip replacement (THR). This model considers bone remodelling under the scope of a general damage-repair theory following the principles of continuum damage mechanics. A "damage-repair" tensor is defined in terms of the apparent density and Cowin's "fabric tensor", respectively, associated with porosity and directionality of the trabeculae. The different elements of a thermodynamically consistent damage theory are established, including resorption and apposition criteria, evolution law and rate of remodelling. All of these elements were introduced and discussed in detail in a previous paper (García, J. M., Martinez, M. A., Doblaré, M., 2001. An anisotrophic internal-external bone adaptation model based on a combination of CAO and continuum damage mechanics technologies. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 4(4), 355-378.), including the definition of the proposed mechanical stimulus and the qualitative properties of the model. In this paper, the fundamentals of the proposed model are briefly reviewed and the computational aspects of its implementation are discussed. This model is then applied to the analysis of the remodelling behaviour of the intact femur obtaining densities and mass principal values and directions very close to the experimental data. The second application involved the proximal femoral extremity after THR and the inclusion of an Exeter prosthesis. As a result of the simulation process, some well-known features previously detected in medical clinics were recovered, such as the stress yielding effect in the proximal part of the implant or the enlargement of the cortical layer at the distal part of the implant. With respect to the anisotropic properties, bone microstructure and local stiffness are known to tend to align with the stress principal directions. This experimental fact is mathematically proved in the framework of this remodelling model and clearly shown in the results corresponding to the intact femur. After THR the degree of anisotropy decreases tending, specifically in the proximal femur, to a more isotropic behaviour. PMID:11506786

Doblaré, M; García, J M

2001-09-01

59

Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection?  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies in the United States, occurring in approximately 1 in 250 newborns or roughly 1 in 125 live male births. It is the result of arrested development of the urethra, foreskin, and ventral surface of the penis where the urethral opening may be anywhere along the shaft, within the scrotum, or in the perineum. The only treatment is surgery. Thus, prevention is imperative. To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine the etiology of hypospadias, the majority of which have been classified as idiopathic. In this paper we briefly describe the normal development of the male external genitalia and review the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of hypospadias. The majority of hypospadias are believed to have a multifactorial etiology, although a small percentage do result from single gene mutations. Recent findings suggest that some hypospadias could be the result of disrupted gene expression. Discoveries about the antiandrogenic mechanisms of action of some contemporary-use chemicals have provided new knowledge about the organization and development of the urogenital system and may provide additional insight into the etiology of hypospadias and direction for prevention. PMID:11713004

Baskin, L S; Himes, K; Colborn, T

2001-01-01

60

Report of a 45, X male with monoorchism and distal hypospadias.  

PubMed

We present the rare case of a 5-year-old boy with a 45, X karyotype. The boy's family pedigree analysis was unremarkable. On admission, he was 97.4 cm tall (2.0 SD below normal references) and weighed 13.9 kg (1.0 SD below normal references). Mild mental retardation was suspected on the PPVT scale. Physical examination revealed a well-developed penis with subglanular hypospadias. His left testis was located well down at the bottom of the scrotum and the right testis was impalpable. Unilateral testicular agenesis and persistence of müllerian remnants within the hernia sac were noted on the previous records of inguinal exploration on the right side. The left testis was biopsied through a scrotal incision and prepubertal testicular tissue was confirmed. No ovary was found on laparotomy exploration. Hypospadias was repaired with meatal advancement and glanuloplasty (MAGPI) urethroplasty. His postoperative course was uneventful. Our report represents a rare case of a boy with a 45, X karyotype. Current theories for testicular development were reviewed. PMID:11903697

Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y; He, J

2001-11-01

61

[The psychosocial/-sexual development of boys with hypospadias].  

PubMed

Boys with hypospadias can suffer from specific psychological stress as a result of genital surgery and a cosmetically and/or functionally impaired penis. During recent decades intensive efforts have been made to improve the surgical techniques; yet the psychosocial and psychosexual development of children and adolescents after hypospadias surgery has only rarely been investigated. While the results of the few studies are altogether very contradictory, they also indicate that hypospadias patients suffer from specific problems like a negative perception of genital appearance. Therefore, they should be offered long-term follow-ups and psychosocial support until they reach young adulthood. For future research, it is necessary to systematically investigate the boys' quality of life and development in methodologically sound studies. PMID:18071773

Schönbucher, V; Landolt, M A; Gobet, R; Weber, D M

2007-12-01

62

Assessment of Outcome in Hypospadias Surgery - A Review  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

Springer, Alexander

2014-01-01

63

Üretra onarimini takiben lokal krem uygulamasi: histopatolojik de?erlendirme Local ointment application after repair of urethra: histopathological evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Urethrocutaneous fistula is one of the most fre- quently seen complications of hypospadias surgery requiring reoperation. Surgical repair is usually needed in the majority of cases with fistula. Although many different techniques have been described for repair of urethrocutaneous fistula, primary repair (PR) in the form of enclosure with more than one layer after drawing the surrounding of fistula

Turgay Akgül; Ali Ayyildiz; Ersagun Karagüzel; Osman Polat; Müzeyyen Astarci

64

Predictive factors and clinical consequences of proximal aortic neck dilatation in 230 patients undergoing abdominal aorta aneurysm repair with self-expandable stent-grafts 1 1 Competition of interest: none  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Several studies have suggested that proximal aortic neck dilatation (AND) is a frequent event after balloon-expandable endografting. Yet few data are available on AND after repair with self-expandable stent grafts. To investigate incidence, predictive factors, and clinical consequences of AND, computed tomography (CT) scans obtained at intervals during follow-up of 230 patients who had undergone endoluminal abdominal aortic aneurysm

Piergiorgio Cao; Fabio Verzini; Gianbattista Parlani; Paola De Rango; Basso Parente; Giuseppe Giordano; Stefano Mosca; Agostino Maselli

2003-01-01

65

Hypospadias and Endocrine Disruption: Is There a Connection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

that can perturb normal male development. The fetus is especially sensitive to these chem- icals known as endocrine disruptors that can mimic or interfere with the natural hormones that control development. We provide a brief description of normal development of the male external genitalia and review the preva- lence, etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of hypospadias. We also present evidence

Laurence S. Baskin; Katherine Himes; Theo Colborn

2001-01-01

66

Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Hypospadias (SOT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hypospadias, one of the most common birth defects in human male infants, is a condition in which the urethral opening is misplaced along ventral aspect of the penis. We developed an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and computer simulation that describes the pathogenesis of...

67

A case of hypospadias, anterior and posterior urethral valves  

PubMed Central

This report outlines the case of a 3-year-old boy whose initial presentation was that of asymptomatic hypertension (lowest recording 148/90), found at preoperative check prior to stage 2-correction surgery for distal hypospadias. Upon diagnosis of true hypertension, an ultrasound of the child's renal tract showed evidence of marked hydronephrosis and calyceal dilatation. On the background of deteriorating renal function (Urea 25.5 and Creatinine 188), a Micturating Cystourethrogram was performed, demonstrating posterior urethral dilatation. With difficulties controlling blood pressure, the child was transferred to Urology care, where resection of a posterior urethral valve (PUV) was undertaken. Despite this, renal function deteriorated further and re-cystoscopy identified an anterior urethral valve (AUV), which was also resected. Renal function, although improved, remains poor and blood pressure is controlled with two anti-hypertensives. To the publisher's knowledge, the association between hypospadias, PUVs and AUVs is as yet undocumented. PMID:24964414

Carvell, James; Mulik, Roopa

2013-01-01

68

A case of hypospadias, anterior and posterior urethral valves.  

PubMed

This report outlines the case of a 3-year-old boy whose initial presentation was that of asymptomatic hypertension (lowest recording 148/90), found at preoperative check prior to stage 2-correction surgery for distal hypospadias. Upon diagnosis of true hypertension, an ultrasound of the child's renal tract showed evidence of marked hydronephrosis and calyceal dilatation. On the background of deteriorating renal function (Urea 25.5 and Creatinine 188), a Micturating Cystourethrogram was performed, demonstrating posterior urethral dilatation. With difficulties controlling blood pressure, the child was transferred to Urology care, where resection of a posterior urethral valve (PUV) was undertaken. Despite this, renal function deteriorated further and re-cystoscopy identified an anterior urethral valve (AUV), which was also resected. Renal function, although improved, remains poor and blood pressure is controlled with two anti-hypertensives. To the publisher's knowledge, the association between hypospadias, PUVs and AUVs is as yet undocumented. PMID:24964414

Carvell, James; Mulik, Roopa

2013-01-01

69

Activating transcription factor 3: a hormone responsive gene in the etiology of hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Hypospadias is a common inborn error of the genital development, whose complex etiology remains elusive. Defects of the androgen metabolism and activity have been found in a subset of boys with hypospadias. Moreover, the balance between androgens and estrogens seems to be important to the proper male genital development. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), an estrogen responsive gene, has

Ana Beleza-Meireles; Virpi Tohonen; Cilla Soderhall; Christian Schwentner; Christian Radmayr; Ingrid Kockum; A. Nordenskjold

2008-01-01

70

Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Hypospadias: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence  

PubMed Central

This review evaluates current knowledge related to trends in the prevalence of hypospadias, the association of hypospadias with endocrine-disrupting exposures, and the potential contribution of genetic susceptibility to its etiology. The review focuses on epidemiologic evidence. Increasing prevalence of hypospadias has been observed, but such increases tend to be localized to specific regions or time periods. Thus, generalized statements that hypospadias is increasing are unsupported. Due to limitations of study designs and inconsistent results, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the association of endocrine-disrupting exposures with hypospadias. Studies with more rigorous study designs (e.g., larger and more detailed phenotypes) and exposure assessment that encompasses more breadth as well as depth (e.g., specific endocrine-related chemicals) will be critical to make better inferences about these important environmental exposures. Many candidate genes for hypospadias have been identified, but few of them have been examined to an extent that enables solid conclusions. Further studies are needed that include larger sample sizes, comparison groups that are more representative of the populations from which the cases were derived, phenotype-specific analyses, and more extensive exploration of variants. In conclusion, examining the associations of environmental and genetic factors with hypospadias remain important areas of inquiry, although our actual understanding of their contribution to hypospadias risk in humans is currently limited. PMID:22678668

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.

2012-01-01

71

Anogenital Distance and Penile Length in Infants with Hypospadias or Cryptorchidism: Comparison with Normative Data  

PubMed Central

Background: Anogenital distance (AGD) in animals is a sensitive biomarker of fetal endocrine disruption and the associated testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). However, AGD in human infants with cryptorchidism and hypospadias, which are potential manifestations of TDS during childhood, is not clearly described. Objective: Our aim was to compare AGD in boys with cryptorchidism or hypospadias against normative data. Methods: Boys with isolated cryptorchidism (n = 71, age 13.4 ± 5.8 months) or hypospadias (n = 81, age 11.4 ± 6.2 months) were recruited from a tertiary center for measurement of AGD and penile length; they were compared with 487 healthy full-term boys from a birth cohort by deriving age-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). Results: Boys with cryptorchidism were older (p = 0.048) compared with boys with hypospadias. Boys with hypospadias had shorter mean AGD and penile length SDS than healthy boys (both p < 0.0001). Mean AGD and penile length SDS values in boys with cryptorchidism were longer than mean values in boys with hypospadias (both p < 0.01) and shorter than mean values in healthy boys (both p < 0.0001). Mean penile length SDS decreased as the severity of hypospadias increased (ptrend = 0.078). Conclusions: In the study population, AGD and penile length were reduced in boys with hypospadias or cryptorchidism relative to normative data derived from a longitudinal birth cohort. The findings support the use of AGD as a quantitative biomarker to examine the prenatal effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors on the development of the male reproductive tract. Citation: Thankamony A, Lek N, Carroll D, Williams M, Dunger DB, Acerini CL, Ong KK, Hughes IA. 2014. Anogenital distance and penile length in infants with hypospadias or cryptorchidism: comparison with normative data. Environ Health Perspect 122:207–211;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307178 PMID:24316680

Thankamony, Ajay; Lek, Ngee; Carroll, Dan; Williams, Martyn; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

2013-01-01

72

Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization. PMID:25060602

Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

2014-10-01

73

Modified Snodgrass tubularized incised plate urethroplasty prevents fistula formation in hypospadias.  

PubMed

Urethrocutaneous fistula is a common complication after redo urethroplasty for hypospadias, or urethroplasty for patients with thin urethral plate. We modified Snodgrass' tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (STIPU) by stripping the most superficial skin from both sides of the U-shaped incision to expose more subcutaneous tissue along the suture line. Our modified STIPU would appear to be effective in preventing postoperative urethrocutaneous fistula formation in redo urethroplasty for hypospadias, and urethroplasty for patients with thin urethral plate. PMID:22868631

Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Shimotakahara, Akihiro; Koga, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Go; Lane, Geoffrey J; Cazares, Joel; Halibieke, Abudebieke; Okawada, Manabu

2012-09-01

74

Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

Piascik, Robert S.

2011-01-01

75

Meniscal repair.  

PubMed

The meniscus plays an important role in preventing osteoarthritis of the knee. Repair of a meniscal lesion should be strongly considered if the tear is peripheral and longitudinal, with concurrent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and in younger patients. The probability of healing is decreased in complex or degenerative tears, central tears, and tears in unstable knees. Age or extension of the tear into the avascular area are not exclusion criteria. Numerous repair techniques are available, and suture repair seems to provide superior biomechanical stability. However, the clinical success rate does not correlate well with the mechanical strength of the repair technique. Biologic factors might be of greater importance to the success of meniscal repair than the surgical technique. Therefore, the decision on the most appropriate repair technique should not rely on biomechanical parameters alone. Contemporary all-inside repair systems have decreased the operating time and the level of surgical skill required. Despite the ease of use, there is a potential for complications because of the close proximity of vessels, nerves, and tendons, of which the surgeon should be aware. There is no clear consensus on postoperative rehabilitation. Weight bearing in extension would most likely not be crucial in typical longitudinal lesions. However, higher degrees of flexion, particularly with weight bearing, give rise to large excursions of the menisci and to shear motions, and should therefore be advised carefully. Long-term studies show a decline in success rates with time. Further studies are needed to clarify the factors relevant to the healing of the menisci. Tissue engineering techniques to enhance the healing in situ are promising but have not yet evolved to a practicable level. PMID:19732643

Stärke, Christian; Kopf, Sebastian; Petersen, Wolf; Becker, Roland

2009-09-01

76

Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat.  

PubMed

The incidence of hypospadias is increasing in young boys, but it remains unclear whether human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a role. Risk assessment is based on estimation of no-observed-adverse-effect levels for single compounds, although humans are exposed to combinations of several anti-androgenic chemicals. In a mixture (MIX) study with three androgen receptor antagonists, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with several doses of a MIX of the three chemicals or the chemicals alone. External malformations of the male reproductive organs were assessed on PND 47 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal to marked) for hypospadias. Markedly increased frequencies were observed after exposure to a MIX of the three chemicals compared to administration of the three chemicals alone. Anogenital distance at PND 1, nipple retention at PND 13, and dysgenesis score at PND 16 were highly correlated with the occurrence of hypospadias, and MIX effects were seen at doses where each of the individual chemicals caused no observable effects. Therefore, the results indicate that doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce no hypospadias when judged on their own, may induce a very high frequency of hypospadias when they interact in concert with other anti-androgens. PMID:18315719

Christiansen, S; Scholze, M; Axelstad, M; Boberg, J; Kortenkamp, A; Hass, U

2008-04-01

77

Chordee without hypospadias: Operative classification and its management  

PubMed Central

Context: Developing countries. Aims: To propose a operative classification of Chordee without hypospadias (CWH) with its management. Settings and Design: Tertiary referral centre; Retrospective study from January 2000 to January 2011. Materials and Methods: Total 26 patients were classified peroperatively into sixtypes (A: Cutaneous chordee? Degloving skin and dartos (1/26); B: Fibrous chordee? chordectomy (4/26);C: Corporocavernosalchordee? Corporoplasty ± Urethral mobilization (4/26); D: Urethral tethering with Hypoplastic urethra? Urethral mobilization ± urethral reconstruction because of hypoplastic urethra (14/26); E: Congenital short urethra? excision of urethra from the meatus and urethroplasty (2/26); and F: Complex chordee? Degloving ± Corporoplasty ± urethroplasty (1/26 patients). The follow-up over 6 months to 9 years were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS soft ware version 17.0 for Windows. Results: The mean age of surgery was 5.33 ± 0.11 years. The success rate defined on uroflowmetry and voiding cystourethrography was 65.6%. The coronal urethra-cutaneous fistula developed in 26.9% (7/26) {including 7.7% (3/26) of associated metal stenosis}. The urethral stricture developed in 3.8% (1/26). Conclusions: CWH needs stepwise surgical management. The operative classification may help in better understanding and management of this difficult entity. Meticulous tissue handling and urethroplasty is needed for good and promising results. PMID:23798865

Singh, Sunita; Rawat, Jiledar; Kureel, Shiv Narayan; Pandey, Anand

2013-01-01

78

Maternal Pregnancy Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism in Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies cryptorchidism and hypospadias are poorly understood. It has been suggested, however, that in utero hormone levels may be related to risk. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds, may alter hormone levels and thereby affect the fetus. Objectives To examine whether in utero PCB exposure is related to cryptorchidism and hypospadias, we examined PCB levels among pregnant women enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). Methods The CPP enrolled pregnant women at 12 U.S. medical centers between 1959 and 1965. For the present research, we analyzed third-trimester serum samples from the mothers of 230 sons with cryptorchidism, 201 sons with hypospadias, and 593 sons with neither condition. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression and examined the associations of each anomaly with individual PCB congener levels, sum of PCBs, and several functional groupings of PCBs. Results In general, the ORs for cryptorchidism or hypospadias showed no notable associations with individual PCB congener levels or functional groupings of PCBs. However, the ORs and 95% CIs for the sum of PCBs associated with hypospadias were as follows: 0–1.9 ?g/L, reference group; 2–2.9 ?g/L, OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.05–2.34; 3–3.9 ?g/L, OR = 1.45, 95% CI, 0.90–2.34; and ? 4.0 ?g/L, OR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.06–2.68; p-value for trend = 0.08. Conclusions Given the large number of associations examined, these findings do not strongly support the hypothesis that PCBs are associated with cryptorchidism or hypospadias. Because population serum PCB levels at the time of sample collection were considerably higher than levels at present, it is unlikely that current PCB exposure is related to the development of either anomaly. PMID:19750116

McGlynn, Katherine A.; Guo, Xuguang; Graubard, Barry I.; Brock, John W.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2009-01-01

79

Caucasian male infants and boys with hypospadias exhibit reduced anogenital distance  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Animal models of endocrine dysfunction have associated male genital defects with reduced anogenital distance (AGD). Human studies have correlated shorter AGD with exposure to putative endocrine disruptors in the environment but have not examined AGD in hypospadiac boys. We measured AGD in boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals. METHODS Data were collected prospectively on boys undergoing urologic procedures at the University of California San Francisco and the Children's Hospital of Oakland, CA, USA. Data included age, race, height, weight, BMI, urologic diagnoses and AGD. To minimize any potential effects of race on observed AGD, we examined only Caucasian boys. Differences between boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals were examined through two-tailed Student's t-tests. RESULTS One hundred and nineteen Caucasian boys ranging in age from 4 to 86 months underwent AGD measurement, of which 42 and 77 were boys with normal genitals and hypospadias, respectively. The mean (±SD) AGD of boys with hypospadias was 67 ± 1.2 versus 73 ± 1 mm for boys with normal genitals (P = 0.002). In these age-unmatched patient groups, there were also differences in age, height and weight (P = 0.0001, 0.0002 and 0.0004, respectively). After age matching (all <2 years of age), boys with hypospadias (n= 26) still featured a shorter AGD than boys with normal genitals (n= 26; 62 ± 2 versus 68 ± 2 mm respectively, P = 0.033) but the differences in age, height and weight were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS In humans, hypospadias may indeed be associated with reduced AGD. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these preliminary findings and to determine their etiology. PMID:22434852

Hsieh, Michael H.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Hittelman, Adam B.; Wilson, Jason M.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Baskin, Laurence S.

2012-01-01

80

Maternal Pregnancy Levels of trans-Nonachlor and Oxychlordane and Prevalence of Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias in Boys  

PubMed Central

Background: The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies—cryptorchidism and hypospadias—are poorly understood. Given positive associations between chlordane isomers and testicular germ cell tumors, it is reasonable to assume that chlordanes might also be associated with other testicular dysgenesis syndrome disorders, namely cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Objective: To examine whether exposure to in utero chlordane is related to cryptorchidism and hypospadias, we evaluated levels of chlordane derivatives, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane, among pregnant women enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). Methods: From 1959 to 1965, the CPP enrolled pregnant women at 12 U.S. medical centers. We analyzed serum trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane levels measured in third-trimester serum from the mothers of 217 sons with cryptorchidism, 197 sons with hypospadias, and 557 sons with neither condition. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results: The quartile-specific ORs for cryptorchidism or hypospadias show no notable associations with trans-nonachlor or oxychlordane. Further, there were no significant trends with increasing quartile of maternal trans-nonachlor or oxychlordane level in either cryptorchidism or hypospadias (p-trend all > 0.45). Conclusions: The results do not support an association between chlordane levels and cryptorchidism or hypospadias. It is unlikely that current chlordane exposure is related to the development of either anomaly, given that serum chlordane levels at the time of sample collection, the early 1960s, were considerably higher than levels at present. PMID:21975279

Longnecker, Matthew P.; Brock, John W.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

81

Hypospadias in offspring is associated with chronic exposure of parents to organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides.  

PubMed

We have currently evaluated the possible association between hypospadias and exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. For this purpose, we measured the dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (DAPs) in the hair and blood, as well as OC pesticides (DDTs, HCHs) in the hair collected from children with hypospadias and their parents. The concentration of HCHs in the hair samples obtained from mothers was higher than that previously reported for people working in open cultivations, while the concentration of DDTs in the hair samples obtained from mothers, fathers and their children with hypospadias was much higher than that previously reported for occupationally exposed individuals. The DMP concentration in hair samples obtained from mothers was much higher not only from that reported for the general population, but even higher than that reported for occupationally exposed individuals. Furthermore, SUMDEPs and SUMDAPs in the hair samples obtained both from the hypospadiac boys, as well as from their parents were higher than the corresponding values previously reported for the general population. Our study supports the hypothesis that organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide exposure may be a potential risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:24388412

Michalakis, Michalis; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Kovatsi, Leda; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Tsakalof, Andreas K; Heretis, Ioannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

2014-10-15

82

[Hypospadias in infancy I) pathophysiologic considerations II) hormonal balance studies (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Animal studies (Goldman, Jost) and test results in patients with hypospadias (Bongiovanni, Zachmann, Knorr) put up the question, whether all forms of hypospadias could be caused by a disturbance or peculiarity of the adrenal or gonadal androgen metabolism. Healthy volunteers and boys with glandal, penile and scrotal hypospadias were examined for their basal hormon status and response to stimulation. The following test-results are uniform, however due to the small number of cases, we would like to use these data more as a suggestion for peculiarities of the androgen metabolism, these are: 1. signs of quantitatively decreased testosteron production. 2. signs of qualitatively deranged testosteron-biosynthesis in patients with hypospadias due to a) decrease in certain enzymes in the testosteron-biosyntheticpathway (3-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, 17,20-desmolase, 17-beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase) b) increased peripheral conversion of androgen metabolites 3. signs of a suggested "saving" of androgens in the catabolism of those compounds and, last not least 4. signs of gonadal transformation of the adrenals, seen by increased adrenal androgen production and an adrenal transformation of the gonads, which can ultimately be considered as faulty differentiation of these 2 organ systems. PMID:129752

Glatzl, J

1975-01-01

83

Hypospadias and genes related to genital tubercle and early urethral development  

PubMed Central

Purpose We determined whether variants in genes associated with genital tubercle (the anlage for the penis) and early urethral development were associated with hypospadias in humans. Materials and Methods We examined 293 relatively common tagSNPs in BMP4, BMP7, FGF8, FGF10, FGFR2, HOXA13, HOXD13, HOXA4, HOXB6, SRY, WT1, WTAP, SHH, GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3. The analysis included 624 cases (81 mild, 319 moderate, 209 severe, 15 undetermined severity) and 844 population-based non-malformed male controls born in California from 1990-2003. Results There were 28 SNPs for which any of the comparisons (i.e., overall or for a specific severity) had a p-value <0.01. The homozygous variant genotypes for four SNPs in BMP7 were associated with at least 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias, regardless of severity. Five SNPs for FGF10 were associated with 3- to 4-fold increased risks, regardless of severity; for four of them, results were restricted to whites. For GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3, there were 12 associated SNPs but results were inconsistent by severity and race-ethnicity. For SHH, one SNP was associated with 2.4-fold increased risk of moderate hypospadias. For WT1, six SNPs were associated with approximately 2-fold increased risks, primarily for severe hypospadias. Conclusions This study provides evidence that SNPs in several genes that contribute to genital tubercle and early urethral development are associated with hypospadias risk. PMID:23727413

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Choudhry, Shweta; Lammer, Edward J.; Witte, John S.; Shaw, Gary M.

2014-01-01

84

Proximity fuze  

DOEpatents

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

Harrison, T.R.

1987-07-10

85

Proximity fuze  

DOEpatents

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

Harrison, Thomas R. (Stockton, CA)

1989-08-22

86

Maternal use of proton pump inhibitors during early pregnancy and the prevalence of hypospadias in male offspring.  

PubMed

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are increasingly used in reflux disease treatment also among pregnant women. Hypospadias prevalence is increasing and the birth defect is diagnosed in 0.3%-0.8% of male births, but the association with maternal PPI use during pregnancy is virtually unknown. Therefore, we decided to estimate the hypospadias risk in male offspring after maternal PPI use during pregnancy. We used Danish nationwide registries to conduct a population-based prevalence study including all live-born boys from 1997 through 2009. Maternal PPI use was classified according to exposure time: early pregnancy (30 days before conception through the end of the first trimester) and entire pregnancy (30 days before and throughout pregnancy). Outcome was defined as a hospital hypospadias diagnosis recorded any time after delivery. We calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating maternal PPI use with hypospadias in male offspring using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and adjusted for confounding factors. We identified a total of 430,569 live-born boys of whom 2926 were exposed to maternal PPI use during early pregnancy. Among the exposed boys, 20 (0.7%) were diagnosed with hypospadias, whereas 2683 (0.6%) of the nonexposed had hypospadias (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.7). A total of 5227 boys were exposed during the entire pregnancy, and 32 (0.6%) had hypospadias corresponding to a prevalence ratio of 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.4). The subanalysis restricted to omeprazole exposure showed similar results. We thus conclude that maternal PPI use during pregnancy was not associated with hypospadias in boy offspring. PMID:22314213

Erichsen, Rune; Mikkelsen, Ellen; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

2014-01-01

87

Hernia Repair  

MedlinePLUS

... navel. There are two kinds of hernia repair: Traditional (open) hernia repair - The surgeon cuts open the ... less than one or two hours to complete. Traditional hernia repair - In a traditional repair, the surgeon ...

88

Clinical, cytogenetic and molecular evaluation in a dog with bilateral cryptorchidism and hypospadias.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate prognostic factors in a Dalmatian dog with bilateral cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a normal karyotype (2n = 78,XY) and the presence of SRY, INSL3 and RXFP2 genes with a normal DNA sequence for SRY and RXFP2, while the INSL3 sequence differed slightly from the normal one due to a heterozygous nucleotide change involving amino acid 22 of the INSL3 dog precursor protein. Levels of plasmatic testosterone were only 0.01 ng/ml, while FSH and LH serum levels were not detectable. After the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test, the serum testosterone level was 0.01 ng/ml. Therefore, the phenotypic aetiology of this subject can not be well-defined because cryptorchidism and hypospadias were frequent clinical features with high genetic heterogeneity. PMID:18467838

Cassata, R; Iannuzzi, A; Parma, P; De Lorenzi, L; Peretti, V; Perucatti, A; Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G P

2008-01-01

89

Hypospadias: conséquences psychosociales, urologiques, sexuelles et reproductives à l’âge adulte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume  L’hypospadias est une anomalie du développement dont la traduction la plus évidente est une position ectopique du méat urétral\\u000a situé soit sur la face ventrale du gland ou du pénis, soit en position scrotale ou périnéale. La réparation chirurgicale a\\u000a pour objectifs de permettre une miction en position debout, une pleine sexualité, et d’obtenir une apparence cosmétique de\\u000a la verge

Roger Mieusset; Michel Soulie

2005-01-01

90

Endocrine Disruptors in the Workplace, Hair Spray, Folate Supplementation, and Risk of Hypospadias: Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys. Prevalence estimates in Europe range from 4 to 24 per 10,000 births, depending on definition, with higher rates reported from the United States. Relatively little is known about potential risk factors, but a role for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been proposed. Objective Our goal was to elucidate the risk of hypospadias associated with occupational exposure of the mother to endocrine-disruptor chemicals, use of folate supplementation during pregnancy, and vegetarianism. Design We designed a case–control study of 471 hypospadias cases referred to surgeons and 490 randomly selected birth controls, born 1 January 1997–30 September 1998 in southeast England. Telephone interviews of mothers elicited information on folate supplementation during pregnancy and vegetarianism. We used a job exposure matrix to classify occupational exposure. Results In multiple logistic regression analysis, there were increased risks for self-reported occupational exposure to hair spray [exposed vs. nonexposed, odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.40–4.17] and phthalate exposure obtained by a job exposure matrix (OR = 3.12; 95% CI, 1.04–11.46). There was a significantly reduced risk of hypospadias associated with of folate use during the first 3 months of pregnancy (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44–0.93). Vegetarianism was not associated with hypospadias risk. Conclusions Excess risks of hypospadias associated with occupational exposures to phthalates and hair spray suggest that antiandrogenic EDCs may play a role in hypospadias. Folate supplementation in early pregnancy may be protective. PMID:19270804

Ormond, Gillian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nelson, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B.; Iszatt, Nina; Geneletti, Sara; Elliott, Paul

2009-01-01

91

Minor Hypospadias: The "Tip of the Iceberg" of the Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Androgens are critical in male external genital development. Alterations in the androgen sensitivity pathway have been identified in severely undermasculinized boys, and mutations of the androgen receptor gene (AR) are usually found in partial or complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether even the most minor forms of isolated hypospadias are associated with AR mutations and thus whether all types of hypospadias warrant molecular analysis of the AR. Materials and Methods Two hundred and ninety-two Caucasian children presenting with isolated hypospadias without micropenis or cryptorchidism and 345 controls were included prospectively. Mutational analysis of the AR through direct sequencing (exons 1–8) was performed. In silico and luciferase functional assays were performed for unreported variants. Results Five missense mutations of the AR were identified in 9 patients with glandular or penile anterior (n?=?5), penile midshaft (n?=?2) and penile posterior (n?=?2) hypospadias, i.e., 3%: p.Q58L (c.173A>T), 4 cases of p.P392S (c.1174C>T), 2 cases of p.A475V (c.1424C>T), p.D551H (c.1651G>C) and p.Q799E (c.2395C>G). None of these mutations was present in the control group. One mutation has never been reported to date (p.D551H). It was predicted to be damaging based on 6 in silico models, and in vitro functional studies confirmed the lowered transactivation function of the mutated protein. Three mutations have never been reported in patients with genital malformation but only in isolated infertility: p.Q58L, p.P392S, and p.A475V. It is notable that micropenis, a cardinal sign of AIS, was not present in any patient. Conclusion AR mutations may play a role in the cause of isolated hypospadias, even in the most minor forms. Identification of this underlying genetic alteration may be important for proper diagnosis and longer follow-up is necessary to find out if the mutations cause differences in sexual function and fertility later in life. PMID:23637914

Kalfa, Nicolas; Philibert, Pascal; Werner, Ralf; Audran, Francoise; Bashamboo, Anu; Lehors, Helene; Haddad, Myriam; Guys, Jean Michel; Reynaud, Rachel; Alessandrini, Pierre; Wagner, Kathy; Kurzenne, Jean Yves; Bastiani, Florence; Breaud, Jean; Valla, Jean Stephane; Lacombe, Gerard Morisson; Orsini, Mattea; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Hiort, Olaf; Paris, Francoise; McElreavey, Kenneth; Sultan, Charles

2013-01-01

92

Proximal Tibial Bone Graft  

MedlinePLUS

... the Smaller Toes AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

93

Diacylglycerol Kinase K Variants Impact Hypospadias in a California Study Population  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE A recent genome-wide association study reported the novel finding that variants in diacylglycerol kinase kappa (DGKK) were associated with hypospadias. Our objectives were to determine whether this finding could be replicated in a more racially-ethnically diverse study population of California births and to provide a more comprehensive investigation of variants. METHODS We examined the association of 27 DGKK SNPs with hypospadias, relative to population-based non-malformed controls born in selected California counties from 1990-2003. Analyses included a maximum of 928 controls and 665 cases (91 mild, 336 moderate, 221 severe, 17 undetermined). Results for mild and moderate cases were similar so they were grouped together. RESULTS For mild and moderate cases, odds ratios (OR) for 15 of the 27 SNPs had p-values <0.05; two were <1, and the others ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. Among severe cases, ORs tended to be closer to one and none of the p-values were <0.05. Due to high LD across the SNPs, haplotype analyses were conducted, and two blocks were generated. These analyses identified a set of eight variants that was associated with a three- to four- fold increased risk, relative to the most common haplotype, regardless of severity of the phenotype (the OR was 4.1, p<10-4 for mild to moderate cases and 3.3, p=0.001 for severe cases). CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that DGKK variants are associated with hypospadias. Further studies are needed to enable a more thorough investigation of DGKK variability and to delineate the mechanism by which DGKK contributes to urethral development. PMID:23177175

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Mohammed, Nebil; Ma, Chen; Iovannisci, Dave; Choudhry, Shweta; Baskin, Larry S.; Witte, John S.; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.

2014-01-01

94

Bachelor Project Proximity Alert  

E-print Network

Bachelor Project Proximity Alert An Eclipse Plug-in for Software Analysis Andrea Casarella software applications. We built Proximity Alert, a recommender system that assigns to every part on top of which Proximity Alert is created. Thanks a lot to Alessandro Tettamanti, Matteo Dupraz

Lanza, Michele

95

Mechanical strength of repairs of the hip piriformis tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties of repairs of the piriformis tendon to the proximal femur were examined in a cadaveric model. Four constructs were separately tested: a suture anchor in the proximal femur, the anchor to suture interface, the suture in tendon interface, and a bone bridge style repair. The weakest interface was the anchor in the bone in cases in which the

Paul S Robinson; Rick Placide; Louis J Soslowsky; Christopher T Born

2004-01-01

96

Maternal use of oral contraceptives and risk of hypospadias - a population-based case-control study.  

PubMed

The aim of this population-based case-control study was to examine the risk of isolated hypospadias in boys born to mothers who have used oral contraceptives in early pregnancy. The study was based on data from the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities from 1980 to 1996, and included 3,038 boys with hypospadias (cases), 24,799 boys without congenital abnormalities (CA-free controls), and 11,881 boys with abnormalities other than hypospadias. We used unconditional logistic regression to adjust for birth order, maternal age, maternal employment status, maternal diabetes, and pre-eclampsia. When comparing cases with CA-free controls the OR for maternal use of OC was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.67-2.17). When comparing cases with boys with other abnormalities, the OR for maternal use of OC was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.46-1.50). Our data showed that self-reported maternal use of oral contraceptives during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias in the offspring. PMID:17077991

Wogelius, Pia; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Czeizel, Andrew E; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

2006-01-01

97

Intracellular and nuclear binding of [3H]dihydrotestosterone in cultured genital skin fibroblasts of patients with severe hypospadias.  

PubMed Central

Androgens stimulate the development and growth of the male external genitalia. Because hypospadias is the most common congenital defect of the male urethra and because in most cases the cause of this malformation is unknown, we examined the hypothesis that the etiology of the severe forms of this disorder, which is frequently associated with other genital anomalies, might be explained by receptor abnormalities. Intracellular and nuclear binding of androgens were determined in cultured genital skin fibroblasts from 10 males who underwent circumcision for phimosis (controls A), 2 patients with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency (controls B), and 11 patients with severe forms of hypospadias of unknown etiology. Genital skin fibroblast monolayers were incubated for 60 min at 37 degrees C with varying concentrations of [3H]-dihydrotestosterone ([3H]DHT), and specific binding in whole cells and nuclei was measured. Maximum binding (Bmax) in the whole cell assay averaged 0.88 +/- 0.15 fmol . microgram DNA-1 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (controls A, 0.89 +/- 0.16 fmol . microgram DNA-1; controls B, 0.85 fmol . microgram DNA-1) and 0.7 +/- 0.25 fmol . microgram DNA-1 in the patients with hypospadias. In the latter group, Bmax in six patients was below the minimum values determined in the controls. Maximum specific nuclear binding in the control groups averaged 43% (range, 30-55%) of the corresponding intracellular binding. In contrast, nuclear binding in strains from patients with hypospadias was lower (range, 0-12% of whole cell Bmax). In particular, no high affinity saturable nuclear [3H]DHT binding could be measured in 6 of the 11 patients. We interpret these data to suggest that defective intracellular and/or nuclear binding might be the cause of defective genital development in some patients with severe hypospadias. PMID:2913055

Schweikert, H U; Schluter, M; Romalo, G

1989-01-01

98

A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:23028613

Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jonsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

2012-01-01

99

Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007  

PubMed Central

Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

2014-01-01

100

Proximal Humerus Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the short- and long-term outcome of proximal humerus fractures treated according to a standardized regime. Patients and Methods: 99 patients with fractures of the proximal humerus were included. Scapular antero-posterior and lateral radiographs were used to classify the fracture type with the Neer classification system. Treatment was nonoperative and included

Marie-Jeanne T. F. D. Vrancken Peeters; Gerard Willem Kastelein; Paul John Breslau

2001-01-01

101

Proximal humerus fractures.  

PubMed

Proximal humerus fractures are among the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. With an aging population, incidence of these fractures will only increase. The proximal humerus not only forms the lateral portion of the shoulder articulation but also has significant associations with musculoskeletal and neurovascular structures. As a result, fractures of the proximal humerus can significantly impact not only the function of the shoulder joint, but the health and function of the entire upper extremity as well. Understanding of these fractures, the management options, and associated nursing care, can help reduce morbidity rate and improve functional outcomes. PMID:24022417

Price, Matthew C; Horn, Pamela L; Latshaw, James C

2013-01-01

102

Pectus excavatum repair  

MedlinePLUS

Funnel chest repair; Chest deformity repair; Sunken chest repair; Cobbler's chest repair; Nuss repair ... The most common reason for pectus excavatum repair is to improve ... very self-conscious about the sunken look of their chest wall. ...

103

MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: ECOSYSTEM  

E-print Network

MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: ECOSYSTEM AND OVERVIEW OF NFC TECHNOLOGY 1. Introduction Handsets confirm and heterogeneous. The Mobile Payment ecosystem involves a number of partners, such as: · banks; · Mobile Network

Shamos, Michael I.

104

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

105

Proximate Analysis of Coal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

106

Coded IR proximity detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coded IR proximity detector is able to generate an electrical signal when the distance between the detector and a certain object becomes shorter than a preset value. The detector may be used as an automotive indicator and control. The detector consists of four parts: a controller, a transmitter, a receiver and the optical system, used both for transmission and

Tudor Zisu; Sorin Miclos

2001-01-01

107

Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

1997-01-01

108

Hydrocele repair  

MedlinePLUS

... Sometimes they form when there is also a hernia (an abnormal bulging of tissue) present. Hydroceles are ... muscle wall with stitches. This is called a hernia repair. Sometimes the surgeon uses a laparoscope to ...

109

Craniosynostosis repair  

MedlinePLUS

... Infection, including in the lungs and urinary tract Blood loss (children having an open repair may need a transfusion) Reactions to medicines Possible risks of having this surgery are: Infection in the brain Bones connect together again, and ...

110

Cri-du-chat (5p-) syndrome presenting with cerebellar hypoplasia and hypospadias: prenatal diagnosis and aCGH characterization using uncultured amniocytes.  

PubMed

We present prenatal diagnosis of a de novo distal deletion involving 5p(5p15.1?pter) using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with cerebellar hypoplasia, hypospadias and facial dysmorphisms in the fetus. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of CTNND2, SEMA5A, TERT, SRD5A1 and TPPP. We speculate that haploinsufficiency of SRD5A1 and TPPP may be responsible for hypospadias and cerebellar hypoplasia, respectively, in this case. PMID:23500598

Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Town, Dai-Dyi; Wang, Wayseen

2013-07-25

111

Proximity Networks and Epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We presented the basis of a framework to account for the dynamics of contacts in epidemic processes, through the notion of dynamic proximity graphs. By varying the integration time-parameter T, which is the period of infectivity one can give a simple account for some of the differences in the observed contact networks for different diseases, such as smallpox, or AIDS. Our simplistic model also seems to shed some light on the shape of the degree distribution of the measured people-people contact network from the EPISIM data. We certainly do not claim that the simplistic graph integration model above is a good model for dynamic contact graphs. It only contains the essential ingredients for such processes to produce a qualitative agreement with some observations. We expect that further refinements and extensions to this picture, in particular deriving the link-probabilities in the dynamic proximity graph from more realistic contact dynamics should improve the agreement between models and data.

Guclu, Hasan; Toroczkai, Zoltán

2007-03-01

112

Design of proximity detecting codes  

E-print Network

a four-phase asynchronous communication protocol (or other similar protocols). A non-trivial t-proximity detecting code must be unordered. However, not all unordered codes are t-proximity detecting. This thesis analyzes the designs and bounds...

Perisetty, Srinivas

2012-06-07

113

[Hypospadia and infertility of Henry II of France (1519-1559)].  

PubMed

Henry II (1519-1559) of France was the second son of Francis I (1494-1547) and Claude de France (1498-1524) born in 1519 in St. Germain-en-Laye. After his older brother's and his father's death in 1547, he was anointed the French king in Reims. In 1533 already, as a 14-year-old boy, for reasons of state, he was married to the same aged Catherine de Medici (1519-1589), as her uncle was Pope Clement VII (1478-1534). The marriage remained childless for 11 years since Henry, due to a distinct hypospadia and a completely sexually inexperienced wife was unable to conceive children with her. His existing liaison to Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566) - a 19-year-older maid of honor of his father Francis I from 1537 until his death - influenced his sexual life immensely.The blame for the childless marriage was placed primarily on his wife, as Henry had become father of an illegitimate daughter with a mistress. Catherine then underwent all possible medical and alchemical procedures to finally give birth to the hoped Dauphin. Ironically, her rival for the favor of her husband, Diane de Poitiers was one of her greatest allies. She made clear that the cause lay with Henry and not with his wife. This was confirmed by the added solid physician Jean Fernel (1497-1558). His treatment of Henry and the simultaneous training of the unexperienced Catherine by Diane de Poitiers led to success.The result was the birth of Francis II (1544-1560) in 1544, the first of 10 children in 12 years. Thus, the dynasty was saved. After the death of Henry in a tragic tournament accident in 1559, three of his sons became kings of France. But the line of Valois remained without further descendants and was continued by Henry IV, the first Bourbon king in 1589. PMID:24585117

Hatzinger, M; Al-Shajlawi, S; Sohn, M

2014-03-01

114

A novel androgen receptor gene mutation in a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with penoscrotal hypospadias.  

PubMed

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) associated with penoscrotal hypospadias is a rare case of disorders of sex development. Here, we report clinical, genetic, biochemical, and molecular findings in a 2-year-old infant with CAH and penoscrotal hypospadias. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Hormonal investigations indicated low levels of cortisol and elevated levels of testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione hormone. Molecular genetic testing of androgen receptor (AR) gene identified a novel homozygous missense mutation of single nucleotide transition G to A at position 2058 (GenBank accession number GU784855), resulting in amino acid interchange alanine to threonine at codon 566 in exon 2 (Ala566Thr) (GenBank Protein_id ADD26777.1). The nature of the mutation presented is in the highly conserved DNA-binding domain of the AR gene. The novel mutation identified in the rare genetic disorder provides additional support to the previously reported genotype-phenotype correlations, and our finding has expanded the spectrum of known mutations of the AR gene. PMID:24907477

Sharma, Vikas; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Jyothy, Akka

2014-08-01

115

Proximal femoral fractures.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. PMID:12597064

Webb, Lawrence X

2002-01-01

116

Echosonography with proximity sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography.

Thaisiam, W.; Laithong, T.; Meekhun, S.; Chaiwathyothin, N.; Thanlarp, P.; Danworaphong, S.

2013-03-01

117

Proximal hamstring avulsion in a professional soccer player.  

PubMed

Acute hamstring strains are a common athletic injury, which may be treated non-operatively with a satisfactory outcome. A complete proximal hamstring avulsion is a rare and potentially career ending injury to an elite athlete. For these high demand patients, surgical reattachment should be immediately undertaken to shorten return to sport and to improve functional outcome. This report describes the occurrence of a complete avulsion of the proximal hamstrings in a professional footballer during an international match. We highlight the clinical presentation, the appropriate diagnostic investigations, the surgical technique and the rehabilitation protocol for this injury. The successful surgical reattachment of the common hamstring tendon was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging done 5 months after repair and allowed the player a full return to competition at 6 months after surgery. Hamstrings isokinetic peak torque was 80% at 6 months and 106% at 11 months after repair comparing with the uninjured side. PMID:22926296

Sonnery-Cottet, B; Archbold, P; Thaunat, M; Fayard, J-M; Canuto, S M G; Cucurulo, T

2012-12-01

118

Railroad Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, sneaky Hacker has removed some of the tracks on the Trans-Cyberspace Railroad. Learners must repair the tracks so the Cybertrain can get back to Central Station. Learners add decimals and drag spare tracks to fill the missing spaces.

Wnet

2011-01-01

119

Railroad Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sneaky Hacker has removed some of the tracks on the trans-cyberspace railroad. It's up to you to repair the tracks so the cybertrain can get back to Central Station. Youâll need to drag spare tracks to fill the missing spaces. To successfully fill the missing spaces you must add decimals together. Good luck!

2008-01-01

120

Outboard Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

Hardway, Jack

121

Motorcycle Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

122

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis (uterus seen at genitography and/or surgery, n?=?11), ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (n?=?33) or hypospadias (n?=?33). We identified heterozygous NR5A1 mutations in 4 cases of ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (12.1%; p.Trp279Arg, pArg39Pro, c.390delG, c140_141insCACG) and a de novo missense mutation in one case with distal hypospadias (3%; p.Arg313Cys). Mutant proteins showed reduced transactivation activity and mutants p.Arg39Pro and p.Arg313Cys did not synergize with the GATA4 cofactor to stimulate reporter gene activity, although they retained their ability to physically interact with the GATA4 protein. Conclusions/Significance Mutations in NR5A1 were observed in 5/77 (6.5%) cases of 46,XY DSD including hypospadias. Excluding the cases of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis the incidence of NR5A1 mutations was 5/66 (7.6%). An individual with isolated distal hypopadias carried a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, thus extending the range of phenotypes associated with NR5A1 mutations and suggesting that this group of patients should be screened for NR5A1 mutations. PMID:22028768

Brauner, Raja; Lourenço, Diana; Boudjenah, Radia; Karageorgou, Vasiliki; Trivin, Christine; Lottmann, Henri; Lortat-Jacob, Stephen; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; De Dreuzy, Olivier; McElreavey, Ken; Bashamboo, Anu

2011-01-01

123

DNA excision repair pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major DNA excision repair pathways of base excision repair for endogenous DNA lesions and nucleotide excision repair for DNA damage inflicted by ultraviolet light have been reconstructed with purified mammalian proteins and details of these repair mechanisms are emerging. Similar data are becoming available with regard to mismatch repair for correction of replication errors. Deletion of individual DNA repair

Tomas Lindahl; Peter Karran; Richard D Wood

1997-01-01

124

Safety evaluation, Proximate analysis,  

E-print Network

Objective: The aim of the study was to have bio-analytical approach for detoxification process of two poisonous plant materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root) and Abrus precatorius (seed) which are used in Ayurvedic preparations. Materials and Methods: For both the species proximate analysis was carried out. For the same plants HPTLC fingerprinting was compared, before and after detoxification process, using triphala quath. Infra red spectral studies for Abrus precatorius species (red and white) were compared, with respect to detoxification process. Protein fingerprinting was carried out for various Aconitum species available in the market. In support of the results obtained from the above methods for detoxification, safety evaluation, post single dose administration, C1- post single dose administration]was done using albino mice as the study model for Aconitum laciniatum (root) and Abrus precatorius (seeds- red and white). Outcome Measures: Comparison of the results for the crude poisonous

S. P. Bapat; R. T. Sane; Aconitum Laciniatum; Abrus Precatorius; Aconitum Palmatum; Aconitum Heterophyllum; R. T. Sane

125

Polymer infrared proximity sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proximity sensor that combines a polymer light-emitting diode and a polymer photodiode is presented. The operation wavelength is in the near infrared from 700to850nm. The infrared emission is obtained by adding a color conversion film of polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer matrix blended with infrared dye 1,1-diethyl-2,2-dicarbocyanine iodide to a red polymer light-emitting diode. The photodetector relies on the direct charge-transfer exciton generation in a donor-acceptor polymer blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. The detection distance is up to 19cm for objects with various colors and roughness under ambient indoor lighting.

Chen, En-Chen; Tseng, Shin-Rong; Ju, Jia-Hong; Yang, Chia-Ming; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Shu, Ching-Fong

2008-08-01

126

Chromatin dynamics in DNA double-strand break repair  

PubMed Central

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occur in the context of a highly organized chromatin environment and are, thus, a significant threat to the epigenomic integrity of eukaryotic cells. Changes in break-proximal chromatin structure are thought to be a prerequisite for efficient DNA repair and may help protect the structural integrity of the nucleus. Unlike most bona fide DNA repair factors, chromatin influences the repair process at several levels: the existing chromatin context at the site of damage directly affects the access and kinetics of the repair machinery; DSB induced chromatin modifications influence the choice of repair factors, thereby modulating repair outcome; lastly, DNA damage can have a significant impact on chromatin beyond the site of damage. We will discuss recent findings that highlight both the complexity and importance of dynamic and tightly orchestrated chromatin reorganization to ensure efficient DSB repair and nuclear integrity. PMID:22285574

Shi, Lei; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

2012-01-01

127

Proximal Femoral Allograft: Prognostic Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1972 and 1999, the Orthopedic Oncology Service treated 150 patients with resection and allograft transplantation of the proximal femur. Of the group, 121 patients had malignant tumors of the proximal femur and 29 had benign disorders. Four types of allografts were used: osteoarticular (46 patients), allograft-prosthesis (73), intercalary (20), and allograft-arthrodesis (5). Only 16% of the patients died of

Pedro J. Roque; Henry J. Mankin; Henrik Malchau

2010-01-01

128

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal  

E-print Network

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal Point Methods Yves Lucet & Warren Hare July 24, 2013 1 / 26 #12;Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Outline 1

129

Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular  

MedlinePLUS

EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

130

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2003-05-01

131

Neuronal repair  

PubMed Central

The potential of the central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate is regulated by a complex interaction of neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic factors that remain poorly understood. Significant research has been dedicated to identifying these factors to facilitate design of therapies that will treat the functional impairment associated with CNS injuries. Over the last decade, the development of in vivo laser severing of single axons in C. elegans has established an invaluable model for the genetic identification of novel regeneration factors. In a recent study we report the unexpected identification of the core apoptotic proteins CED-4/Apaf-1 and the executioner caspase CED-3 as important factors that promote early events in regeneration in C. elegans. Other upstream regulators of apoptosis do not influence regeneration, indicating the existence of a novel mechanism for activation of CED-4 and CED-3 in neuronal repair. CED-4 and CED-3 function downstream of injury-induced calcium transients and appear to act through the conserved DLK-1 pathway to promote regeneration. We propose a working model for calcium-dependent localized activation of CED-4 and CED-3 caspase and discuss questions raised including mechanisms for spatially regulating activated CED-3 and the possible substrates that it might cleave to initiate regeneration. PMID:24058867

Reina, Christopher P.; Driscoll, Monica; Gabel, Christopher V.

2013-01-01

132

Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

Haines, Richard F.

1987-01-01

133

Prevalence of rotator cuff tears in operative proximal humerus fractures.  

PubMed

Proximal humerus fractures and rotator cuff tears have been shown to have increasing rates with advancing age, theoretically leading to significant overlap in the 2 pathologies. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence, associated factors, and effect on treatment of rotator cuff tears in surgically treated proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who had surgery for a proximal humerus fracture from January 2007 to June 2012 in the shoulder department of a large academic institution. Patient demographics, the presence and management of rotator cuff tears, and surgical factors were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were associated with rotator cuff tears. This study reviewed 349 fractures in 345 patients. Of these, 30 (8.6%) had concomitant rotator cuff tears. Those with a rotator cuff tear were older (average age, 68.7 vs 63.1 years), were more likely to have had a dislocation (40% vs 12.5%), and were more likely to have undergone subsequent arthroscopic repair or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty than those without a rotator cuff tear. Most (22 of 30) were treated with suture repair at the time of surgery, but 5 patients underwent reverse total shoulder arthroplasty based primarily on the intraoperative finding of a significant rotator cuff tear. A concomitant rotator cuff tear in association with a proximal humerus fracture is relatively common. Rotator cuff tears are associated with older patients and those with a fracture-dislocation. In rare cases, these cases may require the availability of a reverse shoulder prosthesis. PMID:25361372

Choo, Andrew; Sobol, Garret; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Getz, Charles; Abboud, Joseph

2014-11-01

134

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

135

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

136

External knowledge sources and proximity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Following the line traced by two previous works of Albino et al. and Messeni Petruzzelli, the paper aims to analyze how technology districts reach and acquire external competencies and capabilities by means of organizational and cognitive proximity. This allows districts to modify their geographical boundaries and evolve into technology clusters. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research design is based on

Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli; Vito Albino; Nunzia Carbonara

2009-01-01

137

Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

Zammuto, Raymond F.

138

Pripism of the proximal penis.  

PubMed

A young man presented with a perineal mass that was found to be secondary to partial priapism of the proximal corpora cavernosa. This ia a rare condition with only 2 previously recorded cases in the urologic literature. Definitive treatment required a corpus cavernosum-spongiosum shunt. The patient has had a good recovery and was able to resume sexual activity. PMID:7420578

Llado, J; Peterson, L J; Fair, W R

1980-05-01

139

Alternating proximal regularized dictionary learning.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for dictionary learning that is based on the alternating proximal algorithm studied by Attouch, Bolte, Redont, and Soubeyran ( 2010 ), coupled with a reliable and efficient dual algorithm for computation of the related proximity operators. This algorithm is suitable for a general dictionary learning model composed of a Bregman-type data fit term that accounts for the goodness of the representation and several convex penalization terms on the coefficients and atoms, explaining the prior knowledge at hand. As Attouch et al. recently proved, an alternating proximal scheme ensures better convergence properties than the simpler alternating minimization. We take care of the issue of inexactness in the computation of the involved proximity operators, giving a sound stopping criterion for the dual inner algorithm, which keeps under control the related errors, unavoidable for such a complex penalty terms, providing ultimately an overall effective procedure. Thanks to the generality of the proposed framework, we give an application in the context of genome-wide data understanding, revising the model proposed by Nowak, Hastie, Pollack, and Tibshirani ( 2011 ). The aim is to extract latent features (atoms) and perform segmentation on array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data. We improve several important aspects that increase the quality and interpretability of the results. We show the effectiveness of the proposed model with two experiments on synthetic data, which highlight the enhancements over the original model. PMID:25248086

Salzo, Saverio; Masecchia, Salvatore; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

2014-12-01

140

Massive proximal femoral osteoarticular allograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implantation of massive allografts is a reconstruction alternative after limb salvage for aggressive bone tumours. It is hoped that durable long-term results can be obtained with these biological reconstructions. Revitalization of the allografts is one of the most important factors with regard to durability. One massive proximal femoral osteoarticular allograft is described that was followed up for 22 years.

P. Böhm; E. Renner; K. Rossak

1996-01-01

141

Repairing Broken Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how biomedical engineers aid doctors in repairing severely broken bones. They learn about using pins, plates, rods and screws to repair fractures. They do this by designing, creating and testing their own prototype devices to repair broken turkey bones.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

142

Foot anomalies and proximal symphalangism.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 2-week-old girl born at term (by vaginal delivery and without antenatal or perinatal events) who was referred as having "bilateral talipes and bilateral proximal symphalangism of little and ring fingers." The "talipes" was atypical with marked equinus and varus, but no cavus or adductus of the midfoot. Her mother had both symphalangism (absence of proximal interphalangeal joints) of middle, ring, and little fingers bilaterally and fixed pes planus with a rigid fixed hindfoot-and these deformities had also been present from birth. The maternal grandmother was similarly affected. However, the neonatal subject has an unaffected older sibling; maternal siblings are also unaffected. The three affected people did not have other obvious musculoskeletal abnormalities. Because of the coalitions, the child's atypical talipes was managed by a modified Kite's procedure. Symphalangism-coalition syndromes may be associated with conductive deafness because of fusion of the auditory ossicles. PMID:22294466

Shaw, Lauren; McCaul, Janet; Irwin, Greg J; Huntley, James S

2012-09-01

143

Intramedullary Chondrosarcoma of Proximal Humerus  

PubMed Central

Primary chondrosarcoma is the third most frequent primary malignancy of bone after myeloma and osteosarcoma. It is ranging from slow growing nonmetastasising lesions to highly aggressive lesions. We report a case of primary intramedullary chondrosarcoma of proximal humerus. A 60-year-old female presented with pain and hard swelling involving the left arm for 5 months. Radiograph showed a lucent expansile intramedullary lesion with matrix calcification and associated soft tissue mass. CT confirmed the finding. MRI showed a lobulated lesion which is hyperintense on T2WI with low signal fibrous septae. Increased tracer uptake was seen on bone scan. Histopathology confirmed the radiology diagnosis. The patient underwent wide resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction of proximal humerus. PMID:23243546

Yadav, Pratiksha; Thakkar, Dolly; Thind, S. S.

2012-01-01

144

Measuring and extracting proximity graphs in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring distance or some other form of proximity between objects is a standard data mining tool. Connection subgraphs were recently proposed as a way to demonstrate proximity between nodes in networks. We propose a new way of measuring and extracting proximity in networks called \\

Yehuda Koren; Stephen C. North; Chris Volinsky

2007-01-01

145

Practical Attacks on Proximity Identification Systems  

E-print Network

Practical Attacks on Proximity Identification Systems Gerhard P. Hancke May 26, 2006 Practical Attacks on Proximity Identification Systems ­ p. #12;RFID Devices Applications Logistics Access control on Proximity Identification Systems ­ p. #12;Security Concerns Various attacks proposed Kfir and Wool (2005

Hancke, Gerhard

146

The HTV Proximity Communication System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) as an unmanned logistic support vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS). The HTV, which is launched by the H-IIA rocket, transports both pressurized and un-pressurized cargoes to the ISS, reloads disposal items from the ISS and performs destructive reentry over ocean area. NASDA plans the first flight of HTV in 2005 for demonstration. The HTV will contribute the ISS assembly and logistic re-supply operations with international commonality. For unmanned vehicle operation, communication link is critical with commanding and control, especially in proximity region to the ISS. As for the HTV operation, NASDA is developing dedicated communication system installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the ISS, which is called the Proximity Communication System (PROX). The HTV receives commands and transmits telemetry data through the PROX in its proximity operation to the ISS. To achieve this, the PROX can communicate with the HTV on its nominal trajectory within 23km of the ISS. Especially within 3km of the ISS, the PROX has capability to perform omni-directional communication to the HTV. The PROX also has GPS receiver and send GPS data to the HTV to support the HTV navigation for relative GPS navigation used in "far" range (500m away from the ISS). In addition to the above fundamental functions, the PROX has a capability of range and range-rate measurement between the ISS and the HTV by the pseudo noise (PN) code epoch and the Doppler shift frequency. This provides a reference data independent of "main" navigation methods (rendezvous sensor navigation or GPS navigation) of the HTV. The PROX also assists the ISS crew with its commanding device, called the Hardware Command Panel (HCP), to issue time-dependent safety-related critical commands for HTV berthing/un-berthing operation. When a failure occurs somewhere on "communication path" from the PROX Base Band Processor (BBP) to the HTV Guidance and Control Computer (GCC) including data handling and communication equipments, the PROX detects it by monitoring interruption of the "heartbeat" signal and conducts automatic redundancy switching of all the equipments on that "communication path" including those of the HTV. This paper describes the PROX functions such as communication, data handling and GPS navigation and some unique functions for the HTV proximity operation to the ISS.

Harada, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tetsuo

2002-01-01

147

Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow  

SciTech Connect

Hypersonic flows involving two or more bodies travelling in close proximity to one another are encountered in several important situations, both natural and man-made. The present work seeks to investigate one aspect of the resulting flow problem by exploring the forces experienced by a secondary body when it is within the domain of influence of a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds. An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral force coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger than one-sixth the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with those from numerical simulations and reasonable agreement is observed if an appropriate normalization for the lateral displacement is used. Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, with good agreement. A new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities, enabling the experimental simulation of the proximal bodies problem, is described. This technique provides two independent means of measurement, and the agreement observed between the two gives a further degree of confidence in the results obtained.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL; Laurence, Stuart J [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Hornung, Hans G [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

2007-01-01

148

Fibrosis: ultimate and proximate causes.  

PubMed

Fibrotic disorders account for an increasing burden of disease-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although numerous risk factors have been recognized, the etiologies of many of these clinical syndromes have not been identified, and they are often termed idiopathic or cryptogenic. Here, we provide an evolutionary perspective on fibrosis aimed at elucidating its etiopathogenesis. By asking the ultimate question of "why" this process evolved in multicellular organisms, we hope to uncover proximate explanations for "how" it causes disease in humans. We posit that physiological fibrosis-like reactions evolved as an essential process in host defense against pathogens and in normal wound healing. Based on this premise, we reason that pathological fibrosis is related to one or more of the following: unidentified infectious or noninfectious antigens, autoimmunity, impaired regenerative responses, and the antagonistically pleiotropic action of genes involved in wound healing or development. The importance of genetic susceptibility, epigenetics, aging, and the modern-day environment are highlighted. Consideration of both ultimate and proximate causation goes beyond philosophical cogitations, as it will better inform pathobiological mechanisms of disease and aid in the prevention and treatment of fibrotic diseases. PMID:25365073

Thannickal, Victor J; Zhou, Yong; Gaggar, Amit; Duncan, Steven R

2014-11-01

149

Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 ?m). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The early pyroclastic phase of the formation of Kima'Kho, a tuya in northern B.C., Canada produced a subaqueous pyroclastic cone which became emergent during the latter stages of formation. Armoured lapilli are pervasive within the emergent upper third of the sequence. No other types of ash aggregates have been observed. Petrographic and textural analysis of the armoured lapilli shows them to comprise a central 2-30 mm-sized, juvenile, vesiculated pyroclast, concentrically coated by mm-scale layers of 10-250 ?m sized ash particles. At Kima'Kho, the armoured lapilli are shown to be a direct indicator of fallout from a sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured lapilli (no accretionary lapilli) at Kima'Kho and diverse ash aggregates but no armoured lapilli at A418. Here we investigate vent-proximal ash aggregation and the specific conditions which lead to the formation of coated ash pellets and armoured lapilli.

Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

2012-12-01

150

Responses of proximal tubular cells to injury in congenital renal disease: fight or flight.  

PubMed

Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The polycystic kidney and fibrosis (pcy)-mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knockout mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial "fight" response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a "flight" response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration. PMID:23949631

Chevalier, Robert L; Forbes, Michael S; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A

2014-04-01

151

Efficient algorithms for proximity problems  

SciTech Connect

Computational geometry is currently a very active area of research in computer science because of its applications to VLSI design, database retrieval, robotics, pattern recognition, etc. The author studies a number of proximity problems which are fundamental in computational geometry. Optimal or improved sequential and parallel algorithms for these problems are presented. Along the way, some relations among the proximity problems are also established. Chapter 2 presents an O(N log{sup 2} N) time divide-and-conquer algorithm for solving the all pairs geographic nearest neighbors problem (GNN) for a set of N sites in the plane under any L{sub p} metric. Chapter 3 presents an O(N log N) divide-and-conquer algorithm for computing the angle restricted Voronoi diagram for a set of N sites in the plane. Chapter 4 introduces a new data structure for the dynamic version of GNN. Chapter 5 defines a new formalism called the quasi-valid range aggregation. This formalism leads to a new and simple method for reducing non-range query-like problems to range queries and often to orthogonal range queries, with immediate applications to the attracted neighbor and the planar all-pairs nearest neighbors problem. Chapter 6 introduces a new approach for the construction of the Voronoi diagram. Using this approach, we design an O(log N) time O (N) processor algorithm for constructing the Voronoi diagram with L{sub 1} and L. metrics on a CREW PRAM machine. Even though the GNN and the Delaunay triangulation (DT) do not have an inclusion relation, we show, using some range type queries, how to efficiently construct DT from the GNN relations over a constant number of angular ranges.

Wee, Y.C.

1989-01-01

152

Hiatal hernia repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... backflows from the stomach into the esophagus. Hiatal hernia repair is surgery to repair a bulging of ... abdomen and chest (diaphragm) into the chest (hiatal hernia). Hiatal hernia repair may be recommended when the ...

153

Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

2011-01-01

154

Arthroscopic meniscus repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

From February 1982 through July 1987, the author studied 87 patients who had a total of 116 meniscus tears, 96 of which were repaired. Seventy patients (79 meniscus repairs) had postoperative followup ranging from 12 months to 5½ years (mean, 39 months). The patients' ages ranged from 14 to 51 years with a mean age of 22. The time from

Donald B. Miller

1988-01-01

155

Reusing Cadaveric Humeri for Fracture Testing After Testing Simulated Rotator Cuff Tendon Repairs  

PubMed Central

Abstract The financial cost of using human tissues in biomedical testing and surgical reconstruction is predicted to increase at a rate that is disproportionately greater than other materials used in biomechanical testing. Our first hypothesis is that cadaveric proximal humeri that had undergone monotonic failure testing of simulated rotator cuff repairs would not differ in ultimate fracture loads or in energy absorbed to fracture when compared to controls (i.e., bones without cuff repairs). Our second hypothesis is that there can be substantial cost savings if these cadaveric proximal humeri, with simulated cuff repairs, can be re-used for fracture testing. Results of fracture tests (conducted in a backwards fall configuration) and cost analysis support both hypotheses. Hence, the bones that had undergone monotonic failure tests of various rotator cuff repair techniques can be re-used in fracture tests because their load-carrying capacity is not significantly reduced. PMID:25371862

Pitts, Todd C.; Knight, Alex N.; Burkhead, Wayne Z.

2014-01-01

156

Second metatarsal stress fracture in sport: comparative risk factors between proximal and non?proximal locations  

PubMed Central

Background Stress fractures of the second metatarsal are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. There are two distinct areas in the second metatarsal where stress fractures develop: one proximal (at the base) and the other non?proximal (distal). Diagnosis can be difficult, and there is a difference in prognosis and treatment of the two types of stress fracture. Therefore differentiation of fracture location is warranted. Differences in risk factors and clinical outcomes between proximal and non?proximal stress fractures have not been studied. Objective To determine whether different risk factors and/or clinical outcomes associated with proximal and non?proximal stress fractures of the second metatarsal exist. Methods Patients diagnosed with proximal stress fractures of the second metatarsal were included in the study. Retrospectively, an age?matched control group with a non?proximal stress fracture was selected for comparison. Statistical analysis involved bivariate comparisons of demographic variables and clinical measurement between the two groups. Results Patients with proximal stress fractures were more likely to be chronically affected, usually exhibited an Achilles contracture, showed differences in length of first compared with second metatarsal, were more likely to experience multiple stress fractures, and exhibited low bone mass. In addition, a high degree of training slightly increased the risk of a non?proximal fracture, whereas low training volume was associated with a proximal stress fracture. Conclusion The signs, symptoms and clinical findings associated with proximal metatarsal stress fractures are different from those of non?proximal stress fractures. PMID:17339282

Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Cook, Chad; Pietrobon, Ricado; Nunley, James A

2007-01-01

157

Possible preventive effect of high doses of folic acid for isolated hypospadias: A national population-based case-control study.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a common structural birth defect (congenital abnormality) of the male genital organ. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis regarding the possible preventive effect of folic acid for isolated hypospadias (IH). Folic acid use was compared in 3,038 cases with IH and 24,814 male controls without any defects in the national population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. In Hungary only one kind of folic acid tablet, containing 3?mg/tablet was available during the study period. Hungarian obstetricians recommended daily use of 1-3 tablets, that is, 3-9?mg of folic acid during pregnancy; the estimated daily dose was 5.7 or 5.6?mg in the mothers of cases with IH and controls, respectively. Of 3,038 mothers of cases 1,474 (48.5%) were supplemented with high doses of folic acid during pregnancy and 13,509/24,814 mothers of controls (54.9%) as reference were supplemented at this level as well (OR 95% CI: 0.79, 0.73-0.85). If only medically recorded folic acid use in the critical period of IH was evaluated, the preventive effect was more apparent (OR 95% CI: 0.36, 0.32-0.41). The intake of folic acid among mothers of infants with severe IH was lower than among mothers of infants with mild IH, suggesting a dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study suggests that high doses of folic acid are associated with a reduced risk of IH. However, this analysis was based on observational data; therefore, confirmation in a well-controlled study is needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25257620

Mavrogenis, Stelios; Urban, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Acs, Nándor

2014-12-01

158

Oesophageal plastic repair for symptomatic ballooning following circular oesophageal myotomy and correction of oesophageal atresia  

PubMed Central

Two patients with refractory anastomotic stenosis and symptomatic ballooning of the upper oesophageal pouch following repair of long gap oesophageal atresia are described. In both cases a circular myotomy had been used to elongate the proximal oesophageal segment at the time of primary repair. Both patients were successfully treated by Y-V plasty of the oesophageal stenosis and tailoring of the dilated segment. ????? PMID:9176545

Zer, M.; Freud, E.; Grozovski, S.

1997-01-01

159

Techniques for repair of retrograde aortic dissection following thoracic endovascular aortic repair  

PubMed Central

The advances in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) offer patients who are otherwise unsuitable for open surgery an alternative in treating their aortic arch pathologies. However, the adoption of TEVAR carries inherent complications unique to itself, notably the occurrence of Type A retrograde ascending aortic dissections, which can range from 1-3%. Several key technical considerations are must be heeded to minimize the risks of these complications. It is important to completely excise the primary entry tear through a careful and methodical approach. The proximal and distal reconstruction must be hemodynamically sound, with care taken to stabilize both the root and the distal aorta. Neuroprotection strategies, such as antegrade cerebral perfusion, should be utilized if the duration of circulatory arrest is anticipated to be greater than 30 minutes. This report details the operative techniques for the repair of retrograde aortic dissections following TEVAR. PMID:23977609

2013-01-01

160

Automotive Repair Shops Case Study ME 4171 Automotive Repair Shops  

E-print Network

generated through welding? To repair both minor and major auto body damage, hydraulic equipment and handAutomotive Repair Shops Case Study ­ ME 4171 ­ 1 ­ Automotive Repair Shops In the following, you generated by automotive repair shops in California. A lot of you will have had experience with automotive

161

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

162

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-12-03

163

Stand-alone remotely interrogated device for the real-time health monitoring of bonded structural repairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesively-bonded fiber reinforced composite patches have been used extensively, over the last two decades, on Royal Australian Air Force aircraft to repair fatigue-cracked metallic aircraft components. The bonded repair to the cracked structure - crack patching - allows the restoration of strength and stiffness to the structure, as well as slowing crack growth by reducing stress intensity. However, especially for repairs to critical components the bonded repair needs continuous health monitoring to ensure structural integrity is not compromised. The ultimate goal for very demanding repair applications is to incorporate sensor, actuators and electronics in repair systems - smart repair systems - to monitor and report on the health of the repair and the repaired structure, as well as to actuate in order to prevent damage or failure of the repaired structure. The initial focus in the development of smart repair systems is on the assessment of new sensors and instrumentation which may be incorporate in bonded repair system in order to achieve on-line measurement of patch integrity and effectiveness. This application would allow the operator to move away from current costly time-based maintenance procedures toward real-time health condition monitoring of the bonded repair and the repaired structure. These systems would allow timely decisions on preventative and schedule maintenance before failure of the repair or repaired structure. To this end a 'stand-alone' data logger device, for the real-time health monitoring of bonded repaired system, which is in lose proximity to sensors on a repair is being developed. The instrumentation will measure, process and store sensor measurements during flight and then allow this data to be down loaded, after the flight, onto a PC, via remote data access.

Galea, Stephen C.; Powlesland, Ian G.; Baker, Alan A.

1997-11-01

164

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

165

Proximate sources of collective teacher efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty of the teaching task that faces the school and the faculty's collective competence to be successful

Curt M. Adams; Patrick B. Forsyth

2006-01-01

166

Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

2006-01-01

167

Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

Chan, Selena

2013-01-01

168

Facts about Hypospadias  

MedlinePLUS

... Links to Other Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers ... is a birth defect in boys in which the opening of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) is not located at the tip of the ...

169

Detecting and Correcting Speech Repairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive spoken dialog provides many new challenges for spoken language systems. One of the most critical is the prevalence of speech repairs. This paper presents an al- gorithm that detects and corrects speech repairs based on finding the repair pattern. The repair pattern is built by find- ing word matches and word replacements, and identifying fragments and editing terms. Rather

Peter Heeman; James Allen

1993-01-01

170

Repairing Thermal Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small chips and depression in surfaces of surface insulation tiles repaired using Ludox colloidal silica solution and silica powder. No waiting time necessary between mixing filler and using it. Patch cures quickly without heat being applied.

Mccain, C. R., Jr.; Feiler, C. W.

1984-01-01

171

Femur fracture repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

You had a fracture (break) in the femur, also called the thigh bone, in your leg. You may have needed surgery to repair ... surgeon will make a cut to open your fracture. Your surgeon will then use special metal devices ...

172

Timpani Repair and Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rather than focusing on specific brands of timpani, these guidelines for repair cover mechanical problems of a general nature: pedals, dents, unclear tone, and squeaking. Preventive maintenance is discussed. (Author/SJL)

Combs, F. Michael

1980-01-01

173

Structural Repair Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two diagrams from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center show how to create a PVC foam core sandwich and perform structural scarf repair. The diagrams show the materials to use and the dimensions of each.

2011-07-25

174

Planning Maintenance and Repairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of school facility design as an aid to efficiently repairing and maintaining facility systems. Also presents details on facility design's influence in properly maintaining mechanical and electrical systems. (GR)

Fitzemeyer, Ted

2001-01-01

175

Rotator Cuff Repair  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Dr. Uribe's going to go up into this space. It's called the subacromial space, and that is where the rotator cuff repair ... flap of tissue, gets caught in that subacromial space Dr. Zvijac was talking about and that produces ...

176

When repair meets chromatin  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotic cells, the inheritance of both the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is critical to maintain genome stability. This maintenance is challenged by DNA damage. To fully understand how the cell can tolerate genotoxic stress, it is necessary to integrate knowledge of the nature of DNA damage, its detection and its repair within the chromatin environment of a eukaryotic nucleus. The multiplicity of the DNA damage and repair processes, as well as the complex nature of chromatin, have made this issue difficult to tackle. Recent progress in each of these areas enables us to address, both at a molecular and a cellular level, the importance of inter-relationships between them. In this review we revisit the ‘access, repair, restore’ model, which was proposed to explain how the conserved process of nucleotide excision repair operates within chromatin. Recent studies have identified factors potentially involved in this process and permit refinement of the basic model. Drawing on this model, the chromatin alterations likely to be required during other processes of DNA damage repair, particularly double-strand break repair, are discussed and recently identified candidates that might perform such alterations are highlighted. PMID:11799057

Green, Catherine M.; Almouzni, Genevieve

2002-01-01

177

Transrenal E-XL stenting to resolve or prevent type Ia endoleak in the case of severe neck angulation during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

During endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, a severely angulated neck can make proximal sealing of endografts challenging, and the occurrence of a type Ia endoleak can complicate the procedure. We describe an original adjunctive procedure involving transrenal placement of a self-expanding nitinol stent (E-XL aortic stent; Jotec GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) to remodel the proximal aortic neck and treat or prevent type Ia endoleaks in the case of severe angulation of the proximal neck. PMID:23375602

Chisci, Emiliano; Ventoruzzo, Giorgio; Alamanni, Neri; Bellandi, Guido; Michelagnoli, Stefano

2013-05-01

178

Random Fuzzy Variable Modeling on Repairable System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repairable system analysis is in nature an evaluation of repair effects. Recent tendency in reliability engineering literature was imposing repair regimes and estimate system repair effects or linking repair to certain covariate to extract repair impacts. Hinted by engineering tune up exercises, we propose a repair model in terms of random variable distribution with a fuzzy parameter because fuzziness reflects

R. Guo; R. Q. Zhao; D. Guo; T. Dunne

179

Opportunistic, collaborative and synchronized, proximal device ecology  

E-print Network

CoSync is an on-device software framework for coordinating proximal consumer electronic devices in order to create a synchronized, opportunistic and collaborative device ecology. The CoSync device ecology combines multiple ...

Toledano, Eyal

2013-01-01

180

Control of spacecraft in proximity orbits  

E-print Network

Formation flying of spacecraft and autonomous rendezvous and docking of spacecraft are two missions in which satellites operate in close proximity and their relative trajectories are critically important. Both classes of ...

Breger, Louis Scott, 1979-

2007-01-01

181

A Proximal Point Algorithm with Bregman Distances  

E-print Network

problem of finding zeros of a maximal monotone operator T. Lately, many works ..... numerator, which is the difference between the mean and marginal effort to move, ...... [20] Iusem, A. N., Svaiter, B. F. and Teboulle, M. Entropy like proximal ...

2007-04-18

182

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Mckagan, Sarah B.

2012-05-15

183

Self-adaptive inexact proximal point methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a class of self-adaptive proximal point methods suitable for degenerate optimization problems where multiple minimizers\\u000a may exist, or where the Hessian may be singular at a local minimizer. If the proximal regularization parameter has the form\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a where ??[0,2) and ?>0 is a constant, we obtain convergence to the set of minimizers that is linear for ?=0 and ?

William W. Hager; Hongchao Zhang

2008-01-01

184

Chronic palmar dislocation of proximal interphalangeal joints.  

PubMed

Seven patients with chronic palmar dislocations of proximal interphalangeal joints are described. The duration of the dislocation ranged from 4 weeks to 19 months. Satisfactory mobility was restored in each patient after operative reduction and reconstruction of the extensor mechanism. Motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint averaged 57.1 degrees and 29.3 degrees at the distal interphalangeal joint. This method of treatment is preferable to an arthrodesis in selected patients. PMID:3958459

Posner, M A; Kapila, D

1986-03-01

185

Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

1998-01-01

186

Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

2013-01-01

187

Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair  

PubMed Central

Labral tears in the hip may cause painful clicking or locking of the hip, reduced range of motion, and disruption to sports and daily activities. The acetabular labrum aids stabilization of the hip joint, particularly during hip motion. The fibrocartilaginous structure extends the acetabular rim and provides a suction seal around the femoroacetabular interface. Treatment options for labral tears include debridement, repair, and reconstruction. Repair of the labrum has been shown to have better results than debridement. Labral refixation is achieved with sutures anchored into the acetabular rim. The acetabular rim is trimmed either to correct pincer impingement or to provide a bleeding bed to improve healing. Labral repair has shown excellent short-term to midterm outcomes and allows patients to return to activities and sports. Arthroscopic rim trimming and labral refixation comprise an effective treatment for labral tears with an underlying diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement and are supported by the peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23875153

Philippon, Marc J.; Faucet, Scott C.; Briggs, Karen K.

2013-01-01

188

Appliance Repair, Tips & Help  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site, visitors can find information about common household appliance parts and repair - categorized by type - including kitchen appliances, laundry equipment, and refrigerators. By clicking on the images of the individual machines, visitors can find more information including parts, how they work, common problems, and maintenance tips. There are also helpfully labeled images for particular brands and models of each appliance, which indicate the different features and parts of those particular machines. While some of the site is commercial (such as the links to appliance accessories), there is plenty of free and handy information for students working toward a career in appliance installation and repair.

2007-02-15

189

Satellite Repair Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Goddard's Satellite Repair Program counts among its major achievements the successful use of welding in servicing equipment employed in the Flight Support System (FSS) structures addressed by the the Solar Maximum Repair Mission of 1984. The FSS berthing and positioning ring will again be employed with the Space Shuttle for the anticipated upgrading of the Hubble Space Telescope; the Explorer Platform (EP) mission will also use the FSS during the planned on-orbit exchange of the EUV Explorer payload for an X-ray Timing Explorer payload. The EP, to which attention is presently given, is the first spacecraft designed to be entirely serviceable by intravehicular activity or EVA.

Davis, Robert E.

1991-01-01

190

Proximal Tibial Opening Wedge Osteotomy as the Initial Treatment for Chronic Posterolateral Corner Deficiency in the Varus KneeA Prospective Clinical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nonoperative treatment of posterolateral knee injuries tends to yield poor results. In patients with chronic posterolateral knee injuries, failure to correct genu varus alignment will often result in failure of the posterolateral knee repair or reconstruction.Purpose: To prospectively assess the functional outcomes of patients with combined grade 3 posterolateral instability and genu varus alignment initially treated with a proximal

Andrew Arthur; Robert F. LaPrade; Julie Agel

2007-01-01

191

Electric motor model repair specifications  

SciTech Connect

These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

NONE

1995-08-01

192

Pectus excavatum repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the chest wall with depression of the breastbone (sternum) ... Repair of pectus excavatum may be recommended for: improved appearance (cosmetic repair) improved breathing (respiratory function)

193

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2013-10-01

194

Transcript-RNA-templated DNA recombination and repair.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination is a molecular process that has multiple important roles in DNA metabolism, both for DNA repair and genetic variation in all forms of life. Generally, homologous recombination involves the exchange of genetic information between two identical or nearly identical DNA molecules; however, homologous recombination can also occur between RNA molecules, as shown for RNA viruses. Previous research showed that synthetic RNA oligonucleotides can act as templates for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in yeast and human cells, and artificial long RNA templates injected in ciliate cells can guide genomic rearrangements. Here we report that endogenous transcript RNA mediates homologous recombination with chromosomal DNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed a system to detect the events of homologous recombination initiated by transcript RNA following the repair of a chromosomal DSB occurring either in a homologous but remote locus, or in the same transcript-generating locus in reverse-transcription-defective yeast strains. We found that RNA-DNA recombination is blocked by ribonucleases H1 and H2. In the presence of H-type ribonucleases, DSB repair proceeds through a complementary DNA intermediate, whereas in their absence, it proceeds directly through RNA. The proximity of the transcript to its chromosomal DNA partner in the same locus facilitates Rad52-driven homologous recombination during DSB repair. We demonstrate that yeast and human Rad52 proteins efficiently catalyse annealing of RNA to a DSB-like DNA end in vitro. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of homologous recombination and DNA repair in which transcript RNA is used as a template for DSB repair. Thus, considering the abundance of RNA transcripts in cells, RNA may have a marked impact on genomic stability and plasticity. PMID:25186730

Keskin, Havva; Shen, Ying; Huang, Fei; Patel, Mikir; Yang, Taehwan; Ashley, Katie; Mazin, Alexander V; Storici, Francesca

2014-11-20

195

New Zealand Malayan war veterans' exposure to dibutylphthalate is associated with an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias and breast cancer in their children.  

PubMed

It is well known that the endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) dibutylphthalate (DBP) inhibits testosterone synthesis and can lead to feminisation in male laboratory animals. Moreover, it has long been speculated that human exposure would result in the similar effects, but this is difficult to study because specific human exposure cohorts are rare. We report increases in the incidences of hypospadias (p<0.05), cryptorchidism (p<0.05) and breast cancer (p<0.05) in the children of New Zealand soldiers who served in Malaya (1948-1960) and were exposed to DBP applied daily to their clothing as an acaricide to prevent tick-transmitted bush typhus. In addition, we modelled absorption of DBP from the soldiers' clothing and using published data for skin absorption, and calculated a large theoretical absorbed dose of 64 mg/kg body weight/day which is similar to DBP's lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 50 mg/kg body weight/day and thus indicates a biological effect is possible. This is the first report of a multigenerational developmental effect following DBP exposure in human males. PMID:22864157

Carran, Matthew; Shaw, Ian C

2012-01-01

196

Proximal clavicle physeal fracture-separation mimicking an anterior sterno-clavicular dislocation.  

PubMed

Proximal physeal fracture-separation of the clavicle is a very rare injury occurring in the adolescent and in the young adult which involves a contact loss with fracture between the clavicle and its cartilaginous ossification center similar in appearance to a sternoclavicular dislocation. The authors report an unusual case of a proximal physeal fracture-separation of the clavicle with avulsion of sternoclavicular periosteal and ligamentous structures without vasculonervous injury in a 16-year-old young person. A CT scan examination is essential. Surgical management consisted in costoclavicular ligament and periosteum reattachment associated with reduction of the fracture-separation and pin fixation.This repair demonstrated a successful outcome at 8-month follow-up. PMID:21435963

El Mekkaoui, M J; Sekkach, N; Bazeli, A; Faustin, J M

2011-05-01

197

Results of rectocele repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the results of rectocele repair and parameters that might be useful in selecting patients for this operation. METHODS: Twentyfive patients with symptom-giving rectoceles were prospectively evaluated with a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, defecography, colon transit studies, anorectal manometry, and electrophysiology. Patients underwent posterior colporrhaphy and perineorrhaphy. They were followed postoperatively (mean, 1.0 year)

Anders Mellgren; Bo Anzén; Bengt-Yngve Nilsson; Claes Johansson; Anders Dolk; Peter Gillgren; Staffan Bremmer; Bo Holmström

1995-01-01

198

Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

Hires, Bill; And Others

199

Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria  

E-print Network

Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria: Postreplication Kevin P Rice,University of Wisconsin Recombinational DNA repair represents the primary function for homologous DNA recombination in bacteria. Most of this repair occurs at replication forks that are stalled at sites of DNA damage. Introduction Deoxyribonucleic

Cox, Michael M.

200

Giant proximity effect in ferromagnetic bilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximity effect is a phenomenon where an ordered state leaks from a material into an adjacent one over some finite distance, ?. For superconductors, this distance is ˜ the coherence length. Nevertheless much longer-range, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate junctions. This surprising effect can be understood as a consequence of critical opalescence. Since this occurs near all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects should be very general and, in particular, they should be present in magnetic systems. The ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that its order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We investigate the above phenomenon in Co/EuS bilayer films, where both materials undergo ferromagnetic transitions but at rather different temperatures (bulk TC of 1400K for Co and 16.6K for EuS). A dramatic increase in the range of the proximity effect is expected near the TC of EuS. We present the results of our measurements of the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature, carried out using the complementary techniques of low energy muon rotation and polarized neutron reflectivity.

Ramos, Silvia; Charlton, Tim; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Forgan, Ted

2013-03-01

201

Pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery: A rare complication of proximal tibial steinman pin insertion  

PubMed Central

An anterior tibial artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare and unexpected complication of Steinmann pin insertion. We describe the case of an 18-year-old boy, who sustained such an injury to the anterior tibial artery during this procedure. Diagnosis was confirmed on a magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram. Aneurysmal sac excision with lateral repair of the vessel wall was performed. Postoperatively, a good flow was documented on a follow-up MR angiogram. This case highlights a major and unexpected complication of a so-called minor procedure. Too posterior a pin placement in the proximal tibia should be avoided to prevent such injuries. PMID:21430875

Suri, Tarun; Dabas, Vineet; Sural, Sumit; Dhal, Anil

2011-01-01

202

Operative repair of the mallet toe deformity.  

PubMed

Over a 14-year period, 60 patients (86 toes) underwent resection arthroplasty of the proximal interphalangeal joint for a mallet toe deformity. During the same period, 788 hammertoe corrections were performed, for a ratio of 9:1 hammertoe to mallet toe corrections. Fifty patients (72 toes) were evaluated at an average 55-month follow-up. In 53 toes (73%), the involved toe was longer than the adjacent toes. The second, third, and fourth toes were almost equally involved with a mallet toe deformity. With a resection arthroplasty technique, an arthrodesis of the PIP joint occurred in 52 toes (72%) and a fibrous union occurred in the remaining 20 toes (28%). Overall, 86% of the toes were rated as satisfactory by the patient (P < .001). A slightly lower satisfaction rate (75%) was noted in those toes with a fibrous union. A flexor tenotomy was performed in 22 toes along with the mallet toe repair. Acceptable alignment was noted in 96% of toes with a flexor tenotomy, and in 90% where a mallet toe repair was performed without a flexor tenotomy [corrected]. Pain was relieved (97%), correction was well maintained (91%), and patient subjective satisfaction was high (86%) with this procedure. Minor complications occurred in 14% of cases; however, one fourth of these patients still noted a satisfactory result. PMID:7599726

Coughlin, M J

1995-03-01

203

Successful treatment of endoleak Type I with uncovered EX-L stent after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

Treatment of endoleaks after thoracic endovascular repair remains challenging, particularly when the proximal landing zone is small and partly includes the origin of the neck vessels. We report a Type Ia endoleak, occurring after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, which was successfully treated with a novel uncovered nitinol stent. With this success, we were able to avoid a conventional surgery to treat the endoleak. PMID:23255527

Buz, Semih; Zipfel, Burkhart; D'Ancona, Guiseppe; Hetzer, Roland

2013-01-01

204

Proximity operations concept design study, task 6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of using optical technology to perform the mission of the proximity operations communications subsystem on Space Station Freedom was determined. Proximity operations mission requirements are determined and the relationship to the overall operational environment of the space station is defined. From this information, the design requirements of the communication subsystem are derived. Based on these requirements, a preliminary design is developed and the feasibility of implementation determined. To support the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and National Space Transportation System, the optical system development is straightforward. The requirements on extra-vehicular activity are such as to allow large fields of uncertainty, thus exacerbating the acquisition problem; however, an approach is given that could mitigate this problem. In general, it is found that such a system could indeed perform the proximity operations mission requirement, with some development required to support extra-vehicular activity.

Williams, A. N.

1990-04-01

205

Superconducting proximity effect in semiconductor nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically consider the proximity effect in semiconductor-superconductor hybrid nanostructures, which are being extensively studied in the context of the ongoing search for non-Abelian Majorana fermions in solid state systems. Specifically, we consider the dependence on the thickness of the semiconductor in the direction normal to the interface, a physical effect that has been uncritically neglected in prior work on the subject. Quite surprisingly, we find the unanticipated result that increasing the semiconductor thickness leads to a suppression of the induced superconducting gap due to proximity-induced interband coupling. As a result, in the limit of strong semiconductor-superconductor coupling, the proximity-induced gap becomes much smaller than the bulk superconductor gap and depends weakly on the interface transparency.

Stanescu, Tudor D.; Das Sarma, S.

2013-05-01

206

Self-repairing of composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the most important problem restraining polymer usage is damage and the inability to control it, predict, detect it it, then the solution is self repair of the composites. In order to be self -repairing, a healing chemical is stored in hollow fiber or vessels embedded in the polymer matrix. When the composite cracks, the crack progresses cracking the repair fiber, or bead. The healing chemical flows into the crack and the crack faces are rebonded. Also the fiber can be rebonded to the matrix or delaminations repaired with the adhesive. This research focuses on factors affecting repair so that it will be reliable and not as unpredictable as the polymer matrix itself.

Dry, Carolyn M.

2003-07-01

207

Proximal symphalangism and premature ovarian failure.  

PubMed

Proximal symphalangism is a rare autosomal dominant affection responsible for multiple joint ankylosis, it results from NOG gene mutation whose locus is on 17q21-22. This gene may be involved in secretory functions of glands such as ovarian function. Premature ovarian failure is idiopathic in 80% of cases but may be secondary to multiple etiologies including genetic. We report the case of a patient with proximal symphalangism and premature ovarian failure, and we discuss the possibility of genetic relationship between the two anomalies. PMID:22088931

Kadi, Nadira; Tahiri, Latifa; Maziane, Mariame; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra; Harzy, Taoufik

2012-01-01

208

Application of proximity sensors to robotic manipulations  

E-print Network

1992 Major Subject: Bioengineering APPLICATION OF PROXIMITY SENSORS TO ROBOTIC MANIPULATIONS A Thesis by RAINER J. FINK Approved as to style and content by: Geral . Miller (Cha' f Committee) G. Hog ( ad of Dep tment) CI z C ( I Brad D. Etter... 1992 Major Subject: Bioengineering APPLICATION OF PROXIMITY SENSORS TO ROBOTIC MANIPULATIONS A Thesis by RAINER J. FINK Approved as to style and content by: Geral . Miller (Cha' f Committee) G. Hog ( ad of Dep tment) CI z C ( I Brad D. Etter...

Fink, Rainer J.

2012-06-07

209

Meniscus repair and transplantation techniques.  

PubMed

Modern meniscal repair incorporates multiple techniques and adjunctive measures. The classic inside-out repair remains the gold standard and is most appropriate for a bucket-handle type tear of the medial or lateral meniscus. The all-inside technique has gained in popularity recently and has outcomes that approach those of the inside-out repair with decreased morbidity but increased cost. The choice of this technique is most appropriate for small tears requiring few sutures to repair. Outside-in repair can also be employed and is preferred for anterior horn tears. Surgeons may use a hybrid technique that incorporates all techniques in some challenging cases. Meniscal debridement is used for degenerative tears that are not amenable to repair. Meniscal transplantation is an option for symptomatic meniscal deficiency in young, active patients. This article discusses the technical considerations for meniscal debridement, repair, and transplantation. PMID:21980876

Burns, Travis C; Giuliani, Jeffrey R; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D

2011-09-01

210

Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

2009-01-01

211

Prokaryotic Nucleotide Excision Repair  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation. PMID:23457260

Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

2014-01-01

212

Pathologic findings of aortic redissection after glue repair of proximal aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

laxant effects of nitric oxide in the smooth muscle of vessels. It has been used as an unconventional drug to treat refractory vasoplegia after cardiopulmonary bypass, anaphylaxis, and septic shock.3-5 We especially appreciated its use in these patients because the alternative drug (norepineprine), in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery, could be detrimental, especially after CABG. No data exist on

Masao Yoshitatsu; Fumikazu Nomura; Akira Katayama; Kentaro Tamura; Keijiro Katayama; Katsuhiko Ihara; Yutaka Nakashima

2004-01-01

213

Bone Distribution simulation during damage-repair bone remodeling in human proximal femur  

E-print Network

and fracture may form and grow in a bone as a result of daily loading activities. On the other hand. In the past decades, the crucial to conduct the research on bone damage caused by bone fractures and related in modern biology, fatigue and fracture form and grow in the bone the accumulation of the bone damage

Qin, Qinghua

214

Interpersonal Violence between College Students: Proximal Influences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a 3 year study on violence between students at the University of Maryland. The study was designed to: (1) describe the prevalence of fighting between students; (2) analyze, by gender, students' description of their most recent physical fight with another for proximal influences on these altercations; (3) analyze…

Marcus, Robert; Reio, Thomas; Kessler, Lauren; Cutler, Kelley; Fleury, John

215

Goal-Proximity Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

2013-01-01

216

Computing proximal points of nonconvex functions  

E-print Network

power of proximal points is not constrained to the convex case. ... [31, Thm. 4.4]. The same relations are shown to hold in Hilbert and Banach spaces in [6] and [5], respectively. .... space). Remark 1 (lower-C2) The original definition of lower-C2 functions states: ...... Therefore, testing if the approximal estimate satisfies h(xn+1)

2006-01-18

217

Proximal symphalangism and premature ovarian failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximal symphalangism is a rare autosomal dominant affection responsible for multiple joint ankylosis, it results from NOG gene mutation whose locus is on 17q21–22. This gene may be involved in secretory functions of glands such as ovarian function. Premature ovarian failure is idiopathic in 80% of cases but may be secondary to multiple etiologies including genetic. We report the case

Nadira Kadi; Latifa Tahiri; Mariame Maziane; Fatima Zahra Mernissi; Taoufik Harzy

218

An Efficient Proximity Probing Algorithm for Metrology  

E-print Network

An Efficient Proximity Probing Algorithm for Metrology F. Panahi A. Adler F. van der Stappen K Probing Algorithm for Metrology Fatemeh Panahi Aviv Adler A. Frank van der Stappen Ken Goldberg§ Abstract Metrology, the theoretical and practical study of measurement, has applications in auto- mated manufacturing

Utrecht, Universiteit

219

The Transverse Proximity Effect in Quasar Spectra  

E-print Network

The Transverse Proximity Effect in Quasar Spectra G´abor Worseck Astrophysikalisches Institut field generated by the overall population of quasars and star-forming galaxies. In the vicinity of sources of UV photons, such as luminous high-redshift quasars, the UV radiation field is enhanced due

220

Gluteus medius repair with double-row fixation.  

PubMed

The merits of double-row tendon fixation have been well defined in the shoulder and may have greater applicability for gluteus medius tears in the hip, in which protection of the repair site can be even more of a challenge because the hip is a weight-bearing extremity. A detailed technique for double-row fixation with a reliable method and implants is highlighted in the accompanying stepwise-approach video. Standard laterally based peritrochanteric portals are used, including a viewing portal posterior to the vastus lateralis ridge and a working portal distal to the ridge, with anchors placed proximally, perpendicular to the cortex of the trochanter. Proximal fixation is accomplished with double-loaded Healicoil anchors (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) by use of sutures placed in a mattress fashion. Distal fixation is accomplished with a Footprint anchor (Smith & Nephew) paired to each Healicoil. PMID:24265993

Byrd, J W Thomas

2013-01-01

221

Method of repairing a wellbore liner for sand control  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of repairing a damaged wellbore liner for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises: positioning a quantity of fluid resin material in alignment with the portion of the wellbore liner to be repaired; positioning a gas generator in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to increase wellbore pressure in a substantially instantaneous manner to a pressure substantially in excess of well pressure to force the fluid resin material from the wellbore into the damaged area of the wellbore liner; and subsequently polymerizing the resin material to form a consolidated, porous permeable matrix that allows the flow of production fluid into the well while preventing the flow of sand, or other fine materials into the well through the previously damaged area of the wellbore liner.

Dees, J.M.

1992-10-13

222

[Endovascular repair for coarctation of the aorta in an adult].  

PubMed

A 27-year-old woman with Turner's syndrome who underwent successful endovascular treatment for coarctation of the aorta is presented. She was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity hypertension. Computed tomography revealed discrete stenosis of the proximal descending aorta and developed collateral circulation. After endovascular repair with a balloon expandable stent, her transcoarctation gradient fell from 44 mmHg preoperatively to less than 10 mmHg. She was discharged with no complications on the 7th postoperative day. Coarctation of the aorta in an adult patient could be safely and effectively managed by endovascular treatment. PMID:24008641

Hayashi, Jun; Abe, Kazuo; Hata, Masaki; Nagano, Naoko; Hamasaki, Azumi; Suzuki, Kenji

2013-09-01

223

All-Inside Meniscal Repair  

PubMed Central

All-inside meniscal repair has gained widespread popularity over recent years. The devices and techniques have rapidly evolved, resulting in increased ease of use and reduced surgical times and risk to the neurovascular structures. Despite these advances, inside-out suture repairs remain the current gold standard, with proven long-term results. All-inside techniques must continue to be compared to inside-out meniscal repair. PMID:23015905

Turman, Kimberly A.; Diduch, David R.; Miller, Mark D.

2009-01-01

224

A Novel Technique for Risk Calculation of Anastomotic Leakage after Thoracoscopic Repair for Esophageal Atresia with Distal Fistula  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was designed to determine the risk of anastomotic leakage after thoracoscopic repair for esophageal atresia by digitally measuring the length of the proximal esophagus and distance of carina to proximal esophagus. Methods With the use of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), the length of the proximal esophagus from the top of the first thoracic vertebra was measured on the preoperative chest x-ray, as well as the distance from the carina to the proximal esophagus. The chest x-rays of 27 neonates, born with esophageal atresia with distal fistula, were examined. Furthermore, the tapes from the procedures were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed with the t test for equality of means by using SPSS® 12.0.1 for Windows. Results Both groups were comparable, and there was a statistical significant difference in both length of the proximal esophagus (p < 0.023) and distance of carina to proximal esophagus (p < 0.022) in patients who did and did not leak postoperatively. There seems to be a tendency toward a shorter proximal esophagus in recent years that was not obvious earlier. Conclusions The digital measurement of the length of the proximal esophagus (M < 7 mm) and distance of carina to proximal esophagus (M > 13.5 mm) with the use of PACS gives a good risk calculation for postoperative leakage. PMID:18224466

Vieirra-Travassos, Daisy; de Jong, Justin R.; Tytgat, Stefaan H. A. J.

2008-01-01

225

Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... life-threatening situation. The indications for a diaphragmatic hernia repair include: chest X-rays showing diaphragmatic hernia severe breathing difficulty (respiratory distress) shortly after birth ...

226

Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

2007-01-01

227

Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Composition of Bone during Microdamage Repair  

PubMed Central

Under normal conditions, loading activities result in microdamage in the living skeleton, which is repaired by bone remodeling. However, microdamage accumulation can affect the mechanical properties of bone and increase the risk of fracture. This study aimed to determine the effect of microdamage on the mechanical properties and composition of bone. Fourteen male goats aged 28 months were used in the present study. Cortical bone screws were placed in the tibiae to induce microdamage around the implant. The goats were euthanized, and 3 bone segments with the screws in each goat were removed at 0 days, 21 days, 4 months, and 8 months after implantation. The bone segments were used for observing microdamage and bone remodeling, as well as nanoindentation and bone composition, separately. Two regions were measured: the first region (R1), located 1.5 mm from the interface between the screw hole and bone; and the second region (R2), located>1.5 mm from the bone-screw interface. Both diffuse and linear microdamage decreased significantly with increasing time after surgery, with the diffuse microdamage disappearing after 8 months. Thus, screw implantation results in increased bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone, which repairs the microdamage. Moreover, bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, especially in the proximal bone tissue. Bone composition changed greatly during the production and repair of microdamage, especially for the C (Carbon) and Ca (Calcium) in the R1 region. In conclusion, the presence of mechanical microdamage accelerates bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone. The bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, with the micromechanical properties being restored on complete repair of the microdamage. Changes in bone composition may contribute to changes in bone mechanical properties. PMID:25313565

Yu, Zhifeng

2014-01-01

228

Treatment of proximal vertebral artery disease.  

PubMed

Vertebral arterial disease (VAD) is a less commonly recognized and treated source of cerebrovascular ischemia compared with carotid artery disease. Patients are often referred for treatment after they have developed symptoms in the form of transient ischemic attacks or had a posterior hemispheric stroke. Traditional treatment of VAD has been surgical. More recently, endovascular treatment of VAD has been utilized. We performed a retrospective review of our institutional experience in treating VAD from 2001 to 2010. For treatment of proximal VAD, perioperative morbidity is lower for the endovascular group than for the surgical group, but six-week mortality was higher for the endovascular group. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred more frequently with surgery than with endovascular therapy. Therefore surgical reconstruction appears to be preferable to angioplasty and stenting for treatment of proximal vertebral artery occlusive disease. PMID:23518836

Shutze, William; Gierman, Joshua; McQuade, Karen; Pearl, Gregory; Smith, Bertram

2014-04-01

229

Giant Proximity Effect in Superfluid Helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it was shown that two confined regions of liquid 4He exhibit a proximity effect over distances much larger than the correlation length ?[1 2]. Here we report measurements of the superfluid fraction ?s/? and specific heat cp of a 33.6 nm film. Comparison with previous data from a 31.7 nm film in contact with an array of 34 × 106 (2 ?m)3 boxes of 4He allows us to show quantitatively the enhancement in ?s/? and cp due to the presence of the boxes in the temperature region where the film orders. The enhancement in ?s/? is observed up to distances 650 times the bulk correlation length. This anomalously large length scale is analogous to a giant proximity effect observed in High-Tc superconductors (HTSC)[3].

Perron, Justin K.; Gasparini, Francis M.

2012-12-01

230

Spin–orbit proximity effect in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of spintronics devices relies on efficient generation of spin-polarized currents and their electric-field-controlled manipulation. While observation of exceptionally long spin relaxation lengths makes graphene an intriguing material for spintronics studies, electric field modulation of spin currents is almost impossible due to negligible intrinsic spin–orbit coupling of graphene. In this work, we create an artificial interface between monolayer graphene and few-layer semiconducting tungsten disulphide. In these devices, we observe that graphene acquires spin–orbit coupling up to 17?meV, three orders of magnitude higher than its intrinsic value, without modifying the structure of the graphene. The proximity spin–orbit coupling leads to the spin Hall effect even at room temperature, and opens the door to spin field effect transistors. We show that intrinsic defects in tungsten disulphide play an important role in this proximity effect and that graphene can act as a probe to detect defects in semiconducting surfaces.

Avsar, A.; Tan, J. Y.; Taychatanapat, T.; Balakrishnan, J.; Koon, G. K. W.; Yeo, Y.; Lahiri, J.; Carvalho, A.; Rodin, A. S.; O’Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Özyilmaz, B.

2014-09-01

231

Proximity-induced topological state in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of topologically protected states at the surface of an ordinary insulator is a rare occurrence and to date only a handful of materials are known for having this property. An intriguing question concerns the possibility of forming topologically protected interfaces between different materials. Here we propose that a topological phase can be transferred to graphene by proximity with the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3. By using density functional and transport theory, we prove that, at the verge of the chemical bond formation, a hybrid state forms at the graphene/Bi2Se3 interface. The state has Dirac-cone-like dispersion at the ? point and a well defined helical spin texture, indicating its topologically protected nature. This demonstrates that proximity can transfer the topological phase from Bi2Se3 to graphene.

Popov, Igor; Mantega, Mauro; Narayan, Awadhesh; Sanvito, Stefano

2014-07-01

232

Epineurial vs. perineurial repair.  

PubMed

Previous work concerning the efficacy of different types of nerve repair has been reviewed. We describe a model in which epineurial and perineurial suture techniques were studied by quantitative ultramicroscopy and electrophysiology. In this model, we believe suture of the perineurium was shown to have a slight advantage over suture of the epineurium. Microscopic control and fascicular alignment are advocated to increase the percentage of axons growing into the distal stump and the periphery. The model described should lend itself to the study of other traumatic peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20607943

Orgel, M G; Terzis, J K

1977-07-01

233

Proximity effects in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximity effect at superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces produces damped oscillatory behavior of the Cooper pair wave function within the ferromagnetic medium. This is analogous to the inhomogeneous superconductivity, predicted long ago by Fulde and Ferrell (P. Fulde and R. A. Ferrell, 1964, ``Superconductivity in a strong spin-exchange field,'' Phys. Rev. 135, A550-A563), and by Larkin and Ovchinnikov (A. I. Larkin and

A. I. Buzdin

2005-01-01

234

Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst  

PubMed Central

Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

2009-01-01

235

Optical Fiber Proximity Sensor For Robotics Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a conception of an optical fiber proximity sensor designed for applications in robotics. A theoretical model of the sensor is offered as well as its computer analysis, including an examination of the effects of the sensor design parameters on its characteristics.Some results of experimental studies on the sensor are presented together with an example of the sensor's application in an industrial robot for the detection of obstacles on the robot arm's trajectory and control of their avoidance.

Marszalec, Janusz

1986-11-01

236

Examination of Derecho Environments Using Proximity Soundings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed upper air soundings that occurred within 2 h and 167 km of derechos were collected and analyzed to document atmospheric stability and wind shear conditions associated with long-lived convective windstorms. Sixty-seven derechos, accompanied by 113 proximity soundings, were identified during the years 1983-93. Owing to the large variability of the synoptic-scale environments associated with derechos, each derecho was further

Jeffry S. Evans; Charles A. Doswell III

2001-01-01

237

Mitral valve repair in a patient with an anomalous left coronary artery.  

PubMed

Anomalous coronary arteries may course in close proximity to the mitral annulus, which increases the risk of iatrogenic occlusion due to annular suture placement. We report a mitral valve repair in a 55-year-old male with severe mitral regurgitation and an anomalous retro-aortic left coronary artery, originating from the right coronary sinus, coursing in close proximity to the anterior mitral annulus. To minimize iatrogenic occlusion risk an open annuloplasty ring was used with good long-term results. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12374 (J Card Surg 2014;29:782-784). PMID:24862914

Bakker, Robbert C; Bouma, Wobbe; Hamer, Inez J Wijdh-den; Natour, Ehsan; Mariani, Massimo A

2014-11-01

238

Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults.  

PubMed

The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes. PMID:25405098

Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

2014-11-18

239

Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults  

PubMed Central

The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes.

Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

2014-01-01

240

Axillary Artery Injury Caused by Fracture of Humerus Neck and Its Repair Using Basilic Vein Graft  

PubMed Central

Proximal humerus fractures are rarely associated with axillary artery injury. We present a case of a 59-year-old female who had fracture neck humerus along with absent pulsations in the left upper limb after blunt trauma. Computed tomographic angiogram revealed complete occlusion of the left axillary artery. Urgent surgical intervention was done in the form of fixation of fracture followed by exploration and repair of axillary artery. Axillary artery was contused and totally occluded by fractured edge of humerus. Repair of the axillary artery was done using basilic vein graft harvested through the same incision. Postprocedure pulsations were present in the upper limb. PMID:25061530

Kalia, Sandeep; Sehgal, Manik

2014-01-01

241

Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results  

SciTech Connect

The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany)] [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

2013-12-15

242

Advances in nerve repair.  

PubMed

Patients with peripheral nerve injuries face unpredictable and often suboptimal functional outcome, even following standard microsurgical nerve repair. The challenge of improving such outcomes following nerve surgical procedures has interested many research teams, in both clinical and fundamental fields. Some innovative treatments are presently being applied to a widening range of patients, whereas others will require further development before translation to human subjects. This article presents several recent advances in emerging therapies at various stages of clinical application. Nerve transfers have been successfully used in clinical settings, but new indications are being described, enlarging the range of patients who might benefit from them. Brief direct nerve electrical stimulation has been shown to improve nerve regeneration and outcome in animal models and in a small cohort of patients. Further clinical trials are warranted to prove the efficacy of this exciting and easily applicable approach. Animal studies also suggest a tremendous potential for stem and precursor cell therapy. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of their mechanisms of action in nerve repair and potential applications for human patients. PMID:23250767

Khuong, Helene T; Midha, Rajiv

2013-01-01

243

Proximity and Investment: Evidence from Plant-Level Data  

E-print Network

Proximity to plants makes it easier for headquarters to monitor and acquire information about plants. In this article, I estimate the effects of headquarters’ proximity to plants on plant-level investment and productivity. ...

Giroud, Xavier

244

REACH : the local social favor exchange : a proximal messaging system  

E-print Network

We define proximal messaging as that category of information transaction that takes into account the physical, social and temporal proximity between the sender and recipient as it relates to the content of the message. We ...

Kizelshteyn, Boris G. (Boris Grigory)

2012-01-01

245

Industrial motor repair in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

1994-09-01

246

Left atrial isomerism: biventricular repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Biventricular repair of hearts with left atrial isomerism often necessitates complex atrial and ventricular baffle procedures. We analysed our experience with an accent on baffle techniques. Methods: From 1997 until 2008, 12 patients (four male) with left atrial isomerism received biventricular repair. Their median age at surgery was 9 (range: 1–24) months. Four patients had dextrocardia. Nine patients presented

Janez Vodiskar; Sally-Ann Clur; Jarda Hruda; Regina Bokenkamp; Mark Gerard Hazekamp

2010-01-01

247

Laparoscopic repair for groin hernias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy was first described by Ger, Schultz, Corbitt, and Filipi in the early 1990s (1-4) and burst upon the surgical scene just after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It rapidly became popular, and many different techniques for repair were developed. Over the last decade much good work has been done to find which type of laparoscopic repair is best, to determine

Chad J. Davis; Maurice E. Arregui

248

The base excision repair pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The base excision repair pathway has evolved to protect cells from the deleterious effects of endogenous DNA damage induced by hydrolysis, reactive oxygen species and other intracellular metabolites that modify DNA base structure. However, base excision repair is also important to resist lesions produced by ionizing radiation and strong alkylating agents, which are similar to those induced by endogenous factors.

Erling Seeberg; Lars Eide; Magnar Bjørås

1995-01-01

249

Pregnancy and ventral hernia repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Reluctance to repair anterior abdominal wall hernias in women of childbearing age is probably unjustified. A unique series is described of 27 women who gave birth to 41 full-term babies following repair of an anterior abdominal wall hernia with no recurrence of the hernia. Nineteen had primary and recurrent umbilical hernias and an incisional hernia in a low transverse

J. Abrahamson; J. Gorman

2000-01-01

250

Drug resistance and DNA repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair confers resistance to anticancer drugs which kill cells by reacting with DNA. A review of our current information on the topic will be presented here. Our understanding of the molecular biology of repair of 06-alkylguanine adducts in DNA has advanced as a result of the molecular cloning of the E. coli ada gene but the precise role of

Margaret Fox; John J. Roberts

1987-01-01

251

Outpatient Adult Inguinal Hernia Repair  

PubMed Central

Repair of adult inguinal hernia has been done on an outpatient basis at our surgical facility for the past six years. In 616 consecutive repairs, complications have been remarkably few: one patient was electively admitted to hospital, two hernias have recurred and one patient needed to be catheterized. Patient acceptance has been enthusiastic. PMID:6741121

Lee, R. Hewlett; Marzoni, Francis A.; Cannon, Walter B.; Trollope, Michael L.

1984-01-01

252

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

253

Cost reduction during maintenance & repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-technology equipment test and repair is typically composed of numerous manual actions performed in a series of predetermined steps. This paper describes a recently deployed rework\\/production system that eliminates all of the superfluous 'process control and tracking' effort required during operational system test and maintenance, and allows support personnel to focus on their primary task of testing and repairing operational

H. Smith

2003-01-01

254

Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations  

E-print Network

Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations Brent Edward Tweddle, David W. Miller February 2010 SSL # 1-10 #12;#12;Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity of Technology. #12;2 #12;Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations by Brent Edward

255

16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS  

E-print Network

1 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS Jeffry S. Evans* NOAA accumulated a number of proximity soundings associated with both derechos and discrete supercells. It can and analyzed 110 proximity soundings near 67 derechos. The period of study was from 1983-1993, and cases were

256

16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS  

E-print Network

1 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS Jeffry S. Evans* NOAA of convection, we have accumulated proximity soundings associated with both derechos and discrete supercells and analyzed 113 proximity soundings near 67 derechos. The period of study was 1983-1993, and cases were

Doswell III, Charles A.

257

The proximal femoral morphometry of Turkish women on radiographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this study, proximal femoral morphometry was measured on radiographs of Turkish women. Hip fractures have high morbidity and mortality rates for people and is generally seen in elderly. It is known that the body mass index (BMI) and proximal femoral morphom- etry are important determinants of fracture risk. Our aim is to perform the measurements of proximal femoral

J. Irdesel; I. Ari

258

Laparoscopic repair of recurrent hernias.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a laparoscopic approach to recurrent inguinal hernia repair which dissected the entire inguinal floor and repaired all potential areas of recurrence without producing tension. Both a transabdominal preperitoneal and a totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach were utilized. Ninety recurrent hernias were repaired in 81 patients. The patients had 26 indirect, 36 direct, and 26 pantaloon recurrent hernias of which eight had a femoral component. In all but one patient the primary operations were open anterior repairs. The median follow-up was 14 months, ranging from 1 to 28 months. Patients returned to normal activities in an average of 1 week. The only recurrence observed was in the one patient whose primary repair was laparoscopic. When the entire inguinal floor of the recurrent hernia was redissected and buttressed with mesh, early recurrence was eliminated and recovery was shortened. PMID:7597580

Felix, E L; Michas, C A; McKnight, R L

1995-02-01

259

Autosite.com Repairs - Maintenance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A subsection of Autosite.com, a for-profit (from ads, the content is free) information source for auto buyers, the maintenance and repair area offers free and detailed information on auto care and repair that is accessible but not simplistic. In the maintenance section, users will find a preventative maintenance checklist, illustrated guides to fluids and exterior systems, a discussion on tires, and FAQs. The Repair section features troubleshooting tips, an illustrated repair guide, a fairly deep Auto Repair Encyclopedia, and several related links. Whether you are a die-hard do-it-yourselfer or just prefer to be forearmed before taking your car to the mechanics, this site can help.

260

Mutation rates, spectra, and genome-wide distribution of spontaneous mutations in mismatch repair deficient yeast.  

PubMed

DNA mismatch repair is a highly conserved DNA repair pathway. In humans, germline mutations in hMSH2 or hMLH1, key components of mismatch repair, have been associated with Lynch syndrome, a leading cause of inherited cancer mortality. Current estimates of the mutation rate and the mutational spectra in mismatch repair defective cells are primarily limited to a small number of individual reporter loci. Here we use the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to generate a genome-wide view of the rates, spectra, and distribution of mutation in the absence of mismatch repair. We performed mutation accumulation assays and next generation sequencing on 19 strains, including 16 msh2 missense variants implicated in Lynch cancer syndrome. The mutation rate for DNA mismatch repair null strains was approximately 1 mutation per genome per generation, 225-fold greater than the wild-type rate. The mutations were distributed randomly throughout the genome, independent of replication timing. The mutation spectra included insertions/deletions at homopolymeric runs (87.7%) and at larger microsatellites (5.9%), as well as transitions (4.5%) and transversions (1.9%). Additionally, repeat regions with proximal repeats are more likely to be mutated. A bias toward deletions at homopolymers and insertions at (AT)n microsatellites suggests a different mechanism for mismatch generation at these sites. Interestingly, 5% of the single base pair substitutions might represent double-slippage events that occurred at the junction of immediately adjacent repeats, resulting in a shift in the repeat boundary. These data suggest a closer scrutiny of tumor suppressors with homopolymeric runs with proximal repeats as the potential drivers of oncogenesis in mismatch repair defective cells. PMID:23821616

Lang, Gregory I; Parsons, Lance; Gammie, Alison E

2013-09-01

261

Heterogeneous polymerase fidelity and mismatch repair bias genome variation and composition.  

PubMed

Mutational heterogeneity must be taken into account when reconstructing evolutionary histories, calibrating molecular clocks, and predicting links between genes and disease. Selective pressures and various DNA transactions have been invoked to explain the heterogeneous distribution of genetic variation between species, within populations, and in tissue-specific tumors. To examine relationships between such heterogeneity and variations in leading- and lagging-strand replication fidelity and mismatch repair, we accumulated 40,000 spontaneous mutations in eight diploid yeast strains in the absence of selective pressure. We found that replicase error rates vary by fork direction, coding state, nucleosome proximity, and sequence context. Further, error rates and DNA mismatch repair efficiency both vary by mismatch type, responsible polymerase, replication time, and replication origin proximity. Mutation patterns implicate replication infidelity as one driver of variation in somatic and germline evolution, suggest mechanisms of mutual modulation of genome stability and composition, and predict future observations in specific cancers. PMID:25217194

Lujan, Scott A; Clausen, Anders R; Clark, Alan B; MacAlpine, Heather K; MacAlpine, David M; Malc, Ewa P; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Burkholder, Adam B; Fargo, David C; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Kunkel, Thomas A

2014-11-01

262

Mechanism of proximal NaCl reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the mammalian kidney.  

PubMed

In the mammalian proximal tubule NaCl reabsorption occurs by both passive and active transport processes. Passive NaCl reabsorption occurs in the presence of a high luminal chloride and a low luminal bicarbonate concentration. These anion gradients provide the driving forces for diffusive Na and Cl movement. Na is driven by the lumen positive PD effected by the greater permeability of the tubular wall to Cl than to HCO3. Cl is driven by its high tubular concentration. Passive NaCl reabsorption accounts for only about 10% to 15% of total proximal NaCl transport. The remaining proximal NaCl is reabsorbed by active transport processes and occurs both in the presence or absence of anion gradients reabsorption. Two mechanisms of active NaCl reabsorption participate in active NaCl reabsorption along the proximal tubule. Firstly, active NaCl reabsorption is electrogenic. In the early proximal tubule Na enters to cell coupled to organic solute transport. This Na reabsorption generates a lumen negative PD and effects "coupled" electrogenic NaCl reabsorption. This mechanism is limited by the supply of organic solutes and is blunted by the greater Na than Cl permeability in the proximal tubule; it probably can account for no more than 10% of proximal NaCl reabsorption. In the terminal proximal tubule, the proximal straight tubule, the apical membrane appears to possess a channel for Na entry. This Na reabsorption also generates a lumen negative PD and effects "simple" electrogenic NaCl reabsorption. This mechanism is limited by the low transport capacity of this segment and probably accounts for no more than 5% to 10% of total proximal NaCl reabsorption. The great bulk of proximal NaCl reabsorption occurs along the entire proximal tubule by active, transcellular electroneutral NaCl reabsorption. The precise cellular transport mechanisms responsible for this process are only recently being defined. At the apical membrane parallel ion exchangers are responsible for NaCl entry into the cell. Na enters via the apical membrane Na-H antiporter. Cl most likely crosses the apical membrane by some combination of Cl-OH and Cl-HCO2 exchangers but not via a Cl-HCO3 exchanger. The relative contributions of Cl-OH and Cl-HCO2 exchange have not been defined. There are two important considerations in this question. First is the availbility of OH versus HCO2. Although there is an infinite supply of OH and a small equilibrium supply of HCO2, it is possible that the luminal concentration of HCO2 could be increased by an USL that raises the concentration of HCO2 to a degree sufficient to supply H2CO2 recycling for physiological transcellular Cl transport rates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2034928

Berry, C A; Rector, F C

1991-03-01

263

TPS Inspection and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

264

Scintillation proximity assay using polymeric membranes  

SciTech Connect

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is typically used to quantify electron emitting isotopes. In LSC, radioactive samples are dissolved in an organic fluor solution (scintillation cocktail) to ensure that the label is close enough to the fluor molecules to be detected. Although efficient, scintillation cocktail is neither specific or selective for samples labeled with the same radioisotope. Scintillation cocktail is flammable posing significant health risks to the user and is expensive to purchase and discard. Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) is a radioanalytical technique where only those radiochemical entities (RCE's) bound to fluor containing matrices are detected. Only bound RCE's are in close enough proximity the entrapped fluor molecules to induce scintillations. Unbound radioligands are too far removed from the fluor molecules to be detected. The research in this dissertation focused on the development and evaluation of fluor-containing membranes (scintillation proximity membranes, SP membranes) to be used for specific radioanalytical techniques without using scintillation cocktail. Polysulfone and PVC SP membranes prepared in our laboratory were investigated for radioimmunossay (RIA) where only bound radioligand is detected, thereby eliminating the separation step impeding the automation of RIA. These SP membranes performed RIA where the results were nearly identical to commercial SP microbeads. SP membranes functionalized with quaternary ammonium hydroxide moieties were able to trap and quantify [sup 14]CO[sub 2] without using liquid scintillation cocktail. RCE's bound in the pore structure of SP membranes are intimate with the entrapped fluor providing the geometry needed for high detection efficiencies. Absorbent SP membranes were used in radiation surveys and were shown to be as effective as conventional survey techniques using filter paper and scintillation cocktail.

Mansfield, R.K.

1992-01-01

265

Proximal Magnetometry of Monolayers of Magnetic Moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to measure the magnetic properties of monolayers and ultra-thin films of magnetic material. The method is based on low energy muon spin rotation and ?-detected nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. A spin probe is used as a “proximal” magnetometer by implanting it in the substrate, just below the magnetic material. We calculate the expected magnetic field distribution sensed by the probe and discuss its temperature and implantation depth dependencies. This method is highly suitable for measuring the magnetic properties of monolayers of single molecule magnets, but can also be extended to ultra-thin magnetic films.

Salman, Z.; Blundell, S. J.

266

Proximity Effect for Metal Absorption Systems  

E-print Network

Using our photoionization code CIRRUS, we show that the study of proximity effect on metal elements provides a possibility of placing constraints on the spectral shape of the metagalactic UV background (MUVB). From theoretical point of view, the most optimum indicator of the spectral shape of the MUVB is the ratio OIV/OIII. Unlike previous thought, the ratio SiIV/CIV is not a good indicator of the spectral shape because of its strong dependence on an ionization parameter as well. We also find that the observed excess of CIV systems in luminous QSOs may be a photoionization effect, but not a gravitational lensing effect.

J. M. Liu

1997-09-13

267

Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

Do?er, Emek; Köpük, ?ule Y.; Çak?ro?lu, Yi?it; Çak?r, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

2013-01-01

268

Giant cell tumour of the proximal radius.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old Indian woman presented with a progressively increasing swelling and pain in the right elbow for the past eight months, which was not associated with trauma or constitutional symptoms. The patient was diagnosed to have Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the proximal radius, and was treated with above elbow amputation. The patient has not shown any recurrence after five years of follow-up. The case was reported because of its rarity and the unusual site of occurrence of the tumour. PMID:19960152

Singh, A P; Mahajan, S; Singh, A P

2009-11-01

269

Space station proximity operations and window design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

Haines, Richard F.

1988-01-01

270

Regulation of phosphate transport in proximal tubules.  

PubMed

Homeostasis of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) is primarily an affair of the kidneys. Reabsorption of the bulk of filtered P(i) occurs along the renal proximal tubule and is initiated by apically localized Na(+)-dependent P(i) cotransporters. Tubular P(i) reabsorption and therefore renal excretion of P(i) is controlled by a number of hormones, including phosphatonins, and metabolic factors. In most cases, regulation of P(i) reabsorption is achieved by changing the apical abundance of Na(+)/Pi cotransporters. The regulatory mechanisms involve various signaling pathways and a number of proteins that interact with Na(+)/P(i) cotransporters. PMID:18758808

Biber, J; Hernando, N; Forster, I; Murer, H

2009-05-01

271

Spin-orbit proximity effect in graphene.  

PubMed

The development of spintronics devices relies on efficient generation of spin-polarized currents and their electric-field-controlled manipulation. While observation of exceptionally long spin relaxation lengths makes graphene an intriguing material for spintronics studies, electric field modulation of spin currents is almost impossible due to negligible intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of graphene. In this work, we create an artificial interface between monolayer graphene and few-layer semiconducting tungsten disulphide. In these devices, we observe that graphene acquires spin-orbit coupling up to 17?meV, three orders of magnitude higher than its intrinsic value, without modifying the structure of the graphene. The proximity spin-orbit coupling leads to the spin Hall effect even at room temperature, and opens the door to spin field effect transistors. We show that intrinsic defects in tungsten disulphide play an important role in this proximity effect and that graphene can act as a probe to detect defects in semiconducting surfaces. PMID:25255743

Avsar, A; Tan, J Y; Taychatanapat, T; Balakrishnan, J; Koon, G K W; Yeo, Y; Lahiri, J; Carvalho, A; Rodin, A S; O'Farrell, E C T; Eda, G; Castro Neto, A H; Ozyilmaz, B

2014-01-01

272

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

SciTech Connect

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

Fosco, Cesar D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA (Argentina)] [Argentina; Mazzitelli, Francisco D., E-mail: fdmazzi@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-08-15

273

Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth. PMID:21490114

Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

2012-05-01

274

Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk?=?0.34; 95% confidence interval?=?0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

2012-01-01

275

Cell Plasticity in Lung Injury and Repair  

PubMed Central

In April 2010, a NIH workshop was convened to discuss the current state of understanding of lung cell plasticity, including the responses of epithelial cells to injury, with the objectives of summarizing what is known, what the field needs to know, and how to get there. The proximal stimulus for this workshop is the body of recent evidence suggesting that plasticity is a prominent but incompletely characterized property of lung epithelial cells, and that a focus on understanding this aspect of epithelial cell biology in particular, may be an important window into disease pathobiology and pathogenesis. In addition to their many vital functions in maintaining tissue homeostasis, epithelial cells have emerged as both a central target of disease initiation and an active contributor to disease progression, making a workshop to investigate the role of cell plasticity in lung injury and repair timely. The workshop was organized around four major themes: lung epithelial cell plasticity, signaling control of plasticity, fibroblast plasticity and crosstalk, and translation to human disease. Although this breakdown was recognized to be somewhat artificial, it was felt that this approach would promote cross-fertilization among groups that ordinarily do not communicate and lend itself to the generation of new approaches. The summary reports of individual group discussions below are followed by consensus priorities and recommendations of the workshop participants. PMID:21653526

Borok, Zea; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Bitterman, Peter B.; Thannickal, Victor J.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Reynolds, Susan D.; Krasnow, Mark A.; Bianchi, Diana W.; Morrisey, Edward E.; Hogan, Brigid L.; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Walker, David C.; Radisky, Derek C.; Nishimura, Steve L.; Violette, Shelia M.; Noble, Paul W.; Shapiro, Steve D.; Blaisdell, Carol J.; Chapman, Harold A.

2011-01-01

276

External aortic wrap for repair of type 1 endoleak?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Type 1 endoleak is a rare complication after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a reported frequency up to 2.88%. It is a major risk factor for aneurysmal enlargement and rupture. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of a 68 year old gentleman who was found to have a proximal type 1 endoleak with loss of graft wall apposition on routine surveillance imaging post-EVAR. An initial attempt at endovascular repair was unsuccessful. Given the patient's multiple medical co-morbidities, which precluded the possibility of conventional graft explantation and open repair, we performed a novel surgical technique which did not require aortic cross-clamping. A double-layered Dacron wrap was secured around the infra-renal aorta with Prolene sutures, effectively hoisting the posterior bulge to allow wall to graft apposition and excluding the endoleak. Post-operative CT angiogram showed resolution of the endoleak and a stable sac size. DISCUSSION Several anatomical factors need to be considered when this technique is proposed including aortic neck angulation, position of lumbar arteries and peri-aortic venous anatomy. While an external wrap technique has been investigated sporadically for vascular aneurysms, to our knowledge there is only one similar case in the literature. CONCLUSION Provided certain anatomical features are present, an external aortic wrap is a useful and successful option to manage type 1 endoleak in high-risk patients who are unsuitable for aortic clamping. PMID:25217878

Dean, Anastasia; Yap, Swee Leong; Bhamidipaty, Venu; Pond, Franklin

2014-01-01

277

The Proximity Toolkit and ViconFace: Proximity Toolkit is a toolkit that simplifies the  

E-print Network

-end installation that tracks infrared reflective markers affixed to objects. Our API hides the low-level details was the Proximity Toolkit. Through the toolkit's API, developers can easily: · track particular objects of interest, top) · For each object, a developer can track its 3D position, orientation, and velocity (Figure 1

Greenberg, Saul

278

Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair

Torpey, Elka Maria

2010-01-01

279

Enzymology of mitochondrial base excision repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of laboratories have shown that those types of DNA damage that are generally reparable by base excision repair are efficiently repaired in mtDNA. In contrast, most types of damage that require other sorts of repair machinery, are not effectively repaired in mtDNA. We have shown that a set of highly purified mitochondria) proteins, including AP endonuclease (APE), DNA

Daniel F Bogenhagen; Kevin G Pinz; Romina M Perez-Jannotti

2001-01-01

280

Taking control of cavitation repair  

SciTech Connect

Eliminating surprises and emergencies is the key of mastering cavitation-erosion repair. Innovations in runner design, new welding techniques and materials, and integrated maintenance scheduling add to that mastery.

Fulton, E. [Hydro Review, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1994-05-01

281

Inguinal hernia repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A hernia occurs when part of an organ protrudes through a weak point or tear in the thin muscular ... Hernia repair may be recommended for: large bulges through a small hole (increased risk of incarceration and ...

282

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

283

Differential gene expression in proximal and distal nerve segments of rats with sciatic nerve injury during Wallerian degeneration  

PubMed Central

Wallerian degeneration is a subject of major interest in neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated during the distinct stages of Wallerian degeneration: transcription factor activation, immune response, myelin cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Although gene expression responses in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve after peripheral nerve injury are known, differences in gene expression between the proximal and distal segments remain unclear. In the present study in rats, we used microarrays to analyze changes in gene expression, biological processes and signaling pathways in the proximal and distal segments of sciatic nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration. More than 6,000 genes were differentially expressed and 20 types of expression tendencies were identified, mainly between proximal and distal segments at 7–14 days after injury. The differentially expressed genes were those involved in cell differentiation, cytokinesis, neuron differentiation, nerve development and axon regeneration. Furthermore, 11 biological processes were represented, related to responses to stimuli, cell apoptosis, inflammatory response, immune response, signal transduction, protein kinase activity, and cell proliferation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, microarray data were verified for four genes: aquaporin-4, interleukin 1 receptor-like 1, matrix metalloproteinase-12 and periaxin. Our study identifies differential gene expression in the proximal and distal segments of a nerve during Wallerian degeneration, analyzes dynamic biological changes of these genes, and provides a useful platform for the detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration.

Jiang, Nan; Li, Huaiqin; Sun, Yi; Yin, Dexin; Zhao, Qin; Cui, Shusen; Yao, Dengbing

2014-01-01

284

Differential gene expression in proximal and distal nerve segments of rats with sciatic nerve injury during Wallerian degeneration.  

PubMed

Wallerian degeneration is a subject of major interest in neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated during the distinct stages of Wallerian degeneration: transcription factor activation, immune response, myelin cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Although gene expression responses in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve after peripheral nerve injury are known, differences in gene expression between the proximal and distal segments remain unclear. In the present study in rats, we used microarrays to analyze changes in gene expression, biological processes and signaling pathways in the proximal and distal segments of sciatic nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration. More than 6,000 genes were differentially expressed and 20 types of expression tendencies were identified, mainly between proximal and distal segments at 7-14 days after injury. The differentially expressed genes were those involved in cell differentiation, cytokinesis, neuron differentiation, nerve development and axon regeneration. Furthermore, 11 biological processes were represented, related to responses to stimuli, cell apoptosis, inflammatory response, immune response, signal transduction, protein kinase activity, and cell proliferation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, microarray data were verified for four genes: aquaporin-4, interleukin 1 receptor-like 1, matrix metalloproteinase-12 and periaxin. Our study identifies differential gene expression in the proximal and distal segments of a nerve during Wallerian degeneration, analyzes dynamic biological changes of these genes, and provides a useful platform for the detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration. PMID:25206781

Jiang, Nan; Li, Huaiqin; Sun, Yi; Yin, Dexin; Zhao, Qin; Cui, Shusen; Yao, Dengbing

2014-06-15

285

Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.

2009-09-01

286

Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair  

SciTech Connect

Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

Ayad, K. E.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F. [Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University (Egypt); El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Bekheet, A. B. [Al Sahel Teaching Hospital, Cairo (Egypt)

2009-09-27

287

Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

288

Early Days of DNA Repair: Discovery of Nucleotide Excision Repair and Homology-Dependent Recombinational Repair  

PubMed Central

The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere. PMID:24348214

Rupp, W. Dean

2013-01-01

289

Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are includes by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

290

Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are included by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

291

Eating Event Detection by Magnetic Proximity Sensing  

PubMed Central

Eating event detection is an important problem in automatic dietary study using a wearable computer, such as the eButton. In this work, we approach this detection problem based on the use of a small magnet marker attached to a finger and a miniature magnetometer installed within the eButton. Our experimental results indicate that our magnetic approach is effective when the distance between the marker and the wearable computer is within 12cm, and the range of detection is approximately 15cm. We also found that the proximity signal patterns corresponding to eating and other daily activities are different, which can be used to reduce the false detection rate. In addition, our approach is convenient, low-cost and energy efficient, suitable for practical applications. PMID:25342877

Li, Chengliu; Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui

2014-01-01

292

Rendezvous and proximity operations sensor candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ESA study, RVD and proximity operations on autonomous smart sensors for guidance between spacecraft are discussed. Measurement parameters for the sensors include range, range resolution, and range rate between 20 km and 0.1 m, and angular and lateral relative position between 20 km and 0.1 m. Sensors examined include a PRN Ku-band microwave range and attitude sensor, a CW laser diode range and attitude sensor, and a solid state smart camera for near field guidance. The study suggests that autonomous spacecraft docking is realistic to the extent that pin-to-pin connections/alignment can be warranted, and provided that the expected lateral offset of the docking/matching items to the sensor view area is sufficiently precise.

Kunkel, B.; Hartl, Ph.; Fehse, W.

1985-02-01

293

[Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].  

PubMed

Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

Rohrbach, J M

2012-10-01

294

Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1?/? mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1?/? mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1?/? callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

2011-01-01

295

Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the brassboard and proto-type NGAVGS units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

2009-01-01

296

Endograft migration one to four years after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with the AneuRx device: A cautionary note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Positional stability of the endograft is essential for long-term durability after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EAR). However, the cumulative risk of delayed endograft migration has been sparsely reported. Method: A total of 91 patients studied underwent EAR with the AneuRx endograft with a minimum 1 year from implantation. Data from a prospective database were assessed for proximal endograft

Michael S. Conners; W. Charles Sternbergh; Glen Carter; Britt H. Tonnessen; Moises Yoselevitz; Samuel R. Money

2002-01-01

297

Repairing Solar Max: The Solar Maximum Repair Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology and procedures designed for replacing a faulty attitude control module and scientific instruments on the only orbiting solar observatory are described. The rationale for the repair mission is given and the operations of the flight support system within the cargo bay of the space shuttle are discussed. The use of the manned maneuvering unit in capturing the satellite and of the remote manipulator arm in berthing it are discussed, as well as the space tools to be used for repair operations. The space crew and their responsibilities are identified.

Mcmahan, T.; Neal, V.

1984-01-01

298

A High-Throughput Scintillation Proximity-Based Assay for Human DNA Ligase IV  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ionizing radiation (IR) and certain chemotherapeutic drugs are designed to generate cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cancer cells. Inhibition of the major DSB repair pathway, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), will enhance the cytotoxicity of these agents. Screening for inhibitors of the DNA ligase IV (Lig4), which mediates the final ligation step in NHEJ, offers a novel target-based drug discovery opportunity. For this purpose, we have developed an enzymatic assay to identify chemicals that block the transfer of [?-33P]-AMP from the complex Lig4-[?-33P]-AMP onto the 5? end of a double-stranded DNA substrate and adapted it to a scintillation proximity assay (SPA). A screen was performed against a collection of 5,280 compounds. Assay statistics show an average Z? value of 0.73, indicative of a robust assay in this SPA format. Using a threshold of >20% inhibition, 10 compounds were initially scored as positive hits. A follow-up screen confirmed four compounds with IC50 values ranging from 1 to 30??M. Rabeprazole and U73122 were found to specifically block the adenylate transfer step and DNA rejoining; in whole live cell assays, these compounds were found to inhibit the repair of DSBs generated by IR. The ability to screen and identify Lig4 inhibitors suggests that they may have utility as chemo- and radio-sensitizers in combination therapy and provides a rationale for using this screening strategy to identify additional inhibitors. PMID:22192310

Tseng, Hui-Min; Shum, David; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Escobar, Sindy; Veomett, Nicholas J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Gin, David Y.

2012-01-01

299

Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

2009-01-01

300

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective “survival motor neuron” (SMN) protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. PMID:24399883

Haaker, Gerrit; Fujak, Albert

2013-01-01

301

Effects of thrust reversing in ground proximity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in stability and control characteristics encountered by a thrust reversing aircraft during its final approach, landing, and ground roll are described. These changes include a strong pitch-up accompanied by the loss of horizontal tail and aileron control effectiveness. The magnitude of reverser induced changes in ground effect are much larger than corresponding changes in free air. Some unexpected unsteady motions exhibited in wind tunnel by an aircraft model with reversers operating in ground proximity are also described. The cause of this oscillatory behavior was determined to be an unsteady interaction between the wall jets formed by impingement of reverser jets on the ground and the on-coming free stream. Time histories of rolling moments measured by the wind tunnel balance or support system were removed and frequencies were scaled by Strouhal number to full scale. Corrected time series were used to simulate the motion of a fighter aircraft with thrust reversers in ground effect. The simulation predicted large roll angles and nose down attitude at touchdown. Some phenomena of jet attachment to solid surfaces are discussed and areas for future research are recommended.

Joshi, P. B.; Hughes, R. V.

1987-01-01

302

Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive graphical proximity operations planning system was developed, which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in a dynamic multispacecraft environment. Maneuvering takes place in and out of the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of orbital dynamics and complex time-varying operational constraints. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relevant constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of a Space Station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the Station's orbital plane. The operator has control over the two modes of operation: a viewing system mode, which enables the exporation of the spatial situation about the Space Station and thus the ability to choose and zoom in on areas of interest; and a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory that complies with all operational constraints. A first version of this display was completed. An experimental program is planned in which operators will carry out a series of design missions which vary in complexity and constraints.

Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

1988-01-01

303

Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive, graphical proximity operations planning system was developed which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in the dynamic multispacecraft environment about the space station. Maneuvering takes place in, as well as out of, the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of relative orbital motion trajectories and complex operational constraints, which are both time varying and highly dependent on the mission scenario. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relative constraints in an easily interpretable, graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of the space station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the station's orbital plane. The operator has control over two modes of operation: (1) a viewing system mode, which enables him or her to explore the spatial situation about the space station and thus choose and frame in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way-points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory which complies with all operational constraints. Through a graphical interactive process, the operator will continue to modify the trajectory design until all operational constraints are met. The effectiveness of this display format in complex trajectory design is presently being evaluated in an ongoing experimental program.

Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

1989-01-01

304

Ion selectivity and proximal salt reabsorption.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological techniques were used in isolated perfused superficial (S) and juxtamedullary (JM) rabbit proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) to examine the relative sodium-to-chloride (PNa/PCl) and bicarbonate-to-chloride (PHCO3/PCl) permeability ratios. We found that the great majority of PCT are sodium selective and that PHCO3/PCl depends on the experimental conditions. In the presence of active sodium transport, PHCO3/PCl is high and increases with PNa/PCl. When PHCO3/PCl is determined after inhibition of active sodium transport or at 25 degrees C, PHCO3/PCl approximates the free solution anion mobility ratio of 0.5 and is independent of PNa/PCl. The difference between PHCO3/PCl determined in the presence of and in the absence of active transport suggests that the lowering of bath bicarbonate concentration in the presence of active transport changes both paracellular and transcellular current flow. In addition, we found that during luminal perfusion with high chloride, low bicarbonate, organic solute-free solutions, the transepithelial electrical potential depends on PNa/PCl and PHCO3/PCl. This potential is approximately 4.0 mV in S PCT with low PNa/PCl and falls progressively to zero in JM PCT with high PNa/PCl. From these data we conclude that anion concentration gradients drive an important diffusive flux of sodium chloride through the paracellular pathway only in PCT with low PNa/PCl ratios. PMID:696834

Berry, C A; Warnock, D G; Rector, F C

1978-09-01

305

Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

1982-01-01

306

DNA repair systems in rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescent population. There are two major histological subtypes, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS), differing in cytogenetic and morphological features. RMS pathogenesis remains controversial and several cellular mechanisms and pathways have been implicated. Application of intense chemo- and radio-therapy improves survival rates for RMS patients, but significant efficacy has not been proved as DNA damage induced-resistance frequently occurs. The present review is aimed at summarizing the current evidence on DNA repair systems, implications in RMS development, focusing on gene expression alterations and point mutations of genes encoding for DNA repair enzymes. Understanding of DNA repair systems involvement in RMS pathogenesis could diversify RMS patients and provide novel individualized therapeutic targets. PMID:23516236

Tsioli, Panagiota G; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Giaginis, Constantinos; Theocharis, Stamatios E

2013-08-01

307

Robotic equipment for pipeline repair  

SciTech Connect

Hyperbaric welding provides the most reliable method for connection or repair of subsea oil and gas pipelines. Research on hyperbaric arc welding processes indicates that it should be possible to achieve stable welding conditions with Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) to approximately 600m, and with Gas Metal Arc (GMA) and Plasma Arc to at least 1,000m. These depths are well beyond the limits of manned saturation diving. At the present time the limitation on the maximum depth to which these processes can be applied, in practice, is the requirement for completely diverless operation deeper than approximately 350m. Fully diverless hyperbaric welding is not presently available to the industry but several diverless pipeline repair systems which utilize mechanical connectors have been developed. This paper reviews the present status of mechanized hyperbaric welding systems currently being used in the North Sea and discusses some of the work being done to achieve fully diverless robotic pipeline repair with both welding and connectors.

Gibson, D.E.; Barratt, K.; Paterson, J. [National Hyperbaric Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

308

Weld repair of irradiated materials  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of an accelerator for production of tritium will require replacement or modification of components that have been exposed to neutron irradiation. A primary repair option is welding, but conventional repair welding processes produced severe cracking in irradiated stainless steel. Optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have shown that the cracks are: intergranular, primarily in the weld heat-affected zone, characterized by a dimple structure on the crack surface, and associated with helium bubbles that grow during welding. A model has been developed that qualitatively shows the interaction of three primary and three secondary variables producing helium embrittlement cracking. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated to minimize cracking in irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of accelerator materials exposed to irradiation.

Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Rankin, D.T.; Tosten, M.H.

1999-09-01

309

Weld Repair of Irradiated Materials  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of an accelerator for production of tritium will require replacement or modification of components that have been exposed to neutron irradiation. A primary repair option is welding, but conventional repair welding processes produced severe cracking in irradiated stainless steel. Optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have shown that the cracks are: intergranular, primarily in the weld heat-affected zone, characterized by a dimple structure on the crack surface, and associated with helium bubbles which grow during welding. A model has been developed which qualitatively shows the interaction of three primary and three secondary variables producing helium embrittlement cracking. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated to minimize cracking in irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of accelerator materials exposed to irradiation.

Kanne, W.R. Jr.

1999-02-24

310

Intralysosomal digestion of lysozyme in renal proximal tubule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intralysosomal digestion of lysozyme in renal proximal tubule cells. This investigation was carried out to determine the ability of lysosomes in intact proximal tubule cells to digest absorbed protein. Lysozyme labeled with 125I was injected i.v. into rats and renal cortical slices removed after one hour. The slices were incubated in vitro for up to two hours. The location of

Erik Ilsø Christensen; Arvid B Maunsbach

1974-01-01

311

Mining Proximal Social Network Intelligence for Quality Decision Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of proximity have been utilized for exploring both psychological and geographical incentives for users within social networks to collaborate with others for mutual goals. The massive information does not facilitate quality decision support. In this paper, we focus on mining the proximal social network intelligence for quality decision support. The utilization of investigating both the context and the

Yuan-chu Hwang

2009-01-01

312

Proximal symphalangism: Evidence of linkage to 17q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximal symphalangism (PS; OMIM 185800) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is characterized by ankylosis of the proximal interphalangeal joints and an increased incidence of conductive deafness in some families. A large American kindred with PS was originally described by Cushing in 1916, segregating for this disorder in many generations. Several follow-up studies have confirmed the disorder in members of

C. A. Francomano; J. R. Rubenstein; M. H. Polymeropoulos

1994-01-01

313

Palliation of proximal malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

For four years up to December 1987, 190 patients (median age 73 years) with proximal malignant biliary obstruction were treated by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. Altogether 101 had cholangiocarcinoma, 21 gall bladder carcinoma, 20 local spread of pancreatic carcinoma, and 48 metastatic malignancy. Fifty eight patients had type I, 54 type II, and 78 type III proximal biliary strictures (Bismuth classification).

A A Polydorou; S R Cairns; J F Dowsett; A R Hatfield; P R Salmon; P B Cotton; R C Russell

1991-01-01

314

How Peer Proximity Moderates Indirect Media Influence on Adolescent Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines direct and indirect impacts of antismoking media messages on adolescents' smoking attitudes and intentions to smoke. Elaborating on the influence of presumed influence model, this study incorporates the moderating role of peer proximity (i.e., proximal versus distal peers). Analyzing direct effects in a survey of 1,687 middle school students, we find that antismoking media messages have unexpected

Hye-Jin Paek; Albert C. Gunther

2007-01-01

315

Geographic Constraints on Knowledge Diffusion: Political Borders vs. Spatial Proximity  

E-print Network

Geographic Constraints on Knowledge Diffusion: Political Borders vs. Spatial Proximity Jasjit Singh-based sampling in order to estimate the likelihood of citation between random patents. We find borders both role for political borders than for spatial proximity per se. The state border effect, although robust

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

316

Equivalence of Entropy Regularization and Relative-Entropy Proximal Method  

E-print Network

Equivalence of Entropy Regularization and Relative-Entropy Proximal Method Jason K. Johnson May 16, 2008 Abstract We consider two entropy-based interior point methods that solve LP relaxations of MAP estimation in graphical models: (1) an entropy-regularization method and (2) a relative-entropy proximal

Willsky, Alan S.

317

Group Proximity Measure for Recommending Groups in Online Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently, thousands of online social networks (OSN) available, each of which hosts millions of users. Users make new friendship links, join groups on diverse topics, share opinions and thus help in building a big knowledge repository. In this paper we study the problem of defining proximity measure between groups (communities) of OSN. Understanding the proximity among the groups

Barna Saha; Lise Getoor

318

Salvage of failed total hip arthroplasty with proximal femoral replacement.  

PubMed

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Identify the available types of reconstruction for failed total hip arthroplasty. 2. Summarize the preoperative workup of patients with failed total hip arthroplasty and massive proximal femoral bone loss. 3. Assess the surgical technique of proximal femoral replacement for failed total hip arthroplasty. 4. Recognize treatment complications, patient outcomes, and survival of proximal femoral megaprostheses for revision of failed total hip arthroplasty. Despite recent advances in device manufacturing and surgical techniques, the management of proximal femoral bone loss in revision total hip arthroplasty remains challenging. Currently, failed total hip arthroplasty in elderly and less active patients, nonunion of the proximal femur with multiple failed attempts at osteosynthesis, resection arthroplasty, and massive proximal femoral bone loss can be salvaged with proximal femoral replacement using a megaprosthesis. The procedure is technically demanding and requires careful preoperative planning. Instability and aseptic loosening are the major complications, especially in younger and more active patients. The new generation of modular proximal femoral replacement megaprostheses and the increased experience obtained with these surgeries have reduced complication rates and improved outcomes. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):691-698.]. PMID:25275970

Savvidou, Olga D; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Sakellariou, Vasilios; Christogiannis, Ioannis; Vottis, Christos; Christodoulou, Michael; Vlasis, Konstantinos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2014-09-01

319

Original article Proximate and amino acid composition of seeds of  

E-print Network

to be very similar to that of Faba bean seeds. The crude protein content (31.3% dry matter, DM) of CE shouldOriginal article Proximate and amino acid composition of seeds of Canavalia ensiformis le 10 septembre 1989) Summary — A proximate analysis of Canavalia ensiformis seeds (CE) appears

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Physical Attractiveness and Proximity in the Attribution of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed attributions made to an attractive or unattractive person who took either a proximal or distal seating position following task performance. Greater attributions of success were made to an attractive person, regardless of the proximity, which suggests pervasive influence of physical attractiveness on attributions in behavioral…

Hill, Michael K.; Kahn, Arnold

321

Proximity and territory versus space in regional science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence tends to show that regional development occurs only in certain places. Therefore, one can ask the central question of the role of physical proximity in economic development processes. Economists try to answer this question through the concept of externalities, but this does not explain why certain externalities are linked with physical proximity. In this paper the author tries

O Crevoisier

1996-01-01

322

Long-term stability of membrane transducers for proximity sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the long-term stability of micromachined silicon membrane resonators for ultrasound based object detection and proximity sensing. The proximity sensor system measures distances up to 10 cm using either a phase or an acoustic Fabry-Perot measurement method. In these applications the transducer elements are continuously excited at their fundamental resonance using the thermomechanical excitation principle. The success of

Mark Hornung; Oliver Brand; Oliver Paul; Henry Baltes

1998-01-01

323

Protein detection using proximity-dependent DNA ligation assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of in vitro DNA amplification has enabled rapid acquisition of genomic information. We present here an analogous technique for protein detection, in which the coordinated and proximal binding of a target protein by two DNA aptamers promotes ligation of oligonucleotides linked to each aptamer affinity probe . The ligation of two such proximity probes gives rise to an

Simon Fredriksson; Mats Gullberg; Jonas Jarvius; Charlotta Olsson; Kristian Pietras; Sigrún Margrét Gústafsdóttir; Arne Östman; Ulf Landegren

2002-01-01

324

Bilateral non-osteochondroma-related proximal tibiofibular synostosis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 67-year-old male with bilateral proximal tibiofibular synostosis, presenting with unilateral symptoms. The patient complained of pain around the left fibular head, which was attributed to incomplete bone bridging between the proximal tibia and fibula; he underwent proximal fibular head resection, which alleviated the pain and improved knee mobility. Eleven months later, the patient continued to be pain-free and did not experience any adverse effects. An examination of this case and a review of similar cases revealed that participation in sport activities such as long-distance running may be one of the causes of proximal tibiofibular synostosis. In this report, we have also reconsidered the classification of proximal tibiofibular synostosis and provided information for a better understanding of this unusual condition. PMID:24915740

Wakayama, Takanori; Imanishi, Jungo; Yazawa, Yasuo; Okubo, Taketo; Kaneko, Kazuo

2014-12-01

325

Optimal repair for repairable components during phaseout an aircraft fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successive removal of units from a group of systems during phasing out leads to a variable requirement for stock level of spare parts. Repairable units from phased out systems can be reused for the remaining functional systems in the group. Hence, the stock level of spare parts increases and the demand for spare parts decreases. This can lead to

Jan Block; Tommy Tyrberg; Yuan Fuquing

2010-01-01

326

Mismatch repair protein expression in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Alterations in at least six of the genes that encode proteins involved in the mismatch repair (MMR) system have been identified in either HNPCC or sporadic colon cancer. We aimed to analyse the proportion of patients with colorectal cancer with loss of immunostaining for MMR proteins in order to determine the feasibility of molecular screening for the loss of MMR proteins through the study of unselected patients with colorectal cancer. Methods A group of 33 patients with colorectal cancer was randomly selected from the department of surgery bio-bank to determine the expression of MMR proteins in their FFPE tumour tissues using immunohistochemistry techniques. Changes in protein expression following transfection of colorectal tissues were observed in stained cells using Olympus BX60 microscope and image analySIS software. Results Of the tissue specimens in which acceptable immunostaining was achieved, three samples showed loss of one or more of the MMR proteins. Both hMLH1 and hPMS2 proteins were not expressed in a 36 years old woman with cancer of the caecum. The expression of hMSH6 protein was undetermined in tumour tissues retrieved from a 61 years old man with cancer of the proximal colon. The third case was a 77 years old man with no documented family history of cancer, who had carcinoma of the rectum. He showed loss of hMLH1 expression in the tumour tissues Conclusions Our findings and the previous reports pointed out the importance of molecular screening of patients with colorectal cancer for MSI using immunohistochemistry. This strategy managed to identify mutations in patients otherwise would not have been detected. PMID:24294512

Miller, Nicola; Chang, Kah Hoong; Curran, Catherine; Hennessey, Emer; Sheehan, Margaret; Kerin, Michael J

2013-01-01

327

Summary of Repair Techniques for Aluminum Bridging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the results of an investigation designed to recommend joining processes which could be used in the field to repair aluminum bridging. A literature search was conducted to identify the various aluminum repair processes available. The m...

D. Brockman, R. A. Weber

1982-01-01

328

Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

329

Reducing Your Leak Rate Without Repairing Leaks  

E-print Network

As plant personnel know, repairing compressed air leaks can be an expensive, labor intensive and never-ending process. This article discusses ways plant personnel can reduce and maintain their leak rate at a lower level without repairing leaks...

Beals, C.

2005-01-01

330

Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation  

SciTech Connect

Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

Claridge, Shelley A

2008-05-01

331

Transport Magnetic Proximity Effects in Platinum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum (Pt) metal, being non-magnetic and having a strong spin-orbit coupling interaction, has been central in detecting pure spin current and establishing most of the recent spin-based phenomena. Thus, it is important to ascertain the transport and magnetic characteristics of thin Pt films in contact with a ferromagnet. In this work, we use both electric and thermal means to conclusively show the transport magnetic proximity effects (MPE) of thin Pt film in contact with ferromagnetic insulator YIG. At thicknesses comparable to, and less than, the spin diffusion length, the strong ferromagnetic characteristics in Pt films on YIG are indistinguishable from those of ferromagnetic permalloy on YIG. [1] The MPE occurs at the interface and decreases exponentially away from the interface, concentrating in only a few monolayers. As a result, the pure spin current detected by a thin Pt is tainted with a spin polarized current. The pure spin current phenomena, such as the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Seebeck effect, have been contaminated with the anomalous Hall effect and the anomalous Nernst effect respectively. These results raise serious questions about the suitability, and the validity, of using Pt in establishing pure spin current phenomena; on the other hand, a much stronger spin-based effect can be induced by the MPE at the interface. This research is in collaboration with X. Fin, Y. P. Chen, J. Wu, and J. Q. Xiao (University of Delaware), T. Y. Chen (Arizona State University) and D. Qu, W. G. Wang, and C. L. Chien (The Johns Hopkins University).[4pt] [1] S. Y. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Letts. 109, 107204 (2012).

Huang, Ssu-Yen

2013-03-01

332

Five repair pathways in one context: chromatin modification during DNA repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eukaryotic cell is faced with more than 10 000 various kinds of DNA lesions per day. Failure to repair such lesions can lead to mutations, genomic instability, or cell death. Therefore, cells have developed 5 major repair path- ways in which different kinds of DNA damage can be detected and repaired: homologous recombination, nonhomologous end joining, nucleotide excision repair,

Yeganeh Ataian; Jocelyn E. Krebs

2006-01-01

333

Multi-Echelon Repairable Item Inventory System with Limited Repair Capacity under Nonstationary Demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical multi-echelon repairable item inventory models are based either on steady-state analysis or infinite repair capacity, which may not work well in situations when the demand is nonstationary, or repair capacity is limited. In this paper, we propose an analytical model for evaluating system performance that works well under limited repair capacity and nonstationary demands. Following the METRIC methodology, we

Hoong Chuin LAU; Huawei Song

2008-01-01

334

How the Brain Repairs Stuttering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

2009-01-01

335

Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

Smreker, Eugene

336

Small Engine Repair Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Small engines as referred to here are engines used on lawn mowers, chain saws, power plants, outboards, and cycles. It does not include engines used on automobiles. The course outlined is intended to show how small two-cycle and four-cycle gas engines are constructed, how they operate, what goes wrong, and how to service and repair them. It is…

DeClouet, Fred

337

DNA damage repair and transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of DNA damage a complex repertoire of molecular signals, chromatin determinants and specific transcription factors are set in motion for repair. In many instances, the response pathway can be characterized by profound changes in molecular remodeling and is intimately linked with DNA replication and gene transcription. Our understanding of the molecular pathways has come from scientific developments

A. El-Osta

2004-01-01

338

A practical algorithm forcartilage repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptomatic chondral defects may be repaired by arthroscopic lavage and debridement, marrow stimulation,osteochondral graft transfer, autologous chondrocyte implantation, or osteoarticular allograft transplantation. The procedural selection may be made easier by a knowledge of the factors influencing prognosis. These factors include defect size, patient age, acuteness of injury, and activity level. Predisposing causes for chondral injuries such as instability, axial or

Tom Minas

2000-01-01

339

Verification of Motor Repair Quality  

E-print Network

Motor testing at Advanced Energy has shown that a motor that has not suffered irreparable damage as a result of failure can be repaired to perform as well as before the failure. But the only way to achieve the performance level of an energy...

Butler, K.

340

Anodization As A Repair Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin, hard oxide layer added to aluminum part. Surfaces on aluminum part worn out of tolerance by no more than 0.004 in. often repaired by anodizing to build up aluminum oxide layers. Oxide layers very hard and grounded to desired final dimensions.

Groff, Roy E.; Maloney, Robert D.; Reeser, Robert W.

1988-01-01

341

GDR: a system for guided data repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving data quality is a time-consuming, labor-intensive and often domain specific operation. Existing data repair approaches are either fully automated or not efficient in interactively involving the users. We present a demo of GDR, a Guided Data Repair system that uses a novel approach to efficiently involve the user alongside automatic data repair techniques to reach better data quality as

Mohamed Yakout; Ahmed K. Elmagarmid; Jennifer Neville; Mourad Ouzzani

2010-01-01

342

Auto Body Repair and Repainting: Instructional Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide contains 11 sections, each consisting of one or more units of instruction designed to provide students with entry-level skills in auto body repair. The sections deal with: introductory and related information; body and frame construction; tools; welding; basic metal repair; hardware, glass, and trim; major metal repair; refinishing;…

Manuel, Edward F.; Penner, Wayman R.

343

Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

344

Interactions between DNA damage, repair, and transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses a variety of mechanisms by which DNA repair interacts with transcription and vice versa. Blocking of transcriptional elongation is the best studied of these mechanisms. Transcription recovery after damage therefore has often been used as a surrogate marker of DNA repair in cells. However, it has become evident that relationships between DNA damage, repair, and transcription are

Andriy Khobta; Bernd Epe

345

Aircraft battle damage repair - A force multiplier  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aircraft battle-damage repair (BDR) program is described that provides for the assessment and repair of battle damage and the return of badly damaged aircraft to their home bases. The program methodology is based on the use of time-saving temporary repairs and associated training and materials provision. BDR is shown to require knowledge of damage mechanisms and specifications for the

Hess

1992-01-01

346

Scheduling and rescheduling with iterative repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GERRY scheduling and rescheduling system being applied to coordinate Space Shuttle ground processing is described. The system uses constraint-based iterative repair, a technique that starts with a complete but possibly flawed schedule and iteratively improves it by using constraint knowledge within repair heuristics. The tradeoff between the informedness and the computational cost of several repair heuristics is explored. It

Monte Zweben; Eugene Davis; Brian Daun; Michael J. Deale

1993-01-01

347

Welding/brazing for Space Station repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

1990-01-01

348

Utility guidelines for controlled deposition repair welding  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews experimental results from the EQI work performed to develop controlled deposition repairs for Cr-Mo steels without postweld heat treatment (PWHT) which are pertinent to electric utility applications, gives recommended guidelines for evaluating if controlled deposition welding is appropriate for a particular repair, and provides a listing of potential applications for controlled deposition repair welding.

Neary, C.M. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1996-06-01

349

Arthroscopic meniscus repair with bioabsorbable arrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The clinical results of a single surgeon’s experience with Meniscus Arrows (Bionx, Blue Bell, PA) for meniscal repair are reviewed and reported to determine the safety and efficacy of this device. Type of Study: Consecutive sample. Methods: Over a 3-year period, the senior author has used only Meniscus Arrows for all meniscal repairs. All patients who underwent meniscal repair

Timothy S. Petsche; Harlan Selesnick; Adam Rochman

2002-01-01

350

Repairing Hurtful Messages in Marital Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hurtful messages and accompanying repair strategies in interpersonal relationships have been noted individually; however, research has not investigated the relation of these two constructs in tandem. This study uses an attributional framework to examine use and the effectiveness of repair strategies with varying hurtful messages. Responses from 237 married adults indicated the justification repair strategy was used

Katie Neary Dunleavy; Alan K. Goodboy; Melanie Booth-Butterfield; Robert J. Sidelinger; Sara Banfield

2009-01-01

351

Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. PMID:23707555

Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

2013-12-01

352

Simulation based mask defect repair verification and disposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the industry moves towards sub-65nm technology nodes, the mask inspection, with increased sensitivity and shrinking critical defect size, catches more and more nuisance and false defects. Increased defect counts pose great challenges in the post inspection defect classification and disposition: which defect is real defect, and among the real defects, which defect should be repaired and how to verify the post-repair defects. In this paper, we address the challenges in mask defect verification and disposition, in particular, in post repair defect verification by an efficient methodology, using SEM mask defect images, and optical inspection mask defects images (only for verification of phase and transmission related defects). We will demonstrate the flow using programmed mask defects in sub-65nm technology node design. In total 20 types of defects were designed including defects found in typical real circuit environments with 30 different sizes designed for each type. The SEM image was taken for each programmed defect after the test mask was made. Selected defects were repaired and SEM images from the test mask were taken again. Wafers were printed with the test mask before and after repair as defect printability references. A software tool SMDD-Simulation based Mask Defect Disposition-has been used in this study. The software is used to extract edges from the mask SEM images and convert them into polygons to save in GDSII format. Then, the converted polygons from the SEM images were filled with the correct tone to form mask patterns and were merged back into the original GDSII design file. This merge is for the purpose of contour simulation-since normally the SEM images cover only small area (~1 ?m) and accurate simulation requires including larger area of optical proximity effect. With lithography process model, the resist contour of area of interest (AOI-the area surrounding a mask defect) can be simulated. If such complicated model is not available, a simple optical model can be used to get simulated aerial image intensity in the AOI. With built-in contour analysis functions, the SMDD software can easily compare the contour (or intensity) differences between defect pattern and normal pattern. With user provided judging criteria, this software can be easily disposition the defect based on contour comparison. In addition, process sensitivity properties, like MEEF and NILS, can be readily obtained in the AOI with a lithography model, which will make mask defect disposition criteria more intelligent.

Guo, Eric; Zhao, Shirley; Zhang, Skin; Qian, Sandy; Cheng, Guojie; Vikram, Abhishek; Li, Ling; Chen, Ye; Hsiang, Chingyun; Zhang, Gary; Su, Bo

2009-10-01

353

Acute childhood leukaemia and residence next to petrol stations and automotive repair garages: the ESCALE study (SFCE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The association between acute childhood leukaemia and residing next to petrol stations and automotive repair garages was analysed in a national registry-based case–control study carried out in France in 2003–2004.Methods:Population controls were frequency matched with cases on age and gender. Data were collected by standardised telephone interview with the mothers. The latter were asked to report the proximity of their

P Brosselin; J Rudant; L Orsi; G Leverger; A Baruchel; Y Bertrand; B Nelken; A Robert; G Michel; G Margueritte; Y Perel; F Mechinaud; P Bordigoni; D Hémon; J Clavel

2009-01-01

354

Outcomes of the open mesh repair of large incisional hernias using an intraperitoneal composite mesh: our experience with 100 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incisional hernia repair sometimes requires intraperitoneal implantation of a mesh. This becomes necessary when the hernia\\u000a opening is large, in particular, in patients with a low abdominal wall surface\\/wall defect surface (AWS\\/WDS) ratio, in large\\u000a boundary incisional hernias where the proximity to bone structures or cartilage often complicates retromuscular mesh implantation\\u000a and in multi-recurrent incisional hernias that are sometimes characterised

Carmine AmmaturoUberto; Uberto Andrea Bassi; Gaspare Bassi

2010-01-01

355

Developmental changes in rabbit proximal straight tubule paracellular permeability  

PubMed Central

The early proximal tubule preferentially reabsorbs organic solutes and bicarbonate over chloride ions, resulting in a luminal fluid with a higher chloride concentration than that in blood. From this late proximal tubular fluid, one-half of NaCl reabsorption by the adult proximal tubule is active and transcellular and one-half is passive and paracellular. The purpose of the present in vitro microperfusion study was to determine the characteristics of passive chloride transport and permeability properties of the adult and neonatal proximal straight tubules (PST). In tubules perfused with a late proximal tubular fluid, net passive chloride flux was 131.7 ± 37.7 pmol·mm?1·min?1 in adult tubules and ?17.1 ± 23.3 pmol·mm?1·min?1 in neonatal proximal tubules (P < 0.01). Chloride permeability was 10.94 ± 5.21 × 10?5 cm/s in adult proximal tubules and ?1.26 ± 1.84 × 10?5 cm/s in neonatal proximal tubules (P < 0.05). Thus neonatal PST have a chloride permeability not different from zero and have no net passive chloride transport. Bicarbonate permeability is also less in neonates than adults in this segment (?0.07 ± 0.03 × 10?5 vs. 0.93 ± 0.27 × 10?5 cm/s, P < 0.01). Neonatal PST have higher sodium-to chloride and bicarbonate-to-chloride permeability ratios than adult PST. However, mannitol and sucrose permeabilities were not different in adult proximal tubules and neonatal PST. Transepithelial resistance was measured using current injection and cable analysis. The resistance was 6.7 ± 0.7 ?·cm2 in adult tubules and 11.3 ± 1.4 ?·cm2 in neonatal PST (P < 0.01). In conclusion, there are significant maturational changes in the characteristics of the PST paracellular pathway affecting transport in this nephron segment. PMID:12167604

QUIGLEY, RAYMOND; BAUM, D MICHEL

2014-01-01

356

Anatomical Considerations of the Suprascapular Nerve in Rotator Cuff Repairs  

PubMed Central

Introduction. When using the double interval slide technique for arthroscopic repair of chronic large or massive rotator cuff tears, the posterior interval release is directed toward the scapular spine until the fat pad that protects the suprascapular nerve is reached. Injury to the suprascapular nerve can occur due to the nerve's proximity to the operative field. This study aimed to identify safe margins for avoiding injury to the suprascapular nerve. Materials and Methods. For 20 shoulders in ten cadavers, the distance was measured from the suprascapular notch to the glenoid rim, the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and the lateral border of the acromion. Results. From the suprascapular notch, the suprascapular nerve coursed an average of 3.42?cm to the glenoid rim, 5.34?cm to the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and 6.09?cm to the lateral border of the acromion. Conclusions. The results of this study define a safe zone, using anatomic landmarks, to help surgeons avoid iatrogenic injury to the suprascapular nerve when employing the double interval slide technique in arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff. PMID:24724030

Tom, James A.; Shah, Mitesh P.; Lee, Dan J.; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Amin, Nirav H.

2014-01-01

357

Study of hotspot repair using cellular automata method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In advanced semiconductor manufacturing, model-based optical proximity correction is commonly used to compensate for image errors. The final pattern is generated using correction values determined by lithography simulation. Image errors such as patterns with insufficient correction or patterns with excessive correction can be generated. These patterns with errors are called hotspots. Such errors are conventionally detected by lithography simulation of OPC patterns. When a hotspot is detected by lithography simulation, it has to be repaired manually or by repeated use of OPC tool. However, it is difficult to obtain correct pattern for a complicated shape, and the correction procedure may require a significant amount of additional processing. In order to solve this issue, we examine application of cellular automata (CA) method for hotspot correction. It is known that CA method can be used for weather or traffic analysis and prediction. In this report, we studied the CA method for deriving simple hotspot repair rule based on lattice cell-like models for light intensity distribution and OPC patterns. We will report on the results of hotspot correction technique with the OPC pattern using CA method.

Nagase, Norimasa; Takeuchi, Kanji; Sakurai, Mitsuo; Itoh, Takahisa; Okada, Tomoyuki

2014-07-01

358

A 17 year old with isolated proximal tibiofibular joint arthritis  

PubMed Central

The proximal tibiofibular joint (TFJ) is rarely affected in rheumatic diseases, and we frequently interpret pain of the lateral knee as the result of overuse or trauma. Nonetheless, the TFJ is a synovial joint that communicates with the tibiofemoral joint in a proportion of patients. While proximal TFJ arthritis has been rarely associated with existing spondyloarthritis, isolated TFJ arthritis as the presenting manifestation of spondyloarthritis has not yet been described. Here, we report the clinical and radiographic presentation of an adolescent with chronic proximal TFJ arthritis heralding spondyloarthritis highly suggestive of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:23302539

2013-01-01

359

Pointwise process proximity function calibration: PPFexplorer application results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiconductor industry and mask shops spend great efforts in order to keep pace with the requirements on pattern fidelity of the ITRS lithography roadmap. Even for e-beam lithography - often referred to as technology with "unlimited" resolution - the challenges increase with shrinking feature sizes in combination with applicable resist processes. The pattern fidelity, specifically CD control, is crucial for the application of e-beam lithography. One aspect in CD control is the intrinsic proximity effect of the electron beam. This together with other contributions like influences from resist process or beam generation which are summarized altogether under the term process proximity effect have to be corrected. An accurate e-beam process proximity effect correction is therefore a key component of e-beam lithography. Some process proximity effect correction algorithms provide not only accurate correction for the process proximity effect induced pattern deformation but also optimize pattern contrast by adjusting geometry and dose simultaneously. However, the quality of the process proximity effect correction is limited by the calibration accuracy of the used model, i.e., the accuracy of the utilized process proximity function (PPF). In a previous paper [R. Galler et al, "PPF - Explorer: Pointwise Proximity Function calibration using a new radialsymmetric calibration structure", BACUS 2011] the PPF-explorer - a new experimental method for pointwise process proximity function calibration - was introduced and some first promising calibration results were shown. This paper presents the progress of the PPFexplorer proximity function calibration. This progress, among others, comprises automatic generation of calibration patterns, including pre-correction with respect to a rough forecast of the process proximity function to be calibrated. This pre-correction approach significantly reduces the number of necessary calibration structures and the number of measurement sites, without sacrificing calibration accuracy. On the contrary, the pre-correction has positive impact on the calibration quality, since it allows unifying the pattern contrast at the measurement sites, which reduces the SEM measurement induced error. We present the results of a PPFexplorer calibration with special focus on minimizing the number of measurement sites. The results show that the PPFexplorer method can help to improve the proximity effect model calibration with controllable efforts.

Krueger, M.; Banasch, M.; Galler, R.; Melzer, D.; Ramos, L. E.; Suelzle, M.; Weidenmueller, U.; Zeitner, U.

2012-02-01

360

Protein detection using proximity-dependent DNA ligation assays.  

PubMed

The advent of in vitro DNA amplification has enabled rapid acquisition of genomic information. We present here an analogous technique for protein detection, in which the coordinated and proximal binding of a target protein by two DNA aptamers promotes ligation of oligonucleotides linked to each aptamer affinity probe. The ligation of two such proximity probes gives rise to an amplifiable DNA sequence that reflects the identity and amount of the target protein. This proximity ligation assay detects zeptomole (40 x 10(-21) mol) amounts of the cytokine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) without washes or separations, and the mechanism can be generalized to other forms of protein analysis. PMID:11981560

Fredriksson, Simon; Gullberg, Mats; Jarvius, Jonas; Olsson, Charlotta; Pietras, Kristian; Gústafsdóttir, Sigrún Margrét; Ostman, Arne; Landegren, Ulf

2002-05-01

361

Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Degenerative aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are increasing in prevalence; open repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Repair of isolated descending thoracic aortic aneurysms using stent grafts was introduced in 1995, and in an anatomically suitable subgroup of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, repair with endovascular stent graft provides favorable outcomes, with decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality relative to open repair. The cornerstones of successful thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair are appropriate patient selection, thorough preprocedural planning, and cautious procedural execution, the elements of which are discussed here. PMID:22379281

Findeiss, Laura K.; Cody, Michael E.

2011-01-01

362

Modulation of variation by response-reward spatial proximity  

E-print Network

were paired with a hidden food reward with similar spatialfood, strengthen as a function of their proximity (spatial and/or temporal) to reward (reward probability, Stahlman and Blaisdell (2011a) trained rats to use landmarks to search for food

Leising, Kenneth J.; Ruprecht, Chad M.; Stahlman, W. David

2014-01-01

363

Computer vision based navigation for spacecraft proximity operations  

E-print Network

The use of computer vision for spacecraft relative navigation and proximity operations within an unknown environment is an enabling technology for a number of future commercial and scientific space missions. This thesis ...

Tweddle, Brent Edward

2010-01-01

364

The unified framework of some proximal-based decomposition ...  

E-print Network

Mar 22, 2010 ... ods and thus presents the unified framework of proximal-based decomposition ... Province NSF BK2008255, The Cultivation Fund of the Key Scientific and Technical Innovation Project, Ministry of Education of China 708044.

2010-03-22

365

A Generalized Inexact Proximal Point Method for Nonsmooth ...  

E-print Network

and Kahneman [10] “loss aversion effect” in Psychology and Management. ... 2], a generalized proximal algorithm can modelize fairly well, in Psychology, ...... The more general case where hj ..... The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3),.

2014-04-08

366

AN INEXACT PROXIMAL PATH-FOLLOWING ALGORITHM FOR ...  

E-print Network

joint treatment of proximal and self-concordant barrier concepts and illustrate that .... the optimality condition for (1.2) and then describe key technical results in deriving ...... Leukemia, where the GMRF sizes are p = 587 and 1255, respectively.

2013-11-07

367

1. General view to southwest showing proximity of house to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. General view to southwest showing proximity of house to bridge and north elevation of house. - Locke Avenue Bridge, Bridge Tender's House, East side of Locke Avenue, 12 feet south of Locke Avenue Bridge, Swedesboro, Gloucester County, NJ

368

Deleting the TGF-? Receptor Attenuates Acute Proximal Tubule Injury  

PubMed Central

TGF-? is a profibrotic growth factor in CKD, but its role in modulating the kidney’s response to AKI is not well understood. The proximal tubule epithelial cell, which is the main cellular target of AKI, expresses high levels of both TGF-? and its receptors. To determine how TGF-? signaling in this tubular segment affects the response to AKI, we selectively deleted the TGF-? type II receptor in the proximal tubules of mice. This deletion attenuated renal impairment and reduced tubular apoptosis in mercuric chloride–induced injury. In vitro, deficiency of the TGF-? type II receptor protected proximal tubule epithelial cells from hydrogen peroxide–induced apoptosis, which was mediated in part by Smad-dependent signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-? signaling in the proximal tubule has a detrimental effect on the response to AKI as a result of its proapoptotic effects. PMID:23160515

Vadivelu, Sangeetha; Neelisetty, Surekha; Srichai, Manakan B.; Paueksakon, Paisit; Pozzi, Ambra; Harris, Raymond C.

2012-01-01

369

Superconducting Proximity Effect in Single-Crystal Nanowires  

E-print Network

This dissertation describes experimental studies of the superconducting proximity effect in single-crystal Pb, Sn, and Zn nanowires of lengths up to 60 um, with both ends of the nanowires in contact with macroscopic electrodes that are either...

Liu, Haidong

2010-07-14

370

Radiation interchange modeling for active infrared proximity sensor design  

E-print Network

RADIATION INTERCHANGE MODELING FOR ACTIVE INFRARED PROXIMITY SENSOR DESIGN A Thesis by JAMES CLARICE PIPER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1999 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering RADIATION INTERCI-IANGE MODELING FOR ACTIVE INFRARED PROXIMITY SENSOR DESIGN A Thesis by JAMES CLARICE PIPER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Piper, James Clarice

2012-06-07

371

College Proximity and Rates of College Attendance1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of college proximity upon rates of college attendance among over 20,000 high school graduates of 1966 in the states of Illinois and North Carolina. Results of multivariate dummy-variable regression analyses question both the assumption that college proximity per se is an important factor in college-going, and the often stated

Vincent Tinto

1973-01-01

372

Receptor-mediated endocytosis in renal proximal tubule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins filtered in renal glomeruli are removed from the tubular fluid by endocytosis in the proximal tubule mediated by\\u000a the two receptors megalin and cubilin. After endocytic uptake, the proteins are transferred to lysosomes for degradation,\\u000a while the receptors are returned to the apical cell membrane by receptor recycling in dense apical tubules. In the renal proximal\\u000a tubule, there is

Erik Ilsø Christensen; Pierre J. Verroust; Rikke Nielsen

2009-01-01

373

Intrinsic differences in various segments of the proximal convoluted tubule.  

PubMed

Until recently it has not been possible to compare directly the function of superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons. The present studies, using in vitro microperfusion, were designed to examine whether functional differences exist between proximal convoluted tubule segments of superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons. Electrophysiological studies showed that major differences exist between the relative chloride and sodium permeabilities of these segments. In the 1st mm of the superficial proximal convoluted tubule, the permeability to sodium was greater than that to chloride, whereas in the 2nd mm of the superficial proximal convoluted tubule and all later segments, the permeability to chloride was greater than that to sodium. The juxtamedullary proximal convoluted tubule was found to differ from the superficial proximal convoluted tubule in two respects: first, the relative permeabilities to chloride and sodium did not differ in the various segments of the juxtamedullary proximal convoluted tubule; second, the permeability to sodium was greater than to chloride throughout. When perfused with a solution lacking glucose and amino acids, the superficial and juxtamedullary convolutions exhibited the same transepithelial potential change, a reversible decrease to less than -- 1 mV. It thus appears that in both convolutions there exists electrogenic sodium transport coupled to the transport of these organic solutes. This differs from pars recta of both of these nephrons, which have been shown to exhibit electrogenic sodium transport independent of organic solutes. However, when perfused with a solution lacking glucose and amino acids but also containing high chloride and low bicarbonate concentrations, the superficial convolution developed a significantly more positive potential than the juxtamedullary. This difference reflects greater relative chloride permeability in the superficial proximal convolution. These studies show that intrinsic functional differences exist between proximal convoluted tubules obtained from the superficial and juxtamedullary nephron populations. PMID:947954

Jacobson, H R; Kokko, J P

1976-04-01

374

Intrinsic differences in various segments of the proximal convoluted tubule.  

PubMed Central

Until recently it has not been possible to compare directly the function of superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons. The present studies, using in vitro microperfusion, were designed to examine whether functional differences exist between proximal convoluted tubule segments of superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons. Electrophysiological studies showed that major differences exist between the relative chloride and sodium permeabilities of these segments. In the 1st mm of the superficial proximal convoluted tubule, the permeability to sodium was greater than that to chloride, whereas in the 2nd mm of the superficial proximal convoluted tubule and all later segments, the permeability to chloride was greater than that to sodium. The juxtamedullary proximal convoluted tubule was found to differ from the superficial proximal convoluted tubule in two respects: first, the relative permeabilities to chloride and sodium did not differ in the various segments of the juxtamedullary proximal convoluted tubule; second, the permeability to sodium was greater than to chloride throughout. When perfused with a solution lacking glucose and amino acids, the superficial and juxtamedullary convolutions exhibited the same transepithelial potential change, a reversible decrease to less than -- 1 mV. It thus appears that in both convolutions there exists electrogenic sodium transport coupled to the transport of these organic solutes. This differs from pars recta of both of these nephrons, which have been shown to exhibit electrogenic sodium transport independent of organic solutes. However, when perfused with a solution lacking glucose and amino acids but also containing high chloride and low bicarbonate concentrations, the superficial convolution developed a significantly more positive potential than the juxtamedullary. This difference reflects greater relative chloride permeability in the superficial proximal convolution. These studies show that intrinsic functional differences exist between proximal convoluted tubules obtained from the superficial and juxtamedullary nephron populations. PMID:947954

Jacobson, H R; Kokko, J P

1976-01-01

375

A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ZEISS AIMS™ platform is well established as the industry standard for qualifying the printability of mask features based on the aerial image. Typically the critical dimension (CD) and intensity at a certain through-focus range are the parameters which are monitored in order to verify printability or to ensure a successful repair. This information is essential in determining if a feature will pass printability, but in the case that the feature does fail, other metrology is often required in order to isolate the reason why the failure occurred, e.g., quartz level deviates from nominal. Photronics-nanoFab, in collaboration with Carl Zeiss, demonstrate the ability to use AIMSTM to provide quantitative feedback on a given repair process; beyond simple pass/fail of the repair. This technique is used in lieu of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to determine if failing post-repair regions are "under-repaired" (too little material removed) or "over-repaired" (too much material removed). Using the ZEISS MeRiT E-beam repair tool as the test platform, the AIMSTM technique is used to characterize a series of opaque repairs with differing repair times for each. The AIMSTM technique provides a means to determine the etch depth based on through-focus response of the Bossung plot and further to predict the amount of MeRiT® recipe change required in order to bring out of spec repairs to a passing state.

Uzzel, Doug; Garetto, Anthony; Magnusson, Krister; Tabbone, Gilles

2013-09-01

376

Posterior wall prolapse and repair.  

PubMed

Most posterior wall defects occur in combination with other pelvic support disorders. Some patients with rectoceles, the most common posterior wall defect, are asymptomatic, whereas others experience a range of symptoms from a sensation of lower pelvic fullness to defecatory and/or sexual dysfunction. If patients are symptomatic, rectoceles can be treated conservatively with pelvic floor physiotherapy, behavioral therapy, or pessaries. Surgically, the most common rectocele repair is a traditional posterior colporrhaphy which provides excellent cure rates of up to 95%. The studies published to date do not support the use of biologic or synthetic absorbable grafts in reconstructive surgical procedures of the posterior compartment as these repairs have not improved anatomic or functional outcomes over traditional posterior colporrhaphy. PMID:20142644

Kudish, Bela I; Iglesia, Cheryl B

2010-03-01

377

Laparoscopic hernia repair in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1994 meeting of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (E.A.E.S.) in Madrid highlighted a consensus-developing conference on the then new laparoscopic procedure for hernia repair. The conference was chaired by A. Paul from Cologne, Germany, and A. Fingerhut, from Poissy, France. The other members of the jury were B. Millat (France), L. Nyhus (USA), J. Himpens (Belgium), J.-L. Dulucq

A. Fingerhut; B. Millat; N. Bataille; E. Yachouchi; C. Dziri; M.-J. Boudet; A. Paul

2001-01-01

378

Repair of inflammatory tracheoesophageal fistula.  

PubMed

Benign acquired tracheoesophageal fistula is uncommon. Erosin of the membranous wall of the trachea and the anterior esophageal wall by the high-pressure cuff on a tracheostomy tube, often against the anvil of a nasogastric tube, may produce such fistulas. Techniques for closure have included patching the tracheal defect with muscle and, often, multiple staged procedures, planned or unplanned. Since any cuff lesion severe enough to cause a fistula necessarily damages the trachea circumferentially at the same level, definitive correction must include circumferential tracheal resection as well as closure of the fitstula. Five patients with tracheoesophageal fistula due to cuff perforation had repair by such a single-stage procedure. Through an anterior approach the involved trachea was resected, primary anastomosis was done, and the esophagus was closed in layers. In 3 of these 5 patients muscle was interposed for added security. One patient had undergone a prior attempt at repair elsewhere. One required a second resection of trachea for subsequent stomal stenosis. Repair in 2 additional patients with fistulas of complex origin related to direct trauma, sepsis, and foreign body involved adaptation of the basic technique to the special problem; 1 of these procedures was necessarily staged. Results in all 7 patients have been good. PMID:973760

Grillo, H C; Moncure, A C; McEnany, M T

1976-08-01

379

Animal models of cartilage repair  

PubMed Central

Cartilage repair in terms of replacement, or regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage with functional tissue, is the ‘holy grail’ of joint surgery. A wide spectrum of strategies for cartilage repair currently exists and several of these techniques have been reported to be associated with successful clinical outcomes for appropriately selected indications. However, based on respective advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, no single strategy, or even combination of strategies, provides surgeons with viable options for attaining successful long-term outcomes in the majority of patients. As such, development of novel techniques and optimisation of current techniques need to be, and are, the focus of a great deal of research from the basic science level to clinical trials. Translational research that bridges scientific discoveries to clinical application involves the use of animal models in order to assess safety and efficacy for regulatory approval for human use. This review article provides an overview of animal models for cartilage repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;4:89–94. PMID:24695750

Cook, J. L.; Hung, C. T.; Kuroki, K.; Stoker, A. M.; Cook, C. R.; Pfeiffer, F. M.; Sherman, S. L.; Stannard, J. P.

2014-01-01

380

Open and endovascular repair of juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

This systematic review focuses on the 30-day mortality associated with open surgery and fenestrated endografts for short-necked (<15 mm) juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. A search for studies published in English and indexed in the PubMed and Medline electronic databases from 2002 to 2012 was performed, using “juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm” and “treatment” as the main keywords. Among the 110 potentially relevant studies that were initially identified, eight were in accordance with the inclusion criteria in the analysis. Similar outcomes for open and endovascular repair were observed for 30-day mortality. No differences were observed regarding the secondary outcomes (duration of surgery, hospital stay, postoperative renal dysfunction and late mortality), except that the late mortality rate was significantly higher for the patients treated with open repair after a median follow-up of 24 months. Fenestrated endografting is a viable alternative to conventional surgery in juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with a proximal neck <15 mm.

Belczak, Sergio Quilici; Lanziotti, Luiz; Botelho, Yuri; Aun, Ricardo; da Silva, Erasmo Simao; Puech-Leao, Pedro; de Luccia, Nelson

2014-01-01

381

Laparoscopic Repair of Incidentally Found Spigelian Hernia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: A Spigelian hernia is a rare type of hernia that occurs through a defect in the anterior abdominal wall adjacent to the linea semilunaris. Estimation of its incidence has been reported as 0.12% of all abdominal wall hernias. Traditionally, the method of repair has been an open approach. Herein, we discuss a series of laparoscopic repairs. Methods: Case series and review of the literature. Cases: Three patients are presented. All were evaluated and taken to surgery initially for a different disease process, and all were incidentally found to have a spigelian hernia. These patients underwent laparoscopic repair of their hernias; 2 were repaired intraperitoneally and one was repaired totally extraperitoneally. Two patients initially underwent a mesh repair, while the third had an attempted primary repair. Conclusions: There is evidence that supports the use of laparoscopy for both diagnosis and repair of spigelian hernias. There are also reports of successful repairs both primarily and with mesh. In our experience with the preceding 3 patients, we found that laparoscopic repair of incidentally discovered spigelian hernias is a viable option, and we also found that implantation of mesh, when possible, resulted in satisfactory results and no recurrence. PMID:21902949

Nickloes, Todd; Mancini, Greg; Solla, Julio A.

2011-01-01

382

JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair  

SciTech Connect

An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

Ricci, Carmelo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Radiologia Interventistica (Italy); Ceccherini, Claudio, E-mail: claudiocec@hotmail.it; Leonini, Sara [Radiologia Universitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte (Italy); Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Radiologia Interventistica (Italy); Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Chirurgia dell'Aorta Toracica (Italy)

2012-02-15

383

Ejecta emplacement: from distal to proximal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Most part of impact ejecta is deposited ballistically at some distance from a crater, defined by ejection velocity V and ejection angle ?: d=v2sin?/g. In case of giant impacts, planetary curvature should be taken into account [1]. Combined with ejecta scaling [2], these relations allow to define ejecta thickness as a function of distance. Ejecta from large craters are deposited at velocity high enough to mobilize substrate material and to thicken ejecta deposits [3]. Ballistic approximation is valid for airless bodies (if impact vaporization is not vast) or for proximal ejecta of large impact craters, where ejecta mass per unit area is substantially greater than the mass of involved vapor/atmosphere (M-ratio). Deposition of distal ejecta, in which ejecta mass is negligible compared to the atmosphere, may be also treated in a simplified manner, i.e. as 1) passive motion of ejected particles within an impact plume and 2) later, as sedimentation of particles in undisturbed atmosphere (equilibrium between gravity and drag). In all intermediate M-ratio values, impact ejecta move like a surge, i.e. dilute suspension current in which particles are carried in turbulent flows under the influence of gravity. Surges are well-known for near-surface explosive tests, described in detail for volcanic explosions (Plinian column collapse, phreato-magmatic eruption, lateral blast), and found in ejecta from the Chicxulub [4] and the Ries [5]. Important aspects of surge transport include its ability to deposit ejecta over a larger area than that typical of continuous ballistic ejecta and to create multiple ejecta layers. Numerical model Two-phase hydrodynamics. Surges should be modeled in the frame of two-phase hydrodynamics, i.e. interaction between solid/molten particles and atmospheric gas/impact vapor should be taken into account. There are two techniques of solving equations for dust particle motion in a gas flow. The first one describes solid/molten particles as a liquid with specific properties, i.e. finite-difference equations are the same as in standard hydrodynamics [6-8]. Another approach is based on solving equations of motion for representative particles [9]. Each of these markers describes the motion of a large number of real particles with similar sizes, velocities, and trajectories. Equation of motion (gravity, viscosity, and drag) is solved for every marker and then exchange of momentum, heat and energy with surrounding vaporair mixture is taken into account. This approach is used in the SOVA code [10] and allows to vary particle sizes within a broad range (from a few m to a few microns). Implicit procedure of velocity update allows a larger time step. The substantial advantage of the model is its three-dimensional geometry, allowing modeling of asymmetric deposits of oblique impact ejecta. Turbulent diffusion is taken into account in a simplified manner [6]. Fragments size-frequency distribution (SFD) may be of crucial importance: while large fragments move ballistically, the smallest ones are passively involved in gas motion. Ejected material is usually transformed into particles under tension. The initial particle velocity is given by the hydrodynamic velocity, but the object's initial position within the cell is randomly defined. The SFD of solid fragments in high velocity impacts has been studied experimentally [2,11], numerically [12,13], and has been derived from the lunar and terrestrial crater observations [14,15]. Various approaches may be used to implement fragment size in a dynamic model: in Grady-Kipp model the average fragment size is defined by strain rate [12]; alternatively, average ejection velocity [16] or maximum shock compression [17] may be used. All methods may be verified through comparison with known data. Volcanic direct blast. Numerical modeling of pyroclastic flows, checked against recent observations and young deposits, may be then a useful instrument for reconstruction of terrestrial craters' ejecta, which are mostly eroded or buried; and for impact ejecta study on other planets

Artemieva, N.

2008-09-01

384

Predictive factors of proximal advanced neoplasia in the large bowel  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of sex, age, family history and distal findings on the risk of proximal advanced neoplasia (cancer or advanced adenoma) in the large bowel. Material and methods Records for 10 111 asymptomatic participants of the Colonoscopy Screening Program (CSP), recruited from the Warsaw region between 2000 and 2004, were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the impact of sex, age, family history and most advanced distal lesions on the occurrence of proximal advanced neoplasia. To enhance comparability of the study two definitions of the proximal colon were applied – either the splenic flexure (1st) or the bend between the descending and sigmoid colon (2nd definition) represented the boundary. Results One hundred and thirty-three (1st) and 167 patients (2nd definition) were found to have at least one advanced neoplastic lesion in the proximal part, respectively. Eleven and 14 patients were found to have carcinoma, while in 130 and 163 patients at least one proximal advanced adenoma appeared. Men were at twice as high risk of having advanced neoplasia in the proximal colon than women (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.31–2.87, p = 0.001 or OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.20–2.40, p = 0.003, respectively). The presence of distal advanced neoplastic lesions was associated with 3.5 times higher risk of proximal advanced neoplasia (OR = 3.58, 95% CI: 2.00–6.43, p < 0.0001 or OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.95–5.96, p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions The results may confirm some limitation of flexible sigmoidoscopy in the screening settings in comparison with colonoscopy, at least in men and people with distal advanced neoplasia. PMID:25097578

Mroz, Andrzej; Kaminski, Michal F.; Kraszewska, Ewa; Orlowska, Janina; Regula, Jaroslaw

2014-01-01

385

DNA repair pathways in human multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Every day, cells are faced with thousands of DNA lesions, which have to be repaired to preserve cell survival and function. DNA repair is more or less accurate and could result in genomic instability and cancer. We review here the current knowledge of the links between molecular features, treatment, and DNA repair in multiple myeloma (MM), a disease characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Genetic instability and abnormalities are two hallmarks of MM cells and aberrant DNA repair pathways are involved in disease onset, primary translocations in MM cells, and MM progression. Two major drugs currently used to treat MM, the alkylating agent Melphalan and the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib act directly on DNA repair pathways, which are involved in response to treatment and resistance. A better knowledge of DNA repair pathways in MM could help to target them, thus improving disease treatment. PMID:23966156

Gourzones-Dmitriev, Claire; Kassambara, Alboukadel; Sahota, Surinder; Rème, Thierry; Moreaux, Jérôme; Bourquard, Pascal; Hose, Dirk; Pasero, Philippe; Constantinou, Angelos; Klein, Bernard

2013-01-01

386

Transrenal E-XL stenting prior to EVAR in the case of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated to proximal aortic neck dissection.  

PubMed

Chronic dissection of proximal aortic neck is a rare occurrence in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and a gold standard therapy has not been defined so far. Herein we report two successful cases of an original adjunctive procedure involving the transrenal placement of a self-expanding nitinol stent (E-XL aortic stent, Jotec GmbH, Germany) in order to fix a dissection flap in the aortic neck wall prior to the deployment of the bifurcated endograft. Primary technical success and midterm clinical success was achieved in both cases with freedom from any early or late reintervention. Scheduled follow-up angio-CT scans did not show any Type I endoleak, graft migration or renal/visceral arteries complications. According to these findings, patients with an AAA, presenting with a proximal neck with chronic dissection, can be safely and effectively treated by pre-emptive transrenal E-XL stenting and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:24647316

Ventoruzzo, G; Chisci, E; Croce, S; Turini, F; Michelagnoli, S; Bellandi, G

2014-12-01

387

Cellular repair/misrepair track model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A repair/misrepair cell kinetics model is superimposed onto the track structure model of Katz to provide for a repair mechanism. The model is tested on the repair-dependent data of Yang et al. and provides an adequate description of that data. The misrepair rate determines the maximum relative biological effectiveness (RBE), but similar results could arise from indirect X-ray lethality not include in the present model.

Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1991-01-01

388

Current strategies and approaches to meniscal repair.  

PubMed

Repair of symptomatic meniscal tears in the appropriate patient has demonstrated successful mid and long-term results with a variety of different repair techniques. These techniques have undergone much evolution and innovation, from the initial open repairs to a variety of inside-out, outside-in, and all-inside techniques and devices. This article focuses on patient presentation, selection, current treatments, and surgical techniques including pearls and pitfalls, and discusses the most recent published outcomes and complications. PMID:25068846

Goodwillie, Andrew D; Myers, Kevin; Sgaglione, Nicholas A

2014-12-01

389

Thermal protection system repair kit program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and conceptual design aspects of repair materials and procedures for in orbit repair of the space shuttle orbiter TPS tiles are investigated. Material studies to investigate cure in place materials are described including catalyst and cure studies, ablation tests and evaluations, and support mixing and applicator design. The feasibility of the repair procedures, the storage of the TPS, dispensing, and cure problems are addressed.

1979-01-01

390

Orthopaedic Approaches to Proximal Humeral Fractures Following Trauma  

PubMed Central

Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and reduce pain during the healing process. Failure to achieve this can result in impairment of function, and significantly weaken the muscles inserting onto the proximal humerus. With the rising incidence of proximal humeral fractures, especially among the elderly, the short and long term burden for patients as well as the wider society is increasing. Furthermore, there is a lack of consistency in the definitive treatment and management of displaced fractures. This systematic review of literature compares the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures with their conservative management, by evaluating the available randomised controlled trials on this topic. PMID:25408786

Mafi, Reza; Khan, Wasim; Mafi, Pouya; Hindocha, Sandip

2014-01-01

391

Ablation of proximal tubular suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 enhances tubular cell cycling and modifies macrophage phenotype during acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) is an important intracellular negative regulator of several signaling pathways. We found that SOCS-3 is highly expressed in renal proximal tubules during acute kidney injury. To test the impact of this, conditional proximal tubular knockout mice (SOCS-3(sglt2?/sglt2?)) were created. These mice had better kidney function than their wild-type counterparts in aristolochic acid nephropathy and after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Kidneys of these knockout mice showed significantly more proximal tubular cell proliferation during the repair phase. A direct effect of SOCS-3 on tubular cell cycling was demonstrated by in vitro experiments showing a JAK/STAT pathway-dependent antimitotic effect of SOCS-3. Furthermore, acute damaged kidneys of the knockout mice contained increased numbers of F4/80(+) cells. Phenotypic analysis of these F4/80(+) cells indicated a polarization from classically activated to alternatively activated macrophages. In vitro, SOCS-3-overexpressing renal epithelial cells directly induced classical activation in cocultured macrophages, supporting the observed in vivo phenomenon. Thus, upregulation of SOCS-3 in stressed proximal tubules plays an important role during acute kidney injury by inhibition of reparative proliferation and by modulation of the macrophage phenotype. Antagonizing SOCS-3 could have therapeutic potential for acute kidney injury. PMID:24402091

Susnik, Nathan; Sörensen-Zender, Inga; Rong, Song; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Lu, Xia; Rubera, Isabelle; Tauc, Michel; Falk, Christine S; Alexander, Warren S; Melk, Anette; Haller, Herrmann; Schmitt, Roland

2014-06-01

392

Easily Repairable Networks: Reconnecting Nodes after Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a simple class of distribution networks that withstand damage by being repairable instead of redundant. Instead of asking how hard it is to disconnect nodes through damage, we ask how easy it is to reconnect nodes after damage. We prove that optimal networks on regular lattices have an expected cost of reconnection proportional to the lattice length, and that such networks have exactly three levels of structural hierarchy. We extend our results to networks subject to repeated attacks, in which the repairs themselves must be repairable. We find that, in exchange for a modest increase in repair cost, such networks are able to withstand any number of attacks.

Farr, Robert S.; Harer, John L.; Fink, Thomas M. A.

2014-09-01

393

All-arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.  

PubMed

All-arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has evolved into a viable surgical option, with outcome results equal to that of mini-open and open rotator cuff repair, with less perioperative morbidity and is driven by patient demand. The technique has required refinement of arthroscopic surgical techniques, and further advances from industry to provide alternative tools and techniques to make the procedure technically easier. This manuscript discusses all aspects of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, and covers the evolution of the technique and provides a step-by-step technique to be used to accomplish a successful rotator cuff repair. PMID:18004220

Fouse, Matthew; Nottage, Wesley M

2007-12-01

394

Models for multi-echelon repairable item inventory systems with limited repair capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant models for inventory control of repairable items, both in the literature and in practical applications, are based on the assumption of ample repair capacity. This assumption can introduce a serious underestimation of the spare parts requirements in systems with high repair facility utilization, as is typical in industry. In this paper, we introduce approximations that can deal with

Angel Diaz; Michael C. Fu

395

DNA damage recognition and repair pathway coordination revealed by the structural biochemistry of DNA repair enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells have evolved distinct mechanisms for both preventing and removing mutagenic and lethal DNA damage. Structural and biochemical characterization of key enzymes that function in DNA repair pathways are illuminating the biological and chemical mechanisms that govern initial lesion detection, recognition, and excision repair of damaged DNA. These results are beginning to reveal a higher level of DNA repair coordination

David J Hosfield; Douglas S Daniels; Clifford D Mol; Christopher D Putnam; Sudip S Parikh; John A Tainer

2001-01-01

396

Macrophages: supportive cells for tissue repair and regeneration Short title: Macrophages in tissue repair and regeneration  

E-print Network

1 Macrophages: supportive cells for tissue repair and regeneration Short title: Macrophages in tissue repair and regeneration Bénédicte Chazaud Institut Cochin, INSERM U1016, Paris, France; CNRS 8104 cells ­ Regeneration ­ Repair ­ Resolution of inflammation Abbreviations 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Endovascular repair with the chimney technique for stanford type B aortic dissection involving right-sided arch with aberrant left subclavian artery.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old man, having right-sided aortic arch (RAA), underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to treat Stanford B type dissection with the chimney technique to extend the proximal landing zone between his right subclavian artery and left subclavian artery (LSA). Six-month follow-up showed that there was sufficient cerebral infusion and positive aortic remodeling, and the chimney stents were patent. The results show the safety and effectiveness of chimney TEVAR for Stanford type B dissection in patients having RAA with an aberrant LSA who have no sufficient proximal fixation zone. PMID:24911799

Zhang, Mi; Yuan, Ye; Hu, Yali; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Hui; Ma, Bingbing; Lu, Huijun

2014-10-01

398

Common relationships among proximate composition components in fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relationships between the various body proximate components and dry matter content were examined for five species of fishes, representing anadromous, marine and freshwater species: chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix and striped bass Morone saxatilis. The dry matter content or per cent dry mass of these fishes can be used to reliably predict the per cent composition of the other components. Therefore, with validation it is possible to estimate fat, protein and ash content of fishes from per cent dry mass information, reducing the need for costly and time-consuming laboratory proximate analysis. This approach coupled with new methods of non-lethal estimation of per cent dry mass, such as from bioelectrical impedance analysis, can provide non-destructive measurements of proximate composition of fishes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

2008-01-01

399

Reverse geometry shoulder replacement for proximal humeral metastases.  

PubMed

The management of skeletal metastases can be challenging for the orthopaedic surgeon. They represent a significant source of pain and disability for cancer patients, adding to the morbidity of their condition. Treatment is directed at the alleviation of symptoms and the restoration of function. Metastatic involvement of the proximal humerus can be especially debilitating, having the potential to cause severe pain and loss of function. We present a report of three such cases where reverse geometry proximal shoulder replacement was used to provide a pain free functional range of movement in patients with concomitant rotator cuff disease. In all cases, significant symptomatic relief was achieved postoperatively with preservation of upper limb function. No surgical complications were noted. It is our belief that this novel surgical strategy provides a valuable and effective option for the management of proximal humeral metastatic disease in the rotator cuff deficient patient. PMID:25245723

Kapur, R A; McCann, P A; Sarangi, P P

2014-10-01

400

Comparison of different proximity potentials for asymmetric colliding nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Using the different versions of phenomenological proximity potential as well as other parametrizations within the proximity concept, we perform a detailed comparative study of fusion barriers for asymmetric colliding nuclei with asymmetry parameter as high as 0.23. In all, 12 different proximity potentials are robust against the experimental data of 60 reactions. Our detailed study reveals that the surface energy coefficient as well as radius of the colliding nuclei depend significantly on the asymmetry parameter. All models are able to explain the fusion barrier heights within +-10% on the average. The potentials due to Bass 80, AW 95, and Denisov DP explain nicely the fusion cross sections at above- as well as below-barrier energies.

Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

2010-06-15

401

Computer Aided Proximity Effect Correction System in Photolithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflected light from step coverage causes fatal pattern defects in photolithography. The resist pattern defects are caused by the extra exposure from the highly reflective stepped substrate, such as breaks in the pattern of the aluminum layer. The problem is significant when the patterns in the different layers are near each other. We named this problem the proximity effect. The specific design rules such as the space between the resist pattern and the steps on the substrate are evaluated by simulation and experiment. Based on the evaluated results, we propose a computer aided proximity effect correction system to verify the pattern layout and eliminate the proximity effect. The effectiveness of the system is confirmed experimentally.

Hirai, Yoshihiko; Nomura, Noboru; Misaka, Akio; Hayama, Shigeru; Yamashita, Kazuhiro; Harafuji, Kenji

1989-10-01

402

A Flexible Proximity Sensor Fully Fabricated by Inkjet Printing  

PubMed Central

A flexible proximity sensor fully fabricated by inkjet printing is proposed in this paper. The flexible proximity sensor is composed of a ZnO layer sandwiched in between a flexible aluminum sheet and a web-shaped top electrode layer. The flexible aluminum sheet serves as the bottom electrode. The material of the top electrode layer is nano silver. Both the ZnO and top electrode layers are deposited by inkjet printing. The fully inkjet printing process possesses the advantages of direct patterning and low-cost. It does not require photolithography and etching processes since the pattern is directly printed on the flexible aluminum sheet. The prototype demonstrates that the presented flexible sensor is sensitive to the human body. It may be applied to proximity sensing or thermal eradiation sensing. PMID:22399923

Wang, Chin-Tsan; Huang, Kuo-Yi; Lin, David T. W.; Liao, Wei-Chia; Lin, Hua-Wei; Hu, Yuh-Chung

2010-01-01

403

Operative treatment of stress fractures of the proximal second metatarsal.  

PubMed

Proximal stress fractures of the second metatarsal are rare. They have been reported mainly in classical ballet dancers. Non-operative treatment has usually led to good results and rapid return to full activities. We present a series of nine cases with stress fractures of the proximal second metatarsal. The patients were all actively involved in sports. None of them were dancers. In all of these patients non-operative treatment lasting for an average of 13 months had failed. All of the patients were operated on using the same method. In the operation drilling was performed around and through the fracture line. The patients were followed for an average of 38 months. All except one of the patients were able to return to their prior level of activity within 4-6 months. In conclusion if non-operative treatment fails surgery seems to give good results in most patients with a stress fracture of the proximal second metatarsal. PMID:17181771

Sarimo, J; Orava, S; Alanen, J

2007-08-01

404

Chromatin in situ proximity (ChrISP): single-cell analysis of chromatin proximities at a high resolution.  

PubMed

Current techniques for analyzing chromatin structures are hampered by either poor resolution at the individual cell level or the need for a large number of cells to obtain higher resolution. This is a major problem as it hampers our understanding of chromatin conformation in single cells and how these respond to environmental cues. Here we describe a new method, chromatin in situ proximity (ChrISP), which reproducibly scores for proximities between two different chromatin fibers in 3-D with a resolution of ~170Å in single cells. The technique is based on the in situ proximity ligation assay (ISPLA), but ChrISP omits the rolling circle amplification step (RCA). Instead, the proximities between chromatin fibers are visualized by a fluorescent connector oligonucleotide DNA, here termed splinter, forming a circular DNA with another circle-forming oligonucleotide, here termed backbone, upon ligation. In contrast to the regular ISPLA technique, our modification enables detection of chromatin fiber proximities independent of steric hindrances from nuclear structures. We use this method to identify higher order structures of individual chromosomes in relation to structural hallmarks of interphase nuclei and beyond the resolution of the light microscope. PMID:24641475

Chen, Xingqi; Shi, Chengxi; Yammine, Samer; Göndör, Anita; Rönnlund, Daniel; Fernandez-Woodbridge, Alejandro; Sumida, Noriyuki; Widengren, Jerker; Ohlsson, Rolf

2014-01-01

405

New technique for inguinal hernia repair.  

PubMed

We compared a new fascia transversalis based hernioplasty with mesh repair techniques which leave the fascia transversalis intact. We prospectively randomized 180 consecutive patients with inguinal hernia to undergo one of the three hernia repair techniques. Hernias were repaired either by using the new fascia transversalis repair-Coskun's hernia repair (FTR), based on the plication of fascia using continuous sutures and followed by a second layer of interrupted or continuous sutures between inguinal ligament and conjoint tendon to distribute the tension, or one of the two mesh repair techniques: anterior (Lichtenstein) or posterior (preperitoneal) repair. Parameters such as age, sex, hernia cause, operation time, type of anesthesia, surgeon's seniority, complications, hospital stay and follow-up were evaluated. Recurrence rates were determined through clinical examination. Effect of prostatism, co-morbid disease, operation time, complications and Nyhus type of hernia on recurrences were also analysed. Most patients in each group were operated on under general anesthesia (78% vs. 80% vs. 85% for FTR, Lichtenstein, and preperitoneal repair, respectively) and by surgeons in training (average 78%). Patients were followed up for a median of 36 months. FTR had less complications and an acceptable time for operation whereas preperitoneal repairs needed more seniority, longer operation time, and caused more complications. There were only 3 (1.6%) recurrences, none in the FTR group and two the in Lichtenstein group during first postoperative year. There was no recurrence in preperitoneal repair group. All patients with recurrences had an operation time longer than 60 min and were operated on by surgeons in training. Two patients with recurrences had prostatism symptoms and chronic cough. We conclude that the new FTR is as effective as mesh repair (either anterior or posterior) with an acceptable rate of recurrences, fewer complications, and that it can be performed by the surgeons in training. PMID:15611838

Coskun, F; Ozmen, M M; Moran, M; Ozozan, O

2005-03-01

406

Proximal Tibia Osteoarticular Allografts in Tumor Limb Salvage Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Resection of large tumors of the proximal tibia may be reconstructed with endoprostheses or allografts with fixation. Endoprosthetic\\u000a replacement is associated with high failure rates and complications. Proximal tibia osteoarticular allografts after tumor\\u000a resection allows restoration of bone stock and reconstruction of the extensor mechanism, but the long-term failure rates and\\u000a complications are not known.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We therefore determined (1) the

D. Luis Muscolo; Miguel A. Ayerza; German Farfalli; Luis A. Aponte-Tinao

2010-01-01

407

An experiment in manipulator control with proximity sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical proximity sensors were used in a feedback loop to automatically position a manipulator hand for grasping. The experiment was a simplified one, involving two dimensional motion only. Two proximity sensors were mounted on the hand, and control signals derived from their outputs were used to drive the hand vertically and horizontally. The sensors employ a pulsed gallium arsenide light-emitting diode together with a silicon detector. They indicate, without contact, the approximate distance between the manipulator hand and object in the range from 5 to 12 cm. Positioning within approximately + or - 5 mm was observed. Extension of the technique to general three-dimensional control is briefly discussed.

Johnston, A. R.

1974-01-01

408

Inverse Proximity Effect in Superconductor-Ferromagnet Bilayer Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the polar Kerr effect using a zero-area-loop Sagnac magnetometer on Pb/Ni and Al/(Co-Pd) proximity-effect bilayers show unambiguous evidence for the “inverse proximity effect,” in which the ferromagnet induces a finite magnetization in the superconducting layer. To avoid probing the magnetic effects in the ferromagnet, the superconducting layer was prepared much thicker than the light’s optical-penetration depth. The sign and size of the effect, as well as its temperature dependence agree with recent predictions by Bergeret et al. [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO0163-1829 69, 174504 (2004)]10.1103/PhysRevB.69.174504.

Xia, Jing; Shelukhin, V.; Karpovski, M.; Kapitulnik, A.; Palevski, A.

2009-02-01

409

Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect Free from the Proximity Nernst Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter provides evidence for intrinsic longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) that are free from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) caused by an extrinsic proximity effect. We report the observation of LSSEs in Au/Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, showing that the LSSE appears even when the mechanism of the proximity ANE is clearly removed. In the conventional Pt/YIG structure, furthermore, we separate the LSSE from the ANE by comparing the voltages in different magnetization and temperature-gradient configurations; the ANE contamination was found to be negligibly small even in the Pt/YIG structure.

Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Shiomi, Y.; Qiu, Z.; Hou, D.; Tian, D.; Nakayama, H.; Jin, X.-F.; Saitoh, E.

2013-02-01

410

Inverse Proximity Effect in Superconductor-ferromagnet Bilayer Structures  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the polar Kerr effect using a zero-area-loop Sagnac magnetometer on Pb/Ni and Al/(Co-Pd) proximity-effect bilayers show unambiguous evidence for the 'inverse proximity effect,' in which the ferromagnet (F) induces a finite magnetization in the superconducting (S) layer. To avoid probing the magnetic effects in the ferromagnet, the superconducting layer was prepared much thicker than the light's optical penetration depth. The sign and size of the effect, as well as its temperature dependence agree with recent predictions by Bergeret et al.[1].

Xia, Jing

2010-04-05

411

Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q  

SciTech Connect

We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

1995-03-13

412

Dynamics of DNA Mismatch Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA mismatch repair protects the genome from spontaneous mutations by recognizing errors, excising damage, and re-synthesizing DNA in a pathway that is highly conserved. Mismatch recognition is accomplished by the MutS family of proteins which are weak ATPases that bind specifically to damaged DNA, but the specific molecular mechanisms by which these proteins recognize damage and initiate excision are not known. Previous structural investigations have implied that protein-induced conformational changes are central to mismatch recognition. Because damage detection is a highly dynamic process in which conformational changes of the protein-DNA complexes occur on a time scale of a few seconds, it is difficult to obtain meaningful kinetic information with traditional ensemble techniques. In this work, we use single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study the conformational dynamics of fluorescently labeled DNA substrates in the presence of the mismatch repair protein MutS from E. coli and its human homolog MSH2/MSH6. Our studies allow us to obtain quantitative kinetic information about the rates of binding and dissociation and to determine the conformational states for each protein-DNA complex.

Coats, Julie; Lin, Yuyen; Rasnik, Ivan

2009-11-01

413

Simplified preperitoneal Marlex hernia repair.  

PubMed

The routine use of mesh for repair of inguinal hernia has been popularized by Lichtenstein and others. Although preperitoneal placement is more appealing than the onlay technique, the classical approach by Nyhus and Condon is difficult under local anesthesia and denervates the inguinal muscles to some degree. Preperitoneal mesh may become the standard for inguinal hernia as the laparoscopic approach becomes more popular. This report describes the author's first 100 hernia repairs done using a simplified preperitoneal approach under local anesthesia. The preperitoneal space is entered directly through the posterior floor, but a complete covering of the direct, indirect, and femoral spaces is accomplished similar to an open technique. After placement of the mesh, a truly "tension-free" closure of the posterior floor can be accomplished. Patients are discharged home in 1 to 2 hours. Because a standard approach and block are used, the learning curve for this operation should be brief compared with that of the laparoscopic method. The follow-up of this series is short (average: 15 months), but there have been no recurrences or infections. One patient returned to the operating room within 4 hours due to an arterial bleeder in Scarpa's fascia but was discharged that day and had no subsequent problems. Another patient has a postoperative neuralgia probably unrelated to the mesh. Otherwise, there has no complications with the placement of the Marlex mesh. Patients are allowed to return to full activity and work at their discretion. PMID:8488944

Horton, M D; Florence, M G

1993-05-01

414

International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

Not Available

1987-01-01

415

21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.  

...balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace the balloon of a balloon catheter. The kit contains the materials, such as glue and balloons, necessary to effect the repair or replacement. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

2014-04-01

416

5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE MOTOR REPAIR SHOP, BUILDING 104, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Motor Repair & Auto Hobby Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

417

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

418

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

419

49 CFR 230.29 - Inspection and repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or operator shall inspect and repair all steam locomotive...to other defects. (b) Repair standards. (1) All...suitable for service. (2) Any welding to unstayed portions of the...national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive...

2011-10-01

420

49 CFR 230.29 - Inspection and repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or operator shall inspect and repair all steam locomotive...to other defects. (b) Repair standards. (1) All...suitable for service. (2) Any welding to unstayed portions of the...national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive...

2013-10-01

421

49 CFR 230.29 - Inspection and repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or operator shall inspect and repair all steam locomotive...to other defects. (b) Repair standards. (1) All...suitable for service. (2) Any welding to unstayed portions of the...national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive...

2012-10-01

422

49 CFR 230.29 - Inspection and repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or operator shall inspect and repair all steam locomotive...to other defects. (b) Repair standards. (1) All...suitable for service. (2) Any welding to unstayed portions of the...national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive...

2010-10-01

423

29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.  

... 2014-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30...Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance...

2014-07-01

424

30 CFR 57.14105 - Procedures during repairs or maintenance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures during repairs or maintenance. 57.14105 Section 57.14105...and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14105 Procedures during repairs or maintenance. Repairs or maintenance on...

2010-07-01

425

32 CFR 174.14 - Maintenance and repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and repair. 174.14 Section 174.14...COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Maintenance and Repair § 174.14 Maintenance and repair. (a) Facilities and...

2010-07-01

426

46 CFR 272.24 - Subsidy repair summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SUBSIDY...and belief, and based on recorded entries...statement of repair and maintenance expenditures for...the repair and maintenance items...

2010-10-01

427

Mode of inhibition of short-patch base excision repair by thymine glycol within clustered DNA lesions.  

PubMed

Clustered DNA damage, where two or more lesions are located proximally to each other, is frequently induced by ionizing radiation. Individual base lesions within a cluster are repaired by base excision repair. In this study we addressed the question of how thymine glycol (Tg) within a cluster would affect the repair of opposing lesions by human cell extracts. We have found that Tg located opposite to an abasic site does not affect cleavage of this site by apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease. However, Tg significantly compromised the next step of the repair. Although purified DNA polymerase beta was able to incorporate the correct nucleotide (dAMP) opposite to Tg, the rate of incorporation was reduced by 3-fold. Tg does not affect 5'-sugar phosphate removal by the 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate (dRP) lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta, but further processing of the strand break by purified DNA ligase III was slightly diminished. In agreement with these findings, although an AP site located opposite to Tg was efficiently incised in human cell extract, only a limited amount of fully repaired product was observed, suggesting that such clustered DNA lesions may have a significantly increased lifetime in human cells compared with similar single-standing lesions. PMID:12519757

Budworth, Helen; Dianov, Grigory L

2003-03-14

428

Recent developments in flexor tendon repair techniques and factors influencing strength of the tendon repair.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, both basic researchers and surgeons have sought to identify the most appropriate techniques to be applied in flexor tendon repairs. Recent developments in experimental tendon repairs and clinical outcomes of newer repair techniques have been reviewed in an attempt to comprehensively summarize the most critical mechanical factors affecting the performance of tendon repairs and the surgical factors influencing clinical outcomes. Among them, attention to annular pulleys, the purchase and tension of the core suture, and the direction and curvature of the path of tendon motion have been found to be determining factors in the results of tendon repair. PMID:23792441

Wu, Y F; Tang, J B

2014-01-01

429

Outcomes of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The principal anatomic contraindication to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVR) is an unfavorable proximal aortic neck. With increasing experience, a greater proportion of patients with unfavorable neck anatomy are being offered EVR. This study aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients with challenging proximal aortic neck anatomy. Methods. Prospectively collected data from 147 consecutive patients who underwent EVR between December 1997 and April 2005 were supplemented with a retrospective review of medical records and radiological images. Unfavorable anatomic features were defined as neck diameter >28 mm, angulation >60 deg., circumferential thrombus >50%, and length <10 mm. Eighty-seven patients with 0 adverse features (good necks) were compared with 60 patients with one or more adverse features (hostile necks). Results. Comparing the good neck with the hostile neck group, there were no significant differences in the incidence of primary technical success (p = 0.15), intraoperative adjunctive procedures (p = 0.22), early proximal type I endoleak (<30 days) (p = 1.0), late proximal type I endoleak (>30 days) (p = 0.57), distal type I endoleak (p = 0.40), type III endoleak (p 0.51), secondary interventions (p = 1.0), aneurysm sac expansion (p = 0.44), or 30 day mortality (p = 0.70). The good neck group had a significantly increased incidence of type II endoleak (p = 0.023). By multivariate analysis, the incidence of intraoperative adjunctive procedures was significantly increased in the presence of severe angulation (p = 0.041, OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.05-9.04). Conclusion. Patients with severely hostile proximal aortic neck anatomy may be treated with EVR, although severely angulated necks require additional intraoperative procedures. Early outcomes are encouraging and suggest that indications for EVR may be expanded to include patients with hostile neck anatomy.

Choke, Edward; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria; Loftus, Ian; McFarland, Robert; Loosemore, Thomas; Thompson, Matthew M. [St. George's Hospital, Vascular Institute (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Matt.Thompson@stgeorges.nhs.uk

2006-12-15

430

Self-repairing composites for airplane components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Durability and damage tolerance criteria drives the design of most composite structures. Those criteria could be altered by developing structure that repairs itself from impact damage. This is a technology for increasing damage tolerance for impact damage. Repaired damage would enable continued function and prevent further degradation to catastrophic failure in the case of an aircraft application. Further, repaired damage would enable applications to be utilized without reduction in performance due to impacts. Self repairing structures are designed to incorporate hollow fibers, which will release a repairing agent when the structure is impacted, so that the repairing agent will fill delaminations, voids and cracks in les than one minute, thus healing matrix voids. The intent is to modify the durability and damage tolerance criteria by incorporation of self-healing technologies to reduce overall weight: The structure will actually remain lighter than current conventional design procedures allow. Research objective(s) were: Prove that damage can be repaired to within 80-90% of original flexural strength in less than one minute, in laminates that are processed at 300-350F typical for aircraft composites. These were successfully met. The main focus was on testing of elements in compression after impact and a larger component in shear at Natural Process Design, Inc. Based on these results the advantages purposes are assessed. The results show potential; with self repairing composites, compressive strength is maintained sufficiently so that less material can be used as per durability and damage tolerance, yielding a lighter structure.

Dry, Carolyn

2008-03-01

431

Repairers must relabel instruments, court rules.  

PubMed

A federal appeals court decided that repair companies must be sure that endoscopic instruments they have worked on, especially those they have drastically altered, must be clearly identified as such. In some cases, that could mean that the original manufacturer's name must be removed, or the repairer's name added to the device's label. PMID:12232895

2002-08-01

432

33 CFR 127.1405 - Repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs. 127.1405 Section 127.1405 ...Hazardous Gas Maintenance § 127.1405 Repairs. Each operator of a waterfront facility...Safety is not compromised; and (b) Welding and cutting meet NFPA...

2010-07-01

433

33 CFR 127.1405 - Repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Repairs. 127.1405 Section 127.1405 ...Hazardous Gas Maintenance § 127.1405 Repairs. Each operator of a waterfront facility...Safety is not compromised; and (b) Welding and cutting meet NFPA...

2013-07-01

434

33 CFR 127.1405 - Repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Repairs. 127.1405 Section 127.1405 ...Hazardous Gas Maintenance § 127.1405 Repairs. Each operator of a waterfront facility...Safety is not compromised; and (b) Welding and cutting meet NFPA...

2012-07-01

435

33 CFR 127.1405 - Repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Repairs. 127.1405 Section 127.1405 ...Hazardous Gas Maintenance § 127.1405 Repairs. Each operator of a waterfront facility...Safety is not compromised; and (b) Welding and cutting meet NFPA...

2011-07-01

436

Human DNA repair and recombination genes  

SciTech Connect

Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

1988-09-01

437

Nucleotide excision repair “a legacy of creativity”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first half of the 20th century has seen an enormous growth in our knowledge of DNA repair, in no small part due to the work of Dirk Bootsma, Philip Hanawalt and Bryn Bridges; those honored by this issue. For the new millennium, we have asked three general questions: (A) Do we know all possible strategies of nucleotide excision repair

J. E. Cleaver; K. Karplus; M. Kashani-Sabet; C. L. Limoli

2001-01-01

438

30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2013-07-01

439

30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2011-07-01

440

30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.  

... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2014-07-01

441

30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.  

... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2014-07-01

442

30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2010-07-01

443

30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2010-07-01

444

30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2011-07-01

445

30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2012-07-01

446

30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2013-07-01

447

30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2012-07-01

448

Mechanisms of human DNA repair: an update.  

PubMed

The human genome, comprising three billion base pairs coding for 30000-40000 genes, is constantly attacked by endogenous reactive metabolites, therapeutic drugs and a plethora of environmental mutagens that impact its integrity. Thus it is obvious that the stability of the genome must be under continuous surveillance. This is accomplished by DNA repair mechanisms, which have evolved to remove or to tolerate pre-cytotoxic, pre-mutagenic and pre-clastogenic DNA lesions in an error-free, or in some cases, error-prone way. Defects in DNA repair give rise to hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, accumulation of mutations in the genome and finally to the development of cancer and various metabolic disorders. The importance of DNA repair is illustrated by DNA repair deficiency and genomic instability syndromes, which are characterised by increased cancer incidence and multiple metabolic alterations. Up to 130 genes have been identified in humans that are associated with DNA repair. This review is aimed at updating our current knowledge of the various repair pathways by providing an overview of DNA-repair genes and the corresponding proteins, participating either directly in DNA repair, or in checkpoint control and signaling of DNA damage. PMID:14599765

Christmann, Markus; Tomicic, Maja T; Roos, Wynand P; Kaina, Bernd

2003-11-15

449

Pathologies o Bone Fracture and Bone Repair  

E-print Network

(Bone Cancer) o Paget's Disease o Overuse Damage (Stress Fractures) o Considerations for Bioengineers1 Bone Pathologies o Bone Fracture and Bone Repair o Degenerative Changes Associated with Aging o TOPICS 1 Bone Fracture and Bone Repair A radiograph of a torsional bone fracture from a skiing accident

Gefen, Amit

450

Control rod housing alignment and repair apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a welding a repair device for precisely locating and welding the position of the top of a control rod drive housing attached from a stub tube from a corresponding aperture and alignment pin in a core plate within a boiling water nuclear reactor, the welding and repair device. It comprises: a shaft, the shaft extending from the

R. C. Dixon; G. A. Deaver; J. R. Punches; G. E. Singleton; J. G. Erbes; H. P. Offer

1991-01-01

451

Anti-inflammatory strategies in cartilage repair.  

PubMed

Cartilage defects are normally concomitant with posttraumatic inflammation and pose a major challenge in cartilage repair. Due to the avascular nature of cartilage and its inability to surmount an inflammatory response, the cartilage is easily attacked by proinflammatory factors and oxidative stress; if left untreated, osteoarthritis may develop. Suppression of inflammation has always been a crux for cartilage repair. Pharmacological drugs have been successfully applied in cartilage repair; however, they cannot optimally work alone. This review article will summarize current pharmacological drugs and their application in cartilage repair. The development of extracellular matrix-based scaffolds and preconditioned tissue-specific stem cells will be emphasized because both of these tissue engineering components could contribute to an enhanced ability not only for cartilage regeneration but also for anti-inflammation. These strategies could be combined to boost cartilage repair under inflammatory conditions. PMID:24846478

Zhang, Ying; Pizzute, Tyler; Pei, Ming

2014-12-01

452

Phenotypic Transitions of Macrophages Orchestrate Tissue Repair  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are essential for the efficient healing of numerous tissues, and they contribute to impaired healing and fibrosis. Tissue repair proceeds through overlapping phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, and macrophages are present throughout this progression. Macrophages exhibit transitions in phenotype and function as tissue repair progresses, although the precise factors regulating these transitions remain poorly defined. In efficiently healing injuries, macrophages present during a given stage of repair appear to orchestrate transition into the next phase and, in turn, can promote debridement of the injury site, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and matrix remodeling. However, dysregulated macrophage function can contribute to failure to heal or fibrosis in several pathological situations. This review will address current knowledge of the origins and functions of macrophages during the progression of tissue repair, with emphasis on skin and skeletal muscle. Dysregulation of macrophages in disease states and therapies targeting macrophage activation to promote tissue repair are also discussed. PMID:24091222

Novak, Margaret L.; Koh, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

453

Enterprise mobile applications based on presence and logical proximity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and application architecture are proposed for improving the sharing of presence and other information between mobile clients and enterprise servers by determining, in a hybrid peer-to-peer (P2P) network based on logical proximity, when a mobile client should share data with other peers in a group, instead of transmitting data to the servers. A \\

Xueshan Shan; Alok Shriram

2006-01-01

454

Nonacidotic proximal tubulopathy transmitted as autosomal dominant trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family of a patient with a nonacidotic and hypercalciuric proximal tubulopathy was studied. The proband showed glycosuria, aminoaciduria, tubular proteinuria, renal hypophosphatemia, and urate tubular hyporeabsorption without bicarbonate loss. He also presented increased urine calcium excretion, plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and enteral calcium absorption. Clinical consequences of the tubulopathy were osteopenia and calcium kidney stones. Fifteen of the proband's relatives

Giuseppe Vezzoli; Simona Zerbi; Ivano Baragetti; Laura Soldati; Stefano Mora; Giacomo Dell'Antonio; Giuseppe Bianchi

1997-01-01

455

Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.  

PubMed

Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local. PMID:25047568

Milfont, Taciano L; Evans, Laurel; Sibley, Chris G; Ries, Jan; Cunningham, Andrew

2014-01-01

456

Evolutionary sport and exercise psychology: Integrating proximate and ultimate explanations  

E-print Network

Review Evolutionary sport and exercise psychology: Integrating proximate and ultimate explanations, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada b Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education differences Sport participation Physical activity a b s t r a c t Objectives: This review aims to demonstrate

Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

457

The impact of grandparental proximity on maternal childcare in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of the proximity of grandparents' residence on mother's childcare involvement in contemporary China. Drawing on data from the 1991 China Health and Nutrition Survey, we find that the presence of grandparents in the household significantly reduces a mother's involvement in childcare. Nearby residence of grandparents also decreases mothers' childcare involvement, but only in the case

Feinian Chen; Susan E. Short; Barbara Entwisle

2000-01-01

458

Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma in proximal humerus of a dog  

PubMed Central

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was diagnosed in the proximal humerus of a dog that was presented with persistent right forelimb lameness with no clinical signs of urinary tract involvement. A diagnosis of TCC was made from surgical biopsy of the humeral lesion with subsequent necropsy revealing the prostatic urethra as the primary site of the tumor. PMID:22379204

Malek, Sarah; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Nykamp, Stephanie G.; Allavena, Rachel

2011-01-01

459

A study of proximity focusing RICH with aerogel radiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximity focusing RICH based on an aerogel Cherenkov radiator has been developed for a new particle identifier in the Belle upgrade. To further improve the detector performance, a new concept for Cherenkov ring imaging has been introduced, where multiple aerogel layers with different indices are accumulated to increase observed photoelectrons without making the single photon resolution worse. By constructing a

I. Adachi; K. Fujita; T. Fukushima; A. Gorisek; D. Hayashi; T. Iijima; T. Ikado; T. Ishikawa; H. Kawai; S. Korpar; Y. Kozakai; P. Krizan; A. Kuratani; Y. Mazuka; T. Nakagawa; S. Nishida; S. Ogawa; R. Pestotnik; T. Seki; T. Sumiyoshi; M. Tabata; Y. Unno

2007-01-01

460

Arterial blood supply of the proximal humeral epiphysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arterial blood supply of the proximal humeral epiphysis is known to derive mainly from the anterior humeral circumflex a. (ACA), but this description may minimize the role of the posterior circumflex humeral a. (PCA). The studies of Laing [9] and Gerber [3] emphasized the role of the ACA and of its branches, the ascending anterolateral artery and arcuate artery

F. Duparc; J.-M. Muller; P. Frçger

2001-01-01