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1

Salvage hypospadias repairs  

PubMed Central

Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children – buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5–15 years (mean 4.5). Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50%) with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely – a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4–6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised. PMID:20011495

Sripathi, V.; Satheesh, M.; Shubha, K.

2008-01-01

2

Hypospadias repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... penis. Hypospadias is usually associated with an abnormal curvature of the penis, called "chordee". Hypospadias is one ... of the surgery are to repair the abnormal curvature of the penis, and to create a new ...

3

Acute postoperative complications of hypospadias repair  

PubMed Central

Purpose Complications in hypospadias surgery are higher than other reconstructive procedures. The incidence of complications can be reduced if proper preventive measures are taken. The review aims to highlight incidences, causes, and preventive measures of acute complications of hypospadias repair. Materials and Methods Literature reports were reviewed in Pubmed by giving the key word acute complications of hypospadias repair, wound infection, wound dehiscence, flap necrosis, edema, penile torsion, urethral fistula, bleeding and hematoma and urethral stents problems. Summaries of all articles were reviewed with full text of relevant article and results were analyzed. Results Besides mentioning the complications of hypospadias repair in individual articles on the subject, we did not come across any separate article on this subject in the published English literature. Fistula is the commonest complication followed by edema and penile torsion. Conclusions Most acute complications can be prevented with adherence to principles of plastic and microsurgery, meticulous preoperative planning, and judicious postoperative care. Deviation from these principles may lead to disaster and even failure of the repair. The aim in hypospadias surgery should be following these principles and bring down the complication rates < 5% in distal hypospadias and < 10% in proximal hypospadias. PMID:19468404

Bhat, Amilal; Mandal, Arup Kumar

2008-01-01

4

Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective. The great possibility of variations in the clinical presentation of hypospadia, makes its therapy challenging. This has led to the development of a number of techniques for hypospadia repair. This article assesses past and present concepts and operative techniques with the aim of broadening our understanding of this malformation. Materials and Methods. The article not only reviews hypospadia in general with its development and clinical presentation as well as historical and current concepts in hypospadiologie on the basis of available literature, but it is also based on our own clinical experience in the repair of this malformation. Results and Conclusion. The fact that there are great variations in the presentation and extent of malformations existent makes every hypospadia individual and a proposal of a universal comprehensive algorithm for hypospadia repair difficult. The Snodgrass technique has found wide popularity for the repair of distal hypospadias. As far as proximal hypospadias are concerned, their repair is more challenging because it not only involves urethroplasty, but can also, in some cases, fulfil the dimensions of a complex genital reconstruction. Due to the development of modern operating materials and an improvement in current surgical techniques, there has been a significant decrease in the complication rates. Nonetheless, there still is room and, therefore, need for further improvement in this field. PMID:18989369

Djakovic, N.; Nyarangi-Dix, J.; Özturk, A.; Hohenfellner, M.

2008-01-01

5

Outcome of pediatric hypospadias repair in adulthood  

PubMed Central

Purpose To review the evolution of the technique of hypospadias repair. Methods A search of Pubmed, Medline and the Journal of Pediatric Urology was performed, and papers dealing with surgical techniques for hypospadias repair were critally reviewed. Special emphasis was given to papers on the effects in the long term of hypospadias repair on voiding and sexual dysfunction. Results The techniques for hypospadias repair have evolved over the years. The most popular technique now is tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Long-term results with the use of the new techniques of the hypospadias repair in terms of voiding and sexual problems should be addressed. Conclusion There is a need for valid studies on the outcomes of hypospadias repair in adults that were performed in childhood in terms of cosmetic appearance, voiding and sexual performance. PMID:24198614

Chertin, Boris; Prat, Dan; Shenfeld, Ofer Z

2010-01-01

6

Augmented Duckett repair for severe hypospadias.  

PubMed

In severe cases of hypospadias the meatus, either before or after release of the chordee, may lie in a position that is so proximal that there may not be enough inner foreskin available for an island pedicle tube to bridge the long gap between the meatus and the tip of the glans. In such cases a proximal add-on neourethra can be fashioned from nonhair-bearing interscrotal tissue or ventral penile skin overlying the fibrous chordee-causing tissue. The end result is a Duckett transverse preputial tube that is anastomosed proximally to a Thiersch-Duplay neourethra and distally to the tip of the glans. This procedure allows the surgeon to bridge large gaps with a 1-stage repair and avoids the necessity of a free graft. PMID:3599259

Glassberg, K I

1987-08-01

7

Hypospadias Repair: A Single Centre Experience  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital's database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka) and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate) repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF). The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (P-value = 0.0086). The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair (P value = 0.0001). Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications. PMID:24579043

Majeed, Abdul; Ullah, Hidayat; Naz, Shazia; Shah, Syed Asif; Tahmeed, Tahmeedullah; Yousaf, Kanwal; Tahir, Muhammad

2014-01-01

8

Hypospadias  

MedlinePLUS

... repair. How do I care for my son's wound after surgery? How long will the healing take? Studies consistently show that hypospadias repair wounds do not require special attention to heal properly. ...

9

Impact of penile degloving and proximal ventral dissection on curvature correction in children with proximal hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Penile degloving is an important step in orthoplasty. Although its role in correcting mild curvature in distal and midshaft hypospadias has been previously reported, its impact on ventral curvature (VC) correction in proximal defects warrants further investigation. Therefore, we sought to document the effect of degloving and proximal urethral dissection on VC correction in children with proximal hypospadias. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 137 patients who underwent proximal hypospadias repair between 1998 and 2006. VC, defined as mild (<30%), moderate (30%–45%), and severe (>45%), was recorded before penile degloving and after erection test. Percent improvement in VC and need for further treatment (beyond degloving and proximal dissection) based on preoperative degree of curvature were assessed. ANOVA test was used to compare improvement among the 3 groups. Results: Mean age at repair was 14 months (range: 6–24). Penile degloving associated with proximal urethral dissection when necessary was responsible for the improvement in the degree of curvature in 7 of 9 (77%) patients with mild VC, 23 of 44 (52%) with moderate and 35 of 84 (40%) with severe VC. Additionally, degloving alone was sufficient for VC correction in 7 of 9 (77%) mild cases, 14 of 44 (30%) moderate and only 2 of 84 (2%) severe cases. The difference among these 3 groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Penile degloving alone can correct VC. The percentage of improvement depends on the preoperative degree of curvature, with severe VC cases showing the least improvement. PMID:25553156

Weber, Bryce A.; Braga, Luis H.P.; Patel, Premal; Pippi Salle, Joao L.; Bägli, Darius J.; Khoury, Antoine E.; Lorenzo, Armando J.

2014-01-01

10

Redo hypospadias repair: experience at a tertiary care children's hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective Treatment of patients with failed hypospadias repairs can be challenging. Our study aimed to determine the best type of redo repair depending on the location and size of the urethral meatus, the status of the urethral plate and genital skin, the severity of residual chordee and the amount of scar tissue. Methods The Institutional Review Board approved our retrospective chart review of patients who had a redo hypospadias repair at our institution over the past 6 years. We recorded the type and number of previous repair(s), the type and number of redo procedure(s),as well as the complications and functional outcomes. Results There were 28 patients, aged 1–12 (mean 3.8) years, with failed hypospadias repairs. The initial severity of the hypospadias were as follows: perineal (1), penoscrotal (9), proximal shaft (1), mid-shaft (9), distal shaft (4), coronal (3) and mega-meatus (1). Of all the patients, 24 had 1 repair, 3 had 2 repairs and 1 had 3 repairs. The initial repairs comprised 11 tubularized island flaps (TIFs), 8 Snodgrass tubularized incised plate (TIP) techniques, 5 Mathieu repairs, 1 Meatal Advancement and GlanuloPlasty Incorporated (MAGPI) technique, 1 Pyramid, 1 Arap technique and 1 Thiersch-Duplay repair. Twenty-one of 28 patients had 1 redo operation, 5 had 2 redo operations, 1 had 3 redo operations and 1 had 4 redo operations, for a total of 38 redo operations. Of these, 26 were TIP techniques (68.4%), 3 were Mathieu (7.9%), 3 were TIF repairs (7.9%), 2 were onlay island flaps (5.3%) and 4 were buccal mucosal grafts (10.5%). Follow-up was 1–5 years (mean 3.5 yr). The final locations of urethral meatus included glans (18), corona (6), mid-shaft (3) and penoscrotal (1). Complications after redo surgery comprised 4 urethrocutaneous fistulae, 2 meatal stenoses, 1 urethral stricture and 3 dehiscences. Sixteen patients were followed with yearly uroflow with a Q-mean (mean uroflow) range of 3–14 mL/s (mean 8.1 mL/s). Conclusion The majority of hypospadias failures can be salvaged with one operation. The TIP repair is our procedure of choice in most cases. In the setting of a poor urethral plate, TIF or buccal mucosa may be necessary. Complications are not infrequent in redo procedures. PMID:18542762

Al-Sayyad, Ahmed; Pike, John G; Leonard, Michael P

2007-01-01

11

Hypospadias and Residential Proximity to Pesticide Applications  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. METHODS: The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother’s residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. CONCLUSIONS: Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations. PMID:24167181

Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J.; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

12

Two-stage repair in hypospadias  

PubMed Central

We provide the reader with a nonsystematic review concerning the use of the two-stage approach in hypospadias repairs. A one-stage approach using the tubularized incised plate urethroplasty is a well-standardized approach for the most cases of hypospadias. Nevertheless, in some primary severe cases, in most hypospadias failures and in selected patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans a two-stage approach is preferable. During the first stage the penis is straightened, if necessary and the urethral plate is substituted with a graft of either genital (prepuce) or extragenital origin (oral mucosa or postauricular skin). During the second stage, performed around 6 months later, urethroplasty is accomplished by graft tubulization. Graft take is generally excellent, with only few cases requiring an additional inlay patch at second stage due to graft contracture. A staged approach allows for both excellent cosmetic results and a low morbidity including an overall 6% fistula rate and 2% stricture rate. Complications usually occur in the first year after the second stage and are higher in secondary repairs. Complications tend to decrease as experience increases and use of additional waterproofing layers contributes to reduce the fistula rate significantly. Long-term cosmetic results are excellent, but voiding and ejaculatory problems may occur in as much as 40% of cases if a long urethral tube is constructed. The procedure has a step learning curve but because of its technical simplicity does not require to be confined only to highly specialized centers. PMID:19468402

Haxhirexha, K. N.; Castagnetti, M.; Rigamonti, W.; Manzoni, G. A.

2008-01-01

13

Modified Byars’ flaps for securing skin closure in proximal and mid-penile hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe a modification for skin closure combined with tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty in the repair of proximal and mid-penile hypospadias. Patients and methods: The study included 47 patients with nondistal hypospadias who underwent a primary TIP procedure from September 2007 to May 2010. Meatal position was mid-shaft (n = 20), penoscrotal (n = 20), and scrotal (n = 7). The patients in the study were divided into two groups according to a modification in the technique of skin closure, which involved incising the prepuce vertically into two halves, then harvesting the dartos flap for covering the repair from one half, leaving the other preputial half to reconstruct the ventral skin without compromising its blood supply. Results: In the standard procedure (n = 19 patients), complications included glanular dehiscence (10.5%), glanular fistula (5%), urethrocutaneous fistula (10.5%), and skin complications (21%). In the modified procedure (n = 28 patients), complications included glanular dehiscence (7%) and glanular fistula (3.6%), but no skin complications or urethrocutaneous fistulae occurred. Conclusion: The modified Byars’ flaps is a useful alternative for skin closure during proximal and mid-shaft TIP urethroplasty, with fewer complications and acceptable cosmetic outcome. PMID:22164194

2011-01-01

14

Use of BioGlue Surgical Adhesive in Hypospadias Repair  

PubMed Central

Purpose To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of albumin glutaraldehyde tissue adhesive (BioGlue) in the surgical treatment of patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods Two groups of 20 patients each who underwent hypospadias repair were included in the study. In the first group we utilized BioGlue as an additional protective layer to the suture line of the neo-urethra, while patients in the second group were operated on utilizing a routine surgical technique. Results There were no statistical differences between patients from the 2 groups in terms of surgical complications. Urethrocutaneous fistula was revealed in 4 (20%) patients after repair with BioGlue and in 3 (15%) patients from the control group (p = 0.686), suture line breakdown in 4 (20%) and in 1 (5%) patients (p = 0.478), meatal stenosis in 1 (5%) and in 1 (5%) patient (p = 1). Furthermore more patients in the BioGlue group (n = 12, 60%) demonstrated poor cosmetic results compared to the control group where most patients – 19 (95%) had acceptable cosmetic outcomes (p = 0.007). Conclusions Our data showed no benefits of BioGlue use in hypospadias repair. PMID:24917774

Kocherov, Stanislav; Lev, Genady; Chertin, Boris

2014-01-01

15

[Management of hypospadias].  

PubMed

Hypospadias are diagnosed at birth. Counseling of the parents should be performed in detail. Isolated hypospadias has to be differentiated from disorders of sexual development which are mostly associated with cryptorchidism and micropenis. The operation is timed around the first birthday. Preoperative hormonal treatment should be reserved for infants with a small glans penis or for repeat surgery. The most popular method in distal hypospadias repair is preservation of the urethral plate and tubularization with or without midline incision. In proximal cases with severe curvature a two-stage procedure may be preferable. Dripping-stent urinary drainage into a double diaper is the best method in infants. The complication rate after primary distal repair is reported in the literature to be less than 10% and after staged procedures in proximal hypospadias over 25%. PMID:24718908

Riccabona, M

2014-05-01

16

Management of severe hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Many classifications of hypospadias have been published, mainly based on the position of the ectopic meatus, which is an insufficient criterion to define the severity of this malformation. What really marks the proximal landmark of this malformation is the level of division of the corpus spongiosum, which is always proximal to the ectopic meatus. In this article, we will focus on the most severe forms of hypospadias which include those with a proximal division of corpus spongiosum (below the midshaft), important chordee and a poor development of the ventral radius, reflecting a marked hypovirilization of the genital tubercle, and cripple hypospadias resulting from several previous failed surgical procedures. The principle of hypospadias surgery will be reviewed together with the outcome of the current surgical techniques. Furthermore, common complications will be outlined. There is no minor or major hypospadias and all forms require a solid experience of the surgeon, as minor looking hypospadias may turn out to be far more complex to repair than they appear once the ventral radius of the penis has been dissected. PMID:19468403

Catti, Massimo; Demède, Delphine; Valmalle, Anne-Frédérique; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Hameury, Frédéric; Mouriquand, Pierre

2008-01-01

17

Two-stage urethroplasty is a better choice for proximal hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection: a single-center experience  

PubMed Central

It is still debatable whether single- or two-stage urethroplasty is a more suitable technique for treating hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection. This retrospective study evaluated these two techniques. A total of 66 patients of proximal hypospadias with severe chordee were divided into two groups according to the techniques they underwent: 32 and 34 patients underwent single-stage (Duckett) or two-stage urethroplasty, respectively. Median ages at presentation were 7.5 years and 11.0 years in single-stage and two-stage repair groups, respectively. Median follow-ups were 28.5 months (20?60 months) and 35 months (18?60 months) in the single-stage and two-stage groups, respectively. The meatus of the neourethra was located at the top of the glans in all patients. No recurrence of chordee was found during follow-up, and all patients or parents were satisfied with the penile length and appearance. Complications were encountered in eight patients in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between the two techniques. The late complication rate of stricture was higher after the single-stage procedure (18.75% vs 0%). The complication rate after single-stage repairs was significantly lower in the prepubescent subgroup (10.52%) than in the postpubescent cohort (46.15%). These results indicate that the urethral plate transection effectively corrects severe chordee associated with proximal hypospadias during the intermediate follow-up period. Considering the higher rate of stricture after single-stage urethroplasty, two-stage urethroplasty is recommended for proximal hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection. PMID:25248656

Zheng, Da-Chao; Yao, Hai-Jun; Cai, Zhi-Kang; Da, Jun; Chen, Qi; Chen, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Ming-Xi; Lu, Mu-Jun; Wang, Zhong

2015-01-01

18

Repair of extensive perineal hypospadias in a Boston terrier using tubularized incised plate urethroplasty.  

PubMed

This report provides a detailed description of the surgical repair of perineal hypospadias in a Boston terrier. A 2-year patient follow-up, including diagnostic data demonstrating urethral patency and resolution of recurrent urocystitis and urine skin scald are reported. PMID:19949553

Adelsberger, Mary E; Smeak, Daniel D

2009-09-01

19

Comparative Study of Snodgrass and Mathieu's Procedure for Primary Hypospadias Repair  

PubMed Central

Objective. Present study was undertaken to compare the results of two single stage hypospadias repairs, namely, Tubularized Incised Plate (TIP) repair and Mathieu's repair. Methods. The study included 100 patients of distal penile hypospadias, from January, 2008 to January, 2013. After a detailed history, local examination was performed with reference to the site of meatus, shape of glans, and presence of chordee. TIP repair was performed in 52 patients and Mathieu's repair in 48 patients. On follow-up, the patients were examined for the position of meatus, shape of meatus, urinary stream, urethrocutaneous fistula, and stricture formation. Results. The mean age of presentation was 6.2?±?3.2 years (range 1.5–15years). The mean operative time was 63.7?±?14.3 (45–90) minutes and 95.0?±?19.1 (70–125) minutes in TIP and Mathieu's repair, respectively.Complications after surgery were urethero cutaneous fistula in 3(5.76%) and 7 (14.5%), meatal stenosis in 3(5.33%) and 4(8.33%), wound infection in 19.2% and 8.3% cases in TIP repair and Mathieu repair, respectively. The shape of meatus was slit-like and vertically oriented in 48(92.3%) patients who had undergone TIP repair. Conclusion. The Snodgrass repair is significantly faster, with more natural cosmetic appearance of the meatus than the Mathieu's repair. PMID:24944834

Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A.; Shera, Altaf H.

2014-01-01

20

Hypospadias Repair: An Overview of the Actual Techniques  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital genital anomalies for which surgery early in life is indicated. The surgical treatment is changing progressively, often by repeating treatment strategies that have been used decades ago. Indeed, historically two-stage procedures were replaced by one-stage procedures and nowadays two-stage procedures gain new interest. The same for reconstructions using the urethral plate, which decades ago were based on the Thiersch Duplay principle. In the 1980s, preputial onlay flaps were most often used and today we see a new interest in the use of the urethral plate. The actual surgical approach to hypospadias is described and technical details are given. PMID:22851912

Subramaniam, Ramnath; Spinoit, Anne Francoise; Hoebeke, Piet

2011-01-01

21

Urethral advancement technique for repair of distal hypospadias.  

PubMed

Eighty children with distal hypospadias were operated upon by this technique. It is a modification from the old Beck technique and is applicable only for distal types (coronal and subcoronal) with minimal chordae and rotation. The urethral meatus could be placed to the tip of the glans penis by mobilizing and advancing the urethra without constructing a neourethra. Children did not need catheterization or diversion. The average hospital stay was 2 days. Success rate was 98%. Children who developed fistulae were treated by simple closure of the defect. PMID:2318238

Wishahi, M M; Wishahy, M K; Kaddah, N

1990-01-01

22

Functional and aesthetic results in hypospadias repair with Hinderer's techniques.  

PubMed

In his editorial to the first issue of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery in 1976, the Managing Editor, Dr. Blair Rogers lays special emphasis on the publication of papers and reports dealing with the increasing role of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery as the final step in the overall rehabilitation of Reconstructive Surgery patients. In genitourinary malformations-hypospadias and epispadias-without any doubt a satisfactory sexual and urinary functional result is essential. However, also a normal aesthetic appearance, resembling a circumcised penis, and with the meatus at the tip of the glans, is becoming increasingly important, notably since the second half of the last century. An abnormal aesthetic appearance affects the patient's body image and has a negative influence on his self-esteem and sexual behaviour. Psychological stress is brought on from genital comparison with school-mates, in adulthood in gym changing rooms and, specifically, in sexual relations. In these days of greater sexual freedom, the knowledge of male genital anatomy and aesthetic appearance has considerably improved. Penile hypoplasia creates a psychological impact perhaps only comparable with that of female mammary hypoplasia. It is therefore unsurprising that not only normal aesthetic appearance after hypospadias surgery is essential, but also the demand for penile lengthening and girth augmentation has progressively increased over these past recent years. PMID:11084694

Hinderer, U T

2000-01-01

23

Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair may be performed in a nearly sutureless fashion and in a more rapid manner than for conventional suturing. The trend towards a decreased rate of complications in the laser group at this time indicates that laser soldering may be an improved method of tissue closure for hypospadias repair. We continue to accrue patients to this study.

Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M., III; Zderic, Stephen A.

1998-07-01

24

Urethroplasty by Use of Turnover Flaps (Modified Mathieu Procedure) for Distal Hypospadias Repair in Adolescents: Comparison With the Tubularized Incised Plate Procedure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine whether urethroplasty with a turnover flap, as an alternative method of distal hypospadias repair in adolescents, improves the outcome of surgery. Materials and Methods Between January 2004 and December 2013, a total of 38 adolescents (aged 11-17 years) underwent distal hypospadias repair with either the tubularized incised plate (TIP) procedure (n=25) or the turnover flap procedure (n=13). The turnover flap procedure was performed with a proximal, ventral penile flap that was turned over to cover the urethral plate. Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes, complications, and postoperative uroflowmetry in each surgical group were analyzed retrospectively. Results The patient demographics were similar in the two groups. There were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes between the groups, including mean operative time, duration of hospital stay, and urethral catheterization. The number of patients with at least one complication, including wound dehiscence, urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, and urethral stricture, was lower in the turnover flap group (1/13, 7.7%) than in the TIP group (11/25, 44%, p=0.030). The incidence of meatal stenosis was lower in the turnover flap group (0/12, 0%) than in the TIP group (6/25, 24%). In postoperative uroflowmetry, the plateau-shaped curve rate was lower in the turnover flap group (1/12, 8.3%) than in the TIP group (5/19, 26.3%); the peak flow was higher (p=0.030). Conclusions The turnover flap procedure is clinically useful for repairing adolescent distal hypospadias because it offers lower complication rates and better functional outcomes than TIP. PMID:25405018

Bae, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae

2014-01-01

25

Recent advances in understanding/management of hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is the second most common birth anomaly, affecting 1 of every 300 males. The abnormal position of the urinary opening, and associated downward curvature of the penis in some cases, potentially impact both urinary and sexual function. Modern surgical correction most often involves tubularization of the urethral plate, those tissues which normally should have completed urethral development. This article discusses recent progress in hypospadias repair. Prospective data collection in consecutive patients promotes better understanding of both patient and technical factors that influence surgical complications. Patients with a proximal urinary opening near or within the scrotum, those failing prior to repairs, and/or those with a small glans diameter have increased likelihood for urethroplasty complications. Quality review of reliable data led to two layer urethroplasty covered with tunica vaginalis in proximal repairs, significantly reducing postoperative fistulas. Neither preoperative androgens used to grow a small diameter glans, nor a change in sutures used to approximate the glans wings reduced wound dehiscence, but a recent technical modification of the glansplasty with more extensive dissection before suturing has. The observation that reoperation increases risk for further complications three-fold suggests the less common proximal repairs and reoperations should be subspecialized so that designated surgeons can gain greater expertise. In addition, surgeons performing hypospadias repair must better define the complications that occur so that scientific reporting of outcomes becomes more standardized. Standardized objective means to assess results are also needed so that surgeons performing different repairs can compare outcomes. PMID:25580255

Bush, Nicol

2014-01-01

26

Endoscopic Proximal Hamstring Repair and Ischial Bursectomy  

PubMed Central

With the significant increase in use of the arthroscope around the hip have come several less invasive techniques to manage pathologies around this joint. This technical note with a video details one such technique that allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now have been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. This procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:23766996

Dierckman, Brian D.; Guanche, Carlos A.

2012-01-01

27

A modified tubularised incised plate urethroplasty technique and a revised hypospadias algorithm  

PubMed Central

To simplify and standardize surgical management of hypospadias, a modified tubularised incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass) technique has been described and a revised hypospadias management algorithm has been formulated. The study aims to evaluate the viability of the described procedure in different types of hypospadias and tests the validity of the algorithm. The modification described is recruitment of penile and glandular skin lateral to the urethral plate to facilitate tubularisation. The algorithm starts with penile degloving with preservation of urethral plate. Snodgrass repair was done in cases with no chordee and where skin chordee resolved by skin take down. Modified Snodgrass repair was done in cases where urethral plate was narrow. Another modification proposed by us is single layer penile skin closure instead of an added dartos flap, which was done in both classical and modified Snodgrass repair. Cases of severe chordee not resolved by skin take down were repaired by transverse preputial island flap (TPIF) and Bracka's technique. Dorsal plication was not used as an orthoplasty modality. It was possible to repair 68.89% of the cases by Snodgrass repair. These patients either had no chordee or had superficial skin tethering (skin chordee) which resolved on degolving. All these cases were coronal, distal and mid penile hypospadias. Remaining cases were mid, proximal and penoscrotal with true fibrous chordee and were repaired by TPIF or Bracka's technique. The Snodgrass technique had a fistula rate of 9.67%. Acceptably, low fistula rate and simple execution make the proposed modification of classical Snodgrass repair a viable option. The proposed algorithm proves to be a useful tool for standardised and logical preoperative decision making. It also defines indications of the three techniques vis-à-vis the type of hypospadias. PMID:20924444

Bhattacharya, Sameek

2010-01-01

28

Repair of injured proximal tubule does not involve specialized progenitors  

PubMed Central

Recently we have established that the kidney tubular epithelium is repaired by surviving epithelial cells. It is not known, however, whether a population of intratubular adult progenitor cells are responsible for this epithelial repair after acute kidney injury. In this study, we used an unbiased DNA analog-based approach that does not rely on candidate markers to track multiple rounds of cell division in vivo. In the proximal tubule, robust thymidine analog incorporation was observed postinjury. Cell division was stochastic and enriched among cells that were injured and dedifferentiated. There was no evidence for the presence of a population of specialized progenitors that repeatedly divide in response to injury. Instead, these results indicate that after injury, new epithelial cells arise from self-duplication of surviving cells, most of which are injured. Because the renal papilla contains DNA label-retaining cells and has been proposed as a stem cell niche, we examined the proliferative behavior of these putative progenitors after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although label-retaining cells in the renal papilla diminished with time after ischemia-reperfusion injury, they neither proliferated nor migrated to the outer medulla or cortex. Thus, nonlethally injured cells repopulate the kidney epithelium after injury in the absence of any specialized progenitor cell population. PMID:21576461

Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Czerniak, Suzanne; DiRocco, Derek P.; Hasnain, Wirasat; Cheema, Rabia; Bonventre, Joseph V.

2011-01-01

29

Endoscopic transtendinous repair for partial-thickness proximal hamstring tendon tears.  

PubMed

Partial tears of the proximal hamstring tendon can successfully be managed with tendon repair in cases of failed conservative management. As in partial-thickness gluteus medius repair, a transtendinous technique can be used to repair partial-thickness undersurface tears of the hamstring origin. This report details an endoscopic transtendinous approach for the treatment of partial-thickness hamstring tendon tears. PMID:24749032

Jackson, Timothy J; Trenga, Anthony; Lindner, Dror; El-Bitar, Youseff; Domb, Benjamin G

2014-02-01

30

Endoscopic Transtendinous Repair for Partial-Thickness Proximal Hamstring Tendon Tears  

PubMed Central

Partial tears of the proximal hamstring tendon can successfully be managed with tendon repair in cases of failed conservative management. As in partial-thickness gluteus medius repair, a transtendinous technique can be used to repair partial-thickness undersurface tears of the hamstring origin. This report details an endoscopic transtendinous approach for the treatment of partial-thickness hamstring tendon tears. PMID:24749032

Jackson, Timothy J.; Trenga, Anthony; Lindner, Dror; El-Bitar, Youseff; Domb, Benjamin G.

2014-01-01

31

Penile curvature incidence in hypospadias: can it be determined?  

PubMed

The aim was to retrospectively determine the real incidence of congenital penile curvature in various forms of hypospadias, in order to indicate intraoperative assessment and correction of curvature. We analyzed 842 patients with hypospadias who underwent surgery from 2003 to 2010, classified into two groups. First group was intraoperatively checked for curvature as a routine procedure, while a curvature in the second group was assessed mostly in severe hypospadias. Results are analyzed using Fisher's and chi-square tests. In total, 238 cases (28.3%) of associated curvature were confirmed. Curvature was significantly more frequent in the first group, regarding hypospadias in general (P < 0.01), as well as distal (P < 0.05) and midshaft forms (P < 0.01). Penile curvature is common figure in hypospadias, including distal types. Intraoperative testing for associated curvature should be considered as a routine procedure in hypospadias repair. PMID:22007201

Stojanovic, Borko; Bizic, Marta; Majstorovic, Marko; Kojovic, Vladimir; Djordjevic, Miroslav

2011-01-01

32

Penile Curvature Incidence in Hypospadias: Can It Be Determined?  

PubMed Central

The aim was to retrospectively determine the real incidence of congenital penile curvature in various forms of hypospadias, in order to indicate intraoperative assessment and correction of curvature. We analyzed 842 patients with hypospadias who underwent surgery from 2003 to 2010, classified into two groups. First group was intraoperatively checked for curvature as a routine procedure, while a curvature in the second group was assessed mostly in severe hypospadias. Results are analyzed using Fisher's and chi-square tests. In total, 238 cases (28.3%) of associated curvature were confirmed. Curvature was significantly more frequent in the first group, regarding hypospadias in general (P < 0.01), as well as distal (P < 0.05) and midshaft forms (P < 0.01). Penile curvature is common figure in hypospadias, including distal types. Intraoperative testing for associated curvature should be considered as a routine procedure in hypospadias repair. PMID:22007201

Stojanovic, Borko; Bizic, Marta; Majstorovic, Marko; Kojovic, Vladimir; Djordjevic, Miroslav

2011-01-01

33

[Hypospadias in adulthood].  

PubMed

Hypospadias should not be considered as a congenital local defect only in the development of the urethra; the problem extends beyond the local malformation to the physical and intellectual development of the patient. It would also be incorrect to regard the problem of hypospadias as settled if the operative correction is performed, since mostly with puberty, but partly also later, changes may occur in general but particularly also in sexual development, placing a difficult burden on the hypospadias sufferer. The discussion of hypospadias problems in adults therefore embraces a subject that reaches far beyond operative correction into areas of miction, fertility and sexuality and therefore represents a wide complex of physical and mental problems. Above all, the question should be examined what quality of life a hypospadias patient can expect in the future after correction of this congenital malformation in infancy. The following factors describing the special circumstances of living after hypospadias operation, appear to be worthy of discussion: 1. The physical situation which includes the ability of erection, miction, fertility, the cosmetic aspect of the outer genital organ and potential consequences of combined malformations. The mental or "psychic" situation, which reaches into sexual life, partnership and profession. Only a few clinical departments concerned with the primary correction of hypospadias in infancy have controlled a group of patients up to adult age. For these reasons we considered it necessary to collect as far as possible the experiences mentioned in the literature and to combine them with our own observations to arrive at corresponding conclusions. PMID:3617938

Bandhauer, K

1987-06-01

34

Delayed rupture of an internal iliac artery aneurysm following proximal ligation for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of a patient presenting with a contained rupture of an internal iliac aneurysm following proximal ligation after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair three years earlier. The patient presented with a large pelvic mass with symptoms of urgency, frequency, dysuria, tenesmus and fevers associated with anemia. Following evacuation of the aneurysm and direct suture ligation of the distal

Baskhar Deb; Marshall Benjamin; Anthony J. Comerota

1992-01-01

35

Unfavourable results in hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias urethroplasty is considered difficult as the complications and unfavourable results are not uncommon. At the turn of the century, due to a better understanding of applied anatomy of hypospadias, new techniques were developed which significantly brought down the complication rate. However unfavourable results are still disturbing. An algorithm for selection of surgery has been presented. Forty three secondary surgeries were performed over 3 years for correction of unfavourable results. The urethrocutaneous fistula was the most common (21%) followed by meatal stenosis (14%) and narrow neourethra (14%). Common unfavourable results have been discussed. On the basis of experience with a large number of hypospadias urethroplasty ‘tips to avoid or minimise unfavourable results’ have been presented. However, one should assess the final outcome of urethroplasty using hypospadias objective scoring evaluation. PMID:24501477

Agrawal, Karoon; Misra, Anshumali

2013-01-01

36

Endoscopic repair of a chronic incomplete proximal hamstring avulsion in a cheerleader.  

PubMed

: Injuries to the hamstring muscle are common among athletes, especially strains at the myotendinal junction that respond well to nonoperative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries can be severely debilitating, and the role of endoscopic treatment for these injuries has not been explored. This article describes the case report of a 16-year-old girl who was diagnosed with incomplete proximal hamstring avulsion showing no improvement despite extensive nonoperative treatment. The patient was treated by endoscopic repair in the prone position using a novel technique. Her preoperative pain on the ischial tubercle and while sitting disappeared completely 3 months postoperatively. PMID:24042442

Lindner, Dror; Trenga, Anthony P; Stake, Christine E; Jackson, Timothy J; El Bitar, Youssef F; Domb, Benjamin G

2014-01-01

37

Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal hypospadias: A literature review  

PubMed Central

The tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty or Snodgrass procedure has gained worldwide acceptance for distal hypospadias repair due to its low complication rate, good cosmetic result, and technical simplicity. As a result, several articles have been published concerning various aspects and subtle variations of this procedure. The aim of this review is to critically and systematically analyze the published complication rates of TIP repair for distal hypospadias in children. We also reviewed the surgical modifications that have been introduced to the original technique and discussed the potential impact on the final outcome of the Snodgrass procedure. PMID:19468401

Braga, Luis Henrique P.; Lorenzo, Armando J.; Salle, Joao L. Pippi

2008-01-01

38

The history of hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dictum, “There is nothing new in surgery not previously described”, is particularly true of hypospadias. The major significance of chordee was fully appreciated by Galen in the second century A. D. and then almost forgotten until Mettauer in 1842, all previous surgeons overstressing the position of the orifice. Mettauer recognised skin shortening as a cause of chordee, a fact

E. Durham Smith

1997-01-01

39

[Hypospadias and its treatment].  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a malformation of the penis which can be benign or severe. Surgical treatment is carried out from the age of 9 months, in order to straighten the penis, reconstruct the urethra and the glans and to secure skin cover.These children need to be followed-up until puberty, in order to prevent complications and to put in place any necessary psychosocial support. PMID:23789173

Paye-Jaouen, Annabel

2013-01-01

40

Agricultural Pesticide Use and Hypospadias in Eastern Arkansas  

PubMed Central

Introduction We assessed the relationship between hypospadias and proximity to agricultural pesticide applications using a GIS-based exposure method. Methods We obtained information for 354 cases of hypospadias born between 1998 and 2002 in eastern Arkansas; 727 controls were selected from birth certificates. We classified exposure on pounds of pesticides (estimated by crop type) applied or persisting within 500 m of each subject’s home during gestational weeks 6 to 16. We restricted our analyses to 38 pesticides with some evidence of reproductive, developmental, estrogenic, and/or antiandrogenic effects. We estimated timing of pesticide applications using crop phenology and published records. Results Gestational age at birth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–0.99], parity (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.95), and delaying prenatal care until the third trimester (OR = 4.04; 95% CI, 1.46–11.23) were significantly associated with hypospadias. Risk of hypospadias increased by 8% for every 0.05-pound increase in estimated exposure to diclofop-methyl use (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01–1.15). Pesticide applications in aggregate (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70–0.96) and applications of alachlor (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.89) and permethrin (OR = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.86) were negatively associated with hypospadias. Conclusions Except for diclofop-methyl, we did not find evidence that estimated exposure to pesticides known to have reproductive, developmental, or endocrine-disrupting effects increases risk of hypospadias. Further research on the potential effects of exposure to diclofop-methyl is recommended. PMID:17035148

Meyer, Kristy J.; Reif, John S.; Veeramachaneni, D.N. Rao; Luben, Thomas J.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Nuckols, John R.

2006-01-01

41

Birth prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in northern England, 1993–2000  

PubMed Central

Aim There is much debate as to whether the prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias are increasing. To address this issue we investigated the birth prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the northern region of England during the period 1993–2000. Methods Cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias were identified from northern region hospital episodes statistics (HES). Trends in birth prevalence, based on the number of male live births, were assessed using linear regression. Results Prevalence was 7.6 per 1000 male live births for cryptorchidism and 3.1 per 1000 male live births for hypospadias. The orchidopexy rates for 0–4?year olds and 5–14?year olds were 1.8 and 0.8 per 1000 male population, respectively. The rates for hypospadias repair for 0–4?year olds and 5–14?year olds were 0.6 and 0.1 per 1000 male population, respectively. There was a statistically significant decreasing temporal trend for the corrective procedure in cryptorchidism of 0.1 per 1000 male population aged under 5?years per annum (95% confidence interval: ?0.01 to ?0.05, p<0.001), but no temporal change for the corrective procedure in hypospadias (p?=?0.60). Conclusion HES data were of high quality for the study period. There was no significant change in the prevalence of surgically corrected hypospadias. However, there was an apparent decline in the prevalence of surgically corrected cryptorchidism that may reflect a decrease in the prevalence of the condition or may be due to a decrease in the rate of surgical intervention. PMID:17142312

Abdullah, N A; Pearce, M S; Parker, L; Wilkinson, J R; Jaffray, B; McNally, R J Q

2007-01-01

42

The role of two-stage repair in modern hypospadiology  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias surgery continues to evolve. The enthusiasm for flap-based urethroplasty is waning and instead there is an increasing preference for urethroplasty that uses either the urethral plate alone or in combination with grafts. From the vast armamentarium of hypospadias repairs that are still in use, the author suggests a simple protocol of just three closely related procedures with which we can now repair almost all hypospadias. The tubularised incised plate (TIP) repair and the ‘Snodgraft’ modification of the TIP principle are simple and effective one-stage solutions when partial circumference urethroplasty is required. Conversely, the Bracka two-stage graft repair remains an ideal and versatile solution when a full circumference urethroplasty is required. It is particularly appropriate for severe primary hypospadias associated with a poor plate and marked chordee and also to replace a scarred, hairy or balanitis xerotica obliterans diseased urethra in re-operative salvage hypospadias. PMID:19468400

Bracka, Aivar

2008-01-01

43

Endovascular stent-graft repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a patient with a short and severely angulated proximal aortic neck.  

PubMed

Serious anatomical limitations to endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) are mostly related to the anatomical characteristics of the proximal neck of the aneurysm. A 75-year-old male was referred for management of an incidentally found large asymptomatic infra-renal saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm. Its proximal aortic neck was short and severely angulated. We performed successful EVAR in this patient without surgical intervention. PMID:24064766

Her, Ae-Young; Kim, Yong Hoon

2013-07-01

44

Pathophysiology of Proximal Perigraft Endoleak Following Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: a Study Using a Flow Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective to design a flow model to determine whether and why increased proximal neck angulation correlates with increased risk of proximal perigraft endoleak (PPE) flow. Methods a tapered stent-graft (Gianturco stent + Dacron) was deployed with proximal and distal necks made of silicone. The amount of PPE was measured over 30-s periods while the angulation of the proximal neck was

J.-N Albertini; J. A Macierewicz; S. W Yusuf; P. W Wenham; B. R Hopkinson

2001-01-01

45

Risk factors for hypospadias in China  

PubMed Central

This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

2014-01-01

46

CXorf6 is a causative gene for hypospadias.  

PubMed

46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) refer to a wide range of abnormal genitalia, including hypospadias, which affects approximately 0.5% of male newborns. We identified three different nonsense mutations of CXorf6 in individuals with hypospadias and found that its mouse homolog was specifically expressed in fetal Sertoli and Leydig cells around the critical period for sex development. These data imply that CXorf6 is a causative gene for hypospadias. PMID:17086185

Fukami, Maki; Wada, Yuka; Miyabayashi, Kanako; Nishino, Ichizo; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Camerino, Giovanna; Kretz, Christine; Buj-Bello, Anna; Laporte, Jocelyn; Yamada, Gen; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Ogata, Tsutomu

2006-12-01

47

Mutational study of the MAMLD1-gene in hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypospadias, when the urethral opening is situated on the ventral side of the penis, is a common genital malformation in boys and is partly caused by genetic factors. Mutations in the Mastermind-like domain containing 1 (MAMLD1 or CXorf6) gene have been reported in hypospadias cases. We have performed direct sequencing of the MAMLD1 gene in 99 sporadic hypospadias cases to

Yougen Chen; Hanh T. T. Thai; Johanna Lundin; Kristina Lagerstedt-Robinson; Shengtian Zhao; Ellen Markljung; Agneta Nordenskjöld

2010-01-01

48

Patient with bilateral breast enlargement and hypospadias.  

PubMed

A 20 year old man was admitted in the surgical unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital on August 2007 presented with Hypospadias & underdeveloped penis from childhood, gradual enlargement of both breasts for the last 10 years, absence of axillary and pubic hair from puberty & painful swelling of both testes for the last 3 years. The patient was regarded as a female upto the age of 10 years. He has got no voice change since puberty. On examination he had average body built, there was bilateral gynaecomastia, hypospadias, rudimentary penis & absence of pubic and axillary hair. His testosterone level, serum prolactin level, serum progesterone level, serum estradiol level was done. Cytology on buccal smear done and ultrasonography revealed no ovary and uterus. Ultimately patient was diagnosed as a case of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience. PMID:19182761

Ali, A A; Ahmed, T; Rashid, M M

2009-01-01

49

Soft tissue covers in hypospadias surgery: Is tunica vaginalis better than dartos flap?  

PubMed Central

Aim: To compare tunica vaginalis with dartos flap as soft tissue cover in primary hypospadias repair. Materials and Methods: 25 cases (age range: 12-132 months; all fresh cases) of primary hypospadias were prospectively repaired by tubularized incised plate (TIP)/TIP + graft urethroplasty using tunica vaginalis flap (TVF) as soft tissue cover to urethroplasty (group A). Their results were compared with another set (group B) of age- and anatomy-matched controls (25 patients operated during the previous 3 years) who had undergone TIP repair using dartos flap as soft tissue cover. Statistical analysis of results was done with Fischer's exact test. Results: Group A: No fistula, skin necrosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture. One case had partial wound dehiscence that resolved on conservative treatment with no sequelae. One case required catheter removal on 3rd day because of severe bladder spasm. There was no testicular atrophy/ascent. Group B: 3 fistulae – all required surgery. There were three cases of superficial skin necrosis that healed spontaneously without sequel. There was no meatal stenosis/urethral stricture. The difference in fistula rate between both the groups, however, was not statistically significant (P = 0.4). Conclusion: TVF may have an edge over dartos fascia for soft tissue coverage of the neourethra. PMID:22279358

Dhua, Anjan Kumar; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar; Sinha, Shandip; Ratan, Simmi K.

2012-01-01

50

Defects of the Testosterone Biosynthetic Pathway in Boys With Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe determined the incidence of defects in 3 enzymes, namely 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase, on the testosterone biosynthetic pathway in boys with hypospadias.

Ian A. Aaronson; Murat A. Cakmak; Lyndon L. Key

1997-01-01

51

Intrauterine growth restriction and hypospadias: is there a connection?  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations of the genitourinary tract in males. It is an incomplete fusion of urethral folds early in fetal development and may be associated with other malformations of the genital tract. The etiology is poorly understood and may be hormonal, genetic, or environmental, but most often is idiopathic or multifactorial. Among many possible risk factors identified, of particular importance is low birth weight, which is defined in various ways in the literature. No mechanism has been identified for the association of low birth weight and hypospadias, but some authors propose placental insufficiency as a common inciting factor. Currently, there is no standardized approach for evaluating children with hypospadias in the setting of intrauterine growth restriction. We reviewed the available published literature on the association of hypospadias and growth restriction to determine whether it should be considered a separate entity within the category of disorders of sexual differentiation. PMID:25337123

2014-01-01

52

Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance, and endocrine disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disruptors, such as environmental compounds with endocrine-altering properties, may cause hypospadias and crytorchidism\\u000a in several species, including humans. Anogenital distance is sexually dimorphic in many mammals, with males having longer\\u000a anogenital distance on average than females. Animal models of proposed endocrine disruptors have associated prenatal exposure\\u000a with hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and reduced anogenital distance. Human studies have correlated shorter anogenital

Michael H. Hsieh; Benjamin N. Breyer; Michael L. Eisenberg; Laurence S. Baskin

2008-01-01

53

Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection?  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies in the United States, occurring in approximately 1 in 250 newborns or roughly 1 in 125 live male births. It is the result of arrested development of the urethra, foreskin, and ventral surface of the penis where the urethral opening may be anywhere along the shaft, within the scrotum, or in the perineum. The only treatment is surgery. Thus, prevention is imperative. To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine the etiology of hypospadias, the majority of which have been classified as idiopathic. In this paper we briefly describe the normal development of the male external genitalia and review the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of hypospadias. The majority of hypospadias are believed to have a multifactorial etiology, although a small percentage do result from single gene mutations. Recent findings suggest that some hypospadias could be the result of disrupted gene expression. Discoveries about the antiandrogenic mechanisms of action of some contemporary-use chemicals have provided new knowledge about the organization and development of the urogenital system and may provide additional insight into the etiology of hypospadias and direction for prevention. PMID:11713004

Baskin, L S; Himes, K; Colborn, T

2001-01-01

54

Polyorchidism Presenting with Inguinal Hernia and Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Polyorchidism is defined as the presence of more than two testes. Triorchidism is the most frequent presentation. This anomaly is extremely rare, and approximately a hundred cases were described in the literature. We report a case of triorchidism presenting with inguinal hernia and penoscrotal hypospadias in a three-year-old male and briefly discuss current management of polyorchidism. Management remains controversial especially if there is no associated abnormality identified. The absence of any concomitant disorder and if testicular tumour can be ruled out by sonography or magnetic resonance imaging, surgical exploration with biopsy could be unnecessary. On the contrary, surgical exploration has the advantage of allowing for fixation of the testes to prevent torsion and determination of testicular outflow tracts and estimating reproductive capacity. PMID:23997977

Tatl?, Duygu; Numanoglu, Kemal Var?m

2013-01-01

55

Do adult men with untreated hypospadias have adverse outcomes? A pilot study using a social media advertised survey  

PubMed Central

Objective Hypospadias is usually treated in childhood. Therefore, the natural history of untreated mild hypospadias is unknown. We hypothesized that men with untreated hypospadias, especially mild, do not have adverse outcomes. Materials Facebook was used to advertise an electronic survey to men older than 18 years. Men with untreated hypospadias identified themselves and indicated the severity of hypospadias with a series of questions. Outcomes included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), penile curvature and difficulty with intercourse, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Penile Perception Score (PPS), psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. Results 736 men completed self-anatomy questions and 52 (7.1%) self-identified with untreated hypospadias. Untreated hypospadias participants reported worse SHIM (p < 0.001) and IPSS scores (p = 0.05), more ventral penile curvature (p = 0.003) and resulting difficulty with intercourse (p < 0.001), worse satisfaction with meatus (p = 0.011) and penile curvature (p = 0.048), and more sitting to urinate (p = 0.07). When stratified by mild and severe hypospadias, severe hypospadias was associated with more adverse outcomes than mild hypospadias. Conclusion Men with untreated hypospadias reported worse outcomes compared with non-hypospadiac men. Mild untreated hypospadias had fewer adverse outcomes than severe hypospadias. Research is needed to determine if treatment of childhood hypospadias improves outcomes in adults, especially for mild hypospadias. PMID:24613143

Schlomer, Bruce; Breyer, Benjamin; Copp, Hillary; Baskin, Laurence; DiSandro, Michael

2014-01-01

56

Assessment of Outcome in Hypospadias Surgery – A Review  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

Springer, Alexander

2014-01-01

57

Proximal Biceps Tendonitis  

MedlinePLUS

... that arm. But sometimes an injury or small tear in the tendon can cause problems right away. Some of the ... do surgery to repair badly injured proximal biceps tendons, it's usually for adults. Kids and teens ... can include the following: Rest your arm. Stop ...

58

Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Hypospadias (SOT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hypospadias, one of the most common birth defects in human male infants, is a condition in which the urethral opening is misplaced along ventral aspect of the penis. We developed an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and computer simulation that describes the pathogenesis of...

59

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism.  

PubMed Central

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10090709

Paulozzi, L J

1999-01-01

60

Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to biomechanically compare, under cyclic loading conditions, fracture site motion, humeral head collapse, and intra-articular hardware penetration in simulated 3-part osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures stabilized with 1 of 2 locking-plate constructs. We performed fixation on simulated 3-part proximal humeral fractures in 10 pairs of cadaveric osteoporotic humeri with a Hand Innovations S3 Proximal Humerus Plate (S3 plate) or an LCP Proximal Humerus Plate (LCP plate; 1 each for each pair). The specimens were potted, mounted on a materials testing machine, and subjected to 5000 cycles of abduction in the scapular plane, loading through the supraspinatus tendon. Interfragmentary displacement at 2 virtual points (the most medial aspect of the calcar and the most superior aspect of the osteotomy line between the greater tuberosity and humeral head) was measured using an optical tracking system. Humeral head rotation was also measured. We used a generalized linear latent and mixed model to check for an effect of cyclic loading and treatment on the parameters of interest (significance, P < .05). After cyclic loading, the S3 plate humeri showed significantly greater displacement of the greater tuberosity fragment and rotation of the humeral head and a trend (not a significant difference) toward greater displacement at the calcar. No hardware penetration was noted for either repair. Although the S3 plate repairs resulted in significantly more fracture site motion, it is unknown whether the magnitude of the motion is clinically significant. PMID:23569665

Rose, David M.; Sutter, Edward G.; Mears, Simon C.; Gupta, Rohit R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

2010-01-01

61

False aneurysm origination from the proximal anastomosis of a right ventricular to pulmonary artery shunt following staged repair of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.  

PubMed

The Norwood I operation, including placement of a shunt from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries, has been adopted by many surgeons for neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A three-year-old male who had undergone the Norwood I operation, and the Glenn operation, presented with a cervical pulsating tumor prior to the operation for total cavopulmonary connection. At the Glenn operation, the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery shunt was closed with a clip proximally, and the distal part was resected. Following the Glenn operation, the child had had recurrent deep sternal infections caused by Serratia marcescens. Cardiac catheterization showed a false aneurysm from the proximal shunt anastomosis. The bleeding after resternotomy was managed by initiating cardiopulmonary bypass via the groin vessels. Cerebral air embolies were prevented by systemic application of potassium, to achieve cardioplegic arrest during chest opening. The shunt was removed and the defect was closed. After the shunt was confirmed to be free from infection, a total cavopulmonary connection was performed after three days postoperatively. The case illustrates the management of retrosternal aneurysms during resternotomy in children. PMID:21172945

Hörer, Jürgen; Malcic, Ivan; Schreiber, Christian; Lange, Rüdiger

2011-03-01

62

The CAG repeat polymorphism in the Androgen receptor gene modifies the risk for hypospadias in Caucasians  

PubMed Central

Background Hypospadias is a birth defect of the urethra in males, and a milder form of 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). The disease is characterized by a ventrally placed urinary opening due to a premature fetal arrest of the urethra development. Moreover, the Androgen receptor (AR) gene has an essential role in the hormone-dependent stage of sexual development. In addition, longer AR polyglutamine repeat lengths encoded by CAG repeats are associated with lower transcriptional activity in vitro. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the role of the CAG repeat length in the AR gene in hypospadias cases as compared to the controls. Our study included 211 hypospadias and 208 controls of Caucasian origin. Methods We amplified the CAG repeat region with PCR, and calculated the difference in the mean CAG repeat length between the hypospadias and control group using the T-test for independent groups. Results We detected a significant increase of the CAG repeat length in the hypospadias cases when compared to the controls (contrast estimate: 2.29, 95% Confidence Interval (1.73-2.84); p-value: 0.001). In addition, the odds ratios between the hypospadias and controls revealed that the hypospadias cases are two to 3 times as likely to have longer CAG repeats than a shorter length for each repeat length investigated. Conclusions We have investigated the largest number of hypospadias cases with regards to the CAG repeat length, and we provide evidence that a higher number of the CAG repeat sequence in the AR gene have a clear effect on the risk of hypospadias in Caucasians. PMID:23167717

2012-01-01

63

Proximal Nephron  

PubMed Central

The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

2013-01-01

64

Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

Piascik, Robert S.

2011-01-01

65

Variation spatiotemporelle de la cryptorchidie et de l’hypospadias au Québec : Une étude exploratoire  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectifs : La majorité des études effectuées au cours des dernières décennies ont mis en évidence une augmentation du nombre de cas de cryptorchidie et d’hypospadias entre 1970 et 1990. De plus, l’importante variabilité géographique de ces anomalies est bien décrite. Cette étude vise à mesurer la prévalence à la naissance de la cryptorchidie et de l’hypospadias au Québec, à vérifier si ces anomalies sont en augmentation et à en évaluer la répartition interrégionale. Méthode : Une étude épidémiologique descriptive a été réalisée à partir du nombre de garçons de cinq ans et moins hospitalisés pour une cryptorchidie ou un hypospadias au Québec de 1989 à 2004 selon les données du fichier administratif d’hospitalisation MED-ÉCHO. Les données sur les naissances provenaient de l’Institut de la statistique du Québec. Résultats : La prévalence annuelle moyenne pour 1000 naissances vivantes de sexe masculin est de 19,1 (IC à 95 % : 18,8–19,4) pour la cryptorchidie et 11,4 (IC à 95 % 11,1–11,6) pour l’hypospadias au Québec. Au cours de la période étudiée, la prévalence de cryptorchidie a légèrement diminué, alors que celle de l’hypospadias est demeurée stable. Comparativement à la province du Québec, des régions présentent une prévalence significativement différente de cryptorchidie et/ou d’hypospadias. . Conclusion : Au Québec, la prévalence de cryptorchidie est en légère diminution alors que celle de l’hypospadias est stable. Des variations régionales significatives sont observables. D’autres études sont nécessaires afin d’évaluer l’hypothèse d’un lien avec les contaminants environnementaux en émergence. L’implantation d’un système de surveillance des anomalies congénitales permettrait une représentation plus valide de la situation. PMID:21672476

Guertin, Sophie; Lemieux, Karine-Sylvie; Makhoulian, Natalie; Michaud, Sébastien; Patry, Rose-Marie; Côté, Anne-Andrée; Gagnon, Fabien; Ayotte, Pierre; Bolduc, Stéphane

2011-01-01

66

Sequencing of the DKK1 gene in patients with anorectal malformations and hypospadias.  

PubMed

Anorectal malformations (ARM) are rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. Approximately 60 % of the patients have additional congenital malformations, such as hypospadias. A recently published article showed that deletion of one single gene, dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor-1 (Dkk1), resulted in an imperforate anus with rectourinary fistula and preputial hypospadias in mice. To determine whether DKK1 also plays a role in the etiology of ARM and hypospadias in humans, we sequenced the four exons of the DKK1 gene in 17 patients affected with both ARM and hypospadias. No new potential disease-causing variant was identified. However, we detected a known non-synonymous variant in one patient, which was predicted in silico to be damaging, and the corresponding unaffected amino acid is highly conserved. Conclusion: In this human study, a potential interesting non-synonymous variant was found in the DKK1 gene. Whether this variant plays a contributory role in the genesis of ARM or hypospadias would require a much larger study. PMID:25319845

van de Putte, Romy; Wijers, Charlotte H W; de Blaauw, Ivo; Feitz, Wout F J; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Hakobjan, Marina; Sloots, Cornelius E J; van Bever, Yolande; Brunner, Han G; Roeleveld, Nel; van Rooij, Iris A L M; van der Zanden, Loes F M

2014-10-17

67

Heavy Metal Levels in Adolescent and Maternal Blood: Association with Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background. Hypospadias is a part of testicular digenesis syndrome (TDS) which includes infertility, cryptorchidism, and spermatogenesis. Heavy metals act as endocrine disrupting compounds. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and lead have been associated with male infertility, cryptorchidism, spermatogenesis, cancer, reproductive disorder, and neurological disorder. However, it remains an important issue to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that the role of heavy metals in male reproductive tract disorders. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the possible association of heavy metal and risk of hypospadias by estimating the blood heavy metal levels. Methods. In this case control study, 50 hypospadias boys diagnosed and confirmed by a pediatric urologist and 50 randomly selected age-matched (1–5 years) healthy control boys not suffering from any clinically detectible illness and their mothers have been included and heavy metal levels in the blood of these subjects have been estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Result. Significantly high levels of cadmium and lead have been observed in hypospadias cases; however, all heavy metal levels were present in higher concentration. Conclusion. Higher blood levels of cadmium and lead may be associated with the increased risk of hypospadias. PMID:24729887

Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Yadav, Chandra Shekhar; Gupta, Piyush; Sharma, Sunil

2014-01-01

68

Genome-wide association analyses identify variants in developmental genes associated with hypospadias.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a common congenital condition in boys in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1,006 surgery-confirmed hypospadias cases and 5,486 controls from Denmark. After replication genotyping of an additional 1,972 cases and 1,812 controls from Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden, 18 genomic regions showed independent association with P < 5 × 10(-8). Together, these loci explain 9% of the liability to developing this condition. Several of the identified regions harbor genes with key roles in embryonic development (including HOXA4, IRX5, IRX6 and EYA1). Subsequent pathway analysis with GRAIL and DEPICT provided additional insight into possible genetic mechanisms causing hypospadias. PMID:25108383

Geller, Frank; Feenstra, Bjarke; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Pers, Tune H; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Choudhry, Shweta; Karjalainen, Juha M; Schnack, Tine H; Hollegaard, Mads V; Feitz, Wout F J; Roeleveld, Nel; Hougaard, David M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Franke, Lude; Baskin, Laurence S; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; van der Zanden, Loes F M; Melbye, Mads

2014-09-01

69

Chordee without hypospadias: Operative classification and its management  

PubMed Central

Context: Developing countries. Aims: To propose a operative classification of Chordee without hypospadias (CWH) with its management. Settings and Design: Tertiary referral centre; Retrospective study from January 2000 to January 2011. Materials and Methods: Total 26 patients were classified peroperatively into sixtypes (A: Cutaneous chordee? Degloving skin and dartos (1/26); B: Fibrous chordee? chordectomy (4/26);C: Corporocavernosalchordee? Corporoplasty ± Urethral mobilization (4/26); D: Urethral tethering with Hypoplastic urethra? Urethral mobilization ± urethral reconstruction because of hypoplastic urethra (14/26); E: Congenital short urethra? excision of urethra from the meatus and urethroplasty (2/26); and F: Complex chordee? Degloving ± Corporoplasty ± urethroplasty (1/26 patients). The follow-up over 6 months to 9 years were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS soft ware version 17.0 for Windows. Results: The mean age of surgery was 5.33 ± 0.11 years. The success rate defined on uroflowmetry and voiding cystourethrography was 65.6%. The coronal urethra-cutaneous fistula developed in 26.9% (7/26) {including 7.7% (3/26) of associated metal stenosis}. The urethral stricture developed in 3.8% (1/26). Conclusions: CWH needs stepwise surgical management. The operative classification may help in better understanding and management of this difficult entity. Meticulous tissue handling and urethroplasty is needed for good and promising results. PMID:23798865

Singh, Sunita; Rawat, Jiledar; Kureel, Shiv Narayan; Pandey, Anand

2013-01-01

70

Caucasian male infants and boys with hypospadias exhibit reduced anogenital distance  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Animal models of endocrine dysfunction have associated male genital defects with reduced anogenital distance (AGD). Human studies have correlated shorter AGD with exposure to putative endocrine disruptors in the environment but have not examined AGD in hypospadiac boys. We measured AGD in boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals. METHODS Data were collected prospectively on boys undergoing urologic procedures at the University of California San Francisco and the Children's Hospital of Oakland, CA, USA. Data included age, race, height, weight, BMI, urologic diagnoses and AGD. To minimize any potential effects of race on observed AGD, we examined only Caucasian boys. Differences between boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals were examined through two-tailed Student's t-tests. RESULTS One hundred and nineteen Caucasian boys ranging in age from 4 to 86 months underwent AGD measurement, of which 42 and 77 were boys with normal genitals and hypospadias, respectively. The mean (±SD) AGD of boys with hypospadias was 67 ± 1.2 versus 73 ± 1 mm for boys with normal genitals (P = 0.002). In these age-unmatched patient groups, there were also differences in age, height and weight (P = 0.0001, 0.0002 and 0.0004, respectively). After age matching (all <2 years of age), boys with hypospadias (n= 26) still featured a shorter AGD than boys with normal genitals (n= 26; 62 ± 2 versus 68 ± 2 mm respectively, P = 0.033) but the differences in age, height and weight were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS In humans, hypospadias may indeed be associated with reduced AGD. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these preliminary findings and to determine their etiology. PMID:22434852

Hsieh, Michael H.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Hittelman, Adam B.; Wilson, Jason M.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Baskin, Laurence S.

2012-01-01

71

Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Aims: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methods: Data (1980–96) from the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) were used to analyse the proportion of all congenital anomaly cases (n = 35 962) which were notified with hypospadias (n = 3471) by occupational codes (348 individual job titles) and by categories of exposure to potential EDCs from a job exposure matrix. Results: Five individual occupations (of 348) showed nominally statistically significant excesses, none of which had possible or probable exposure to potential EDCs. Odds ratios for "possible" or "probable" compared to "unlikely" exposure to potential EDCs did not show statistically significant increases in any of the EDC categories after adjustment for social class of the mother and father, nor was there evidence of an upward trend in risk with likelihood of exposure. In the 1992–96 time period odds ratios were increased for hairdressers (the largest group exposed to potential EDCs) and for probable exposure to phthalates (of which hairdressers form the largest group) before social class adjustment. Conclusions: There was little evidence for a relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation or occupational exposure to potential EDCs, but as the exposure classification was necessarily crude, these findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:12883014

Vrijheid, M; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; van Tongeren, M; Botting, B

2003-01-01

72

[Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with patent ductus arteriosus and hypospadia in an Asiatic patient].  

PubMed

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) appeared sporadically in an Asian boy, who also presented with naevus teleangiectaticus lateralis, patent ductus arteriosus (Botalli) and hypospadia. The association of these findings raises the question of a new syndrome. In addition, this is the first report of KFSD in a patient of Asian origin. PMID:10354925

Harth, W; Linse, R

1999-04-01

73

Hypospadias in offspring is associated with chronic exposure of parents to organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides.  

PubMed

We have currently evaluated the possible association between hypospadias and exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. For this purpose, we measured the dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (DAPs) in the hair and blood, as well as OC pesticides (DDTs, HCHs) in the hair collected from children with hypospadias and their parents. The concentration of HCHs in the hair samples obtained from mothers was higher than that previously reported for people working in open cultivations, while the concentration of DDTs in the hair samples obtained from mothers, fathers and their children with hypospadias was much higher than that previously reported for occupationally exposed individuals. The DMP concentration in hair samples obtained from mothers was much higher not only from that reported for the general population, but even higher than that reported for occupationally exposed individuals. Furthermore, SUMDEPs and SUMDAPs in the hair samples obtained both from the hypospadiac boys, as well as from their parents were higher than the corresponding values previously reported for the general population. Our study supports the hypothesis that organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide exposure may be a potential risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:24388412

Michalakis, Michalis; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Kovatsi, Leda; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Tsakalof, Andreas K; Heretis, Ioannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

2014-10-15

74

Proximity fuze  

DOEpatents

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

Harrison, T.R.

1987-07-10

75

Proximity fuze  

DOEpatents

A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

Harrison, Thomas R. (Stockton, CA)

1989-08-22

76

A new susceptibility locus for hypospadias on chromosome 7q32.2-q36.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypospadias is a common malformation (1\\/300 boys) where the urethra opens on the ventral side of the penis. It is considered\\u000a a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis. To identify the chromosomal loci\\u000a involved in the pathogenesis of hypospadias, we performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in a three-generational family showing\\u000a autosomal dominant inheritance of

Hanh T. T. Thai; Cilla Söderhäll; Kristina Lagerstedt; Mir Davood Omrani; Louise Frisén; Johanna Lundin; Ingrid Kockum; Agneta Nordenskjöld

2008-01-01

77

The Valine Allele of the V89L Polymorphism in the 5Reductase Gene Confers a Reduced Risk for Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Hypospadias is one of the most common malformations in man, with an incidence of 1:300 in newborn boys. No gene has been identified that causes isolated hypospadias, but the androgenic in- fluence is important during male genital development. Objective: A key enzyme for the androgenic function is steroid 5-- reductase (SRD5A2). The V89L polymorphism in the SRD5A2 gene hasbeenstudiedandfoundtobeoffunctionalimportance.Theleucine

Hanh T. T. Thai; Mina Kalbasi; Kristina Lagerstedt; Louise Frisen; Ingrid Kockum; Agneta Nordenskjold

78

Normal postnatal androgen production and action in isolated micropenis and isolated hypospadias.  

PubMed Central

To try and find out if a defect in androgen biosynthesis or action could be responsible for the incomplete virilisation seen in boys with isolated hypospadias and isolated micropenis, androgen receptor binding was studied in genital skin fibroblasts established from 18 boys with isolated micropenis and 19 boys with isolated hypospadias. The production of gonadotrophins and testosterone was also measured in the boys with micropenis. There was no evidence of gonadotrophin deficiency, or of a defect in testosterone biosynthesis in the boys with micropenis, and there was no evidence of a quantitative or qualitative defect of androgen binding in either group. These isolated abnormalities may be the result of transient defects in androgen synthesis or action, or both, during a critical phase of embryogenesis. PMID:1929508

Evans, B A; Williams, D M; Hughes, I A

1991-01-01

79

Use of a preputial circumferential mucosal flap for hypospadias management in a Boston terrier.  

PubMed

An eight-week-old male Boston terrier presented for penile desiccation and urine pooling in the prepuce due to congenital hypospadias. An advancement flap was created from the dorsal mucosa of the incompletely formed prepuce and sutured circumferentially to construct a longer distal preputial mucosa. V- to Y-plasty of the ventral abdominal skin was utilised to create the preputial skin overlying the mucosal flap. Urethrostomy and partial penile amputation were also performed. Following surgery, the clinical signs of penile desiccation and preputial urine pooling resolved and acceptable cosmetic appearance was achieved. This technique may be considered for glandular or penile hypospadias or following resection of the ventral aspect of the distal prepuce when inadequate tissue is present for a simple two-layer closure of the preputial mucosa and skin. PMID:22276748

Grossman, J; Baltzer, W

2012-05-01

80

The Opitz hypertelorism-hypospadias syndrome. Further delineation of the spectrum of clinical findings.  

PubMed

In this paper we report three male patients with the Opitz hypertelorism-hypospadias syndrome. In addition to the typical morphological findings, signs of cerebral palsy related to dysmaturity and perinatal adaptation problems were present in two of them. This illustrates that this syndrome is a true multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation MCA/MR syndrome with great variability in expression of clinical symptoms. PMID:3655750

Dereymaeker, A M; Fryns, J P; Hoefnagels, M; Heremans, G; Marien, J; Van den Berghe, H

1987-08-01

81

Minor Hypospadias: The “Tip of the Iceberg” of the Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Androgens are critical in male external genital development. Alterations in the androgen sensitivity pathway have been identified in severely undermasculinized boys, and mutations of the androgen receptor gene (AR) are usually found in partial or complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether even the most minor forms of isolated hypospadias are associated with AR mutations and thus whether all types of hypospadias warrant molecular analysis of the AR. Materials and Methods Two hundred and ninety-two Caucasian children presenting with isolated hypospadias without micropenis or cryptorchidism and 345 controls were included prospectively. Mutational analysis of the AR through direct sequencing (exons 1–8) was performed. In silico and luciferase functional assays were performed for unreported variants. Results Five missense mutations of the AR were identified in 9 patients with glandular or penile anterior (n?=?5), penile midshaft (n?=?2) and penile posterior (n?=?2) hypospadias, i.e., 3%: p.Q58L (c.173A>T), 4 cases of p.P392S (c.1174C>T), 2 cases of p.A475V (c.1424C>T), p.D551H (c.1651G>C) and p.Q799E (c.2395C>G). None of these mutations was present in the control group. One mutation has never been reported to date (p.D551H). It was predicted to be damaging based on 6 in silico models, and in vitro functional studies confirmed the lowered transactivation function of the mutated protein. Three mutations have never been reported in patients with genital malformation but only in isolated infertility: p.Q58L, p.P392S, and p.A475V. It is notable that micropenis, a cardinal sign of AIS, was not present in any patient. Conclusion AR mutations may play a role in the cause of isolated hypospadias, even in the most minor forms. Identification of this underlying genetic alteration may be important for proper diagnosis and longer follow-up is necessary to find out if the mutations cause differences in sexual function and fertility later in life. PMID:23637914

Kalfa, Nicolas; Philibert, Pascal; Werner, Ralf; Audran, Françoise; Bashamboo, Anu; Lehors, Hélène; Haddad, Myriam; Guys, Jean Michel; Reynaud, Rachel; Alessandrini, Pierre; Wagner, Kathy; Kurzenne, Jean Yves; Bastiani, Florence; Bréaud, Jean; Valla, Jean Stéphane; Lacombe, Gérard Morisson; Orsini, Mattea; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Hiort, Olaf; Paris, Françoise; McElreavey, Kenneth; Sultan, Charles

2013-01-01

82

Diacylglycerol Kinase K Variants Impact Hypospadias in a California Study Population  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE A recent genome-wide association study reported the novel finding that variants in diacylglycerol kinase kappa (DGKK) were associated with hypospadias. Our objectives were to determine whether this finding could be replicated in a more racially-ethnically diverse study population of California births and to provide a more comprehensive investigation of variants. METHODS We examined the association of 27 DGKK SNPs with hypospadias, relative to population-based non-malformed controls born in selected California counties from 1990-2003. Analyses included a maximum of 928 controls and 665 cases (91 mild, 336 moderate, 221 severe, 17 undetermined). Results for mild and moderate cases were similar so they were grouped together. RESULTS For mild and moderate cases, odds ratios (OR) for 15 of the 27 SNPs had p-values <0.05; two were <1, and the others ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. Among severe cases, ORs tended to be closer to one and none of the p-values were <0.05. Due to high LD across the SNPs, haplotype analyses were conducted, and two blocks were generated. These analyses identified a set of eight variants that was associated with a three- to four- fold increased risk, relative to the most common haplotype, regardless of severity of the phenotype (the OR was 4.1, p<10-4 for mild to moderate cases and 3.3, p=0.001 for severe cases). CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that DGKK variants are associated with hypospadias. Further studies are needed to enable a more thorough investigation of DGKK variability and to delineate the mechanism by which DGKK contributes to urethral development. PMID:23177175

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Mohammed, Nebil; Ma, Chen; Iovannisci, Dave; Choudhry, Shweta; Baskin, Larry S.; Witte, John S.; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.

2014-01-01

83

Association of hypospadias and cardiac defect in a Parvovirus B19-infected stillborn: a causality relation?  

PubMed

Parvovirus B19 intrauterine infection is a known cause of hydrops fetalis and fetal death. It is also associated with congenital malformations, although the teratogenic potential seems to be low. Postmortem examination of a male stillborn of 29 gestational weeks revealed mild subcutaneous edema, malformed micropenis, perineoscrotal hypospadias and atrial septal defect, along with fetal erythroblastosis and villitis. Polymerase chain reaction detected Parvovirus B19 DNA genome in tissues from the fetus and the placenta, confirming the hypothesis of an intrauterine infection. PMID:16712940

Konstantinidou, A E; Syridou, G; Spanakis, N; Tsakris, A; Agrogiannis, G; Patsouris, E

2007-01-01

84

[Urethral meatus buried and urethra hypospadias in women: Prevalence, problems and definitions. Study of 12,739 patients.  

PubMed

The difficulty to access to the urethral meatus is found in women in relation to morphological abnormalities of urogenital or ectopic locations meatus, whether acquired (urethral meatus buried [UMB]) or congenital reality (urethra hypospadias [UH]). The pathophysiology is not unequivocal with lack of clear and specific studies. PMID:25458739

Salga, M; Guinet-Lacoste, A; Demans-Blum, C; Thomas-Pohl, M; Weglinski, L; Amarenco, G

2014-11-13

85

Intracellular and nuclear binding of [3H]dihydrotestosterone in cultured genital skin fibroblasts of patients with severe hypospadias.  

PubMed Central

Androgens stimulate the development and growth of the male external genitalia. Because hypospadias is the most common congenital defect of the male urethra and because in most cases the cause of this malformation is unknown, we examined the hypothesis that the etiology of the severe forms of this disorder, which is frequently associated with other genital anomalies, might be explained by receptor abnormalities. Intracellular and nuclear binding of androgens were determined in cultured genital skin fibroblasts from 10 males who underwent circumcision for phimosis (controls A), 2 patients with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency (controls B), and 11 patients with severe forms of hypospadias of unknown etiology. Genital skin fibroblast monolayers were incubated for 60 min at 37 degrees C with varying concentrations of [3H]-dihydrotestosterone ([3H]DHT), and specific binding in whole cells and nuclei was measured. Maximum binding (Bmax) in the whole cell assay averaged 0.88 +/- 0.15 fmol . microgram DNA-1 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (controls A, 0.89 +/- 0.16 fmol . microgram DNA-1; controls B, 0.85 fmol . microgram DNA-1) and 0.7 +/- 0.25 fmol . microgram DNA-1 in the patients with hypospadias. In the latter group, Bmax in six patients was below the minimum values determined in the controls. Maximum specific nuclear binding in the control groups averaged 43% (range, 30-55%) of the corresponding intracellular binding. In contrast, nuclear binding in strains from patients with hypospadias was lower (range, 0-12% of whole cell Bmax). In particular, no high affinity saturable nuclear [3H]DHT binding could be measured in 6 of the 11 patients. We interpret these data to suggest that defective intracellular and/or nuclear binding might be the cause of defective genital development in some patients with severe hypospadias. PMID:2913055

Schweikert, H U; Schlüter, M; Romalo, G

1989-01-01

86

A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:23028613

Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

2012-01-01

87

Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007  

PubMed Central

Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

2014-01-01

88

MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: ECOSYSTEM  

E-print Network

MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: ECOSYSTEM AND OVERVIEW OF NFC TECHNOLOGY 1. Introduction Handsets confirm topic in the mobile payment field and promises a revolution in the world of payments. This article traces the state-of-the-art in mobile proximity payment field and traces the most probable evolution

Shamos, Michael I.

89

Nature GeNetics VOLUME 46 | NUMBER 9 | SEPTEMBER 2014 957 Hypospadias is a birth defect with a prevalence of about 4.5 cases  

E-print Network

with hypospadias are low birth weight and/or being small for gestational age, placental insufficiency, maternal weeks 8 and 16 of gestation2, when the urethra is formed in a complex process that is not yet fully

Kaski, Samuel

90

[Mismatch repair].  

PubMed

Specific repair systems are activated in response to the DNA damage. Mismatch repair protects the genome of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells from lesions that appear during process of DNA replication or are induced by mutagenic factors. The methyl directed mismatch repair distinguishes the new strand from the old strand by the hemi-methylated state of the DNA and controls the fidelity of genetic information after homologous recombination. The very short patch repair restores the mismatches at the sites with nucleotide sequence CC(W/T)GG. The "8-oxoG" pathway is independent of the hemi-methylated state of the DNA, and removes the oxidated nucleotides from the genome of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mutations in genes of mismatch repair enhance the process of mutagenesis in prokaryotic cell, and are the reason for the development of the colon cancer in humans. The mechanisms of mismatch repair and the role of defective repair proteins in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are discussed in this review. PMID:16637261

Goliasnaia, N V; Tsvetkova, N A

2006-01-01

91

Proximal biceps rupture: management of an unusual injury in an arm wrestler.  

PubMed

Arm wrestling may cause unusual injuries, which may require operative repair in the sporting individual. Injury to the proximal biceps as a consequence of arm wrestling has not been reported previously. The diagnosis and treatment of a 36-year-old man who sustained a proximal biceps rupture while arm wrestling and his operative management are described. PMID:17237118

Pratt, D A; Tennent, T D

2007-07-01

92

An Easy and Useful Exposure Technique Using a Malleable U-Shaped Retractor for Proximal Anastomosis in Abdominal Aortic Replacement  

PubMed Central

During surgery for an abdominal aortic aneurysm, various problems can occur at the proximal anastomosis. Adequate exposure must be secured, and the proximal anastomosis must be sutured firmly. We have used a malleable U-shaped retractor to easily secure exposure of the proximal anastomosis. Despite recent advances in endovascular treatment, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair often requires open surgery. We describe our malleable U-shaped retractor technique, which is very easy and facilitates the creation of a secure proximal anastomosis.

Cho, Tomoki; Yasuda, Shota; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

2014-01-01

93

DELETION MAPPING OF CRITICAL REGION FOR HYPOSPADIAS, PENOSCROTAL TRANSPOSITION AND IMPERFORATE ANUS ON HUMAN CHROMOSOME 13  

PubMed Central

Background The 13q-deletion syndrome causes human congenital birth defects due to the loss of regions of one long arm of human chromosome 13. A distal critical region for severe genitourinary and anorectal birth defects in the region of 13q32.2-34 has been suggested; we sought to narrow this critical region. Methods From patients with karyotypes revealing haploinsufficiency for distal chromosome 13q and their parents, peripheral blood was obtained and lymphocytes were immortalized for DNA isolation. Genetic and molecular cytogenetic methods were used to map deletions. Patient and parental samples were genotyped with a panel of 20 microsatellite markers spanning 13q31.3 qter and deletions identified by loss of heterozygosity. Deletions were also mapped using a panel of 35 BAC clones from the same region as probes for fluorescence in-situ hybridization on patient lymphoblastoid metaphase preparations. The data were synthesized and a deletion map defining the critical region was generated. Results Eight patients with known deletions around 13q32qter and their parents were analyzed, and categorized into three groups: three patients with anorectal and genitourinary anomalies (hypospadias, penoscrotal transposition), four male patients without anorectal and genitourinary anomalies, and one XY patient with ambiguous genitalia without anorectal anomalies. We mapped the critical region for anorectal and genitourinary anomalies to a ?9.5-Mb interval of 13q33.3-q34 delineated by markers D13S280-D13S285; this spans ?8% of the chromosome and contains 20 annotated genes Conclusion The critical region of chromosome 13q mediating genitourinary/anorectal anomalies has been mapped, and will be narrowed by additional patients and further mapping. Identification of the gene(s) mediating these syndromic genitourinary defects should further our knowledge of molecular mediators of non-syndromic hypospadias, penoscrotal transposition and anorectal malformations. PMID:17476316

Garcia, Nilda M.; Allgood, Jocelyn; Santos, Lane J.; Lonergan, D.; Batanian, J.R.; Henkemeyer, Mark; Bartsch, Oliver; Schultz, Roger A.; Zinn, Andrew R.; Baker, Linda A.

2007-01-01

94

Technical consideration for subxiphoidal incisional hernia repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The main principle of incisional hernia repair with mesh augmentation is a wide overlap of at least 5 cm in all directions. This is complicated when cartilaginous or osseous structures border the fascial defect, most notably at the xiphoid after sternotomy or in large proximal incisional hernias. Method: We performed an anatomic investigation of this ''problematic'' area with its

J. Conze; A. Prescher; K. Kisielinski; U. Klinge; V. Schumpelick

2005-01-01

95

Androgen receptor mRNA measured by quantitative real time PCR is decreased in the urethral mucosa of patients with middle idiopathic hypospadias.  

PubMed

Androgen action is exerted through the androgen receptor. The normal 46,XY genital virilization depends on androgen receptor gene expression, which is tissue specific, and requires normal androgen receptor mRNA levels in androgen sensitive tissues. Hypospadias is a frequent male genital abnormality, potentially related to reduced androgen sensitivity in genital tissues. The aim of this study was to compare, by quantitative real time PCR, the amount of androgen receptor mRNA in cells obtained from the urethral mucosa of patients with middle idiopathic hypospadias with the androgen receptor mRNA levels observed in control phimosis subjects with eutopic urethral opening. Prepubertal individuals were studied, including 41 controls and 17 hypospadias patients with mean (SD) ages of 4.7 (2.1) years and 4.0 (3.0) years, respectively. We observed significantly less androgen receptor mRNA in the urethral mucosa of patients with hypospadias than in the controls (p=0.002). The correlation between the level of androgen receptor mRNA expression and the penile size was almost statistically significant only in hypospadias patients (r=0.47; p=0.053). We also established the number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene by GeneScan analysis. No significant difference was observed in the number of CAG repeats when patients and controls were compared. A negative correlation between the CAG repeats and penile size was detected in patients with hypospadias, but not in controls. Our data suggest that a critical lower level of androgen receptor mRNA expression could be a determining factor in the development of middle hypospadias. PMID:23386417

Silva, T S; Richeti, F; Cunha, D P P S; Amarante, A C M; de Souza Leão, J Q; Longui, C A

2013-07-01

96

A49T, R227Q and TA repeat polymorphism of steroid 5 alpha-reductase type II gene and Hypospadias risk in North Indian children  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Hypospadias is a common congenital error of genital development, the frequency of which is increasing. As androgens have a significant role in the development of the male urethra, we sought to investigate the association between functional polymorphisms of SRD5A2 gene in relation to hypospadias. Methods We examined DNA samples of 96 cases and 105 controls for SRD5A2-A49T, R227Q and TA repeat gene polymorphisms. Result Absence of 49T locus and 227Q locus was observed in the present study. At the (TA) n repeat site, TA (0) allele was observed to be the most common allele in both cases (91.7%) and controls (90%). TA (9/9) genotype exhibited an odds ratio of 3.03 (95% C.I. = 0.18–50.14, p = 0) with respect to only middle phenotypes. Analysis of the demographic data depicted the agricultural background aspect of the parents of the cases. 72.27% of the cases (affected with Hypospadias) have parents having agriculture as a primary occupation. Conclusion As longer TA repeats are associated with lower enzymatic activity and lower DHT levels as reported among Caucasians, this polymorphism may have an effect (rather small) in predisposing the population of the present study to the risk of Hypospadias of lesser severity. Due to small sample size, the 3.03 O.R. is not significant and a larger sample is needed to validate the results. Large scale screening of Hypospadias and other 46 X,Y disorders of sexual development is needed especially in India, where the majority of the population is from agricultural background. The results of the present study are likely to assist the health planners to initiate screening of Hypospadias among the farmer community to combat the risk of Hypospadias.

Samtani, Ratika; Bajpai, Minu; Ghosh, P.K.; Saraswathy, K.N.

2014-01-01

97

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

98

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

99

Railroad Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, sneaky Hacker has removed some of the tracks on the Trans-Cyberspace Railroad. Learners must repair the tracks so the Cybertrain can get back to Central Station. Learners add decimals and drag spare tracks to fill the missing spaces.

Wnet

2011-01-01

100

Railroad Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sneaky Hacker has removed some of the tracks on the trans-cyberspace railroad. It's up to you to repair the tracks so the cybertrain can get back to Central Station. Youâll need to drag spare tracks to fill the missing spaces. To successfully fill the missing spaces you must add decimals together. Good luck!

2008-01-01

101

Snowmobile Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

Helbling, Wayne

102

Proximal Humeral Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite more than 3,000 articles published proximal humeral fractures remain diffi cult to defi ne and classify, natural evolution\\u000a has been poorly defi ned and the best treatment option is yet to be established. Current trends in management of these complex\\u000a fractures are analyzed and rationale decision-making is presented.

C. Torrens

103

Proximate Analysis of Coal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

104

XQL and Proximal Nodes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of models that have been developed to structure text documents for information retrieval focuses on XML and its proposed query language XQL. Considers efficiency of the query engine and shows that an already existing model, Proximal Nodes, can be used as an efficient query engine behind an XQL front-end. (Author/LRW)

Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

2002-01-01

105

Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

1997-01-01

106

Meniscal Repair  

PubMed Central

The meniscus has several important roles, such as transmission of the load, absorption of the shock in the knee joint, acting as a secondary anteroposterior stabilizer of the knee joint, and contributing to proprioception of the knee joint. Degenerative changes of the knee joint develop in the long-term follow-up even after partial meniscectomy. Thus, there has been growing interest in meniscal repair. In addition, with increased understanding of the important roles of the meniscal root and advancement of diagnostic methods, efforts have been made to ensure preservation of the meniscal roots. In this review article, we will discuss operative techniques and clinical outcomes of arthroscopic repair of the meniscus and the meniscal root and postoperative rehabilitation and complications as well. PMID:24944971

Yoon, Kyoung Ho

2014-01-01

107

Proximal Point Methods Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximal point methods have been widely used in the last decades to approximate the solutions of nonlinear equations associated with monotone operators. Inspired by the iterative procedure defined by B. Martinet (1970), R.T. Rockafellar introduced in 1976 the so-called proximal point algorithm (PPA) for a general maximal monotone operator. The sequence generated by this iterative method is weakly convergent under appropriate conditions, but not necessarily strongly convergent, as proved by O. Güler (1991). This fact explains the introduction of different modified versions of the PPA which generate strongly convergent sequences under appropriate conditions, including the contraction-PPA defined by H.K. Xu in 2002. Here we discuss Xu's modified PPA as well as some of its generalizations. Special attention is paid to the computational errors, in particular the original Rockafellar summability assumption is replaced by the condition that the error sequence converges to zero strongly.

Boikanyo, Oganeditse A.; Moro?anu, Gheorghe

2011-09-01

108

Proximity Networks and Epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We presented the basis of a framework to account for the dynamics of contacts in epidemic processes, through the notion of dynamic proximity graphs. By varying the integration time-parameter T, which is the period of infectivity one can give a simple account for some of the differences in the observed contact networks for different diseases, such as smallpox, or AIDS. Our simplistic model also seems to shed some light on the shape of the degree distribution of the measured people-people contact network from the EPISIM data. We certainly do not claim that the simplistic graph integration model above is a good model for dynamic contact graphs. It only contains the essential ingredients for such processes to produce a qualitative agreement with some observations. We expect that further refinements and extensions to this picture, in particular deriving the link-probabilities in the dynamic proximity graph from more realistic contact dynamics should improve the agreement between models and data.

Guclu, Hasan; Toroczkai, Zoltán

2007-03-01

109

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15

110

Distributed proximity sensor system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to sensors embedded on the surface of a robot hand, or other moving member. By distributing proximity sensors capable of detecting distances and angles to points on the surface of an object, information is obtained for achieving noncontacting shape and distance perception, i.e., for automatic determination of the object's shape, direction, and distance, as well as the orientation of the object relative to the robot hand or other moving member.

Lee, Sukhan (inventor)

1988-01-01

111

Cri-du-chat (5p-) syndrome presenting with cerebellar hypoplasia and hypospadias: prenatal diagnosis and aCGH characterization using uncultured amniocytes.  

PubMed

We present prenatal diagnosis of a de novo distal deletion involving 5p(5p15.1?pter) using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with cerebellar hypoplasia, hypospadias and facial dysmorphisms in the fetus. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of CTNND2, SEMA5A, TERT, SRD5A1 and TPPP. We speculate that haploinsufficiency of SRD5A1 and TPPP may be responsible for hypospadias and cerebellar hypoplasia, respectively, in this case. PMID:23500598

Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Town, Dai-Dyi; Wang, Wayseen

2013-07-25

112

Total Preputial Flap: A Reliable and Versatile Technique for Urethral and Penile Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

We revisit the technique of total preputial flap (TPF) and its application for urethroplasty, penile skin coverage of both and present our results in 43 patients (41 hypospadias, 2 epispadias). There were no instances of flap necrosis. In patients without prior attempts at reconstruction (n?=?36), we observed four urethrocutaneous fistulas. TPF allowed the repair of cases of proximal hypospadias in one stage with an acceptable complication rate. PMID:24860798

Ludwikowski, Barbara; González, Ricardo

2014-01-01

113

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2003-05-01

114

Restricted Optical Proximity Effect Correction Pattern Generation Based on Optical Proximity Effect Correction-Design for Manufacturability Rule in Model-Based Optical Proximity Effect Correction: Application for Metal Layer in Complementary MetalOxideSemiconductor Logic Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent submicron technologies, the pattern formation on photomasks is increasing in its difficulty owing to the complexity of optical proximity effect correction (OPC) and resolution enhancement techniques (RET). The detection and repair of critical patterns after OPC or RET have become essential procedures for photomask preparation, and design rule check (DRC) or lithography simulation tools have often been

Katsuhiko Harazaki; Tasuku Yoshioka; Kiyoshige Ohmori; Masayuki Satoh; Akio Kawamura

2007-01-01

115

Book Repair Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

Milevski, Robert J.

1995-01-01

116

Ten-Year Experience With Transvaginal Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair Using Tissue Interposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe success rate of vesicovaginal fistula repair is improved by tissue interposition. The Martius flap produces reliable results but it has increased morbidity. A peritoneal flap is easily created with minimal morbidity and it can be used for proximal fistulas. We describe our 10-year experience with tissue interposition for transvaginal repair of vesicovaginal fistulas.

KARYN SCHLUNT EILBER; ELIZABETH KAVALER; LARISSA V. RODRÍGUEZ; NIRIT ROSENBLUM; SHLOMO RAZ

2003-01-01

117

Hybrid arch debranching and endograft repair in a patient with a ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Recent advances in hybrid techniques of aortic arch debranching allow for the repair of thoracic aortic arch aneurysm without requiring cardiopulmonary bypass or hypothermic circulatory arrest. We describe the repair of a ruptured proximal descending thoracic aortic aneurysm, using off-pump aortic arch debranching and antegrade transaortic deployment of a thoracic endograft in an elderly patient. PMID:24734283

Gunn, Tyler M; Amin, Parth B; Stamou, Sotiris C

2014-03-01

118

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal  

E-print Network

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal Point Methods Yves Lucet & Warren Hare July 24, 2013 1 / 26 #12;Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Outline 1

119

Proximity Relationships in Rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Energy transfer was used as a spectroscopic ruler to deduce proximity relationships within bovine rhodopsin in digitonin solution. Rhodopsin was specifically labeled with fluorescent chromophores at three sites. Site A was alkylated by fluorescent derivatives of iodoacetamide. Site B was labeled by fluorescent disulfides, by a disulfide-sulfhydryl interchange reaction. Sites A and B are sulfhydryl residues. Acridine derivatives were tightly bound to site C by noncovalent interactions. The labeled rhodopsins retained their 500-nm absorption band and were regenerable after bleaching, suggesting that the fluorescent probes did not grossly perturb the conformation of the protein. A fluorescent chromophore at one of these sites served as the energy donor, while 11-cis retinal was the energy acceptor. The efficiency of singlet-singlet energy transfer was determined from the quantum yield and excited-state lifetime of the donor in the presence and absence of the acceptor. By Förster's theory, the apparent distances between 11-cis retinal and sites A, B, and C were calculated to be 75,55, and 48 Å, respectively. Energy transfer measurements on rhodopsin labeled at two of these sites gave these apparent distances: 35 Å for A to B, 32 Å for A to C, and 30 Å for B to C. These energy transfer studies suggest that the rhodopsin molecule has a length of at least 75 Å. Thus, the rhodopsin molecule appears to be sufficiently long to traverse the disc membrane. Rhodopsin might act as a light-controlled gate. PMID:4504322

Wu, Cheng-Wen; Stryer, Lubert

1972-01-01

120

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

121

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

122

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Resection and recession - discharge; Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... eyes. The medical term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children usually receive general anesthesia for this surgery. ...

123

Retinal detachment repair  

MedlinePLUS

Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a detached retina back into its normal position. A detached ... layers. This article describes the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments -- retinal detachments that occur due to a hole ...

124

Repairing Broken Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how biomedical engineers aid doctors in repairing severely broken bones. They learn about using pins, plates, rods and screws to repair fractures. They do this by designing, creating and testing their own prototype devices to repair broken turkey bones.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

125

Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

Haines, Richard F.

1987-01-01

126

Endoluminal vacuum therapy for iatrogenic perforation of the proximal oesophagus.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic perforation of the upper gastrointestinal tract is one of the most serious complications of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Treatment is challenging because stent placement or surgical repair of the perforation in this area is often impossible. We report on two cases of iatrogenic perforations of the very proximal oesophagus and distal hypopharynx which could be successfully closed by using an endoluminal vacuum sponge treatment for 5 days. Thus, the endoluminal vacuum therapy may be a useful alternative to surgery in such cases of difficultly managable perforations of the upper oesophagus. PMID:24622870

Möschler, O; Müller, M K

2014-03-01

127

Pathophysiology and management of proximal tubal blockage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the physiology, pathology, and treatment of proximal tubal disease.Data Identification: Relevant reports on the pathophysiology of proximal tubal disease were reviewed. All studies in English of microsurgery and macrosurgery, and of radiographic and hysteroscopic cannulation in women with proximal tubal blockage were identified through MEDLINE searches.Study Selection: All studies of therapy for proximal blockage that included pregnancy

Gerard M Honoré; Alan E. C Holden; Robert S Schenken

1999-01-01

128

Hypospadias in a male (78,XY; SRY-positive) dog and sex reversal female (78,XX; SRY-negative) dogs: clinical, histological and genetic studies.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is rarely reported in dogs. In this study we pre-sent 2 novel cases of this disorder of sexual development and, in addition, a case of hereditary sex reversal in a female with an enlarged clitoris. The first case was a male Moscow watchdog with a normal karyotype (78,XY) and the presence of the SRY gene. In this dog, perineal hypospadias, bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and testes were observed. The second case, representing the Cocker spaniel breed, had a small penis with a hypospadic orifice of the urethra, bilateral cryptorchidism, testis and a rudimentary gonad inside an ovarian bursa, a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene. This animal was classified as a compound sex reversal (78,XX, SRY-negative) with the hypospadias syndrome. The third case was a Cocker spaniel female with an enlarged clitoris and internally located ovotestes. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene, while histology of the gonads showed an ovotesticular structure. This case was classified as a typical hereditary sex reversal syndrome (78,XX, SRY-negative). Molecular studies were focused on coding sequences of the SRY gene (case 1) and 2 candidates for monogenic hypospadias, namely MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain containing 1) and SRD5A2 (steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2). Sequencing of the entire SRY gene, including 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, did not reveal any mutation. The entire coding sequence of MAMLD1 and SRD5A2 was analyzed in all the intersexes, as well as in 4 phenotypically normal control dogs (3 females and 1 male). In MAMLD1 2 SNPs, including 1 missense substitution in exon 1 (c.128A>G, Asp43Ser), were identified, whereas in SRD5A2 7 polymorphisms, including 1 missense SNP (c.358G>A, Ala120Thr), were found. None of the identified polymorphisms cosegregated with the intersexual phenotype, thus, we cannot confirm that hypospadias may be associated with polymorphism in the coding sequence of the studied genes. PMID:21893969

Switonski, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Bartz, M; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Szczerbal, I; Colaço, B; Pires, M A; Ochota, M; Nizanski, W

2012-01-01

129

Unexpected and just missed: the separate influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on negative emotions.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that a goal-incongruent outcome leads to more intense negative emotions when it is unexpected and close to a goal-congruent outcome. Until now, however, no studies have disentangled the influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on emotions. We experimentally manipulated each of these variables in 3 slot machine experiments and measured emotions via differences in motivation (i.e., the tendency to repair the goal incongruence) and feelings (i.e., disappointment, frustration, and anger). The experiments consisted of a series of trials that each started with the sequential presentation of 3 symbols. In case of a win trial, all symbols were equal (e.g., AAA) and the participant gained 10 cents; in case of a loss trial, one or more of the symbols differed and the participant gained 0 cents. Three different loss trials were compared: unexpected proximal ones (e.g., AAB), expected proximal ones (e.g., ABA), and expected distal ones (e.g., ABC). The tendency to repair was measured online via behavior as well as retrospectively via self-reports; feelings were measured retrospectively (Experiments 1 and 2) or online (Experiment 3). Unexpected losses seemed to increase the tendency to repair as well as feelings of disappointment (in all experiments) and feelings of frustration and anger (in Experiments 1 and 3). Proximal losses increased only the tendency to repair (in all experiments). This suggests that the appraisals of expectancy and proximity have a distinct influence on emotions. PMID:24364851

Bossuyt, Evelien; Moors, Agnes; De Houwer, Jan

2014-04-01

130

Optimality in DNA repair  

PubMed Central

DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge. PMID:21945337

Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

2012-01-01

131

Measuring Proximity between Heterogeneous Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring proximity (or similarity) underlies many algorithms in information processing (by humans or indeed animals, or by machines). When the data involved are heterogeneous this issue is further complicated. This paper discusses some of the difficulties of measuring similarity between heterogeneous data and possible directions for addressing these difficulties using computational intelligence\\/fuzzy set based techniques. An important concept underlying the

Anca Ralescu; Michihiko Minoh

2007-01-01

132

Fundamentals of Airframe Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site, visitors will find introductory materials to airframes and airframe repair for helicopters and airplanes. The resource is divided into two parts; part one discusses the basic components and processes of airframes, and part two covers airframe damage repair. Additionally, each part is broken down into four lessons, including Aviation Hardware, Structural Repair, and Metal-Working Processes. The text of the material is supplemented with helpful labeled drawings to illustrate each part of the airframe. This resource is useful for students who are just beginning in the field of airframe maintenance and repair, or the more general fields of aeronautics or aeronautical engineering.

133

Allograft reconstruction for symptomatic chronic complete proximal hamstring tendon avulsion.  

PubMed

Complete proximal hamstring tendon avulsion is an uncommon injury that can cause significant disability in young, athletic individuals. Surgical reattachment is recommended and can be performed on a delayed basis if the tissue is sufficiently mobile. We report 2-year follow up for two cases where interpositional allograft tissue was used for reconstruction because the tendon was too retracted for primary repair. Two 30-year-old patients with complete proximal hamstring avulsion at least 2 years earlier reported severe hamstring weakness and restrictions with respect to sport and recreational activities. Proximal hamstring tendon reconstruction with Achilles tendon allograft was performed for both patients. They were immobilized for 8 weeks with the hip in extension and the knee in flexion using a custom orthosis, followed by physical therapy and weight bearing as tolerated. The patients were followed for over 2 years after the surgery and were evaluated with physical examination, isokinetic strength testing and detailed questions about their function. Following the procedure, both patients returned to a more active lifestyle that was greatly improved with respect to participation in sport and function. This procedure should be considered as a salvage operation as the patients did not return to completely normal function and demonstrated hamstring weakness on the operated side. PMID:18682918

Marx, Robert G; Fives, Gregory; Chu, Samuel K; Daluiski, Aaron; Wolfe, Scott W

2009-01-01

134

Wound repair and regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repair of wounds is one of the most complex biological processes that occur during human life. After an injury, multiple biological pathways immediately become activated and are synchronized to respond. In human adults, the wound repair process commonly leads to a non-functioning mass of fibrotic tissue known as a scar. By contrast, early in gestation, injured fetal tissues can

Geoffrey C. Gurtner; Sabine Werner; Yann Barrandon; Michael T. Longaker

2008-01-01

135

Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

136

Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic screening in the proximity system S/sub ..cap alpha../-M/sub ..beta../, where M/sub ..beta../ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth lambda are obtained. The dependence lambda(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

Kresin, V.Z.

1985-07-01

137

Proximity operations in space station environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewgraphs on proximity operations in space station environment are presented. Topics covered include: automated flight; remote manual piloting; task requirements and constraints; problem formulation; and flight parameter flow\\/pilot interaction for proximity operations task.

Brandt Rhodes

1990-01-01

138

Reusing Cadaveric Humeri for Fracture Testing After Testing Simulated Rotator Cuff Tendon Repairs  

PubMed Central

Abstract The financial cost of using human tissues in biomedical testing and surgical reconstruction is predicted to increase at a rate that is disproportionately greater than other materials used in biomechanical testing. Our first hypothesis is that cadaveric proximal humeri that had undergone monotonic failure testing of simulated rotator cuff repairs would not differ in ultimate fracture loads or in energy absorbed to fracture when compared to controls (i.e., bones without cuff repairs). Our second hypothesis is that there can be substantial cost savings if these cadaveric proximal humeri, with simulated cuff repairs, can be re-used for fracture testing. Results of fracture tests (conducted in a backwards fall configuration) and cost analysis support both hypotheses. Hence, the bones that had undergone monotonic failure tests of various rotator cuff repair techniques can be re-used in fracture tests because their load-carrying capacity is not significantly reduced. PMID:25371862

Pitts, Todd C.; Knight, Alex N.; Burkhead, Wayne Z.

2014-01-01

139

Reusing cadaveric humeri for fracture testing after testing simulated rotator cuff tendon repairs.  

PubMed

The financial cost of using human tissues in biomedical testing and surgical reconstruction is predicted to increase at a rate that is disproportionately greater than other materials used in biomechanical testing. Our first hypothesis is that cadaveric proximal humeri that had undergone monotonic failure testing of simulated rotator cuff repairs would not differ in ultimate fracture loads or in energy absorbed to fracture when compared to controls (i.e., bones without cuff repairs). Our second hypothesis is that there can be substantial cost savings if these cadaveric proximal humeri, with simulated cuff repairs, can be re-used for fracture testing. Results of fracture tests (conducted in a backwards fall configuration) and cost analysis support both hypotheses. Hence, the bones that had undergone monotonic failure tests of various rotator cuff repair techniques can be re-used in fracture tests because their load-carrying capacity is not significantly reduced. PMID:25371862

Skedros, John G; Pitts, Todd C; Knight, Alex N; Burkhead, Wayne Z

2014-10-01

140

Fractures of the proximal humerus.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate. The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles Neer and the AO/OTA classification. Since the late 1980's it has been known that intra- and inter-observer variation was high within the two systems. I conducted a series of observer studies to qualify the disagreement further and to study to what extent improvement of agreement could be obtained. No clinically significant differences in observer agreement were found at different levels of clinical experience, by reducing the number of categories, or by adding high quality radiographs, CT or 3D CT scans. A consistently low agreement on the Neer classification within and between untrained orthopaedic doctors was found. However, we also found that inter-observer agreement on treatment recommendation was higher than the agreement on the Neer classification. In a randomized trial we found that agreement could improve significantly by training of doctors, especially among specialists. However, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis or reverse arthroplasty in complex fractures patterns. No randomized trials or well-conducted comparative studies were identified. High failure rates suggest that the use of these implants for complex fractures of the humerus should not be used outside clinical protocols. I recommend the conduct of randomized trials, and a design of such study is proposed. PMID:24303817

Brorson, Stig

2013-10-01

141

Through-and-through wire technique for endovascular damage control in traumatic proximal axillary artery transection.  

PubMed

Repair of blunt shoulder trauma with transection of the subclavian or proximal axillary artery poses a surgical challenge, especially in instable patients. Endovascular treatment for initial damage control in arterial transection has evolved as a promising technique to improve outcome, but technical success can be limited in cases of complete transection as the lesion cannot be passed by a guidewire. This report describes an endovascular approach using a through-and-through brachial-femoral wire to control complete traumatic transection of the proximal axillary artery in a hemodynamically unstable patient. Endovascular therapy is used as a bridging method for open surgical repair three days later under optimized conditions with an interdisciplinary team. The brachial-femoral guidewire technique helps to overcome limitations in endovascular therapy in patients with blunt traumatic transection of thoracic outlet arteries. PMID:24729014

Rohlffs, Fiona; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel Antonio; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Kölbel, Tilo

2015-02-01

142

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

143

Human mismatch repair protein hMutL? is required to repair short slipped-DNAs of trinucleotide repeats.  

PubMed

Mismatch repair (MMR) is required for proper maintenance of the genome by protecting against mutations. The mismatch repair system has also been implicated as a driver of certain mutations, including disease-associated trinucleotide repeat instability. We recently revealed a requirement of hMutS? in the repair of short slip-outs containing a single CTG repeat unit (1). The involvement of other MMR proteins in short trinucleotide repeat slip-out repair is unknown. Here we show that hMutL? is required for the highly efficient in vitro repair of single CTG repeat slip-outs, to the same degree as hMutS?. HEK293T cell extracts, deficient in hMLH1, are unable to process single-repeat slip-outs, but are functional when complemented with hMutL?. The MMR-deficient hMLH1 mutant, T117M, which has a point mutation proximal to the ATP-binding domain, is defective in slip-out repair, further supporting a requirement for hMLH1 in the processing of short slip-outs and possibly the involvement of hMHL1 ATPase activity. Extracts of hPMS2-deficient HEC-1-A cells, which express hMLH1, hMLH3, and hPMS1, are only functional when complemented with hMutL?, indicating that neither hMutL? nor hMutL? is sufficient to repair short slip-outs. The resolution of clustered short slip-outs, which are poorly repaired, was partially dependent upon a functional hMutL?. The joint involvement of hMutS? and hMutL? suggests that repeat instability may be the result of aberrant outcomes of repair attempts. PMID:23086927

Panigrahi, Gagan B; Slean, Meghan M; Simard, Jodie P; Pearson, Christopher E

2012-12-01

144

Percutaneous mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation.  

PubMed

Mitral regurgitation (MR) associated with, ischemic, and degenerative (prolapse) disease, contributes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction due to remodeling, and LV dilation, resulting in worsening of MR. Mitral valve (MV) surgical repair has provided improvement in survival, LV function and symptoms, especially when performed early. Surgical repair is complex, due to diverse etiologies and has significant complications. The Society for Thoracic Surgery database shows that operative mortality for a 1st repair is 2% and for re-do repair is 4 times that. Cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest are required. The attendant morbidity prolongs hospitalization and recovery. Alfieri simplified mitral repair using an edge-to-edge technique which subsequently has been shown to be effective for multiple etiologies of MR. The MV leaflers are typically brought together by a central suture producing a double orifice MV without stenosis. Umana reported that MR decreased from grade 3.6 +/- 0.5 to 0.8 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.0001) and LV ejection fraction increased from 33 +/- 13% to 45 +/- 11% (P = 0.0156). In 121 patients, Maisano reported freedom from re-operation of 95 +/- 4.8% with up to 6 year follow-up. Oz developed a MV "grasper" that is directly placed via a left ventriculotomy and coapts both leaflets which are then fastened by a graduated spiral screw. An in-vitro model using explanted human valves showed significant reduction in MR and in canine studies, animals followed by serial echo had persistent MV coaptation. At 12 weeks the device was endothelialized. These promising results have paved the way for a percutaneous or minimally invasive-off pump mitral repair. Evalve has developed catheter-based technology, which, by apposing the edges of a regurgitant MV, results in edge-to-edge repair. Release of the device is done after echo and fluoroscopic evaluation under normal loading conditions. If the desired effect is not produced the device can be repositioned or retrieved. Animal studies show excellent healing, with incorporation of the device into the leaflets at 6-10 weeks with persistent coaptation. Another percutaneous approach has been to utilize the proximity of the coronary sinus (CS) to the mitral annulus (MA). Placement of a self-compressing device in the CS along the region of the posterior MA has, in canine models, reduced MR and addresses the issues of MA dilation and its contribution to MR. Ongoing studies are underway for both techniques. PMID:12664822

Block, Peter C

2003-02-01

145

Individual Variation of the Genetic Response to Bisphenol A in Human Foreskin Fibroblast Cells Derived from Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias Patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose We hypothesized that polymorphic differences among individuals might cause variations in the effect that environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) have on male genital malformations (MGMs). In this study, individual variation in the genetic response to low-dose bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated in human foreskin fibroblast cells (hFFCs) derived from child cryptorchidism (CO) and hypospadias (HS) patients. Methodology/Principal Findings hFFCs were collected from control children without MGMs (n?=?5) and child CO and HS patients (n?=?8 and 21, respectively). BPA exposure (10 nM) was found to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP11) expression in the HS group (0.74-fold, P?=?0.0034) but not in the control group (0.93-fold, P?=?0.84) and CO group (0.94-fold, P?=?0.70). Significantly lower levels of MMP11 expression were observed in the HS group compared with the control group (0.80-fold, P?=?0.0088) and CO group (0.79-fold, P?=?0.039) in response to 10 nM BPA. The effect of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs5000770 (G>A), located within the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) locus, on individual sensitivity to low-dose BPA was investigated in the HS group. A significant difference in neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) expression in response to 10 nM BPA was observed between AA and AG/GG groups (n?=?6 and 15, respectively. P?=?0.031). However, no significant difference in ARNT2 expression was observed (P?=?0.18). Conclusions/Significance This study advances our understanding of the specificity of low-dose BPA effects on human reproductive health. Our results suggest that genetic variability among individuals affects susceptibility to the effects of EEDs exposure as a potential cause of HS. PMID:23285176

Qin, Xian-Yang; Sone, Hideko; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Mizuno, Kentaro; Ueoka, Katsuhiko; Muroya, Koji; Miyado, Mami; Hisada, Aya; Zaha, Hiroko; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Yoshinaga, Jun; Yonemoto, Junzo; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Yutaro; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

146

Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

MedlinePLUS

... to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm using a technology called an “endograft,” which is sometimes called the “ ... separate area, and it’s because of this small technology that allows you to do this. Exactly. So ...

147

Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.  

PubMed

Ventral hernias, whether naturally occurring or the result of previous surgery, comprise one of the most common problems confronting general surgeons. As many as 25% of laparotomy incisions develop a hernia over long-term follow-up, which is a difficult problem with many treatment algorithms. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has improved over the last decade and has proven to be an effective treatment option. With fewer wound complications and low recurrence rates, it is a useful tool in the surgeon's armamentarium. Care should be taken regarding patient selection, operative technique, and mesh size to ensure adequate repair of the hernia, thereby preventing recurrence at a later date. The first attempt at a hernia repair has the highest chance of long-term success, so it is important that the surgeon take all the factors into mind before proceeding with operative repair. PMID:21424876

Melvin, W Scott; Renton, David

2011-07-01

148

Unilateral cleft lip repair.  

PubMed

Modern cleft surgery requires four-dimensional and functional anatomic understanding of the cleft (and noncleft) lip, nose, and alveolus. Some techniques for nasolabial repair rely more on precise anatomic geometry, whereas others afford the surgeon a more flexible design. Consistent anthropometry enables accurate assessment and reporting of long-term outcomes; such reports are needed to guide perioperative care, delineate optimal repair principles, and resolve ongoing controversies. PMID:24607186

Vyas, Raj M; Warren, Stephen M

2014-04-01

149

Repairing Foam Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large holes in polyurethane foam insulation repaired reliably by simple method. Little skill needed to apply method, used for overhead repairs as well as for those in other orientations. Plug positioned in hole to be filled and held in place with mounting fixture. Fresh liquid foam injected through plug to bond it in place. As foam cures and expands, it displaces plug outward. Protrusion later removed.

Corbin, J.; Buras, D.

1986-01-01

150

Hypertelorism and hypospadias associated with a de novo apparently balanced translocation between 8q22.3-23 and 20p13  

SciTech Connect

A de novo apparently balanced translocation involving chromosomes 8 and 20 was found in a 14-year-old boy with minor anomalies, mild skeletal abnormalities and ambiguous external genitalia including perineoscrotal hypospadias, rudimentary fused labioscrotal folds, bilateral cryptorchidism, and small penis. The karyotype was 46,XY, t(8;20)(q22.3-23;p13). No signs of other conditions known to be associated with structural anomalies of either chromosome 8 or 20 were present and incomplete masculinisation of the external genitalia appears to be the main component of the phenotype. Clinical and biological studies showed apparently normal testicular function in utero and after birth. Examinations excluded 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency or a block in any enzymatic steps of testosterone, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid biosynthesis. Coding sequences of the sex-determining gene (SRY) and androgen receptor gene (AR) were found to be identical to those of a normal male excluding their role in the cause of the present condition. Since several other reports describe the association of hypospadias and hypertelorism with deletions or translocations involving 8q, we suggest that a locus necessary for male sex differentiation is located at distal 8q. 24 refs., 3 figs.

Tar, A. [Buda Children`s Hospital, Budapest (Hungary)] [Buda Children`s Hospital, Budapest (Hungary); Ion, A. [Hopital St. Vincent de Paul, Paris (France)] [Hopital St. Vincent de Paul, Paris (France); Gyoervari, B.; Solyom, J. [Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary)] [and others] [Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary); and others

1997-01-20

151

Half-tone proximity lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The half-tone lithography using pixilated chromium masks in a projection stepper is an established technology in micro-optics fabrication. However, the projection lithography tool is comparably expensive and the achievable lateral resolution is typically limited. By using pixel diffraction effects, binary and continuous profile lithography with submicron resolution can be installed on a conventional mask aligner. To achieve this goal the control of both, the angular spectrum of the illumination and the mask features is essential. We used a novel micro-optics based illumination system referred as "MO Exposure Optics System" in a SUSS MicroTec MA6 mask aligner for the dedicated shaping of the angular illumination distribution. In combination with an adapted lithography mask the formation of a desired intensity distribution in the resist layer is possible. A general mathematic model describes the relation between the angular spectrum of the mask illumination, pixel size and pitch in the mask, proximity distance and propagated field, which also includes special cases like Talbot imaging. We show that a wide range of different micro-optical structures can be optimized by controlling the light diffraction in proximity lithography. Parameter settings were found for submicron binary pattern up to continuous profile structures with extensions up to several tens of microns. An additional interesting application of this approach is the combination of binary and continuous profiles in single elements, e.g. micro lenses with diffractive correction or AR structures. Experimental results achieved for blazed gratings with a period of 2 microns are presented.

Harzendorf, Torsten; Stuerzebecher, Lorenz; Vogler, Uwe; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Voelkel, Reinhard

2010-05-01

152

Metabolic modulation of chromatin: implications for DNA repair and genomic integrity  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of genomic integrity in response to DNA damage is tightly linked to controlled changes in the damage-proximal chromatin environment. Many of the chromatin modifying enzymes involved in DNA repair depend on metabolic intermediates as cofactors, suggesting that changes in cellular metabolism can have direct consequences for repair efficiency and ultimately, genome stability. Here, we discuss how metabolites may contribute to DNA double-strand break repair, and how alterations in cellular metabolism associated with both aging and tumorigenesis may affect the integrity of our genomes. PMID:24065984

Liu, Jinping; Kim, Jeongkyu; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

2013-01-01

153

Idiopathic Proximal Hemimegacolon in an Adult Woman  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic proximal hemimegacolon is a disorder characterized by bowel dilatation proximal to the splenic flexure. It is a very rare and therefore a poorly understood clinical entity. This report describes a case of idiopathic proximal hemimegacolon in a 44-year-old woman. The patient suffered from 2 episodes of constipation and bowel dilatation over 4 years and was successfully treated by medical therapy. PMID:20535353

Noh, Jung Won; Son, Seo Young; Ok, Chang Soo; Lee, Gayeon; Min, Byung-Hoon

2010-01-01

154

Functional Reinnervation of the Canine Bladder after Spinal Root Transection and Immediate End-on-End Repair  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to transect and immediately repair ventral roots, selected by their ability to stimulate bladder contraction, to assess the feasibility of bladder reinnervation in a canine model. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was delivered via an osmotic pump (0.5 or 5 mg/mL) to a cuff surrounding the reanastomosis site to the two root bundles on one side. Electrodes were implanted bilaterally immediately proximal to the site of surgical reanastomosis. Results were compared to four root-intact, control animals that also received bilateral electrode implantation. At 6–12 months post-surgery, five of eight nerve transected and repaired animals showed increased pressure and bladder emptying during electrical stimulation of the repaired ventral roots contralateral to the BDNF delivery side. Nerve tracing studies one year postoperatively determined the repaired roots to be S1 and S2 and showed regrowth of axons from the spinal cord to nerve sites proximal to the repair site and to the bladder, and the presence of neurofilament-labeled axons growing across the ventral root repair site. In conclusion, transected ventral and dorsal roots in the sacral spine can be repaired and are capable of functionally reinnervating the urinary bladder. This feasibility study paves the way for future studies utilizing other more proximal motor nerves to bypass the transection site for bladder reinnervation. PMID:16866625

RUGGIERI, MICHAEL R.; BRAVERMAN, ALAN S.; D’ANDREA, LINDA; SIMPKISS, BERNADETTE; KOZIN, SCOTT H.; PONTARI, MICHEL A.; BETZ, RANDALL; BARBE, MARY F.

2012-01-01

155

Femoral hernia repair.  

PubMed

Femoral hernia repair has a long history. In the nineteenth century, simple closure of the femoral orifice by the femoral approach was favored. Such renowned surgeons as Bassini, Marcy, and Cushing authored papers about the femoral approach to femoral hernia. The recurrence rate was so high, however, that it was replaced by the inguinal approach. The man who popularized the inguinal approach was Chester McVay, who demonstrated the precise insertion of the tranversus abdominis muscle and transversalis fascia to the Cooper's ligament. He used Cooper's ligament for the femoral hernia repair by the inguinal approach. The complication and recurrence rate after the Cooper's ligament repair for femoral hernia was not satisfactory, however, due to tension on the approximated tissues, which caused postoperative pain and inability to resume normal activities. Irving Lichtenstein first introduced the plug technique to femoral hernia repair and it was further developed by Gilbert and Rutkow. In the present series, all elective cases were repaired by the PerFix mesh plug technique without any complications. Patients were discharged from the hospital on the first postoperative day and returned to normal activities shortly thereafter. These patients had few complaints of pain in the groin. The operating time using a PerFix plug was markedly shorter when contrasted with the Cooper's ligament repair. No infection of the prosthesis occurred, even in the cases in which the small intestine was necrotic and resected. From our 7-year experience of mesh plug femoral hernia repairs, I have come to regard this operation as the first choice in elective and noninfected cases of femoral hernia. In strangulated cases in which severe infection occurs. Cooper's ligament repair should be used, because there is a risk or infection to implanted prosthesis. Finally, femoral hernia is usually thought of as requiring emergency surgical treatment. Only 30% of our cases were treated as emergency operations, however, whereas 70% were elective. Unless patients complain of severe abdominal pain or ileus, surgeons need not perform emergency operations. In summary, the PerFix mesh plug hernia repair for femoral hernia has resulted in a reduced recurrence rate, shortened hospital stay, and a low rate of postoperative complications. PMID:14533910

Hachisuka, Takehiro

2003-10-01

156

Adverse consequences of internal iliac artery occlusion during endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Embolization of the internal iliac artery (IIA) may be performed during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair if aneurysmal disease of the common iliac artery precludes graft placement proximal to the IIA orifice. The IIA may also be unintentionally occluded because of iliac trauma or coverage by the endograft. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence,

Laura A. Karch; Kim J. Hodgson; Mark A. Mattos; William T. Bohannon; Don E. Ramsey; Robert B. McLafferty

2000-01-01

157

The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair  

E-print Network

The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair Xiaoming Liu1 and John F epithelial stem/progenitor cells of the proximal airways. As in the case of other adult stem cell niches and mobilize stem/progenitor cells, in the setting of normal cellular turnover or injury. Aberrant

Engelhardt, John F.

158

Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

2013-01-01

159

Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair  

PubMed Central

Labral tears in the hip may cause painful clicking or locking of the hip, reduced range of motion, and disruption to sports and daily activities. The acetabular labrum aids stabilization of the hip joint, particularly during hip motion. The fibrocartilaginous structure extends the acetabular rim and provides a suction seal around the femoroacetabular interface. Treatment options for labral tears include debridement, repair, and reconstruction. Repair of the labrum has been shown to have better results than debridement. Labral refixation is achieved with sutures anchored into the acetabular rim. The acetabular rim is trimmed either to correct pincer impingement or to provide a bleeding bed to improve healing. Labral repair has shown excellent short-term to midterm outcomes and allows patients to return to activities and sports. Arthroscopic rim trimming and labral refixation comprise an effective treatment for labral tears with an underlying diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement and are supported by the peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23875153

Philippon, Marc J.; Faucet, Scott C.; Briggs, Karen K.

2013-01-01

160

Sutured tendon repair; a multi-scale finite element model.  

PubMed

Following rupture, tendons are sutured to reapproximate the severed ends and permit healing. Several repair techniques are employed clinically, with recent focus towards high-strength sutures, permitting early active mobilisation thus improving resultant joint mobility. However, the arrangement of suture repairs locally alters the loading environment experienced by the tendon. The extent of the augmented stress distribution and its effect on the tissue is unknown. Stress distribution cannot be established using traditional tensile testing, in vivo, or ex vivo study of suture repairs. We have developed a 3D finite element model of a Kessler suture repair employing multiscale modelling to represent tendon microstructure and incorporate its highly orthotropic behaviour into the tissue description. This was informed by ex vivo tensile testing of porcine flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The transverse modulus of the tendon was 0.2551 [Formula: see text] 0.0818 MPa and 0.1035 [Formula: see text] 0.0454 MPa in proximal and distal tendon samples, respectively, and the interfibrillar tissue modulus ranged from 0.1021 to 0.0416 MPa. We observed an elliptically shaped region of high stress around the suture anchor, consistent with a known region of acellularity which develop 72 h post-operatively and remain for at least a year. We also observed a stress shielded region close to the severed tendon ends, which may impair collagen fibre realignment during the remodelling stage of repair due to the lack of tensile stress. PMID:24840732

Rawson, Shelley D; Margetts, Lee; Wong, Jason K F; Cartmell, Sarah H

2015-01-01

161

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

... 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2014-10-01

162

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2012-10-01

163

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2011-10-01

164

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2010-10-01

165

46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

2013-10-01

166

Imperforate anus repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... for passage of stool. Complete absence of an anal opening requires emergency surgery for the newborn. Surgical ... for several months before attempting the more complex anal repair. The anal repair involves an abdominal incision, ...

167

Proximate sources of collective teacher efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty of the teaching task that faces the school and the faculty's collective competence to be successful

Curt M. Adams; Patrick B. Forsyth

2006-01-01

168

Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

Chan, Selena

2013-01-01

169

Transcript-RNA-templated DNA recombination and repair.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination is a molecular process that has multiple important roles in DNA metabolism, both for DNA repair and genetic variation in all forms of life. Generally, homologous recombination involves the exchange of genetic information between two identical or nearly identical DNA molecules; however, homologous recombination can also occur between RNA molecules, as shown for RNA viruses. Previous research showed that synthetic RNA oligonucleotides can act as templates for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in yeast and human cells, and artificial long RNA templates injected in ciliate cells can guide genomic rearrangements. Here we report that endogenous transcript RNA mediates homologous recombination with chromosomal DNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed a system to detect the events of homologous recombination initiated by transcript RNA following the repair of a chromosomal DSB occurring either in a homologous but remote locus, or in the same transcript-generating locus in reverse-transcription-defective yeast strains. We found that RNA-DNA recombination is blocked by ribonucleases H1 and H2. In the presence of H-type ribonucleases, DSB repair proceeds through a complementary DNA intermediate, whereas in their absence, it proceeds directly through RNA. The proximity of the transcript to its chromosomal DNA partner in the same locus facilitates Rad52-driven homologous recombination during DSB repair. We demonstrate that yeast and human Rad52 proteins efficiently catalyse annealing of RNA to a DSB-like DNA end in vitro. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of homologous recombination and DNA repair in which transcript RNA is used as a template for DSB repair. Thus, considering the abundance of RNA transcripts in cells, RNA may have a marked impact on genomic stability and plasticity. PMID:25186730

Keskin, Havva; Shen, Ying; Huang, Fei; Patel, Mikir; Yang, Taehwan; Ashley, Katie; Mazin, Alexander V; Storici, Francesca

2014-11-20

170

Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

171

Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria  

E-print Network

Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria: Postreplication Kevin P Rice,University of Wisconsin Recombinational DNA repair represents the primary function for homologous DNA recombination in bacteria. Most of this repair occurs at replication forks that are stalled at sites of DNA damage. Introduction Deoxyribonucleic

Cox, Michael M.

172

Percutaneous Achilles tendon repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen patients underwent percutaneous Achilles tendon repairs between 1982 and 1989 for ruptures approximately 2 to 8 cm from the calcaneal insertion. They were evaluated subjectively (questionnaires) and objectively (physical examinations, Cybex II dynamom eter). The minimum follow-up time was 2 years with an average of 3.8 years. Subjectively, all of the patients were satisfied with their overall results. Objectively,

Robert E. Fitzgibbons; John Hefferon; James Hill

1993-01-01

173

Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.  

PubMed

Between March 1991 and May 1994, 444 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs were undertaken in 375 patients: 386 transperitoneal and 58 extraperitoneal. During a follow-up period of 20.5 months (range 1-38) there have been three recurrences at 6, 7 and 12 months, all direct and all after transperitoneal repair. A total of 52 patients were treated as a day case (< 6 h), 317 patients spent less than 24 h in hospital and four patients were discharged on the second postoperative day. Operating time for transperitoneal hernia repair was 27 min (range 10-68) and extraperitoneal repair, 29 min (range 11-48). Short-term complications occurred in 18 patients: six haematomas, four seromas, one urinary retention and seven suffered persistent groin pain. Six patients have had neuralgia, three have had mesh removed and three further patients had individual clips removed from within the inguinal canal. There have been two adhesive small bowel obstructions. The first occurred 2 months after laparoscopic surgery and required laparotomy; the second occurred 2 years after surgery and had laparoscopic division of an adhesive band to a pelvic staple. There was one infected lymphocoele treated percutaneously. PMID:7741670

Fielding, G A

1995-05-01

174

Automotive Body Repair Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

D'Armond, Jack; And Others

175

Laboratory For Telerobotic Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory telerobotic system performs such complicated tasks as picking up tools, removing thermal blanket, and replacing screws. Human operator in control room operates remote robot with aid of video monitors, torque and force displays, and force feedback. System used to perform research and to develop telerobotic-repair capabilities equal to those of human operator.

Fiorini, Paolo; Bejczy, Antal K.; Das, Hari; Zak, Haya

1993-01-01

176

Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

Hires, Bill; And Others

177

Proximal Priority Laser Therapy: PPLT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author has, in the past, classified treatment methods for pain geometrically as point, line, two-dimensional, three-dimensional treatment and has used these over the years. However as a practitioner of western medicine, the author originally treated pain only directed at the painful site, and encountered cases where local treatment did not suffice. The author proved with SPECT and the Rand Phantom that treating the neck which is the midpoint of the brain, the center of the nervous system and the heart, the center of circulation, increased cerebral blood flow and also that laser emitted to neck will reach the spinal chord no matter from where on the neck the laser is emitted. From such research and 25 years of clinical experience, the author has created an anatomy based, systemic treatment method called the Proximal Priority Laser Therapy (PPLT) where not only the cerebral cortex, spinal chord and peripheral nerves are treated but also the tracts of blood vessels and lymph ducts are treated as well. Treatment method and cases are presented herein.

Ohshiro, Toshio

2004-09-01

178

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOEpatents

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

179

Sensing of repair in chemically self-repairing composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question to be answered in this paper is how "does a user determine if a chemical self repair system has succeeded in self repairing damage". Three sensing methods indicated that chemical has been released into damage areas, another four methods were used to indicate that the container or encapsulator had been broken to release repair chemical, but only one method is known to indicate that the chemical reaction of the repair chemical has been accomplished. Many other methods were used to assess the structural or dynamic efficacy of the repairs. These methods of sensing of repair action are detailed with experimental data and results. The novel and ground breaking method of determining repair efficacy receives most emphasis.

Dry, Carolyn

2014-04-01

180

Release of the A4 pulley to facilitate zone II flexor tendon repair.  

PubMed

During primary or delayed primary repair of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon, surgeons often face difficulty in passing the retracted tendon or repaired tendon under the dense, fibrous A4 pulley. The A4 pulley is the narrowest part of the flexor sheath, proximal to the terminal tendon. Disrupted tendon ends (or surgically repaired tendons) are usually swelling, making passage of the tendons under this pulley difficult or even impossible. During tendon repair in the A4 pulley area, when the trauma is in the middle part of the middle phalanx and the A3 pulley is intact, the A4 pulley can be vented entirely to accommodate surgical repair and facilitate gliding of the repaired tendon after surgery. Venting the pulley does not disturb tendon function when the other major pulleys are intact and when the venting of the A4 pulley and adjacent sheath is limited to the middle half of the middle phalanx. Such venting is easily achieved through a palmar midline or lateral incision of the A4 pulley and its adjacent distal or/and proximal sheath, which helps ensure a more predictable recovery of digital flexion and extension. PMID:25282719

Tang, Jin Bo

2014-11-01

181

Possible preventive effect of high doses of folic acid for isolated hypospadias: a national population-based case-control study.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a common structural birth defect (congenital abnormality) of the male genital organ. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis regarding the possible preventive effect of folic acid for isolated hypospadias (IH). Folic acid use was compared in 3,038 cases with IH and 24,814 male controls without any defects in the national population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. In Hungary only one kind of folic acid tablet, containing 3?mg/tablet was available during the study period. Hungarian obstetricians recommended daily use of 1-3 tablets, that is, 3-9?mg of folic acid during pregnancy; the estimated daily dose was 5.7 or 5.6?mg in the mothers of cases with IH and controls, respectively. Of 3,038 mothers of cases 1,474 (48.5%) were supplemented with high doses of folic acid during pregnancy and 13,509/24,814 mothers of controls (54.9%) as reference were supplemented at this level as well (OR 95% CI: 0.79, 0.73-0.85). If only medically recorded folic acid use in the critical period of IH was evaluated, the preventive effect was more apparent (OR 95% CI: 0.36, 0.32-0.41). The intake of folic acid among mothers of infants with severe IH was lower than among mothers of infants with mild IH, suggesting a dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study suggests that high doses of folic acid are associated with a reduced risk of IH. However, this analysis was based on observational data; therefore, confirmation in a well-controlled study is needed. PMID:25257620

Mavrogenis, Stelios; Urban, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

2014-12-01

182

Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

2009-01-01

183

Prokaryotic Nucleotide Excision Repair  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation. PMID:23457260

Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

2014-01-01

184

IPIANO: INERTIAL PROXIMAL ALGORITHM FOR NONCONVEX ...  

E-print Network

This initiated the development of the so-called proximal gradient or forward- ...... Contour plot (left) and energy landscape (right) of the nonconvex function h shown ...... rithm for maximal monotone operators in Hilbert space, SIAM Journal on ...

2014-06-28

185

Performance Characterization of Random Proximity Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Performance Characterization of Random Proximity Sensor Networks Agostino Capponi Department-- In this paper, we characterize the localization per- formance and connectivity of sensors networks consisting connected active nodes. I. INTRODUCTION The emerging world of sensor networks has imposed a different

Jensen, Grant J.

186

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Mckagan, Sarah B.

2012-05-15

187

Reactive Grasping Using Optical Proximity Sensors  

E-print Network

We propose a system for improving grasping using fingertip optical proximity sensors that allows us to perform online grasp adjustments to an initial grasp point without requiring premature object contact or regrasping ...

Nangeroni, Paul

188

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

2012-02-01

189

Control of spacecraft in proximity orbits  

E-print Network

Formation flying of spacecraft and autonomous rendezvous and docking of spacecraft are two missions in which satellites operate in close proximity and their relative trajectories are critically important. Both classes of ...

Breger, Louis Scott, 1979-

2007-01-01

190

Opportunistic, collaborative and synchronized, proximal device ecology  

E-print Network

CoSync is an on-device software framework for coordinating proximal consumer electronic devices in order to create a synchronized, opportunistic and collaborative device ecology. The CoSync device ecology combines multiple ...

Toledano, Eyal

2013-01-01

191

Cell transcriptional state alters genomic patterns of DNA double-strand break repair in human astrocytes.  

PubMed

The misrepair of DNA double-strand breaks in close spatial proximity within the nucleus can result in chromosomal rearrangements that are important in the pathogenesis of haematopoietic and solid malignancies. It is unknown why certain epigenetic states, such as those found in stem or progenitor cells, appear to facilitate neoplastic transformation. Here we show that altering the transcriptional state of human astrocytes alters patterns of DNA damage repair from ionizing radiation at a gene locus-specific and genome-wide level. Astrocytes induced into a reactive state exhibit increased DNA repair, compared with non-reactive cells, in actively transcribed chromatin after irradiation. In mapping these repair sites, we identify misrepair events and repair hotspots that are unique to each state. The precise characterization of genomic regions susceptible to mutation in specific transcriptional states provides new opportunities for addressing clonal evolution in solid cancers, in particular those where double-strand break induction is a cornerstone of clinical intervention. PMID:25517576

Yong, Raymund L; Yang, Chunzhang; Lu, Jie; Wang, Huaien; Schlaff, Cody D; Tandle, Anita; Graves, Christian A; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R

2014-01-01

192

Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease: maladaptive repair.  

PubMed

After damage the kidney has the ability to repair itself. With mild injury this repair can result in the return to a structural and functional state that is indistinguishable from normal. However, when the repair is more severe or is superimposed on baseline kidney abnormalities, the repair process can lead to fibrosis, which can facilitate progression to chronic kidney disease. Epidemiological studies now show that patients who have had acute kidney injury have a marked increase in their risk for the development of end-stage renal disease. Recent data have redefined the role of the surviving epithelial cells in fibrosis and attribute myofibroblast expansion to perivascular and interstitial fibroblasts. After severe injury, the proximal tubule cellular response is impaired with its proliferative response altered due to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, resulting in generation of profibrotic factors including cytokines, growth factors and matrix proteins. PMID:21921619

Yang, Li; Humphreys, Benjamin D; Bonventre, Joseph V

2011-01-01

193

Repair of a complex thoracic aneurysm from relapsing polychondritis.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old female with a history of relapsing polychondritis (RP) and open repair of a proximal descending thoracic aneurysm presented with 2 areas of asymptomatic thoracic aortic aneurysmal dilatation. The patient returned 3 months later with symptomatic aneurysm expansion, and she underwent ascending aortic arch replacement. She subsequently underwent staged endovascular repair of the distal descending thoracic aorta. RP is a rare disorder with an incidence of 3.5 per million persons annually, 4% to 7% of whom develop aneurysmal disease. Because of the aneurysmal potential of this disease, it is important for vascular surgeons to be aware of its presentation and treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case describing endovascular technique to treat such a patient. PMID:23657635

Jacobs, Chad E; March, Robert J; Hunt, Peter J; Rivera, Aksim G; Cavanagh, Sherry; McCarthy, Walter J

2013-07-01

194

Proximal biceps tendon: injuries and management.  

PubMed

The long head of the biceps tendon is a known pain generator of the shoulder. There are numerous pathologic entities that may affect this tendon, including tendonitis, partial tearing, and subluxation. These conditions are often associated with rotator cuff tears, especially those involving the subscapularis. Operative interventions include tenotomy and tenodesis. Tenodesis can be preformed in a proximal or distal location. Subpectoral tenodesis may have a lower recurrence rate than proximal-based techniques. PMID:18703976

Friedman, Darren J; Dunn, John C; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P

2008-09-01

195

All-Inside Meniscal Repair  

PubMed Central

All-inside meniscal repair has gained widespread popularity over recent years. The devices and techniques have rapidly evolved, resulting in increased ease of use and reduced surgical times and risk to the neurovascular structures. Despite these advances, inside-out suture repairs remain the current gold standard, with proven long-term results. All-inside techniques must continue to be compared to inside-out meniscal repair. PMID:23015905

Turman, Kimberly A.; Diduch, David R.; Miller, Mark D.

2009-01-01

196

Frozen Elephant Trunk Repair for Descending Thoracic Aortic Dissection in a Man with a Hostile Left Pleural Cavity  

PubMed Central

The frozen elephant trunk procedure is a hybrid, single-staged alternative to conventional surgery for repairing diffuse pathologic conditions of the thoracic aorta. This approach is particularly advantageous in patients who have pathologic conditions of the left side of the chest, because the descending thoracic aorta can be repaired without entering a hostile pleural cavity. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone repair of acute type A aortic dissection. He presented with aneurysmal dilation of the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection, a large acute dissection of the proximal ascending aorta, and a large paraesophageal hernia that made him a poor candidate for conventional, 2-staged open aortic repair. We describe the hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique that we used to repair the aorta, and its broader advantages. PMID:24955060

Kent, William D.T.; Manjunath, Adarsh

2014-01-01

197

Endovascular infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair has undergone a revolution since Volodos and Parodi described endoluminal repair in the early 1990s. Subsequent data from large registries have confirmed its efficacy. Randomised controlled trials have shown that although endoluminal repair may not be as cost effective as open repair, it can be performed with a lower mortality in patients fit for open repair.

M Davis; P R Taylor

2008-01-01

198

DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

1983-07-01

199

DNA repair in Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Background DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. Genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of DNA repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. The bacteria of the Mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. A small number of genes make Mollicutes a good model for a “minimal cell” concept. Results In this work we studied the DNA repair system of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic levels. We detected 18 out of 22 members of the DNA repair system on a protein level. We found that abundance of the respective mRNAs is less than one per cell. We studied transcriptional response of DNA repair genes of M. gallisepticum at stress conditions including heat, osmotic, peroxide stresses, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin treatment, stationary phase and heat stress in stationary phase. Conclusions Based on comparative genomic study, we determined that the DNA repair system M. gallisepticum includes a sufficient set of proteins to provide a cell with functional nucleotide and base excision repair and mismatch repair. We identified SOS-response in M. gallisepticum on ciprofloxacin, which is a known SOS-inducer, tetracycline and heat stress in the absence of established regulators. Heat stress was found to be the strongest SOS-inducer. We found that upon transition to stationary phase of culture growth transcription of DNA repair genes decreases dramatically. Heat stress does not induce SOS-response in a stationary phase. PMID:24148612

2013-01-01

200

Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Composition of Bone during Microdamage Repair  

PubMed Central

Under normal conditions, loading activities result in microdamage in the living skeleton, which is repaired by bone remodeling. However, microdamage accumulation can affect the mechanical properties of bone and increase the risk of fracture. This study aimed to determine the effect of microdamage on the mechanical properties and composition of bone. Fourteen male goats aged 28 months were used in the present study. Cortical bone screws were placed in the tibiae to induce microdamage around the implant. The goats were euthanized, and 3 bone segments with the screws in each goat were removed at 0 days, 21 days, 4 months, and 8 months after implantation. The bone segments were used for observing microdamage and bone remodeling, as well as nanoindentation and bone composition, separately. Two regions were measured: the first region (R1), located 1.5 mm from the interface between the screw hole and bone; and the second region (R2), located>1.5 mm from the bone-screw interface. Both diffuse and linear microdamage decreased significantly with increasing time after surgery, with the diffuse microdamage disappearing after 8 months. Thus, screw implantation results in increased bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone, which repairs the microdamage. Moreover, bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, especially in the proximal bone tissue. Bone composition changed greatly during the production and repair of microdamage, especially for the C (Carbon) and Ca (Calcium) in the R1 region. In conclusion, the presence of mechanical microdamage accelerates bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone. The bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, with the micromechanical properties being restored on complete repair of the microdamage. Changes in bone composition may contribute to changes in bone mechanical properties. PMID:25313565

Yu, Zhifeng

2014-01-01

201

Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow–derived cells during repair after ischemic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow–derived cells during repair after ischemic injury. The kidney has the ability to restore the structural and functional integrity of the proximal tubule, which undergoes extensive epithelial cell death after prolonged exposure to ischemia. In order to study the role that adult bone marrow–derived stem cells might play in kidney remodeling

JEREMY S DUFFIELD; JOSEPH V BONVENTRE

2005-01-01

202

Rotator Cuff Repair Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background There is no consensus for the optimal postoperative rehabilitation protocol after rotator cuff repairs. Objective To determine if there is sufficient level I or II evidence available in the literature for establishment of a uniform, optimal rotator cuff rehabilitation protocol. Data Sources A systematic review of level I and II English-language, prospective, randomized controlled trials published between 1966 and 2008 was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and secondary references were appraised for studies that met the inclusion criteria. Search terms included rotator cuff, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor, rehab, rehabilitation, physical therapy, and physiotherapy. Study Selection Inclusion criteria were English-language level I or level II studies, including randomized clinical trials involving the rehabilitation of rotator cuff repairs. Exclusion criteria were non-English language, level IV or V studies, or studies involving shoulder rehabilitation of diagnoses other than rotator cuff repairs. Three independent reviewers arrived at a consensus for including 4 studies in this review out of 12 studies identified by the literature search. Data Extraction Included studies underwent worksheet quality appraisal independently by each of the 3 authors identifying strengths, weaknesses, and biases. The quality appraisal was then discussed among the authors and consensus reached regarding the strengths, weaknesses, and value of the included studies. Results Two studies examined the use of continuous passive motion for rotator cuff rehabilitation, and 2 studies compared an unsupervised, standardized rehabilitation program to a supervised, individualized rehabilitation program. These studies did not support the use of continuous passive motion in rotator cuff rehabilitation, and no advantage was shown with a supervised, individualized rehabilitation protocol compared to an unsupervised, standardized home program. Each investigation had weaknesses in study design that decreased the validity of its findings. Conclusion There is not enough high-level evidence to develop an evidence-based medicine approach to rotator cuff rehabilitation. There is a need for well-designed level I and level II trials to elucidate the optimal rotator cuff repair rehabilitation protocol. PMID:23015863

Baumgarten, Keith M.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wright, Rick W.

2009-01-01

203

Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results  

SciTech Connect

The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany)] [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

2013-12-15

204

Industrial motor repair in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

1994-09-01

205

Advances in nerve repair.  

PubMed

Patients with peripheral nerve injuries face unpredictable and often suboptimal functional outcome, even following standard microsurgical nerve repair. The challenge of improving such outcomes following nerve surgical procedures has interested many research teams, in both clinical and fundamental fields. Some innovative treatments are presently being applied to a widening range of patients, whereas others will require further development before translation to human subjects. This article presents several recent advances in emerging therapies at various stages of clinical application. Nerve transfers have been successfully used in clinical settings, but new indications are being described, enlarging the range of patients who might benefit from them. Brief direct nerve electrical stimulation has been shown to improve nerve regeneration and outcome in animal models and in a small cohort of patients. Further clinical trials are warranted to prove the efficacy of this exciting and easily applicable approach. Animal studies also suggest a tremendous potential for stem and precursor cell therapy. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of their mechanisms of action in nerve repair and potential applications for human patients. PMID:23250767

Khuong, Helene T; Midha, Rajiv

2013-01-01

206

Achilles allograft reconstruction of a chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture.  

PubMed

Complete rupture of the origin of the hamstrings is an uncommon injury. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice, but in some not possible. We present a case of an avid cyclist who had significant disability from a 6-year-old injury. He underwent reconstruction with Achilles allograft and suture anchors. With the knee flexed to 90 degrees and after extensive mobilization, the retracted musculotendinous unit would not reach the ischial tuberosity. Two suture anchors were placed in the ischial tuberosity after soft tissue debridement. One limb of suture from each anchor was placed in the end of an Achilles allograft with a locking suture, with the other end used to pull the end of the graft to the ischial tuberosity. An additional suture was placed in running fashion down each side of the graft. Distally, the graft was fanned out and attached to the retracted hamstrings with interrupted sutures with the knee at 40 degrees and maximal proximal pull on the hamstrings. The patient outcome was excellent. He resumed high level cycling by 6 months after surgery with no symptoms. Isokinetic testing demonstrated a hamstring deficit of 25% at 60 degrees/s, and 20% at 180 degrees/s at 8 months. PMID:19034429

Murray, Patrick J; Lowe, Walter R

2009-11-01

207

Repair in Foreign Language Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes four types of repair activity in the foreign language classroom. A distinction is made according to whether the trouble source is produced by a teacher or a learner. Findings show that different preferences for repair patterns vary with the type of classroom activity (language-centered or content-centered). (Author/SED)

Kasper, Gabriele

1985-01-01

208

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

209

Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

210

Two-Dimensional Optical Proximity Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In projection printing the proximity effects between adjacent two-dimensional features such as concentric elbows can be the limiting factor in designing layout rules. An aerial image simulation code based on the imaging algorithms in SAMPLE has been developed and used to investigate these proximity effects. The program accepts arbitrary polygonal shapes constructed of rectangular and triangular patches. The image is calculated using Hopkins transmission cross coefficient formulation and uses rapid integral evaluation techniques. The cpu time for this FORTRAN F77 program depends on the size of the mask and the partial coherence factor as 0.25[(1 + ?) 2A(NA/?)2]2 seconds on a DEC VAX 11/780 using double precision, where A is the mask area, ? the coherence factor, NA the numerical aperture and ? the wavelength. The output intensity can be displayed with graphics tools such as UNIGRAFIX or cross-sectioned for input to SAMPLE development simulation along critical paths. Proximity effects in critical regions between features such as nested elbows, contacts near contacts and lines, and lines near large pads are studied. For small contacts studies show that a contact hole can be placed as close as 0.5?/NA microns to another contact hole. For nested elbows the critical effect is the variation in intensity in the straight regions just adjacent to the corner. This undesirable variation is primarily due to the intrafeature intensity interactions and is not greatly influenced by the proximity of another nested elbow. For general feature shapes the proximity effects are reduced by increasing the partial coherence factor to 0.5 or higher but at the cost of reducing contrast and peak intensity. For contact masks a partial coherence of 0.3 is recommended for higher edge slope and peak intensities. Proximity effects of small defects are also illustrated.

Flanner, Philip D.; Subramanian, Shankar; Neureuther, Andrew R.

1986-08-01

211

Autosite.com Repairs - Maintenance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A subsection of Autosite.com, a for-profit (from ads, the content is free) information source for auto buyers, the maintenance and repair area offers free and detailed information on auto care and repair that is accessible but not simplistic. In the maintenance section, users will find a preventative maintenance checklist, illustrated guides to fluids and exterior systems, a discussion on tires, and FAQs. The Repair section features troubleshooting tips, an illustrated repair guide, a fairly deep Auto Repair Encyclopedia, and several related links. Whether you are a die-hard do-it-yourselfer or just prefer to be forearmed before taking your car to the mechanics, this site can help.

212

PTEN in DNA damage repair  

PubMed Central

The ability of DNA repair in a cell is vital to its genomic integrity and thus to the normal functioning of an organism. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a well-established tumor suppressor gene that induces apoptosis and controls cell growth by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway. In various human cancers, PTEN is frequently found to be mutated, deleted, or epigenetically silenced. Recent new findings have demonstrated that PTEN also plays a critical role in DNA damage repair and DNA damage response. This review summarizes the recent progress in the function of PTEN in DNA damage repair, especially in double strand break repair and nucleotide excision repair. In addition, we will discuss the role of PTEN in DNA damage response through its interaction with the Chk1 and p53 pathways. We will focus on the newly discovered mechanisms and the potential implications in cancer prevention and therapeutic intervention. PMID:22266095

Ming, Mei; He, Yu-Ying

2012-01-01

213

School Equipment--Repair or Replace?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective evaluations of whether to repair or replace existing school equipment depend on an equipment inventory, evaluation of equipment suitability, and knowledge of repair possibilities and costs. (MLF)

Patterson, Don E.

1983-01-01

214

Masson's Hemangioma of Proximal Radial Artery.  

PubMed

Tumour like vascular lesions are rare. Here we report a rare case of tumor like vascular lesion from the radial artery. A pulsatile swelling in the forearm is usually diagnosed as a case of Aneurysm, AV fistula or highly vascular tumor. A middle aged man came to us with a painless pulsatile swelling on the lateral aspect of proximal right forearm. The ultrasound scan reported it as case of vascular tumour. Angiogram showed abnormal vascular channels, connected to the aneurysmal dialation of the proximal radial artery. Histopthological examination confirmed it as Masson's hemangioma after excision. This is a benign condition and complete excision is curative. PMID:24799774

Pinjala, Ramakrishna

2014-02-01

215

40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...  

...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests...growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and...

2014-07-01

216

40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests...growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and...

2012-07-01

217

40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests...growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and...

2013-07-01

218

40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests...growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and...

2011-07-01

219

40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests...repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests...growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and...

2010-07-01

220

Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.  

PubMed Central

Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

Schirmer, B D

1989-01-01

221

Enhancing Musical Experience through Proximal Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of audio content on networks has indelibly changed access to music. We extend this dynamic to wireless ad-hoc networks and present the use of dual infrastructures to extend modes of personal and interpersonal music listening. We identify two distinct forms proximal interaction, sequential and parallel, and demonstrate a musical application for each. Mobile handheld terminals become prototypical future

Atau Tanaka; Antoine Authier; Guillaume Valadon; Laurent Violette

222

Interpersonal Violence between College Students: Proximal Influences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a 3 year study on violence between students at the University of Maryland. The study was designed to: (1) describe the prevalence of fighting between students; (2) analyze, by gender, students' description of their most recent physical fight with another for proximal influences on these altercations; (3) analyze…

Marcus, Robert; Reio, Thomas; Kessler, Lauren; Cutler, Kelley; Fleury, John

223

Object detection system using SPAD proximity detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an object detection system based upon the use of multiple single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) proximity sensors operating upon the time-of-flight (ToF) principle, whereby the co-ordinates of a target object in a coordinate system relative to the assembly are calculated. The system is similar to a touch screen system in form and operation except that the lack of requirement of a physical sensing surface provides a novel advantage over most existing touch screen technologies. The sensors are controlled by FPGA-based firmware and each proximity sensor in the system measures the range from the sensor to the target object. A software algorithm is implemented to calculate the x-y coordinates of the target object based on the distance measurements from at least two separate sensors and the known relative positions of these sensors. Existing proximity sensors were capable of determining the distance to an object with centimetric accuracy and were modified to obtain a wide field of view in the x-y axes with low beam angle in z in order to provide a detection area as large as possible. Design and implementation of the firmware, electronic hardware, mechanics and optics are covered in the paper. Possible future work would include characterisation with alternative designs of proximity sensors, as this is the component which determines the highest achievable accur1acy of the system.

Stark, Laurence; Raynor, Jeffrey M.; Henderson, Robert K.

2011-10-01

224

Proximal tubule response in aldosterone escape.  

PubMed

The response of the proximal tubule to chronic aldosterone administration (15 micrograms.kg-1.day-1) was evaluated in eight conscious female mongrel dogs. Temporal profiles between hemodynamic and hormonal changes and the fractional excretions of sodium and lithium were established. Aldosterone infusion resulted in a significant decrease in urinary sodium excretion from 9.2 +/- 1.3 to 5.8 +/- 0.9 meq/h after 1 day, returning to normal by the 5th day. These changes in urinary sodium excretion were associated with significant elevations of the mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 105 +/- 5 to 111 +/- 6 mmHg and plasma atrial natriuretic factor concentrations (ANF) from 30 +/- 2 to 57 +/- 7 pg/ml beginning the 1st day of infusion. Plasma renin activity (PRA), on the other hand, was depressed by aldosterone, falling below the level of detectability. The fractional excretion of lithium increased significantly by day 2 of aldosterone infusion (from 29 +/- 3 to 44 +/- 6%), reflecting the proximal tubular response to the above changes. We conclude that the proximal tubule responds to increases in MAP and ANF and decreases in PRA during aldosterone infusion by decreasing sodium reabsorption. Subsequent nephron segments must also respond to the volume expansion produced by aldosterone, since the sustained proximal tubule natriuretic response is insufficient to explain all of escape. PMID:2521433

Gonzalez-Campoy, J M; Kachelski, J; Burnett, J C; Romero, J C; Granger, J P; Knox, F G

1989-01-01

225

An Efficient Proximity Probing Algorithm for Metrology  

E-print Network

An Efficient Proximity Probing Algorithm for Metrology F. Panahi A. Adler F. van der Stappen K Probing Algorithm for Metrology Fatemeh Panahi Aviv Adler A. Frank van der Stappen Ken Goldberg§ Abstract Metrology, the theoretical and practical study of measurement, has applications in auto- mated manufacturing

Utrecht, Universiteit

226

Isosmotic volume reabsorption in rat proximal tubule  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model incorporating both active and passive forces has been developed for fluid reabsorption from split oil droplets in rat inter- mediate and late proximal tubule. Of necessity, simplifying assumptions have been introduced; we have assumed that the epithelium can be treated as a single membrane and that the membrane \\

R. R. Warner; C. LECHENE

1980-01-01

227

Goal-Proximity Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

2013-01-01

228

Proximity correction for electron beam lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the critical dimensions required in mask making and direct write by electron beam lithography become ever smaller, correction for proximity effects becomes increasingly important. Furthermore, the problem is beset by the fact that only a positive energy dose can be applied with an electron beam. We discuss techniques such as chopping and dose shifting, which have been proposed to meet the positivity requirement. An alternative approach is to treat proximity correction as an optimization problem. Two such methods, local area dose correction and optimization using a regularizer proportional to the informational entropy of the solution, are compared. A notable feature of the regularized proximity correction is the ability to correct for forward scattering by the generation of a 'firewall' set back from the edge of a feature. As the forward scattering width increases, the firewall is set back farther from the feature edge. The regularized optimization algorithm is computationally time consuming using conventional techniques. However, the algorithm lends itself to a microelectronics integrated circuit coprocessor implementation, which could perform the optimization faster than even the fastest work stations. Scaling the circuit to larger number of pixels is best approached with a hybrid serial/parallel digital architecture that would correct for proximity effects over 108 pixels in about 1 h. This time can be reduced by simply adding additional coprocessors.

Marrian, Christie R.; Chang, Steven; Peckerar, Martin C.

1996-09-01

229

Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used. PMID:19036360

Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

2008-12-01

230

Traumatic proximal tibiofibular dislocation with neurovascular injury.  

PubMed

23 years old male presented with inferolateral dislocation of proximal tibiofibular joint associated with popliteal artery and common peroneal nerve injury. The extension of the injury to involve the interosseus membrane up to the distal tibiofibular joint. The association of popliteal artery injury is not reported before to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162155

Veerappa, Lokesh A; Gopalakrishna, Chetan

2012-09-01

231

The Transverse Proximity Effect in Quasar Spectra  

E-print Network

The Transverse Proximity Effect in Quasar Spectra G´abor Worseck Astrophysikalisches Institut field generated by the overall population of quasars and star-forming galaxies. In the vicinity of sources of UV photons, such as luminous high-redshift quasars, the UV radiation field is enhanced due

232

DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

2011-01-01

233

Groin hernia repair: open techniques.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of the Bassini method in 1887, more than 70 types of pure tissue repair have been reported in the surgical literature. An unacceptable recurrence rate and prolonged postoperative pain and recovery time after tissue repair along with our understanding of the metabolic origin of inguinal hernias led to the concept of tension-free hernioplasty with mesh. Currently, the main categories of inguinal hernia repair are the open repairs and the laparoscopic repairs. In the open category, repair of the hernia is achieved by pure tissue approximation or by tension-free mesh repair. The most commonly performed tissue repairs are those of Bassini, Shouldice, and to a lesser extent McVay. In the tension-free mesh repair category, the mesh is placed in front of the transversalis fascia, such as with the Lichtenstein tension-free hernioplasty, or behind the transversalis fascia in the preperitoneal space, such as during the Nyhus, Rives, Read, Stoppa, Wantz, and Kugel procedures. Numerous comparative randomized trials have clearly demonstrated the superiority of the tension-free mesh repair over the traditional tissue approximation method. Placing mesh behind the transversalis fascia, although a sound concept, requires extensive dissection in the highly complex preperitoneal space and can lead to injury of the pelvic structures, major hematoma formation, or both. In addition, according to the prospective randomized comparative study of mesh placement in front of versus behind the transversalis fascia, the latter offers no advantage over the former, and it is more difficult to perform, learn, and teach. More importantly, preperitoneal mesh implantation (via open and laparoscopic procedure) leads to obliteration of the spaces of Retzius and Bogros, making certain vascular and urologic procedures, in particular radical prostatectomy and lymph node dissection, extremely difficult if not impossible. In conclusion, according to level A evidence from randomized comparative studies, (1) mesh repair is superior to pure tissue approximation repairs, and (2) mesh implantation in front of the transversalis fascia is superior, safer, and easier than open or laparoscopic mesh implantation behind the transversalis fascia. PMID:15983714

Amid, Parviz K

2005-08-01

234

External aortic wrap for repair of type 1 endoleak?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Type 1 endoleak is a rare complication after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a reported frequency up to 2.88%. It is a major risk factor for aneurysmal enlargement and rupture. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of a 68 year old gentleman who was found to have a proximal type 1 endoleak with loss of graft wall apposition on routine surveillance imaging post-EVAR. An initial attempt at endovascular repair was unsuccessful. Given the patient's multiple medical co-morbidities, which precluded the possibility of conventional graft explantation and open repair, we performed a novel surgical technique which did not require aortic cross-clamping. A double-layered Dacron wrap was secured around the infra-renal aorta with Prolene sutures, effectively hoisting the posterior bulge to allow wall to graft apposition and excluding the endoleak. Post-operative CT angiogram showed resolution of the endoleak and a stable sac size. DISCUSSION Several anatomical factors need to be considered when this technique is proposed including aortic neck angulation, position of lumbar arteries and peri-aortic venous anatomy. While an external wrap technique has been investigated sporadically for vascular aneurysms, to our knowledge there is only one similar case in the literature. CONCLUSION Provided certain anatomical features are present, an external aortic wrap is a useful and successful option to manage type 1 endoleak in high-risk patients who are unsuitable for aortic clamping. PMID:25217878

Dean, Anastasia; Yap, Swee Leong; Bhamidipaty, Venu; Pond, Franklin

2014-01-01

235

Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair

Torpey, Elka Maria

2010-01-01

236

Bonded composite repair of composite structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repair and maintenance cost drives a large percentage of the lifetime cost of aircraft structures. Understanding repair issues can lead to a structure that significantly lowers the lifetime cost. Advanced composite materials, while offering the potential to increase aircraft capabilities with minimum weight, are more susceptible to repairable damage than conventional aircraft materials. Improved inspection and repair methods are required

Mary A. Mahler

1999-01-01

237

Brachiocephalic Artery Cannulation in Proximal Aortic Surgery that Requires Circulatory Arrest  

PubMed Central

The brachiocephalic artery is an alternative cannulation site in the repair of ascending aortic lesions that require circulatory arrest. We evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this technique. Proximal aortic surgery was performed in 32 patients from 2006 through 2012 via brachiocephalic artery cannulation and circulatory arrest. Twenty-four (75%) of the patients were men. The mean age was 48.69 ± 9.43 years (range, 30–68 yr). Twelve had type I dissection, 2 had type II dissection, and 18 had true aneurysms of the ascending aorta. All operations were performed through a median sternotomy. The arterial cannula was inserted through an 8-mm vascular graft anastomosed to the brachiocephalic artery in an end-to-side fashion. In dissections, the distal anastomosis was performed without clamping the aorta. The patients were cooled to 24 °C, and circulatory arrest was established. The brachiocephalic and left carotid arteries were clamped, and antegrade cerebral perfusion was started at a rate of 10 mL/kg/min. Cardiopulmonary bypass was resumed after completion of the distal anastomosis and the initiation of rewarming. The proximal anastomosis was then performed. None of the patients sustained a major neurologic deficit, but 5 patients experienced transient postoperative agitation (<24 hr). There were 2 early deaths (6.25%), on the 3rd and the 11th postoperative days, both unrelated to the cannulation technique. Brachiocephalic artery cannulation through a graft can be a safe and effective technique in proximal aortic surgical procedures that require circulatory arrest. PMID:25593522

Unal, Mehmet; Akar, Ilker; Ince, Ilker; Aslan, Cemal; Koc, Fatih; Kafali, Haluk

2014-01-01

238

Characterization of glucose transport by cultured rabbit kidney proximal convoluted and proximal straight tubule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rabbit kidney proximal convoluted tubule (RPCT) and proximal straight tubule (RPST) cells were independently isolated and\\u000a cultured. The kinetics of the sodium-dependent glucose transport was characterized by determining the uptake of the glucose\\u000a analog alpha-methylglucopyranoside. Cell culture and assay conditions used in these experiments were based on previous experiments\\u000a conducted on the renal cell line derived from the whole kidney

Pedro L. Del Valle; Anna Trifillis; Charles E. Ruegg; Andrew S. Kane

2002-01-01

239

Performance optimization of electronic circuits laser repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronics circuits are susceptible to production defects. Yield improvement can be obtained by in-process inspection and repair of these defects. We describe an automated laser repair system, and discuss how to optimize it to obtain best performance in terms of throughput and quality. The laser repair system can repair excess conductor defects (e.g., shorts) in printed circuit boards by an ablation process. Moreover, it includes a feedback loop by capturing images of the repaired area using a co-aligned imaging system. Here we present the automated laser system design and repair process as well as repair performance optimization.

Oron, Ram

2014-03-01

240

The use of double-loaded suture anchors for labral repair and capsular repair during hip arthroscopy.  

PubMed

With the development of hip joint preservation procedures, the use of hip arthroscopy has grown dramatically over the past decade. However, recent articles have reported cases of hip instability after hip arthroscopy. Little is known about the role of static and dynamic stabilizers on hip joint stability, but there are concerns that an extensile capsulotomy or capsulectomy, osteoplasty of the acetabulum and proximal femur, and labral detachment or debridement during hip arthroscopy could potentially compromise hip stability. The safety parameters for arthroscopic hip surgery have not yet been fully established, and techniques are being developed for labral refixation and capsular repair after arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement in an attempt to decrease the chance of iatrogenic hip instability or microinstability. The surgical technique presented in this article may provide anatomic repair of both the labrum and capsule using a double-loaded suture anchor technique. We believe that this technique increases both operative efficiency and the strength of the overall repair, which may minimize the risk of iatrogenic hip instability after hip arthroscopy. PMID:23766998

Slikker, William; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Nho, Shane J

2012-12-01

241

The Use of Double-Loaded Suture Anchors for Labral Repair and Capsular Repair During Hip Arthroscopy  

PubMed Central

With the development of hip joint preservation procedures, the use of hip arthroscopy has grown dramatically over the past decade. However, recent articles have reported cases of hip instability after hip arthroscopy. Little is known about the role of static and dynamic stabilizers on hip joint stability, but there are concerns that an extensile capsulotomy or capsulectomy, osteoplasty of the acetabulum and proximal femur, and labral detachment or debridement during hip arthroscopy could potentially compromise hip stability. The safety parameters for arthroscopic hip surgery have not yet been fully established, and techniques are being developed for labral refixation and capsular repair after arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement in an attempt to decrease the chance of iatrogenic hip instability or microinstability. The surgical technique presented in this article may provide anatomic repair of both the labrum and capsule using a double-loaded suture anchor technique. We believe that this technique increases both operative efficiency and the strength of the overall repair, which may minimize the risk of iatrogenic hip instability after hip arthroscopy. PMID:23766998

Slikker, William; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S.; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Nho, Shane J.

2012-01-01

242

Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.

2009-09-01

243

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

244

DNA repair and synthetic lethality  

PubMed Central

Tumors often have DNA repair defects, suggesting additional inhibition of other DNA repair pathways in tumors may lead to synthetic lethality. Accumulating data demonstrate that DNA repair-defective tumors, in particular homologous recombination (HR), are highly sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. Thus, HR-defective tumors exhibit potential vulnerability to the synthetic lethality approach, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies. It is well known that poly (adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors show the synthetically lethal effect in tumors defective in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes encoded proteins that are required for efficient HR. In this review, we summarize the strategies of targeting DNA repair pathways and other DNA metabolic functions to cause synthetic lethality in HR-defective tumor cells. PMID:22010575

Guo, Gong-she; Zhang, Feng-mei; Gao, Rui-jie; Delsite, Robert; Feng, Zhi-hui; Powell, Simon N

2011-01-01

245

Two-stage hybrid repair of a complex symptomatic celiac aneurysm.  

PubMed

We report the case of a novel 2-stage hybrid repair of a complex celiac artery aneurysm. The patient was a 42-year-old man with a proximal celiac artery aneurysm giving rise to distinct right and left hepatic arterial branches. Repair was performed using a staged approach. First, a bifurcated aortohepatic bypass was constructed to the common and left hepatic arteries. After recovering from surgery, he underwent percutaneous embolization of the aneurysm. Completion angiograms demonstrated flow into all celiac branches with successful thrombosis of the aneurysm. At 12-month follow-up, the patient had remained symptom-free with patent bypass grafts and complete aneurysm exclusion. We describe the treatment option we used, which involves repair of a complex celiac aneurysm using a 2-stage, open, endovascular approach. PMID:23871199

Ravin, Reid; Meltzer, Andrew J; Kim, In-Kyong; Shaikh, Fauzia; Dayal, Rajeev; Nowygrod, Roman

2013-10-01

246

Contemporary management of the demanding infra-renal neck in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

Proximal infrarenal neck anatomy is a crucial factor in determining outcome of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Unfavorable or demanding infrarenal neck anatomy significantly increases the complexity of both standard endovascular and open repair resulting in increased rates of morbidity and mortality. While technological improvements and expanding institutional experience have resulted in an increased proportion of patients with an AAA with unfavorable infrarenal neck treated by (fenestrated) endovascular techniques, open repair has also remained a valid technique. The purpose of this manuscript was to describe the wide array of endovascular and open techniques in use to treat patients with an AAA with a demanding infrarenal neck and discuss their results and indications. PMID:25592277

Mees, B M; Peppelenbosch, A G; De Haan, M W; Jacobs, M J; Schurink, G W

2015-04-01

247

Spin–orbit proximity effect in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of spintronics devices relies on efficient generation of spin-polarized currents and their electric-field-controlled manipulation. While observation of exceptionally long spin relaxation lengths makes graphene an intriguing material for spintronics studies, electric field modulation of spin currents is almost impossible due to negligible intrinsic spin–orbit coupling of graphene. In this work, we create an artificial interface between monolayer graphene and few-layer semiconducting tungsten disulphide. In these devices, we observe that graphene acquires spin–orbit coupling up to 17?meV, three orders of magnitude higher than its intrinsic value, without modifying the structure of the graphene. The proximity spin–orbit coupling leads to the spin Hall effect even at room temperature, and opens the door to spin field effect transistors. We show that intrinsic defects in tungsten disulphide play an important role in this proximity effect and that graphene can act as a probe to detect defects in semiconducting surfaces.

Avsar, A.; Tan, J. Y.; Taychatanapat, T.; Balakrishnan, J.; Koon, G. K. W.; Yeo, Y.; Lahiri, J.; Carvalho, A.; Rodin, A. S.; O’Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Özyilmaz, B.

2014-09-01

248

Clinical Impact of Proximal Autosomal Imbalances  

PubMed Central

Centromere-near gain of copy number can be induced by intra- or inter-chromosomal rearrangements or by the presence of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). Interestingly, partial trisomy to hexasomy of euchromatic material may be present in clinically healthy or affected individuals, depending on origin and size of chromosomal material involved. Here we report the known minimal sizes of all centromere-near, i.e., proximal auto-somal regions in humans, which are tolerated; over 100 Mb of coding DNA are comprised in these regions. Additionally, we have summarized the typical symptoms for nine proximal autosomal regions including genes obviously sensitive to copy numbers. Overall, studying the carriers of specific chromosomal imbalances using genomics-based medicine, combined with single cell analysis can provide the genotype-phenotype correlations and can also give hints where copy-number-sensitive genes are located in the human genome. PMID:24052727

Hamid, AB; Weise, A; Voigt, M; Bucksch, M; Kosyakova, N; Liehr, T; Klein, E

2012-01-01

249

REACH : the local social favor exchange : a proximal messaging system  

E-print Network

We define proximal messaging as that category of information transaction that takes into account the physical, social and temporal proximity between the sender and recipient as it relates to the content of the message. We ...

Kizelshteyn, Boris G. (Boris Grigory)

2012-01-01

250

Proximity and Investment: Evidence from Plant-Level Data  

E-print Network

Proximity to plants makes it easier for headquarters to monitor and acquire information about plants. In this article, I estimate the effects of headquarters’ proximity to plants on plant-level investment and productivity. ...

Giroud, Xavier

251

Capacitive sensors for detecting proximity and response  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented an inexpensive circuit that indicates when a subject is in close proximity to a specified area of arbitrary\\u000a shape and size. The circuit can transform an easily created metal surface or a preexisting metal object into an experimental\\u000a sensor. The subject need not make physical contact with the sensor to activate the mechanism, which enables the detection

Steven W. Badelt; Aaron P. Blaisdell

2008-01-01

252

Pseudomonotone Variational Inequalities: Convergence of Proximal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the convergence of proximal methods for solving pseudomonotone (in the sense of Karamardian) variational inequalities. The main result is given in the finite-dimensional case, but we show that we still obtain convergence in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space under a strong pseudomonotonicity or a pseudo-Dunn assumption on the operator involved in the variational inequality problem.

N. EL FAROUQ

2001-01-01

253

Examination of Derecho Environments Using Proximity Soundings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed upper air soundings that occurred within 2 h and 167 km of derechos were collected and analyzed to document atmospheric stability and wind shear conditions associated with long-lived convective windstorms. Sixty-seven derechos, accompanied by 113 proximity soundings, were identified during the years 1983-93. Owing to the large variability of the synoptic-scale environments associated with derechos, each derecho was further

Jeffry S. Evans; Charles A. Doswell III

2001-01-01

254

Space robotic system for proximity operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key to an efficient accomplishment of space station servicing operations is the development of a scenario where the presence of man in space is well integrated with the capability of teleoperated and automatic robot system outside the stations. Results focusing on mission requirements, trajectory sequences, propulsion subsystem features, and manipulative kit characteristics relevant to proximity servicing during a Man Tended Free Flyers Robotic Mission (MTFF-RM) are illustrated.

Magnani, P. G.; Colomba, M.

1989-01-01

255

Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst  

PubMed Central

Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

2009-01-01

256

Friendship, proximity, and self-disclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of self-disclosure were explored by means of a questionnaire administered to pairs of roommates and hallmates (non-roommates living on the same floor) in freshman dormitories. It was predicted and found that friendship was more highly related to self-disclosure in intimate than in non-intimate topic areas, whereas proximity was more highly related to disclosure in non-intimate than in intimate areas.

Zick Rubin; Stephen Shenker

1978-01-01

257

Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications.

Li, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Gu-Feng; Wu, Guang-Fen; Chen, Hua; Dimitrie, Culcer; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

2013-09-01

258

Ferromagnet proximity effect in graphene bilayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-known effect of ferromagnet proximity in metallic thin film results in the giant magneto-resistance (GMR). In case of graphene monolayer, the effect of dielectric ferromagnet layer (DFL) proximity leads to formation of spin-dependent electron potential and electron spin rotation in effective exchange field. We theoretically consider the ferromagnet proximity effect in graphene bilayer (GBL), where bottom and top layers are affected by arbitrary oriented DFL. Our calculations show a drastic reconstruction of energy band structure with the top DFL magnetization rotation compared to the bottom one, which is assumed to be fixed by an antiferromagnetic substrate. If the top and bottom magnetic moments are parallel and equal, we obtain a simple spin split gapless band structure. As soon as symmetry between the top and the bottom GBL is broken by rotation of top DFL magnetization, the gap is opening; it reaches the magnitude of exchange field at antiparallel configuration. Calculated conductivity of GBL strongly depends on magnetic configuration demonstrating efficiency of the new mechanism of GMR.

Semenov, Yuriy; Zavada, John; Kim, Ki Wook

2008-03-01

259

Helical plating of the proximal humerus.  

PubMed

The ideal treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus has not been definitively agreed upon. Several recent reports have described a technique of helical plating for proximal humeral fractures, in which the proximal plate is placed laterally on the greater tuberosity, and spirals 90 degrees distally to lie on the anterior surface of the humeral shaft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of helical plating using a less invasive surgical approach and placing screws percutaneously in the distal plate. Dissection of 10 cadaveric upper extremity specimens was performed, using an extended anterolateral acromial approach followed by percutaneous helical plating. With the plate secured, the neurovascular structures which crossed the anterior humerus superficial to the plate were exposed and identified. Only the musculocutaneous nerve crossed anterior to the plate and was at risk for percutaneous screw placement. The nerve location was found in a consistent location among the specimens. The danger zone for the nerve location was found to be at an average of 13.5 cm from the greater tuberosity (99% CI: 12.2-14.8 cm). Though clinical experience is necessary to validate this plating technique, it appears that avoiding this danger zone in which the musculocutaneous nerve crosses will allow safe percutaneous screw placement and permit minimally invasive plating of these fractures. PMID:16129438

Gardner, Michael J; Griffith, Matthew H; Lorich, Dean G

2005-10-01

260

Metallothionein isoform 3 and proximal tubule vectorial active transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallothionein isoform 3 and proximal tubule vectorial active transport.BackgroundMetallothionein isoform 3 (MT-3) is expressed in the proximal tubule cells of the human kidney. The goal of the present study was to further characterize the basal expression of MT-3 in the proximal tubule and to determine if MT-3 participates in the maintenance of proximal tubule cell function.MethodsExpression of MT-3 mRNA was

Doyeob Kim; Scott H. Garrett; Mary Ann Sens; Seema Somji; Donald A. Sens

2002-01-01

261

Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations  

E-print Network

Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations Brent Edward Tweddle, David W. Miller February 2010 SSL # 1-10 #12;#12;Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity of Technology. #12;2 #12;Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations by Brent Edward

262

Reverse LISS plates for unstable proximal femoral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The best treatment for unstable proximal femoral fractures is controversial. In this prospective study, we assessed the outcomes of reverse less invasive stabilisation system (LISS) plates for treatment of unstable proximal femoral fractures that are expected to be difficult to nail.From April 2004 to January 2007, 20 patients with unstable proximal femoral fractures that were assessed to be difficult to

Ching-Hou Ma; Yuan-Kun Tu; Shang-Won Yu; Cheng-Yo Yen; Jih-Hsi Yeh; Chin-Hsien Wu

2010-01-01

263

16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS  

E-print Network

1 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS Jeffry S. Evans* NOAA of convection, we have accumulated proximity soundings associated with both derechos and discrete supercells and analyzed 113 proximity soundings near 67 derechos. The period of study was 1983-1993, and cases were

Doswell III, Charles A.

264

16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS  

E-print Network

1 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS Jeffry S. Evans* NOAA accumulated a number of proximity soundings associated with both derechos and discrete supercells. It can and analyzed 110 proximity soundings near 67 derechos. The period of study was from 1983-1993, and cases were

265

Region-based theory of discrete spaces: A proximity approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce Boolean proximity algebras as a generalization of Efremovic proximities which are suitable in reasoning about discrete regions. Following Stone's representation theorem for Boolean algebras, it is shown that each such algebra is isomorphic to a substructure of a complete and atomic Boolean proximity algebra.

Ivo Düntsch; Dimiter Vakarelov

2007-01-01

266

A job-exposure matrix for potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals developed for a study into the association between maternal occupational exposure and hypospadias.  

PubMed

A study to assess the association between the prevalence of hypospadias and maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals was carried out using data from the congenital anomaly register of the Office for National Statistics. The occupation of the mother is recorded in this register and to facilitate the assessment of maternal occupational exposure, a specific job-exposure matrix for potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals was developed. Seven categories of contaminants were evaluated (pesticides, polychlorinated organic compounds, phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, bi-phenolic compounds, heavy metals and other substances). Maternal occupations were all coded using the 1980 version of Categories of Occupations. Three occupational hygienists assessed the likelihood of exposure (unlikely, possible, probable) to these seven substance groups for all 348 possible job titles independently. Almost 30% of the job titles were classified as exposed to at least one substance category (possible or probable), with approximately 16% of the job titles being probably exposed to at least one substance category. Some examples of occupations with probable exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals include: farm workers, electricians, workers in the plastics industry, painters, printers, hairdressers, dental practitioners, laboratory workers, textile workers and cleaners. It is recognized that there are a lot of limitations to the use of job-exposure matrices in general and with the matrix presented in this paper in particular. However, the matrix forms the basis on which further developments on occupational exposure assessment of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals could be founded. In addition, the job-exposure matrix has identified areas where more exposure information is required. For example, exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals can occur in occupations such as hairdressing and workers in beauty salons, where the working population is more likely to be female and for which little data exist on levels of exposure. PMID:12176761

Van Tongeren, Martie; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Gardiner, Kerry; Armstrong, Ben; Vrijheid, Martine; Dolk, Helen; Botting, Beverly

2002-07-01

267

Bonded composite repair of composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repair and maintenance cost drives a large percentage of the lifetime cost of aircraft structures. Understanding repair issues can lead to a structure that significantly lowers the lifetime cost. Advanced composite materials, while offering the potential to increase aircraft capabilities with minimum weight, are more susceptible to repairable damage than conventional aircraft materials. Improved inspection and repair methods are required to ensure structural integrity and aircraft readiness in the existing operational environment. Many of today's innovative composite designs may result in aircraft structures that are unreasonably difficult to repair. As a first step, technical issues associated with bonded composite repair of composite structures were investigated. An extensive literature review identified many areas where real world composite repairs are being used successfully. An electronic database was developed summarizing the publications found during the literature review. The database includes publication, experimental test results and analytical results of advanced composite bonded repairs. The current analysis of repair does not account for the variations that exist in repair. To facilitate the analysis, a finite element interface was developed to provide analysts with a tool that would create complete finite element models of repaired structures efficiently and in a 3-dimensional view. The finite element models created by the developed interface were successfully correlated to test data for accuracy of the results. Parametric studies were performed using the interface to evaluate effects of repair variables. Thermal impact of repair on the repair panel is one area lacking attention in the repair literature. To understand the impact of heat and thermal gradients of the repair, an analytical investigation was performed to evaluate. the parameters affected by heat. For a solid laminate, the temperature at the adhesive bondline was investigated. The primary focus is on sandwich panels where heat transfer is known to impact the repair process. The internal pressure from the heat of the repair process and moisture trapped in honeycomb structure was evaluated and shown to produce sufficient pressure to disbond the facesheet from the core.

Mahler, Mary A.

268

Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair  

PubMed Central

At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair. PMID:24961526

Guarino, Alyx T.; McKinnon, Randall D.

2013-01-01

269

Direct distal aortic arch graft cannulation after the elephant trunk procedure: technique for central cannulation during second-stage repair.  

PubMed

Arterial cannulation after the elephant trunk (ET) procedure at the time of second-stage distal repair can be achieved through multiple routes. Common strategies for arterial perfusion at the time of second-stage aortic repair include retrograde perfusion (femoral/iliac vessels), transapical or left subclavian artery cannulation. In the event these cannulation options are not practical or advisable, we offer an alternative approach through cannulation of the distal aortic arch Dacron graft through the left thorax. Advantages include forward distal perfusion, minimal proximal ischaemic time, prevention of thromboembolic events from thrombus attached to the ET and avoidance of malperfusion syndromes. PMID:25281849

Quintana, Eduard; Pochettino, Alberto

2014-10-01

270

Proximal tubule function and response to acidosis.  

PubMed

The human kidneys produce approximately 160-170 L of ultrafiltrate per day. The proximal tubule contributes to fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient homeostasis by reabsorbing approximately 60%-70% of the water and NaCl, a greater proportion of the NaHCO3, and nearly all of the nutrients in the ultrafiltrate. The proximal tubule is also the site of active solute secretion, hormone production, and many of the metabolic functions of the kidney. This review discusses the transport of NaCl, NaHCO3, glucose, amino acids, and two clinically important anions, citrate and phosphate. NaCl and the accompanying water are reabsorbed in an isotonic fashion. The energy that drives this process is generated largely by the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which creates an inward negative membrane potential and Na(+)-gradient. Various Na(+)-dependent countertransporters and cotransporters use the energy of this gradient to promote the uptake of HCO3 (-) and various solutes, respectively. A Na(+)-dependent cotransporter mediates the movement of HCO3 (-) across the basolateral membrane, whereas various Na(+)-independent passive transporters accomplish the export of various other solutes. To illustrate its homeostatic feat, the proximal tubule alters its metabolism and transport properties in response to metabolic acidosis. The uptake and catabolism of glutamine and citrate are increased during acidosis, whereas the recovery of phosphate from the ultrafiltrate is decreased. The increased catabolism of glutamine results in increased ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Excretion of the resulting ammonium ions facilitates the excretion of acid, whereas the combined pathways accomplish the net production of HCO3 (-) ions that are added to the plasma to partially restore acid-base balance. PMID:23908456

Curthoys, Norman P; Moe, Orson W

2014-09-01

271

Proximal Tubule Function and Response to Acidosis  

PubMed Central

Summary The human kidneys produce approximately 160–170 L of ultrafiltrate per day. The proximal tubule contributes to fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient homeostasis by reabsorbing approximately 60%–70% of the water and NaCl, a greater proportion of the NaHCO3, and nearly all of the nutrients in the ultrafiltrate. The proximal tubule is also the site of active solute secretion, hormone production, and many of the metabolic functions of the kidney. This review discusses the transport of NaCl, NaHCO3, glucose, amino acids, and two clinically important anions, citrate and phosphate. NaCl and the accompanying water are reabsorbed in an isotonic fashion. The energy that drives this process is generated largely by the basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase, which creates an inward negative membrane potential and Na+-gradient. Various Na+-dependent countertransporters and cotransporters use the energy of this gradient to promote the uptake of HCO3? and various solutes, respectively. A Na+-dependent cotransporter mediates the movement of HCO3? across the basolateral membrane, whereas various Na+-independent passive transporters accomplish the export of various other solutes. To illustrate its homeostatic feat, the proximal tubule alters its metabolism and transport properties in response to metabolic acidosis. The uptake and catabolism of glutamine and citrate are increased during acidosis, whereas the recovery of phosphate from the ultrafiltrate is decreased. The increased catabolism of glutamine results in increased ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Excretion of the resulting ammonium ions facilitates the excretion of acid, whereas the combined pathways accomplish the net production of HCO3? ions that are added to the plasma to partially restore acid-base balance. PMID:23908456

2014-01-01

272

Unilateral isolated proximal femoral focal deficiency.  

PubMed

Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

Do?er, Emek; Köpük, Sule Y; Cak?ro?lu, Yi?it; Cak?r, Ozgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

2013-01-01

273

Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

Do?er, Emek; Köpük, ?ule Y.; Çak?ro?lu, Yi?it; Çak?r, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

2013-01-01

274

Space station proximity operations and window design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

Haines, Richard F.

1988-01-01

275

Balloon Angioplasty versus Surgical Repair of Coarctation of Aorta in Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Coarctation of the aorta is a discrete stenosis of the proximal thoracic aorta. The common clinical pattern is congestive heart failure in infancy. Treatment methods include balloon angioplasty and surgical repair in this age group. Percutaneous balloon angioplasty is a less invasive method for the repair of discrete coarctation but remains controversial as a primary treatment strategy for a native coarctation. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness and outcome of balloon angioplasty and surgical repair in coarctation infants younger than 1 year old. Methods This retrospective study evaluated the results of the two methods in 167 patients younger than one year old admitted into a tertiary heart center pediatric ward with the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta: Balloon angioplasty was done for 55 and surgical repair for 112 infants. Patients with previous interventions were not included in this study. Results Primary results revealed no significant difference in the effectiveness of the two methods (p value = 0.0601). While the rate of recurrent coarctation was significantly lower in the surgery group [19 (17%) vs. 11 (20%), p value = 0.0470], the mortality rate was lower in the balloon angioplasty method [5 (5.5%) vs. 13 (11.6%), p value = 0.039]. Our multivariate logistic regression model, however, showed no statistically significant difference (p value = 0.120). Conclusion Because of the incidence of re-coarctation, balloon angioplasty compared with surgical repair did not confer an improved outcome for our infants’ coarctation. PMID:23074619

Alaei, Fariba; Moghadam, Mohammad Yousef Arabi; Mortaezaian, Hojat; Alaei, Mastaneh; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

2011-01-01

276

New techniques for percutaneous repair of the mitral valve.  

PubMed

A variety of innovative techniques and devices are being developed for the percutaneous management of mitral insufficiency. More than 30 devices are in stages of development from early stage to human pivotal trials. Two devices for the management of degenerative myxomatous disease of the mitral valve replicate the Alfieri edge-to-edge surgical repair. One of those devices, the Evalve Mitraclip, is in a pivotal trial at the current time. The other devices address functional mitral regurgitation by a variety of techniques for performing mitral valve annuloplasty. The majority of devices take advantage of the proximity of the coronary sinus to the posterior mitral annulus to deliver devices that remodel the mitral annulus. Two devices perform septal lateral cinching decreasing the anterior posterior diameter of the mitral annulus and correcting leaflet malcoaptation. Numerous issues are discussed including regulatory hurdles and the integration of percutaneous techniques into clinical practice in a safe and efficacious manner. PMID:17041765

Mack, Michael J

2006-09-01

277

Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair  

PubMed Central

Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

2011-01-01

278

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

279

14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145.207...SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair...

2010-01-01

280

21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair...

2014-04-01

281

Sanitizing private data for repair systems  

E-print Network

The SOLAR system helps restore interconnected system integrity after security attacks with a focus of minimizing the exposure of sensitive data in the repair logs. It builds upon Warp, a repair system for Django web ...

Fang, Katherine Jien-Yin

2014-01-01

282

Reducing Your Leak Rate Without Repairing Leaks  

E-print Network

As plant personnel know, repairing compressed air leaks can be an expensive, labor intensive and never-ending process. This article discusses ways plant personnel can reduce and maintain their leak rate at a lower level without repairing leaks...

Beals, C.

2005-01-01

283

Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk?=?0.34; 95% confidence interval?=?0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

2012-01-01

284

Spin-orbit proximity effect in graphene.  

PubMed

The development of spintronics devices relies on efficient generation of spin-polarized currents and their electric-field-controlled manipulation. While observation of exceptionally long spin relaxation lengths makes graphene an intriguing material for spintronics studies, electric field modulation of spin currents is almost impossible due to negligible intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of graphene. In this work, we create an artificial interface between monolayer graphene and few-layer semiconducting tungsten disulphide. In these devices, we observe that graphene acquires spin-orbit coupling up to 17?meV, three orders of magnitude higher than its intrinsic value, without modifying the structure of the graphene. The proximity spin-orbit coupling leads to the spin Hall effect even at room temperature, and opens the door to spin field effect transistors. We show that intrinsic defects in tungsten disulphide play an important role in this proximity effect and that graphene can act as a probe to detect defects in semiconducting surfaces. PMID:25255743

Avsar, A; Tan, J Y; Taychatanapat, T; Balakrishnan, J; Koon, G K W; Yeo, Y; Lahiri, J; Carvalho, A; Rodin, A S; O'Farrell, E C T; Eda, G; Castro Neto, A H; Özyilmaz, B

2014-01-01

285

Intraosseous neurilemmoma of the proximal ulna  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Neurilemmoma is a benign nerve sheath neoplasm commonly located in the soft tissue. Intraosseous neurilemmoma is rare, constituting less than 1% of primary bone tumors. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 21 year-old woman was presented with left elbow pain of 1-month duration. Plain radiographs showed a well-defined, lytic and expansile lesion of the proximal ulna. Computed tomography revealed cortical destruction and soft tissue extension. Because the tissue of origin for the tumor was uncertain, an open biopsy was performed. The specimens demonstrated a benign spindle cell tumor suggestive of a neurilemmoma, similar to a soft tissue neurilemmoma. The diagnosis of intraosseous neurilemmoma was established. Marginal excision of the soft tissue component and curettage of the lesion in the bone were performed. After 3.5 years of follow up, there is no clinical or radiographic finding to suggest any recurrence. DISCUSSION The major site of intraosseous neurilemmoma is the mandible. Occurrence in the long bone is particularly rare. Only two cases of intraosseous neurilemmoma involving the bones around the elbow have been reported to our knowledge; these cases arose in the distal humerus. We describe the first case of intraosseous neurilemmoma of the proximal ulna of the left elbow. The recommended treatment is conservative resection and bone grafting, as malignant change is extremely rare. CONCLUSION Although very rare, intraosseous neurilemmoma should be taken under consideration in the differential diagnosis of painful, radiographically benign-appearing osseous tumor around the elbow. PMID:25460435

Kito, Munehisa; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Isobe, Ken’ichi; Aoki, Kaoru; Momose, Takashige; Kato, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

286

Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity. PMID:7418303

Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R

1980-09-01

287

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

SciTech Connect

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

Fosco, Cesar D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA (Argentina)] [Argentina; Mazzitelli, Francisco D., E-mail: fdmazzi@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-08-15

288

Artificial Topological Superconductor by the Proximity Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological superconductors (TSCs), featuring fully gapped bulk and gapless surface states as well as Majorana fermions, have potential applications in fault-tolerant topological quantum computing. Because TSCs are very rare in nature, an alternative way to study the TSC is to artificially introduce superconductivity into the surface states of a topological insulator through the proximity effect [X. L. Qi, T. L. Hughse, S. Raghu, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 187001 (2009); L. Fu and C. L. Kane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096407 (2008); J. Alicea, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 076501 (2012); C. W. J. Beenakker, Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 4, 113 (2013)]. Here we report the experimental realization of the proximity effect-induced TSC in Bi2Te3 thin films grown on a NbSe2 substrate, as demonstrated by the density of states probed using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed Abrikosov vortices and Andreev lower energy bound states on the surface of the topological insulator, with the superconducting coherence length depending on the film thickness and the magnetic field. These results also indicate that the topological surface states of Bi2Te3 thin films are superconducting and, thus, that the Bi2Te3/NbSe2 is an artificial TSC. The feasibility of fabricating a TSC with an individual Majorana fermion bound to a superconducting vortex for topological quantum computing is discussed.

Xu, Jin-Peng; Liu, Canhua; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Ge, Jianfeng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Yang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhu-An; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Jia, Jin-Feng

2014-05-01

289

Risk factors for proximal humerus fracture.  

PubMed

This case-control study of proximal humerus fracture included 448 incident female and male cases and 2,023 controls aged 45 years or older identified in five Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers in 1996-2001. Data were collected by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Some factors related to low bone mass, including number of fractures since age 45 years and low dietary calcium intake, were associated with increased risks of fracture, and factors thought to protect against bone loss, such as menopausal hormone therapy and calcium carbonate tablet use, were associated with reduced risks. Fall-related risk factors included previous falls, diabetes mellitus, and difficulty walking in dim light. Possible fall-related risk factors suggested for the first time in this study were seizure medication use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45, 5.42), depression (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.84), almost always using a hearing aid (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.12, 3.31 vs. never prescribed), and left-handedness (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.68 vs. right-handedness). Difficulty with activities of daily living and lack of physical activity tended to be associated with increased risk. Prevention of falls among frail, osteoporotic persons would likely reduce the frequency of proximal humerus fracture. PMID:15286021

Chu, Sarah P; Kelsey, Jennifer L; Keegan, Theresa H M; Sternfeld, Barbara; Prill, Mila; Quesenberry, Charles P; Sidney, Stephen

2004-08-15

290

Superconducting proximity effect in topological metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much interest in the superconducting proximity effect in three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TIs) has been driven by the potential to induce Majorana bound states at the interface. Most candidate materials for 3D TI, however, are bulk metals, with bulk states at the Fermi level coexisting with well-defined surface states exhibiting spin-momentum locking. In such topological metals, the proximity effect can differ qualitatively from that in TIs. By studying a model topological metal-superconductor (TM-SC) heterostructure within the Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism, we show that the pair amplitude reaches the naked surface, unlike in a topological insulator-superconductor (TI-SC) heterostructure where it is confined to the interface. Furthermore, we predict vortex-bound-state spectra to contain a Majorana zero mode localized at the naked surface, separated from the bulk vortex-bound-state spectra by a finite energy gap in such a TM-SC heterostructure. These naked-surface-bound modes are amenable to experimental observation and manipulation, presenting advantages of TM-SC over TI-SC.

Lee, Kyungmin; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Fischer, Mark H.; Kim, Eun-Ah

2014-12-01

291

The Proximity Toolkit and ViconFace: Proximity Toolkit is a toolkit that simplifies the  

E-print Network

Diaz-Marino Department of Computer Science University of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, Alberta Canada T2N 1N4 saul.greenberg@ucalgary.ca #12;Proximity currently wraps a Vicon motion capture system: a high-end installation that tracks infrared reflective

Greenberg, Saul

292

The Proximity Toolkit and ViconFace: Proximity Toolkit is a toolkit that simplifies the  

E-print Network

University Drive NW Calgary, Alberta Canada T2N 1N4 rob.diazmarino@gmail.com Saul Greenberg Department of Computer Science University of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, Alberta Canada T2N 1N4 saul-casting) (Figure 1, bottom) The Proximity Toolkit currently wraps a Vicon motion capture system: a high

Greenberg, Saul

293

Small molecule versus DNA repair nanomachine  

PubMed Central

The MRN protein megacomplex mediates repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) by tethering together broken ends of chromosomes and signaling a cascade of events required for DNA repair. The first small-molecule inhibitor that disrupts MRN function provides a valuable new tool for functional studies of DSB repair in cells. PMID:18202674

Stivers, James T

2009-01-01

294

Aircraft battle damage repair - A force multiplier  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aircraft battle-damage repair (BDR) program is described that provides for the assessment and repair of battle damage and the return of badly damaged aircraft to their home bases. The program methodology is based on the use of time-saving temporary repairs and associated training and materials provision. BDR is shown to require knowledge of damage mechanisms and specifications for the

Hess

1992-01-01

295

Contribution of Stem Cells to Kidney Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current explanation for development of chronic renal injury is the imbalance between injurious mechanism and regenerative repair. The possibility that stem cells contribute to the repair of glomerular and tubular damage is of great interest for basic and translational research. Endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells have been implicated in the repair of renal tissue, although the lineage of stem

Benedetta Bussolati; Peter Viktor Hauser; Raquel Carvalhosa; Giovanni Camussi

2009-01-01

296

Welding/brazing for Space Station repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

1990-01-01

297

Standardized Curriculum for Shoe and Boot Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for shoe and boot repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all shoe and boot repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for shoe and boot repair I and II courses. Units in…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

298

Flexor tendon injury, repair and rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Injuries to the flexor tendons remain among the most difficult problems in hand surgery. Historically, lacerations to the intrasynovial portion of the flexor tendons were thought to be unsuitable for primary repair. Despite continuing advances in our knowledge of flexor tendon biology, repair, and rehabilitation, good results following primary repair of flexor tendons remain challenging to achieve. PMID:25435036

Lutsky, Kevin F; Giang, Eric L; Matzon, Jonas L

2015-01-01

299

Standardized Curriculum for Small Engine Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for small engine repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all small engine repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for small engine repair I and II courses. Units in course I…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

300

Reoperation for failure of mitral valve repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to correct mitral regurgitation of all types. Up to 10% of patients who undergo mitral valvuloplasty require late reoperation for recurrent mitral valve dysfunction. To determine the causes of failed mitral valve repair, we examined the surgical pathology of patients who underwent reoperation for failed mitral valve repair. Patients

A. Marc Gillinov; Delos M. Cosgrove; Bruce W. Lytle; Paul C. Taylor; Robert W. Stewart; Patrick M. McCarthy; Nicholas G. Smedira; Derek D. Muehrcke; Carolyn Apperson-Hansen; Floyd D. Loop

1997-01-01

301

Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

Smreker, Eugene

302

Disorders of nucleotide excision repair.  

PubMed

Deficient repair of ubiquitous errors in the genome risks faulty transcription or replication. Its direct and indirect phenotypic consequences are rare, complex, dementing, lethal disorders of children with inadequately understood overlapping genotypes and variable severity. Mutations of CSA or CSB responsible for impaired transcription-coupled repair cause Cockayne syndrome (CS). Its characteristics are (1) profound growth deficiency affecting all tissues, including the brain, (2) premature aging marked by cachexia, vascular disease, exocrine deficiency, and osteopenia, but not cancer, and (3) a selective degenerative disorder of central and peripheral myelin and by neuronal loss in the retina and inner ear, and in the cerebellum and basal ganglia where it is associated with calcification. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) can arise from mutations of at least eight genes involved in global genomic repair. Severe XPA and XPC cause innumerable carcinomas and melanomas in light-exposed eyes and skin, and enhanced risk of visceral cancers. XPA and XPD and others can cause childhood XP neurological disease with widespread neuronal loss, axonal sensorimotor neuropathy, and dwarfing. Four genes, including XPD, can cause trichothiodystrophy (TTD) with sulfur-deficient, brittle, tiger-tail hair, and growth and developmental inadequacy. CSB or XPD can cause the severe congenital cerebro-oculofacioskeletal (COFS) CS-like syndrome with joint contractures, cataracts, and early death. Three XP genes can also cause XP/CS complex. Much more needs to be learned about these and other disorders of DNA repair to enable prevention and treatment. PMID:23622385

Rapin, Isabelle

2013-01-01

303

How the Brain Repairs Stuttering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

2009-01-01

304

Airframe Repair Specialist (AFSC 53153).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This airframe repairman course comprises the self-study portion of an on-the-job training program. It deals with the job-related knowledge requirements for airframe repairs that are required to progress from the 3 to 5 skill level of the career field. It contains five volumes. Volume 1 (27 hours) covers the general subjects related to the…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

305

Human Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Prenatal Risk Factors for Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias: A Nested Case–Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to xenoestrogens during pregnancy may disturb the development and function of male sexual organs. Objective In this study we aimed to determine whether the combined effect of environmental estrogens measured as total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB) is a risk factor for male urogenital malformations. Methods In a case–control study, nested in a mother–child cohort (n = 702) established at Granada University Hospital, we compared 50 newborns with diagnosis of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias with 114 boys without malformations matched by gestational age, date of birth, and parity. Controls did not differ from the total cohort in confounding variables. TEXB and levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides were measured in placenta tissues. Characteristics of parents, pregnancy, and birth were gathered by questionnaire. We used conditional and unconditional regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results TEXB from organohalogenated compounds was detectable in 72% and 54% of case and control placentas, respectively. Compared with controls, cases had an OR for detectable versus non-detectable TEXB of 2.82 (95% CI, 1.10–7.24). More pesticides were detected in cases than in controls (9.34 ± 3.19 vs. 6.97 ± 3.93). ORs for cases with detectable levels of pesticides, after adjusting for potential confounders in the conditional regression analysis, were o,p?-DDT (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.03–4.89), p,p?-DDT (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.21–5.72), lindane (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.36–8.38), mirex (OR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.22–6.66), and endosulfan alpha (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 0.99–4.82). Engagement of mothers in agriculture (OR = 3.47; 95% CI, 1.33–9.03), fathers’ occupational exposure to xenoestrogens (OR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.11–8.01), and history of previous stillbirths (OR = 4.20; 95% CI, 1.11–16.66) were also associated with risk of malformations. Conclusions We found an increased risk for male urogenital malformations related to the combined effect of environmental estrogens in placenta. PMID:18174944

Fernandez, Mariana F.; Olmos, Begoña; Granada, Alicia; López-Espinosa, Maria José; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Fernandez, Juan Manuel; Cruz, Milagros; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Olea, Nicolás

2007-01-01

306

Cleft palate repair and variations  

PubMed Central

Cleft palate affects almost every function of the face except vision. Today a child born with cleft palate with or without cleft lip should not be considered as unfortunate, because surgical repair of cleft palate has reached a highly satisfactory level. However for an average cleft surgeon palatoplasty remains an enigma. The surgery differs from centre to centre and surgeon to surgeon. However there is general agreement that palatoplasty (soft palate at least) should be performed between 6-12 months of age. Basically there are three groups of palatoplasty techniques. One is for hard palate repair, second for soft palate repair and the third based on the surgical schedule. Hard palate repair techniques are Veau-Wardill-Kilner V-Y, von Langenbeck, two-flap, Aleveolar extension palatoplasty, vomer flap, raw area free palatoplasty etc. The soft palate techniques are intravelar veloplasty, double opposing Z-plasty, radical muscle dissection, primary pharyngeal flap etc. And the protocol based techniques are Schweckendiek's, Malek's, whole in one, modified schedule with palatoplasty before lip repair etc. One should also know the effect of each technique on maxillofacial growth and speech. The ideal technique of palatoplasty is the one which gives perfect speech without affecting the maxillofacial growth and hearing. The techniques are still evolving because we are yet to design an ideal one. It is always good to know all the techniques and variations so that one can choose whichever gives the best result in one's hands. A large number of techniques are available in literature, and also every surgeon incorporates his own modification to make it a variation. However there are some basic techniques, which are described in details which are used in various centres. Some of the important variations are also described. PMID:19884664

Agrawal, Karoon

2009-01-01

307

Devices for mitral valve repair.  

PubMed

The natural history of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) is unfavorable, leading to left ventricular failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and death. Many patients affected by severe regurgitation (MR) do not currently undergo surgery, mainly due to the perceived risk of the procedure (old age, impaired left ventricular function, and comorbidities). Mitral transcatheter interventions carry the hope of minimizing risks while preserving clinical efficacy of surgical repair, as an alternative to conventional treatment. Multiple technologies and diversified approaches are under development with the purpose of treating MR in less invasive ways. They can be categorized based on the anatomical and patho-physiological addressed target. Among them, MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Inc., Menlo Park, California) has emerged as a clinically safe and effective method for percutaneous mitral valve repair in patients either with degenerative and functional regurgitation. This device mimics the surgical edge-to-edge repair initially described by Alfieri in the early 1990s. Other repair technologies include percutaneous direct and indirect annuloplasty, neochordae implantation, and left ventricular reshaping. They are still in early phase clinical trials or preclinical studies. The combination of different repair techniques is likely to be required to achieve good long-lasting results. In the future, novel devices, improved knowledge, more efficient imaging, and transcatheter mitral prosthetic valve implantation may expand the indications to those patients currently not treated, as well as improve the results both in terms of early efficacy and long-term durability. These treatments are currently reserved to high-risk and inoperable patients, and their application requires an integrated Heart-Team approach. They represent the natural evolution of surgery and promise to expand treatment options and improve patients' outcomes in the near future. PMID:24452608

Denti, Paolo; Maisano, Francesco; Alfieri, Ottavio

2014-04-01

308

Anatomical Considerations of the Suprascapular Nerve in Rotator Cuff Repairs  

PubMed Central

Introduction. When using the double interval slide technique for arthroscopic repair of chronic large or massive rotator cuff tears, the posterior interval release is directed toward the scapular spine until the fat pad that protects the suprascapular nerve is reached. Injury to the suprascapular nerve can occur due to the nerve's proximity to the operative field. This study aimed to identify safe margins for avoiding injury to the suprascapular nerve. Materials and Methods. For 20 shoulders in ten cadavers, the distance was measured from the suprascapular notch to the glenoid rim, the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and the lateral border of the acromion. Results. From the suprascapular notch, the suprascapular nerve coursed an average of 3.42?cm to the glenoid rim, 5.34?cm to the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and 6.09?cm to the lateral border of the acromion. Conclusions. The results of this study define a safe zone, using anatomic landmarks, to help surgeons avoid iatrogenic injury to the suprascapular nerve when employing the double interval slide technique in arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff. PMID:24724030

Tom, James A.; Shah, Mitesh P.; Lee, Dan J.; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Amin, Nirav H.

2014-01-01

309

Capacitive sensors for detecting proximity and response.  

PubMed

We have implemented an inexpensive circuit that indicates when a subject is in close proximity to a specified area of arbitrary shape and size. The circuit can transform an easily created metal surface or a preexisting metal object into an experimental sensor. The subject need not make physical contact with the sensor to activate the mechanism, which enables the detection of subjects through nonconductive materials, such as wood and plastics. The technology is readily adapted to existing experimental setups. Applications of this technology, using pigeons, rats, and mice, demonstrate its flexibility: a nose-poke/peck sensor for response or choice detection; a subject location detector that can be placed on a floor, wall, or ceiling; and a perch that detects when a bird is present. This technology can also be applied to the study of behavior in primates and many other animal species. PMID:18522073

Badelt, Steven W; Blaisdell, Aaron P

2008-05-01

310

Piloting decision aid for spacecraft proximity operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a decision aid to assist the piloting of a powered vehicle during a near-field (less than 2000 feet) rendezvous to another spacecraft is discussed. Using Space Shuttle rendezvous with an orbiting satellite as an example, extensive practice is normally required to successfully effect such a rendezvous with a minimum of propellant. As a rule, variations on a 'point and shoot' technique are optimized and used as much as possible. A piloting decision aid (PDA) to assist in the pointing process was conceived and is in the preliminary stages of development. This concept may be applied to Space Shuttle proximity operations for berthing with Space Station Freedom (SSF), for Shuttle rendezvous with other spacecraft, or for autonomous rendezvous of any unmanned vehicle with SSF. The concept orginated with a task order from NASA JSC for an automated piloting procedure and was influenced by an early air-to-air missile envelope display.

Pierce, Cole J.

1991-01-01

311

Piloting decision aid for spacecraft proximity operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a decision aid to assist the piloting of a powered vehicle during a near-field (less than 2000 feet) rendezvous to another spacecraft is discussed. Using Space Shuttle rendezvous with an orbiting satellite as an example, extensive practice is normally required to successfully effect such a rendezvous with a minimum of propellant. As a rule, variations on a 'point and shoot' technique are optimized and used as much as possible. A piloting decision aid (PDA) to assist in the pointing process was conceived and is in the preliminary stages of development. This concept may be applied to Space Shuttle proximity operations for berthing with Space Station Freedom (SSF), for Shuttle rendezvous with other spacecraft, or for autonomous rendezvous of any unmanned vehicle with SSF. The concept orginated with a task order from NASA JSC for an automated piloting procedure and was influenced by an early air-to-air missile envelope display.

Pierce, Cole J.

312

[Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].  

PubMed

Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

Rohrbach, J M

2012-10-01

313

Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are included by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

314

Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are includes by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

315

Laser or razor? A novel experimental peripheral nerve repair technique.  

PubMed

An operative repair technique for crushed sciatic nerve in the rat was used to examine whether removal of the damaged tissue could be better achieved with a low wattage CO2 laser or a blade. This approach was compared to results in rats undergoing conventional end-to-end nerve anastomosis using a microsurgical approach. Crushed sciatic nerves were exposed bilaterally 24 hours after injury and treated as follows. A longitudinally split polyethylene catheter was placed under the nerve, which was fixed to the catheter with 9-0 stitches placed away from lesion area; the nerve was bathed in ice-cold polyvinyl alcohol/chlorpromazine (PVA/CPZ) solution. After the nerve was crushed, the lesioned tissue was removed using laser pulses or a thin blade. A collagen matrix was used to fill the gap, and the preparation was covered and allowed to recover for 6 weeks. End-to-end anastomosis was done following same parameters, but with omission of the nerve catheter, PVA/CPZ solution, and collagen matrix; these nerves were reunited using epineurial stitches. High performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) analysis of each group showed that the laser approach reduced the levels of norepinephrine distal to the lesion, least, suggesting better regeneration of proximal axonal growth. Morphological and neuroelectric findings, although suggestive, showed no significant differences between laser and blade repair, a finding that reinforces the idea that such endpoints are not as sensitive as chemical assays of tissue transmitter levels such as HPLC. Laser or blade repair using nerve-catheter fixation and collagen bridge matrix was superior to end-to-end nerve anastomosis when morphological, neuroelectric, and HPLC values were compared in this model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3362320

de la Torre, J C; Karaca, M; Merali, Z; Fortin, T; Richard, M

1988-03-01

316

A High-Throughput Scintillation Proximity-Based Assay for Human DNA Ligase IV  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ionizing radiation (IR) and certain chemotherapeutic drugs are designed to generate cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cancer cells. Inhibition of the major DSB repair pathway, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), will enhance the cytotoxicity of these agents. Screening for inhibitors of the DNA ligase IV (Lig4), which mediates the final ligation step in NHEJ, offers a novel target-based drug discovery opportunity. For this purpose, we have developed an enzymatic assay to identify chemicals that block the transfer of [?-33P]-AMP from the complex Lig4-[?-33P]-AMP onto the 5? end of a double-stranded DNA substrate and adapted it to a scintillation proximity assay (SPA). A screen was performed against a collection of 5,280 compounds. Assay statistics show an average Z? value of 0.73, indicative of a robust assay in this SPA format. Using a threshold of >20% inhibition, 10 compounds were initially scored as positive hits. A follow-up screen confirmed four compounds with IC50 values ranging from 1 to 30??M. Rabeprazole and U73122 were found to specifically block the adenylate transfer step and DNA rejoining; in whole live cell assays, these compounds were found to inhibit the repair of DSBs generated by IR. The ability to screen and identify Lig4 inhibitors suggests that they may have utility as chemo- and radio-sensitizers in combination therapy and provides a rationale for using this screening strategy to identify additional inhibitors. PMID:22192310

Tseng, Hui-Min; Shum, David; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Escobar, Sindy; Veomett, Nicholas J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Gin, David Y.

2012-01-01

317

Optical proximity stability control of ArF immersion clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once a process is set-up in an integrated circuit (IC) manufacturer's fabrication environment, any drift in the proximity fingerprint of the cluster will negatively impact the yield. In complement to the dose, focus and overlay control of the cluster, it is therefore also of ever growing importance to monitor and maintain the proximity stability (or CD through pitch behavior) of each cluster. In this paper, we report on an experimental proximity stability study of an ASML XT:1900i cluster for a 32 nm poly process from four different angles. First, we demonstrate the proximity stability over time by weekly wafer exposure and CD through pitch measurements. Second, we investigate proximity stability from tool-to-tool. In a third approach, the stability over the exposure field (intra-field through-pitch CD uniformity) is investigated. Finally, we verify that proximity is maintained through the lot when applying lens heating correction. Monitoring and maintaining the scanner's optical proximity through time, through the lot, over the field, and from toolto- tool, involves extensive CD metrology through pitch. In this work, we demonstrate that fast and precise CD through pitch data acquisition can be obtained by scatterometry (ASML YieldStarTM S-100), which significantly reduces the metrology load. The results of this study not only demonstrate the excellent optical proximity stability on a XT:1900i exposure cluster for a 32 nm poly process, but also show how scatterometry enables thorough optical proximity control in a fabrication environment.

Van Look, Lieve; Bekaert, Joost; D'havé, Koen; Laenens, Bart; Vandenberghe, Geert; Cheng, Shaunee; Schreel, Koen; Gemmink, Jan-Willem

2011-04-01

318

Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair  

PubMed Central

For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

2013-01-01

319

Shuttle orbiter TPS flight repair kit development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and application of a TPS repair kit is presented. The repair kit is designed for on orbit use by a crew member working in the manned maneuvering unit (MMU). The kit includes the necessary equipment and materials to accomplish the repair tasks which include the following: HRSI emittance coating repair, damaged tile repair, missing tile repair, and multiple tile repair. Two types of repair materials required to do the small area repair and the large area repair are described. The materials area cure in place, silicone base ablator for small damaged areas and precured ablator tile for repair of larger damaged areas is examined. The cure in place ablator is also used as an adhesive to bond the precured tiles in place. An applicator for the cure in place ablator, designed to contain a two-part silicon compound, mix the two components at correct ratio, and dispense the materials at rates compatible with mission timelines established for the EVA is described.

1979-01-01

320

Investigation on Flexure Test of Composite Beam of Repair Materials and Substrate Concrete for Durable Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted on composite beam of repair materials and substrate concrete to investigate the failures of concrete repair due to differences in strength of repair materials and substrate concrete. In this investigation the flexural strength, load-deflection curves and failure patterns of the composite beam specimens are studied for the durability of the concrete repair. Flexure test was conducted to simulate tensile stress in the concrete repair material. Compressive strength and split tensile strength of the repair materials and substrate concrete are investigated to aid in the analysis of the concrete repair. It was observed that the repair materials of higher compressive strength than the substrate concrete are causing an incompatible failure in the concrete repair.

Pattnaik, Rashmi R.; Rangaraju, Prasada Rao

2014-12-01

321

Methods of repairing a substrate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

322

Metallic Biomaterials in Skeletal Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic biomaterials are becoming increasingly important in skeletal repair. The goal of this review article is to present\\u000a an overview of metallic implant materials currently used in trauma and orthopedic surgery. Further, new research trends and\\u000a future clinical concepts are described and discussed. Titanium, titanium alloys, stainless steels and CoCr alloys are used\\u000a as bone implants in orthopedic and trauma

Karl-Heinz Frosch; Klaus Michael Stürmer

2006-01-01

323

Growth factors in bone repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of growth factors (GF) in bone repair is widely recognised, particularly for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs),\\u000a fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth\\u000a factor-? (TGF-?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). GF are usually stored in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but\\u000a after injury are actively released by ECM, cells and platelets.

Valentina Devescovi; Elisa Leonardi; Gabriela Ciapetti; Elisabetta Cenni

2008-01-01

324

Optimizing imaging for aortic repair.  

PubMed

Imaging is an integral part of an aortic program. Careful preoperative planning is essential to successful evaluation and treatment of aortic pathology. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the dominant modality for such preoperative planning. The use of a dedicated workstation for 3D postprocessing is very favorable and is considered mandatory when treating complex aortic pathology. Intraoperative imaging during aortic repair still depends heavily on standard fluoroscopy and angiography. However, the introduction of image fusion has the potential to reduce the use of both contrast and radiation, for the benefit of both patients and operators. Using cross-sectional imaging intraoperatively also has the potential to reduce the need for early imaging follow-up and to reduce the technical failures of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Imaging follow-up after EVAR has changed dramatically since the introduction of minimally invasive aortic repair. CTA remains the gold standard but a significant shift towards ultrasound surveillance has occurred. With the introduction of newer generation EVAR devices, results have improved and a trend towards less rigorous follow-up is expected. PMID:25644824

Törnqvist, P; Dias, N V; Resch, T

2015-04-01

325

Animal models of cartilage repair  

PubMed Central

Cartilage repair in terms of replacement, or regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage with functional tissue, is the ‘holy grail’ of joint surgery. A wide spectrum of strategies for cartilage repair currently exists and several of these techniques have been reported to be associated with successful clinical outcomes for appropriately selected indications. However, based on respective advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, no single strategy, or even combination of strategies, provides surgeons with viable options for attaining successful long-term outcomes in the majority of patients. As such, development of novel techniques and optimisation of current techniques need to be, and are, the focus of a great deal of research from the basic science level to clinical trials. Translational research that bridges scientific discoveries to clinical application involves the use of animal models in order to assess safety and efficacy for regulatory approval for human use. This review article provides an overview of animal models for cartilage repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;4:89–94. PMID:24695750

Cook, J. L.; Hung, C. T.; Kuroki, K.; Stoker, A. M.; Cook, C. R.; Pfeiffer, F. M.; Sherman, S. L.; Stannard, J. P.

2014-01-01

326

Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the brassboard and proto-type NGAVGS units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

2009-01-01

327

Laparoscopic Repair of Incidentally Found Spigelian Hernia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: A Spigelian hernia is a rare type of hernia that occurs through a defect in the anterior abdominal wall adjacent to the linea semilunaris. Estimation of its incidence has been reported as 0.12% of all abdominal wall hernias. Traditionally, the method of repair has been an open approach. Herein, we discuss a series of laparoscopic repairs. Methods: Case series and review of the literature. Cases: Three patients are presented. All were evaluated and taken to surgery initially for a different disease process, and all were incidentally found to have a spigelian hernia. These patients underwent laparoscopic repair of their hernias; 2 were repaired intraperitoneally and one was repaired totally extraperitoneally. Two patients initially underwent a mesh repair, while the third had an attempted primary repair. Conclusions: There is evidence that supports the use of laparoscopy for both diagnosis and repair of spigelian hernias. There are also reports of successful repairs both primarily and with mesh. In our experience with the preceding 3 patients, we found that laparoscopic repair of incidentally discovered spigelian hernias is a viable option, and we also found that implantation of mesh, when possible, resulted in satisfactory results and no recurrence. PMID:21902949

Nickloes, Todd; Mancini, Greg; Solla, Julio A.

2011-01-01

328

Aortic debranching for descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair by stent grafts.  

PubMed

Endovascular repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm may result in covering the ostia of the left carotid or left subclavian artery for proper proximal landing zones, and the celiac artery or superior mesenteric artery ostia in the abdomen for distal landing zones. To prevent possible complications of occluding the ostia of these vessels, the authors performed an innominate to left common carotid and left subclavian artery bypass as the first procedure in one patient. In the second patient they performed an aortoceliac and aortomesenteric bypass before stent graft placement. The stent graft repair of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm was performed subsequently in both patients. This aortic debranching provides subsequent proper placement of thoracic stent grafts. PMID:17249453

Cherukupalli, Chandra; Dwivedi, Amit J; Dayal, Rajeev; Krishnasastry, Khambapatty V

2007-01-01

329

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sin3p facilitates DNA double-strand break repair  

PubMed Central

There are two main pathways in eukaryotic cells for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks: homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining. Because eukaryotic genomes are packaged in chromatin, these pathways are likely to require the modulation of chromatin structure. One way to achieve this is by the acetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal tails of histones. Here we demonstrate that Sin3p and Rpd3p, components of one of the predominant histone deacetylase complexes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are required for efficient nonhomologous end joining. We also show that lysine 16 of histone H4 becomes deacetylated in the proximity of a chromosomal DNA double-strand break in a Sin3p-dependent manner. Taken together, these results define a role for the Sin3p/Rpd3p complex in the modulation of DNA repair. PMID:14711989

Jazayeri, Ali; McAinsh, Andrew D.; Jackson, Stephen P.

2004-01-01

330

Proximity and territory versus space in regional science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence tends to show that regional development occurs only in certain places. Therefore, one can ask the central question of the role of physical proximity in economic development processes. Economists try to answer this question through the concept of externalities, but this does not explain why certain externalities are linked with physical proximity. In this paper the author tries

O Crevoisier

1996-01-01

331

PROXIMITY OF INFORMATION IN GAMES WITH INCOMPLETE INFORMATION  

E-print Network

PROXIMITY OF INFORMATION IN GAMES WITH INCOMPLETE INFORMATION by Dov Monderer * and Dov Samet of Management, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel #12;Abstract Existing notions of proximity of information fail to satisfy desired continuity properties of equilibria in games with incomplete information. We

Monderer, Dov

332

Antibody-mediated injury to proximal tubules in Heymann nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody-mediated injury to proximal tubules in Heymann nephritis. To evaluate the hypothesis that antibody-mediated damage to proximal tubules (PT) could be a feature of Heymann nephritis (HN), we studied the kidneys of rats in different stages of the disease by light, immunofluorescence (IF), transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The observations of morphology were correlated with titers of circulating antibodies directed

Donna L Mendrick; Bernice Noble; Jan R Brentjens; Giuseppe A Andres

1980-01-01

333

Modular endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic tumours of the proximal femur  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoprosthetic replacements of the proximal femur are commonly required to treat destructive metastases with either impending or actual pathological fractures at this site. Modular prostheses provide an off the shelf availability and can be adapted to most reconstructive situations for proximal femoral replacements. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional outcomes following

Coonoor R Chandrasekar; Robert J Grimer; Simon R Carter; Roger M Tillman; Adesegun T Abudu

2008-01-01

334

Resonant Proximity Connector for Two-Dimensional Sensor Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a stable proximity connector RFC (resonant proximity connector) to TDC (two-dimensional communication) sheet. RFC is an electrode whose length is a quarter of the electromagnetic wavelength. The induced resonance around the electrode reduces the impedance between the connector and TDC sheet, which allows sensor chips to communicate with TDC sheet stably. Since the resonance depends

Hiromasa Chigusa; Yasutoshi Makino; Hiroyuki Shinoda

2006-01-01

335

Proximity of Information in Games with Incomplete Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing notions of proximity of information fail to satisfy desired continuity properties of equilibria in games with incomplete information. We demonstrate this failure and propose a topology on information structures which is the minimal one that satisfies those continuity requirements. This topology is defined in terms of the common belief players have about the proximity of each player's information. 1.

DOV MONDERER; DOV SAMET

1996-01-01

336

Finding Aggregate Proximity Relationships and Commonalities in Spatial Data Mining  

E-print Network

Finding Aggregate Proximity Relationships and Commonalities in Spatial Data Mining Edwin M. Knorr proximity commonalities (i.e., features) that apply to most, if not all, of the n clusters? Regarding derive many meaningful commonalities that cannot be found otherwise. Index Terms---spatial knowledge

Knorr, Edwin M.

337

Group Proximity Measure for Recommending Groups in Online Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently, thousands of online social networks (OSN) available, each of which hosts millions of users. Users make new friendship links, join groups on diverse topics, share opinions and thus help in building a big knowledge repository. In this paper we study the problem of defining proximity measure between groups (communities) of OSN. Understanding the proximity among the groups

Barna Saha; Lise Getoor

338

Efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in detecting graft rupture sites after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

Non-anastomotic graft rupture is a rare but critical complication after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Therefore, identifying the rupture sites is important to perform endovascular stent grafting. A 78-year old man who had undergone Y-grafting for infrarenal AAA before 17 years was referred to our hospital with the complaints of abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed acute pancreatitis and an enlargement around the grafted abdominal aorta. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography revealed an extravazation from the graft body 1.5 cm distal to the proximal anastomosis, and endovascular stent grafting was successfully performed. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography might be useful in detecting the graft rupture. PMID:24218495

Nakanishi, Koji; Watanabe, Ryoji; Shimizu, Shuji; Nakai, Mikizo

2014-02-01

339

JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair  

SciTech Connect

An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

Ricci, Carmelo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Radiologia Interventistica (Italy); Ceccherini, Claudio, E-mail: claudiocec@hotmail.it; Leonini, Sara [Radiologia Universitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte (Italy); Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Radiologia Interventistica (Italy); Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Chirurgia dell'Aorta Toracica (Italy)

2012-02-15

340

Treatment of a Persistent False Lumen with Aneurysm Formation Following Surgical Repair of Type A Dissection  

SciTech Connect

We describe the case of a 68-year-old man who developed aneurysmal dilatation of the proximal descending thoracic aorta 8 years after repair of a type A dissection. The aneurysm was due to an anastomotic leak at the distal end of the previous repair in the ascending aorta with antegrade perfusion of the false lumen. Surgical repair of the anastomotic leak partially obliterated the false lumen and computed tomography scan demonstrated thrombosis in a large proportion of the false lumen aneurysm. Follow-up with surveillance scans showed persistent filling of this aneurysm due to retrograde flow of blood within the false lumen. Coil embolization of the false lumen within the thoracic aorta was performed which successfully thrombosed the aneurysm with a reduction in diameter. Late aneurysm formation may complicate type A dissection repairs during follow-up due to a persistent false lumen, especially if there is an anastomotic leak. This case report describes a strategy to deal with this difficult clinical problem.

Jeganathan, Reubendra, E-mail: reubenj@hotmail.com; Kennedy, Peter; MacGowan, Simon [Royal Victoria Hospital, Department of Cardiac Surgery (United Kingdom)

2007-06-15

341

Scintillation proximity assay of arginine methylation.  

PubMed

Methylation of arginine residues, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is one important protein posttranslational modification involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. A fast and effective assay for PRMT can provide valuable information for dissecting the biological functions of PRMTs, as well as for screening small-molecule inhibitors of arginine methylation. Currently, among the methods used for PRMT activity measurement, many contain laborious separation procedures, which restrict the applications of these assays for high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery. The authors report here a mix-and-measure method to measure PRMT activity based on the principle of scintillation proximity assay (SPA). In this assay, (3)H-AdoMet was used as methyl donor, and biotin-modified histone H4 peptide served as a methylation substrate. Following the methylation reaction catalyzed by PRMTs, streptavidin-coated SPA beads were added to the reaction solution, and SPA signals were detected by a MicroBeta scintillation counter. No separation step is needed, which simplifies the assay procedure and greatly enhances the assay speed. Particularly, the miniaturization and robustness suggest that this method is suited for HTS of PRMT inhibitors. PMID:21821785

Wu, Jiang; Xie, Nan; Feng, You; Zheng, Y George

2012-02-01

342

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective “survival motor neuron” (SMN) protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. PMID:24399883

Haaker, Gerrit; Fujak, Albert

2013-01-01

343

Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

2014-01-30

344

Effects of thrust reversing in ground proximity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in stability and control characteristics encountered by a thrust reversing aircraft during its final approach, landing, and ground roll are described. These changes include a strong pitch-up accompanied by the loss of horizontal tail and aileron control effectiveness. The magnitude of reverser induced changes in ground effect are much larger than corresponding changes in free air. Some unexpected unsteady motions exhibited in wind tunnel by an aircraft model with reversers operating in ground proximity are also described. The cause of this oscillatory behavior was determined to be an unsteady interaction between the wall jets formed by impingement of reverser jets on the ground and the on-coming free stream. Time histories of rolling moments measured by the wind tunnel balance or support system were removed and frequencies were scaled by Strouhal number to full scale. Corrected time series were used to simulate the motion of a fighter aircraft with thrust reversers in ground effect. The simulation predicted large roll angles and nose down attitude at touchdown. Some phenomena of jet attachment to solid surfaces are discussed and areas for future research are recommended.

Joshi, P. B.; Hughes, R. V.

1987-01-01

345

Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior  

PubMed Central

Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, p<0.01). Women who reported less coping drank more as their distress increased on a certain day whereas women who reported more coping drank about the same regardless of distress. Overall, findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms are associated with higher alcohol use and that these relationships are moderated by daily coping self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25511723

Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

2014-01-01

346

Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior.  

PubMed

Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, p<0.01). Women who reported less coping drank more as their distress increased on a certain day whereas women who reported more coping drank about the same regardless of distress. Overall, findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms are associated with higher alcohol use and that these relationships are moderated by daily coping self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25511723

Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

2014-01-01

347

[Traumatic lesions of the proximal tibial epiphysis].  

PubMed

36 fractures of the tibia involving the proximal tibial epiphyseal cartilage were treated in 35 patients at the Accident Hospital Lorenz Böhler, Vienna over a ten-year period from 1980 to 1989. The average age at injury was 13.2 years. Most common concomitant injuries were ruptures of the ACL and/or MCL associated with meniscal lesions in type III- and IV-fractures and fractures of the fibula in type II injuries. We saw two associated aggravating problems as defined by a compartment-syndrome of the lower leg with one immediate peroneal-nerve palsy, but lesion or disruption of the popliteal artery was not observed. 26 patients were treated conservatively and nine patients had to be operated on. Long-term follow-up (means 6.4 years) was available in 28 cases. Premature epiphyseal closure was seen in three cases and one of them developed an axis angulation in the sense of genu recurvatum but operative correction was not necessary. Unsatisfactory results were stated in four cases due to their knee instability or posttraumatic painful arthrosis. There was no case of growth disturbance with axis deformation or angulation requiring surgical revision. PMID:1636220

Rappold, G

1992-06-01

348

Does DNA repair occur during somatic hypermutation?  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates a flood of DNA damage in the immunoglobulin loci, leading to abasic sites, single-strand breaks and mismatches. It is compelling that some proteins in the canonical base excision and mismatch repair pathways have been hijacked to increase mutagenesis during somatic hypermutation. Thus, the AID-induced mutagenic pathways involve a mix of DNA repair proteins and low fidelity DNA polymerases to create antibody diversity. In this review, we analyze the roles of base excision repair, mismatch repair, and mutagenesis during somatic hypermutation of rearranged variable genes. The emerging view is that faithful base excision repair occurs simultaneously with mutagenesis, whereas faithful mismatch repair is mostly absent. PMID:22728014

Saribasak, Huseyin; Gearhart, Patricia J.

2012-01-01

349

Current strategies and approaches to meniscal repair.  

PubMed

Repair of symptomatic meniscal tears in the appropriate patient has demonstrated successful mid and long-term results with a variety of different repair techniques. These techniques have undergone much evolution and innovation, from the initial open repairs to a variety of inside-out, outside-in, and all-inside techniques and devices. This article focuses on patient presentation, selection, current treatments, and surgical techniques including pearls and pitfalls, and discusses the most recent published outcomes and complications. PMID:25068846

Goodwillie, Andrew D; Myers, Kevin; Sgaglione, Nicholas A

2014-12-01

350

Laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias: early results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Open repair of parastomal hernias is associated with high rates of morbidity and recurrence. Laparoscopic repair with mesh has been described, and good results have been reported in small case series with short-term follow-up. The purpose of this study was to review our institution’s experience with the laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias. Methods: Nine patients with symptomatic parastomal hernias

B. Safadi

2004-01-01

351

Cellular repair/misrepair track model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A repair/misrepair cell kinetics model is superimposed onto the track structure model of Katz to provide for a repair mechanism. The model is tested on the repair-dependent data of Yang et al. and provides an adequate description of that data. The misrepair rate determines the maximum relative biological effectiveness (RBE), but similar results could arise from indirect X-ray lethality not include in the present model.

Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1991-01-01

352

Thermal protection system repair kit program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and conceptual design aspects of repair materials and procedures for in orbit repair of the space shuttle orbiter TPS tiles are investigated. Material studies to investigate cure in place materials are described including catalyst and cure studies, ablation tests and evaluations, and support mixing and applicator design. The feasibility of the repair procedures, the storage of the TPS, dispensing, and cure problems are addressed.

1979-01-01

353

Extensive Operation as One of the Solution for Patients with the Insufficient Proximal Landing Zone for TEVAR in Aortic Dissection – short term results  

PubMed Central

Objective: In our study we wanted to showed the safety, feasibility, efficacy and way how to solve the problems of endovascular repair for aortic dissection with insufficient proximal Landing Zone. Methods: The clinical data of all the patients with insufficient proximal Landing Zone (PLZ) for endovascular repair for aortic aneurism and dissection Stanford type B for the period from October 2013 to June 2014 was prospectively reviewed. According to the classification proposed by Mitchell et al, aortic Zone 0 was involved in 3 cases, Zone 1 in 1 case, Zone 2 in 9 cases and Zone 3 in 6 cases (19 patients in total). A hybrid surgical procedure of supraortic debranching and revascularization, with direct anastomosed truncus brachiocephalicus and left common carotid artery, were performed to obtain an adequate aortic PLZ. Revascularization of the left subclavian artery was carried out on the patient with dissection Stanford type B and short PLZ 2. Results: There was no significant difference of risk factors between Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2 (Table 1.), but the length of the PLZ significantly differed between groups (p<0.01) and there is no significant difference in technical and clinical success rate among the groups. Conclusion: The procedure of extending insufficient PLZ for endovascular repair for aortic arch pathology is feasible and relatively safe. The TEVAR applicability in such aortic disorders could be extended.

Kacila, Mirsad; Vranic, Haris; Straus, Slavenka

2014-01-01

354

DNA repair in microgravity: studies on bacteria and mammalian cells in the experiments REPAIR and KINETICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of microgravity on cellular repair processes was tested in the space experiments REPAIR and KINETICS, which were performed during the IML-2 mission in the Biorack of ESA: (a) survival of spores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 after UV-irradiation (up to 340 J m?2) in the experiment REPAIR; (b) in the experiment KINETICS the kinetics of DNA repair in three

G. Horneck; P. Rettberg; C. Baumstark-Khan; H. Rink; S. Kozubek; M. Schäfer; C. Schmitz

1996-01-01

355

National Trends in Rotator Cuff Repair  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent publications suggest that arthroscopic and open rotator cuff repairs have had comparable clinical results, although each technique has distinct advantages and disadvantages. National hospital and ambulatory surgery databases were reviewed to identify practice patterns for rotator cuff repair. Methods: The rates of medical visits for rotator cuff pathology, and the rates of open and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, were examined for the years 1996 and 2006 in the United States. The national incidence of rotator cuff repairs and related data were obtained from inpatient (National Hospital Discharge Survey, NHDS) and ambulatory surgery (National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery, NSAS) databases. These databases were queried with use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) procedure codes for arthroscopic (ICD-9 codes 83.63 and 80.21) and open (code 83.63 without code 80.21) rotator cuff repair. We also examined where the surgery was performed (inpatient versus ambulatory surgery center) and characteristics of the patients, including age, sex, and comorbidities. Results: The unadjusted volume of all rotator cuff repairs increased 141% in the decade from 1996 to 2006. The unadjusted number of arthroscopic procedures increased by 600% while open repairs increased by only 34% during this time interval. There was a significant shift from inpatient to outpatient surgery (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The increase in national rates of rotator cuff repair over the last decade has been dramatic, particularly for arthroscopic assisted repair. PMID:22298054

Colvin, Alexis Chiang; Egorova, Natalia; Harrison, Alicia K.; Moskowitz, Alan; Flatow, Evan L.

2012-01-01

356

Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

2013-01-01

357

Scheduling and rescheduling with iterative repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the GERRY scheduling and rescheduling system being applied to coordinate Space Shuttle Ground Processing. The system uses constraint-based iterative repair, a technique that starts with a complete but possibly flawed schedule and iteratively improves it by using constraint knowledge within repair heuristics. In this paper we explore the tradeoff between the informedness and the computational cost of several repair heuristics. We show empirically that some knowledge can greatly improve the convergence speed of a repair-based system, but that too much knowledge, such as the knowledge embodied within the MIN-CONFLICTS lookahead heuristic, can overwhelm a system and result in degraded performance.

Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

1992-01-01

358

Transport Magnetic Proximity Effects in Platinum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum (Pt) metal, being non-magnetic and having a strong spin-orbit coupling interaction, has been central in detecting pure spin current and establishing most of the recent spin-based phenomena. Thus, it is important to ascertain the transport and magnetic characteristics of thin Pt films in contact with a ferromagnet. In this work, we use both electric and thermal means to conclusively show the transport magnetic proximity effects (MPE) of thin Pt film in contact with ferromagnetic insulator YIG. At thicknesses comparable to, and less than, the spin diffusion length, the strong ferromagnetic characteristics in Pt films on YIG are indistinguishable from those of ferromagnetic permalloy on YIG. [1] The MPE occurs at the interface and decreases exponentially away from the interface, concentrating in only a few monolayers. As a result, the pure spin current detected by a thin Pt is tainted with a spin polarized current. The pure spin current phenomena, such as the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Seebeck effect, have been contaminated with the anomalous Hall effect and the anomalous Nernst effect respectively. These results raise serious questions about the suitability, and the validity, of using Pt in establishing pure spin current phenomena; on the other hand, a much stronger spin-based effect can be induced by the MPE at the interface. This research is in collaboration with X. Fin, Y. P. Chen, J. Wu, and J. Q. Xiao (University of Delaware), T. Y. Chen (Arizona State University) and D. Qu, W. G. Wang, and C. L. Chien (The Johns Hopkins University).[4pt] [1] S. Y. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Letts. 109, 107204 (2012).

Huang, Ssu-Yen

2013-03-01

359

Neurogenic regulation of proximal bicarbonate and chloride reabsorption.  

PubMed

Although a change in renal nerve activity is known to alter proximal reabsorption, it is unclear whether reabsorption of NaHCO3 or NaCl or both are affected. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) were studied using free-flow micropuncture techniques during euvolemia and following acute ipsilateral denervation. Glomerular filtration rate and single nephron glomerular filtration rate were stable. Absolute proximal bicarbonate reabsorption fell following denervation (933 +/- 40 to 817 +/- 30 pmol/min) with a parallel reduction in chloride reabsorption (1,643 +/- 116 to 1,341 +/- 129 peq/min). Urinary sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride excretion all increased significantly. To further assess the physiological significance of neurogenic modulation of proximal transport, other rats (n = 6) were subjected to acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN). There is evidence that AUN induces a contralateral natriuresis (renorenal reflex) at least partially by causing inhibition of efferent renal nerve traffic. AUN caused significant changes in proximal NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption as well as in whole kidney electrolyte excretion in the same pattern as had denervation. Prior denervation of the remaining kidney prevented the proximal and whole kidney response to AUN (n = 6). In conclusion, depression of renal nerve activity inhibits both NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption in the rat superficial proximal convoluted tubule. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in renal nerve activity modify whole kidney electrolyte excretion under physiological conditions at least partially by regulating proximal transport. PMID:3942224

Cogan, M G

1986-01-01

360

Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. PMID:23707555

Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

2013-12-01

361

A 17 year old with isolated proximal tibiofibular joint arthritis  

PubMed Central

The proximal tibiofibular joint (TFJ) is rarely affected in rheumatic diseases, and we frequently interpret pain of the lateral knee as the result of overuse or trauma. Nonetheless, the TFJ is a synovial joint that communicates with the tibiofemoral joint in a proportion of patients. While proximal TFJ arthritis has been rarely associated with existing spondyloarthritis, isolated TFJ arthritis as the presenting manifestation of spondyloarthritis has not yet been described. Here, we report the clinical and radiographic presentation of an adolescent with chronic proximal TFJ arthritis heralding spondyloarthritis highly suggestive of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:23302539

2013-01-01

362

Three-dimensional echocardiographic planimetry of maximal regurgitant orifice area in myxomatous mitral regurgitation: intraoperative comparison with proximal flow convergence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to validate direct planimetry of mitral regurgitant orifice area from three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstructions. BACKGROUND: Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) is an important measure of the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) that up to now has been calculated from hemodynamic data rather than measured directly. We hypothesized that improved spatial resolution of the mitral valve (MV) with three-dimensional (3D) echo might allow accurate planimetry of ROA. METHODS: We reconstructed the MV using 3D echo with 3 degrees rotational acquisitions (TomTec) using a transesophageal (TEE) multiplane probe in 15 patients undergoing MV repair (age 59 +/- 11 years). One observer reconstructed the prolapsing mitral leaflet in a left atrial plane parallel to the ROA and planimetered the two-dimensional (2D) projection of the maximal ROA. A second observer, blinded to the results of the first, calculated maximal ROA using the proximal convergence method defined as maximal flow rate (2pi(r2)va, where r is the radius of a color alias contour with velocity va) divided by regurgitant peak velocity (obtained by continuous wave [CW] Doppler) and corrected as necessary for proximal flow constraint. RESULTS: Maximal ROA was 0.79 +/- 0.39 (mean +/- SD) cm2 by 3D and 0.86 +/- 0.42 cm2 by proximal convergence (p = NS). Maximal ROA by 3D echo (y) was highly correlated with the corresponding flow measurement (x) (y = 0.87x + 0.03, r = 0.95, p < 0.001) with close agreement seen (AROA (y - x) = 0.07 +/- 0.12 cm2). CONCLUSIONS: 3D echo imaging of the MV allows direct visualization and planimetry of the ROA in patients with severe MR with good agreement to flow-based proximal convergence measurements.

Breburda, C. S.; Griffin, B. P.; Pu, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.

1998-01-01

363

77 FR 49740 - Repair Stations; Extension of Comment Period  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 12-03] RIN 2120-AJ61 Repair Stations; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY...and revise the regulations for repair stations. This extension is a result of formal requests from repair stations and industry associations to...

2012-08-17

364

49 CFR 236.555 - Repaired or rewound receiver coil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Repaired or rewound receiver coil. 236.555 Section 236.555 Transportation...Locomotives § 236.555 Repaired or rewound receiver coil. Receiver coil which has been repaired or rewound shall have the...

2010-10-01

365

14 CFR 91.1505 - Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Repairs assessment for pressurized...Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 91.1505 Repairs assessment for pressurized...unless repair assessment guidelines applicable...approved by the FAA Aircraft...

2013-01-01

366

14 CFR 91.1505 - Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.  

...false Repairs assessment for pressurized...Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 91.1505 Repairs assessment for pressurized...unless repair assessment guidelines applicable...approved by the FAA Aircraft...

2014-01-01

367

14 CFR 91.1505 - Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Repairs assessment for pressurized...Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 91.1505 Repairs assessment for pressurized...unless repair assessment guidelines applicable...approved by the FAA Aircraft...

2012-01-01

368

14 CFR 121.1107 - Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Repairs assessment for pressurized...Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1107 Repairs assessment for pressurized...program. The repair assessment guidelines must be approved by the FAA Aircraft Certification...

2012-01-01

369

14 CFR 121.1107 - Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Repairs assessment for pressurized...Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1107 Repairs assessment for pressurized...program. The repair assessment guidelines must be approved by the FAA Aircraft Certification...

2013-01-01

370

14 CFR 121.1107 - Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.  

... false Repairs assessment for pressurized...Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1107 Repairs assessment for pressurized...program. The repair assessment guidelines must be approved by the FAA Aircraft Certification...

2014-01-01

371

29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.  

... 2014-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30...Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance...

2014-07-01

372

PREDICTION OF DEFORMATIONS DURING ENDOVASCULAR AORTIC ANEURYSM REPAIR USING  

E-print Network

1 PREDICTION OF DEFORMATIONS DURING ENDOVASCULAR AORTIC ANEURYSM REPAIR USING FINITE ELEMENT aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), the introduction of medical devices deforms the arteries. The aim) fluoroscopy images taken during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. When these intraoperative

Boyer, Edmond

373

Role of DNA repair protein ERCC1 in skin cancer   

E-print Network

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the major repair systems for removal of DNA lesions. The NER pathway has evolved mainly to repair UV-induced DNA damage and is also active against a broad range of endogenously ...

Song, Liang

2009-01-01

374

Dynamics of DNA Mismatch Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA mismatch repair protects the genome from spontaneous mutations by recognizing errors, excising damage, and re-synthesizing DNA in a pathway that is highly conserved. Mismatch recognition is accomplished by the MutS family of proteins which are weak ATPases that bind specifically to damaged DNA, but the specific molecular mechanisms by which these proteins recognize damage and initiate excision are not known. Previous structural investigations have implied that protein-induced conformational changes are central to mismatch recognition. Because damage detection is a highly dynamic process in which conformational changes of the protein-DNA complexes occur on a time scale of a few seconds, it is difficult to obtain meaningful kinetic information with traditional ensemble techniques. In this work, we use single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study the conformational dynamics of fluorescently labeled DNA substrates in the presence of the mismatch repair protein MutS from E. coli and its human homolog MSH2/MSH6. Our studies allow us to obtain quantitative kinetic information about the rates of binding and dissociation and to determine the conformational states for each protein-DNA complex.

Coats, Julie; Lin, Yuyen; Rasnik, Ivan

2009-11-01

375

Endothelial precursors in vascular repair.  

PubMed

The endothelium is an essential component of the cardiovascular system, playing a vital role in blood vessel formation, vascular homeostasis, permeability and the regulation of inflammation. The integrity of the endothelial monolayer is also critical in the prevention of atherogenesis and as such, restoration of the monolayer is essential following damage or cell death. Over the past decade, data has suggested that progenitor cells from different origins within the body are released into the circulation and contribute to re-endothelialisation. These cells, termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), also gave rise to the theory of new vessel formation within adults (vasculogenesis) without proliferation and migration of mature endothelial cells (angiogenesis). As such, intense research has been carried out identifying how these cells may be mobilised and contribute to vascular repair, either encouraging vasculogenesis into regions of ischemia or the re-endothelialisation of vessels with a dysfunctional endothelium. However, classification and isolation procedures have been a major problem in this area of research and beneficial use for therapeutic application has been controversial. In the present review we focus on the role of EPCs in vascular repair. We also provide an update on EPC classification and discuss autologous stem cell-derived endothelial cell (EC) as a functional source for therapy. PMID:20184904

Kirton, John Paul; Xu, Qingbo

2010-05-01

376

Bioengineering of foetal membrane repair.  

PubMed

Preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (früher vorzeitiger Blasensprung) has remained a devastating complication of pregnancy with very high risk of pregnancy loss. Several methods of sealing spontaneously ruptured membranes to stop amniotic fluid leakage and prolong pregnancy have been tested, but no one of them has achieved a clinical breakthrough. Also, needle and foetoscopic puncture of membranes for diagnostic or surgical interventions in the amniotic cavity carry a significant risk of persistent membrane leakage and subsequent rupture - thus limiting the developing field of intrauterine foetal surgery. Efforts are concentrated on taking action before rupture rather than reacting after rupture: one avenue of research concerns prophylactic plugging of foetoscopic access sites in foetal membranes at the time of intervention, thus inhibiting leakage and rupture. Foetal membrane injuries, spontaneous or iatrogenic, constitute extreme challenges to repair: thinness of foetal membrane tissue, difficult localisation and accessibility of the rupture site, the need for injectable sealants, wet gluing conditions and poor wound healing in this tissue all complicate repair. The goal is to achieve immediate and at the same time long-lasting closure of the membrane leak. Here we review approaches to closure of foetal membrane defects with liquid sealants or solid biomaterial scaffolds, with the focus on prophylactic plugging of foetoscopic access sites. PMID:18941945

Zisch, Andreas H; Zimmermann, Roland

2008-10-18

377

Repair of overheating linear accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a proton accelerator that produces high energy particle beams for experiments. These beams include neutrons and protons for diverse uses including radiography, isotope production, small feature study, lattice vibrations and material science. The Drift Tube Linear Accelerator (DTL) is the first portion of a half mile long linear section of accelerator that raises the beam energy from 750 keV to 100 MeV. In its 31st year of operation (2003), the DTL experienced serious issues. The first problem was the inability to maintain resonant frequency at full power. The second problem was increased occurrences of over-temperature failure of cooling hoses. These shortcomings led to an investigation during the 2003 yearly preventative maintenance shutdown that showed evidence of excessive heating: discolored interior tank walls and coper oxide deposition in the cooling circuits. Since overheating was suspected to be caused by compromised heat transfer, improving that was the focus of the repair effort. Investigations revealed copper oxide flow inhibition and iron oxide scale build up. Acid cleaning was implemented with careful attention to protection of the base metal, selection of components to clean and minimization of exposure times. The effort has been very successful in bringing the accelerator through a complete eight month run cycle allowing an incredible array of scientific experiments to be completed this year (2003-2004). This paper will describe the systems, investigation analysis, repair, return to production and conclusion.

Barkley, Walter; Baldwin, William; Bennett, Gloria; Bitteker, Leo; Borden, Michael; Casados, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Gorman, Fred; Johnson, Kenneth; Kurennoy, Sergey; Martinez, Alberto; O’Hara, James; Perez, Edward; Roller, Brandon; Rybarcyk, Lawrence; Stark, Peter; Stockton, Jerry

2004-01-01

378

Designing for damage-tolerant composite repairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a design methodology, and the associated data base, for the damage-tolerant design of adhesively bonded repairs. This methodology is illustrated by considering repairs to an edge-cracked panel and to multisite damage in a fuselage lap joint.

Chiu, W. K.; Rees, D.; Chalkley, P.; Jones, R.

379

Chemical Fume Hood Maintenance, Repair and Certification  

E-print Network

of laboratory hoods: chemical fume hoods and biological safety cabinets. This policy outlines the design, face velocity requirements, and test procedures for chemical fume hoods. Biological safety cabinets are tested personnel safety when repairing CFH Contact EH&S if clearance is needed. e. Repair and adjust flow rate

Jia, Songtao

380

Laparoscopic repair of incarcerated paraesophageal hernias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paraesophageal hernias comprise only 2–5% of all hiatal hernias, yet unlike the more common sliding hiatal hernia, paraesophageal hernias are prone to undergo volvulus, with obstruction, ischemia, and gangrenous perforation. Due to their propensity toward calamitous complications, they must be recognized and repaired as expeditiously as possible. Traditionally these hernias have been repaired by either an open transabdominal or an

D. W. Cloyd

1994-01-01

381

Railroad track repairs are complete at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Railroad track repairs have been completed at Kennedy Space Center. This section of track is located on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area. The repairs were required following the minor derailment of two solid rocket booster segment cars on July 18.

2000-01-01

382

Surgical repair of Achilles tendon ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the surgical results of 42 consecutive patients with spontaneous rupture of the Achilles ten don treated from 1973 to 1984 to determine the causes of rupture and to evaluate our treatment methods. Patients were divided into early and late repair groups and their charts reviewed to determine common clinical features. A new method of repair with early functional

James L. Beskin; Richard A. Sanders; Stephen C. Hunter; Jack C. Hughston

1987-01-01

383

Self-repairing composites for airplane components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Durability and damage tolerance criteria drives the design of most composite structures. Those criteria could be altered by developing structure that repairs itself from impact damage. This is a technology for increasing damage tolerance for impact damage. Repaired damage would enable continued function and prevent further degradation to catastrophic failure in the case of an aircraft application. Further, repaired damage would enable applications to be utilized without reduction in performance due to impacts. Self repairing structures are designed to incorporate hollow fibers, which will release a repairing agent when the structure is impacted, so that the repairing agent will fill delaminations, voids and cracks in les than one minute, thus healing matrix voids. The intent is to modify the durability and damage tolerance criteria by incorporation of self-healing technologies to reduce overall weight: The structure will actually remain lighter than current conventional design procedures allow. Research objective(s) were: Prove that damage can be repaired to within 80-90% of original flexural strength in less than one minute, in laminates that are processed at 300-350F typical for aircraft composites. These were successfully met. The main focus was on testing of elements in compression after impact and a larger component in shear at Natural Process Design, Inc. Based on these results the advantages purposes are assessed. The results show potential; with self repairing composites, compressive strength is maintained sufficiently so that less material can be used as per durability and damage tolerance, yielding a lighter structure.

Dry, Carolyn

2008-03-01

384

Kinematics of Healthy and Meniscal Repaired Knees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences have been reported between in vitro and in vivo meniscal kinematics, and no clinical study to date has investigated the effect of meniscal repair on meniscal kinematics. Eleven subjects with healthy knees and eight subjects who had undergone meniscal repair for an isolated tear were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging. Sagittal plane scanning was performed at 0, 30, 60,

Marcia Epler; Michael Sitler; Raymond Moyer

2005-01-01

385

30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2010-07-01

386

30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire...

2010-07-01

387

Laser thermal preconditioning enhances dermal wound repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preconditioning tissues with an initial mild thermal stress, thereby eliciting a stress response, can serve to protect tissue from subsequent stresses. Patients at risk for impaired healing, such as diabetics, can benefit from therapeutic methods which enhance wound repair. We present a laser thermal preconditioning protocol that accelerates cutaneous wound repair in a murine model. A pulsed diode laser (lambda

Gerald J. Wilmink; Terry Carter; Jeffrey M. Davidson; E. Duco Jansen

2008-01-01

388

Triple valve repair for young rheumatic patientsq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Facing young foreign polyvalvular rheumatic patients, for which long-term anticoagulation is not available, we have chosen to attempt triple valve repair procedures in order to avoid prosthetic implantation in this particular population suffering from triple valve disease. Methods: Twenty-one young rheumatic patients (mean age:11 ^ 4 years) underwent triple valve repair procedures including cusp extension on the aortic valve

Jean-Michel Grinda; Christian Latremouille; Nicola D'Attellis; Alain Berrebi; Sylvain Chauvaud; Alain Carpentier; Jean-Noel Fabiani; Alain Deloche

389

Mitral valve repair in patients over  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether to repair or replace the mitral valve in the elderly remains unanswered. The purpose of our study is to describe our experience with mitral valve repair (MVR) using Carpentier's technique in patients 70 years and older. Fifty consecutive patients underwent MVR between 1984-1992. There were 30 female patients. All had 2 + or more mitral regurgitation

H. Azar; S. Szentpetery

2009-01-01

390

29 CFR 452.104 - Proximity of notice to election.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.104 Proximity of notice to...

2010-07-01

391

Light-operated proximity detector with linear output  

DOEpatents

A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phototransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

Simpson, Marc L. (Harriman, TN); McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN)

1985-01-01

392

Computer vision based navigation for spacecraft proximity operations  

E-print Network

The use of computer vision for spacecraft relative navigation and proximity operations within an unknown environment is an enabling technology for a number of future commercial and scientific space missions. This thesis ...

Tweddle, Brent Edward

2010-01-01

393

A GENERAL INERTIAL PROXIMAL POINT METHOD FOR MIXED ...  

E-print Network

The primary proximal point method for minimizing a differentiable function f : ...... The incomplete measurements are given by b = A(L0+S0). ...... D. F. Sun, and P. Tseng, “Hankel matrix rank minimization with applications to system identification

2014-08-01

394

Planning and scheduling proximity operations for autonomous orbital rendezvous  

E-print Network

This thesis develops a mixed integer programming formulation to solve the proximity operations scheduling problem for autonomous orbital rendezvous. The algorithm of this thesis allows the operator to specify planned modes, ...

Guerra, Christopher J., 1978-

2003-01-01

395

Deleting the TGF-? Receptor Attenuates Acute Proximal Tubule Injury  

PubMed Central

TGF-? is a profibrotic growth factor in CKD, but its role in modulating the kidney’s response to AKI is not well understood. The proximal tubule epithelial cell, which is the main cellular target of AKI, expresses high levels of both TGF-? and its receptors. To determine how TGF-? signaling in this tubular segment affects the response to AKI, we selectively deleted the TGF-? type II receptor in the proximal tubules of mice. This deletion attenuated renal impairment and reduced tubular apoptosis in mercuric chloride–induced injury. In vitro, deficiency of the TGF-? type II receptor protected proximal tubule epithelial cells from hydrogen peroxide–induced apoptosis, which was mediated in part by Smad-dependent signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-? signaling in the proximal tubule has a detrimental effect on the response to AKI as a result of its proapoptotic effects. PMID:23160515

Vadivelu, Sangeetha; Neelisetty, Surekha; Srichai, Manakan B.; Paueksakon, Paisit; Pozzi, Ambra; Harris, Raymond C.

2012-01-01

396

Technical tips: dualplate fixation technique for comminuted proximal humerus fractures.  

PubMed

The authors report dualplate fixation technique for providing stable fixation in comminuted proximal humerus fractures. This technique has been used for proximal humerus fractures with metaphyseal comminution and provides excellent anatomical reduction and neck shaft angle (NSA). The recently locking plate is clinically more widely used due to its small size, low rigidity, high elasticity, and biomechanical properties such as fixed initial angle and rotational stability. However, in severely comminuted complex type proximal metaphyseal humerus fractures, the use of locking plate alone does not provide stable fixation, leading to complications such as varus collapse, anterior-posterior angulation, screw cutout, nonunion, malunion, and metal failure. Therefore, a more robust and enhanced fixation method, the dual plating technique using the locking compression plate (Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System and Variable Angle Locking Compression Plate) was developed. PMID:24813097

Choi, Sungwook; Kang, Hyunseong; Bang, Hyeongsig

2014-08-01

397

Outcomes of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The principal anatomic contraindication to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVR) is an unfavorable proximal aortic neck. With increasing experience, a greater proportion of patients with unfavorable neck anatomy are being offered EVR. This study aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients with challenging proximal aortic neck anatomy. Methods. Prospectively collected data from 147 consecutive patients who underwent EVR between December 1997 and April 2005 were supplemented with a retrospective review of medical records and radiological images. Unfavorable anatomic features were defined as neck diameter >28 mm, angulation >60 deg., circumferential thrombus >50%, and length <10 mm. Eighty-seven patients with 0 adverse features (good necks) were compared with 60 patients with one or more adverse features (hostile necks). Results. Comparing the good neck with the hostile neck group, there were no significant differences in the incidence of primary technical success (p = 0.15), intraoperative adjunctive procedures (p = 0.22), early proximal type I endoleak (<30 days) (p = 1.0), late proximal type I endoleak (>30 days) (p = 0.57), distal type I endoleak (p = 0.40), type III endoleak (p 0.51), secondary interventions (p = 1.0), aneurysm sac expansion (p = 0.44), or 30 day mortality (p = 0.70). The good neck group had a significantly increased incidence of type II endoleak (p = 0.023). By multivariate analysis, the incidence of intraoperative adjunctive procedures was significantly increased in the presence of severe angulation (p = 0.041, OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.05-9.04). Conclusion. Patients with severely hostile proximal aortic neck anatomy may be treated with EVR, although severely angulated necks require additional intraoperative procedures. Early outcomes are encouraging and suggest that indications for EVR may be expanded to include patients with hostile neck anatomy.

Choke, Edward; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria; Loftus, Ian; McFarland, Robert; Loosemore, Thomas; Thompson, Matthew M. [St. George's Hospital, Vascular Institute (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Matt.Thompson@stgeorges.nhs.uk

2006-12-15

398

Adamantinoma of the proximal femur: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adamantinoma is a rare low-grade malignant bone tumor with an indolent course. The tibia is involved in 85%–90% of long-bone cases. We encountered a patient with primary adamantinoma of the proximal femur. A 60-year-old woman fell and fractured her proximal left femur in the area of a cystic lesion. She underwent an osteosynthesis procedure, and bone union was obtained. After

Sadao Ii; Hiroyuki Tsuchiya; Koutaro Takazawa; Katsuro Tomita

2004-01-01

399

Influence of ammonia on sodium absorption in rat proximal colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ammonia on sodium and chloride fluxes in rat proximal colon was studied in Ussing chamber experiments. Under short-circuit conditions, the proximal colon absorbed sodium and secreted chloride. The presence of ammonia (30 mmol l-1 mucosal) diminished Na+ absorption, but had hardly any influence on Cl- fluxes. Blocking the apical Na+\\/H+ exchanger isoform NHE2 by amiloride or HOE642

Rainer Cermak; Claudia Lawnitzak; Erwin Scharrer

2000-01-01

400

Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV  

SciTech Connect

Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.

1980-11-01

401

Digital Image Enhancement Improves Diagnosis of Nondisplaced Proximal Femur Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today most emergency room radiographs are computerized, making digital image enhancement a natural advancement to improve\\u000a fracture diagnosis. We compared the diagnosis of nondisplaced proximal femur fractures using four different image enhancement\\u000a methods using standard DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) after window-leveling optimization. Twenty-nine\\u000a orthopaedic residents and specialists reviewed 28 pelvic images consisting of 25 occult proximal femur

Itamar Busheri Botser; Amir Herman; Ram Nathaniel; Dan Rappaport; Aharon Chechik

2009-01-01

402

Proximal Femoral Reconstructions with Bone Impaction Grafting and Metal Mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive circumferential proximal cortical bone loss is considered by some a contraindication for impaction bone grafting\\u000a in the femur. We asked whether reconstruction with a circumferential metal mesh, impacted bone allografts, and a cemented\\u000a stem would lead to acceptable survival in these patients. We retrospectively reviewed 14 patients (15 hips) with severe proximal\\u000a femoral bone defects (average, 12 cm long; 14

Martín A. Buttaro; Fernando Comba; Francisco Piccaluga

2009-01-01

403

Predictors of Proximal Neoplasia in Patients Without Distal Adenomatous Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Previous colorectal cancer screening studies have observed that some patients may have advanced proximal neoplasia without distal findings. Since these studies have included only gender, age, and family history as risk factors, they are limited in their ability to identify predictors of isolated proximal neoplasia.METHODS:Data were collected from the charts of 1,988 patients who presented for colonoscopy. Information gathered included

Joseph C. Anderson; Zvi Alpern; Catherine R. Messina; Patricia Hubbard; Roger Grimson; Peter F. Ells; Douglas L. Brand

2004-01-01

404

Effect of acrylamide on hepatocellular DNA repair  

SciTech Connect

Acrylamide has recently been reported to induce tumors in laboratory animals. The effect of acrylamide on unscheduled DNA synthesis using the hepatocyte primary culture (HPC)/DNA repair test was examined. Isolated hepatocytes were exposed to acrylamide and (3H)thymidine ( (3H)TdR) for 18 hr. Incorporation of (3H)TdR into DNA was determined by autoradiography. No DNA repair was observed at acrylamide concentrations up to 10(-2) M. These findings were confirmed using density gradients. Acrylamide concentrations exceeding 10(-2) M were cytotoxic to hepatocytes. Because both autoradiography and density gradients measure DNA repair as an endpoint, the ability of acrylamide to inhibit these repair processes was also determined. Acrylamide had no effect on the repair of UV-damaged DNA. These results show that acrylamide is not genotoxic in isolated hepatocytes.

Miller, M.J.; McQueen, C.A.

1986-01-01

405

Phenotypic Transitions of Macrophages Orchestrate Tissue Repair  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are essential for the efficient healing of numerous tissues, and they contribute to impaired healing and fibrosis. Tissue repair proceeds through overlapping phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, and macrophages are present throughout this progression. Macrophages exhibit transitions in phenotype and function as tissue repair progresses, although the precise factors regulating these transitions remain poorly defined. In efficiently healing injuries, macrophages present during a given stage of repair appear to orchestrate transition into the next phase and, in turn, can promote debridement of the injury site, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and matrix remodeling. However, dysregulated macrophage function can contribute to failure to heal or fibrosis in several pathological situations. This review will address current knowledge of the origins and functions of macrophages during the progression of tissue repair, with emphasis on skin and skeletal muscle. Dysregulation of macrophages in disease states and therapies targeting macrophage activation to promote tissue repair are also discussed. PMID:24091222

Novak, Margaret L.; Koh, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

406

Chromatin structure and DNA damage repair  

PubMed Central

The integrity of the genome is continuously challenged by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. These damaging agents can induce a wide variety of lesions in the DNA, such as double strand breaks, single strand breaks, oxidative lesions and pyrimidine dimers. The cell has evolved intricate DNA damage response mechanisms to counteract the genotoxic effects of these lesions. The two main features of the DNA damage response mechanisms are cell-cycle checkpoint activation and, at the heart of the response, DNA repair. For both damage signalling and repair, chromatin remodelling is most likely a prerequisite. Here, we discuss current knowledge on chromatin remodelling with respect to the cellular response to DNA damage, with emphasis on the response to lesions resolved by nucleotide excision repair. We will discuss the role of histone modifications as well as their displacement or exchange in nucleotide excision repair and make a comparison with their requirement in transcription and double strand break repair. PMID:19014481

Dinant, Christoffel; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Vermeulen, Wim

2008-01-01

407

Repairing native defects on EUV mask blanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mask defectivity is a serious problem for all lithographic masks, but especially for EUV masks. Defects in the EUV blank are particularly challenging because their elimination is beyond control of the mask fab. If defects have been identified on a mask blank, patterns can be shifted to place as many blank defects as possible in regions where printing impact will be eliminated or become unimportant. For those defects that cannot be mitigated through pattern shift, repair strategies must be developed. Repairing defects that occur naturally in the EUV blank is challenging because the printability of these defects varies widely. This paper describes some types of native defects commonly found and begins to outline a triage strategy for defects that are identified on the blank. Sample defects best suited to nanomachining repair are treated in detail: repairs are attempted, characterized using mask metrology and then tested for printability. Based on the initial results, the viability of repairing EUV blank native defects is discussed.

Lawliss, Mark; Gallagher, Emily; Hibbs, Michael; Seki, Kazunori; Isogawa, Takeshi; Robinson, Tod; LeClaire, Jeff

2014-10-01

408

DNA Repair by Reversal of DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Endogenous and exogenous factors constantly challenge cellular DNA, generating cytotoxic and/or mutagenic DNA adducts. As a result, organisms have evolved different mechanisms to defend against the deleterious effects of DNA damage. Among these diverse repair pathways, direct DNA-repair systems provide cells with simple yet efficient solutions to reverse covalent DNA adducts. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the field of direct DNA repair, namely, photolyase-, alkyltransferase-, and dioxygenase-mediated repair processes. We present specific examples to describe new findings of known enzymes and appealing discoveries of new proteins. At the end of this article, we also briefly discuss the influence of direct DNA repair on other fields of biology and its implication on the discovery of new biology. PMID:23284047

Yi, Chengqi; He, Chuan

2013-01-01

409

Laparoscopic hernia repair--the best option?  

PubMed

For 100 years the Bassini-type repair for inguinal hernia was the standard method. The Lichtenstein "tension free" mesh repair replaced it on the grounds of much lower recurrence rates, < 5% vs approximately 15%. However, open procedures all have significant long-term discomfort rates of up to 53%. Laparoscopic repair has become a genuine option in the last 15 years and offers low recurrence (< 1%) and minimal long-term discomfort. However, it has not been widely taken up. There is a common misconception that it takes longer to perform, has more complications and is much more expensive. None of these caveats stand up under objective scrutiny. It is time that laparoscopic repair became the method of choice for most elective inguinal hernia repairs. PMID:18557141

Wall, M L; Cherian, Th; Lotz, J C

2008-01-01

410

Repair of porcine articular cartilage defect with autologous chondrocyte transplantation.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage is known to have poor healing capacity after injury. Autologous chondral grafting remains the mainstay to treat well-defined, full-thickness, symptomatic cartilage defects. We demonstrated the utilization of gelatin microbeads to deliver autologous chondrocytes for in vivo cartilage generation. Chondrocytes were harvested from the left forelimbs of 12 Lee-Sung pigs. The cells were expanded in monolayer culture and then seeded onto gelatin microbeads or left in monolayer. Shortly before implantation, the cell-laden beads were mixed with collagen type I gel, while the cells in monolayer culture were collected and re-suspended in culture medium. Full-thickness cartilage defects were surgically created in the weight-bearing surface of the femoral condyles of both knees, covered by periosteal patches taken from proximal tibia, and sealed with a porcine fibrin glue. In total, 48 condyles were equally allotted to experimental, control, and null groups that were filled beneath the patch with chondrocyte-laden beads in gel, chondrocytes in plain medium solution, or nothing, respectively. The repair was examined 6 months post-surgery on the basis of macroscopic appearance, histological scores based on the International Cartilage Repair Society Scale, and the proportion of characteristic chondrocytes. Tensile stress-relaxation behavior was determined from uniaxial indentation tests. The experimental group scored higher than the control group in the categories of matrix nature, cell distribution pattern, and absence of mineralization, with similar surface smoothness. Both the experimental and control groups were superior to the null group in the above-mentioned categories. Viable cell populations were equal in all groups, but the proportion of characteristic chondrocytes was highest in the experimental group. Matrix stiffness was ranked as null > native cartilage > control > experimental group. Transplanted autologous chondrocytes survive and could yield hyaline-like cartilage. The application of beads and gel for transplantation helped to retain the transferred cells in situ and maintain a better chondrocyte phenotype. PMID:15885479

Chiang, Hongsen; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Tsai, Chen-Chi; Lin, Mei-Chiao; She, Bin-Ru; Huang, Yi-You; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Shieh, Chang-Shun; Chen, Min-Huey; Ramshaw, John A M; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Tuan, Rocky S; Jiang, Ching-Chuan

2005-05-01

411

Predictors of Reintervention After Endovascular Repair of Isolated Iliac Artery Aneurysm  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to identify factors predicting the need for reintervention after endovascular repair of isolated iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA). We reviewed prospectively collected database records of all patients who underwent endovascular repair of IIAA between 1999 and 2008. Detailed assessment of the aneurysms was performed using computed tomography angiography (CTA). Follow-up protocol included CTA at 3 months. If this showed no complication, then annual duplex scan was arranged. Multivariate analysis and analysis of patient survival and freedom from reintervention were performed using Kaplan-Meier life tables. Forty IIAAs (median diameter 44 mm) in 38 patients were treated (all men; median age 75 years), and median follow-up was 27 months. Endovascular repair of IIAA was required in 14 of 40 aneurysms (35%). The rate of type I endoleak was significantly higher with proximal landing zone (PLZ) diameter >30 mm in the aorta or >24 mm in the common iliac artery or distal landing zone (DLZ) diameter >24 mm (P = 0.03, 0.03, and 0.0014, respectively). Reintervention rate (RR) increased significantly with increased diameter or decreased length of PLZ; increased DLZ diameter; and endovascular IIAA repair (P = 0.005, 0.005, 0.02, and 0.02 respectively); however, RR was not significantly affected by length of PLZ or DLZ. Freedom-from-reintervention was 97, 93, and 86% at 12, 24, and 108 months. There was no in-hospital or aneurysm-related mortality. Endovascular IIAA repair is a safe treatment option. Proper patient selection is essential to decrease the RR.

Zayed, Hany A., E-mail: hany.zayed@gstt.nhs.uk; Attia, Rizwan; Modarai, Bijan; Clough, Rachel E.; Bell, Rachel E.; Carrell, Tom; Sabharwal, Tarun; Reidy, John; Taylor, Peter R. [Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

412

Functional annulus remodelling using a prosthetic ring in tricuspid aortic valve repair: mid-term results†  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The functional aortic valve annulus (FAVA) is a complex unit with proximal (aorto-ventricular junction) and distal (sinotubular junction) components. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the total FAVA remodelling, using a prosthetic ring, on mid-term clinical and echocardiographic results after aortic valve repair. METHODS Since February 2003, 250 patients with tricuspid aortic valve insufficiency (AI) underwent aortic valve repair. FAVA dilatation was treated by prosthetic ring in 52 patients, by isolated subcommissural plasty in 62, by subcommissural plasty plus ascending aortic replacement in 57 and by David's reimplantation procedure in 79. Survival rate and freedom from recurrent AI greater than or equal to moderate were evaluated by Kaplan–Meier. RESULTS Overall late survival was 90.4%. Late cardiac-related deaths occurred in 15 patients. At follow-up, 36 (16%) patients had recurrent AI greater than or equal to moderate because of cusp reprolapse and/or FAVA redilatation. Freedom from recurrent AI was significantly higher for patients who underwent David's procedure or FAVA remodelling by prosthetic ring than those who underwent isolated subcommissural plasty (P < 0.01) or subcommissural plasty plus ascending aortic replacement (P = 0.02). There was no statistical difference between David's procedure and prosthetic ring annuloplasty (P = 0.26). CONCLUSION FAVA remodelling using a prosthetic ring is a safe procedure in aortic valve repair surgery thanks to long-term annulus stabilization and it is a pliable alternative to David's procedure in selected patients. This technique may be used in all patients with slight root dilatation to avoid aggressive root reimplantation. We also recommended total FAVA annuloplasty in all patients who underwent aortic valve repair to improve long-term repair results. PMID:24065345

Fattouch, Khalil; Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Murana, Giacomo; Nasso, Giuseppe; Guccione, Francesco; Dioguardi, Pietro; Salardino, Massimo; Bianco, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

413

Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Induces Early Renal Mitochondrial DNA Repair and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of multi-system organ failure in sepsis. However, recovery of renal function after sepsis-induced AKI suggests active repair of energy-producing pathways. Here, we tested the hypothesis in mice that Staphyloccocus aureus sepsis damages mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the kidney and activates mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sepsis was induced in wild-type C57Bl/6J and Cox-8 Gfp-tagged mitochondrial-reporter mice via intraperitoneal fibrin clots embedded with S. aureus. Kidneys from surviving mice were harvested at time zero (control), 24, or 48 hours after infection and evaluated for renal inflammation, oxidative stress markers, mtDNA content, and mitochondrial biogenesis markers, and OGG1 and UDG mitochondrial DNA repair enzymes. We examined the kidneys of the mitochondrial reporter mice for changes in staining density and distribution. S. aureus sepsis induced sharp amplification of renal Tnf, Il-10, and Ngal mRNAs with decreased renal mtDNA content and increased tubular and glomerular cell death and accumulation of protein carbonyls and 8-OHdG. Subsequently, mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis was evidenced by elevated OGG1 levels and significant increases in NRF-1, NRF-2, and mtTFA expression. Overall, renal mitochondrial mass, tracked by citrate synthase mRNA and protein, increased in parallel with changes in mitochondrial GFP-fluorescence especially in proximal tubules in the renal cortex and medulla. Sub-lethal S. aureus sepsis thus induces widespread renal mitochondrial damage that triggers the induction of the renal mtDNA repair protein, OGG1, and mitochondrial biogenesis as a conspicuous resolution mechanism after systemic bacterial infection. PMID:24988481

Bartz, Raquel R.; Fu, Ping; Suliman, Hagir B.; Crowley, Stephen D.; MacGarvey, Nancy Chou; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Piantadosi, Claude A.

2014-01-01

414

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-09-01

415

Duodenal switch for intractable reflux gastroesophagitis after proximal gastrectomy.  

PubMed

Reflux gastroesophagitis is a common postgastrectomy complication after proximal gastrectomy, and conservative treatments including protease inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors are effective in most patients. Here we report a patient with severe reflux gastroesophagitis after proximal gastrectomy, in whom surgical treatment of duodenal switch was effective. An 80-year-old man complained of intractable heartburn, anorexia, and body weight loss after having undergone proximal gastrectomy, with reconstruction by esophagogastrostomy with valvuloplasty and pyloroplasty, for early gastric cancer 14 months before referral to our department. Oral administration of protease inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors was ineffective. Laboratory evaluation showed poor nutritional status. On endoscopic examination, we noted the redness, bleeding, and multiple erosions in the esophagus and the gastric remnant. He was diagnosed to have severe gastroesophagitis due to reflux of duodenal juice into the gastric remnant and esophagus. We performed duodenal switch to divert duodenal juice from the gastric remnant and esophagus; the duodenum was transected 2 cm distal to the pylorus, the duodenal distal end was closed, and a 50-cm Roux limb from the proximal jejunum was anastomosed to the proximal end of the duodenum. The heartburn disappeared postoperatively, and endoscopic examination revealed marked improvement of the reflux gastroesophagitis. One year postoperatively, the patient is free from symptoms including heartburn. His body weight increased, and laboratory data showed improvement in nutritional status. In conclusion, the duodenal switch may be surgical treatment of choice for intractable reflux gastroesophagitis after proximal gastrectomy. PMID:23803250

Someya, Soutoku; Shibata, Chikashi; Tanaka, Naoki; Kudoh, Katsuyoshi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Miura, Koh; Unno, Michiaki

2013-01-01

416

Luminal Na+/H+ exchange in the proximal tubule  

PubMed Central

The proximal tubule is critical for whole-organism volume and acid–base homeostasis by reabsorbing filtered water, NaCl, bicarbonate, and citrate, as well as by excreting acid in the form of hydrogen and ammonium ions and producing new bicarbonate in the process. Filtered organic solutes such as amino acids, oligopeptides, and proteins are also retrieved by the proximal tubule. Luminal membrane Na+/H+ exchangers either directly mediate or indirectly contribute to each of these processes. Na+/H+ exchangers are a family of secondary active transporters with diverse tissue and subcellular distributions. Two isoforms, NHE3 and NHE8, are expressed at the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule. NHE3 is the prevalent isoform in adults, is the most extensively studied, and is tightly regulated by a large number of agonists and physiological conditions acting via partially defined molecular mechanisms. Comparatively little is known about NHE8, which is highly expressed at the lumen of the neonatal proximal tubule and is mostly intracellular in adults. This article discusses the physiology of proximal Na+/H+ exchange, the multiple mechanisms of NHE3 regulation, and the reciprocal relationship between NHE3 and NHE8 at the lumen of the proximal tubule. PMID:18853182

Bobulescu, I. Alexandru

2010-01-01

417

Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai

2011-02-01

418

Proximal tubular function in dogs with thoracic caval constriction  

PubMed Central

The effect of saline infusion on proximal sodium reabsorption was compared in normal dogs and in dogs with acute or chronic partial thoracic vena cava obstruction. After acute vena cava obstruction, proximal fractional sodium reabsorption rose by 74%. During continued caval obstruction, saline loading strikingly reduced proximal reabsorption but sodium excretion remained minimal. In chronic caval dogs, saline loading reduced proximal fractional sodium reabsorption by 31% but sodium excretion in the micropunctured kidney was only 41 ?Eq/min. After saline infusion in normal dogs, proximal fractional sodium reabsorption fell 39% while unilateral sodium excretion rose to 584 ?Eq/min. Nephron filtration rate was also measured before and after saline loading in normal and chronic caval dogs in both repunctured and fresh tubules. There was a marked increase in nephron filtration rate in repunctured tubules and no change in freshly punctured tubules in both groups. The effect of saline loading on nephron filtration rate in normal and chronic caval dogs was similar, therefore, whether repunctured or fresh nephrons were considered. We conclude that saline infusion depresses proximal sodium reabsorption in acute and chronic TVC dogs. Since saline loading markedly increases distal delivery without a concomitant natriuresis, enhanced distal reabsorption must play a major role in the sodium retention exhibited by chronic caval dogs. Redistribution of filtrate does not appear to be a factor in this sodium retention. PMID:5116206

Auld, R. Brewer; Alexander, Edward A.; Levinsky, Norman G.

1971-01-01

419

Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

2010-01-01

420

Signaling Pathways in Cartilage Repair  

PubMed Central

In adult healthy cartilage, chondrocytes are in a quiescent phase characterized by a fine balance between anabolic and catabolic activities. In ageing, degenerative joint diseases and traumatic injuries of cartilage, a loss of homeostatic conditions and an up-regulation of catabolic pathways occur. Since cartilage differentiation and maintenance of homeostasis are finely tuned by a complex network of signaling molecules and biophysical factors, shedding light on these mechanisms appears to be extremely relevant for both the identification of pathogenic key factors, as specific therapeutic targets, and the development of biological approaches for cartilage regeneration. This review will focus on the main signaling pathways that can activate cellular and molecular processes, regulating the functional behavior of cartilage in both physiological and pathological conditions. These networks may be relevant in the crosstalk among joint compartments and increased knowledge in this field may lead to the development of more effective strategies for inducing cartilage repair. PMID:24837833

Mariani, Erminia; Pulsatelli, Lia; Facchini, Andrea

2014-01-01

421

Proximal STA to proximal PCA bypass using a radial artery graft by posterior oblique transzygomatic subtemporal approach.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of a radial artery graft (RAG) for bypass of the proximal superficial temporal artery (STA) to proximal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) by posterior oblique transzygomatic subtemporal approach as an alternative to the external carotid artery (ECA) to PCA anastomosis. We conducted an anatomical and technical study at a university hospital. Five adult cadaveric specimens were dissected. A preauricular vertical skin incision was used. The trunk of STA was identified. A 30 degrees oblique posterior zygomatic arch osteotomy and microcraniotomy was performed. The dura of the middle cranial fossa was then opened. The temporal lobe was retracted, the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns were opened, and the P2 segment of the PCA was exposed. The proximal side of the RAG was anastomosed with the proximal STA and the distal side was anastomosed with the P2 segment. The mean caliber of the proximal STA was 2.25 +/- 0.35 mm. The mean diameter of the P(2) was 2.2 +/- 0.2 mm. The average length of the RAG was 56 +/- 3.2 mm. The mean caliber of the proximal and the distal sides of the graft was 2.5 +/- 0.25 mm and 2.3 +/- 0.15 mm, respectively. Because the proximal STA to proximal PCA bypass uses a short RAG and their calibers are over 2 mm, this bypass technique can provide a sufficient blood flow and may be a reasonable alternative over ECA to PCA bypass using long grafts. PMID:18773233

Ulku, Cagatay Han; Cicekcibasi, Aynur Emine; Cengiz, Sahika Liva; Ustun, Mehmet Erkan; Buyukmumcu, Mustafa

2009-01-01

422

Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations that it could apply to ongoing maintenance work. According to Schuh, "SMART standardized and streamlined many shuttle repair processes, saving time and money while increasing safety and the quality of repairs." Maintenance technicians and engineers now had a tool that kept them in the field, and because SMART is capable of continually evolving, each time an engineer put it to use, it would enrich the Agency-wide knowledge base. "If an engineer sees something in the work environment that they could improve, a repair process or a procedure, SMART can incorporate that data for use in future operations," says Belson.

2013-01-01

423

Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions  

PubMed Central

A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repair is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase ?, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL. PMID:24631220

Cunniffe, Siobhan; O’Neill, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; Lomax, Martine E.

2014-01-01

424

Two-layer repair of the transversalis fascia is sufficient for inguinal hernia repair.  

PubMed Central

The Shouldice four-layer repair is considered to be the gold standard procedure for repair of inguinal hernia with low recurrence rates around 1%. Tension-free two-layer repair of the transversalis fascia may be all that is required to avoid recurrence. We compared the early recurrence rate after two-layer repair of the transversalis fascia or the standard four-layer Shouldice technique in a randomised study of elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. In 48 patients (53 repairs) who had a two-layer transversalis fascia repair, there was one recurrence (2%) in the first 12 months after operation, though there was one more recurrence within 36 months (total 4%). In 39 patients who had a four-layer Shouldice repair (42 repairs), there was no recurrence at 12 months but at 36 months two recurrences (5%) were found. We conclude that a two-layer repair of the transversalis fascia is anatomically correct, physiologically sound and can provide equivalent results to the standard Shouldice repair for inguinal hernia. PMID:7574325

Varshney, S.; Burke, D.; Johnson, C. D.

1995-01-01

425

Kinematics of healthy and meniscal repaired knees.  

PubMed

Differences have been reported between in vitro and in vivo meniscal kinematics, and no clinical study to date has investigated the effect of meniscal repair on meniscal kinematics. Eleven subjects with healthy knees and eight subjects who had undergone meniscal repair for an isolated tear were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging. Sagittal plane scanning was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 degrees of knee flexion. The mean composite lateral meniscus movements for the normal and meniscal-repaired subjects were 6.85 mm and 6.01 mm, respectively. The mean composite medial meniscus movement for the normal and meniscal repaired subjects were 8.22 mm and 5.91 mm, respectively. Anterior horn movements of the lateral and medial meniscus of normal subjects were 7.5 and 8.9 mm, respectively. The posterior horns of the lateral meniscus and medial meniscus displaced 6.2 mm and 7.6 mm, respectively. In comparing meniscal-repair subjects to the subjects with healthy knees, the lateral meniscus displaced approximately 6 mm for both groups. However, the medial meniscus moved 8.2 mm for the normal subjects and only 5.91 mm for the meniscal repair subjects. Posterior horn movement of the medial meniscus was determined to be reduced following meniscal repair. PMID:16392442

Epler, Marcia; Sitler, Michael; Moyer, Raymond

2005-01-01

426

Robotic mitral valve repair in infective endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Background Robotic mitral surgery is the most common robotic cardiac procedures. However, in mitral endocarditis the repair become more challenging especially in minimally approach. We applied robotic surgery in mitral endocarditis repair and reviewed our surgical methods and results. Patients From January 2012 to December 2013, 12 patients with mitral endocarditis in National Taiwan University Hospital were operated via robotic assisted repair. Age of them was among 21 to 65 years old, mean 43. Results The vegetation involves anterior leaflet in 3, posterior leaflet in 8 and commissural leaflet in 4. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time is 124 minutes and cross clamp time is 89 minutes. There was no stroke and no operation death. Mitral valve repair technique including anterior leaflet patch augmentation in 2, direct closure of rupture hole on anterior leaflet in one, plication commissural leaflet in 2, and artificial chordae in 10. There was no mitral regurgitation detected immediately after weaning of cardiopulmonary bypass. All of them got free-from-regurgitation or -stenosis rate was 100% at one-year follow. Conclusions Although mitral infective endocarditis is complex and difficult to repair, robotic mitral repair in infective endocarditis is feasible. Even in the complex repair group, the cardiopulmonary bypass time is not prolonged and the result is good. PMID:24455177

Chi, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Shu-Chien; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Wang, Shoei-Shen

2014-01-01

427

Mitral valve repair for degenerative disease.  

PubMed

Degenerative mitral valve disease is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation in North America. Using techniques developed by Carpentier and others, up to 90% of degenerative mitral valves can be repaired. These valves are characterized by annular dilatation and chordal rupture or elongation; chordal changes are mainly localized to the posterior leaflet. The most common repair technique for posterior leaflet prolapse is quadrangular resection. When the leaflet is >1.5 cm long, a sliding repair is added to reduce the risk of systolic anterior motion. Anterior leaflet prolapse is usually treated by transfer of chords from the posterior leaflet or adjacent areas of the anterior leaflet. Other useful techniques for correction of anterior leaflet prolapse are creation of artificial chords and the Alfieri edge-to-edge repair. Chordal shortening is rarely employed as it jeopardizes repair durability. Annuloplasty accompanies all repairs. A posterior annuloplasty provides results equivalent to those obtained with a circumferential annuloplasty. Flexible annuloplasty has theoretical advantages, but clinical benefits have not been shown. After mitral valve repair for degenerative disease, 10-year freedom from reoperation is 93%. Risk of reoperation is increased by anterior leaflet prolapse, chordal shortening, failure to use an annuloplasty, and lack of intraoperative echocardiography. In the ideal situation, when posterior leaflet resection is corrected by quadrangular resection with annuloplasty and the result is confirmed by intraoperative echocardiography, the 10-year durability is 98%. PMID:11843514

Gillinov, A Marc; Cosgrove, Delos M

2002-01-01

428

Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair  

PubMed Central

A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery. PMID:18264850

Kovacevic, David

2008-01-01

429

Predictive factors of proximal advanced neoplasia in the large bowel  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of sex, age, family history and distal findings on the risk of proximal advanced neoplasia (cancer or advanced adenoma) in the large bowel. Material and methods Records for 10 111 asymptomatic participants of the Colonoscopy Screening Program (CSP), recruited from the Warsaw region between 2000 and 2004, were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the impact of sex, age, family history and most advanced distal lesions on the occurrence of proximal advanced neoplasia. To enhance comparability of the study two definitions of the proximal colon were applied – either the splenic flexure (1st) or the bend between the descending and sigmoid colon (2nd definition) represented the boundary. Results One hundred and thirty-three (1st) and 167 patients (2nd definition) were found to have at least one advanced neoplastic lesion in the proximal part, respectively. Eleven and 14 patients were found to have carcinoma, while in 130 and 163 patients at least one proximal advanced adenoma appeared. Men were at twice as high risk of having advanced neoplasia in the proximal colon than women (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.31–2.87, p = 0.001 or OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.20–2.40, p = 0.003, respectively). The presence of distal advanced neoplastic lesions was associated with 3.5 times higher risk of proximal advanced neoplasia (OR = 3.58, 95% CI: 2.00–6.43, p < 0.0001 or OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.95–5.96, p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions The results may confirm some limitation of flexible sigmoidoscopy in the screening settings in comparison with colonoscopy, at least in men and people with distal advanced neoplasia. PMID:25097578

Mroz, Andrzej; Kaminski, Michal F.; Kraszewska, Ewa; Orlowska, Janina; Regula, Jaroslaw

2014-01-01

430

Long-Term Results of Endovascular Repair for Distal Arch and Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms Treated by Custom-Made Endografts: Usefulness of Fenestrated Endografts  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluated early and long-term results of atherosclerotic aneurysm repair with custom-made endografts. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair with custom-made endografts. Fenestrated grafts were used in 37 patients (45.7%) to maintain blood flow of the neck and a landing zone for as long as possible for distal arch or proximal descending aneurysms. The rates of perioperative mortality, stroke, paraplegia, and primary endoleaks were assessed to evaluate in-hospital safety. The rates of endoleak development, survival, and freedom from aortic-related death were assessed to evaluate long-term efficiency. Results: Twenty-four patients (29.6%) underwent urgent operations, and 38 (46.9%) underwent distal arch or proximal descending aortic aneurysm repair. There was one case (1.2%) of in-hospital mortality and no cases of stroke. Permanent spinal injury occurred in one patient (1.2%). Early and late endoleaks occurred in one and 16 patients, respectively. The actuarial survival rates were 88.9%, 64.9%, and 51.7% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The actuarial rates of freedom from endoleaks were 90.1%, 81.3%, and 68.6% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Conclusion: Early results of custom-made endografts were excellent, and fenestrated endografts were safe for distal arch and proximal descending aortic aneurysms. PMID:25593623

Nakamura, Kunihide; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Nina, Katsuhiko; Endou, Jouji; Kojima, Kazushi; Nishimura, Masanori; Ishii, Hirohito; Yokota, Atsuko

2014-01-01

431

The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair  

PubMed Central

Airway submucosal glands (SMGs) are major secretory structures that lie beneath the epithelium of the cartilaginous airway. These glands are believed to play important roles in normal lung function and airway innate immunity by secreting antibacterial factors, mucus, and fluid into the airway lumen. Recent studies have suggested that SMGs may additionally serve as a protective niche for adult epithelial stem/progenitor cells of the proximal airways. As in the case of other adult stem cell niches, SMGs are believed to provide the localized environmental signals required to both maintain and mobilize stem/progenitor cells, in the setting of normal cellular turnover or injury. Aberrant proliferation and differentiation of glandular stem/progenitor cells may be associated with several hypersecretory lung diseases, including chronic bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate the specification and proliferation of glandular stem/progenitor cells in lung diseases associated with SMG hypertrophy and hyperplasia, researchers have begun to search for the molecular signals and cell types responsible for establishing the glandular stem/progenitor cell niche, and to dissect how these determinants of the niche change in the setting of proximal airway injury and repair. Such studies have revealed certain similarities between stem/progenitor cell niches of the distal conducting airways and the SMGs of the proximal airways. PMID:18684717

Liu, Xiaoming; Engelhardt, John F.

2008-01-01

432

Aircraft battle damage repair - A force multiplier  

SciTech Connect

An aircraft battle-damage repair (BDR) program is described that provides for the assessment and repair of battle damage and the return of badly damaged aircraft to their home bases. The program methodology is based on the use of time-saving temporary repairs and associated training and materials provision. BDR is shown to require knowledge of damage mechanisms and specifications for the minimum effective requirements for BDR support, and the method can facilitate the return of 50 percent of damaged aircraft within 24 hours.

Hess, J.W. (USAF, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States))

1992-08-01

433

History and evolution of the Kessler repair.  

PubMed

The "grasping technique" described by Isidor Kessler and Fuad Nissim in 1969 is a popular method of flexor tendon repair. Different authors have modified this technique to the point where the so-called "modified Kessler technique" bears little resemblance to the original description. This article sheds light on the life and contributions of Isidor Kessler, and examines the evolution of the Kessler technique and the origin of grasping and locking tendon repairs. We also discuss the problems associated with eponymous descriptions of tendon repair techniques and propose an alternative descriptive system. PMID:23395342

Sebastin, Sandeep J; Ho, Allison; Karjalainen, Teemu; Chung, Kevin C

2013-03-01

434

Method of repairing discontinuity in fiberglass structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Damaged fiberglass structures are repaired by substantially filling the irregular surfaced damaged area with a liquid, self-curing resin, preferably an epoxy resin mixed with chopped fiberglass, and then applying to the resin surface the first of several woven fiberglass swatches which has stitching in a zig-zag pattern parallel to each of its edges and a fringe of warp and fill glass fibers about the edges outward of the stitching. The method is especially applicable to repair of fiberglass rocket engine casings and is particularly advantageous since it restores the repaired fiberglass structure to substantially its original strength without any significant changes in the geometry or mass of the structure.

Gelb, L. L.; Helbert, W. B., Jr.; Enie, R. B.; Mulliken, R. F. (inventors)

1974-01-01

435

Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Johnson Space Center, the National Center for Space Exploration Research, and the U.S. Navy. The project goals are 1) develop and demonstrate a manually-operated electronics repair capability to be conducted in a spacecraft environment; and 2) develop guidelines for designs of electronics that facilitates component-level repair for future space exploration efforts. This multi-faceted program utilizes a cross-disciplinary approach to examine pre- and post-repair diagnostics, conformal coating removal and replacement, component soldering, and electronics design for supportability. These areas are investigated by a combination of trade studies, ground based testing, reduced gravity aircraft testing, and actual spaceflight testing on the International Space Station (ISS) in multiple experiments. This paper details the efforts of this program, with emphasis on early trade study results, ground-based efforts, and two upcoming ISS experiments.

Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

2007-01-01

436

Mismatch Repair Mutants in Yeast Are Not Defective in Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair of Uv-Induced DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Transcription-coupled repair, the targeted repair of the transcribed strands of active genes, is defective in bacteria, yeast, and human cells carrying mutations in mfd, RAD26 and ERCC6, respectively. Other factors probably are also uniquely involved in transcription-repair coupling. Recently, a defect was described in transcription-coupled repair for Escherichia coli mismatch repair mutants and human tumor cell lines with mutations in mismatch repair genes. We examined removal of UV-induced DNA damage in yeast strains mutated in mismatch repair genes in an effort to confirm a defect in transcription-coupled repair in this system. In addition, we determined the contribution of the mismatch repair gene MSH2 to transcription-coupled repair in the absence of global genomic repair using rad7? mutants. We also determined whether the Rad26-independent transcription-coupled repair observed in rad26? and rad7? rad26? mutants depends on MSH2 by examining repair deficiencies of rad26? msh2? and rad7? rad26? msh2? mutants. We found no defects in transcription-coupled repair caused by mutations in the mismatch repair genes MSH2, MLH1, PMS1, and MSH3. Yeast appears to differ from bacteria and human cells in the capacity for transcription-coupled repair in a mismatch repair mutant background. PMID:8807287

Sweder, K. S.; Verhage, R. A.; Crowley, D. J.; Crouse, G. F.; Brouwer, J.; Hanawalt, P. C.

1996-01-01

437

An alternative to nerve repair using an antioxidant compound: a histological study in rats.  

PubMed

The fascicular composition and organisation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) were determined to confirm the microarchitecture of the IAN bundles into each of the mandibular teeth, including the composition of the mental nerve. The aim of this study was to evaluate peripheral nerve repair after the application of an antioxidant compound to the damaged nerve tissue to elevate the concentration and bioavailability of elements capable of favouring tissue repair. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into groups: The Control 1 (Ctl 1) (n = 5) animals had the ischiatic nerve exposed with no suture injury and were sacrificed at 30 days post-operatively. The Control 2 (Ctl 2) (n = 10) animals had the ischiatic nerve exposed, and the nerve was injured using suture in three distinct regions. In the experimental (Exp) animals (n = 10), an antioxidant organic compound was applied to the nerve injury site. The animals with nerve injury (Ctl2 and Exp group) were sacrificed at 15 and 30 days post-operatively. The histological analysis showed less degeneration in the Exp group at 15 and 30 days post-operatively. Nerve neoformation forming a connection between the distal and proximal suture sites was observed in the experimental group. This study presented an alternative to nerve repair using an antioxidant compound. PMID:25578694

Salles, Marcos B; Gehrke, Sergio A; Koo, Samuel; Allegrini, Sergio; Rogero, Sizue O; Ikeda, Tamiko I; Cruz, Áurea S; Shinohara, Elio H; Yoshimoto, Marcelo

2015-01-01

438

Repair of a coracoid luxation and a tibiotarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).  

PubMed

A 4.5-kg, adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented after being found unable to fly. Crepitus was palpated in the left shoulder; however, the wing position was normal. Radiographs revealed caudoventral luxation of the left coracoid, affecting its distal articulation with the clavicle and its proximal articulation with the sternum. The luxation affecting the coracoid-sternum articulation was repaired by using a 4-hole, 1.5-mm T-plate and a 6-hole, 2.0-mm dynamic compression plate (DCP) placed side by side. The luxation affecting the coracoid and the clavicle was repaired by 2 cerclage wires in a simple interrupted pattern. Before a scheduled release, the bird sustained a closed, complete mid diaphyseal transverse fracture of the right tibiotarsus, which most likely occurred during recapture from the flight cage. The fracture was surgically repaired with 2 circumferential cerclage wires, an intramedullary Kirschner wire and one 10-hole, 2.7-mm DCP. The bird was successfully released, 105 days after the first surgery, near the location where it was found. PMID:18087935

Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bubenik, Loretta J; Lauer, Susanne K; Vasanjee, Sunil; Mitchell, Mark A

2007-09-01

439

Aneurysmal degeneration and type Ib endoleak with proximal aneurysm rupture: A case report, review of literature and technical suggestions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite the reduction in mortality incidences of AAA in proportion to increased use of EVAR, the natural history of aneurysms with the presence of an endoleak post EVAR remains unclear. With a cumulative AAA rupture incidence of 2% at six years post EVAR, the lack of an immediate endoleak is not an indicator of success. Case report We present a case of an 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with generalised abdominal pain and hypotension. Four years earlier he had underwent an EVAR for a 6 cm infra-renal AAA. The computed tomography angiogram (CTA) illustrated aneurysmal dilatation of the left common iliac artery with extensive retroperitoneal haemorrhage. The patient was transferred to the operating room for an endovascular repair but due to significant episodes of haemodynamic instability, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. To our surprise, there was a left-sided infra-renal anterolateral rupture of the aneurysm sac. The stent was explanted with difficulty from its fixed proximal aortic section down to left-sided common iliac artery. The fixed bare portion of the stent in the proximal aorta and in the right common iliac artery was left in-situ and the rest was integrated to a trouser graft with an end-to-end technique. Discussion On detection of an endoleak, the aim should focus on their endovascular management, as open conversions are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Conclusion: If open conversion is indicated, all technical aspects of the repair including partial stent extraction should be considered for best outcome.

Kordzadeh, Ali; Scott, Harriet; Railton, Nicholas; Panayiotopoulos, Yiannis P.

2014-01-01

440

Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation in Treatment of Fractures of Proximal Femur  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fractures of the proximal femur and hip are relatively common injuries in adults and common source of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Many methods have been recommended for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. Material and methods: We retrospective analyzed all the patients with fractures of the hip treated with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) at the Clinic of Orthopedic and Traumatology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla from the first of January 2012 to 31 December 2012 years. The study included 63 patients averaged 73.6±11.9 years (range, 29 to 88 years). Fracture type was classified as intertrochanteric (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31.A.1, A.2 and A.3) and subtrochanteric fractures (Seinsheimer classification). Results and discussion: The ratio between the genders female-male was 1.6:1. There was statistically significant difference prevalence of female compared to male patients (p=0.012). There were 31 left and 32 right hip fractured. Low energy trauma was the cause of fractures in 57(90.5%) patients. Averaged waiting time for hospitalization was 3.2±7.5 days (range, 0 to 32 days). 44 patients were admitted the same day upon injuring. The average waiting time for the treatment was 3.6±5.7 days. The ratio between with or without co-existent disease was 4.7:1. During the three months postoperatively with ASA score 3 and 4 six patients died. There were no significant differences in deaths from ASA score 1 and 2 (p=0.52). Reoperation for the treatment of implant or fracture-related complications was required in three (4.7%) patients (infection, reimplantation and extraction). Three patient developed deep vein thrombosis. Statistically significant difference was found in the deaths in the first three months compared to the next three months (p=0.02). We found statistically significant difference between pre-injury and postoperative mobility score (p=0.0001). Conclusion: PFNA is an excellent device for osteosynthesis as it can be easily inserted. Moreover, it provides stable fixation, which allows early full weightbearing mobilization of the patient.

Sadic, Sahmir; Custovic, Svemir; Jasarevic, Mahir; Fazlic, Mirsad; Smajic, Nedim; Hrustic, Asmir; Vujadinovic, Aleksandar; Krupic, Ferid

2014-01-01

441

The Model of Trust Repair Mechanisms in Business Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

in recent years trust repair research was believed more and more important by Western scholars. The existing literature for interpreting the trust repair mechanism remained deficiency. Based on cognize-emotion theory, attribution theory, perceived risk theory and perceived equity theory, from the perspective of injured party, the author designs the Model of Trust Repair Mechanisms to describe the ways of repairing

Yaxiong Wu

2011-01-01

442

A repair technology program at NASA on composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Repair techniques for graphite/epoxy and graphite/polyimide composite structures are discussed. Tension and compression test results for several basic repair processes that were applied to damaged specimens are shown to approach the strength of undamaged specimens. Other repair configurations currently under investigation are illustrated, and plans in the repair technology program are presented.

Deaton, J. W.

1982-01-01

443

Arthroscopic hip labral repair: the iberian suture technique.  

PubMed

Arthroscopic hip labral repair has beneficial short-term outcomes; however, debate exists regarding ideal surgical labral repair technique. This technical note presents an arthroscopic repair technique that uses intrasubstance labral suture passage to restore the chondrolabral interface. This "Iberian suture technique" allows for an anatomic repair while posing minimal risk of damage to the labral and chondral tissues. PMID:25126502

Stubbs, Allston J; Andersen, Jason S; Mannava, Sandeep; Wooster, Benjamin M; Howse, Elizabeth A; Winter, S Bradley

2014-06-01

444

Small Engines Care, Operation, Maintenance and Repair. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by teacher educators and agricultural engineers, this teacher and student reference is for use in a course in small engine operation and maintenance. Content includes: (1) Principles of Good Workmanship, (2) Repairing Starters, (3) Maintaining and Repairing Ignition Systems, (4) Repairing Fuel Systems, (5) Repairing Governors, (6)…

Turner, J. Howard

445

Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair: The Iberian Suture Technique  

PubMed Central

Arthroscopic hip labral repair has beneficial short-term outcomes; however, debate exists regarding ideal surgical labral repair technique. This technical note presents an arthroscopic repair technique that uses intrasubstance labral suture passage to restore the chondrolabral interface. This “Iberian suture technique” allows for an anatomic repair while posing minimal risk of damage to the labral and chondral tissues. PMID:25126502

Stubbs, Allston J.; Andersen, Jason S.; Mannava, Sandeep; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Howse, Elizabeth A.; Winter, S. Bradley

2014-01-01

446

Proximal Tibiofibular Joint Ganglion CystsExcision, Recurrence, and Joint Arthrodesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Proximal tibiofibular joint proximal tibiofibular joint cysts are rare entities that can cause disability. Excision remains the traditional surgical treatment. Cyst recurrence has been a problem. This study reviews one of the largest series of patients with proximal tibiofibular joint cysts and evaluates the role of a new surgical option, proximal tibiofibular joint fusion.Methods: Thirteen patients were admitted to

Shana Miskovsky; Christopher Kaeding; Lawrence Weis

2004-01-01

447

Shear Bond Strength of Repaired Composites Using Surface Treatments and Repair Materials: An In vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Enhancement of bond strength between new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness of old composite to promote mechanical interlocking and subsequent coating with bonding agents to improve surface wetting and chemical bonding. So this study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface treatments and repair materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite repairs The mode of failure of repaired composites whether cohesive or adhesive was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The substrates for 60 composite specimens were fabricated and aged with water treatment and subjected to various surface treatments. The surface treatment regimens used in the study were: No surface treatment, abraded with diamond bur, air abraded (sandblasted) with 50 µ aluminum oxide particles. Specimens were then repaired with fresh composite using either Clearfil™ repair or all-bond two adhesive systems. Specimens were water stored, thermocycled and tested for SBS using universal testing machine. Fractured specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope to determine the mode of failure. Results: It was clearly showed that surface roughening of the aged composite substrate with air abrasion, followed by the application of Clearfil™ repair adhesive system (Group IIIa) yielded the highest repair bond strength (32.3 ± 2.2 MPa). Conclusion: Surface treatment with air abrasion followed by bonding with Clearfil™ repair adhesive system can be attempted clinically for the repair of composite restorations.

Hemadri, M; Saritha, G; Rajasekhar, V; Pachlag, K Amit; Purushotham, R; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kumar

2014-01-01

448

The biomechanics of cruciate ligament repair  

E-print Network

Reconstruction in the Dog. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 9, 166-71. Lewis, J. L. , Lew, W. D. , Engebretson, L. et al. (1990). Factors Affecting Graft Force in 20 The Btomecttanics of Cruciate Ligament Repair Surgical...

Ferry, Katheryn Irene

2013-02-22

449

Screening EUV mask absorbers for defect repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five EUV film stacks were prepared and evaluated from the multiple viewpoints of mask repair process: etching property, CD control and wafer print. Etching property results revealed a thicker lower reflective (LR) layer stack showed good performance. Some types of defects were repaired and a CD comparison done with both CD-SEM and EUV microscope. It was found thinner total film stack (LR plus absorber) performs better than thicker ones for CD control. In addition, thicker LR performed better than thinner LR. Wafer print performance on the repaired site was evaluated through focus by imaging on an EUV microscope. Wafer printability performance showed that thinner total film stack performed better than a thicker one. Finally the best stack for EUV mask repair performance was determined to be a thinner total film stack and thicker a LR from all the various points of view.

Isogawa, Takeshi; Seki, Kazunori; Lawliss, Mark; Gallagher, Emily; Akima, Shinji; Konishi, Toshio

2014-07-01

450

Enhancement of lysine acetylation accelerates wound repair.  

PubMed

In physiopathological conditions, such as diabetes, wound healing is significantly compromised and chronic complications, including ulcers, may occur. In a mouse model of skin repair, we recently reported that wound treatment with Sirtuin activators and class I HDAC inhibitors induced keratinocyte proliferation and enhanced healing via a nitric oxide (NO) dependent mechanism. We observed an increase in total protein acetylation in the wound area, as determined by acetylation of ?-tubulin and histone H3 Lysine 9. We reasoned that this process activated cell function as well as regulated gene expression to foster tissue repair. We report here that the direct activation of P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) by the histone acetylase activator pentadecylidenemalonate 1b (SPV-106) induced Lysine acetylation in the wound area. This intervention was sufficient to enhance repair process by a NO-independent mechanism. Hence, an impairment of PCAF and/or other GCN5 family acetylases may delay skin repair in physiopathological conditions. PMID:24265859

Spallotta, Francesco; Cencioni, Chiara; Straino, Stefania; Sbardella, Gianluca; Castellano, Sabrina; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Martelli, Fabio; Gaetano, Carlo

2013-09-01

451

40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...if the criteria specified in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) and (c)(3)(ii) are met. (i) The owner or operator...if the criteria specified in paragraphs (c)(4)(i) and (c)(4)(ii) are met. (i) Repair requires...

2010-07-01

452

49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2012-10-01

453

49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2013-10-01

454

49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2011-10-01

455

49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2010-10-01

456

Highway Repair: A New Silicosis Threat  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We describe an emerging public health concern regarding silicosis in the fast-growing highway repair industry. Methods. We examined highway construction trends, silicosis surveillance case data, and environmental exposure data to evaluate the risk of silicosis among highway repair workers. We reviewed silicosis case data from the construction industry in 3 states that have silicosis registries, and we conducted environmental monitoring for silica at highway repair work sites. Results. Our findings indicate that a large population of highway workers is at risk of developing silicosis from exposure to crystalline silica. Conclusions. Exposure control methods, medical screenings, protective health standards, and safety-related contract languag