Sample records for proximal hypospadias repair

  1. [Complications of hypospadias repairs].

    PubMed

    Soave, A; Riechardt, S; Engel, O; Rink, M; Fisch, M

    2014-07-01

    Hypospadias is the most common congenital abnormality of the lower urinary tract affecting one of 300 male newborns. More than 300 different surgical hypospadias repair techniques have been described. Currently, tubularized incised plate and meatal advancement and glansplasty integrated repair are the preferred techniques for distal hypospadias, whereas two-staged procedures are most frequently used in proximal forms. Success rates are high in the hands of dedicated surgeons, although studies on long-term results are sparse. The most frequent complications of hypospadias repairs include urethrocutaneous fistulas, meatal stenosis, and urethral strictures. Urological follow-up into puberty is warranted, as well as further studies with standardized reporting of long-term results and complications. PMID:25023236

  2. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    PubMed Central

    Sripathi, V.; Satheesh, M.; Shubha, K.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children – buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5–15 years (mean 4.5). Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50%) with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely – a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4–6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised. PMID:20011495

  3. Comparison of Onlay and Tubularized Island Flaps of Inner Preputial Skin for the Repair of Proximal Hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Wiener; Richard W. Sutherland; David R. Roth; Edmond T. Jr. Gonzales

    1997-01-01

    PurposeTransverse island flaps of inner preputial skin have provided a reliable technique for the repair of proximal hypospadias. The flap may be used to create a neourethra by tubularizing the flap after urethral transection or applying the flap as an onlay patch onto an intact urethral plate. We retrospectively analyzed our experience with these 2 techniques to compare outcomes.

  4. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which the urethra does not end at the tip of the penis. ... Snodgrass WT. Hypospadias. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 130.

  5. Two-stage repair for severe proximal hypospadias using oral mucosal grafts: combination of a modified Bracka method and a modified Byars flap method.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Akita, Shinsuke; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kuriyama, Motone; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2015-02-01

    One-stage repair is a conventional treatment of hypospadias. If hypospadias is severe as in the scrotal type and perineal type, penile curvature sometimes cannot be corrected by dorsal midline plication alone. In addition to resection of the urethral plate, ventral grafting becomes necessary for insufficient skin and subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in 2-stage repair for such severe cases and salvage of failed cases with scarring. In the present study, novel 2-stage urethroplasty was performed in 6 cases to repair severe proximal hypospadias which required resection of the urethral plate. This novel method consisted of a combination of a modified Bracka method using oral mucosal grafts and a modified Byars flap of the dorsal foreskin. Good results were obtained using this novel method. PMID:23759975

  6. Outcome of pediatric hypospadias repair in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chertin, Boris; Prat, Dan; Shenfeld, Ofer Z

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To review the evolution of the technique of hypospadias repair. Methods A search of Pubmed, Medline and the Journal of Pediatric Urology was performed, and papers dealing with surgical techniques for hypospadias repair were critally reviewed. Special emphasis was given to papers on the effects in the long term of hypospadias repair on voiding and sexual dysfunction. Results The techniques for hypospadias repair have evolved over the years. The most popular technique now is tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Long-term results with the use of the new techniques of the hypospadias repair in terms of voiding and sexual problems should be addressed. Conclusion There is a need for valid studies on the outcomes of hypospadias repair in adults that were performed in childhood in terms of cosmetic appearance, voiding and sexual performance. PMID:24198614

  7. Urethral mobilization and meatal advancement: a surgical principle in hypospadias repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hamdy; M. A. Awadhi; K. H. Rasromani

    1999-01-01

    A technique of urethral mobilization and advancement in hypospadias repair using the urethral elasticity to partially or\\u000a completely bridge the defect in urethral length was employed in 56 children. In 46 with distal hypospadias it was the only\\u000a procedure used. In 10 with proximal hypospadias, it was combined with other techniques. In distal hypospadias, no postoperative\\u000a fistula occurred. Complications of

  8. Repair of hypospadias complications using the tubularized, incised plate urethroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Chang Luo; Jer-Nan Lin

    1999-01-01

    Background\\/Purpose: Secondary procedures to correct complications after hypospadias repair remain challenging especially for “hypospadias cripples”. The tubularized, incised plate urethroplasty was first introduced by Snodgrass for the repair of primary hypospadias in 1993. The authors used this procedure to correct the complications after hypospadias repair in patients who had no abundant local skin flaps to be used for a neourethra.Methods:

  9. Snodgrass Hypospadias Repair with Vascularized Dartos Flap: The Perfect Repair for Virgin Cases of Hypospadias?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl Y. Cheng; Sreenivas N. Vemulapalli; Bradley P. Kropp; John C. Pope; Peter D. Furness; William E. Kaplan; D. Preston Smith

    2002-01-01

    PurposeSince its introduction, the Snodgrass hypospadias repair has been applied to virtually all forms of hypospadias repair. However, fistula rates have still been reported to be as high as 5% from large center, multiple surgeon studies and 16% from smaller center studies. We report on the use of the Snodgrass repair in conjunction with routine use of a vascularized dartos

  10. MANAGEMENT OF URETHRAL STRICTURES AFTER HYPOSPADIAS REPAIR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARRY P. DUEL; JULIA SPENCER BARTHOLD; RICARDO GONZALEZ

    1998-01-01

    PurposeWe conducted a retrospective study of patients with strictures after hypospadias repair to identify factors contributing to the development of strictures and to attempt to define an optimal strategy for management.

  11. Hypospadias and Residential Proximity to Pesticide Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J.; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. METHODS: The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother’s residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. CONCLUSIONS: Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations. PMID:24167181

  12. Repair of hypospadias complications using the previously utilized urethral plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garrick R Simmons; Mark P Cain; Anthony J Casale; Michael A Keating; Mark C Adams; Richard C Rink

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To review our results of patients who underwent repeat hypospadias surgery using local skin flaps with preservation of the urethral plate.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent a reoperative hypospadias repair using the urethral plate between 1988 and 1996. A total of 53 patients were identified who developed either a large fistula (47 patients)

  13. DOES TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE HYPOSPADIAS REPAIR CREATE NEOURETHRAL STRICTURES?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WARREN SNODGRASS

    1999-01-01

    PurposeBoys in whom hypospadias was repaired by tubularized, incised plate urethroplasty were evaluated to determine whether dorsal incision of the urethral plate results in strictures of the neourethra.

  14. Primary and reoperative hypospadias repair with the Snodgrass technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan B. Retik; Joseph G. Borer

    1998-01-01

    This report documents our experience with primary and reoperative repair of anterior and middle hypospadias using the tubularized,\\u000a incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass technique) and provides a detailed description of the operative procedure. A\\u000a total of 31 patients (27 primary; 4 reoperative) underwent TIP urethroplasty. The patients' age at primary of reoperative\\u000a hypospadias repair ranged from 5 months to 26

  15. Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma After a Childhood Hypospadias Repair With Bladder Mucosa Graft.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, Raffaella; Stackhouse, Danielle A; McMann, Leah P; Sterbis, Joseph R

    2015-06-01

    Bladder mucosa grafts were historically used for hypospadias surgical repairs, when preputial or penile skin was unavailable and in cases of prior failed hypospadias repairs. We present a case of advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed 22 years after a childhood hypospadias repair with a free bladder mucosa graft. PMID:25863837

  16. A NOVEL INERT COLLAGEN MATRIX FOR HYPOSPADIAS REPAIR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY ATALA; LUIS GUZMAN; ALAN B. RETIK

    1999-01-01

    PurposeIn select patients with hypospadias in whom genital skin is insufficient alternative tissues are needed for urethral reconstruction. Although skin and mucosal grafts may be used, they may increase hospitalization and morbidity. We explored the feasibility of using a bladder submucosal, collagen based inert matrix as a free graft substitute for urethral repair.

  17. Outcome Analysis of the Modified Mathieu Hypospadias Repair: Comparison of Stented and Unstented Repairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Hakim; Paul A. Merguerian; Ronald Rabinowitz; Linda D. Shortliffe; Patrick H. McKenna

    1996-01-01

    PurposeWe compared surgical outcomes of stented and unstented Mathieu repairs in boys with primary distal hypospadias, and evaluated the efficacy and safety of caudal analgesia relative to other forms of analgesia (penile block and epidural analgesia).

  18. The Modified Snodgrass Hypospadias Repair: Reducing the Risk of Fistula and Meatal Stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VENKATA R. JAYANTHI

    2003-01-01

    PurposeThe Snodgrass hypospadias repair is fast becoming the procedure of choice for distal hypospadias at many centers. Multiple series document excellent cosmetic outcome in conjunction with low complication rates. Modifications to the original procedure are presented, which may further limit the risk of complications.

  19. LATE ONSET RECURRENT PENILE CHORDEE AFTER SUCCESSFUL CORRECTION AT HYPOSPADIAS REPAIR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID R. VANDERSTEEN; DOUGLAS A. HUSMANN

    1998-01-01

    PurposeArtificial erections are induced at hypospadias repair to prevent recurrent chordee. We describe the development and etiology of late onset recurrent chordee greater than 10 years after the initial surgery.

  20. Management of severe hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Catti, Massimo; Demède, Delphine; Valmalle, Anne-Frédérique; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Hameury, Frédéric; Mouriquand, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Many classifications of hypospadias have been published, mainly based on the position of the ectopic meatus, which is an insufficient criterion to define the severity of this malformation. What really marks the proximal landmark of this malformation is the level of division of the corpus spongiosum, which is always proximal to the ectopic meatus. In this article, we will focus on the most severe forms of hypospadias which include those with a proximal division of corpus spongiosum (below the midshaft), important chordee and a poor development of the ventral radius, reflecting a marked hypovirilization of the genital tubercle, and cripple hypospadias resulting from several previous failed surgical procedures. The principle of hypospadias surgery will be reviewed together with the outcome of the current surgical techniques. Furthermore, common complications will be outlined. There is no minor or major hypospadias and all forms require a solid experience of the surgeon, as minor looking hypospadias may turn out to be far more complex to repair than they appear once the ventral radius of the penis has been dissected. PMID:19468403

  1. Repair of extensive perineal hypospadias in a Boston terrier using tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Adelsberger, Mary E.; Smeak, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the surgical repair of perineal hypospadias in a Boston terrier. A 2-year patient follow-up, including diagnostic data demonstrating urethral patency and resolution of recurrent urocystitis and urine skin scald are reported. PMID:19949553

  2. Stent-Free Thiersch-Duplay Hypospadias Repair With the Snodgrass Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Eric Steckler; Mark R. Zaontz

    1997-01-01

    PurposeIncision of the glanular urethral plate (the Snodgrass modification) permits tubularization of the neourethra in the Thiersch-Duplay fashion when anatomy would otherwise preclude a tension-free anastomosis and necessitate another operative technique for hypospadias repair. To take advantage of these cosmetic benefits without the potential morbidity associated with indwelling catheters, we performed a stent-free Thiersch-Duplay repair incorporating the Snodgrass modification.

  3. Distal hypospadias repair with meatal-based flaps on an outpatient basis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Sariyüce; D. R. Roth; E. T GONZALES JR

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of primary repairs that were performed on 52 consecutive patients with distal hypospadias as an outpatient\\u000a procedure. A modified Mathieu repair with meatal-based vascularized flap was performed under 2.5 optical magnification using\\u000a Scottring retractors, traction sutures, micro instruments and fine suture material. A total of 3 patients had complications\\u000a that required reoperation (5.8%). One of these

  4. Hypospadias repair: an overview of the actual techniques.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Ramnath; Spinoit, Anne Francoise; Hoebeke, Piet

    2011-08-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital genital anomalies for which surgery early in life is indicated. The surgical treatment is changing progressively, often by repeating treatment strategies that have been used decades ago. Indeed, historically two-stage procedures were replaced by one-stage procedures and nowadays two-stage procedures gain new interest. The same for reconstructions using the urethral plate, which decades ago were based on the Thiersch Duplay principle. In the 1980s, preputial onlay flaps were most often used and today we see a new interest in the use of the urethral plate. The actual surgical approach to hypospadias is described and technical details are given. PMID:22851912

  5. Hypospadias Repair: An Overview of the Actual Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Ramnath; Spinoit, Anne Francoise; Hoebeke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital genital anomalies for which surgery early in life is indicated. The surgical treatment is changing progressively, often by repeating treatment strategies that have been used decades ago. Indeed, historically two-stage procedures were replaced by one-stage procedures and nowadays two-stage procedures gain new interest. The same for reconstructions using the urethral plate, which decades ago were based on the Thiersch Duplay principle. In the 1980s, preputial onlay flaps were most often used and today we see a new interest in the use of the urethral plate. The actual surgical approach to hypospadias is described and technical details are given. PMID:22851912

  6. The Influence of Pre-Operative Hormonal Stimulation on Hypospadias Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan C.; Braga, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    Androgen stimulation to temporarily promote penile growth has been commonly used to facilitate hypospadias repair. Although some series suggest improvement in both functional and cosmetic outcomes, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis showed a possible relationship between pre-operative hormonal stimulation and higher complications. As a result, indications and treatment regimens remain controversial. Here, we review the available literature and present our clinical practice. PMID:25954736

  7. Caudal Additives Do Not Improve the Analgesia Afforded by Levobupivacaine After Hypospadias Repair

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kay; Wilson, Graham; Engelhardt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Caudal analgesia is commonly employed to provide excellent intra- and postoperative analgesia for primary hypospadias repair in children. Several additives to local anesthetics are commonly employed to increase the block duration, although these have uncertain benefits. Objectives: This study investigated whether, in caudal analgesia with levobupivacaine 0.25%, the addition of S (+)-ketamine, clonidine, or both agents combined, would prolong postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing primary hypospadias repair. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart analysis for all patients who underwent hypospadias repair with caudal analgesia over a consecutive 3-period at this institution. The study examined four patient groups, classified according to the analgesia used: No additive, levobupivacaine alone Levobupivacaine and S (+)-ketamine Levobupivacaine and clonidine Levobupivacaine, S (+)-ketamine, and clonidine Primary outcome measures were as follows: time to the first postoperative request for analgesia, total first 24-hour postoperative analgesia, and time to hospital discharge. Results: The 87 patients included had a mean ± SD age of 21.4 ± 13.5 months and weight of 11.9 ± 2.4 kg. The median doses of levobupivacaine, S (+)-ketamine, and clonidine were 0.7 mg/kg (range, 0.4–1.3), 0.5 mg/kg (0.2–1.1), and 1.8 ?g/kg (0.8–2.3), respectively. The addition of S(+)-ketamine, clonidine, or both did not increase the time to first oral analgesia request. Neither did it reduce the total first 24-hour postoperative analgesia requirements or alter hospital discharge time. However, the additive drugs in combination did increase postoperative sedation. Conclusions: The addition of S (+)-ketamine or clonidine to levobupivacaine 0.25% in caudal analgesia for hypospadias repair appears to be of no benefit. However, use of the additives in combination increased postoperative sedation. PMID:24904788

  8. Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M., III; Zderic, Stephen A.

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair may be performed in a nearly sutureless fashion and in a more rapid manner than for conventional suturing. The trend towards a decreased rate of complications in the laser group at this time indicates that laser soldering may be an improved method of tissue closure for hypospadias repair. We continue to accrue patients to this study.

  9. The Cosmetic Results of a Simple Method for Repairing Preputial Skin Defect in Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Ghavami-Adel, Maryam; Mollaeean, Mansour; Hooman, Nakysa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypospadias is a common birth defect of the penis. Besides the abnormal position of the urethral opening, there is usually a ventral preputial defect with preputial redundancy in dorsal shaft. There are many flap procedures for correcting this defect. Here, we present our experience of skin coverage procedure with better cosmetic results. Methods: It is a prospective study on patients with mid-shaft to glandular hypospadias operated from June 2008 to December 2012. The operations were performed by one surgeon in two hospitals and the cosmetic results were evaluated by the surgeon, parents, and another pediatric surgeon by a satisfaction questionnaire. In this procedure, inner prepuce was incised curvilinearly, remaining 5 mm in medial and 8 mm in lateral aspects of the inner prepuce. For skin repair, dorsal flaps were approximated in midline along median raphe. Findings: Sixty-three patients with mean age of 25.75±8.46 (7-93) months were followed up for 7.06±3.34 (2-15( months. There were 4 complications. The overall satisfaction with penile skin coverage was 93.7% for parents and 98.4% for surgeons. Patients’ age and primary site of meatus had a significant correlation with cosmetic results (P<0.05), while urethroplasty techniques and post-operative complications were not significant. Conclusion: Reapproximation of dorsal flaps in midline is a simple method and can be used in most cases of uncomplicated primary hypospadias. By this technique a more normal appearance can be achieved. PMID:25755862

  10. Urethroplasty by Use of Turnover Flaps (Modified Mathieu Procedure) for Distal Hypospadias Repair in Adolescents: Comparison With the Tubularized Incised Plate Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine whether urethroplasty with a turnover flap, as an alternative method of distal hypospadias repair in adolescents, improves the outcome of surgery. Materials and Methods Between January 2004 and December 2013, a total of 38 adolescents (aged 11-17 years) underwent distal hypospadias repair with either the tubularized incised plate (TIP) procedure (n=25) or the turnover flap procedure (n=13). The turnover flap procedure was performed with a proximal, ventral penile flap that was turned over to cover the urethral plate. Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes, complications, and postoperative uroflowmetry in each surgical group were analyzed retrospectively. Results The patient demographics were similar in the two groups. There were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes between the groups, including mean operative time, duration of hospital stay, and urethral catheterization. The number of patients with at least one complication, including wound dehiscence, urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, and urethral stricture, was lower in the turnover flap group (1/13, 7.7%) than in the TIP group (11/25, 44%, p=0.030). The incidence of meatal stenosis was lower in the turnover flap group (0/12, 0%) than in the TIP group (6/25, 24%). In postoperative uroflowmetry, the plateau-shaped curve rate was lower in the turnover flap group (1/12, 8.3%) than in the TIP group (5/19, 26.3%); the peak flow was higher (p=0.030). Conclusions The turnover flap procedure is clinically useful for repairing adolescent distal hypospadias because it offers lower complication rates and better functional outcomes than TIP. PMID:25405018

  11. ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF HYPOSPADIAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURENCE S. BASKIN; ALI EROL; YING WU LI; GERALD R. CUNHA

    1998-01-01

    PurposeHypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly affecting the penis. Successful repair depends on an accurate understanding of anatomy. We compared the anatomy of hypospadiac and normal fetal penises.

  12. Hybrid Repair of Proximal Subclavian Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Kazuki; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Iba, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Conventional open repair for proximal subclavian artery aneurysms (SCAAs) requires cardiopulmonary bypass. However, patients with proximal SCAA can be treated with hybrid repair. Methods: Between 2007 and 2012, we performed hybrid repair to treat six consecutive patients with proximal SCAA (three left SCAAs, one right aberrant SCAA, two right SCAAs). Their median age was 73.5 [70–87] years, and the size of their aneurysm was 33.5 [30–45] mm. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) only was used for one patient with left SCAA, TEVAR and supra-aortic bypass for two with left SCAA and one with right aberrant SCAA, and endovascular repair with reconstruction of the vertebral artery using the saphenous vein graft (SVG) for two with right SCAA. Results: The follow-up duration was 3.7 [0.2–6.8] years. There was no 30-day mortality and only one early complication consisting of a minor stroke after TEVAR for shaggy aorta. Two late deaths occurred, one caused by cerebral infarction due to occlusion of SVG to the dominant vertebral artery 2 months after the operation and the other by aortic dissection 5 years postoperatively. Conclusions: Hybrid repair can be a less-invasive alternative for proximal SCAA. Revascularization of neck vessels and TEVAR should be performed very carefully to prevent neurologic complications.

  13. Recent advances in understanding/management of hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nicol

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is the second most common birth anomaly, affecting 1 of every 300 males. The abnormal position of the urinary opening, and associated downward curvature of the penis in some cases, potentially impact both urinary and sexual function. Modern surgical correction most often involves tubularization of the urethral plate, those tissues which normally should have completed urethral development. This article discusses recent progress in hypospadias repair. Prospective data collection in consecutive patients promotes better understanding of both patient and technical factors that influence surgical complications. Patients with a proximal urinary opening near or within the scrotum, those failing prior to repairs, and/or those with a small glans diameter have increased likelihood for urethroplasty complications. Quality review of reliable data led to two layer urethroplasty covered with tunica vaginalis in proximal repairs, significantly reducing postoperative fistulas. Neither preoperative androgens used to grow a small diameter glans, nor a change in sutures used to approximate the glans wings reduced wound dehiscence, but a recent technical modification of the glansplasty with more extensive dissection before suturing has. The observation that reoperation increases risk for further complications three-fold suggests the less common proximal repairs and reoperations should be subspecialized so that designated surgeons can gain greater expertise. In addition, surgeons performing hypospadias repair must better define the complications that occur so that scientific reporting of outcomes becomes more standardized. Standardized objective means to assess results are also needed so that surgeons performing different repairs can compare outcomes. PMID:25580255

  14. A Complication in Hypospadias Surgery Due to Anchoring Suture

    PubMed Central

    Gollu, Gulnur; Kucuk, Gonul; Karabulut, Ayse An?l; Yagmurlu, Aydin; Cakmak, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The complication rates are still 1–90% both in proximal and distal hypospadias regardless of the surgeon’s experience and the usage of most developed techniques. The literature survey revealed few complications of glans penis including meatal stenosis, prolapsus and retraction. Despite our literature survey, we could not find any article concerning the permanent scar tissue at the dorsal part of glans following hypospadias surgeries. A new complication can be added to these, concerning glans which is the formation of postoperative scar tissue as a reaction to suture material used in traction, stent anchoring or both. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate four cases which had glanular scar due to traction suture following the surgical procedures for hypospadias repair. PMID:26180503

  15. A Complication in Hypospadias Surgery Due to Anchoring Suture.

    PubMed

    Gollu, Gulnur; Kucuk, Gonul; Karabulut, Ayse An?l; Yagmurlu, Aydin; Cakmak, Murat

    2015-06-01

    The complication rates are still 1-90% both in proximal and distal hypospadias regardless of the surgeon's experience and the usage of most developed techniques. The literature survey revealed few complications of glans penis including meatal stenosis, prolapsus and retraction. Despite our literature survey, we could not find any article concerning the permanent scar tissue at the dorsal part of glans following hypospadias surgeries. A new complication can be added to these, concerning glans which is the formation of postoperative scar tissue as a reaction to suture material used in traction, stent anchoring or both. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate four cases which had glanular scar due to traction suture following the surgical procedures for hypospadias repair. PMID:26180503

  16. A modification of the TIP procedure for distal hypospadias: The burrowing technique

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, Erin D.; Metcalfe, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) hypospadias repair is a commonly performed procedure for hypospadias. Multiple series document excellent cosmetic outcome in conjunction with low complication rates. We describe a modification that we have named the “burrowing technique.” We believe that this technique facilitates dissection of the glans, which improves mobility, decreases tension with closure, and potentially improves outcomes. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 193 coronal or mid-shaft hypospadias repairs by a single surgeon. The first 98 were performed using the TIP procedure, then the burrowing technique was developed and a subsequent 95 were analyzed for outcomes using this modification. Urethral plate characteristics and glandular size did not influence the choice of surgical technique. Cases were selected to allow for a “learning curve,” and were consecutively accrued. None of the boys had undergone prior hypospadias surgery. Proximal 2 stage repairs and distal (glanular) repairs were excluded. Results: A total of 193 boys underwent repair, 98 with the traditional TIP procedure and 95 using the burrowing modification. In total, 37 (19.2%) patients required re-operation for either fistulas or dehiscence; 23 (23.5%) in the non-burrowing group and 14 (14.7%) in the burrowing group, odds ratio 0.54 (p = 0.10). Conclusions: The TIP procedure has revolutionized the management of distal hypospadias. The burrowing modification increases glandular mobility simplifying the procedure and demonstrates a non-statistically significant trend in reducing reoperation rates. PMID:25024797

  17. Failed hypospadias in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cimador, Marcello; Vallasciani, Santiago; Manzoni, Gianantonio; Rigamonti, Waifro; De Grazia, Enrico; Castagnetti, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Failed hypospadias refers to any hypospadias repair that leads to complications or causes patient dissatisfaction. The complication rate after hypospadias repairs ranges from 5-70%, but the actual incidence of failed hypospadias is unknown as complications can become apparent many years after surgery and series with lifelong follow-up data do not exist. Moreover, little is known about uncomplicated repairs that fail in terms of patient satisfaction. Risk factors for complications include factors related to the hypospadias (severity of the condition and characteristics of the urethral plate), the patient (age at surgery, endocrine environment, and wound healing impairment), the surgeon (technique selection and surgeon expertise), and the procedure (technical details and postoperative management). The most important factors for preventing complications are surgeon expertise (number of cases treated per year), interposition of a barrier layer between the urethroplasty and the skin, and postoperative urinary drainage. Major complications associated with failed hypospadias include residual curvature, healing complications (preputial dehiscence, glans dehiscence, fistula formation, and urethral breakdown), urethral obstruction (meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, and functional obstruction), urethral diverticula, hairy urethra, and penile skin deficiency. PMID:23917119

  18. Functional Evaluation of the Results of Hypospadias Surgery with Uroflowmetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Tapia Garibay; Churphena Reid; Ricardo Gonzalez

    1995-01-01

    To determine the role of uroflowmetry in the evaluation of the functional results of hypospadias repair we retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 patients who underwent hypospadias repair with urethral reconstruction (mean age 2.4 years and mean followup 3.6 years). Patients with a plateau pattern and a maximum flow rate 2 standard deviations below the mean for age, body surface

  19. Aetiological factors in hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Calzolari; M R Contiero; E Roncarati; P L Mattiuz; S Volpato

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological and genetic variables in hypospadias were analysed during the years 1978 to 1983 in a case control study of congenital malformations in the Emilia Romagna region of northern Italy. During the observation period, in a sample of 41 078 male newborns, 168 had hypospadias giving a prevalence at birth of 4.1 in 1000 males. Hypospadias was divided into three

  20. Nature GeNetics VOLUME 46 | NUMBER 9 | SEPTEMBER 2014 957 Hypospadias is a birth defect with a prevalence of about 4.5 cases

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    Nature GeNetics VOLUME 46 | NUMBER 9 | SEPTEMBER 2014 957 Hypospadias is a birth defect located on the ventral side of the penis instead of at the tip of the glans. Hypospadias arises between of hypospadias, the opening is still on the glans, whereas moderate and severe cases have a more proximal opening

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Proximal Bilateral Iliac Limb Dislocation and Kinking following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Alerci, Mario; Wyttenbach, Rolf [Ospedale San Giovanni, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)], E-mail: rolf.wyttenbach@bluewin.ch; Bogen, Marcel [Ospedale San Giovanni, Department of Surgery (Switzerland); Segesser, Ludwig K. von [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois-CHUV, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Switzerland); Gallino, Augusto [Ospedale San Giovanni, Department of Vascular Medicine (Switzerland); Inglese, Luigi [Ospedale San Donato, Servizio di Emodinamica (Italy)

    2005-05-15

    We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a late type 1b endoleak due to proximal migration of both iliac limbs 5 years after endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The endovascular method used to correct bilaterally this condition is described. Final angiographic control shows patency of the stent-graft without signs of endoleak.

  2. [Complications of surgical treatment of hypospadia].

    PubMed

    Romanov, D V; Korol'kova, I A

    2004-01-01

    127 new cases of hypospadia were treated in 1980-2002. A total of 348 operations including urethroplasty by Duplay and Cecil were made. 78 of the operations were followed by complications out of which 26 were corrected in the postoperative period and had no effect on the treatment results. The first stage of surgical correction of hypospadia (89 operations) brought complications in 13.48% cases. Recurrent distortion of the cavernous bodies was most typical complication at this stage. In most cases development of scarry deformation was due to inflammatory changes early after surgery. Derivatives of prednisolone proved effective in the treatment of hypertrophic scars. This complication correlated with skin plastic repair (longitudinal suturing or creation of oncoming triangular flaps) to correct the defect. The second stage of hypospadia surgery was urethroplasty made in 196 cases. It was accompanied with complications in 13.25 patients. Fistulas of newly-created urethra (11.73%) were the most typical and frequent complication. The number of postoperative complications varied greatly depending on the disease form and method of urethral reconstruction. Cecil urethroplasty brought complications in 7.94% cases. Efficacy of neurourethra creation by Duplay varied greatly depending on the length of the created neourethral portion and the number of local skin resources (8-33-83.33% complications). PMID:15199814

  3. Multiple hypoplastic duplicated urethral hydrodistension and simple end-to-end anastomosis to penoscrotal hypospadias: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Tina; Rad, Mona Vahidi; Fareghi, Mehdi; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    Complete urethral duplication is a rare congenital genitourinary anomaly with various symptoms. Since anatomical place of urethra greatly varies between cases, surgical management of the patients is personalized according to the type of the duplication and requires a careful workup before planning for any intervention. In this case report, a 4-year-old boy with finding of complete proximal hypospadiac urethral duplication is presented with double-stream voiding. He was passing a normal stream of urine through the hypospadiac tract, while a thin stream came out from the normal meatal site. Examination revealed a hypoplastic orthotopic urethra with an accessory penoscrotal hypospadiac urethra. The patient was successfully managed with hydrodistension technique which was used to resolve the stricture of hypoplastic dorsal urethra followed by end-to-end anastomosis to penoscrotal hypospadias. This approach gives an insight that the technique could be possibly considered as a simple alternative to avoid proximal hypospadias repair which is comparatively a challenging surgical task. PMID:24859321

  4. Agricultural Pesticide Use and Hypospadias in Eastern Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kristy J.; Reif, John S.; Veeramachaneni, D.N. Rao; Luben, Thomas J.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Nuckols, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the relationship between hypospadias and proximity to agricultural pesticide applications using a GIS-based exposure method. Methods We obtained information for 354 cases of hypospadias born between 1998 and 2002 in eastern Arkansas; 727 controls were selected from birth certificates. We classified exposure on pounds of pesticides (estimated by crop type) applied or persisting within 500 m of each subject’s home during gestational weeks 6 to 16. We restricted our analyses to 38 pesticides with some evidence of reproductive, developmental, estrogenic, and/or antiandrogenic effects. We estimated timing of pesticide applications using crop phenology and published records. Results Gestational age at birth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–0.99], parity (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.95), and delaying prenatal care until the third trimester (OR = 4.04; 95% CI, 1.46–11.23) were significantly associated with hypospadias. Risk of hypospadias increased by 8% for every 0.05-pound increase in estimated exposure to diclofop-methyl use (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01–1.15). Pesticide applications in aggregate (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70–0.96) and applications of alachlor (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.89) and permethrin (OR = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.86) were negatively associated with hypospadias. Conclusions Except for diclofop-methyl, we did not find evidence that estimated exposure to pesticides known to have reproductive, developmental, or endocrine-disrupting effects increases risk of hypospadias. Further research on the potential effects of exposure to diclofop-methyl is recommended. PMID:17035148

  5. A high hypospadias rate in The Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. Pierik; A. Burdorf; J. M. Nijman; Muinck Keizer-Schrama de S. M. P. F; R. E. Juttmann; R. F. A. Weber

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports on increasing hypospadias trends are based on birth\\u000a defect registries, which are prone to inaccuracy. We assessed the\\u000a prevalence of hypospadias precisely, by prospective examination of all\\u000a newborns in Rotterdam over a 2-year period. METHODS: A total of 7292\\u000a consecutive male births were examined for the presence of hypospadias,\\u000a classified by severity. RESULTS: The frequency of hypospadias in

  6. Novel use of an osmotic self-inflating tissue expander for hypospadias revision surgery.

    PubMed

    Lansdale, Nick; Henderson, Lucy; Hennayake, Supul

    2015-04-01

    We describe the successful use of an osmotic self-inflating tissue expander for complex pediatric hypospadias repair. A 5-year-old boy, who had undergone previous hypospadias repair and subsequent fistula repair, presented with significant rotation of the penile shaft, with extensive scar tissue but insufficient native penile shaft skin for redo surgery. A 15 × 6 mm Osmed self-inflating cylindrical expander was used to allow excision of scar tissue and cover with expanded native skin. An excellent cosmetic and functional outcome was achieved at clinic review, 18 months postoperatively. The use of self-inflating tissue expanders offers a novel technique to achieve adequate native skin in the management of complex pediatric hypospadias. PMID:25817117

  7. Use of parenteral testosterone prior to hypospadias surgery.

    PubMed

    Luo, C C; Lin, J N; Chiu, C H; Lo, F S

    2003-04-01

    Surgical correction of genital defects was formerly proposed when the size of the penis was sufficient to permit easy surgical repair. To enlarge penile size, temporary stimulation with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone cream has been used; however, the results were not only inconsistent, but absorption was also variable. We report our experience with parenteral testosterone as an adjunct to reconstructive genital surgery in 25 patients aged 6-18 months from July 1999 to December 2000, including 8 with penile hypospadias, 15 with penoscrotal hypospadias, and 2 with perineal hypospadias. Each had a penis that was significantly smaller than usual. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was given i.m. once per month for a total of three doses before surgical repair. Penile length and glans circumference were measured before therapy and at operation. Side effects such as the development of pubic hair and acne were monitored. Bone age was checked 1 year later. An increase in penile length (from 19.8 +/- 2.4 mm to 23.8 +/- 2.0 mm) and glans circumference (from 27.4 +/- 1.4 mm to 37.84 +/- 2.6 mm) was apparent in all except 2 patients (P < 0.001 for both, paired t-test). Four patients had a significant increase in either penile length or glans circumference after the initial dose so that no further injections were required. No definite secondary effects were found. Preoperative parenteral testosterone therapy thus causes a significant increase in penile length and glans circumference without apparent side effects. We suggest that this therapy prior to microphallic hypospadias repair is appropriate. PMID:12721732

  8. Staged hybrid approach using proximal TEVAR and distal open repair for the treatment of extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, William F.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Tracci, Margaret C.; Cherry, Kenneth J.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kern, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Repair of patients with extent I and II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, while repair of more distal extent III and IV TAAAs has a lower risk of mortality and paraplegia. Therefore, we describe an approach using thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) as the index operation to convert extent I and II TAAAs to extent III and IV TAAAs amenable to subsequent open aortic repair to minimize patient risk. Methods Between July 2007 and March 2012, 10 staged hybrid operations were performed to treat 1 extent I and 9 extent II TAAAs. Aortic aneurysm pathology included 5 chronic type B dissections, 3 acute type B dissections, and 2 penetrating aortic ulcers. Initially, the proximal descending thoracic aorta was repaired with TEVAR for coverage of the most proximal fenestration or penetrating ulcer, with 7 elective and 3 emergent repairs. Interval open distal aortic replacement was performed either in a short-term planned setting or for progressive dilation of the distal aortic segment. In the open repair, the proximal end of the graft was sewn directly to the distal end of the TEVAR and outer wall of the aorta. Results Average patient age was 48 years with the majority of patients male (60%). Risk factors included hypertension (80%), current tobacco use (50%), and Marfan syndrome (30%). Postoperative complications following TEVAR included endoleaks [type IA (n=1); type II (n=3)], pleural effusions (n=3), and acute kidney injury (n=1). Endovascular re-interventions were required in 3 cases. In dissection cases, persistent filling of the false lumen was common and associated with distal thoracic aortic dilation. Complications of open repair included acute kidney injury (n=2) but no cardiac, pulmonary, or neurologic morbidity. Median time between TEVAR and open repair was 14 weeks. Most importantly, there was no mortality or neurologic deficit after either procedure with a median follow up of 35 weeks. Conclusions A staged hybrid approach to extensive TAAAs combining proximal TEVAR followed by interval open distal TAAA repair is safe and appears to be an effective alternative to traditional open repair. This approach may decrease the significant morbidity associated with single stage open extent I and II TAAA repairs and may be applicable to many TAAA etiologies. PMID:22832268

  9. Urethral seam formation and hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence S. Baskin; Ali Erol; Priya Jegatheesan; Yingwu Li; Wenhui Liu; Gerald R. Cunha

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the formation of the normal male urethra may elucidate the etiology of hypospadias. We describe urethral formation in the mouse, show the similarities and relevance to human urethral development, and introduce the concept of the epithelial seam formation and remodeling during urethral formation. Three mechanisms may account for epithelial seam formation: (1) epithelial-mesenchymal transformation similar to that described

  10. Genetic and environmental factors in hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Stoll; Y Alembik; M P Roth; B Dott

    1990-01-01

    A case control study of hypospadias was performed from 1979 to 1987 in Alsace, north-eastern France. A total of 176 out of 60 847 male infants had hypospadias giving a prevalence at birth of 2.89 per 1000 male newborns; 15.3% of all infants with hypospadias also had other malformations. Renal and urinary tract malformations were present in 37.0% of the

  11. Mechanism for repair of thymine dimers by photoexcitation of proximal 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.

    PubMed

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; ?wierszcz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

    2013-02-14

    A wide range of experimental data from earlier studies by other workers are combined with recent data from the Burrows group to interpret that group's thymine dimer (T = T) repair rate data for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG)-containing DNA duplexes. The focus of this effort is to explain (i) how and why the repair rates vary as the sequence location and distance of the OG relative to the T?T is changed and (ii) why the spatial extent over which repair is observed is limited to OG-T?T distances of ~6 Å. It is proposed that, if the OG and T?T are within ~5-6 Å, a Coulomb potential moves the energy of the OG(+)···T?T(-) ion-pair state below the photoexcited OG*···T?T state, even in the absence of full solvent relaxation, thus enhancing forward electron transfer from OG* to T?T by allowing it to occur as a radiationless internal conversion process rather than by overcoming a solvation-related barrier. The rate of this forward electron transfer is estimated to be ~10% of the decay rate of the photoexcited OG*. For OG-to-T?T distances beyond 5-6 Å, electron transfer is still exothermic, but it must occur through solvent reorganization, overcoming an energy barrier, which presumably renders this rate too slow to be detected in the experiments under study here. Once an electron has been injected into the T?T, as many other workers have shown, the reaction proceeds through two low-energy barriers first connecting T?T(-) to an intermediate in which the C(5)-C(5') bond of the cyclobutane unit is cleaved, and onward to where the cyclobutane unit is fully broken and two intact thymine sites are established. Our ab initio data show that the energy landscape for these bond cleavages is altered very little by the presence of the proximal OG(+) cation, which therefore allows us to use data from the earlier studies to conclude that it takes ~100 ps for complete bond cleavage to occur. The experimentally determined overall T?T repair quantum yield of 1% then allows us to estimate the rate at which an electron is transferred from the T?T(-) anion back to the OG(+) cation as 10 times the rate of bond cleavage. The experimental variations in T?T repair rates among several sequences are shown to be reasonably consistent with an exponential OG-to-T?T distance dependence, e(-?R), with a decay parameter of ? = 0.6 Å(-1). Finally, suggestions are offered for experimental studies that would test the predictions offered here and shed further light on the OG-induced T?T repair mechanism. PMID:22894719

  12. Toward the effective surveillance of hypospadias.

    PubMed Central

    Dolk, Helen; Vrijheid, Martine; Scott, John E S; Addor, Marie-Claude; Botting, Bev; de Vigan, Catherine; de Walle, Hermien; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Pierini, Anna; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Physick, Nigel; Tenconi, Romano; Wiesel, Awi; Calzolari, Elisa; Stone, David

    2004-01-01

    Concern about apparent increases in the prevalence of hypospadias--a congenital male reproductive-tract abnormality--in the 1960s to 1980s and the possible connection to increasing exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals have underlined the importance of effective surveillance of hypospadias prevalence in the population. We report here the prevalence of hypospadias from 1980 to 1999 in 20 regions of Europe with EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) population-based congenital anomaly registers, 14 of which implemented a guideline to exclude glanular hypospadias. We also report data from the England and Wales National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS). Our results do not suggest a continuation of rising trends of hypospadias prevalence in Europe. However, a survey of the registers and a special validation study conducted for the years 1994-1996 in nine EUROCAT registers as well as NCAS identified a clear need for a change in the guidelines for registration of hypospadias. We recommend that all hypospadias be included in surveillance, but that information from surgeons be obtained to verify location of the meatus, and whether surgery was performed, in order to interpret trends. Investing resources in repeated special surveys may be more cost-effective than continuous population surveillance. We conclude that it is doubtful whether we have had the systems in place worldwide for the effective surveillance of hypospadias in relation to exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals. PMID:14998760

  13. Fate of the proximal aortic cuff: Implications for endovascular aneurysm repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl A. Illig; Richard M. Green; Kenneth Ouriel; Patrick Riggs; Stephen Bartos; James A. DeWeese

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Long-term success of endoluminally placed grafts for exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) relies on secure fixation at the proximal and distal cuffs and, as such, assumes that the fixation sites will not dilate over time. Data regarding this issue, however, are not yet available. This study was performed to evaluate the region of the proximal anastomosis in patients

  14. Observations on the Epidemiology of Simple Hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Roberts; S. Lloyd

    1973-01-01

    A descriptive epidemiological study of simple hypospadias—that is, hypospadias without coexisting malformation outside the genital system—in a birth population of 46,927 singleton males and 1,013 twin males showed that the condition was significantly more common (P < 0·001) in uniovular twin males than in either singleton or binovular twin males. Also the temporal distribution of dates of conception had a

  15. Hypospadias

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in both print and download format. View Products Urology Care Foundation 1000 Corporate Boulevard Linthicum, MD 21090 ... Conditions Financials & Annual Report Leadership Privacy Statement © 2015 Urology Care Foundation | All Rights Reserved.

  16. Hypospadias: Prevalence, birthweight and associated major congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birthweight and associated major congenital anomalies. It is a population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence of 16.9 per 10?000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (P?hypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68%) while cases with associated major congenital anomalies were less likely to have mild hypospadias (42%) (P?Hypospadias was associated with VLBW and the severity of the defect was related to the presence of major congenital anomalies. The prevalence of hypospadias has increased during the study period. The relation to VLBW could indicate a causal relationship for hypospadias or a shared pathogenic factor. PMID:25040012

  17. Repair-Mediated Duplication by Capture of Proximal Chromosomal DNA Has Shaped Vertebrate Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Pace, John K.; Sen, Shurjo K.; Batzer, Mark A.; Feschotte, Cédric

    2009-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a common form of cellular damage that can lead to cell death if not repaired promptly. Experimental systems have shown that DSB repair in eukaryotic cells is often imperfect and may result in the insertion of extra chromosomal DNA or the duplication of existing DNA at the breakpoint. These events are thought to be a source of genomic instability and human diseases, but it is unclear whether they have contributed significantly to genome evolution. Here we developed an innovative computational pipeline that takes advantage of the repetitive structure of genomes to detect repair-mediated duplication events (RDs) that occurred in the germline and created insertions of at least 50 bp of genomic DNA. Using this pipeline we identified over 1,000 probable RDs in the human genome. Of these, 824 were intra-chromosomal, closely linked duplications of up to 619 bp bearing the hallmarks of the synthesis-dependent strand-annealing repair pathway. This mechanism has duplicated hundreds of sequences predicted to be functional in the human genome, including exons, UTRs, intron splice sites and transcription factor binding sites. Dating of the duplication events using comparative genomics and experimental validation revealed that the mechanism has operated continuously but with decreasing intensity throughout primate evolution. The mechanism has produced species-specific duplications in all primate species surveyed and is contributing to genomic variation among humans. Finally, we show that RDs have also occurred, albeit at a lower frequency, in non-primate mammals and other vertebrates, indicating that this mechanism has been an important force shaping vertebrate genome evolution. PMID:19424419

  18. Aetiological Studies of Hypospadias in Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Czeizel; J. Tóth; Eve Erodi

    1979-01-01

    A complex aetiological (epidemiological, teratological and genetic) study was made in 294 index patients with simple isolated hypospadias. The epidemiological study conducted by the help of personal interviews of the mothers revealed a higher frequency of index patients among children born between August and December, among twins, mainly monozygotic, and finally in the lower birth weight groups and among first-borns.

  19. Genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of hypospadias.

    PubMed

    George, Mathew; Schneuer, Francisco J; Jamieson, Sarra E; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the current evidence and knowledge of the aetiology of hypospadias. Hypospadias remains a fascinating anomaly of the male phallus. It may be an isolated occurrence or part of a syndrome or field defect. The increasing use of assisted reproductive techniques and hormonal manipulation during pregnancy may have been associated with an apparent rise in the incidence of hypospadias. Genetic studies and gene analysis have suggested some defects that could result in hypospadias. New light has also been thrown on environmental factors that could modulate candidate genes, causing altered development of the male external genitalia. PMID:25742936

  20. Role of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias: A study from a teaching hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Reyaz; Chana, Rajendra Singh; Ali, Syed Manazir; Khan, Shehtaj

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial skin and side effects in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: 23 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. An oily solution, each ml of which contained testosterone propionate 25 mg, and testosterone enanthate 110 mg, equivalent to 100 mg of testosterone was given deep intramuscularly 4, 3 and 2 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Increase in penile length, transverse preputial diameter, and diameter at the base of penis were noted. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. In addition, side effect such as development of pubic hair and delay in bone age was noted. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial diameter and diameter at the base of penis was 1.35±0.40 cm (P<0.001), 1.40±0.47 cm (P<0.001), and 0.72±0.47 cm (P<0.001), respectively. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Minimal side effects were noted in form of development of fine pubic hair. Conclusion: We conclude that parenteral testosterone can be safely used to improve the surgical outcome of hypospadias repair. PMID:21976926

  1. Hospital incidence of hypospadias in dogs in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HM Hayes; GP Wilson

    1986-01-01

    A review of medical records from 17 North American university veterinary medical teaching hospitals identified 66 dogs with hypospadias. Males predominated (15:1) and cryptorchidism was the most commonly diagnosed second anomaly, often associated with intersexuality. Fifteen cases, diagnosed at 10 different university hospitals, were Boston terriers, strongly suggesting that this breed has a familial predisposition for hypospadias. Male mongrels, as

  2. The prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus and hypospadias: A case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weigang; Wang, Yuantao; Zhu, Dechun; Yan, Pengfei; Dong, Biao; Zhou, Honglan

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic utricle cysts with calculus and hypospadias are rare. There are a few reported cases. We present a case of a prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus in a 25-year-old male. He had a history of left cryptorchidism and surgery for penoscrotal hypospadias in his infancy. He was referred for frequent micturition, urgency of urination, urine pain, terminal hematuria, and dysuria. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a retrovesical cystic lesion of low density, showing a 5 × 5-cm calcification. Retrograde urethrocystography showed a 5 × 5-cm high-density shadow in the posterior urethra. The cyst was incised by transperineal approach and the stone was clearly observed and removed. Urethral stricture repair was performed simultaneously. The patient recovered smoothly after surgery. PMID:26029314

  3. The prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus and hypospadias: A case report and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weigang; Wang, Yuantao; Zhu, Dechun; Yan, Pengfei; Dong, Biao; Zhou, Honglan

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic utricle cysts with calculus and hypospadias are rare. There are a few reported cases. We present a case of a prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus in a 25-year-old male. He had a history of left cryptorchidism and surgery for penoscrotal hypospadias in his infancy. He was referred for frequent micturition, urgency of urination, urine pain, terminal hematuria, and dysuria. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a retrovesical cystic lesion of low density, showing a 5 × 5-cm calcification. Retrograde urethrocystography showed a 5 × 5-cm high-density shadow in the posterior urethra. The cyst was incised by transperineal approach and the stone was clearly observed and removed. Urethral stricture repair was performed simultaneously. The patient recovered smoothly after surgery.

  4. MAMLD1 (CXorf6): A New Gene Involved in Hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Ogata; Jocelyn Laporte; Maki Fukami

    2009-01-01

    MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain containing 1), previously known as CXorf6 (chromosome X open reading frame 6), has been shown to be a causative gene for hypospadias. This is primarily based on the identification of nonsense mutations (E124X, Q197X, and R653X), which undergo nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, in patients with penoscrotal hypospadias. Subsequent studies have shown that (1) the mouse homolog is transiently

  5. Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, L S; Himes, K; Colborn, T

    2001-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies in the United States, occurring in approximately 1 in 250 newborns or roughly 1 in 125 live male births. It is the result of arrested development of the urethra, foreskin, and ventral surface of the penis where the urethral opening may be anywhere along the shaft, within the scrotum, or in the perineum. The only treatment is surgery. Thus, prevention is imperative. To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine the etiology of hypospadias, the majority of which have been classified as idiopathic. In this paper we briefly describe the normal development of the male external genitalia and review the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of hypospadias. The majority of hypospadias are believed to have a multifactorial etiology, although a small percentage do result from single gene mutations. Recent findings suggest that some hypospadias could be the result of disrupted gene expression. Discoveries about the antiandrogenic mechanisms of action of some contemporary-use chemicals have provided new knowledge about the organization and development of the urogenital system and may provide additional insight into the etiology of hypospadias and direction for prevention. PMID:11713004

  6. Report of a 45, X male with monoorchism and distal hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y; He, J

    2001-11-01

    We present the rare case of a 5-year-old boy with a 45, X karyotype. The boy's family pedigree analysis was unremarkable. On admission, he was 97.4 cm tall (2.0 SD below normal references) and weighed 13.9 kg (1.0 SD below normal references). Mild mental retardation was suspected on the PPVT scale. Physical examination revealed a well-developed penis with subglanular hypospadias. His left testis was located well down at the bottom of the scrotum and the right testis was impalpable. Unilateral testicular agenesis and persistence of müllerian remnants within the hernia sac were noted on the previous records of inguinal exploration on the right side. The left testis was biopsied through a scrotal incision and prepubertal testicular tissue was confirmed. No ovary was found on laparotomy exploration. Hypospadias was repaired with meatal advancement and glanuloplasty (MAGPI) urethroplasty. His postoperative course was uneventful. Our report represents a rare case of a boy with a 45, X karyotype. Current theories for testicular development were reviewed. PMID:11903697

  7. Assessment of outcome in hypospadias surgery - a review.

    PubMed

    Springer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

  8. Assessment of Outcome in Hypospadias Surgery – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

  9. Hypospadias and Endocrine Disruption: Is There a Connection?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence S. Baskin; Katherine Himes; Theo Colborn

    2001-01-01

    that can perturb normal male development. The fetus is especially sensitive to these chem- icals known as endocrine disruptors that can mimic or interfere with the natural hormones that control development. We provide a brief description of normal development of the male external genitalia and review the preva- lence, etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of hypospadias. We also present evidence

  10. HYPOSPADIAS IS RELATED TO BIRTH WEIGHT IN DISCORDANT MONOZYGOTIC TWINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LOUISE FREDELL; PAUL LICHTENSTEIN; NANCY L. PEDERSEN; JAN SVENSSON; AGNETA NORDENSKJOLD

    1998-01-01

    PurposeHypospadias is a common urogenital malformation in boys. The etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors are involved. Because monozygotic twins have the same genetic constitution, we studied disease discordant twin pairs to evaluate environmental risk factors while controlling for genetic effects.

  11. [Caudal migration of the verumontanum and enlargement of the utricle in hypospadias].

    PubMed

    Ikoma, F; Hohenfellner, R; Yamamoto, S

    2014-09-01

    Hypospadias is one of the morphological and functional alterations of the internal urogenital organs under the influence of androgen deficiency. In the time period 1974-1998 a total of 823 cases of hypospadias were surgically treated and the findings of the preoperative X-ray diagnostics with micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) and urethrocystogram (UCG) as well as urethrocystoscopy were analyzed. A caudal migration of the verumontanum could be detected in 55% of cases with hypospadias (453/823) and in 79% (322/403) of middle grade (penoscrotal) and high grade (scrotoperineal) cases of hypospadias. Enlargement of the utricle was present in 31.5% (259/823) cases of hypospadias and in 46.2% (186/423) of middle grade (penoscrotal) and high grade (scrotoperineal) cases of hypospadias. PMID:25142789

  12. Hospital incidence of hypospadias in dogs in North America.

    PubMed

    Hayes, H M; Wilson, G P

    1986-05-31

    A review of medical records from 17 North American university veterinary medical teaching hospitals identified 66 dogs with hypospadias. Males predominated (15:1) and cryptorchidism was the most commonly diagnosed second anomaly, often associated with intersexuality. Fifteen cases, diagnosed at 10 different university hospitals, were Boston terriers, strongly suggesting that this breed has a familial predisposition for hypospadias. Male mongrels, as a group, were seen in approximately the same proportion as their representation in the hospital population, suggesting other components in the aetiology of the condition. If maternal histories are obtained as new cases are identified, a better understanding of the factors associated with the aetiology of the condition may be possible. PMID:3487876

  13. A case of hypospadias, anterior and posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Carvell, James; Mulik, Roopa

    2013-01-01

    This report outlines the case of a 3-year-old boy whose initial presentation was that of asymptomatic hypertension (lowest recording 148/90), found at preoperative check prior to stage 2-correction surgery for distal hypospadias. Upon diagnosis of true hypertension, an ultrasound of the child's renal tract showed evidence of marked hydronephrosis and calyceal dilatation. On the background of deteriorating renal function (Urea 25.5 and Creatinine 188), a Micturating Cystourethrogram was performed, demonstrating posterior urethral dilatation. With difficulties controlling blood pressure, the child was transferred to Urology care, where resection of a posterior urethral valve (PUV) was undertaken. Despite this, renal function deteriorated further and re-cystoscopy identified an anterior urethral valve (AUV), which was also resected. Renal function, although improved, remains poor and blood pressure is controlled with two anti-hypertensives. To the publisher's knowledge, the association between hypospadias, PUVs and AUVs is as yet undocumented. PMID:24964414

  14. Screening for mutations in candidate genes for hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agenta Nordenskjöld; Eitan Friedman; Margareta Tappar-Persson; Cilla Söderhäll; Amos Leviav; Jan Svensson; Maria Anvret

    1999-01-01

    Hypospadias, a condition with a frontally placed urethral orifice on the penis, is the most common malformation in males.\\u000a During fetal development several components are necessary for normal male genital development. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone\\u000a act via the androgen receptor but a defective receptor function results in different degrees of genital malformations. Testosterone-5?-reductase\\u000a converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, which is crucial for

  15. Analysis of Meatal Location in 500 Men: Wide Variation Questions Need for Meatal Advancement in All Pediatric Anterior Hypospadias Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Filipas; A. M. Mottrie; G. E. Voges; R. Hohenfellner

    1995-01-01

    The high incidence (70 percent) of anterior hypospadias, mostly without penile curvature, in our pediatric hypospadias patients led us to study the meatal location in normal men to investigate if meatal advancement in all patients with anterior hypospadias can be justified when the wide variation of meatal locations in normal men is considered. The location of the external meatus was

  16. Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations are Rarely Associated with Isolated Penile Hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Sutherland; John S. Wiener; Joseph P. Hicks; Marco Marcelli; Edmond T. Gonzales; David R. Roth; Dolores J. Lamb

    1996-01-01

    PurposeHypospadias has no known single etiology but it has been linked to androgen insensitivity caused by mutations of the androgen receptor gene. The purpose of this study was to search for such mutations in cases of various degrees of isolated hypospadias to determine whether such an association exists and, if so, with any particular anatomical subgroup.

  17. Is the Incidence of Hypospadias Increasing? Analysis of Finnish Hospital Discharge Data 1970-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martti Aho; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Teuvo L. J. Tammela; Anssi Auvinen

    Reports suggesting an increasing incidence of male genitourinary anomalies such as hypospadias, possibly related to environmental factors such as environmental estrogen-like compounds, have recently received considerable publicity. These reports are based on birth defects registry data, and there may be variation in the completeness of the registries used. We analyzed temporal trends in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland to

  18. FGFR2, FGF8, FGF10 and BMP7 as candidate genes for hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Beleza-Meireles; Fredrik Lundberg; Kristina Lagerstedt; Xiaolei Zhou; Davood Omrani; Louise Frisén; Agneta Nordenskjöld

    2007-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common malformation, which results from failure of urethral tube closure, and whose molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. The normal genital development is orchestrated by the urethral plate epithelium (UPE), at the genital tubercle (GT), which has polarizing activity, controlling a network of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, which, when disturbed, may lead to hypospadias. Homeobox proteins (HOXs), fibroblast growth

  19. Candidate genes and their response to environmental agents in the etiology of hypospadias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence S Baskin; Emily Willingham

    2007-01-01

    The molecular events that lead to isolated hypospadias remain largely unknown, and the etiology of this common congenital anomaly seems to be multifactorial. We have explored the response of several candidate genes to environmental agents that cause hypospadias in a mouse model. Here, we provide an overview of current findings in relation to candidate genes and their response to environmental

  20. Satisfaction with Penile Appearance after Hypospadias Surgery: The Patient and Surgeon View

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A. M. Mureau; Froukje M. E. Slijper; A. Koos Slob; Frank C. Verhulst; Rien J. M. Nijman

    1996-01-01

    PurposeWe studied the degree of agreement between hypospadias patient and surgeon satisfaction with the cosmetic surgical result, and the relation between penile length, meatal position and patient satisfaction.

  1. The association between some endocrine disruptors and hypospadias in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Choi, Haemin; Kim, Joohoon; Im, Yeongjae; Lee, Sanghouck; Kim, Yunje

    2012-01-01

    Hypospadias is a birth defect found in boys in which the urinary tract opening is not at the tip of the penis. The etiology of hypospadias is still unidentified, but endocrine disruptors are considered as one possible cause of hypospadias. In this study, target endocrine disruptor compounds were established for an assay. The target compounds included 5 phthalates (di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl-phthalate (DBP), mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-n-butyl-phthalate (MBP) and phthalic acid (PA)), 2 alkylphenols (n-nonylphenol (n-NP) and t-octylphenol (t-OP)) and bisphenol A. The association between these 8 endocrine disruptors and hypospadias was studied. The levels of endocrine disruptors in the urine and plasma of a control group were compared with those of a patient group. DEHP (P = 0.006) and n-NP (P = 7.26e-6) in the urine samples and PA (P = 0.009) and BPA (P = 7.22e-10) in the plasma samples showed a significant association with hypospadias. The levels of endocrine disruptors in the urine and plasma of the mothers were also compared to those of the patients to investigate the metastasis of the endocrine disruptors from the mother. These levels did not, however, show a relationship with hypospadias (R(2) = 0.001-0.563). PMID:22871016

  2. FGFR2, FGF8, FGF10 and BMP7 as candidate genes for hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Lundberg, Fredrik; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Zhou, Xiaolei; Omrani, Davood; Frisén, Louise; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2007-04-01

    Hypospadias is a common malformation, which results from failure of urethral tube closure, and whose molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. The normal genital development is orchestrated by the urethral plate epithelium (UPE), at the genital tubercle (GT), which has polarizing activity, controlling a network of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which, when disturbed, may lead to hypospadias. Homeobox proteins (HOXs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are essential in this process. Hypospadias in the Hoxa13 -/- mice occurs as a result of the combined loss of Fgf8 and Bmp7 expression in the UPE. In both Fgf10 and Fgfr2 deficient mutant hypospadic male mice, cell proliferation is arrested prematurely and the maturation of the urethral epithelium is disrupted. Fgf8, Fgf10, and their receptor Fgfr2 are downstream targets of androgens (AR) during external genital development, an important fact given the pivotal role of AR in male sex differentiation. Therefore, we examined FGFR2, FGF10, FGF8, and BMP7 as candidate genes for hypospadias. DNA from 60 boys with familial, isolated, hypospadias was screened for mutations in FGFR2, FGF10, FGF8, and BMP7 genes, using DHPLC and DNA sequence analysis. The sequence variations c.590C>G and c.582-62G>A in FGF8, and, c.550+27C>T, c.727+180T>G, c.830T>C (p.Me186Thr), and c.2454C>T in FGFR2 were found uniquely in patients with hypospadias, as compared with 96 controls. No genetic variant in the other genes was detected. These results indicate that mutations are rare in FGF8 and FGFR2 in hypospadias, but gene variants may influence the risk. PMID:17264867

  3. Genomic Variants of ATF3 in Patients With Hypospadias Nicolas Kalfa, Benchun Liu, Ophir Klein, Ming-Hsieh Wang, Mei Cao and Laurence S. Baskin*

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    Genomic Variants of ATF3 in Patients With Hypospadias Nicolas Kalfa, Benchun Liu, Ophir Klein, Ming-Hsieh Wang, Mei Cao and Laurence S. Baskin* From the Center for the Study and Treatment of Hypospadias expressed during genital development, could be implicated in the etiology of hypospadias. ATF3 is up

  4. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism and risk of isolated hypospadias: results from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, G; Shan, W; Zeng, L; Huang, L

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the association between the CAG repeat polymorphism and the risk of isolated hypospadias have reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the evidence for such a relationship. Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. Weighted mean difference and 95% confidence intervals for the CAG repeat polymorphism and isolated hypospadias were calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed by race, study design, sample for DNA extraction, and hypospadias classifications. This meta-analysis included 6 case-control studies, including 444 isolated hypospadias cases and 727 controls. The results showed that patients with isolated hypospadias had longer CAG repeats in their androgen receptor gene sequence (weighted mean difference = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.60-2.13; P = 0.0005). Similarly, stratified analyses also detected significant associations in all subgroups, excluding the group with severe hypospadias (weighted mean difference = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = -0.42-1.12; P = 0.38). This meta-analysis indicated that longer CAG repeats were associated with the risk of isolated hypospadias, and that longer CAG polymorphisms may be related to the etiology of isolated hypospadias. Future studies based on Asian and African-American patients should be performed to re-evaluate this association. PMID:25867301

  5. THE INCIDENCE OF INTERSEXUALITY IN CHILDREN WITH CRYPTORCHIDISM AND HYPOSPADIAS: STRATIFICATION BASED ON GONADAL PALPABILITY AND MEATAL POSITION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN KAEFER; DAVID DIAMOND; W. HARDY HENDREN; SREENU VEMULAPALLI; STUART B. BAUER; CRAIG A. PETERS; ANTHONY ATALA; ALAN B. RETIK

    1999-01-01

    PurposeThe combined findings of cryptorchidism and hypospadias often indicate the existence of an intersex state. Testicular maldescent and incomplete tubularization of the urethral plate occur in a spectrum with the severity of the 2 processes likely dependent on the degree of pathophysiology in the androgenic hormonal axis. The incidence of intersexuality in children with undescended testes, hypospadias and otherwise nonambiguous

  6. Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Söderhäll, Cilla; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Thai, Hanh T T; Cao, Jia; Chen, Yougen; Zhang, Xufeng; Shulu, Zu; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Frisén, Louise; Roeleveld, Nel; Markljung, Ellen; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional markers using non-parametric linkage. The fine mapping analysis displayed an increased LOD score on chromosome 8q24.1 and 10p15 in altogether 82 families. On chromosome 10p15, with the highest LOD score, we further studied AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 involved in steroid metabolism, as well as KLF6 expressed in preputial tissue from hypospadias patients. Mutation analysis of the AKR1C3 gene showed a new mutation, c.643G>A (p.(Ala215Thr)), in a boy with penile hypospadias. This mutation is predicted to have an impact on protein function and structure and was not found in controls. Altogether, we homed in on four chromosomal regions likely to harbor genes for hypospadias. Future studies will aim for studying regulatory sequence variants in these regions. PMID:24986825

  7. A new staged hybrid total arch repair procedure using a branched proximal elephant trunk technique with implantation of stent grafts to the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshiki; Shimamura, Kazuo; Shirakawa, Yukitoshi; Torikai, Kei; Kuratani, Toru; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2013-12-01

    We report a new hybrid aortic arch repair procedure for the treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms involving the ascending aorta, arch, and descending aorta. In the first stage of this procedure, a "double-barrel tube graft" was inserted into the ascending aorta and fixed to the sinotubular junction under short-duration cardiopulmonary bypass in normothermia. In the next stage, after debranching of the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery, stent grafts were deployed from the double-barrel tube graft to the descending aorta and the brachiocephalic artery to exclude the aneurysms. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, with no endoleaks. The successful initial result suggests that this procedure could be an attractive treatment option for extensive aortic aneurysms. PMID:24280331

  8. Proximal Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

    2013-01-01

    The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

  9. Proximal nephron.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Jia L; Li, Xiao C

    2013-07-01

    The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

  10. Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

  11. Maternal Pregnancy Levels of trans-Nonachlor and Oxychlordane and Prevalence of Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Longnecker, Matthew P.; Brock, John W.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies—cryptorchidism and hypospadias—are poorly understood. Given positive associations between chlordane isomers and testicular germ cell tumors, it is reasonable to assume that chlordanes might also be associated with other testicular dysgenesis syndrome disorders, namely cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Objective: To examine whether exposure to in utero chlordane is related to cryptorchidism and hypospadias, we evaluated levels of chlordane derivatives, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane, among pregnant women enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). Methods: From 1959 to 1965, the CPP enrolled pregnant women at 12 U.S. medical centers. We analyzed serum trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane levels measured in third-trimester serum from the mothers of 217 sons with cryptorchidism, 197 sons with hypospadias, and 557 sons with neither condition. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results: The quartile-specific ORs for cryptorchidism or hypospadias show no notable associations with trans-nonachlor or oxychlordane. Further, there were no significant trends with increasing quartile of maternal trans-nonachlor or oxychlordane level in either cryptorchidism or hypospadias (p-trend all > 0.45). Conclusions: The results do not support an association between chlordane levels and cryptorchidism or hypospadias. It is unlikely that current chlordane exposure is related to the development of either anomaly, given that serum chlordane levels at the time of sample collection, the early 1960s, were considerably higher than levels at present. PMID:21975279

  12. Meningocele repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Myelodysplasia repair; Spinal dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... hydrocephalus, the doctor may put a shunt (plastic tube) in their brain to drain the extra fluid ...

  13. Hypospadias in offspring is associated with chronic exposure of parents to organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Michalis; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Kovatsi, Leda; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Tsakalof, Andreas K; Heretis, Ioannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2014-10-15

    We have currently evaluated the possible association between hypospadias and exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. For this purpose, we measured the dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (DAPs) in the hair and blood, as well as OC pesticides (DDTs, HCHs) in the hair collected from children with hypospadias and their parents. The concentration of HCHs in the hair samples obtained from mothers was higher than that previously reported for people working in open cultivations, while the concentration of DDTs in the hair samples obtained from mothers, fathers and their children with hypospadias was much higher than that previously reported for occupationally exposed individuals. The DMP concentration in hair samples obtained from mothers was much higher not only from that reported for the general population, but even higher than that reported for occupationally exposed individuals. Furthermore, SUMDEPs and SUMDAPs in the hair samples obtained both from the hypospadiac boys, as well as from their parents were higher than the corresponding values previously reported for the general population. Our study supports the hypothesis that organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide exposure may be a potential risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:24388412

  14. Solitary Crossed Renal Ectopia: Concurrence of Posterior Urethral Valve and Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Amin; Khorramirouz, Reza; Keihani, Sorena; Fareghi, Mehdi; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Solitary crossed renal ectopia (SCRE) represents an exceedingly rare congenital disorder. Although skeletal and genitourinary abnormalities most commonly accompany this condition, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been described in only a few cases. Here, we present two unique cases of SCRE complicated by high-grade VUR concomitant with posterior urethral valve in one case and hypospadias in the other one. We also provide a brief review of the literature on this subject.

  15. Hypospadias and halogenated organic pollutant levels in maternal mid-pregnancy serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Herring, Amy H; Sjödin, Andreas; Jones, Richard; Needham, Larry; Ma, Chen; Ding, Kai; Shaw, Gary M

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine function may contribute to hypospadias etiology. Objective To compare levels of selected halogenated organic pollutants in women delivering infants with and without hypospadias. Methods This study examined levels of nine polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs), 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine persistent pesticides in mid-pregnancy serum samples from 20 women who delivered infants with hypospadias and 28 women who delivered unaffected infants, in California. Analytes were measured using isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Values below individual limits of detection (LOD) for each analyte were imputed based on a truncated multivariate normal distribution. Levels of 17 analytes for which at least 50% of cases and controls had values above the LOD were compared using t-tests and by generating odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Results Means were greater for cases than controls for 11 of the 17 reported analytes (4 of 5 PBDEs, 7 of 9 PCBs, and 0 of 3 other persistent pesticides), but none of the differences were statistically significant. Eleven of the 17 odds ratios exceeded one (the same analytes that had greater means), but none of the confidence intervals excluded one. After adjustment for sample processing time and foreign-born Hispanic race-ethnicity, only four of the odds ratios exceeded one. Conclusions Levels of the PBDEs and PCBs were not statistically significantly different, but the sample size was small. The current study adds to a relatively limited knowledge base regarding the potential association of specific contaminants with hypospadias or other birth defects. PMID:20494400

  16. Endocrine Disruptors in the Workplace, Hair Spray, Folate Supplementation, and Risk of Hypospadias: Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ormond, Gillian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nelson, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B.; Iszatt, Nina; Geneletti, Sara; Elliott, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys. Prevalence estimates in Europe range from 4 to 24 per 10,000 births, depending on definition, with higher rates reported from the United States. Relatively little is known about potential risk factors, but a role for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been proposed. Objective Our goal was to elucidate the risk of hypospadias associated with occupational exposure of the mother to endocrine-disruptor chemicals, use of folate supplementation during pregnancy, and vegetarianism. Design We designed a case–control study of 471 hypospadias cases referred to surgeons and 490 randomly selected birth controls, born 1 January 1997–30 September 1998 in southeast England. Telephone interviews of mothers elicited information on folate supplementation during pregnancy and vegetarianism. We used a job exposure matrix to classify occupational exposure. Results In multiple logistic regression analysis, there were increased risks for self-reported occupational exposure to hair spray [exposed vs. nonexposed, odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.40–4.17] and phthalate exposure obtained by a job exposure matrix (OR = 3.12; 95% CI, 1.04–11.46). There was a significantly reduced risk of hypospadias associated with of folate use during the first 3 months of pregnancy (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44–0.93). Vegetarianism was not associated with hypospadias risk. Conclusions Excess risks of hypospadias associated with occupational exposures to phthalates and hair spray suggest that antiandrogenic EDCs may play a role in hypospadias. Folate supplementation in early pregnancy may be protective. PMID:19270804

  17. Digital Photographic Measurement in Hypospadias: Validation and Comparison to Intraoperative Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Ardavan; Merguerian, Paul A; Grady, Richard W; DiSandro, Michael; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2013-01-01

    Background We propose a standardized method of photographing the hypospadias penis to capture penile dimensions that may be relevant for surgery. We also validate the use of digital imaging software for calculating penile dimensions as a substitute for intraoperative caliper-based measurements. Methods Photographs were taken of hypospadias penises in four different views after placement of a traction stitch and retraction of the preputial hood. Intraoperative measurements were obtained with a caliper. Digital measurements were taken of the same parameters postoperatively. All measurements were obtained in triplicate by multiple participants, and averages were tested for equivalency by determining the correlation coefficient for each parameter. Inter-observer correlation was also calculated for each parameter. Results 180 intraoperative and 180 digital measurements were taken from 60 dimensions on 10 hypospadiac penises. Strong correlation existed between most digital and intraoperative measurements. Average inter-observer correlations ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 for each of the intraoperative measurements, and 0.90 to 1.00 for each of the digital measurements. Conclusions Standardized imaging is effective in capturing penile dimensions and measurements during hypospadias surgery. When compared with intraoperative measurements, digital measurements are reliable and precise; digital photography has the potential to both aid in surgical planning and improve documentation. PMID:24291248

  18. Minor Hypospadias: The “Tip of the Iceberg” of the Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalfa, Nicolas; Philibert, Pascal; Werner, Ralf; Audran, Françoise; Bashamboo, Anu; Lehors, Hélène; Haddad, Myriam; Guys, Jean Michel; Reynaud, Rachel; Alessandrini, Pierre; Wagner, Kathy; Kurzenne, Jean Yves; Bastiani, Florence; Bréaud, Jean; Valla, Jean Stéphane; Lacombe, Gérard Morisson; Orsini, Mattea; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Hiort, Olaf; Paris, Françoise; McElreavey, Kenneth; Sultan, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background Androgens are critical in male external genital development. Alterations in the androgen sensitivity pathway have been identified in severely undermasculinized boys, and mutations of the androgen receptor gene (AR) are usually found in partial or complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether even the most minor forms of isolated hypospadias are associated with AR mutations and thus whether all types of hypospadias warrant molecular analysis of the AR. Materials and Methods Two hundred and ninety-two Caucasian children presenting with isolated hypospadias without micropenis or cryptorchidism and 345 controls were included prospectively. Mutational analysis of the AR through direct sequencing (exons 1–8) was performed. In silico and luciferase functional assays were performed for unreported variants. Results Five missense mutations of the AR were identified in 9 patients with glandular or penile anterior (n?=?5), penile midshaft (n?=?2) and penile posterior (n?=?2) hypospadias, i.e., 3%: p.Q58L (c.173A>T), 4 cases of p.P392S (c.1174C>T), 2 cases of p.A475V (c.1424C>T), p.D551H (c.1651G>C) and p.Q799E (c.2395C>G). None of these mutations was present in the control group. One mutation has never been reported to date (p.D551H). It was predicted to be damaging based on 6 in silico models, and in vitro functional studies confirmed the lowered transactivation function of the mutated protein. Three mutations have never been reported in patients with genital malformation but only in isolated infertility: p.Q58L, p.P392S, and p.A475V. It is notable that micropenis, a cardinal sign of AIS, was not present in any patient. Conclusion AR mutations may play a role in the cause of isolated hypospadias, even in the most minor forms. Identification of this underlying genetic alteration may be important for proper diagnosis and longer follow-up is necessary to find out if the mutations cause differences in sexual function and fertility later in life. PMID:23637914

  19. Exploration of gene-environment interactions, maternal effects, and parent-of-origin effects in the etiology of hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    van der Zanden, Loes F.M.; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Feitz, Wout F.J.; Brouwers, Marijn M.; Shi, Min; Knoers, Nine V.A.M.; Franke, Barbara; Roeleveld, Nel; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. Association studies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding steroid-5-alpha-reductase (SRD5A2), estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2), and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) have been equivocal. The aim of this study was to examine whether non-replication of findings for four SNPs in these genes could be due to interaction with environmental exposures. Materials and Methods We genotyped 712 Dutch hypospadias case-parent triads for the four SNPs, used questionnaire information to determine exposures, and performed association tests using the log-linear approach. We studied gene-environment interactions for the four SNPs with exposure to estrogens, cytokines or cigarette smoke, multiple pregnancy, being born small for gestational age, and maternal hypertension or preeclampsia, high BMI, or primiparity. In addition, the presence of maternal genetic and parent-of-origin effects was tested. Results Gene-environment interactions were identified for rs523349 in SRD5A2 with estrogen exposure and maternal hypertension or preeclampsia, as well as for rs11119982 in ATF3 with exposure to cytokines. Both SNPs only seemed to influence hypospadias risk in exposed cases. For rs6932902 in ESR1, only maternally derived alleles appeared to increase hypospadias risk in offspring. Conclusions This study shows that interactions between genetic and environmental factors may help to explain non-replication in genetic studies of hypospadias. PMID:23088992

  20. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Thomas R. (Stockton, CA)

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

  1. A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:23028613

  2. Gastroschisis repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall defect repair ... back into the belly. The opening in the wall of the belly will be repaired, if possible. ... after surgery. Inflammation of tissues that line the wall of the abdomen and cover the abdominal organs ...

  3. Hypospadias and variants in genes related to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, SL; Witte, JS; Ma, C; Lammer, EJ; Shaw, GM

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether variants in genes related to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism were associated with hypospadias in humans. We examined 332 relatively common tagSNPs in 20 genes. Analyses included 633 cases (84 mild, 322 moderate, 212 severe, 15 undetermined severity) and 855 population-based non-malformed male controls born in California from 1990–2003. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) for each SNP. Several of the 332 studied SNPs had p<0.01: one in CYP3A4, four in HSD17B3, one in HSD3B1, 2 in STARD3 10 in SRD5A2 and seven in STS. In addition, haplotype analyses gave several associations with p<0.01. For HSD17B3, 14-SNP and 5-SNP blocks had ORs of 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.0, p<0.001) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6, 4.8, p<0.001), respectively. For SRD5A2, 9-SNP, 3-SNP and 8-SNP blocks had ORs of 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.2, p<0.001), 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.8, p=0.008) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9, p=0.002), respectively. Our study indicates that several genes that contribute to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism are associated with hypospadias risk. PMID:24281767

  4. Prevalence of hypospadias and other genital anomalies among singleton births, 1988–1997, in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S; Dobbie, R; Finlayson, A; Gilbert, J; Youngson, G; Chalmers, J; Stone, D

    2004-01-01

    Background: Considerable debate exists on the epidemiology of genital anomalies. Methods: All genital anomalies, excluding undescended testes, were identified from neonatal returns, stillbirth and infant death survey records, and returns relating to hospital admissions and linked to form infant profiles on a cohort of singleton births between 1988 and 1997 with follow up for a minimum of three years. Findings: The mean genital anomaly prevalence rate in Scotland was calculated at 4.6 per 1000 births varying from 4.0 per 1000 births in 1988 to 5.9 per 1000 births in 1996. However, there was no evidence of a clear trend to an increasing prevalence of hypospadias, which constituted 73% of the anomalies studied. Logistic regression analysis of the data also showed this rate to be independently associated with being relatively small for gestational age (odds ratio (OR) 1.43, p < 0.001) and increasing maternal age (OR 1.2, p < 0.05). Infants born in deprived areas, as judged by the Carstairs deprivation score, were least likely to have a genital anomaly (OR 0.73, p < 0.01). Interpretation: A new linked register of congenital genital anomalies in Scotland suggests that over a decade, the birth prevalence of genital anomalies has changed little. The associations between genital anomalies, maternal age, and socioeconomic deprivation require further study. PMID:14977900

  5. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sometimes they form when there is also a hernia (an abnormal bulging of tissue) present. Hydroceles are ... muscle wall with stitches. This is called a hernia repair. Sometimes the surgeon uses a laparoscope to ...

  6. Approximate Proximity Drawings$ William Evans

    E-print Network

    Evans, Will

    Approximate Proximity Drawings$ William Evans University of British Columbia, Canada, Emden Gansner proximity drawings, called (1, 2)-proximity drawings. Intuitively, given a defi- nition of proximity and two real numbers 1 0 and 2 0, an (1, 2)-proximity drawing of a graph is a planar straight-line drawing

  7. Acrania-anencephaly associated with hypospadias. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI diagnosis and molecular folate metabolism pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Centini, Giovanni; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Ventura, Alessandro; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Cavalli, Pietro

    2012-12-01

    Acrania may occur as a single isolated malformation or associated with extracranial defects. Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital abnormalities of the genitalia frequently missed on prenatal sonograms. Second trimester two- and three-dimensional ultrasound and MRI diagnosis with necropsy and folate metabolism pathway analysis. The mechanisms leading to closure of both neural and urethral tubes, are far from being demonstrated, and molecular studies of this very rare association are lacking although it might be based on a common genetic mechanism, leading to a disturbed development pathway at the molecular level. PMID:22443204

  8. Method for mask repair using defect compensation

    DOEpatents

    Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method for repair of amplitude and/or phase defects in lithographic masks. The method involves modifying or altering a portion of the absorber pattern on the surface of the mask blank proximate to the mask defect to compensate for the local disturbance (amplitude or phase) of the optical field due to the defect.

  9. Total Preputial Flap: A Reliable and Versatile Technique for Urethral and Penile Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ludwikowski, Barbara; González, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the technique of total preputial flap (TPF) and its application for urethroplasty, penile skin coverage of both and present our results in 43 patients (41 hypospadias, 2 epispadias). There were no instances of flap necrosis. In patients without prior attempts at reconstruction (n?=?36), we observed four urethrocutaneous fistulas. TPF allowed the repair of cases of proximal hypospadias in one stage with an acceptable complication rate. PMID:24860798

  10. Railroad Repair

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-12-04

    In this online math game from Cyberchase, sneaky Hacker has removed some of the tracks on the Trans-Cyberspace Railroad. Learners must repair the tracks so the Cybertrain can get back to Central Station. Learners add decimals and drag spare tracks to fill the missing spaces.

  11. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  12. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  13. Optical proximity communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubin, Ivan; Cunningham, John E.; Zheng, Xuezhe; Simons, John; Feng, Dazeng; Liang, Hong; Kung, Cheng-Chih; Asghari, Mehdi; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V.

    2009-02-01

    We review 10Gb/sec Optical Proximity Communication realized with packaged chips that carry SOI optical waveguides and reflecting mirrors micromachined in silicon. The high precision chip to chip alignment and placement was enabled by a new packaging concept based on the co-integration of pyramidal pit features defined by anisotropic silicon etch and matching high precision micro-spheres. We support this novel packaging approach with measured optical transmission data and discuss the extent of it towards other applications of Proximity Communication.

  14. A hybrid repair of a superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysm using open mesenteric bypass and endovascular exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Cumbie, Todd A.; Kedora, John C.; Pearl, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms are uncommonly encountered in vascular surgery practice, but they typically require repair. Historically, they have been repaired with open aneurysmorrhaphy, bypass and exclusion, or simple ligation. More recently, endovascular repair with coil embolization and stent graft exclusion have been advocated. We present a repair of an SMA pseudoaneurysm via a hybrid approach with common hepatic artery to SMA bypass, exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm with ligation of the SMA proximal to the bypass, plug occlusion of the proximal SMA, and coil embolization of the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:26130888

  15. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  16. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

  17. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  18. Proximate analysis of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  19. Effects of FGF2 on metaphyseal fracture repair in rabbit tibiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Jia Chen; Seiya Jingushi; Ikuo Aoyama; Jun Anzai; Goh Hirata; Makoto Tamura; Yukihide Iwamoto

    2004-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been found to have stimulatory effects on fracture repair at diaphysis, while its effect on metaphyseal fracture repair, where spongiosal bone is dominant, has not been studied. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of FGF-2 on metaphyseal fracture healing in a rabbit proximal tibial metaphyseal model. The proximal tibial metaphysis of 6-month-old Japanese

  20. Analysis of meatal location in 1,244 healthy menDefinition of the normal site justifies the need for meatal advancement in pediatric anterior hypospadias cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Uygur; E. Ersoy; D. Erol

    1999-01-01

    The normal site of the external urethral meatus on the glans penis and the need for meatal advancement in patients with anterior\\u000a hypospadias was studied. The location of the external meatus was analyzed in 1,244 men (mean age 28 years) with classification\\u000a of the meatal position in relation to the tip of the glans and corona. The quality of erections

  1. Proximity-dependent and proximity-independent trans-splicing in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Viles, Kristi D.; Sullenger, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Most human pre-mRNAs are cis-spliced, removing introns and joining flanking exons of the same RNA molecule. However, splicing of exons present on separate pre-mRNA molecules can also occur. This trans-splicing reaction can be exploited by pre-trans-splicing molecules (PTMs), which are incapable of cis-splicing. PTM-mediated trans-splicing has been utilized to repair mutant RNAs as a novel approach to gene therapy. Herein we explore how the site of PTM expression influences trans-splicing activity. We stably inserted a PTM expression cassette into the genome of HEK293 cells, generating clonal lines with single, unique insertion sites. We analyzed trans-splicing to the gene where the PTM was integrated, as well as genes neighboring these loci. We observed some pre-mRNAs only serve as substrates for trans-splicing when they are expressed in immediate proximity to the PTM expression site. The need for PTMs to be in close proximity with pre-mRNAs to trans-splice with them is consistent with the observation that pre-mRNA cis-splicing occurs cotranscriptionally. Interestingly, we identified several cellular pre-mRNAs in one localized area that serve as trans-splicing substrates irrespective of the PTM expression site. Thus, we find multiple cellular pre-mRNAs require PTM expression in close proximity to trans-splice while others do not. PMID:18441053

  2. Disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint in the setting of multi-ligament knee injury.

    PubMed

    Porrino, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a relatively uncommon condition when in isolation; however, instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is far more frequent in those presenting with a severe multi-ligament injury of the knee. If this joint is left unstable, repair of a co-existent injury of the posterolateral corner may fail, regardless of the proficiency of the technique. We present two patients with disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint, including the MRI appearance, who initially presented to our hospital for management of significant polytrauma, as well as multi-ligament injury of the ipsilateral knee. PMID:25750062

  3. LaserGuided Repair of Complex Bile Duct Strictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas van Gulik; Johan Beek; Philip de Reuver; Daniel Aronson; Otto van Delden; Olivier Busch; Dirk Gouma

    2009-01-01

    Background: The repair of bile duct strictures (BDS) requires identification of healthy bile duct proximal to the stenosis. Identification may be difficult in complex bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy or partial liver resection. Aim: We describe a technique to identify the prestenotic bile duct using the sentinel light of a laser fiber passed through the catheter after percutaneous transhepatic biliary

  4. Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal

    E-print Network

    Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal Point Methods Yves Lucet & Warren Hare July 24, 2013 1 / 26 #12;Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Outline 1

  5. Preserving average proximity in arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. DeMillo; Stanley C. Eisenstat; Richard J. Lipton

    1978-01-01

    Programmers and data structure designers are often forced to choose between alternative structures. In storing these structures, preserving logical adjacencies or “proximity” is usually an important consideration. The combinatorial problem of storing arrays as various kinds of list structures is examined. Embeddings of graphs are used to model the loss of proximity involved in such storage schemes, and an elementary

  6. Umbilical hernia repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Umbilical hernia repair is surgery to repair an umbilical hernia . An umbilical hernia is a sac (pouch) formed from the inner ... and pain-free) for this surgery. If your hernia is small, you may receive spinal or epidural ...

  7. Intelligent pothole repair vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Minocher Homji, Ruzbeh Adi

    2006-10-30

    This thesis presents an endeavor to design and construct a prototype of an automated road repair vehicle called the Intelligent Pothole Repair Vehicle (IPRV). The IPRV is capable of automatically detecting and filling ...

  8. Laser repair of liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Scott A.; Denison, Tim; LaJoie, Elaine

    2001-05-01

    Laser repair of liver using albumin is a promising method for treating liver trauma. Concentrated human serum albumin is applied to a liver laceration and then denatured using a laser. These repairs were pulled with a material tester to measure the ultimate strength of the laser repair. We show that the ultimate strength of the liver repairs tends to increase with delivered laser energy, that the mode of delivery (pulsed versus continuous) does not matter, that the repair strength correlates with the area of denatured albumin, and that strong welds cause about 1.5 mm of thermal damage.

  9. Endovascular Repair versus Open Repair for Isolated Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Chae; Joo, Hyun-Chel; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sak; Chang, Byung-Chul; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with those of open repair for descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAA). Materials and Methods We compared the outcomes of 114 patients with DTAA and proximal landing zones 3 or 4 after TEVAR to those of 53 patients after conventional open repairs. Thirty-day and late mortality were the primary endpoints, and early morbidities, aneurysm-related death, and re-intervention were the secondary endpoints. Results The TEVAR group was older and had more incidences of dissecting aneurysm. The mean follow-up was 36±26 months (follow-up rate, 97.8%). The 30-day mortality in the TEVAR and open repair groups were 3.5% and 9.4% (p=0.11). Perioperative stroke and paraplegia incidences were similar between the groups [5.3% vs. 7.5% (p=0.56) and 7.5% vs. 3.5% (p=0.26), respectively]. Respiratory failure occurred more in the open repair group (1.8% vs. 26.4%, p<0.01). The incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis was higher in the open repair group (1.8% vs. 9.4%, p<0.01). The cumulative survival rate was higher in the TEVAR group at 2 to 5 years (79.6% vs. 58.3%, p=0.03). The free from re-intervention was lower in the TEVAR group (65.3% vs. 100%, p=0.02), and the free from aneurysm-related death in the TEVAR and open repair groups were 88.5% and 86.1% (p=0.45). Conclusion TEVAR is safe and effective for treating DTAAs with improved perioperative and long-term outcomes compared with open repair. PMID:26069110

  10. Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

  11. Tools for proximal soil sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proximal soil sensing (i.e. near-surface geophysical methods) are used to study soil phenomena across spatial scales. Geophysical methods exploit contrasts in physical properties (dielectric permittivity, apparent electrical conductivity or resistivity, magnetic susceptibility) to indirectly measur...

  12. Bilateral uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension with site-specific endopelvic fascia defect repair for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Barber; Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Cindy L. Amundsen; Richard C. Bump

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The anatomic and functional success of suspension of the vaginal cuff to the proximal uterosacral ligaments is described. Study Design: Forty-six women underwent vaginal site-specific repair of endopelvic fascia defects with suspension of the vaginal cuff to the proximal uterosacral ligaments for pelvic organ prolapse. Outcome measures included operative complications, pelvic organ prolapse quantitation, and assessment of pelvic floor

  13. Open repair of retracted latissimus dorsi tendon avulsion.

    PubMed

    Ellman, Michael B; Yanke, Adam; Juhan, Tristan; Verma, Nikhil N; Nicholson, Gregory P; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Romeo, Anthony A

    2013-06-01

    Latissimus dorsi avulsion injuries are rarely reported in the literature and are managed with a variety of strategies. Primary anatomical repair of tendon to bone may offer athletes the best chance for successful return to sports. In this article, we describe a surgical technique for safely repairing an acute or chronic, retracted, avulsed latissimus tendon back to its insertion on the medial aspect of the bicipital groove of the proximal humerus. Using 1 low anterior axillary incision and 1 posterior axillary incision for tendon retrieval when retraction is more than 5 cm, this technique allows for direct anatomical repair of a retracted tendon to bone using 3 points of bony fixation supplemented by soft-tissue repair. The technique also minimizes the risks for neurovascular compromise and cosmetic deformity, while decreasing the risk for postinjury strength deficits. PMID:23805423

  14. Proximal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Do Hyun; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) is theoretically a superior choice of minimally-invasive surgery and function-preserving surgery for the treatment of proximal early gastric cancer (EGC) over procedures such as laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG), open total gastrectomy (OTG) and open proximal gastrectomy (OPG). However, LPG and OPG are not popular surgical options due to three main concerns: the first, oncological safety; the second, functional benefits; and the third, anastomosis-related late complications (reflux symptoms and anastomotic stricture). Numerous recent studies have concluded that OPG and LPG present similar oncological safety profiles and improved functional benefits when compared with OTG and LTG. While OPG with modified esophagogastrostomy does not provide satisfactory results, OPG with modified esophagojejunostomy showed similar rates of anastomosis-related late complications when compared to OTG. At this stage, no standard reconstruction method post-LPG exists in the clinical setting. We recently showed that LPG with double tract reconstruction (DTR) is a superior choice over LTG for proximal EGC in terms of maintaining body weight and preventing anemia. However, as there is no definitive evidence in favor of LPG with DTR, a randomized clinical trial comparing LPG with DTR to LTG was recommended. This trial, the Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study-05 (NCT01433861), is expected to assist surgeons in choice of surgical approach and strategy for patients with proximal EGC.

  15. Alternative Excision Repair Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Alternative excision repair (AER) is a category of excision repair initiated by a single nick, made by an endonuclease, near the site of DNA damage, and followed by excision of the damaged DNA, repair synthesis, and ligation. The ultraviolet (UV) damage endonuclease in fungi and bacteria introduces a nick immediately 5? to various types of UV damage and initiates its excision repair that is independent of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Endo IV-type apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases from Escherichia coli and yeast and human Exo III-type AP endonuclease APEX1 introduce a nick directly and immediately 5? to various types of oxidative base damage besides the AP site, initiating excision repair. Another endonuclease, endonuclease V from bacteria to humans, binds deaminated bases and cleaves the phosphodiester bond located 1 nucleotide 3? of the base, leading to excision repair. A single-strand break in DNA is one of the most frequent types of DNA damage within cells and is repaired efficiently. AER makes use of such repair capability of single-strand breaks, removes DNA damage, and has an important role in complementing BER and NER. PMID:23645854

  16. Fundamentals of Airframe Repair

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On this site, visitors will find introductory materials to airframes and airframe repair for helicopters and airplanes. The resource is divided into two parts; part one discusses the basic components and processes of airframes, and part two covers airframe damage repair. Additionally, each part is broken down into four lessons, including Aviation Hardware, Structural Repair, and Metal-Working Processes. The text of the material is supplemented with helpful labeled drawings to illustrate each part of the airframe. This resource is useful for students who are just beginning in the field of airframe maintenance and repair, or the more general fields of aeronautics or aeronautical engineering.

  17. Reverse elephant trunk technique: a novel approach to pseudoaneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Smiles, Gemma S; Rowe, Aimee J; Mitchell, Ian M

    2012-03-01

    Traditional surgical access to the upper descending aorta is via a left thoracotomy. For postcoarctation pseudoaneurysm repair, this approach is difficult because of the risk of rupture while dissecting the aorta for proximal and distal control. Access from a median sternotomy may be safer, but is difficult because of the depth of the wound and because of the angle of approach to the distal aspect of the repair site. We describe a novel approach via a median sternotomy incision, using circulatory arrest and "elephant trunk" principles to achieve tube graft replacement of the aneurysmal section of aorta. PMID:22458278

  18. Hiatal hernia repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... backflows from the stomach into the esophagus. Hiatal hernia repair is surgery to repair a bulging of ... abdomen and chest (diaphragm) into the chest (hiatal hernia). Hiatal hernia repair may be recommended when the ...

  19. Shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Don J.

    1990-01-01

    Shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations trajectory control techniques are reviewed and it is noted that they have been affected by many factors including Shuttle system design constraints such as limited forward RCS and single point radar failures. Crew training requirements and mission operations constraints such as large launch windows, flexibility, and contingency profile interrupts are also integral factors. The resulting trajectory control design primarily uses ground support for the launch and orbit adjust phases, standardized crew techniques utilizing onboard software for the relative navigation flight phase, and mission unique manual control for a flexible proximity operations phase.

  20. Laterally proximized aluminum tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, J. V.; Peltonen, J. T.; Meschke, M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2011-05-01

    This letter presents experiments on junctions fabricated by a technique that enables the use of high-quality aluminum oxide tunnel barriers with normal metal electrodes at low temperatures. Inverse proximity effect is applied to diminish the superconductivity of an aluminum dot through a clean lateral connection to a normal metal electrode. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, fully normal-state single electron transistors (SETs) and normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junctions applying proximized Al junctions were fabricated. The transport characteristics of the junctions were similar to those obtained from standard theoretical models of regular SETs and NIS junctions.

  1. Human DNA Repair Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Wood; Michael Mitchell; John Sgouros; Tomas Lindahl

    2001-01-01

    Cellular DNA is subjected to continual attack, both by reactive species inside cells and by environmental agents. Toxic and mutagenic consequences are minimized by distinct pathways of repair, and 130 known human DNA repair genes are described here. Notable features presently include four enzymes that can remove uracil from DNA, seven recombination genes related to RAD51, and many recently discovered

  2. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  3. Hypoxia and DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Peter M.; Hegan, Denise C.; Lu, Yuhong; Czochor, Jennifer; Scanlon, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of solid tumors and occurs very early in neoplastic development. Hypoxia transforms cell physiology in multiple ways, with profound changes in cell metabolism, cell growth, susceptibility to apoptosis, induction of angiogenesis, and increased motility. Over the past 20 years, our lab has determined that hypoxia also induces genetic instability. We have conducted a large series of experiments revealing that this instability occurs through the alteration of DNA repair pathways, including nucleotide excision repair, DNA mismatch repair, and homology dependent repair. Our work suggests that hypoxia, as a key component of solid tumors, can drive cancer progression through its impact on genomic integrity. However, the acquired changes in DNA repair that are induced by hypoxia may also render hypoxic cancer cells vulnerable to tailored strategies designed to exploit these changes. PMID:24348208

  4. Hybrid Three-Stage Repair for Extended Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Report of A Case

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Kentaro; Chikazawa, Genta; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old man complicated with back pain. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed an extended thoracoabdominal aneurysm. We successfully performed a three-stage hybrid repair using the visceral-renal debranching technique. For the first stage operation we performed Y-grafting with the debranching technique to create a distal landing zone. Then, for the second stage operation, we performed the hybrid procedure including total arch replacement (TAR) and antegrade stent graft deployment to create a proximal landing zone. Finally, additional thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) between the distal and proximal landing zones was successfully accomplished as the third stage operation.

  5. Driven shielding capacitive proximity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor); McConnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A capacitive proximity sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage as and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect the field lines away from a grounded robot arm towards an intruding object, thus dramatically increasing the sensor's range and sensitivity.

  6. Proximity problems on moving points

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Basch; Leonidas J. Guibas; Li Zhang

    1997-01-01

    A kinetic data structure for the maintenance of a multidimensional range search tree is introduced. This structure is used as a building block to obtain kinetic data structures for two classical geometric proximity problems in arbitrary dimensions: the first structure maintains the closest pair of a set of continuously moving points, and is provably efficient. The second structure maintains a

  7. Range-Aggregate Proximity Queries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sharathkumar; Prosenjit Gupta

    In a range-aggegate query problem we wish to preprocess a set S of geometric objects such that given a query orthogonal range q, a certain intersection or proximity query on the objects of S intersected by q can be answered efficiently. Although range-aggregate queries have been widely investigated in the past for aggregation functions like average, count, min, max, sum

  8. Radio Proximity-Fuze Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Brunetti

    1946-01-01

    The general principles governing the design of radio proximity fuzes are presented. The paper deals primarily with fuzes for smooth-bore projectiles, such as bombs, rockets, and mortars. Illustrations and descriptions of the various fuzes in this category which were developed during World War II are given. Within security regulations, there is a reasonably detailed discussion of the performance and constraction

  9. Acute bilateral renal artery chimney stent thrombosis after endovascular repair of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Scali, Salvatore T; Feezor, Robert J; Huber, Thomas S; Beck, Adam W

    2015-04-01

    The use of "chimney" stents to augment the proximal landing zone for endovascular aneurysm repair has been increasingly reported. Despite mounting enthusiasm for this technique, the durability of this type of repair and capability to preserve perfusion to target branches remains a paramount concern. Here, we report management of a patient presenting with acute bilateral renal chimney stent thrombosis and a type Ia endoleak. PMID:24246538

  10. Automotive Repair Shops Case Study ME 4171 Automotive Repair Shops

    E-print Network

    Automotive Repair Shops Case Study ­ ME 4171 ­ 1 ­ Automotive Repair Shops In the following, you. Question: #12;Automotive Repair Shops Case Study ­ ME 4171 ­ 2 ­ 1) Do you anticipate hazardous wastes generated through welding? To repair both minor and major auto body damage, hydraulic equipment and hand

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  12. Through-and-through wire technique for endovascular damage control in traumatic proximal axillary artery transection.

    PubMed

    Rohlffs, Fiona; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel Antonio; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Kölbel, Tilo

    2015-02-01

    Repair of blunt shoulder trauma with transection of the subclavian or proximal axillary artery poses a surgical challenge, especially in instable patients. Endovascular treatment for initial damage control in arterial transection has evolved as a promising technique to improve outcome, but technical success can be limited in cases of complete transection as the lesion cannot be passed by a guidewire. This report describes an endovascular approach using a through-and-through brachial-femoral wire to control complete traumatic transection of the proximal axillary artery in a hemodynamically unstable patient. Endovascular therapy is used as a bridging method for open surgical repair three days later under optimized conditions with an interdisciplinary team. The brachial-femoral guidewire technique helps to overcome limitations in endovascular therapy in patients with blunt traumatic transection of thoracic outlet arteries. PMID:24729014

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  14. Proximity Graphs on Line Segments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prosenjit Bose; Godfried Toussaint

    presents a barrier. Therefore, in this case, it may be better toomit the closest pair.ab cdefFigure 1: Closest pairs may not be part of the proximity graph.Lee [Lee78] first addressed these problems in the context of Delaunay triangulations. His goalwas the following: Given a set of n vertices in the plane together with a set of non-crossing edges,1find a triangulation

  15. Patent urachus repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Patent urachal tube repair ... belly. Next, the surgeon will find the urachal tube and remove it. The bladder opening will be ... surgeon uses the tools to remove the urachal tube and close off the bladder and area where ...

  16. Intestinal obstruction repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contents of the intestines cannot pass through and exit the body. A complete obstruction is a surgical ... your bowel will be repaired or removed. This procedure is called bowel resection . If a section is ...

  17. Repairing Thermal Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, C. R., Jr.; Feiler, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Small chips and depression in surfaces of surface insulation tiles repaired using Ludox colloidal silica solution and silica powder. No waiting time necessary between mixing filler and using it. Patch cures quickly without heat being applied.

  18. Easily repairable networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a simple class of distribution networks which withstand damage by being repairable instead of redundant. Instead of asking how hard it is to disconnect nodes through damage, we ask how easy it is to reconnect nodes after damage. We prove that optimal networks on regular lattices have an expected cost of reconnection proportional to the lattice length, and that such networks have exactly three levels of structural hierarchy. We extend our results to networks subject to repeated attacks, in which the repairs themselves must be repairable. We find that, in exchange for a modest increase in repair cost, such networks are able to withstand any number of attacks. We acknowledge support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, BCG and EU FP7 (Growthcom).

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  20. A Simple Book Repair Manual

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the Dartmouth College Library Preservation Services, this handy and straightforward site should appeal to book lovers and collectors. The site is basically an electronic version of the print publication, supplemented by illustrative photos and a Quicktime movie. The manual discusses guiding principles to book repair, tools, practical guidelines, as well as guiding users through nine common repairs. These include torn pages, hinge repair, hinge tightening, corner repair, and spine repair, among others. A glossary and bibliography are also included.

  1. Repairing Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, J.; Buras, D.

    1986-01-01

    Large holes in polyurethane foam insulation repaired reliably by simple method. Little skill needed to apply method, used for overhead repairs as well as for those in other orientations. Plug positioned in hole to be filled and held in place with mounting fixture. Fresh liquid foam injected through plug to bond it in place. As foam cures and expands, it displaces plug outward. Protrusion later removed.

  2. Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Laura; Peetz, Michael; Ratzer, Erick

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objective: Paraesophageal hernias are uncommon yet potentially lethal conditions. Their repair has now been facilitated by laparoscopic technology. We present a series of 20 patients with paraesophageal hernias repaired laparoscopically. Methods: Twenty patients with paraesophageal hernias had laparoscopic repairs. Eighteen patients had primary repair of their hiatal defect. Two required mesh reinforcement. Fifteen patients had a fundoplication procedure performed concomitantly. Results: Long-term follow-up is available on 17 patients. There was no in-hospital morbidity or mortality. Average length of stay was 2.3 days. One patient recurred in the immediate postoperative period. There were no other recurrences. The only death in the series occurred in the oldest patient 18 days postoperatively. He had been discharged from the hospital and died of cardiac failure. No patients have had complications from a paraesophageal hernia postoperatively. Conclusion: Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernias is possible. Preoperative work-up should include motility evaluation to assess esophageal peristalsis as the majority of these will need a concomitant anti-reflux procedure. This data helps the surgeon to determine whether or not a complete or partial wrap should be done. Repair of the diaphragmatic defect can be accomplished in the majority of patients without the use of prosthetic material with excellent results. PMID:9876752

  3. Responses of proximal tubular cells to injury in congenital renal disease: fight or flight.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Robert L; Forbes, Michael S; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A

    2014-04-01

    Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The polycystic kidney and fibrosis (pcy)-mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knockout mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial "fight" response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a "flight" response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration. PMID:23949631

  4. Utility of aortic cuffs in converting initially ineligible patients due to unfavorable neck anatomy into successful candidates for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Omer; Garcia, Mark; Awan, Yousaf; Gakhal, Mandip; Kim, Moonjohn; Iliescu, Bogdan; Siegel, Eliot

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular repair of the abdominal aortic aneurysm has been established as a successful alternative to open surgical repair, provided that the criteria necessary for such an approach are fulfilled. Anatomic criteria include suitable diameter, length, and angle of the aneurysm proximal neck. We present three cases in which patients were initially ineligible for endovascular repair because of unfavorable neck anatomy but in whom the use of aortic cuffs allowed for successful endograft placement and aneurysm exclusion. PMID:22470712

  5. A comparison of suture and tubulization nerve repair techniques in a primate.

    PubMed

    Hentz, V R; Rosen, J M; Xiao, S J; McGill, K C; Abraham, G

    1991-03-01

    This study compared standard methods of nerve repair, epineurial or perineurial sutures with a technique termed fascicular tubulization using a biodegradable polyglycolic acid tube in a nonhuman primate model. Electrophysiologic analysis demonstrated that the percentage of proximal axons that conducted across the repair site did not significantly differ among the three techniques while epineurial suture repairs were associated with significantly longer conduction delays across the repair site compared with the other two techniques. Even though fascicular tubulization using the current polyglycolic acid tube resulted in regeneration equal to the currently perceived best suture repair technique, associated technical problems with the current tube design indicate that this fascicular tubulization technique cannot, at present, be considered as an alternative to present clinically used nerve suture techniques. PMID:1850770

  6. The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair Xiaoming Liu1 and John F epithelial stem/progenitor cells of the proximal airways. As in the case of other adult stem cell niches and mobilize stem/progenitor cells, in the setting of normal cellular turnover or injury. Aberrant

  7. Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-01-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  8. The HTV Proximity Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) as an unmanned logistic support vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS). The HTV, which is launched by the H-IIA rocket, transports both pressurized and un-pressurized cargoes to the ISS, reloads disposal items from the ISS and performs destructive reentry over ocean area. NASDA plans the first flight of HTV in 2005 for demonstration. The HTV will contribute the ISS assembly and logistic re-supply operations with international commonality. For unmanned vehicle operation, communication link is critical with commanding and control, especially in proximity region to the ISS. As for the HTV operation, NASDA is developing dedicated communication system installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the ISS, which is called the Proximity Communication System (PROX). The HTV receives commands and transmits telemetry data through the PROX in its proximity operation to the ISS. To achieve this, the PROX can communicate with the HTV on its nominal trajectory within 23km of the ISS. Especially within 3km of the ISS, the PROX has capability to perform omni-directional communication to the HTV. The PROX also has GPS receiver and send GPS data to the HTV to support the HTV navigation for relative GPS navigation used in "far" range (500m away from the ISS). In addition to the above fundamental functions, the PROX has a capability of range and range-rate measurement between the ISS and the HTV by the pseudo noise (PN) code epoch and the Doppler shift frequency. This provides a reference data independent of "main" navigation methods (rendezvous sensor navigation or GPS navigation) of the HTV. The PROX also assists the ISS crew with its commanding device, called the Hardware Command Panel (HCP), to issue time-dependent safety-related critical commands for HTV berthing/un-berthing operation. When a failure occurs somewhere on "communication path" from the PROX Base Band Processor (BBP) to the HTV Guidance and Control Computer (GCC) including data handling and communication equipments, the PROX detects it by monitoring interruption of the "heartbeat" signal and conducts automatic redundancy switching of all the equipments on that "communication path" including those of the HTV. This paper describes the PROX functions such as communication, data handling and GPS navigation and some unique functions for the HTV proximity operation to the ISS.

  9. Proximity bias swing: origin and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandbergen, Peter; Gehoel-van Ansem, Wendy F.; de Klerk, Jos; Vandenberghe, Geert; Linskens, Frank T.

    1998-06-01

    Isolated to dense linewidth offsets, also known as proximity bias, can consume a significant portion of the CD budget. As a result, it has received great attention over the recent years. It is demonstrated that proximity bias shows a cyclic swing behavior on reflective substrates with respect to resist thickness variations. The amplitude of proximity bias swing was found to be influenced by coherence, substrate reflectivity, feature dimension and pitch. Proximity bias swing is caused by differences in optical path lengths of light passing through the resist film. Due to different diffraction angles for different pitches, the incoupling positions for different pitches vary. The offset in CD swing incoupling positions for different pitches results in proximity bias swing. At low coherence however, an averaging effect on diffraction angles from different pitches takes place due to the wide range of angles of light passing through the mask. In addition, the impact of exposure margin variations on resolution and proximity bias was demonstrated. Low exposure margins offer high resolution. As a consequence, high proximity bias is observed. Furthermore, different line to space ratios were studied to identify the transition point between dense and isolated features with respect to proximity bias swing. At high coherence ((sigma) equals 0.35) it was observed that for 0.25 micrometers features with pitches smaller than 0.65 micrometers , proximity bias swing is larger than the +/- 0.5% CD budget, which makes it impossible to do effective application of proximity bias correction schemes. At low coherence, only limited proximity bias swing was found. Through variation of bake conditions it was demonstrated that these process variations had no measurable effect on proximity bias swing. Optical settings, in combination with substrate reflectivity, are the main contributors to (eliminate) proximity bias swing.

  10. Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL; Laurence, Stuart J [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Hornung, Hans G [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

    2007-01-01

    Hypersonic flows involving two or more bodies travelling in close proximity to one another are encountered in several important situations, both natural and man-made. The present work seeks to investigate one aspect of the resulting flow problem by exploring the forces experienced by a secondary body when it is within the domain of influence of a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds. An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral force coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger than one-sixth the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with those from numerical simulations and reasonable agreement is observed if an appropriate normalization for the lateral displacement is used. Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, with good agreement. A new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities, enabling the experimental simulation of the proximal bodies problem, is described. This technique provides two independent means of measurement, and the agreement observed between the two gives a further degree of confidence in the results obtained.

  11. Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, John A.; Brandel, Eric; Chahine, Nadeen O.; Sgaglione, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This review traces the genealogy of the field of articular cartilage repair from its earliest attempts to its present day vast proliferation of research advances. Prior to the 1980s there was only sporadic efforts to regenerate articular cartilage as it was considered to be incapable of regeneration based on historical dogma. The first flurry of reports documented the use of various cell types ultimately leading to the first successful demonstration of autologous chondrocyte transplantation which was later translated to clinical use and has resulted in the revised axiom that cartilage regeneration is possible. The current field of cartilage repair is multifaceted and some of the 1980s’ vintage concepts have been revisited with state of the art technology now available. The future of the field is now poised to undertake the repair of whole cartilage surfaces beyond focal defects and an appreciation for integrated whole joint health to restore cartilage homeostasis.

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

  17. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  18. Appliance Repair, Tips & Help

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On this site, visitors can find information about common household appliance parts and repair - categorized by type - including kitchen appliances, laundry equipment, and refrigerators. By clicking on the images of the individual machines, visitors can find more information including parts, how they work, common problems, and maintenance tips. There are also helpfully labeled images for particular brands and models of each appliance, which indicate the different features and parts of those particular machines. While some of the site is commercial (such as the links to appliance accessories), there is plenty of free and handy information for students working toward a career in appliance installation and repair.

  19. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  20. Fast proximity correction with zone sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirniman, John P.; Rieger, Michael L.

    1994-05-01

    Proximity effects cause integrated circuit features to be distorted when compared to the original mask pattern. These effects are becoming widely recognized as serious barriers to achieving effective half-micrometer and smaller wafer lithography processes. A promising remedy for proximity effects is to adjust mask feature shapes to compensate for predictable distortions in the wafer lithography process. We present a general method for computing proximity-corrected shapes. A technique we call `zone sampling' provides accurate models of proximity behaviors with optimum computational efficiency. Proximity behavior for arbitrary layout configurations is derived from 2-D density measurements (zone samples) computed from IC layout pattern data. Zone sampling provides a complete `behavior model' of combined, non-linear proximity effects, including optical, process, and underlying substrate mechanisms.

  1. Hyaluronan and proximal tubular cell migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAKAFUMI ITO; JOHN D WILLIAMS; SAPHWAN AL-ASSAF; Glyn O. Phillips; Aled O. Phillips

    2004-01-01

    Hyaluronan and proximal tubular cell migration.BackgroundThe ubiquitous polysaccharide hyaluronan has been associated with both acute renal injury and progressive renal disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of hyaluronan on proximal tubular cell migration.MethodsThe proximal tubular cell line, HK-2 cells, were grown in monolayer culture, and cell migration following addition of hyaluronan characterized in an in

  2. Proximal humeral fractures: pin, plate, or replace.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Robert J; Resch, Herbert; Neviaser, Andrew S; Crosby, Lynn A

    2015-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are becoming increasingly common in individuals older than 60 years, with only fractures of the hip and distal radius occurring with a higher frequency. Most proximal humeral fractures can be managed without surgery; however, if a fracture is displaced or angulated, surgical treatment may be required. There are four main options for the surgical management of proximal humeral fractures: minimally invasive percutaneous reduction and fixation, open reduction and periarticular plating, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:25745906

  3. Self-repairing of composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Dry

    2003-01-01

    If the most important problem restraining polymer usage is damage and the inability to control it, predict, detect it it, then the solution is self repair of the composites. In order to be self -repairing, a healing chemical is stored in hollow fiber or vessels embedded in the polymer matrix. When the composite cracks, the crack progresses cracking the repair

  4. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  5. Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack; And Others

    This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

  6. Successful treatment of endoleak Type I with uncovered EX-L stent after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Buz, Semih; Zipfel, Burkhart; D'Ancona, Guiseppe; Hetzer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of endoleaks after thoracic endovascular repair remains challenging, particularly when the proximal landing zone is small and partly includes the origin of the neck vessels. We report a Type Ia endoleak, occurring after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, which was successfully treated with a novel uncovered nitinol stent. With this success, we were able to avoid a conventional surgery to treat the endoleak. PMID:23255527

  7. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  8. Repairing CAD models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gill Barequet; Subodh Kumar

    1997-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for repairing polyhedral CAD models that have errors in their B-REP. Errors like cracks, degeneracie s, du- plication, holes and overlaps are usually introduced in sol id mod- els due to imprecise arithmetic, model transformations, de signer's fault, programming bugs, etc. Such errors often hamper furt her pro- cessing like finite element analysis, radiosity computatio n

  9. Automotive Body Repair Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Armond, Jack; And Others

    Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

  10. Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Henning; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The concept of using gene transfer strategies for cartilage repair originates from the idea of transferring genes encoding therapeutic factors into the repair tissue, resulting in a temporarily and spatially defined delivery of therapeutic molecules to sites of cartilage damage. This review focuses on the potential benefits of using gene therapy approaches for the repair of articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage, including articular cartilage defects resulting from acute trauma, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Possible applications for meniscal repair comprise meniscal lesions, meniscal sutures, and meniscal transplantation. Recent studies in both small and large animal models have demonstrated the applicability of gene-based approaches for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic pathways were stimulated in the repair tissue and in osteoarthritic cartilage using genes for polypeptide growth factors and transcription factors. Although encouraging data have been generated, a successful translation of gene therapy for cartilage repair will require an ongoing combined effort of orthopedic surgeons and of basic scientists.

  11. Ensemble: cooperative proximity-based authentication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre Kalamandeen; Adin Scannell; Eyal de Lara; Anmol Sheth; Anthony LaMarca

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble is a system that uses a collection of trusted personal devices to provide proximity-based authentication in pervasive environments. Users are able to securely pair their personal devices with previously unknown devices by simply placing them close to each other (e.g., users can pair their phones by just bringing them into proximity). Ensemble leverages a user's growing collection of trusted

  12. Disorders of the Renal Proximal Tubule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arend Bökenkamp; Michael Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Following glomerular filtration, the bulk of solutes are reabsorbed in the proximal tubule to prevent excessive losses of vital metabolites. In this nephron segment, reabsorption is largely active via dedicated transporters. Hereditary defects in proximal tubular function are characterized by malabsorption affecting amino acids, glucose, potassium, phosphate, bicarbonate, low-molecular-weight proteins and other solutes handled by this nephron segment. Dysfunction may

  13. Development of stroke-induced quadriplegia after endovascular repair of blunt aortic injury pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Amoudi, Abdullah S; Merdad, Anas A; Makhdoom, Ahmed Q; Jamjoom, Reda A

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular repair of blunt aortic injury is now a first-line approach in management. This can warrant coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA), which could lead to posterior strokes. In this case report, we present a severe complication of endovascular repair of a traumatic aortic aneurysm. A 53-year-old man presented with blunt aortic injury, endovascular repair was carried out where the left subclavian artery was covered. The intervention had a 100% technical success. Twelve hours later, he was discovered to have quadriplegia, a CT scan showed a large left cerebellar infarction extending to the medulla oblongata and proximal spinal cord. Strokes complicate 3% of thoracic endovascular aortic repairs, 80% of those strokes occur in patients who had their LSA`s covered. Most patients however, tolerate the coverage. Although our patient had a dominant right vertebral artery, and lacked risks for these strokes, he developed an extensive stroke that left him quadriplegic. PMID:25630782

  14. Optical proximity sensors for manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    A breadboard optical proximity sensor intended for application to remotely operated manipulators has been constructed and evaluated in the laboratory. The sensing head was 20 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm in size, and could be made considerably smaller. Several such devices could be conveniently mounted on a manipulator hand, for example, to align the hand with an object. Type 1 and Type 2 optical configurations are discussed, Type 1 having a sharply defined sensitive volume, Type 2 an extended one. The sensitive volume can be placed at any distance between 1 cm and approximately 1 m by choice of a replaceable prism. The Type 1 lateral resolution was 0.5 mm on one axis and 5 mm perpendicular to it for a unit focused at 7.5 cm. The corresponding resolution in the axial direction was 2.4 cm, but improvement to 0.5 cm is possible. The effect of surface reflectivity is discussed and possible modes of application are suggested.

  15. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  16. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  17. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area

    PubMed Central

    Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

  18. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area.

    PubMed

    Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

  19. Repair of a complex thoracic aneurysm from relapsing polychondritis.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Chad E; March, Robert J; Hunt, Peter J; Rivera, Aksim G; Cavanagh, Sherry; McCarthy, Walter J

    2013-07-01

    A 29-year-old female with a history of relapsing polychondritis (RP) and open repair of a proximal descending thoracic aneurysm presented with 2 areas of asymptomatic thoracic aortic aneurysmal dilatation. The patient returned 3 months later with symptomatic aneurysm expansion, and she underwent ascending aortic arch replacement. She subsequently underwent staged endovascular repair of the distal descending thoracic aorta. RP is a rare disorder with an incidence of 3.5 per million persons annually, 4% to 7% of whom develop aneurysmal disease. Because of the aneurysmal potential of this disease, it is important for vascular surgeons to be aware of its presentation and treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case describing endovascular technique to treat such a patient. PMID:23657635

  20. Endorectal repair of rectocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indru T. Khubchandani; James A. Sheets; John J. Stasik; Ayman R. Hakki

    1983-01-01

    A modification of Sullivan's procedure for endorectal repair of “low” rectocele was completed in 59 patients with local anesthesia.\\u000a Associated anorectal pathology was corrected in all patients. The technique is described. At follow-up, the results were as\\u000a follows: 37 excellent (62.7 per cent), 10 good (16.9 per cent), eight fair (13.6 per cent), and four poor (6.7 per cent).

  1. Simultaneous Repair of Right-Sided Coarctation and Vascular Ring.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Joseph; Guzmán-Pruneda, Francisco A; Sumner, Elizabeth E; McKenzie, E Dean

    2015-07-01

    We present the case of a 4-year old girl with posterior fossa-hemangioma-arterial lesions-cardiac abnormalities/coarctation-eye abnormalities (PHACE) syndrome, an atypical, long-segment, right-sided coarctation of the aorta and vascular ring secondary to an aberrant left subclavian artery and left ligamentum. Simultaneous repair of both lesions was accomplished using a novel technique that included reimplantation of the aberrant left subclavian artery and translocation of the descending aorta to the proximal ascending aorta. PMID:26140789

  2. Frozen Elephant Trunk Repair for Descending Thoracic Aortic Dissection in a Man with a Hostile Left Pleural Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kent, William D.T.; Manjunath, Adarsh

    2014-01-01

    The frozen elephant trunk procedure is a hybrid, single-staged alternative to conventional surgery for repairing diffuse pathologic conditions of the thoracic aorta. This approach is particularly advantageous in patients who have pathologic conditions of the left side of the chest, because the descending thoracic aorta can be repaired without entering a hostile pleural cavity. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone repair of acute type A aortic dissection. He presented with aneurysmal dilation of the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection, a large acute dissection of the proximal ascending aorta, and a large paraesophageal hernia that made him a poor candidate for conventional, 2-staged open aortic repair. We describe the hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique that we used to repair the aorta, and its broader advantages. PMID:24955060

  3. Use of tubes in peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, L B; Lundborg, G

    2001-04-01

    The use of tubes as an alternative to primary nerve suture in fresh nerve transections has been introduced as a biologic approach to nerve injuries, creating optimal conditions for axonal regeneration over a short empty space intentionally created between the proximal and distal nerve ends. The idea may seem controversial and has been criticized using the arguments that silicone in itself may create problems like inflammation and the tube may compress the nerve ends. With the use of appropriately sized tubes for bridging a maximum 5-mm gap in human median and ulnar nerves, the authors have found the technique to be useful and persistent at follow-up examinations for up to 4 to 5 years. In addition, from the intellectual point of view, the principle illustrates the concept by which emphasis is placed on the intrinsic healing capacities of the nerve rather than on the technical skill of the surgeon. The thin mesothelial lining found around the silicone tube lacks primary inflammatory signs at follow-up after 1 year, and no signs of compression are seen. It may be an advantage because it allows sliding of the repair site against the surrounding tissues. Tubes made of bioresorbable material may seem ideal, but they may introduce new problems associated with the resorption process in terms of a substantial unrestricted macrophage invasion, fibrosis, and disorganized axonal growth. For an extended nerve defect, the use of autologous nerve grafts is still the gold standard, because no tubular conduit or other conduit has so far proved equal to autologous nerve grafts, at least not for reconstruction of human median and ulnar nerve trunks. Alternatives other than tubes are currently being developed and investigated. For the future, the use of tubes for repair and reconstruction of nerves may have interesting potentials, because such a structure allows several types of tissue engineering. Various matrices containing, for instance, appropriate cells, factors, or other stimulating agents can be introduced in the tube lumen and can also be incorporated in a slow-release form in the walls of the tube and manipulated. Cultured Schwann cells or other cellular components, with or without manipulated production machinery, are probably the cells of choice for introduction in the tubes. Tubes may thus prove to be interesting alternatives to conventional repair techniques for primary repair of nerves and for reconstruction of segmental defects and for neuroma treatment in the future. PMID:11525212

  4. Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Composition of Bone during Microdamage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, loading activities result in microdamage in the living skeleton, which is repaired by bone remodeling. However, microdamage accumulation can affect the mechanical properties of bone and increase the risk of fracture. This study aimed to determine the effect of microdamage on the mechanical properties and composition of bone. Fourteen male goats aged 28 months were used in the present study. Cortical bone screws were placed in the tibiae to induce microdamage around the implant. The goats were euthanized, and 3 bone segments with the screws in each goat were removed at 0 days, 21 days, 4 months, and 8 months after implantation. The bone segments were used for observing microdamage and bone remodeling, as well as nanoindentation and bone composition, separately. Two regions were measured: the first region (R1), located 1.5 mm from the interface between the screw hole and bone; and the second region (R2), located>1.5 mm from the bone-screw interface. Both diffuse and linear microdamage decreased significantly with increasing time after surgery, with the diffuse microdamage disappearing after 8 months. Thus, screw implantation results in increased bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone, which repairs the microdamage. Moreover, bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, especially in the proximal bone tissue. Bone composition changed greatly during the production and repair of microdamage, especially for the C (Carbon) and Ca (Calcium) in the R1 region. In conclusion, the presence of mechanical microdamage accelerates bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone. The bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, with the micromechanical properties being restored on complete repair of the microdamage. Changes in bone composition may contribute to changes in bone mechanical properties. PMID:25313565

  5. Laparoscopic repair of Morgagni hernia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Durak; S. Gur; A. Cokmez; K. Atahan; E. Zahtz; E. Tarcan

    2007-01-01

    Background  Foramen of Morgagni hernias are rare diaphragmatic hernias. They account for 3–5% of all diaphragmatic hernias and the majority\\u000a of the cases are asymptomatic. They are caused by trauma, obesity or pregnancy. With the advancements of laparoscopic surgery,\\u000a laparoscopic repair has become an excellent alternative to open repair for Morgagni hernias. We report five cases of Morgagni\\u000a hernia repaired with

  6. Endovascular aortic repair for spontaneous rupture of a non-aneurysmal infrarenal aorta.

    PubMed

    Kainuma, Satoshi; Kuratani, Toru; Kin, Keiwa; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2011-11-01

    We report the case of a patient who underwent an endovascular aortic repair for spontaneous rupture of a non-aneurysmal infrarenal aorta. A 67-year-old male with a diagnosis of infrarenal aortic rupture was referred to our hospital. Preoperative computed tomography showed focal ulcers adjacent to the site of rupture, with no evidence of aneurysm formation, suggesting that this aortic rupture was likely to be associated with perforation of penetrating atheromatous ulceration. Open surgical repair might have carried a high-risk because of the patient's history of laparotomy and respiratory impairment, so endovascular aortic repair was planned. We deployed a Powerlink proximal infrarenal cuff 25-25-75L at the rupture site through the femoral artery, with the additional placement of two extra large Palmaz stents at the proximal and distal sites of the Powerlink stent-graft. Completion angiography showed total exclusion with no endoleaks. The patient was successfully extubated on the third postoperative day and recovered well until he contracted aspiration pneumonia two weeks after surgery. Unfortunately, he eventually died of a non-aortic cause three months after the operation. Endovascular aortic repair may be an alternative to conventional surgical repair for high-risk patients with spontaneous infrarenal aortic rupture. PMID:21852267

  7. Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow–derived cells during repair after ischemic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEREMY S DUFFIELD; JOSEPH V BONVENTRE

    2005-01-01

    Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow–derived cells during repair after ischemic injury. The kidney has the ability to restore the structural and functional integrity of the proximal tubule, which undergoes extensive epithelial cell death after prolonged exposure to ischemia. In order to study the role that adult bone marrow–derived stem cells might play in kidney remodeling

  8. Umbilical hernia repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... In most cases, by age 3 the umbilical hernia shrinks and closes without treatment. The indications for umbilical hernia repair include: incarcerated (strangulated) umbilical hernia defects not ...

  9. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... life-threatening situation. The indications for a diaphragmatic hernia repair include: chest X-rays showing diaphragmatic hernia severe breathing difficulty (respiratory distress) shortly after birth ...

  10. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  11. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  12. Monkey median nerve repaired by nerve graft or collagen nerve guide tube.

    PubMed

    Archibald, S J; Shefner, J; Krarup, C; Madison, R D

    1995-05-01

    Nerve regeneration was followed in 15 median and 1 ulnar nerve of eight Macaca fascicularis monkeys by serial electrophysiological assessments over a period of three and a half years. Nerve gaps of 5 mm at the wrist were bridged by collagen-based nerve guides, nerve autografts, or direct suture repairs. Thenar muscle reinnervation occurred between 50 and 70 d for all groups, indicating axonal elongation rates of approximately 1 mm/d. The recovery rates of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and the compound sensory action potential (CSAP) amplitudes were significantly slower after direct suture repair compared to the other two procedures, although the final levels of recovery were all comparable. Similar results were achieved in one median and one ulnar nerve following nerve guide repair of a 15 mm nerve gap. The functional reinnervation of Pacinian corpuscles was detected in all cases following either nerve graft or nerve guide repair, with similar amplitudes and latencies of the tactile evoked CSAP for both types of repair. Histological analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of myelinated axons in the median nerve distal to the nerve lesions following both nerve graft and nerve guide repairs compared to proximal and normal controls, with significant reductions of fiber diameter and corresponding increases in g-ratio. The return of a bimodal frequency distribution of myelinated axon fiber diameter was confirmed by three-dimensional surface plots which illustrate the frequency distribution of the relationship between fiber diameter and g-ratio. These combined results demonstrate that nerve regeneration after repair of a 5 mm nerve gap with a collagen nerve guide in the nonhuman primate is similar to that after graft repair, and the final level of physiological recovery for both repair procedures is comparable to direct suture repair of the median nerve. PMID:7751969

  13. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany)] [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

  14. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  15. Proof of Proximity of Knowledge Serge Vaudenay

    E-print Network

    applications such as NFC-based payment: for small payments, there is typically no action required,24,25]. Actually, some commercial NFC cards by NXP1 are already supposed to implement "proximity checks against

  16. A fast distributed proximal-gradient method

    E-print Network

    Chen, Annie I.

    We present a distributed proximal-gradient method for optimizing the average of convex functions, each of which is the private local objective of an agent in a network with time-varying topology. The local objectives have ...

  17. Customized proximal point algorithms for linearly constrained ...

    E-print Network

    2011-10-30

    Oct 30, 2011 ... and it has been well studied in various fields such as the partial ..... theoretical restrictions or numerical choices on the metric proximal parameter. ... of their MVI reformulations are potential to decompose the generic PPA task ...

  18. Control of spacecraft in proximity orbits

    E-print Network

    Breger, Louis Scott, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Formation flying of spacecraft and autonomous rendezvous and docking of spacecraft are two missions in which satellites operate in close proximity and their relative trajectories are critically important. Both classes of ...

  19. Implementing Probabilistically Checkable Proofs of Proximity

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharyya, Arnab

    2005-08-08

    Abstract: In this paper, we describe a proof-of-concept implementation of the probabilistically checkable proof of proximity (PCPP) system described by Ben-Sasson and Sudan in \\\\cite{bs05}. In particular, we implement a ...

  20. Opportunistic, collaborative and synchronized, proximal device ecology

    E-print Network

    Toledano, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    CoSync is an on-device software framework for coordinating proximal consumer electronic devices in order to create a synchronized, opportunistic and collaborative device ecology. The CoSync device ecology combines multiple ...

  1. A proximate perspective on reciprocal altruism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah F. Brosnan; Frans B. M. de Waal

    2002-01-01

    The study of reciprocal altruism, or the exchange of goods and services between individuals, requires attention to both evolutionary\\u000a explanations and proximate mechanisms. Evolutionary explanations have been debated at length, but far less is known about\\u000a the proximate mechanisms of reciprocity. Our own research has focused on the immediate causes and contingencies underlying\\u000a services such as food sharing, grooming, and

  2. DNA replication, repair, and repair tests. [Rat; human leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, B.

    1980-09-01

    The rate of inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis can be used in a rapid assay system to detect genotoxic potentials of chemicals. Also, the observation that an agent stimulates DNA repair in a test system indicates its ability to cause damage in DNA. Different experimental approaches to the study of repair synthesis are discussed.

  3. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  4. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  5. Single-Port Onlay Mesh Repair of Recurrent Inguinal Hernias after Failed Anterior and Laparoscopic Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kim; Zajkowska, Marta; Lam, Vincent; Hawthorne, Wayne J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite the exponential increase in the use of laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy, overall recurrence rates have remained unchanged. Therefore, a growing number of patients are presenting with recurrent hernias after conventional anterior and laparoscopic repairs have failed. This study reports our experience with single-incision laparoscopic (SIL) intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair of these hernias. Methods: Patients referred with two or more recurrences of inguinal hernia underwent SIL-IPOM from November 1, 2009, to June 24, 2014. A 2.5-cm infraumbilical incision was made, and an SIL port was placed intraperitoneally. Modified dissection techniques were used: chopstick and inline dissection, 5.5-mm/52-cm/30° angled laparoscope, and conventional straight dissecting instruments. The peritoneum was incised above the pubic symphysis, and dissection was continued laterally and proximally, raising the inferior flap below the previous extraperitoneal mesh while reducing any direct, indirect, femoral, or cord lipoma before placement of antiadhesive mesh, which was fixed to the pubic ramus, as well as superiorly, with nonabsorbable tacks before the inferior border was fixed with fibrin sealant. The inferior peritoneal flap was then tacked back onto the mesh. Results: Nine male patients underwent SIL-IPOM. Their mean age was 53 years and mean body mass index was 26.8 kg/m2. Mean mesh size was 275 cm2. Mean operation time was 125 minutes, with a hospital stay of 1 day. The umbilical scar length was 23 mm at the 6-week follow-up. There were no intra-/postoperative complications, port-site hernias, chronic groin pain, or recurrence of the hernia during a mean follow-up of 24 months. Conclusion: Inguinal hernias recurring after two or more failed conventional anterior and laparoscopic repairs can be safely and efficiently treated with SIL-IPOM. PMID:25848186

  6. Biologics for tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H

    2015-04-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135

  7. Pipe inspection and repair system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

  8. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  9. Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

  10. Autosite.com Repairs - Maintenance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A subsection of Autosite.com, a for-profit (from ads, the content is free) information source for auto buyers, the maintenance and repair area offers free and detailed information on auto care and repair that is accessible but not simplistic. In the maintenance section, users will find a preventative maintenance checklist, illustrated guides to fluids and exterior systems, a discussion on tires, and FAQs. The Repair section features troubleshooting tips, an illustrated repair guide, a fairly deep Auto Repair Encyclopedia, and several related links. Whether you are a die-hard do-it-yourselfer or just prefer to be forearmed before taking your car to the mechanics, this site can help.

  11. Endovascular aneurysm repair using the periscope graft technique for thoracic aortic anastomotic pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Kenichi; Shimizu, Hideyuki; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Shinya

    2013-04-01

    Replacement of an artificial graft in a redo lateral thoracotomy is extremely difficult with a high risk of lung injury. Endovascular intervention may be an ideal option in such conditions, as in the following case. A 75-year old man with a history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery developed a proximal anastomotic pseudoaneurysm 1 year after undergoing artificial proximal descending aorta replacement surgery. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair was performed successfully using the periscope graft technique to preserve the flow into the left subclavian artery from the distal side of the aortic stent graft. Since the patient had coronary artery bypass grafting, debranching of the left subclavian artery was considered too risky. Using the periscope graft technique, the pseudoaneurysm was successfully repaired preserving the left subclavian artery patency, thus obviating a side-to-side subclavian artery crossover bypass. PMID:23257472

  12. Two-Dimensional Sensor Integration Using Resonant Proximity Connector

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    Two-Dimensional Sensor Integration Using Resonant Proximity Connector -Basic Technology propose "Resonant Proximity Connector (RPC)" that enables non-contact (proximity) connection of the sensor without individual wires. In this paper, we propose "Resonant Proximity Connector (RPC)" that enables non

  13. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 ...and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a) Purpose. Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests measure DNA...

  14. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 ...and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a) Purpose. Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests measure DNA...

  15. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 ...and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a) Purpose. Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests measure DNA...

  16. DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

  17. Safety limits for a firefighter proximity suit.

    PubMed

    Reischl, U; Reischl, P

    1978-07-01

    A standard one-piece firefighter proximity suit (jumpsuit style) was tested for heat accumulation and hood compartment ventilation. Large increases in temperature of the skin and hood compartmental air were recorded. Oxygen and carbon dioxide were monitored and hypoxic conditions found. Using the O2 and CO2 data, mathematical regression analyses were performed to predict the time exposures allowed for firemen entering various ambient atmospheric conditions. The short permissible exposure periods predicted for the proximity suit suggests limited usefulness and the need for immediate improvements in the design of the suit. PMID:696611

  18. Infrared-Proximity-Sensor Modules For Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parton, William; Wegerif, Daniel; Rosinski, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Collision-avoidance system for articulated robot manipulators uses infrared proximity sensors grouped together in array of sensor modules. Sensor modules, called "sensorCells," distributed processing board-level products for acquiring data from proximity-sensors strategically mounted on robot manipulators. Each sensorCell self-contained and consists of multiple sensing elements, discrete electronics, microcontroller and communications components. Modules connected to central control computer by redundant serial digital communication subsystem including both serial and a multi-drop bus. Detects objects made of various materials at distance of up to 50 cm. For some materials, such as thermal protection system tiles, detection range reduced to approximately 20 cm.

  19. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.

    2009-09-01

    Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

  20. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ayad, K. E.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F. [Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University (Egypt); El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Bekheet, A. B. [Al Sahel Teaching Hospital, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-09-27

    Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

  1. Inguinal hernia repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A hernia occurs when part of an organ protrudes through a weak point or tear in the thin muscular ... Hernia repair may be recommended for: large bulges through a small hole (increased risk of incarceration and ...

  2. Cleft lip repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... palate repair, tissue from the back of the mouth (pharynx) may be taken to add tissue to the deficient soft palate (this is called a pharyngeal flap). Occasionally more than one surgery is required for complete palate closure.

  3. DNA repair and synthetic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Gong-she; Zhang, Feng-mei; Gao, Rui-jie; Delsite, Robert; Feng, Zhi-hui; Powell, Simon N

    2011-01-01

    Tumors often have DNA repair defects, suggesting additional inhibition of other DNA repair pathways in tumors may lead to synthetic lethality. Accumulating data demonstrate that DNA repair-defective tumors, in particular homologous recombination (HR), are highly sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. Thus, HR-defective tumors exhibit potential vulnerability to the synthetic lethality approach, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies. It is well known that poly (adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors show the synthetically lethal effect in tumors defective in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes encoded proteins that are required for efficient HR. In this review, we summarize the strategies of targeting DNA repair pathways and other DNA metabolic functions to cause synthetic lethality in HR-defective tumor cells. PMID:22010575

  4. What's new in cavitation repair

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, E.

    1993-10-01

    Repairing pits and cracks on a hydroturbine runner in place is, perhaps, the most difficult maintenance task at many plants. Over the years, hydro operations and maintenance staff have created new techniques and tools for making the job easier. Responses to an informal survey of O M staff at a sampling of North American hydro plants suggests that the move to all stainless steel runners and the virtually universal use of stainless steel welding alloys in repairs has had a significant positive effect. Specifically, the interval between repairs has widened dramatically, often giving crews the opportunity to repair cavitation damage during routine maintenance of the entire turbine rather than being forced to shut down the unit for emergency work only on the runner.

  5. Early Days of DNA Repair: Discovery of Nucleotide Excision Repair and Homology-Dependent Recombinational Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, W. Dean

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere. PMID:24348214

  6. Self-Repairing Mechanical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Murata; Eiichi Yoshida; Haruhisa Kurokawa; Kohji Tomita; Shigeru Kokaji

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews several types of self-repairing systems developed in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. We have developed a modular system capable of “self-assembly” and “self-repair.” The former means a set of units can form a given shape of the system without outside help; the latter means the system restores the original shape if an arbitrary part of the system is

  7. Proximal femoral fractures: some determinants of outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I F Greatorex; A C Gibbs

    1988-01-01

    We identified 226 proximal femoral fractures prospectively in people aged over 60 years during one year in Stockport (population approximately 289,000). Our objective was to examine the association between primary treatment and outcome 6 months after the fracture using multivariate regression models. Higher haemoglobin concentrations and mental test scores on admission to hospital were associated with lower fatality within 6

  8. Hybrid extragradient proximal algorithm coupled with parametric ...

    E-print Network

    In order to solve (P) we can use the classical proximal point algorithm, PPA for short: given x0 ? H, and a ..... Proof. Fix any u ? H, using Lemma 2.2 and the inclusion gk ? ??k fk(zk), we have ...... n an euclidean space and let ?k ? 0, uk ? E.

  9. A proximate dynamics model for data mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunfei Yin

    2009-01-01

    Many association rules with low supports and high confidence are commonly not convincing, so how to enhance the conviction of such rules is a big issue. In this paper, we explore the dynamics features of the domain dataset, and by predefining some dynamics parameters (as priori knowledge), we construct a proximate dynamics model for data mining so as to enhance

  10. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  11. Proximal femoral anatomy of omomyiform primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schmid

    1996-01-01

    Compared to the adapid primates, the limb skeleton of omomyiforms is only poorly represented. With the discovery of some new material, the proximal femur is now known in several taxa, including representatives from both of the recognized families. We describe the femur of a very small North American omomyid from the Bridger formation (middle Eocene) and compare its anatomy with

  12. Interpersonal Violence between College Students: Proximal Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert; Reio, Thomas; Kessler, Lauren; Cutler, Kelley; Fleury, John

    This paper presents the results of a 3 year study on violence between students at the University of Maryland. The study was designed to: (1) describe the prevalence of fighting between students; (2) analyze, by gender, students' description of their most recent physical fight with another for proximal influences on these altercations; (3) analyze…

  13. Properties of Carbon Nanotubule Proximal Probe Tips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay Garg; Susan B. Sinnott

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubules make novel proximal probe tips due to their small size and unique mechanical and electrical properties. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to better understand the mechanisms by which nanotubules deformed during tip crashes or nanometer-scale indentations of diamond and graphine surfaces. The reactive empirical bond order potential for hydrocarbons parameterized by Brenner is used in the simulations.

  14. On target tracking with binary proximity sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wooyoung Kim; Kirill Mechitov; Jeung-yoon Choi; Soo Kyung Ham

    2005-01-01

    We consider the use of binary proximity sensors for tracking targets. Such sensors provide only 1-bit information regarding a target's presence or absence in their vicinity, albeit with less than 100% reliability. A novel tracking method employing such binary sensors is proposed and its performance in different deployment scenarios evaluated. For a given target, the method utilizes the sensor outputs

  15. Model Repair via SAT Solvers

    E-print Network

    Attie, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We consider the following \\emph{model repair problem}: given a finite Kripke structure $M$ and a specification formula $\\phi$ in some modal or temporal logic, determine if $M$ contains a substructure $M'$ (with the same initial state) that satisfies $\\phi$. Thus, $M$ can be ``repaired'' to satisfy the specification $\\phi$ by deleting some transitions. Model repair can be used for automated debugging of finite-state shared memory concurrent programs. Given a program $P$, generate its transition graph $M$, repair $M$ with respect to the specification, and then extract a correct concurrent program $P'$ from the repaired model $M'$ by using the method of \\cite{AE96,AE01} to extract atomic read/write shared memory concurrent programs from Kripke structures. We show that model repair is NP-complete for CTL, and for any logic for which: (1) the model checking problem is in polynomial time, and (2) there is a polynomial time reduction from CTL to the logic. A notable example of such a logic is Alternating-Time Tempor...

  16. Brachiocephalic Artery Cannulation in Proximal Aortic Surgery that Requires Circulatory Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Mehmet; Akar, Ilker; Ince, Ilker; Aslan, Cemal; Koc, Fatih; Kafali, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    The brachiocephalic artery is an alternative cannulation site in the repair of ascending aortic lesions that require circulatory arrest. We evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this technique. Proximal aortic surgery was performed in 32 patients from 2006 through 2012 via brachiocephalic artery cannulation and circulatory arrest. Twenty-four (75%) of the patients were men. The mean age was 48.69 ± 9.43 years (range, 30–68 yr). Twelve had type I dissection, 2 had type II dissection, and 18 had true aneurysms of the ascending aorta. All operations were performed through a median sternotomy. The arterial cannula was inserted through an 8-mm vascular graft anastomosed to the brachiocephalic artery in an end-to-side fashion. In dissections, the distal anastomosis was performed without clamping the aorta. The patients were cooled to 24 °C, and circulatory arrest was established. The brachiocephalic and left carotid arteries were clamped, and antegrade cerebral perfusion was started at a rate of 10 mL/kg/min. Cardiopulmonary bypass was resumed after completion of the distal anastomosis and the initiation of rewarming. The proximal anastomosis was then performed. None of the patients sustained a major neurologic deficit, but 5 patients experienced transient postoperative agitation (<24 hr). There were 2 early deaths (6.25%), on the 3rd and the 11th postoperative days, both unrelated to the cannulation technique. Brachiocephalic artery cannulation through a graft can be a safe and effective technique in proximal aortic surgical procedures that require circulatory arrest. PMID:25593522

  17. Angiomyogenesis for Myocardial Repair

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Syed Ali; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The conventional therapeutic modalities for myocardial infarction have limited success in preventing the progression of left ventricular remodeling and congestive heart failure. The heart cell therapy and therapeutic angiogenesis are two promising strategies for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. After extensive assessment of safety and effectiveness in vitro and in experimental animal studies, both of these approaches have accomplished the stage of clinical utility, albeit with limited success due to the inherent limitations and problems of each approach. Neomyogenesis without restoration of regional blood flow may be less meaningful. A combined stem-cell and gene-therapy approach of angiomyogenesis is expected to yield better results as compared with either of the approaches as a monotherapy. The combined therapy approach will help to restore the mechanical contractile function of the weakened myocardium and alleviate ischemic condition by restoration of regional blood flow. In providing an overview of both stem cell therapy and gene therapy, this article is an in-depth and critical appreciation of combined cell and gene therapy approach for myocardial repair. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1929–1944. PMID:19361254

  18. Characteristics of He II Proximity Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Syphers, David; Meiksin, Avery; Kriss, Gerard A.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2015-06-01

    The proximity profile in the spectra of z? 3 quasars, where fluxes extend blueward of the He ii Ly? wavelength 304 (1+z) Å, is one of the most important spectral features in the study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Based on the Hubble Space Telescope spectra of 24 He ii quasars, we find that the majority of them display a proximity profile, corresponding to an ionization radius as large as 20 Mpc in the source's rest frame. In comparison with those in the H i spectra of the quasars at z ? 6, the He ii proximity effect is more prominent and is observed over a considerably longer period of reionization. The He ii proximity zone sizes decrease at higher redshifts, particularly at z\\gt 3.3. This trend is similar to that for H i, signaling an onset of He ii reionization at z? 4. For quasar SDSS1253+6817 (z = 3.48), the He ii absorption trough displays a gradual decline and serves as a good case for modeling the He ii reionization. To model such a broad profile requires a quasar radiation field whose energy distribution between 4 and 1 Rydberg is considerably harder than normally assumed. The UV continuum of this quasar is indeed exceptionally steep, and the He ii ionization level in the quasar vicinity is higher than the average level in the IGM. These results are evidence that a very hard EUV continuum from this quasar produces a large ionized zone around it. Distinct exceptions are the two brightest He ii quasars at z ? 2.8, for which no significant proximity profile is present, probably implying that they are very young.

  19. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1?/? mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1?/? mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1?/? callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  20. Anatomic Double-Bundle Reinsertion After Acute Proximal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Using Knotless PushLock Anchors.

    PubMed

    Weninger, Patrick; Wepner, Florian; Kissler, Florian; Enenkel, Michael; Wurnig, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Direct anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair has been described with different suture techniques after acute ACL injury, but these procedures showed high failure rates. Recent studies, however, led to a better understanding of the biology of primary ACL healing. This article describes a novel technique combining the "healing response technique" with primary anatomic double-bundle ACL reinsertion after an acute proximal ACL tear using nonabsorbable No. 2 FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, FL) and PushLock knotless suture anchors (Arthrex). We recommend this technique for patients with acute proximal avulsion-type ACL injuries. Postoperatively, we recommend a knee brace locked in full extension for at least 4 weeks to ensure adequate immobilization and then to increase knee flexion slowly over the next 4 weeks for subsequent healing of the ACL repair. Our technique combines anatomic positioning and reinsertion of the ACL bundles with microfracturing of the region delivering stem cells and growth factors to the repaired ACL, creating optimal conditions for the healing period. In certain cases this technique might be an alternative to conventional ACL reconstruction with autograft or allograft tendons. PMID:25973366

  1. Am J Med Genet A . Author manuscript Genotype-phenotype correlation in four 15q24 deleted patients identified

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    implanted thumbs) and genital anomalies (micropenis, hypospadias). We report here four cases having 2.5 6, we could link these anomalies to haploinsufficiency of 15q23 genes. Neither hypospadias nor (particularly proximal placement of thumbs), and genital malformations in males (micropenis, hypospadias

  2. Characterization of glucose transport by cultured rabbit kidney proximal convoluted and proximal straight tubule cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro L. Del Valle; Anna Trifillis; Charles E. Ruegg; Andrew S. Kane

    2002-01-01

    Summary  Rabbit kidney proximal convoluted tubule (RPCT) and proximal straight tubule (RPST) cells were independently isolated and\\u000a cultured. The kinetics of the sodium-dependent glucose transport was characterized by determining the uptake of the glucose\\u000a analog alpha-methylglucopyranoside. Cell culture and assay conditions used in these experiments were based on previous experiments\\u000a conducted on the renal cell line derived from the whole kidney

  3. Comparison of outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention on proximal versus non-proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, proximal left circumflex, and proximal right coronary artery: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alidoosti, Mohammad; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Zeinali, Ali Mohammad Haji; Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Dehkordi, Maria Raissi

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that lesions in proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) may develop more restenosis after balloon angioplasty than lesions in other coronary segments. However, stenting seems to have reduced this gap. In this study, we compared outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on proximal LAD versus proximal left circumflex (LCX) or right coronary artery (RCA) and proximal versus non-proximal LAD. Methods From 1737 patients undergoing PCI between March 2004 and 2005, those with cardiogenic shock, primary PCI, total occlusions, and multivessel or multi-lesion PCI were excluded. Baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared in 408 patients with PCI on proximal LAD versus 133 patients with PCI on proximal LCX/RCA (study I) and 244 patients with PCI on non-proximal LAD (study II). From our study populations, 449 patients in study I and 549 patients in study II participated in complete follow-up programs, and long-term PCI outcomes were compared within these groups. The statistical methods included Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, student's t-test, stratification methods, multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model. Results In the proximal LAD vs. proximal LCX/RCA groups, smoking and multivessel disease were less frequent and drug-eluting stents were used more often (p = 0.01, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Patients had longer and smaller-diameter stents (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively). In the proximal vs. non-proximal LAD groups, multivessel disease was less frequent (p = 0.05). Patients had larger reference vessel diameters (p < 0.001) and were more frequently treated with stents, especially direct stenting technique (p < 0.001). Angiographic success rate was higher in the proximal LAD versus proximal LCX/RCA and non-proximal LAD groups (p = 0.004 and p = 0.05, respectively). In long-term follow-up, major adverse cardiac events showed no difference. After statistical adjustment for significant demographic, angiographic or procedural characteristics, long-term PCI outcomes were still similar in the proximal LAD versus proximal LCX/RCA and non-proximal LAD groups. Conclusion Despite the known worse prognosis of proximal LAD lesions, in the era of stenting, our long-term outcomes were similar in patients with PCI on proximal LAD versus proximal LCX/RCA and non-proximal LAD. Furthermore, we had better angiographic success rates in patients with PCI on proximal LAD. PMID:17335586

  4. Acute Osteoclast Activity following Subchondral Drilling Is Promoted by Chitosan and Associated with Improved Cartilage Repair Tissue Integration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, G.; Sun, J.; Lascau-Coman, V.; Chevrier, A.; Marchand, C.; Hoemann, Caroline D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cartilage-bone integration is an important functional end point of cartilage repair therapy, but little is known about how to promote integration. We tested the hypothesis that chitosan-stabilized blood clot implant elicits osteoclasts to drilled cartilage defects and promotes repair and cartilage-bone integration. Design: Bilateral trochlear defects in 15 skeletally mature rabbit knees were microdrilled and then treated with chitosan–glycerol phosphate (GP)/blood implant with fluorescent chitosan tracer and thrombin to accelerate in situ solidification or with thrombin alone. Chitosan clearance, osteoclast density, and osteochondral repair were evaluated at 1, 2, and 8 weeks at the outside, edge, and through the proximal microdrill holes. Results: Chitosan was retained at the top of the drill holes at 1 week as extracellular particles became internalized by granulation tissue cells at 2 weeks and was completely cleared by 8 weeks. Osteoclasts burst-accumulated at microdrill hole edges at 1 week, in new woven bone at the base of the drill holes at 2 weeks, and below endochondral cartilage repair at 8 weeks. Implants elicited 2-fold more osteoclasts relative to controls (P < 0.001), a more complete drill hole bone repair, and improved cartilage-bone integration and histological tissue quality. Treated and control 8-week cartilage repair tissues contained 85% collagen type II. After 8 weeks of repair, subchondral osteoclast density correlated positively with bone-cartilage repair tissue integration (P < 0.0005). Conclusions: Chitosan-GP/blood implant amplified the acute influx of subchondral osteoclasts through indirect mechanisms, leading to significantly improved repair and cartilage-bone integration without inducing net bone resorption. Osteoclasts are cellular mediators of marrow-derived cartilage repair integration.

  5. Proximity and Investment: Evidence from Plant-Level Data

    E-print Network

    Giroud, Xavier

    Proximity to plants makes it easier for headquarters to monitor and acquire information about plants. In this article, I estimate the effects of headquarters’ proximity to plants on plant-level investment and productivity. ...

  6. Proximity Services Supporting Network Virtual Memory in Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    Bogliolo, Alessandro

    Proximity Services Supporting Network Virtual Memory in Mobile Devices Emanuele Lattanzi Andrea digital assistants, cell-phones or sensor nodes are typically memory constrained devices. This limitation Management, Measurement, Performance Keywords Proximity service, Mobility management, Network swap- ping

  7. The Proximity Toolkit: Prototyping Proxemic Interactions in Ubiquitous Computing Ecologies

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    to access proxemic information from sensors. Our Proximity Toolkit solves this problem. It simplifies the ex mobile phones, tablet and desktop computers, information appliances, and large interactive surfaces1 The Proximity Toolkit: Prototyping Proxemic Interactions in Ubiquitous Computing Ecologies

  8. Imaging of cartilage repair procedures.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2014-07-01

    The rationale for cartilage repair is to prevent precocious osteoarthritis in untreated focal cartilage injuries in the young and middle-aged population. The gamut of surgical techniques, normal postoperative radiological appearances, and possible complications have been described. An objective method of recording the quality of repair tissue is with the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. This scoring system evaluates nine parameters that include the extent of defect filling, border zone integration, signal intensity, quality of structure and surface, subchondral bone, subchondral lamina, and records presence or absence of synovitis and adhesions. The five common techniques of cartilage repair currently offered include bone marrow stimulation (microfracture or drilling), mosaicplasty, synthetic resorbable scaffold grafts, osteochondral allograft transplants, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Complications of cartilage repair procedures that may be demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include plug loosening, graft protuberance, graft depression, and collapse in mosaicplasty, graft hypertrophy in ACI, and immune response leading to graft rejection, which is more common with synthetic grafts and cadaveric allografts. PMID:25114387

  9. Imaging of cartilage repair procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for cartilage repair is to prevent precocious osteoarthritis in untreated focal cartilage injuries in the young and middle-aged population. The gamut of surgical techniques, normal postoperative radiological appearances, and possible complications have been described. An objective method of recording the quality of repair tissue is with the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. This scoring system evaluates nine parameters that include the extent of defect filling, border zone integration, signal intensity, quality of structure and surface, subchondral bone, subchondral lamina, and records presence or absence of synovitis and adhesions. The five common techniques of cartilage repair currently offered include bone marrow stimulation (microfracture or drilling), mosaicplasty, synthetic resorbable scaffold grafts, osteochondral allograft transplants, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Complications of cartilage repair procedures that may be demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include plug loosening, graft protuberance, graft depression, and collapse in mosaicplasty, graft hypertrophy in ACI, and immune response leading to graft rejection, which is more common with synthetic grafts and cadaveric allografts. PMID:25114387

  10. Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Alyx T.; McKinnon, Randall D.

    2013-01-01

    At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair. PMID:24961526

  11. Proximity effects correction in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrasik, Piotr

    1999-06-01

    A method for the proximity effects correction in electron beam lithography for layouts with critical dimensions below 180 nm is proposed. A parallel processing system based on an artificial neural networks is suggested as a solution to the problem. The algorithm for the learning vector generation is based on a discrete iterative regularization. Several results of the correction process for different test layouts are presented. Error analysis of the error measure is presented. The difference between the target dose and the doses deposited in each exel after the correction process is smaller than 5 percent. As a hardware implementation of the real time proximity effects corrector the radial basis functions neural system is proposed. Simulations of the Gaussian synapse cell have been done. Results of our simulations assure that our neurocorrector can precompensate for one exel from the layout in less than 60 ns.

  12. Treatment of proximal vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shutze, William; Gierman, Joshua; McQuade, Karen; Pearl, Gregory; Smith, Bertram

    2014-04-01

    Vertebral arterial disease (VAD) is a less commonly recognized and treated source of cerebrovascular ischemia compared with carotid artery disease. Patients are often referred for treatment after they have developed symptoms in the form of transient ischemic attacks or had a posterior hemispheric stroke. Traditional treatment of VAD has been surgical. More recently, endovascular treatment of VAD has been utilized. We performed a retrospective review of our institutional experience in treating VAD from 2001 to 2010. For treatment of proximal VAD, perioperative morbidity is lower for the endovascular group than for the surgical group, but six-week mortality was higher for the endovascular group. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred more frequently with surgery than with endovascular therapy. Therefore surgical reconstruction appears to be preferable to angioplasty and stenting for treatment of proximal vertebral artery occlusive disease. PMID:23518836

  13. Goal-proximity decision-making.

    PubMed

    Veksler, Vladislav D; Gray, Wayne D; Schoelles, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed mechanism, Goal-Proximity Decision-making (GPD), is implemented within the ACT-R cognitive framework. GPD is found to be more efficient than RL in three maze-navigation simulations. GPD advantages over RL seem to grow as task difficulty is increased. An experiment is presented where participants are asked to make choices in the absence of prior reward. GPD captures human performance in this experiment better than RL. PMID:23551486

  14. Produre: A Novel Proximity Discovery Mechanism in Location Tagging System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianbin Hu; Yonggang Wang; Tao Yang; Zhi Guan; Nike Gui; Zhong Chen

    \\u000a Proximity discovery is a very interesting and useful technique which helps a user to find out his proximities who have the\\u000a same or similar location with him during a certain period of time. However, current methods of discovering proximities are\\u000a difficult to adopt and vulnerable when wrong location tags are provided. This paper proposes Produre, a novel proximity discovery\\u000a mechanism

  15. Analytical parametrization of fusion barriers using proximity potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Using the three versions of proximity potentials, namely proximity 1977, proximity 1988, and proximity 2000, we present a pocket formula for fusion barrier heights and positions. This was achieved by analyzing as many as 400 reactions with mass between 15 and 296. Our parametrized formula can reproduced the exact barrier heights and positions within an accuracy of +-1%. A comparison with the experimental data is also in good agreement.

  16. Rendezvous and proximity operations sensor candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kunkel; Ph. Hartl; W. Fehse

    1985-01-01

    As part of an ESA study, RVD and proximity operations on autonomous smart sensors for guidance between spacecraft are discussed. Measurement parameters for the sensors include range, range resolution, and range rate between 20 km and 0.1 m, and angular and lateral relative position between 20 km and 0.1 m. Sensors examined include a PRN Ku-band microwave range and attitude

  17. Space robotic system for proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnani, P. G.; Colomba, M.

    1989-01-01

    Key to an efficient accomplishment of space station servicing operations is the development of a scenario where the presence of man in space is well integrated with the capability of teleoperated and automatic robot system outside the stations. Results focusing on mission requirements, trajectory sequences, propulsion subsystem features, and manipulative kit characteristics relevant to proximity servicing during a Man Tended Free Flyers Robotic Mission (MTFF-RM) are illustrated.

  18. Proximity operations and docking sensor development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Howard; Thomas C. Bryan; Linda L. Brewster; J. E. Lee

    2009-01-01

    The next generation advanced video guidance sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance

  19. Links between soil modelling and proximal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitkenhead, Matt; McBratney, Alex; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-04-01

    Proximal sensing of soils can provide valuable information for soil modelling, by providing baseline data and validating model predictions through direct observation of soil characteristics. A wide range of soil parameters can be estimated using proximal sensing of soils (PSS), often simultaneously using single hand-held systems, of which there are many types. The benefits for soil modelling include direct observation of modelled parameters, rapid assessment in field conditions and digital data acquisition, making the transfer of information to soil models relatively straightforward. This is an active area of development, with research into improved methods of field-based capture of soil parameters directly relevant for soil modelling. A number of challenges exist, including the removal of or accounting for the effects of field conditions (e.g. soil moisture and structure), and the development of libraries of data that will allow calibration models to be produced. We present an overview of PSS as it relates to soil modelling, including equipment types, calibration approaches, cloud-based processing, soil parameters and processes estimated using PSS, and opportunities and challenges for the future. We also identify and discuss the possibilities for integration of modelling and proximal sensing within precision agriculture/precision land management.

  20. Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Gu-Feng; Wu, Guang-Fen; Chen, Hua; Dimitrie, Culcer; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-09-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications.

  1. Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults

    PubMed Central

    Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

    2014-01-01

    The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes. PMID:25405098

  2. Trajectories in Close Proximity to Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft motion in close proximity to irregularly shaped, rotating bodies such as asteroids presents a unique dynamical environment as compared to most space missions. There are several fundamental novelties in this environment that spacecraft must deal with. These include the possibility of orbital instabilities that can act over very short time spans (on the order of hours for some systems), possible non-uniform rotation of the central gravity field, divergence of traditional gravity field representations when close to the asteroid surface, dominance of perturbing forces, an extremely large asteroid model parameter space that must be prepared for in the absence of reliable information, and the possibility of employing new and novel trajectory control techniques such as hovering and repeated landings on the asteroid surface. An overview of how these novelties impact the space of feasible close proximity operations and how different asteroid model properties will affect their implementation is given. In so doing, four fundamental types of close proximity operations will be defined. Listed in order of increasing technical difficulty these are: (1) close, stable orbits; (2) low-altitude flyovers; (3) landing trajectories; and (4) hovering trajectories. The feasibility and difficulty of implementing these operations will vary as a function of the asteroid shape, size, density, and rotation properties, and as a function of the spacecraft navigation capability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS

    E-print Network

    1 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS Jeffry S. Evans* NOAA accumulated a number of proximity soundings associated with both derechos and discrete supercells. It can and analyzed 110 proximity soundings near 67 derechos. The period of study was from 1983-1993, and cases were

  4. 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS

    E-print Network

    Doswell III, Charles A.

    1 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS Jeffry S. Evans* NOAA of convection, we have accumulated proximity soundings associated with both derechos and discrete supercells and analyzed 113 proximity soundings near 67 derechos. The period of study was 1983-1993, and cases were

  5. Acoustic proximity ranging in the presence of secondary echoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi Li; Renbiao Wu; Srihari Rasmi; Jian Li; Mark Sheplak

    2003-01-01

    Proximity ranging is very important in many applications. Ultrasonic sensors have proven to be very cost effective tools for this purpose. Most of the currently available time-of-flight based acoustic proximity ranging systems use the conventional matched filter based time delay estimation approaches to measure short distances between proximity objects. However, in the presence of strong and closely spaced secondary echoes,

  6. Cooperation in humans: competition between groups and proximate emotions

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Cooperation in humans: competition between groups and proximate emotions Maxwell N. Burton with the idea that the level of cooperation can be influenced by proximate emotions, which vary with the degree; Economic game; Group competition; Proximate; Emotion; Anger; Guilt 1. Introduction Explaining cooperative

  7. Proximity and Interactive Learning in University-Firm Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Taran

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether proximity is always necessary for interactive learning, as proposed by recent European innovation theory. Recent research has provided a refined conceptualization of proximity, but there is little empirically-based knowledge about the actual role that proximity plays in relationships intended to foster…

  8. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  9. Differential gene expression in proximal and distal nerve segments of rats with sciatic nerve injury during Wallerian degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Li, Huaiqin; Sun, Yi; Yin, Dexin; Zhao, Qin; Cui, Shusen; Yao, Dengbing

    2014-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is a subject of major interest in neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated during the distinct stages of Wallerian degeneration: transcription factor activation, immune response, myelin cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Although gene expression responses in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve after peripheral nerve injury are known, differences in gene expression between the proximal and distal segments remain unclear. In the present study in rats, we used microarrays to analyze changes in gene expression, biological processes and signaling pathways in the proximal and distal segments of sciatic nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration. More than 6,000 genes were differentially expressed and 20 types of expression tendencies were identified, mainly between proximal and distal segments at 7–14 days after injury. The differentially expressed genes were those involved in cell differentiation, cytokinesis, neuron differentiation, nerve development and axon regeneration. Furthermore, 11 biological processes were represented, related to responses to stimuli, cell apoptosis, inflammatory response, immune response, signal transduction, protein kinase activity, and cell proliferation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, microarray data were verified for four genes: aquaporin-4, interleukin 1 receptor-like 1, matrix metalloproteinase-12 and periaxin. Our study identifies differential gene expression in the proximal and distal segments of a nerve during Wallerian degeneration, analyzes dynamic biological changes of these genes, and provides a useful platform for the detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration. PMID:25206781

  10. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

  11. Outsourcing Prioritized Warranty Repairs Peter S. Buczkowski

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, Vidyadhar G.

    Outsourcing Prioritized Warranty Repairs Peter S. Buczkowski University of North Carolina at Chapel Carolina at Chapel Hill Department of Statistics and Operations Research Keywords Warranty, Outsourcing, Network, Resource Allocation Abstract We consider the problem of outsourcing warranty repairs to outside

  12. Reducing Your Leak Rate Without Repairing Leaks 

    E-print Network

    Beals, C.

    2005-01-01

    As plant personnel know, repairing compressed air leaks can be an expensive, labor intensive and never-ending process. This article discusses ways plant personnel can reduce and maintain their leak rate at a lower level without repairing leaks...

  13. Sanitizing private data for repair systems

    E-print Network

    Fang, Katherine Jien-Yin

    2014-01-01

    The SOLAR system helps restore interconnected system integrity after security attacks with a focus of minimizing the exposure of sensitive data in the repair logs. It builds upon Warp, a repair system for Django web ...

  14. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  15. Mismatch repair protein expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nicola; Chang, Kah Hoong; Curran, Catherine; Hennessey, Emer; Sheehan, Margaret; Kerin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alterations in at least six of the genes that encode proteins involved in the mismatch repair (MMR) system have been identified in either HNPCC or sporadic colon cancer. We aimed to analyse the proportion of patients with colorectal cancer with loss of immunostaining for MMR proteins in order to determine the feasibility of molecular screening for the loss of MMR proteins through the study of unselected patients with colorectal cancer. Methods A group of 33 patients with colorectal cancer was randomly selected from the department of surgery bio-bank to determine the expression of MMR proteins in their FFPE tumour tissues using immunohistochemistry techniques. Changes in protein expression following transfection of colorectal tissues were observed in stained cells using Olympus BX60 microscope and image analySIS software. Results Of the tissue specimens in which acceptable immunostaining was achieved, three samples showed loss of one or more of the MMR proteins. Both hMLH1 and hPMS2 proteins were not expressed in a 36 years old woman with cancer of the caecum. The expression of hMSH6 protein was undetermined in tumour tissues retrieved from a 61 years old man with cancer of the proximal colon. The third case was a 77 years old man with no documented family history of cancer, who had carcinoma of the rectum. He showed loss of hMLH1 expression in the tumour tissues Conclusions Our findings and the previous reports pointed out the importance of molecular screening of patients with colorectal cancer for MSI using immunohistochemistry. This strategy managed to identify mutations in patients otherwise would not have been detected. PMID:24294512

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

  17. Self-repairing composites for airplane components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Dry

    2008-01-01

    Durability and damage tolerance criteria drives the design of most composite structures. Those criteria could be altered by developing structure that repairs itself from impact damage. This is a technology for increasing damage tolerance for impact damage. Repaired damage would enable continued function and prevent further degradation to catastrophic failure in the case of an aircraft application. Further, repaired damage

  18. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  19. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  20. Current Challenges in Automatic Software Repair

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    repairs (e.g., AutoFix-E [10], Axis [11], AFix [12], or Gopinath et al. [13]); or using evolutionary computation (EC) (e.g., by co- evolving test cases and repairs [14, 15], or via language-specific operators in this area is exciting. Auto- matic repair work has been evaluated by DARPA red teams [8] and won awards

  1. Endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VIVIAN H. MAO; WILLIAM M. KEANE; JOSEPH P. ATKINS; JOSEPH R. SPIEGEL; THOMAS O. WILLCOX; MARC R. ROSEN; DAVID REWS; DAVID ZWILLENBERG

    2000-01-01

    Endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is a promising alternative to traditional repair techniques. This article reports our experience with 21 cases (10 spontaneous, 8 iatrogenic, and 3 traumatic). Various diagnostic radiographic modalities were used, including computer-aided techniques. Most repairs were accomplished with a free fascial graft positioned in the epidural space. Postoperative lumbar drainage was used in 15 cases.

  2. New allocation methods for repairable systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suprasad V. Amari; Vaishali Hegde

    2006-01-01

    Allocations are used to translate the reliability and availability goals of a system into reliability and availability goals for the subsystems. There are very few allocation methods available for repairable systems, even though most systems are repairable. The most popular allocation method for repairable systems assigns equal availabilities to subsystems to meet the desired system level availability. This method assumes

  3. Totally extraperitoneal laparoendoscopic repair of lumbar hernia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Meinke

    2003-01-01

    Background: The repair of congenital and acquired lumbar hernias has remained a significant surgical challenge for over three centuries. Transperitoneal laparoendoscopic techniques have been reported that have achieved success in repairing these difficult hernias using a variety of synthetic mesh. Careful review of the surgical literature addressing the repair of lumbar hernia reveals that only fourteen successful cases have been

  4. Contribution of Stem Cells to Kidney Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedetta Bussolati; Peter Viktor Hauser; Raquel Carvalhosa; Giovanni Camussi

    2009-01-01

    A current explanation for development of chronic renal injury is the imbalance between injurious mechanism and regenerative repair. The possibility that stem cells contribute to the repair of glomerular and tubular damage is of great interest for basic and translational research. Endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells have been implicated in the repair of renal tissue, although the lineage of stem

  5. Analysis of residual stresses at weld repairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dong; J. K. Hong; P. J. Bouchard

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to initial fabrication welds, residual stresses associated with finite length weld repairs tend to exhibit some important invariant features, regardless of actual component configurations, materials, and to some degree, welding procedures. Such invariant features are associated with the severe restraint conditions present in typical repair welding situations. In this paper, residual stress results from several weld repair case

  6. Simple repair of a giant inguinoscrotal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, E.; Price, C.; Boutall, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a giant inguinoscrotal hernia that extended almost to the patient's knees. Operative repair was through a standard transverse inguinal incision. No debulking or abdominal enlargement procedure had to be performed. The repair was done with a tension-free, onlay, prosthetic mesh repair. PMID:22096682

  7. Current and future perspectives in the repair of aneurysms involving the aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Maurel, B; Sobocinski, J; Spear, R; Azzaoui, R; Koussa, M; Prat, A; Tyrrell, M R; Hertault, A; Haulon, S

    2015-04-01

    The repair of aneurysms involving the aortic arch is technically and physiologically demanding. Historically, these aneurysms have been treated using open surgical techniques that require cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Many patients have been deemed "untreatable" and among those selected for surgery there are reported risks of death in 2% to 16.5% and stroke rates ranging from 2% to 18%. "Hybrid arch repair" combines one of a number of open surgical procedures (to secure a proximal landing zone for an endograft) with subsequent or immediate placement of an endograft in the arch and descending aorta. Although this concept is described as "minimally invasive" because it avoids aortic cross-clamping and hypothermic circulatory arrest, the morbidity and mortality rates remain considerable (mortality 0% to 15%, stroke 0% to 11%). Ongoing development of endograft technology has enabled total endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms involving the visceral segment, using fenestrated and branched endografts. Encouraging early results in this anatomy have inspired extension of the concept to include the aortic arch and great vessels. These strategies can be considered in patients generally at high-risk for the conventional procedures. However, the endeavour is at an early stage of its development and the arch poses unique challenges including the potential for stroke, angulation of the arch and the great vessel ostia to the arch, extremely high volume flow, three-dimensional pulsation and rotation with the cardiac cycle and the proximity of the aortic valve and coronary arteries. PMID:25644831

  8. Anodization As A Repair Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groff, Roy E.; Maloney, Robert D.; Reeser, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Thin, hard oxide layer added to aluminum part. Surfaces on aluminum part worn out of tolerance by no more than 0.004 in. often repaired by anodizing to build up aluminum oxide layers. Oxide layers very hard and grounded to desired final dimensions.

  9. Computer Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in a course to train students to repair computer equipment and perform related administrative and customer service tasks. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics (with selected subtopics in brackets): performing administrative functions (preparing service bills, maintaining accounts and labor…

  10. Verification of Motor Repair Quality 

    E-print Network

    Butler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Motor testing at Advanced Energy has shown that a motor that has not suffered irreparable damage as a result of failure can be repaired to perform as well as before the failure. But the only way to achieve the performance level of an energy...

  11. Repair of recurrent rectovaginal fistulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L. Halverson; Tracy L. Hull; Victor W. Fazio; James Church; Jeffery Hammel; Crina Floruta

    2001-01-01

    Background. Recurrent rectovaginal fistulas (RRVFs) pose a challenging problem, which can be treated by different surgical procedures. We performed this study to determine the ultimate success rate of various repair techniques. Methods. Using a standard data collection form, we retrospectively reviewed charts of patients treated for RRVF. Results. Between 1991 and 2000, 57 procedures were performed in 35 women who

  12. Airframe Repair Specialist (AFSC 53153).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This airframe repairman course comprises the self-study portion of an on-the-job training program. It deals with the job-related knowledge requirements for airframe repairs that are required to progress from the 3 to 5 skill level of the career field. It contains five volumes. Volume 1 (27 hours) covers the general subjects related to the…

  13. Photoimmunology, DNA repair and photocarcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Berneburg; Jean Krutmann

    2000-01-01

    In recent years major progress has been made in identifying the molecular mechanisms by which UV radiation modulates the immune system of the skin. From these studies it appears that the generation of DNA damage and the subsequent activation of DNA repair enzymes play a critical role in the generation of UV-B-induced immunosuppression. These studies have made use of cells

  14. Endovascular repair of popliteal aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cina, Claudio S

    2010-04-01

    Endovascular repair is an established modality of treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is therefore reasonable to expect its application to other less common aneurysmal conditions, including isolated iliac and popliteal artery aneurysms (PAA). There are, however, essential differences between aortic aneurysms and peripheral aneurysms: smaller arterial caliber, mobility of the arterial segment, associated occlusive disease, and devices that have not been specifically designed for peripheral applications. Due to these differences, results obtained in abdominal aortic aneurysms cannot be extrapolated to peripheral aneurysms. The attraction of the endovascular repair for PAA is its minimally invasive nature. The literature, however, provides only case reports, case series and small cohorts, and one small randomized, controlled trial. A cumulative summary of these studies provides the clinician with information upon which to base the choice of treatment on a specific patient. Endovascular repair for PAA with suitable anatomy and good run-off can be considered safe, and medium term results appear comparable with those of open repair. PMID:20045613

  15. Pulpal Progenitors and Dentin Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Harichane; A. Hirata; S. Dimitrova-Nakov; I. Granja; A. Goldberg; O. Kellermann; A. Poliard

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are present in the dental pulp. They have been shown to contribute to dentin-like tissue formation in vitro and to participate in bone repair after a mandibular lesion. However, their capacity to contribute efficiently to reparative dentin formation after pulp lesion has never been explored. After pulp exposure, we have identified proliferative cells within 3 zones. In

  16. Simulation based mask defect repair verification and disposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Eric; Zhao, Shirley; Zhang, Skin; Qian, Sandy; Cheng, Guojie; Vikram, Abhishek; Li, Ling; Chen, Ye; Hsiang, Chingyun; Zhang, Gary; Su, Bo

    2009-10-01

    As the industry moves towards sub-65nm technology nodes, the mask inspection, with increased sensitivity and shrinking critical defect size, catches more and more nuisance and false defects. Increased defect counts pose great challenges in the post inspection defect classification and disposition: which defect is real defect, and among the real defects, which defect should be repaired and how to verify the post-repair defects. In this paper, we address the challenges in mask defect verification and disposition, in particular, in post repair defect verification by an efficient methodology, using SEM mask defect images, and optical inspection mask defects images (only for verification of phase and transmission related defects). We will demonstrate the flow using programmed mask defects in sub-65nm technology node design. In total 20 types of defects were designed including defects found in typical real circuit environments with 30 different sizes designed for each type. The SEM image was taken for each programmed defect after the test mask was made. Selected defects were repaired and SEM images from the test mask were taken again. Wafers were printed with the test mask before and after repair as defect printability references. A software tool SMDD-Simulation based Mask Defect Disposition-has been used in this study. The software is used to extract edges from the mask SEM images and convert them into polygons to save in GDSII format. Then, the converted polygons from the SEM images were filled with the correct tone to form mask patterns and were merged back into the original GDSII design file. This merge is for the purpose of contour simulation-since normally the SEM images cover only small area (~1 ?m) and accurate simulation requires including larger area of optical proximity effect. With lithography process model, the resist contour of area of interest (AOI-the area surrounding a mask defect) can be simulated. If such complicated model is not available, a simple optical model can be used to get simulated aerial image intensity in the AOI. With built-in contour analysis functions, the SMDD software can easily compare the contour (or intensity) differences between defect pattern and normal pattern. With user provided judging criteria, this software can be easily disposition the defect based on contour comparison. In addition, process sensitivity properties, like MEEF and NILS, can be readily obtained in the AOI with a lithography model, which will make mask defect disposition criteria more intelligent.

  17. DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis: excision repair capacity of competent cells. [uv radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Yasbin; J. D. Fernwalt; P. I. Fields

    1979-01-01

    Competent Bacillus subtilis were investigated for their ability to support the repair of uv-irradiated bacteriophage and bacteriophage DNA. uv-irradiated bacteriophage DNA cannot be repaired to the same level as uv-irradiated bacteriophage, suggesting a deficiency in the ability of competent cells to repair uv damage. However, competent cells were as repair proficient as noncompetent cells in their ability to repair irradiated

  18. Subclavian vein repair in patients with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Gradman, W S; Bressman, P; Sernaque, J D

    1994-11-01

    Management of subclavian vein occlusive disease in persons with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula can be challenging. From July 1991 to May 1993, nine patients underwent direct exploration and repair of an obstructed subclavian vein following medial claviculectomy. Eight patients had polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts; one patient had a Brescia-Cimino fistula. Intractable arm edema was the major symptom in five of eight. The site of the occlusive disease ranged from the midsubclavian vein to the proximal innominate vein. Pathology varied from a focal occluding web to a long segment of intimal fibroplasia. Five veins were occluded; four were stenotic. Surgical procedures consisted of endovenectomy and vein patch (four), endovenectomy and PTFE patch (one), resection of a focal stricture with end-to-end anastomosis (two), resection with PTFE interposition (one), and end-to-end internal jugular to subclavian vein transposition (one). Postoperative contrast venograms revealed a patent subclavian vein in eight of eight patients. One patient died postoperatively from unrelated causes; two patients died with a functioning fistula 8 and 12 months, respectively, after surgery. Two grafts were removed for infection and one deteriorated graft was abandoned because of repeated thrombosis. Only three of nine original grafts are currently in use, including one in which the ipsilateral subclavian vein rethrombosed. Although stent placement may now be the preferred treatment for subclavian vein stenosis, vein repair may still have a role in the treatment of subclavian vein occlusion, particularly in patients with a Brescia-Cimino fistula. PMID:7865393

  19. Fractures in proximal spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Fujak; Carsten Kopschina; Raimund Forst; Florian Gras; Lutz Arne Mueller; Jürgen Forst

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Fractures are a common problem for patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  A total of 131 patients with proximal SMA with an average age of 13.2 ± 9.2 years (0.7–65.6) were evaluated retrospectively.\\u000a In 60 patients 94 different fractures were observed. The group consisted of 11 patients with type Ib, 81 with type II, 33\\u000a with type IIIa, 4 with IIIb and 2

  20. Giant cell tumour of the proximal radius.

    PubMed

    Singh, A P; Mahajan, S; Singh, A P

    2009-11-01

    A 52-year-old Indian woman presented with a progressively increasing swelling and pain in the right elbow for the past eight months, which was not associated with trauma or constitutional symptoms. The patient was diagnosed to have Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the proximal radius, and was treated with above elbow amputation. The patient has not shown any recurrence after five years of follow-up. The case was reported because of its rarity and the unusual site of occurrence of the tumour. PMID:19960152

  1. Casimir forces beyond the proximity approximation

    E-print Network

    Bimonte, G; Jaffe, R L; Kardar, M

    2011-01-01

    The proximity force approximation (PFA) relates the interaction between closely spaced, smoothly curved objects to the force between parallel plates. Precision experiments on Casimir forces necessitate, and spur research on, corrections to the PFA. We use a derivative expansion for gently curved surfaces to derive the leading curvature modifications to the PFA. Our methods apply to any homogeneous and isotropic materials; here we present results for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions and for perfect conductors. A Pad\\'e extrapolation constrained by a multipole expansion at large distance and our improved expansion at short distances, provides an accurate expression for the sphere-plate Casimir force at all separations.

  2. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  3. Casimir forces beyond the proximity approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimonte, G.; Emig, T.; Jaffe, R. L.; Kardar, M.

    2012-03-01

    The proximity force approximation (PFA) relates the interaction between closely spaced, smoothly curved objects to the force between parallel plates. Precision experiments on Casimir forces necessitate, and spur research on, corrections to the PFA. We use a derivative expansion for gently curved surfaces to derive the leading curvature modifications to the PFA. Our methods apply to any homogeneous and isotropic materials; here we present results for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions and for perfect conductors. A Padé extrapolation constrained by a multipole expansion at large distance and our improved expansion at short distances, provides an accurate expression for the sphere/plate Casimir force at all separations.

  4. Homology-directed repair is a major double-strand break repair pathway in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, F; Han, M; Romanienko, P J; Jasin, M

    1998-04-28

    Mammalian cells have been presumed to repair potentially lethal chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) in large part by processes that do not require homology to the break site. This contrasts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae where the major DSB repair pathway is homologous recombination. Recently, it has been determined that DSBs in genomic DNA in mammalian cells can stimulate homologous recombination as much as 3 or 4 orders of magnitude, suggesting that homology-directed repair may play an important role in the repair of chromosomal breaks. To determine whether mammalian cells use recombinational repair at a significant level, we have analyzed the spectrum of repair events at a defined chromosomal break by using direct physical analysis of repair products. When an endonuclease-generated DSB is introduced into one of two direct repeats, homologous repair is found to account for 30-50% of observed repair events. Both noncrossover and deletional homologous repair products are detected, at approximately a 1:3 ratio. These results demonstrate the importance of homologous recombination in the repair of DSBs in mammalian cells. In the remaining observed repair events, DSBs are repaired by nonhomologous processes. The nonhomologous repair events generally result in small deletions or insertions at the break site, although a small fraction of events result in larger chromosomal rearrangements. Interestingly, in two insertions, GT repeats were integrated at one of the broken chromosome ends, suggesting that DSB repair can contribute to the spread of microsatellite sequences in mammalian genomes. PMID:9560248

  5. Laparoscopic fascial suture repair of parastomal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Khawaja; McGowan, David Ross; Moore, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Parastomal hernia is a recognised complication following stoma formation, representing a challenging problem to surgeons. At least three approaches for parastomal hernia repair have been described: fascial suture repair, relocation of stoma and local repair with use of mesh. In simple fascial suture repair only open techniques have been described. Relocation of stoma can be complicated with another parastomal hernia at the new site and risk of incisional hernia at the site of previous stoma. Mesh repair can be either open or laparoscopic. The recurrence rate and complications of parastomal hernia repair remain very high. We have invented a simple fascial suture laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernia with the use of the Crochet hook needle (EndoClose). This new technique may result in reduced pain, earlier discharge from hospital and reduced risk of infection as there is no mesh used as well as reduced risk of seroma formation. PMID:23780775

  6. Closing the gap for EUV mask repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bret, T.; Jonckheere, R.; Van den Heuvel, D.; Baur, C.; Waiblinger, M.; Baralia, G.

    2012-03-01

    The EUV-photomask is used as mirror and no longer as transmissive device. In order to yield defect-free reticles, repair capability is required for defects in the absorber and for defects in the mirror. Defects can propagate between the EUV mask layers, which makes the detection and the repair complex or impossible if conventional methods are used. In this paper we give an overview of the different defect types. We discuss the EUV repair requirements including SEMinvisible multilayer defects, and demonstrate e-beam repair performance. The repairs are qualified by SEM, AFM and through-focus wafer prints. Furthermore a new repair strategy involving in-situ AFM is introduced. Successful repair is demonstrated on real defects.

  7. The door opener for EUV mask repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waiblinger, M.; Jonckheere, R.; Bret, Tristan; Van den Heuvel, D.; Baur, C.; Baralia, G.

    2012-06-01

    The EUV-photomask is used as mirror and no longer as transmissive device. In order to yield defect-free reticles, repair capability is required for defects in the absorber and for defects in the mirror. Defects can propagate between the EUV mask layers, which makes the detection and the repair complex or impossible if conventional methods are used. In this paper we give an overview of the different defect types. We discuss the EUV repair requirements including SEMinvisible multilayer defects and blank defects, and demonstrate e-beam repair performance. The repairs are qualified by SEM, AFM and through-focus wafer prints. Furthermore a new repair strategy involving in-situ AFM is introduced. We will apply this new strategy on real defects and verify the repair quality using state of the art EUV wafer printing technology.

  8. Proximity Induced Exchange Splitting in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shanshan; Barlas, Yafis; Lake, Roger

    2015-03-01

    We perform an ab-initio study of the proximity effect in a two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure composed of graphene and a thin film ferromagnetic insulator (europium oxide, EuO). Two different structures are considered i) graphene on a EuO layer and ii) graphene sandwiched between two EuO layers. Both structures show two-fold degenerate low-energy bands at the ? point in the Brillouin zone, however, the former heterostructure shows a clear energy gap in the spectrum whereas the latter exhibits degenerate band crossings. The two different spectra result from a competition of proximity induced exchange splitting on the graphene sheet and sub-lattice mass induced due to the crystal field effect. Addition of spin-orbit coupling in the sandwiched structure indicates lifting of this two-fold degeneracy leading to band anti-crossings if the inversion symmetry perpendicular to the graphene plane is broken. This work was supported as part of the Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (Spins) an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award #DE-SC0012670.

  9. Updated classification system for proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Mora Guix, José M; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-06-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  10. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  11. Artificial Topological Superconductor by the Proximity Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin-Peng; Liu, Canhua; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Ge, Jianfeng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Yang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhu-An; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Topological superconductors (TSCs), featuring fully gapped bulk and gapless surface states as well as Majorana fermions, have potential applications in fault-tolerant topological quantum computing. Because TSCs are very rare in nature, an alternative way to study the TSC is to artificially introduce superconductivity into the surface states of a topological insulator through the proximity effect [X. L. Qi, T. L. Hughse, S. Raghu, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 187001 (2009); L. Fu and C. L. Kane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096407 (2008); J. Alicea, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 076501 (2012); C. W. J. Beenakker, Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 4, 113 (2013)]. Here we report the experimental realization of the proximity effect-induced TSC in Bi2Te3 thin films grown on a NbSe2 substrate, as demonstrated by the density of states probed using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed Abrikosov vortices and Andreev lower energy bound states on the surface of the topological insulator, with the superconducting coherence length depending on the film thickness and the magnetic field. These results also indicate that the topological surface states of Bi2Te3 thin films are superconducting and, thus, that the Bi2Te3/NbSe2 is an artificial TSC. The feasibility of fabricating a TSC with an individual Majorana fermion bound to a superconducting vortex for topological quantum computing is discussed.

  12. Carbon nanotube proximity influences rice DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katti, Dinesh R.; Sharma, Anurag; Pradhan, Shashindra Man; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2015-07-01

    The uptake of carbon nanotubes (CNT) influences the output of plants, potentially through interactions between the DNA and CNTs. However, little is known about the changes in the plant DNA due to CNT proximity. We report changes in rice plant DNA in the proximity of single walled CNT (SWCNT) using molecular dynamics simulations. The DNA experiences breaking and forming of hydrogen bonds due to unzipping of Watson-Crick (WC) nucleobase pairs and wrapping onto SWCNT. The number of hydrogen bonds between water and DNA nucleobases decreases due to the presence of SWCNT. A higher number of guanine-cytosine (Gua-Cyt) WC hydrogen bonds break as compared to adenine-thymine (Ade-Thy), which suggests that Gua and Cyt bases play a dominant role in DNA-SWCNT interactions. We also find that changes to non-WC nucleobase pairs and van der Waals attractive interactions between WC nucleobase pairs and SWCNT cause significant changes in the conformation of the DNA.

  13. A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzzel, Doug; Garetto, Anthony; Magnusson, Krister; Tabbone, Gilles

    2013-09-01

    The ZEISS AIMS™ platform is well established as the industry standard for qualifying the printability of mask features based on the aerial image. Typically the critical dimension (CD) and intensity at a certain through-focus range are the parameters which are monitored in order to verify printability or to ensure a successful repair. This information is essential in determining if a feature will pass printability, but in the case that the feature does fail, other metrology is often required in order to isolate the reason why the failure occurred, e.g., quartz level deviates from nominal. Photronics-nanoFab, in collaboration with Carl Zeiss, demonstrate the ability to use AIMSTM to provide quantitative feedback on a given repair process; beyond simple pass/fail of the repair. This technique is used in lieu of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to determine if failing post-repair regions are "under-repaired" (too little material removed) or "over-repaired" (too much material removed). Using the ZEISS MeRiT E-beam repair tool as the test platform, the AIMSTM technique is used to characterize a series of opaque repairs with differing repair times for each. The AIMSTM technique provides a means to determine the etch depth based on through-focus response of the Bossung plot and further to predict the amount of MeRiT® recipe change required in order to bring out of spec repairs to a passing state.

  14. Perineal hernia repair in dogs.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J J

    1984-05-01

    Old male Collies, Pekingese , Boxers and Boston Terriers are predisposed to perineal hernia. Recurrence is often related to poor surgical technic in the initial repair. With the anesthetized dog in sternal recumbency and the tail tied forward, a curvilinear skin incision is made over the hernia, from the tail base to the midline, ventral to the anus. The hernial sac is opened and its contents reduced. Five stainless-steel sutures are preplaced in the muscles and ligaments of the perineal diaphragm and tied from top to bottom. In cases of failure of the ventral aspect of the repair, the internal obturator muscle can be elevated from the ischial table and used to cover the ventral aspect of the hernia. Postoperative complications are related to infection, self-trauma and straining. PMID:6738509

  15. [Contribution of stem cells to renal repair after ischemia/reperfusion].

    PubMed

    Baud, Laurent; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Bellocq, Agnès; Fouqueray, Bruno

    2005-04-01

    Repair of inflammatory and/or ischemic renal injury involves endothelial, mesangial and epithelial regeneration. These structures may be rebuilt by resident progenitor cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Resident progenitor cells in adult kidney have not yet been conclusively identified. They are likely to be slowly cycling cells located mainly in the outer medulla and renal papilla. In glomerulonephritis with mesangiolysis, mesangial regenera- tion involves progenitor cells migrating from the juxtaglomerular apparatus and also bone marrow-derived cells. In acute ischemic renal failure, epithelial regeneration of proximal tubules results from the migration, proliferation and differentiation of resident progenitor cells; bone marrow-derived cells may play an accessory role. Molecular mechanisms underlying these repair processes could be targets for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:16245682

  16. Wnt Signaling and Injury Repair

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Jemima L.; Smith, Andrew A.; Helms, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling is activated by wounding and participates in every subsequent stage of the healing process from the control of inflammation and programmed cell death, to the mobilization of stem cell reservoirs within the wound site. In this review we summarize recent data elucidating the roles that the Wnt pathway plays in the injury repair process. These data provide a foundation for potential Wnt-based therapeutic strategies aimed at stimulating tissue regeneration. PMID:22723493

  17. Metallic Biomaterials in Skeletal Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Heinz Frosch; Klaus Michael Stürmer

    2006-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials are becoming increasingly important in skeletal repair. The goal of this review article is to present\\u000a an overview of metallic implant materials currently used in trauma and orthopedic surgery. Further, new research trends and\\u000a future clinical concepts are described and discussed. Titanium, titanium alloys, stainless steels and CoCr alloys are used\\u000a as bone implants in orthopedic and trauma

  18. Variation of trabecular architecture in proximal femur of postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Grazia Ascenzi; Nicole Hetzer; Alexandre Lomovtsev; Robert Rude; Aurelia Nattiv; Angela Favia

    2011-01-01

    This investigation of microstructure in the human proximal femur probes the relationship between the parameters of the FRAX index of fracture risk and the parameters of bone microstructure. The specificity of fracture sites at the proximal femur raises the question of whether trabecular parameters are site-specific during post-menopause, before occurrence of fragility fracture. The donated proximal femurs of sixteen post-menopausal

  19. Animal models of cartilage repair

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. L.; Hung, C. T.; Kuroki, K.; Stoker, A. M.; Cook, C. R.; Pfeiffer, F. M.; Sherman, S. L.; Stannard, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage repair in terms of replacement, or regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage with functional tissue, is the ‘holy grail’ of joint surgery. A wide spectrum of strategies for cartilage repair currently exists and several of these techniques have been reported to be associated with successful clinical outcomes for appropriately selected indications. However, based on respective advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, no single strategy, or even combination of strategies, provides surgeons with viable options for attaining successful long-term outcomes in the majority of patients. As such, development of novel techniques and optimisation of current techniques need to be, and are, the focus of a great deal of research from the basic science level to clinical trials. Translational research that bridges scientific discoveries to clinical application involves the use of animal models in order to assess safety and efficacy for regulatory approval for human use. This review article provides an overview of animal models for cartilage repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;4:89–94. PMID:24695750

  20. JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Carmelo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Radiologia Interventistica (Italy); Ceccherini, Claudio, E-mail: claudiocec@hotmail.it; Leonini, Sara [Radiologia Universitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte (Italy); Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Radiologia Interventistica (Italy); Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Chirurgia dell'Aorta Toracica (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  1. Endovascular Stent-Graft Repair as a Late Secondary Procedure After Previous Aortic Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Matsagas, Miltiadis I. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Surgery - Vascular Surgery Unit (Greece)], E-mail: mimats@cc.uoi.gr; Anagnostopoulos, Constantine E. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Papakostas, John C. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Surgery - Vascular Surgery Unit (Greece); DeRose, Joseph J. [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Siminelakis, Stavros [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Katsouras, Christos S. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiology (Greece); Toumpoulis, Ioannis K.; Drossos, George E. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Michalis, Lampros K. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiology (Greece)

    2006-08-15

    Thoracic and abdominal aortic endovascular procedures as alternatives to aortic reoperations were studied in three different cases. An anastomotic aneurysm after previous thoracic aortic graft for coarctation, a second-stage elephant trunk repair (descending thoracic aortic aneurysm), and a secondary aneurysm proximal to a previous abdominal aortic graft were successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafts. During the follow-up period no lethal events or major aortic or graft-related complications were observed, except a type II endoleak in the anastomotic aortic aneurysm case. An endovascular stent-graft can be safely deployed into a previously implanted vascular graft, avoiding repeat surgery.

  2. Treatment of a Persistent False Lumen with Aneurysm Formation Following Surgical Repair of Type A Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Jeganathan, Reubendra, E-mail: reubenj@hotmail.com; Kennedy, Peter; MacGowan, Simon [Royal Victoria Hospital, Department of Cardiac Surgery (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old man who developed aneurysmal dilatation of the proximal descending thoracic aorta 8 years after repair of a type A dissection. The aneurysm was due to an anastomotic leak at the distal end of the previous repair in the ascending aorta with antegrade perfusion of the false lumen. Surgical repair of the anastomotic leak partially obliterated the false lumen and computed tomography scan demonstrated thrombosis in a large proportion of the false lumen aneurysm. Follow-up with surveillance scans showed persistent filling of this aneurysm due to retrograde flow of blood within the false lumen. Coil embolization of the false lumen within the thoracic aorta was performed which successfully thrombosed the aneurysm with a reduction in diameter. Late aneurysm formation may complicate type A dissection repairs during follow-up due to a persistent false lumen, especially if there is an anastomotic leak. This case report describes a strategy to deal with this difficult clinical problem.

  3. Development of structural health monitoring systems for composite bonded repairs on aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Powlesland, Ian G.; Moss, Scott D.; Konak, Michael J.; van der Velden, Stephen P.; Stade, Bryan; Baker, Alan A.

    2001-08-01

    The application of bonded composite patches to repair or reinforce defective metallic structures is becoming recognized as a very effective versatile repair procedure for many types of problems. Immediate applications of bonded patches are in the fields of repair of cracking, localized reinforcement after removal of corrosion damage and for reduction of fatigue strain. However, bonded repairs to critical components are generally limited due to certification concerns. For certification and management of repairs to critical structure, the Smart Patch approach may be an acceptable solution from the airworthiness prospective and be cost effective for the operator and may even allow some relaxation of the certification requirements. In the most basic form of the Smart Patch in-situ sensors can be used as the nerve system to monitor in service the structural condition (health or well-being) of the patch system and the status of the remaining damage in the parent structure. This application would also allow the operator to move away from current costly time-based maintenance procedures toward real-time health condition monitoring of the bonded repair and the repaired structure. TO this end a stand-alone data logger device, for the real-time health monitoring of bonded repaired systems, which is in close proximity to sensors on a repair is being developed. The instrumentation will measure, process and store sensor measurements during flight and then allow this data to be up-loaded, after the flight, onto a PC, via remote (wireless) data access. This paper describes two in-situ health monitoring systems which will be used on a composite bonded patch applied to an F/A-18. The two systems being developed consists of a piezoelectric (PVDF) film-based and a conventional electrical-resistance foil strain gauge-based sensing system. The latter system uses a primary cell (Lithium- based battery) as the power source, which should enable an operating life of 1-2 years. The patch health data is up- loaded by the operator using an IR link. The piezoelectric film-based sensing system is self-powered and has been designed to operate using the electrical power generated by an array of piezoelectric films, which convert structural dynamic strain to electrical energy. These transducers power the electronics which interrogate the piezoelectric film sensors, and process and store the patch health data on non-volatile memory. In this system the patch health data is up-loaded by the operator using a magnetic transreceiver. This paper describes the development and evaluation of the two systems, including issues such as system design and patch health monitoring techniques.

  4. Transcellular Chloride Pathways in Ambystoma Proximal Tubule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Abdulnour-Nakhoul; E. L. Boulpaep

    1998-01-01

    .   The transport mechanisms of Ambystoma proximal tubule that mediate transcellular Cl? absorption linked to Na+ were investigated in isolated perfused tubules using Cl?-selective and voltage-recording microelectrodes. In control solutions intracellular activity of Cl? (a\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a i\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Cl\\u000a \\u000a ) is 11.3 ? 0.5 mm, the basolateral (V\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1\\u000a \\u000a ), apical (V\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2\\u000a \\u000a ), and transepithelial (V\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3\\u000a \\u000a ) potential differences are

  5. Optical proximity correction with hierarchical Bayes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2015-03-01

    Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) is one of the most important techniques in today's optical lithography based manufacturing process. Although the most widely used model-based OPC is expected to achieve highly accurate correction, it is also known to be extremely time-consuming. This paper proposes a regression model for OPC using a Hierarchical Bayes Model (HBM). The goal of the regression model is to reduce the number of iterations in model-based OPC. Our approach utilizes a Bayes inference technique to learn the optimal parameters from given data. All parameters are estimated by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Experimental results show that utilizing HBM can achieve a better solution than other conventional models, e.g., linear regression based model, or non-linear regression based model. In addition, our regression results can be fed as the starting point of conventional model based OPC, through which we are able to overcome the runtime bottleneck.

  6. Ecology: the proximate cause of frog declines?

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Ines; Simoncelli, Francesca; Fagotti, Anna; Pascolini, Rita

    2007-05-31

    Pounds et al. argue that global warming contributes to amphibian declines by encouraging outbreaks of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Although our findings agree with the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis, this pathogen is probably not the only proximate factor in such cases: in the Trasimeno Lake area of Umbria in central Italy, for example, the water frog Rana lessonae first declined in the late 1990s, yet chytridiomycosis was not observed until 2003 (refs 5, 6). Here we show that the chytrid was common there throughout 1999-2002, in a previously unknown form that did not cause disease. We therefore think that the focus by Pounds et al. on a single pathogen is hard to justify because the host-parasite ecology is at present so poorly understood. PMID:17538572

  7. Eating Event Detection by Magnetic Proximity Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengliu; Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    Eating event detection is an important problem in automatic dietary study using a wearable computer, such as the eButton. In this work, we approach this detection problem based on the use of a small magnet marker attached to a finger and a miniature magnetometer installed within the eButton. Our experimental results indicate that our magnetic approach is effective when the distance between the marker and the wearable computer is within 12cm, and the range of detection is approximately 15cm. We also found that the proximity signal patterns corresponding to eating and other daily activities are different, which can be used to reduce the false detection rate. In addition, our approach is convenient, low-cost and energy efficient, suitable for practical applications. PMID:25342877

  8. Isosmotic volume reabsorption in rat proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model incorporation both active and passive forces has been developed for fluid reabsorption from split oil droplets in rat intermediate and late proximal tubule. Of necessity, simplifying assumptions have been introduced; we have assumed that the epithelium can be treated as a single membrane and that the membrane "effective" HCO3 permeability is near zero. Based on this model with its underlying assumptions, the following conclusions are drawn. Regardless of the presence or absence of active NaCl transport, fluid reabsorption from the split oil droplet is isosmotic. The reabsorbate osmolarity can be affected by changes in tubular permeability parameters and applied forces but is not readily altered from an osmolarity essentially equal to that of plasma. In a split droplet, isosmotic flow need not be a special consequence of active Na transport, is not the result of a particular set of permeability properties, and is not merely a trivial consequence of a very high hydraulic conductivity; isosmotic flow can be obtained with hydraulic conductivity nearly an order of magnitude lower than that previously measured in the rat proximal convoluted tubule. Isosmotic reabsorption is, in part, the result of the interdependence of salt and water flows, their changing in parallel, and thus their ratio, the reabsorbate concentration being relatively invariant. Active NaCl transport can cause osmotic water flow by reducing the luminal fluid osmolarity. In the presence of passive forces the luminal fluid can be hypertonic to plasma, and active NaCl transport can still exert its osmotic effect on volume flow. There are two passive forces for volume flow: the Cl gradient and the difference in effective osmotic pressure; they have an approximately equivalent effect on volume flow. Experimentally, we have measured volume changes in a droplet made hyperosmotic by the addition of 50 mM NaCl; the experimental results are predicted reasonably well by our theoretical model. PMID:7441196

  9. Efficacy of Different Rotator Cuff Repair Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gurnani, Navin; van Deurzen, Derek Friedrich Petrus; Flipsen, Mark; Raven, Eric Ernest Joseph; van den Bekerom, Michel Pieter Jozef

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the currently used techniques for rotator cuff repair and after treatment. The literature was searched for the different surgical techniques and additional treatment including: [1] full arthroscopic and arthroscopic assisted rotator cuff repair, [2] acromioplasty as an additional treatment to rotator cuff repair, [3] the use of plasma rich platelets (PRP) after rotator cuff repair, [4] the single and double row fixation techniques, [5] long head of the biceps brachii tenotomy or tenodesis with rotator cuff repair, [6] scaffolds in rotator cuff surgery, and [7] early motion or immobilization after rotator cuff repair. The rationale, the results, and the scientific evidence were reported for the eligible procedures. PMID:26055023

  10. 46 CFR 282.22 - Maintenance (upkeep) and repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...repairs, machinery repairs, hull and deck repairs, electrical repairs, exterior...and combined into a standard set of specifications based on a particular type of vessel... 33,004 36,193 Hull and Deck Repairs 16,729 20,853...

  11. 46 CFR 252.32 - Maintenance (upkeep) and repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...repairs, machinery repairs, hull and deck repairs, electrical repairs...and combined into a standard set of specifications based on a particular type of vessel... 22,505 108,165 Hull and Deck Repairs 33,500 99,370...

  12. Repair and maintenance: answering the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    Innovative equipment and repair techniques should increase power-plant availability and reliability during the 1980s. Among the new repair procedures to reduce downtime are on-site machining made possible by smaller and lighter tools and essential for immovable reactor feedwater nozzles; ultrasonic and computer techniques for diagnosing and repairing rotor overbore; flame spray coating for areas subject to abrasion, erosion, and fretting; plasma sprayed coatings; and flame spraying boiler tubes. (DCK)

  13. Repairing sealing surfaces on aluminum castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Approach using stylus nickel plating instead of copper and cadmium plating has simplified repair procedure. Damaged sealing surfaces are stylus nickelplated in one step. Superficial scratches and porous areas are removed more easily from repaired surface by simply lapping sealing areas to required finish. Although method is aimed for aerospace components, it may be easily incorporated into conventional aluminumcasting technology. One-step repair can be considered for cast-aluminum automobile and aircraft engines to reduce time and costs.

  14. Osteochondral fragmentation of the plantar/palmar proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx in racing horses.

    PubMed

    Whitton, R C; Kannegieter, N J

    1994-10-01

    The clinical presentation and outcome of treatment is presented for 26 cases of osteochondral fragmentation of the plantar/palmar proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx. Twenty-three were racing Standardbreds and three were racing Thoroughbreds. The most common reason for presentation was an inability to run straight at high speed. Only eight horses presented for lameness, although on examination 19 were lame. A positive flexion test was recorded in 90% of affected fetlock joints and effusion in 48%. Arthroscopic fragment removal was performed on 23 occasions in 21 horses and arthrotomy in one horse. Of the 16 horses that had returned to racing, 12 had improved their performance, while three showed no improvement, and one was retired for other reasons. In three horses refragmentation occurred after surgery, two of which had improved after initial arthroscopic removal. Degenerative changes within the fetlock joint were detected at surgery in eight horses. Of the four horses treated conservatively, one returned to its previous level of performance temporarily after intra-articular medication, one showed no improvement and two were still resting. Plantar/palmar osteochondral fragmentation of the proximal aspect of the first phalanx is a common cause of low-grade lameness in racing horses, and arthroscopic removal results in improvement in race performance in a high percentage of cases. PMID:7848178

  15. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarabelle T. Pham; Caryn L. Perera; D. Scott Watkin; Guy J. Maddern

    2009-01-01

    Background  Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair may be an alternative to open mesh repair as it avoids a large abdominal incision, and\\u000a thus potentially reduces pain and hospital stay. This review aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic ventral\\u000a hernia repair in comparison with open ventral hernia repair.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A systematic review was conducted, with comprehensive searches identifying six randomised controlled

  16. Proximity Algorithms for Image Models: Denoising Charles A. Micchelli

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    . This key strength is fully exploited in developing wavelet-based image denoising algorithms [5, 12, 20, 26Proximity Algorithms for Image Models: Denoising Charles A. Micchelli Lixin Shen Yuesheng Xu denoising. In this model, the denoised image is the proximity operator of the total variation evaluated

  17. Ontogeny of water transport in the rabbit proximal tubule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond Quigley; Jaap Mulder; Michel Baum

    2003-01-01

    Water transport across cell membranes is a fundamental biological problem. In the kidney, many nephron segments have mechanisms for transporting large quantities of water with minimal energy input. The proximal tubule reabsorbs two-thirds of the glomerular filtrate with a small transepithelial osmotic gradient as the driving force. In the adult proximal tubule, this is accomplished by the expression of aquaporin

  18. Palliation of proximal malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A A Polydorou; S R Cairns; J F Dowsett; A R Hatfield; P R Salmon; P B Cotton; R C Russell

    1991-01-01

    For four years up to December 1987, 190 patients (median age 73 years) with proximal malignant biliary obstruction were treated by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. Altogether 101 had cholangiocarcinoma, 21 gall bladder carcinoma, 20 local spread of pancreatic carcinoma, and 48 metastatic malignancy. Fifty eight patients had type I, 54 type II, and 78 type III proximal biliary strictures (Bismuth classification).

  19. Fingerprinting temporal networks of close-range human proximity

    E-print Network

    Barrat, Alain

    .barrat@cpt.univ-mrs.fr Abstract--Mobile devices and wearable sensors are making available records of human mobility and proximity specific aspects of human behavior, such as geographic mobility [1]­ [7], phone communications [8], email exchange or instant messaging [9]­[14], and even human mobility and proximity in indoor environments [15

  20. The Proximity Toolkit: Prototyping Proxemic Interactions in Ubiquitous Computing Ecologies

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    is that developers find it challenging and tedious to ac- cess proxemic information from sensors. Our Proximity digital devices of varying size, e.g., personal mobile phones, tablet and desktop computers, informationThe Proximity Toolkit: Prototyping Proxemic Interactions in Ubiquitous Computing Ecologies ABSTRACT

  1. Behaviour Detection Using Bluetooth Proximity Muhammad Awais Azam 1, 2

    E-print Network

    Tokarchuk, Laurissa

    as an efficient short range sensor. In this paper we use Bluetooth proximity data to detect the repeated patterns Identification (RFID), motion sensors and tracking devices are being used to get the real time proximity and daily life data. In particular, devices like mobile phones provide a rich platform for diverse data

  2. Proximity and territory versus space in regional science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Crevoisier

    1996-01-01

    Empirical evidence tends to show that regional development occurs only in certain places. Therefore, one can ask the central question of the role of physical proximity in economic development processes. Economists try to answer this question through the concept of externalities, but this does not explain why certain externalities are linked with physical proximity. In this paper the author tries

  3. Voltage collapse proximity index determination using voltage phasors approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gubina; B. Strmcnik

    1995-01-01

    In the paper, a “phasor concept” of voltage collapse proximity determination is presented. An adequate voltage proximity index is calculated based on the voltage phasor values only. Furthermore, an algorithm is derived which automatically detects the network transmission paths to the load nodes which are prone to voltage collapse due to additional real or reactive loading. The algorithm is tested

  4. A Proximal-Gradient Homotopy Method for the Sparse Least ...

    E-print Network

    2012-10-22

    e.g., O(nlog n) if A is a partial Fourier matrix. Proximal gradient .... problems, the total number of proximal gradient steps in our method can be much smaller than ...... By further splitting x ? ¯x1 on the left-hand side as (x ? ¯x)¯S 1 + (x ? ¯x)¯Sc.

  5. Proximity effect correction optimization considering fogging and loading effects compensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Hune Yang; Yo-Han Choi; Jong R. Park; Yong-Hoon Kim; Seong-Woon Choi; Jung-Min Sohn

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the interest in enhancement of critical dimension (CD) accuracy has been significantly increased to satisfy requirements of sub 100nm devices. Proximity effect correction becomes an indispensable choice to improve CD accuracy within local area, and fogging and loading effects compensation has been tried to enhance global CD uniformity. However, proximity effect correction (PEC) parameters obtained without considering additional exposure

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF VISION SKIN: A PROXIMITY AND IMAGING SENSOR

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    . Further work in the sensor requires integration of the laser, and faster acquisition hardware and softwareDEVELOPMENT OF VISION SKIN: A PROXIMITY AND IMAGING SENSOR by Darren Edward Bergen B.A.Sc., Simon of Applied Science in Engineering Science Skin TITLE: A Proximity And Imaging Sensor Examining Committee

  7. Comparative biomechanical analysis of a new circumferential flexor tendon repair and a modified Kessler repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Ion; P. J. Sykes; O. C. S. Cassell; D. M. O'Doherty; A. M. Roberts

    1997-01-01

    We present the technical details and the results of a biomechanical analysis of a new type of circumferential flexor tendon repair, designed with the more stringent requirements of zone II injuries in mind. Apart from good initial strength we aimed for a design with little bulk at the repair site and good control of the tendon edges.The new repair is

  8. Two-Echelon Repairable Item Inventory System with Limited Repair Capacity under Nonstationary Demands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoong Chuin Lau; Huawei Song

    2004-01-01

    We study a repairable item inventory system under limited repair capacity and nonstationary Poisson demands, motivated by corrective maintenance of military equipment. Our goal is to minimize the cost of both spare and repair resource allocation. We propose an efficient analytical model that combines optimization modeling and queuing theory.

  9. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: Eligibility rate and impact on the rate of open repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehuda G. Wolf; Thomas J. Fogarty; Cornelius Olcott; Bradley B. Hill; E. John Harris; R. Scott Mitchell; D. Craig Miller; Ronald L. Dalman; Christopher K. Zarins

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of eligibility among patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) considered for endovascular repair and to examine the effect of an endovascular program on the institutional pattern of AAA repair. Methods: All patients evaluated for endovascular AAA repair since the inception of an endovascular program were reviewed for determination of

  10. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: Eligibility rate and impact on the rate of open repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehuda G. Wolf; Thomas J. Fogarty; Cornelius Olcott IV; Bradley B. Hill; E. John Harris; R. Scott Mitchell; D. Craig Miller; Ronald L. Dalman; Christopher K. Zarins; Calif Stanford

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of eligibility among patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) considered for endovascular repair and to examine the effect of an endovascular program on the institutional pattern of AAA repair. Methods: All patients evaluated for endovascular AAA repair since the inception of an endovascular program were reviewed for determination of

  11. Initiating Repair and Beyond: The Use of Two Repeat-Formatted Repair Initiations in Mandarin Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ruey-Jiuan Regina

    2006-01-01

    As part of a growing effort to understand the organization of repair across languages, this study examines 2 repeat-formatted other-initiated repair practices in Mandarin conversation. Using the methodology of conversation analysis as a central framework, this study shows that the 2 Mandarin repair initiations under examination, like…

  12. Extensive Operation as One of the Solution for Patients with the Insufficient Proximal Landing Zone for TEVAR in Aortic Dissection – short term results

    PubMed Central

    Kacila, Mirsad; Vranic, Haris; Straus, Slavenka

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In our study we wanted to showed the safety, feasibility, efficacy and way how to solve the problems of endovascular repair for aortic dissection with insufficient proximal Landing Zone. Methods: The clinical data of all the patients with insufficient proximal Landing Zone (PLZ) for endovascular repair for aortic aneurism and dissection Stanford type B for the period from October 2013 to June 2014 was prospectively reviewed. According to the classification proposed by Mitchell et al, aortic Zone 0 was involved in 3 cases, Zone 1 in 1 case, Zone 2 in 9 cases and Zone 3 in 6 cases (19 patients in total). A hybrid surgical procedure of supraortic debranching and revascularization, with direct anastomosed truncus brachiocephalicus and left common carotid artery, were performed to obtain an adequate aortic PLZ. Revascularization of the left subclavian artery was carried out on the patient with dissection Stanford type B and short PLZ 2. Results: There was no significant difference of risk factors between Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2 (Table 1.), but the length of the PLZ significantly differed between groups (p<0.01) and there is no significant difference in technical and clinical success rate among the groups. Conclusion: The procedure of extending insufficient PLZ for endovascular repair for aortic arch pathology is feasible and relatively safe. The TEVAR applicability in such aortic disorders could be extended. PMID:25684839

  13. Long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kompaniiets, M.; Porrati, F.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dobrovolskiy, O. V., E-mail: Dobrovolskiy@Physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Physics, V. Karazin National University, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Neetzel, C.; Brötz, J.; Ensinger, W. [Department of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-02-03

    We report experimental evidence of a long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co nanowires in contact with a superconducting W-based floating electrode (inducer). For electrical resistance measurements, voltage leads were connected to the Co nanowire on both sides of the superconducting inducer at a distance of 7.2 ?m. We observed a 28% reduction of the nanowire resistance when sweeping the temperature below the inducer's transition temperature T{sub c} = 5.2 K. Our analysis of the resistance data shows that the superconducting proximity length in polycrystalline Co is as large as 1 ?m at 2.4 K, attesting to a long-range proximity effect. Moreover, this long-range proximity effect is insusceptible to magnetic fields up to 11 T, which is indicative of spin-triplet pairing. Our results provide evidence that magnetic inhomogeneity of the ferromagnet enlarges the spatial extend of the spin-triplet superconducting proximity effect.

  14. Long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompaniiets, M.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Neetzel, C.; Porrati, F.; Brötz, J.; Ensinger, W.; Huth, M.

    2014-02-01

    We report experimental evidence of a long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co nanowires in contact with a superconducting W-based floating electrode (inducer). For electrical resistance measurements, voltage leads were connected to the Co nanowire on both sides of the superconducting inducer at a distance of 7.2 ?m. We observed a 28% reduction of the nanowire resistance when sweeping the temperature below the inducer's transition temperature Tc = 5.2 K. Our analysis of the resistance data shows that the superconducting proximity length in polycrystalline Co is as large as 1 ?m at 2.4 K, attesting to a long-range proximity effect. Moreover, this long-range proximity effect is insusceptible to magnetic fields up to 11 T, which is indicative of spin-triplet pairing. Our results provide evidence that magnetic inhomogeneity of the ferromagnet enlarges the spatial extend of the spin-triplet superconducting proximity effect.

  15. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  16. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  17. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  18. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  19. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  20. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  2. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  3. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  4. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  5. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  6. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  7. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  8. Automotive Repair by Number Theory Bart Snapp and Chris Snapp

    E-print Network

    Snapp, Bart

    Automotive Repair by Number Theory Bart Snapp and Chris Snapp While repairing the ignition switch on a 1981 Fiat Spider, we discovered the following connection between number theory and automotive repair

  9. 46 CFR 282.22 - Maintenance (upkeep) and repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...and deck repairs, electrical repairs, exterior painting and interior painting, etc. The jobs shall be described fully...Electrical Repairs 11,868 11,117 Exterior Painting 5,456 7,974 Interior Painting 681...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used...

  11. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  12. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  13. 30 CFR 75.510 - Energized trolley wires; repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Energized trolley wires; repair. 75.510 Section...Equipment-General § 75.510 Energized trolley wires; repair. [Statutory Provisions] Energized trolley wires may be repaired only by a...

  14. 30 CFR 75.510 - Energized trolley wires; repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energized trolley wires; repair. 75.510 Section...Equipment-General § 75.510 Energized trolley wires; repair. [Statutory Provisions] Energized trolley wires may be repaired only by a...

  15. 40 CFR 51.369 - Improving repair effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...retest. Performance monitoring shall include statistics on the number of vehicles submitted for a retest after repair by the repair...close-loop vehicles; (2) The application of emission control theory and diagnostic data to the diagnosis and repair of...

  16. Proximal metatarsal osteotomy in hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Cedell, C A; Aström, M

    1982-12-01

    In order to obtain an optimal correction of hallux valgus and to prevent its recurrence, the authors have applied a surgical technique which combines a proximal valgus osteotomy of the first metatarsal bone with an excision of the pseudoexostosis and a distal soft tissue plasty at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The procedure is based on an etiological theory regarding metatarsus primus varus as the primary cause of the deformity, which is in accordance with the opinion of many other authors. The osteotomy corrects the malposition of the first metatarsal bone thereby reducing the deformity and preventing its recurrence. The soft tissue plasty alleviates secondary contractures that prevent a full correction of the big toe. A series of 43 consecutive patients (46 feet) with a follow-up period of 5-44 months and extracted from a total number of 99 operated cases is presented. The result was excellent in 78 per cent, good in 11 per cent and poor in 11 per cent. The reason for a less than excellent result was almost always inadequate correction of the deformity, at the level of the first metatarsal bone, or the big toe, or both. PMID:7180392

  17. Optical Detection of the Superconducting Proximity Effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchin, I. V.; Abeyta, A. C.; Kuchler, G.; Greene, L. H.; Dorsten, J. F.; Tanzer, T. A.; Bohn, P. W.

    1996-03-01

    We present the first observation of the superconducting proximity effect by an optical method. Raman analysis was done on highly n-doped (1.2×10^19cm-3) InAs through a thin high-quality, superconducting Nb film, grown by DC-magnetron sputtering directly on in-situ low-voltage ion-etched InAs substrates, thus providing a clean, minimally damaged interface. The resistively determined T_c's are 2.5K and 5.5K for 60Å and 100Å thick films respectively. The low-frequency (L_-) coupled plasmon-phonon mode, associated with the bulk InAs, appeares as a broad asymmetric peak at 221cm-1. The LO phonon mode, at 237cm-1, forbidden in the bulk, is associated with the 35Åthick surface charge accumulation region of InAs. The magnitude of the LO mode increases by more than 40% as the temperature is reduced from 10K to 1.8K, as Tc is crossed. The L- mode is not affected, and no frequency shift in either mode is observed within the resolution of the experiment. Supported by ^*DoE through MRL (DEFG02-91ER45439), ^NSF through MRL (NSF-DMR-89-20538), and ^ONR (N00014-93-1-1168).

  18. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  19. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    An interactive, graphical proximity operations planning system was developed which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in the dynamic multispacecraft environment about the space station. Maneuvering takes place in, as well as out of, the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of relative orbital motion trajectories and complex operational constraints, which are both time varying and highly dependent on the mission scenario. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relative constraints in an easily interpretable, graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of the space station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the station's orbital plane. The operator has control over two modes of operation: (1) a viewing system mode, which enables him or her to explore the spatial situation about the space station and thus choose and frame in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way-points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory which complies with all operational constraints. Through a graphical interactive process, the operator will continue to modify the trajectory design until all operational constraints are met. The effectiveness of this display format in complex trajectory design is presently being evaluated in an ongoing experimental program.

  20. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  1. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    An interactive graphical proximity operations planning system was developed, which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in a dynamic multispacecraft environment. Maneuvering takes place in and out of the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of orbital dynamics and complex time-varying operational constraints. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relevant constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of a Space Station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the Station's orbital plane. The operator has control over the two modes of operation: a viewing system mode, which enables the exporation of the spatial situation about the Space Station and thus the ability to choose and zoom in on areas of interest; and a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory that complies with all operational constraints. A first version of this display was completed. An experimental program is planned in which operators will carry out a series of design missions which vary in complexity and constraints.

  2. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2008-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  3. Dynamics of DNA Mismatch Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Julie; Lin, Yuyen; Rasnik, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    DNA mismatch repair protects the genome from spontaneous mutations by recognizing errors, excising damage, and re-synthesizing DNA in a pathway that is highly conserved. Mismatch recognition is accomplished by the MutS family of proteins which are weak ATPases that bind specifically to damaged DNA, but the specific molecular mechanisms by which these proteins recognize damage and initiate excision are not known. Previous structural investigations have implied that protein-induced conformational changes are central to mismatch recognition. Because damage detection is a highly dynamic process in which conformational changes of the protein-DNA complexes occur on a time scale of a few seconds, it is difficult to obtain meaningful kinetic information with traditional ensemble techniques. In this work, we use single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study the conformational dynamics of fluorescently labeled DNA substrates in the presence of the mismatch repair protein MutS from E. coli and its human homolog MSH2/MSH6. Our studies allow us to obtain quantitative kinetic information about the rates of binding and dissociation and to determine the conformational states for each protein-DNA complex.

  4. Endoluminal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Maaz; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an attractive alternative to open surgical repair. Distal endograft migration and type 1 endoleak are recognized to be the 2 main complications of EVAR. First-generation endografts had a stronger propensity for distal migration, modular component separation, thrombosis, and loss of structural integrity. Substantial progress has been made in recent years with 2nd- and 3rd-generation devices to prevent these complications. Some of the most common predictors of endograft failure are angulated and short infrarenal necks, large-diameter necks, and thrombus in the aneurysmal sac. The purpose of this study is to describe and review our experience in using innovative techniques and a newer generation of endografts to prevent distal migration and type 1 endoleak in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy. The use of these innovative EVAR techniques and the new generation of endografts in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy has yielded encouraging procedural and intermediate-term results. PMID:20200623

  5. Repair of overheating linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, Walter; Baldwin, William; Bennett, Gloria; Bitteker, Leo; Borden, Michael; Casados, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Gorman, Fred; Johnson, Kenneth; Kurennoy, Sergey; Martinez, Alberto; O’Hara, James; Perez, Edward; Roller, Brandon; Rybarcyk, Lawrence; Stark, Peter; Stockton, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a proton accelerator that produces high energy particle beams for experiments. These beams include neutrons and protons for diverse uses including radiography, isotope production, small feature study, lattice vibrations and material science. The Drift Tube Linear Accelerator (DTL) is the first portion of a half mile long linear section of accelerator that raises the beam energy from 750 keV to 100 MeV. In its 31st year of operation (2003), the DTL experienced serious issues. The first problem was the inability to maintain resonant frequency at full power. The second problem was increased occurrences of over-temperature failure of cooling hoses. These shortcomings led to an investigation during the 2003 yearly preventative maintenance shutdown that showed evidence of excessive heating: discolored interior tank walls and coper oxide deposition in the cooling circuits. Since overheating was suspected to be caused by compromised heat transfer, improving that was the focus of the repair effort. Investigations revealed copper oxide flow inhibition and iron oxide scale build up. Acid cleaning was implemented with careful attention to protection of the base metal, selection of components to clean and minimization of exposure times. The effort has been very successful in bringing the accelerator through a complete eight month run cycle allowing an incredible array of scientific experiments to be completed this year (2003-2004). This paper will describe the systems, investigation analysis, repair, return to production and conclusion.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...monitoring. The leak identification on a connector in gas/vapor or light liquid service... (3) Delay of repair for valves, connectors, and agitators is also allowed if the...shutdown. (d) Unsafe-to-repair connectors. Any connector that is...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...monitoring. The leak identification on a connector in gas/vapor or light liquid service... (3) Delay of repair for valves, connectors, and agitators is also allowed if the...shutdown. (d) Unsafe-to-repair connectors. Any connector that is...

  8. Outsourcing Warranty Repairs: Dynamic Allocation Michelle Opp

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, Vidyadhar G.

    Outsourcing Warranty Repairs: Dynamic Allocation Michelle Opp Kevin Glazebrook Vidyadhar G In this paper we consider the problem of minimizing the costs of outsourcing warranty repairs when failed items study. Key words: Optimal allocation, Warranty outsourcing, Index policies, Dynamic routing, Restless

  9. Repair of natural EUV reticle defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, R.; Bret, T.; Van den Heuvel, D.; Magana, J.; Gao, W.; Waiblinger, M.

    2011-11-01

    Defects of the multi-layer (ML) mirror on a EUV reticle, so-called ML-defects, are a prime aspect why EUV mask defectivity is considered a challenge before EUV lithography can be used for the production of future node integrated circuits. The present paper addresses the possibility to mitigate the printability of these defects by repair. Repair of natural EUV mask defects is performed using the electron beam based Carl Zeiss MeRiT® repair technology and is evaluated by wafer printing on the ASML EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) installed at IMEC. Both absorber defects and ML-defects are included. The success of absorber defect repair (both opaque and clear type) is illustrated. For compensation repair of ML-defects experimental proof of the technique is reported, with very encouraging results both for natural pits and bumps. In addition, simulation is used to investigate the limitations of such compensation repair, inspired by the residual printability found experimentally. As an example it was identified that alignment of the compensation repair shape with the ML-defect position requires sub-20nm accuracy. The integration of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) into the repair tool has been an important asset to cope with this.

  10. Chemical Fume Hood Maintenance, Repair and Certification

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Chemical Fume Hood Maintenance, Repair and Certification Procedure: 6.03 Created: 6/20/2013 Version of chemical fume hoods (CFH) at Columbia University. This includes performance testing, reporting and users on status of hood repair. 3. CFH Users/Lab Staff a. For details see Chemical Fume Hoods Use

  11. Adult stem cells and tissue repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Körbling; Z Estrov; R Champlin

    2003-01-01

    Recently, adult stem cells originating from bone marrow or peripheral blood have been suggested to contribute to repair and genesis of cells specific for liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, gut, and brain tissue. The mechanism involved has been termed transdifferentiation, although other explanations including cell fusion have been postulated. Using adult stem cells to generate or repair solid organ tissue

  12. Modulation of Wnt Signaling Influences Fracture Repair

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, David E.; Mary, Michelle N.; Schroeder, Robert Jason; Robling, Alex G.; Turner, Charles H.; Warden, Stuart J.

    2011-01-01

    While the importance of Wnt signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis is well documented, little is known regarding its function in fracture repair. We hypothesized that activation and inactivation of Wnt signaling would enhance and impair fracture repair, respectively. Femoral fractures were generated in Lrp5 knockout mice (Lrp5?/?) and wild-type littermates (Lrp5+/+), as well as C57BL/6 mice. Lrp5?/? and Lrp5+/+mice were untreated, while C57BL/6 mice were treated 2×/week with vehicle or anti-Dkk1 antibodies (Dkk1 Ab) initiated immediately postoperatively (Day 0) or 4 days postoperatively (Day 4). Fractures were radiographed weekly until sacrifice at day 28, followed by DXA, pQCT, and biomechanical analyses. Lrp5?/? mice showed impaired repair compared to Lrp5+/+ mice, as evidenced by reduced callus area, BMC, BMD, and biomechanical properties. The effects of Dkk1 Ab treatment depended on the timing of initiation. Day 0 initiation enhanced repair, with significant gains seen for callus area, BMC, BMD, and biomechanical properties, whereas Day 4 initiation had no effect. These results validated our hypothesis that Wnt signaling influences fracture repair, with prompt activation enhancing repair and inactivation impairing it. Furthermore, these data suggest that activation of Wnt signaling during fracture repair may have clinical utility in facilitating fracture repair. PMID:20063381

  13. Repairing high-temperature glazed tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecord, G. M.; Schomburg, C.

    1981-01-01

    Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) mixture fills chips and cracks in glazed tile surface. Filler is made by mixing hydrolyzed TEOS, silicon tetraboride powder, and pulverized tile material. Repaired tiles survived testing by intense acoustic emissions, arc jets, and intense heat radiation. Repair is reliable and rapid, performed in 1-1 1/2 hours with tile in any or orientation.

  14. [Wound repair in plant tissues (Review)].

    PubMed

    Vasiukova, N I; Chalenko, G I; Gerasimova, N G; Ozeretskovskaia, O L

    2011-01-01

    Signaling systems responsible for repair processes in plants and manifestation of defensive effects in plant tissues were analyzed. Special attention was given to jasmonic acid, a mobile systemic repair signal, as well as to jasmonate biosynthesis and signal transport to the areas where protective responses of plants are induced. The main defense responses of potato tubers induced by wounding were considered. PMID:21790022

  15. Robot Service and Repair. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburg State Univ., KS. Kansas Vocational Curriculum Dissemination Center.

    This document is a teacher's guide for teaching a course on robot service and repair. The guide is organized in four units covering the following topics: introduction to robots, power supply, robot control systems, and service and repair. Each unit contains several lesson plans on the unit topic. Lesson plans consist of objectives, tools and…

  16. Robot Service and Repair. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburg State Univ., KS. Kansas Vocational Curriculum Dissemination Center.

    This document is a student guide for a course on robot service and repair. It is organized in four units covering the following topics: introduction to robots, power supply, robot control systems, and service and repair. Each unit contains several lesson plans on the unit topic. Lesson plans consist of lesson objectives, lists of teaching aids and…

  17. Repair Negotiation by English L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yujeong

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that L2 learners often face communication problems due to lack of competency in the target language and familiarity with its culture of origin. One way to resolve miscommunication problems is to seek clarification of the utterance; this process is called "repair negotiation" (Nakahama et al. 2001). Repair

  18. Phase clocks for transient fault repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Herman

    2000-01-01

    Phase clocks are synchronization tools that implement a form of logical time in distributed systems. For systems tolerating transient faults by self-repair of damaged data, phase clocks can enable reasoning about the progress of distributed repair procedures. This paper presents a phase clock algorithm suited to the model of transient memory faults in asynchronous systems with read\\/write registers. The algorithm

  19. Mechanisms of wound repair in crayfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X Vafopoulou

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the complexity of events involved with repair to integumentary wounds and their regulation using the crayfish as a model system. Injuries to integument precipitate a cascade of cellular events that lead to rapid healing of the wound, regeneration of damaged tissues and repair of the integument. The first step in this cascade is hemolymph clotting and subsequent

  20. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

  4. 49 CFR 180.513 - Repairs, alterations, conversions, and modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Repairs, alterations, conversions...MATERIALS REGULATIONS CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.513 Repairs, alterations,...

  5. Use of a free bladder mucosal graft for simple repair of vesicovaginal fistulae.

    PubMed

    Ostad, M; Uzzo, R G; Coleman, J; Young, G P

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a simple, fast, and effective method for repair of difficult vesicovaginal fistulae by means of a free bladder mucosal graft. Six patients with high, large, multiple, or recurrent vesicovaginal fistulae were treated using a free bladder mucosal graft. Three patients underwent "early" repair (less than 3 months from time of injury) and 3 "late" repair (more than 6 months from time of injury). Via a suprapubic cystotomy, the mucosa of the fistulous tract was debrided without any attempt to excise the tract or close the bladder or vaginal defects. A free bladder mucosal graft was harvested from an unaffected portion of the bladder and placed over the fistulous tract, and mucosal approximation was made using interrupted 5-0 chromic stay sutures. The donor urothelial defect was allowed to re-epithelialize. A Foley catheter, suprapubic tube, and vaginal packing were left in place. Five patients noted an immediate result, with no evidence of leakage, and the suprapubic tube was removed by week 3. One patient required prolonged catheter drainage, and the tube was successfully removed by week 6. This patient had undergone irradiation. All patients remain dry at follow-up, which ranges from 2 to 6 years. We describe a simple and effective method for transabdominal vesicovaginal fistula repair, involving minimal mobilization, decreased dissection, and no need for rotational or interposition flaps, obviating the need to open the peritoneum. A free bladder mucosal graft can be used regardless of the individual anatomy or proximity to the ureteral orifices, because it can easily be tailored. This technique represents an important repair of difficult, recurrent, or multiple vesicovaginal fistulae. PMID:9671883

  6. Selection of proximal fusion level for degenerative scoliosis and the entailing proximal-related late complications

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Wang, Kaifeng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huimin; Jin, Zhaohui; Zhu, Zhenqi; Liu, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the optimal selection of proximal fusion level for degenerative scoliosis (DS) and investigate the long-term proximal-related complications. Methods: Profiles of 95 consecutive patients with DS who underwent posterior long instrumented fusion were analyzed retrospectively. Perioperative parameters were reviewed stratified into 3 groups according to the relationship between the upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV), horizontal vertebrae (HV) and upper end vertebrae (UEV), namely HV Group (UIV = HV or above), HV-UEV Group (UIV = between HV and UEV) and UEV Group (UIV = UEV or below) in coronal plane and 3 groups in sagittal plane according to segment levels. Clinical and radiographic parameters were studied statistically. Results: Average follow-up was 7.8 years (range, 5-13 years). HV Group showed a significant increase in operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative in-bed time, and hospital stays. UEV Group showed greater average Cobb angle, AVT and DW. UEV Group showed significant increase in operative time, blood loss, postoperative in-bed time, and inpatient stay. All three groups showed significant improvement in ODI compared to baseline, while there was no significant difference in LL between three groups. Proximal-related late complications included recurrent junctional scoliosis in 4 cases and junctional kyphosis in 4 cases. Conclusions: Recurrent junctional scoliosis developed more commonly when the fusion was at or below the UEV, and fusion at L1 or L2 showed the highest incidence of junctional kyphosis. Long instrumented fusion to T11 or T12 appeared to be a reasonable alternative when the UIV was above UEV in DS.

  7. Effect of acrylamide on hepatocellular DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.; McQueen, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Acrylamide has recently been reported to induce tumors in laboratory animals. The effect of acrylamide on unscheduled DNA synthesis using the hepatocyte primary culture (HPC)/DNA repair test was examined. Isolated hepatocytes were exposed to acrylamide and (3H)thymidine ( (3H)TdR) for 18 hr. Incorporation of (3H)TdR into DNA was determined by autoradiography. No DNA repair was observed at acrylamide concentrations up to 10(-2) M. These findings were confirmed using density gradients. Acrylamide concentrations exceeding 10(-2) M were cytotoxic to hepatocytes. Because both autoradiography and density gradients measure DNA repair as an endpoint, the ability of acrylamide to inhibit these repair processes was also determined. Acrylamide had no effect on the repair of UV-damaged DNA. These results show that acrylamide is not genotoxic in isolated hepatocytes.

  8. DNA triplet repeat expansion and mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ravi R; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutS? and the MutL? (and/or possibly MutL?) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  9. Ontogeny of NHE8 in the rat proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Becker, Amy M; Zhang, Jianning; Goyal, Sunita; Dwarakanath, Vangipuram; Aronson, Peter S; Moe, Orson W; Baum, Michel

    2007-07-01

    Proximal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption is primarily mediated via the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, identified as NHE3 in adults. Previous studies have demonstrated a maturational increase in rat proximal tubule NHE3 expression, with a paucity of NHE3 expression in neonates, despite significant Na(+)-dependent proton secretion. Recently, a novel Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (NHE8) was identified and found to be expressed on the apical membrane of the proximal tubule. To determine whether NHE8 may be the antiporter responsible for proton secretion in neonates, the present study characterized the developmental expression of NHE8 in rat proximal tubules. RNA blots and real-time RT-PCR demonstrated no developmental difference in the mRNA of renal NHE8. Immunoblots, however, demonstrated peak protein abundance of NHE8 in brush border membrane vesicles of 7- and 14-day-old compared with adult rats. In contrast, the level of NHE8 expression in total cortical membrane protein was higher in adults than in neonates. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of NHE8 on the apical membrane of the proximal tubules of neonatal and adult rats. These data demonstrate that NHE8 does undergo maturational changes on the apical membrane of the rat proximal tubule and may account for the Na(+)-dependent proton flux in neonatal proximal tubules. PMID:17429030

  10. Giant proximity effect and critical opalescence in EuS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Timothy; Ramos, Silvia; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    2015-03-01

    The proximity effect is a type of wetting phenomenon where an ordered state, usually magnetism or superconductivity, ``leaks'' from one material into an adjacent one over some finite distance. For superconductors, the characteristic range is of the order of the coherence length, usually hundreds of nm. Nevertheless much longer, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate perovskite junctions. Such giant proximity effects can be understood by taking into account the divergence of the pairing susceptibility in the non-superconducting material when it is itself close to a superconducting instability: a superconducting version of critical opalescence. Since critical opalescence occurs in all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects are expected to be general, therefor there must be a giant ferromagnetic proximity effect. Compared to its superconducting counterpart, the giant ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that the order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We have fabricated Co/EuS thin films and measured the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature using the complementary techniques of low energy muon relaxation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Details of the proximity effect near TCEuS will be presented.

  11. Three-dimensional echocardiographic planimetry of maximal regurgitant orifice area in myxomatous mitral regurgitation: intraoperative comparison with proximal flow convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breburda, C. S.; Griffin, B. P.; Pu, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to validate direct planimetry of mitral regurgitant orifice area from three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstructions. BACKGROUND: Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) is an important measure of the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) that up to now has been calculated from hemodynamic data rather than measured directly. We hypothesized that improved spatial resolution of the mitral valve (MV) with three-dimensional (3D) echo might allow accurate planimetry of ROA. METHODS: We reconstructed the MV using 3D echo with 3 degrees rotational acquisitions (TomTec) using a transesophageal (TEE) multiplane probe in 15 patients undergoing MV repair (age 59 +/- 11 years). One observer reconstructed the prolapsing mitral leaflet in a left atrial plane parallel to the ROA and planimetered the two-dimensional (2D) projection of the maximal ROA. A second observer, blinded to the results of the first, calculated maximal ROA using the proximal convergence method defined as maximal flow rate (2pi(r2)va, where r is the radius of a color alias contour with velocity va) divided by regurgitant peak velocity (obtained by continuous wave [CW] Doppler) and corrected as necessary for proximal flow constraint. RESULTS: Maximal ROA was 0.79 +/- 0.39 (mean +/- SD) cm2 by 3D and 0.86 +/- 0.42 cm2 by proximal convergence (p = NS). Maximal ROA by 3D echo (y) was highly correlated with the corresponding flow measurement (x) (y = 0.87x + 0.03, r = 0.95, p < 0.001) with close agreement seen (AROA (y - x) = 0.07 +/- 0.12 cm2). CONCLUSIONS: 3D echo imaging of the MV allows direct visualization and planimetry of the ROA in patients with severe MR with good agreement to flow-based proximal convergence measurements.

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-09-01

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

  13. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  14. Transport Magnetic Proximity Effects in Platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ssu-Yen

    2013-03-01

    Platinum (Pt) metal, being non-magnetic and having a strong spin-orbit coupling interaction, has been central in detecting pure spin current and establishing most of the recent spin-based phenomena. Thus, it is important to ascertain the transport and magnetic characteristics of thin Pt films in contact with a ferromagnet. In this work, we use both electric and thermal means to conclusively show the transport magnetic proximity effects (MPE) of thin Pt film in contact with ferromagnetic insulator YIG. At thicknesses comparable to, and less than, the spin diffusion length, the strong ferromagnetic characteristics in Pt films on YIG are indistinguishable from those of ferromagnetic permalloy on YIG. The MPE occurs at the interface and decreases exponentially away from the interface, concentrating in only a few monolayers. As a result, the pure spin current detected by a thin Pt is tainted with a spin polarized current. The pure spin current phenomena, such as the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Seebeck effect, have been contaminated with the anomalous Hall effect and the anomalous Nernst effect respectively. These results raise serious questions about the suitability, and the validity, of using Pt in establishing pure spin current phenomena; on the other hand, a much stronger spin-based effect can be induced by the MPE at the interface. This research is in collaboration with X. Fin, Y. P. Chen, J. Wu, and J. Q. Xiao (University of Delaware), T. Y. Chen (Arizona State University) and D. Qu, W. G. Wang, and C. L. Chien (The Johns Hopkins University).

  15. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive graphical planning system for on-site planning of proximity operations in the congested multispacecraft environment about the space station is presented. The system shows the astronaut a bird's eye perspective of the space station, the orbital plane, and the co-orbiting spacecraft. The system operates in two operational modes: (1) a viewpoint mode, in which the astronaut is able to move the viewpoint around in the orbital plane to range in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, in which the trajectory is planned. Trajectory design involves the composition of a set of waypoints which result in a fuel-optimal trajectory which satisfies all operational constraints, such as departure and arrival constraints, plume impingement constraints, and structural constraints. The main purpose of the system is to present the trajectory and the constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format. Through a graphical interactive process, the trajectory waypoints are edited until all operational constraints are satisfied. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the system. Eight airline pilots with no prior background in orbital mechanics participated in the experiments. Subject training included a stand-alone training session of about 6 hours duration, in which the subjects became familiar with orbital mechanics concepts and performed a series of exercises to familiarize themselves with the control and display features of the system. They then carried out a series of production runs in which 90 different trajectory design situations were randomly addressed. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how the planning time, planning efforts, and fuel expenditures were affected by the planning difficulty. Some results of these experiments are presented.

  16. A 17 year old with isolated proximal tibiofibular joint arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proximal tibiofibular joint (TFJ) is rarely affected in rheumatic diseases, and we frequently interpret pain of the lateral knee as the result of overuse or trauma. Nonetheless, the TFJ is a synovial joint that communicates with the tibiofemoral joint in a proportion of patients. While proximal TFJ arthritis has been rarely associated with existing spondyloarthritis, isolated TFJ arthritis as the presenting manifestation of spondyloarthritis has not yet been described. Here, we report the clinical and radiographic presentation of an adolescent with chronic proximal TFJ arthritis heralding spondyloarthritis highly suggestive of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:23302539

  17. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations that it could apply to ongoing maintenance work. According to Schuh, "SMART standardized and streamlined many shuttle repair processes, saving time and money while increasing safety and the quality of repairs." Maintenance technicians and engineers now had a tool that kept them in the field, and because SMART is capable of continually evolving, each time an engineer put it to use, it would enrich the Agency-wide knowledge base. "If an engineer sees something in the work environment that they could improve, a repair process or a procedure, SMART can incorporate that data for use in future operations," says Belson.

  18. Surgical repair of pectus carinatum.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Willital, G H

    1999-01-01

    Pectus carinatum represents a variety of protrusion deformities of the anterior chest wall. Although various non-operative methods of treatment have been employed, surgery has been widely accepted as the only effective method for the correction of pectus carinatum. We evaluate our 14 year single center experience of pectus carinatum correction on 111 patients using a uniform technique of internal stabilization employing stainless steel struts. Operative correction required double bilateral chondrotomy parasternally and at points of transition to normal ribs, followed by detorsion of the sternum, retrosternal mobilization and correction of the everted sternum as well as of the everted and inverted ribs. The mobilized sternum after incomplete wedge osteotomy was finally stabilized by one transternal and two bilateral parasternal metal struts. The corrections were completed with successful repair in 109 patients (98.2%). Major recurrences in 2 patients (1.8%) were corrected while mild recurrence were observed in 3 patients (2.7%). PMID:10667812

  19. Long-Term Results of Endovascular Repair for Distal Arch and Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms Treated by Custom-Made Endografts: Usefulness of Fenestrated Endografts

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kunihide; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Nina, Katsuhiko; Endou, Jouji; Kojima, Kazushi; Nishimura, Masanori; Ishii, Hirohito; Yokota, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated early and long-term results of atherosclerotic aneurysm repair with custom-made endografts. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair with custom-made endografts. Fenestrated grafts were used in 37 patients (45.7%) to maintain blood flow of the neck and a landing zone for as long as possible for distal arch or proximal descending aneurysms. The rates of perioperative mortality, stroke, paraplegia, and primary endoleaks were assessed to evaluate in-hospital safety. The rates of endoleak development, survival, and freedom from aortic-related death were assessed to evaluate long-term efficiency. Results: Twenty-four patients (29.6%) underwent urgent operations, and 38 (46.9%) underwent distal arch or proximal descending aortic aneurysm repair. There was one case (1.2%) of in-hospital mortality and no cases of stroke. Permanent spinal injury occurred in one patient (1.2%). Early and late endoleaks occurred in one and 16 patients, respectively. The actuarial survival rates were 88.9%, 64.9%, and 51.7% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The actuarial rates of freedom from endoleaks were 90.1%, 81.3%, and 68.6% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Conclusion: Early results of custom-made endografts were excellent, and fenestrated endografts were safe for distal arch and proximal descending aortic aneurysms. PMID:25593623

  20. Radiation interchange modeling for active infrared proximity sensor design

    E-print Network

    Piper, James Clarice

    1999-01-01

    . This research focuses on information gathered using active optical proximity sensors in the reflectance sensing mode. The portion of energy reflected to a given sensor in combination with the known location of the source and sensor elements provide the basic...

  1. Implementing Feedback Control on a Novel Proximity Operations Simulation Platform 

    E-print Network

    Aures-Cavalieri, Kurt Dale

    2012-07-16

    Recently, The Land, Air and Space Robotics (LASR) Laboratory has demonstrated a state-of-the-art proximity operations test bed that will revolutionize the concept of portable space systems simulation. The Holonomic Omni-directional Motion Emulation...

  2. Proximal bundle methods in depth: a unified analysis for inexact ...

    E-print Network

    2013-11-29

    (will be inserted by the editor). Proximal ... calities. Besides, several variants exist to deal with noise, each one needing an ad hoc proof .... in stochastic optimization, for problems with decision variables organized in two levels, denoted by u ...

  3. The development of an index for the proximal upper extremity 

    E-print Network

    Walline, Erin Kurusz

    2006-08-16

    Analysis techniques specific to the proximal upper extremity have historically been overlooked in the field of ergonomics. This research effort provides a methodology that will allow the ergonomics practitioner to analyze ...

  4. Deleting the TGF-? Receptor Attenuates Acute Proximal Tubule Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Sangeetha; Neelisetty, Surekha; Srichai, Manakan B.; Paueksakon, Paisit; Pozzi, Ambra; Harris, Raymond C.

    2012-01-01

    TGF-? is a profibrotic growth factor in CKD, but its role in modulating the kidney’s response to AKI is not well understood. The proximal tubule epithelial cell, which is the main cellular target of AKI, expresses high levels of both TGF-? and its receptors. To determine how TGF-? signaling in this tubular segment affects the response to AKI, we selectively deleted the TGF-? type II receptor in the proximal tubules of mice. This deletion attenuated renal impairment and reduced tubular apoptosis in mercuric chloride–induced injury. In vitro, deficiency of the TGF-? type II receptor protected proximal tubule epithelial cells from hydrogen peroxide–induced apoptosis, which was mediated in part by Smad-dependent signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-? signaling in the proximal tubule has a detrimental effect on the response to AKI as a result of its proapoptotic effects. PMID:23160515

  5. Planning and scheduling proximity operations for autonomous orbital rendezvous

    E-print Network

    Guerra, Christopher J., 1978-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis develops a mixed integer programming formulation to solve the proximity operations scheduling problem for autonomous orbital rendezvous. The algorithm of this thesis allows the operator to specify planned modes, ...

  6. Interracial Ratios and Proximity in Dormitories: Attitudes of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Don C.

    1974-01-01

    A survey technique was used to investigate black and white undergraduate students' attitudes toward the minimum number of one's own race needed for comfort in dormitory residency and the relationship of proximity of one's race toward this number. (MLB)

  7. Interaction of cylinders In proximity under flow-induced vibration

    E-print Network

    Thekkoodan, Dilip Joy

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of a stationary cylinder that is placed in proximity to a flexibly mounted cylinder in the side-by-side arrangement. The problem is investigated with an immersed-boundary formulation of a ...

  8. Challenger's RMS arm grasps SPAS-01 during proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Challenger's remote manipulator system (RMS) arm grasps Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01) during proximity operations. The frame shows a number of reflections on the window, located overhead in the aft flight deck.

  9. Technical tips: dualplate fixation technique for comminuted proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungwook; Kang, Hyunseong; Bang, Hyeongsig

    2014-08-01

    The authors report dualplate fixation technique for providing stable fixation in comminuted proximal humerus fractures. This technique has been used for proximal humerus fractures with metaphyseal comminution and provides excellent anatomical reduction and neck shaft angle (NSA). The recently locking plate is clinically more widely used due to its small size, low rigidity, high elasticity, and biomechanical properties such as fixed initial angle and rotational stability. However, in severely comminuted complex type proximal metaphyseal humerus fractures, the use of locking plate alone does not provide stable fixation, leading to complications such as varus collapse, anterior-posterior angulation, screw cutout, nonunion, malunion, and metal failure. Therefore, a more robust and enhanced fixation method, the dual plating technique using the locking compression plate (Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System and Variable Angle Locking Compression Plate) was developed. PMID:24813097

  10. View to northeast, showing west elevation and south side. Proximity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to northeast, showing west elevation and south side. Proximity of fence of adjacent subdivision precluded photography of north side. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, Barn, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 7. Underside of deck and substructure, showing proximity of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of deck and substructure, showing proximity of main street bridge from between both bridge, looking east - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  12. Arthroscopic quadriceps tendon repair: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury. PMID:25815224

  13. Arthroscopic Quadriceps Tendon Repair: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury. PMID:25815224

  14. Abdominoplasty repair for abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J Douglas; de la Torre, Jorge I; Gardner, Paul M; Grant, John H; Fix, R Jobe; Vásconez, Luis O

    2003-07-01

    The objectives of abdominal hernial repair are to reconstruct the structural integrity of the abdominal wall while minimizing morbidity. Current techniques include primary closure, staged repair, and the use of prosthetic materials. Techniques for abdominoplasty include the use of the transverse lower abdominal incision and the resection of excess skin. By incorporating these aspects into hernial repairs, the procedures are made safer and the results are improved. The medical records were reviewed of 123 consecutive patients who underwent hernial repair. Seventy-six of these patients underwent a total of 82 herniorrhaphies using an abdominoplasty approach. This included using a transverse lower abdominal incision with or without extending it into an inverted-T incision. The hernial defect was then identified and isolated. Repair was obtained with primary fascial closure and plication, primary fascial approximation and reinforcement with absorbable Vicryl mesh, or placement of permanent mesh with or without fascial approximation. Overall, 8 of 82 hernias recurred. Most complications were minor and could be managed with local wound care only. Major complications included one enterocutaneous fistula, one occurrence of skin flap necrosis requiring operative debridement and skin grafting, and one delayed permanent mesh extrusion 2 years after repair. The abdominoplasty approach isolates the incision from the hernial defect and repair. This technique is safe with a low risk of complications and a low rate of recurrence. It is particularly helpful in obese patients, in patients with multiple hernias, and in those patients with recurrent hernias. PMID:12838119

  15. Diverless pipeline repair clamp: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Knott, B. (Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas developments are underway for water depths beyond which divers can function. The economic lifelines of these projects are the pipelines which will transport the products to shore. In preparation for the day when one of these pipelines will require repair because of a leak, the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association is funding research directed at developing diverless pipeline repair capabilities. Several types of damage are possible, ranging from latent weld defects on one end of the spectrum to damage resulting in parting of the pipe at the other end. This study is specifically directed toward laying the groundwork for development of a diverless pipeline repair clamp for use in repair of leaks resulting from minor pipe defects. The incentive for a clamp type repair is costs. When compared to replacing a section of pipe, either by welding or by mechanical means, the clamp type repair requires much less disturbance of the pipe, less time, fewer operations and less equipment. This report summarizes (1) capabilities of remotely operated vehicles (ROV's) and associated systems, (2) highlights areas for further research and development, (3) describes the required capabilities of the diverless repairclamp, (4) investigates some alternatives to the diverless clamp, (5) overviews the state of the art in leak repair clamps, and (6) critiques several possible generic clamp concepts.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries.

  17. Leakage test during mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Taiju; Arai, Hirokuni

    2014-11-01

    Mitral valve repair is the preferred surgical treatment for mitral regurgitation. Cardiac surgeons must increasingly pursue high-quality mitral valve repair, which ensures excellent long-term outcomes. Intraoperative assessment of a competency of the repaired mitral valve before closure of the atrium is an important step in accomplishing successful mitral valve repair. Saline test is the most simple and popular method to evaluate the repaired valve. In addition, an "Ink test" can provide confirmation of the surface of coaptation, which is often insufficient in the assessment of saline test. There are sometimes differences between the findings of the leakage test in an arrested heart and the echocardiographic findings after surgery. Assessment of the mitral valve in an arrested heart may not accurately reflect its function in a contractile heart. Assessment of the valve on the beating heart induced by antegrade or retrograde coronary artery perfusion can provide a more physiological assessment of the repaired valve. Perfusion techniques during beating heart surgery mainly include antegrade coronary artery perfusion without aortic cross-clamping, and retrograde coronary artery perfusion via the coronary sinus with aortic cross-clamping. It is the most important point for the former approach to avoid air embolism with such precaution as CO2 insufflation, left ventricular venting, and transesophageal echocardiography, and for the latter approach to maintain high perfusion flow rate of coronary sinus and adequate venting. Leakage test during mitral valve repair increasingly takes an important role in successful mitral valve reconstruction. PMID:25156036

  18. Autonomous Repair Fault Tolerant Dynamic Reconfigurable Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Kentaro; Kouyama, Shin'ichi; Izumi, Tomonori; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukihiro

    Recently, reconfigurable devices are widely used in the fields of small amount production and trial production. They are also expected to be utilized in such mission-critical fields as space development, because system update and pseudo-repair can be achieved remotely by reconfiguring. However, in the case of conventional reconfigurable devices, configuration memory upsets caused by radiation and alpha particles reconfigure the device unpredictably, resulting in fatal system failures. Therefore, a reconfigurable device with high fault-tolerance against configuration upsets is required. In this paper, we propose an architecture of a fault-tolerant reconfigurable device that autonomously repairs configuration upsets by itself without interrupting system operations. The device consists of a 2D array of “Autonomous-Repair Cells” each of which repairs its upsets autonomously. The architecture has a scalability in fault tolerance; a finer-grained Autonomous-Repair Cell provides higher fault-tolerance. To determine the architecture, we analyze four autonomous repair techniques of the cell experimentally. Then, two autonomous repair techniques, simple multiplexing (S.M.) and memory multiplexing (M.M.), are applied; the former to programmable logics and the latter to cell-to-cell routing resources. Through evaluation, we show that proposed device achieves more than 10 years average lifetime against configuration upsets even in a severe situation such as a satellite orbit.

  19. Silicon tunnel diodes formed by proximity rapid thermal diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinli Wang; Dane Wheeler; Yan Yan; Jialin Zhao; Scott Howard; Alan Seabaugh

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the first silicon tunnel diodes (TDs) formed using proximity rapid thermal diffusion and spin-on diffusants. Room temperature peak-to-valley current ratio of 2 is obtained at approximately 100 A\\/cm2 peak current density. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy is used to compare proximity rapid thermal diffusion with rapid thermal diffusion from spin-coated diffusants in direct contact with a device wafer. The

  20. Digital Image Enhancement Improves Diagnosis of Nondisplaced Proximal Femur Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itamar Busheri Botser; Amir Herman; Ram Nathaniel; Dan Rappaport; Aharon Chechik

    2009-01-01

    Today most emergency room radiographs are computerized, making digital image enhancement a natural advancement to improve\\u000a fracture diagnosis. We compared the diagnosis of nondisplaced proximal femur fractures using four different image enhancement\\u000a methods using standard DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) after window-leveling optimization. Twenty-nine\\u000a orthopaedic residents and specialists reviewed 28 pelvic images consisting of 25 occult proximal femur

  1. Voltage collapse proximity index determination using voltage phasors approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gubina, F.; Strmcnik, B. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1995-05-01

    In the paper, a phasor concept of voltage collapse proximity determination is presented. An adequate voltage proximity index is calculated based on the voltage phasor values only. Furthermore, an algorithm is derived which automatically detects the network transmission paths to the load nodes which are prone to voltage collapse due to additional real or reactive loading. The algorithm is tested on practical networks and exhibits comparable accuracy to the existing methods and low computing time consumption.

  2. Autosomal recessive renal proximal tubulopathy and hypercalciuria: a new syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniella Magen; Lior Adler; Hana Mandel; Edna Efrati; Israel Zelikovic

    2004-01-01

    Background: The best described primary inherited proximal tubulopathies include X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis (XLHN), caused by a mutation in the chloride channel gene CLCN5, and classic Fanconi’s syndrome, the genetic basis of which is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical, biochemical, and genetic characteristics of a highly consanguineous Druze family with autosomal recessive proximal tubulopathy and

  3. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurynas Siksnys; Jeppe Rishede Thomsen; Simonas Saltenis; Man Lung Yiu

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility in user preferences. We address these shortcomings with a client-server solution for proximity detection, based on encrypted, multi-level

  4. [Repair of peripheral nerve effect by direct suture after elongation of nerve by traction].

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Wang, H; Chen, J

    1998-05-01

    To find new technique for repair of peripheral nerve defect, the nerve elongation repair technique was adopted. Two cases with nerve defect were treated by this method. One was a 12 year old male, the defect length of right radial nerve was 7.2 cm at the elbow. The other one was a 28 year old male, the defect length of left ulnar nerve the was 5 cm at elbow. In this method, the nerve was elongated by slow stretch from distal and proximal end of the ruptured nerve. After a few days, the nerve was repaired by direct suture. After operation, the function of nerves were recovered in 119 days and 114 days respectively. Follow-up for 5 years, the function of the effected limbs were recovered to the normal side. It was concluded that: (1) the peripheral never can be elongated by slow stretch; (2) to stretch the nerve end in a rubber tube can prevent adhesion and connective tissue blocking; (3) strength and supporting point of stretching should be designed carefully. PMID:10437049

  5. Repair of a coracoid luxation and a tibiotarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bubenik, Loretta J; Lauer, Susanne K; Vasanjee, Sunil; Mitchell, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    A 4.5-kg, adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented after being found unable to fly. Crepitus was palpated in the left shoulder; however, the wing position was normal. Radiographs revealed caudoventral luxation of the left coracoid, affecting its distal articulation with the clavicle and its proximal articulation with the sternum. The luxation affecting the coracoid-sternum articulation was repaired by using a 4-hole, 1.5-mm T-plate and a 6-hole, 2.0-mm dynamic compression plate (DCP) placed side by side. The luxation affecting the coracoid and the clavicle was repaired by 2 cerclage wires in a simple interrupted pattern. Before a scheduled release, the bird sustained a closed, complete mid diaphyseal transverse fracture of the right tibiotarsus, which most likely occurred during recapture from the flight cage. The fracture was surgically repaired with 2 circumferential cerclage wires, an intramedullary Kirschner wire and one 10-hole, 2.7-mm DCP. The bird was successfully released, 105 days after the first surgery, near the location where it was found. PMID:18087935

  6. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  7. Designing Hydrogel Adhesives for Corneal Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Today, corneal wounds are repaired using nylon sutures. Yet there are a number of complications associated with suturing the cornea, and thus there is interest in an adhesive to replace or supplement sutures in the repair of corneal wounds. We are designing and evaluating corneal adhesives prepared from dendrimers – single molecular weight, highly branched polymers. We have explored two strategies to form these ocular adhesives. The first involves a photocrosslinking reaction and the second uses a peptide ligation reactions to couple the individual dendrimers together to from the adhesive. These adhesives were successfully used to repair corneal perforations, close the flap produced in a LASIK procedure, and secure a corneal transplant. PMID:17889330

  8. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Johnson Space Center, the National Center for Space Exploration Research, and the U.S. Navy. The project goals are 1) develop and demonstrate a manually-operated electronics repair capability to be conducted in a spacecraft environment; and 2) develop guidelines for designs of electronics that facilitates component-level repair for future space exploration efforts. This multi-faceted program utilizes a cross-disciplinary approach to examine pre- and post-repair diagnostics, conformal coating removal and replacement, component soldering, and electronics design for supportability. These areas are investigated by a combination of trade studies, ground based testing, reduced gravity aircraft testing, and actual spaceflight testing on the International Space Station (ISS) in multiple experiments. This paper details the efforts of this program, with emphasis on early trade study results, ground-based efforts, and two upcoming ISS experiments.

  9. DNA Repair Pathways in Trypanosomatids: from DNA Repair to Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Genois, Marie-Michelle; Paquet, Eric R.; Laffitte, Marie-Claude N.; Maity, Ranjan; Rodrigue, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY All living organisms are continuously faced with endogenous or exogenous stress conditions affecting genome stability. DNA repair pathways act as a defense mechanism, which is essential to maintain DNA integrity. There is much to learn about the regulation and functions of these mechanisms, not only in human cells but also equally in divergent organisms. In trypanosomatids, DNA repair pathways protect the genome against mutations but also act as an adaptive mechanism to promote drug resistance. In this review, we scrutinize the molecular mechanisms and DNA repair pathways which are conserved in trypanosomatids. The recent advances made by the genome consortiums reveal the complete genomic sequences of several pathogens. Therefore, using bioinformatics and genomic sequences, we analyze the conservation of DNA repair proteins and their key protein motifs in trypanosomatids. We thus present a comprehensive view of DNA repair processes in trypanosomatids at the crossroads of DNA repair and drug resistance. PMID:24600040

  10. Small Engines Care, Operation, Maintenance and Repair. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard

    Developed by teacher educators and agricultural engineers, this teacher and student reference is for use in a course in small engine operation and maintenance. Content includes: (1) Principles of Good Workmanship, (2) Repairing Starters, (3) Maintaining and Repairing Ignition Systems, (4) Repairing Fuel Systems, (5) Repairing Governors, (6)…

  11. DNA repair pathways as targets for cancer therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Petermann; Cecilia Lundin; Ben Hodgson; Ricky A. Sharma; Thomas Helleday

    2008-01-01

    DNA repair pathways can enable tumour cells to survive DNA damage that is induced by chemotherapeutic treatments; therefore, inhibitors of specific DNA repair pathways might prove efficacious when used in combination with DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, alterations in DNA repair pathways that arise during tumour development can make some cancer cells reliant on a reduced set of DNA repair

  12. A repair technology program at NASA on composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Repair techniques for graphite/epoxy and graphite/polyimide composite structures are discussed. Tension and compression test results for several basic repair processes that were applied to damaged specimens are shown to approach the strength of undamaged specimens. Other repair configurations currently under investigation are illustrated, and plans in the repair technology program are presented.

  13. Design Methodology for Scarf Repairs to Composite Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Wang; A. Gunnion

    Scarf repairs are the preferred method of repairing thick composite structures, especially when externally bonded patches can no longer meet the stiffness, strength, and flushness requirements. Present designs of scarf repairs are based on two-dimensional analyses of scarf joints, assuming a uniform stress distribution along the scarf. This report presents an improve design methodology for designing scarf repairs to composite

  14. High-resolution repair of photomasks using a deep-UV-laser-based defect repair system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Herman; Yung-Ho Chuang; Baorui Yang; Minchuan Wang; Stephen Palese

    1995-01-01

    A laser-based defect repair system developed at Excel\\/Quantronix is designed to repair photomasks with submicron resolution. The laser of the repair unit consists of a gain-switched Ti:Sapphire system configured to operate at 248 nm. The deep-UV light is obtained by frequency tripling the fundamental Ti:Sapphire wavelength. The Ti:Sapphire laser system generates pulses with temporal duration of approximately 12 ns and

  15. Complications and surgical conversion after total aortic repair using endovascular repair in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Numata, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Yasushi; Ohashi, Hirokazu

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of a Marfan syndrome patient who developed a complicated clinical course after total aortic repair using a hybrid technique. After hybrid total aortic repair, this patient was required to undergo open thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic repair due to impending rupture of the aorta. Moreover, the abdominal aortic graft was rereplaced due to debranching graft occlusion of the coeliac artery and the left renal artery. PMID:25575789

  16. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  17. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  18. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  19. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  20. The biomechanics of cruciate ligament repair

    E-print Network

    Ferry, Katheryn Irene

    2013-02-22

    Reconstruction in the Dog. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 9, 166-71. Lewis, J. L. , Lew, W. D. , Engebretson, L. et al. (1990). Factors Affecting Graft Force in 20 The Btomecttanics of Cruciate Ligament Repair Surgical...

  1. Recombination and DNA Repair in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Dorer, Marion S.; Sessler, Tate H.; Salama, Nina R.

    2013-01-01

    All organisms have pathways that repair the genome, ensuring their survival and that of their progeny. But these pathways also serve to diversify the genome, causing changes on the level of nucleotide, whole gene, and genome structure. Sequencing of bacteria has revealed wide allelic diversity and differences in gene content within the same species, highlighting the importance of understanding pathways of recombination and DNA repair. The human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori is an excellent model system for studying these pathways. H. pylori harbors major recombination and repair pathways and is naturally competent, facilitating its ability to diversify its genome. Elucidation of DNA recombination, repair, and diversification programs in this pathogen will reveal connections between these pathways and their importance to infection. PMID:21682641

  2. SURGICAL REPAIR OF URETHRAL CIRCUMCISION INJURIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence S. Baskin; Douglas A. Canning; Howard M. Snyder; John W. Duckett

    1997-01-01

    PurposeThe 2 types of urethral injury that can occur during circumcision are urethrocutaneous fistula and urethral distortion secondary to partial glans amputation. We report the surgical repair of these rare injuries.

  3. Targeting homologous recombination repair defects in cancer.

    PubMed

    Evers, Bastiaan; Helleday, Thomas; Jonkers, Jos

    2010-08-01

    DNA repair is essential for cells to maintain genome stability in an environment that constantly produces DNA damage. There is a growing appreciation that defects in homologous recombination repair underlie hereditary and sporadic tumourigenesis, and that deficiency in this pathway may dictate the sensitivity of tumours to certain DNA-damaging agents. Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) may therefore prove to be a diagnostic criterion per se if appropriate biomarkers become available to identify these tumours. In addition, homologous recombination-deficient tumours are more sensitive to inhibition of other DNA repair pathways through so-called 'synthetic lethal interactions', a principle that is currently being tested in clinical trials. Finally, homologous recombination repair-deficient cells may have an increased dependency on certain cell-cycle checkpoints, which can be therapeutically exploited. Here we describe recent advances in strategies to identify and target HRD tumours, approaches to overcome resistance, and combinatory strategies to optimize treatment outcome. PMID:20598756

  4. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  5. Encirclement sleeves reduce pipeline repair costs

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Welded sleeve, or replacement of line repair methods have been used successfully for many years in the pipeline industry but can lead to other difficulties for a pipeline operator. Clock Spring`s composite sleeves have been used in over ten thousand pipeline repairs with pipe sizes ranging from 6- to 56-inches in diameter, all without costly shutdown, welding or purging. Repairs can be completed while the pipeline is fully operational and require only six inches of clearance under the pipe for wrapping the eight thicknesses of the coil. This minimizes costly digging and backfilling over long runs of pipe and necessary shoring for personnel safety. Also it provides a more cost-effective alterative to conventional pipeline repair since special handling, lifting, or installation equipment is not needed. This paper reviews the installation and performance of these sleeves.

  6. Conceptual approaches to lung injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Zemans, Rachel L; Henson, Peter M; Henson, Jan E; Janssen, William J

    2015-03-01

    Lung injury and repair is a broad topic that includes many cell types and is relevant to the pathogenesis of most lung diseases. Here, we focus on injury and repair of the alveolus, the principal function of which is to achieve gas exchange. The many cell types and structures present in the alveolus are discussed, with emphasis on their interactions in both health and disease. We define injury as damage resulting in impaired gas exchange; physiologic repair, then, requires restoration of normal alveolar architecture and function. The role of inflammation in both injury and repair of structural alveolar cells, particularly epithelial cells, as well as mechanisms of resolution of inflammation will be addressed. Finally, emphasis is placed on the importance of addressing quantitatively the dynamic and complex multidirectional interactions between the many alveolar cell types and structures in three dimensions over time and in relating such mechanistic studies to physiologic outcomes and human disease. PMID:25830855

  7. DNA Transcription and Repair: A Confluence*

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Robb E.; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair and transcription process complex nucleic acid structures. The mammalian cell can cross-utilize select components of either pathway to respond to general or special situations arising in either path. These functions comprise activity networks capable of addressing unique requirements for each process. Here, we discuss examples of such networks that are tailored to respond to the demands of both DNA repair and transcription. PMID:22605334

  8. Contribution of Stem Cells to Kidney Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedetta Bussolati; Ciro Tetta; Giovanni Camussi

    2008-01-01

    The potential role of stem cells in the repair of glomerular and tubular injury is under intensive investigation. Several studies have addressed the role of endogenous bone-marrow (BM)-derived stem cells (SC) in the repair of renal injury. Some reports indicate that BM-derived SC are capable of engraftment into damaged nephrons, although the lineage of SC recruited has not been established.

  9. Topological Repairing of 3D Digital Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Siqueira; Longin Jan Latecki; Nicholas J. Tustison; Jean H. Gallier; James C. Gee

    2008-01-01

    We present here a new randomized algorithm for repairing the topology of objects represented by 3D binary digital images.\\u000a By “repairing the topology”, we mean a systematic way of modifying a given binary image in order to produce a similar binary\\u000a image which is guaranteed to be well-composed. A 3D binary digital image is said to be well-composed if, and only

  10. Regulation of DNA repair by ubiquitylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony T. Huang; Alan D. D'Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The process of ubiquitylation is best known for its role in targeting proteins for degradation by the proteasome. However, recent studies of DNA-repair and DNA-damage-response pathways have significantly broadened the scope of the role of ubiquitylation to include non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitin. These pathways involve the monoubiquitylation of key DNA-repair proteins that have regulatory functions in homologous recombination and translesion

  11. Repairing and recovering broken peritoneal catheters.

    PubMed

    Moreiras-Plaza, Mercedes; Blanco-García, Raquel; Beato-Coo, Laura; Martín-Baez, Isabel; Fernández-Fleming, Francisco

    2014-11-17

    Breakage of peritoneal catheters is an emergency of the technique that is uncommon but which requires immediate action when there is leakage of the dialysate and risk of infection. Early and adequate intervention can save broken catheters without interrupting peritoneal dialysis. We report our experience repairing damaged catheters using the Quinton® Peri-Patch repair kit (Quinton Instrument Co., Tyco Healthcare Group LP. Mansfield, MA., U.S.A.). PMID:25415572

  12. Early Evolution of DNA Repair Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyne DiRuggiero; Frank T. Robb

    DNA repair is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity and replication fidelity in all cells, and therefore was arguably\\u000a of major importance in the Last Universal Cellular Ancestor (LUCA) as well. Archaea, and hyperthermophiles in particular,\\u000a are well suited for studying early DNA repair mechanisms from two perspectives. First, these prokaryotes embody a mix of bacterial\\u000a and eukaryal molecular

  13. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-L. Dulucq; P. Wintringer; A. Mahajna

    2006-01-01

    Background  Perineal hernia is an uncommon complication following abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. There are only a few reports\\u000a concerning the management of this unusual problem. Various methods of repair have been described, but none of them is well\\u000a established. The purpose of our study is to present our experience and to discuss the pathogenesis and the different surgical\\u000a repair techniques

  14. Revision of Failed Arthroscopic Bankart Repairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenick J. Sisto

    2007-01-01

    Background: The results following open revision surgery following a failed arthroscopic Bankart procedure are not well documented.Purpose: To evaluate the results of patients with a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair treated with a traditional, open Bankart repair.Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: Thirty patients (28 male and 2 female) who had a mean age of 24 years (range 15-36)

  15. Phase Clocks for Transient Fault Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Herman

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Phase clocks are synchronization tools that implement,a form of logical time in distributed systems. For systems tolerating transient faults by self-repair of damaged data, phase clocks can enable reasoning about the progress of distributed repair procedures. This paper presents a phase clock algorithm suited to the model of transient memory,faults in asynchronous systems with read\\/write registers. The algorithm is

  16. Subsidence resistant repair of a block basement

    SciTech Connect

    Mahar, J.W. [Geotechnical Consultants, Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Marino, G.G. [Marino Engineering Associates, Inc., Urbana, IL (United States); Murphy, E.; Farnetti, J. [Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A one story house was damaged by mine subsidence movement. The house is located in a small subsidence sag and is experiencing differential settlement and compressive ground strains. Instead of waiting for the ground movements to eventually stop, The Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund developed a permanent repair scheme that was implemented at the same time damaging mine subsidence movement was affecting the structure. This repair provided a significant structural resistance against the anticipated residual mine subsidence movement and was aesthetically acceptable to the homeowners. The repair consisted of epoxying vertical and horizontal steel straps and then applying a cover coat of fiber-cement on the unreinforced concrete block basement walls. The repair scheme was relatively untried, but had been successfully researched. This paper provides information on the mine subsidence movement/damage, the design concepts of steel strap/fiber-cement repair, construction details, performance and costs. Other applications of the use of the steel strap repair method are also discussed for releveling of a building and/or correcting subsidence damage to structures located in the tension zone.

  17. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product’s attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  18. Application of composite repair for pipeline anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lindholm, U.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Hill, V.L. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States); Block, N. [Clock Spring Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The cost of maintaining the structural integrity of the 650,000 kilometer high-pressure gas gathering and transmission pipeline network is a significant part of the operating budget of the US pipeline industry. To help in controlling thee costs, the Gas Research institute (GRI) has supported research resulting in the development of Clock Spring{reg_sign}, a low-cost fiberglass composite alternative to conventional steel sleeves for transmission line pipe reinforcement and repair. Investigation and development of engineering guidelines have been completed. Field validation of laboratory research on application of Clock Spring as a repair for corrosion and mechanical damage defects is in progress. This paper presents an overview of composite repair technology for pipeline corrosion and mechanical damage defects. It summarizes the results and conclusions of modeling and experiments on reinforcement and repair of both corrosion and mechanical damage (i.e., dent and gouge) pipeline defects. These investigations provide quantitative results on the operating envelope of composite reinforcements and installation requirements that ensure sound and reliable repair of pipeline defects. The paper further summarizes the work to date on field installation in verification of composite repair performance.

  19. Transcatheter embolisation of type 1 endoleaks after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with Onyx: when no other treatment option is feasible.

    PubMed

    Chun, J-Y; Morgan, R

    2013-02-01

    Type 1 endoleaks following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair are associated with poor outcomes and re-intervention is recommended as soon as possible after diagnosis. When standard endovascular or surgical treatment options are unsuitable due to severe co-morbidity or adverse anatomic factors, patients can be treated by transcatheter embolisation of the endoleak itself. We describe six such patients with proximal and distal type 1 endoleaks, who have been successfully treated by transcatheter embolisation with Onyx. The embolisation technique, advantages of using this relatively novel liquid embolic agent and potential pitfalls are discussed. PMID:23276679

  20. Biomaterials for orbital fractures repair

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Ciuluvica, R; Dinu, I; Careba, I; Gradinaru, S

    2015-01-01

    The unique and complex anatomy of the orbit requires significant contouring of the implants to restore the proper anatomy. Fractures of the orbital region have an incidence of 10-25% from the total facial fractures and the most common age group was the third decade of life. The majority of cases required reconstruction of the orbital floor to support the globe position and restore the shape of the orbit. The reason for this was that the bony walls were comminuted and/ or bone fragments were missing. Therefore, the reconstruction of the missing bone was important rather than reducing the bone fragments. This could be accomplished by using various materials. There is hardly any anatomic region in the human body that is so controversial in terms of appropriate material used for fracture repair: non resorbable versus resorbable, autogenous/ allogeneic/ xenogenous versus alloplastic material, non-prebent versus preformed (anatomical) plates, standard versus custom-made plates, nonporous versus porous material, non-coated versus coated plates. Thus, the importance of the material used for reconstruction becomes more challenging for the ophthalmologist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:25914737