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Sample records for proximal hypospadias repair

  1. The Bracka two-stage repair for severe proximal hypospadias: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rakesh S.; Bachani, Mitesh K.; Uttarwar, Amit M.; Ramji, Jaishri I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical correction of severe proximal hypospadias represents a significant surgical challenge and single-stage corrections are often associated with complications and reoperations. Bracka two-stage repair is an attractive alternative surgical procedure with superior, reliable, and reproducible results. Purpose: To study the feasibility and applicability of Bracka two-stage repair for the severe proximal hypospadias and to analyze the outcomes and complications of this surgical technique. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2013. Bracka two-stage repair was performed using inner preputial skin as a free graft in subjects with proximal hypospadias in whom severe degree of chordee and/or poor urethral plate was present. Only primary cases were included in this study. All subjects received three doses of intra-muscular testosterone 3 weeks apart before first stage. Second stage was performed 6 months after the first stage. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 24 months. Results: A total of 43 patients operated for Bracka repair, out of which 30 patients completed two-stage repair. Mean age of the patients was 4 years and 8 months. We achieved 100% graft uptake and no revision was required. Three patients developed fistula, while two had metal stenosis. Glans dehiscence, urethral stricture and the residual chordee were not found during follow-up and satisfactory cosmetic results with good urinary stream were achieved in all cases. Conclusion: The Bracka two-stage repair is a safe and reliable approach in select patients in whom it is impractical to maintain the axial integrity of the urethral plate, and, therefore, a full circumference urethral reconstruction become necessary. This gives good results both in terms of restoration of normal function with minimal complication. PMID:25829670

  2. Hypospadias repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is at the tip or end of the penis. ... urethral opening is at the base of the penis, or along the inferior aspect of the shaft of the penis. Hypospadias is usually associated with an abnormal curvature ...

  3. Outcome of hypospadias fistula repair.

    PubMed

    Shankar, K R; Losty, P D; Hopper, M; Wong, L; Rickwood, A M K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To examine the long-term results of hypospadias fistula repair, the factors involved in recurrence and the outcome in cases where this has occurred. Patients and methods The study comprised 113 children undergoing urethrocutaneous fistula repair between 1984 and 1996. Most of the fistulae were closed in two to three layers, with or without a transpositional skin flap. Tunica vaginalis or a scrotal dartos flap was used in patients with inadequate vascularized tissue adjacent to the fistula. Success rates were calculated for each attempt at fistula repair until the patient was cured. Results The median (range) age at primary fistula repair was 40 (18-169) months and the median follow-up after the most recent repair 7.5 (2.3-17) years. The overall success rate of primary fistula repair was 71%. Fistulae which were >2 mm (11 of 21, 52%) were more likely to recur than were those < or = 2 mm (22 of 92, 24%). Recurrence did not relate to the initial form of hypospadias repair, to the means of skin closure nor, with the exception of multiple lesions, to the location of the fistula. The success rates of subsequent repairs were 70% at the second and 50% at the third, fourth and fifth repairs. One child was cured at the sixth attempt. The use of tunica vaginalis or scrotal dartos as a 'waterproofing' layer was limited to the third or subsequent repairs and was successful in five of six cases. Conclusion A simple layered closure with or with no transpositional skin flap is effective in 71% of repairs. For recurrent fistulae, tissues from an unscarred area (tunica vaginalis or scrotal dartos layer) should be used to cover the fistula. PMID:11849173

  4. Hypospadias Repair: A Single Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Abdul; Ullah, Hidayat; Naz, Shazia; Shah, Syed Asif; Tahmeed, Tahmeedullah; Yousaf, Kanwal; Tahir, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital's database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka) and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate) repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF). The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (P-value = 0.0086). The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair (P value = 0.0001). Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications. PMID:24579043

  5. Hypospadias and Residential Proximity to Pesticide Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J.; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. METHODS: The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother’s residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. CONCLUSIONS: Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations. PMID:24167181

  6. The psychosexual aspects of hypospadias repair: A review

    PubMed Central

    Deibert, Christopher M.; Hensle, Terry W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the psychosexual effects on men after hypospadias repair. Methods We reviewed all English-language publications in the MEDLINE database from the US National Library of Medicine with the search terms ‘hypospadias adult’, ‘psychosexual hypospadias’, ‘psychosocial hypospadias’, and ‘social hypospadias’. Each term returned 1036, 35, 19 and 68 results, respectively, which were reviewed. Results While improvements in surgical techniques have improved function, the abnormality and repair still causes a disruption in perceived quality of life for many men. After repair, many men suffer from a negative view of their genitals and some degree of sexual inhibition. However, they still maintain a satisfactory sex life. Conclusions Psychosexual effects of hypospadias repair they endure in adulthood, although affected men maintain satisfaction with their sexual life.

  7. Two-stage repair in hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Haxhirexha, K N; Castagnetti, M; Rigamonti, W; Manzoni, G A

    2008-04-01

    We provide the reader with a nonsystematic review concerning the use of the two-stage approach in hypospadias repairs. A one-stage approach using the tubularized incised plate urethroplasty is a well-standardized approach for the most cases of hypospadias. Nevertheless, in some primary severe cases, in most hypospadias failures and in selected patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans a two-stage approach is preferable. During the first stage the penis is straightened, if necessary and the urethral plate is substituted with a graft of either genital (prepuce) or extragenital origin (oral mucosa or postauricular skin). During the second stage, performed around 6 months later, urethroplasty is accomplished by graft tubulization. Graft take is generally excellent, with only few cases requiring an additional inlay patch at second stage due to graft contracture. A staged approach allows for both excellent cosmetic results and a low morbidity including an overall 6% fistula rate and 2% stricture rate. Complications usually occur in the first year after the second stage and are higher in secondary repairs. Complications tend to decrease as experience increases and use of additional waterproofing layers contributes to reduce the fistula rate significantly. Long-term cosmetic results are excellent, but voiding and ejaculatory problems may occur in as much as 40% of cases if a long urethral tube is constructed. The procedure has a step learning curve but because of its technical simplicity does not require to be confined only to highly specialized centers. PMID:19468402

  8. Hypospadias repair in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, P; Cendron, M; Ritland, D; McCullough, M

    1999-01-01

    Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly in which the urethral meatus is abnormally located anywhere from the glans to the perineum. Refinements in pediatric anesthesia, surgical technique and instrumentation, and a greater understanding of the psychologic and emotional issues related to hypospadias repair have led to this procedure being performed at an earlier age. The goal of reconstruction is to bring the urethral meatus to the tip of the penis, to correct associated penile curvature if present, to create a conical-shaped glans, and to achieve cosmetically acceptable penile shaft skin coverage. The surgical technique employed varies with the penile anatomy and surgeon's preference. Complications may occur both immediately and long after the surgical procedure, and thus follow-up is necessary. PMID:9932174

  9. Proximal Hamstring Repair Strength

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Margaret Ann; Singh, Hardeep; Obopilwe, Elifho; Charette, Ryan; Miller, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proximal hamstring repair for complete ruptures has become a common treatment. There is no consensus in the literature about postoperative rehabilitation protocols following proximal hamstring repair. Some protocols describe bracing to prevent hip flexion or knee extension while others describe no immobilization. There are currently no biomechanical studies evaluating proximal hamstring repairs; nor are there any studies evaluating the effect of different hip flexion angles on these repairs. Hypothesis: As hip flexion increases from 0° to 90°, there will be a greater gap with cyclical loading. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Proximal hamstring insertions were detached from the ischial tuberosity in 24 cadavers and were repaired with 3 single-loaded suture anchors in the hamstring footprint with a Krakow suture technique. Cyclic loading from 10 to 125 N at 1 Hz was then performed for 0°, 45°, and 90° of hip flexion for 1500 cycles. Gap formation, stiffness, yield load, ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load were compared between groups using paired t tests. Results: Cyclic loading demonstrated the least amount of gap formation (P < .05) at 0° of hip flexion (2.39 mm) and most at 90° of hip flexion (4.19 mm). There was no significant difference in ultimate load between hip flexion angles (326, 309, and 338 N at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively). The most common mode of failure occurred with knot/suture failure (n = 17). Conclusion: Increasing hip flexion from 0° to 90° increases the displacement across proximal hamstring repairs. Postoperative bracing that limits hip flexion should be considered. Clinical Relevance: Repetitive motion involving hip flexion after a proximal hamstring repair may cause compromise of the repair.

  10. Urethral Hairballs as a Long-Term Complication of Hypospadias Repair: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Kampantais, Spyridon; Dimitriadis, Charalampos; Laskaridis, Leonidas; Perdikis, Ioannis; Kirtsis, Petros; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis

    2012-01-01

    Many times hair-bearing urethral grafts have been used inadvertently in the treatment of hypospadias. This can be accompanied with numerous troublesome long-term complications such as formation of stones, diverticula, and hairballs. We report two cases of men with a history of hypospadias repair being affected by such complications. We also discuss about their management and the effect of thioglycolic acid instillation to stop hair growth in the urethra mucosa in the second case. PMID:22924153

  11. Interposition of dartos flaps to prevent fistula after tubularized incised-plate repair of hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Ehab R.; Zayed, Abdellatif M.; El Sayed, Diab; El Adl, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of urethral coverage by a single- or double-layered dorsal dartos flap after tubularized incised-plate (TIP) repair of hypospadias on fistula formation. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study we evaluated sequential patients with hypospadias who underwent TIP urethroplasty with a dorsal dartos interpositional flap between April 2008 and December 2009. We reviewed their medical records for the site of hypospadias, previous hypospadias repair, single- or double-layered dartos flap and postoperative complications. The patients were divided into two groups; in group A the urethra was covered by a single layer of dartos fascia, and in group B the urethra was covered by double layers of dartos flap. Results: Of 91 patients who opted for hypospadias repair during the time of the study, 62 had a TIP urethroplasty with a dorsal dartos flap; of these 62, three did not fulfil the requirement of the minimum follow-up, so 59 were eligible for the study (32 in group A and 27 in group B). Preoperative clinical data were comparable in both groups. At a mean of 12.2 months of follow-up, there was no reported fistula in group B, while two patients in group A developed a urethrocutaneous fistula (P = 0.19). Meatal stenosis occurred in two patients in group A and one in group B (P = 0.66). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in subsequent urethrocutaneous fistula between a double-layered dorsal dartos flap and single layer for covering the urethra as a part of TIP urethroplasty for repairing hypospadias.

  12. Two-stage urethroplasty is a better choice for proximal hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Da-Chao; Yao, Hai-Jun; Cai, Zhi-Kang; Da, Jun; Chen, Qi; Chen, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Ming-Xi; Lu, Mu-Jun; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    It is still debatable whether single- or two-stage urethroplasty is a more suitable technique for treating hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection. This retrospective study evaluated these two techniques. A total of 66 patients of proximal hypospadias with severe chordee were divided into two groups according to the techniques they underwent: 32 and 34 patients underwent single-stage (Duckett) or two-stage urethroplasty, respectively. Median ages at presentation were 7.5 years and 11.0 years in single-stage and two-stage repair groups, respectively. Median follow-ups were 28.5 months (20?60 months) and 35 months (18?60 months) in the single-stage and two-stage groups, respectively. The meatus of the neourethra was located at the top of the glans in all patients. No recurrence of chordee was found during follow-up, and all patients or parents were satisfied with the penile length and appearance. Complications were encountered in eight patients in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between the two techniques. The late complication rate of stricture was higher after the single-stage procedure (18.75% vs 0%). The complication rate after single-stage repairs was significantly lower in the prepubescent subgroup (10.52%) than in the postpubescent cohort (46.15%). These results indicate that the urethral plate transection effectively corrects severe chordee associated with proximal hypospadias during the intermediate follow-up period. Considering the higher rate of stricture after single-stage urethroplasty, two-stage urethroplasty is recommended for proximal hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection. PMID:25248656

  13. Surgical Repair of Late Complications in Patients Having Undergone Primary Hypospadias Repair during Childhood: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Djinovic, Rados; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Background. The repair of complications in patients who had undergone hypospadias repair is still an open problem. Patients and Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of patients treated for late complications after hypospadias repair. Study inclusion criteria were patients presenting urethral, corpora cavernosa deformity, and/or penile defects due to previous hypospadias repair. Exclusion criteria were precancerous or malignant lesions and incomplete data on personal medical charts. Preoperative evaluation included clinical history, physical examination, urine culture, residual urine measurement, uroflowmetry, urethrography, urethral sonography, and urethroscopy. The patients were classified into four different groups. Success was defined as a normal functional urethra, with apical meatus, no residual penile curvature or esthetic deformity of the genitalia. Results. A total of 1,176 patients were entered in our survey. Out of the 1,176 patients, 301 patients (25.5%) underwent urethroplasty (group 1), 60 (5.2%) corporoplasty (group 2), 166 (14.1%) urethroplasty and corporoplasty (group 3), and 649 (55.2%) complex genitalia resurfacing (group 4). Mean followup was 60.4 months. Out of the 1,176 cases, 1,036 (88.1%) were considered successful and 140 (11.9%) failures. Conclusion. The majority of patients (55.2%) with failed hypospadias repair require surgical reconstruction to fully resurfacing the glans and penile shaft. PMID:22567003

  14. Surgical Repair of Late Complications in Patients Having Undergone Primary Hypospadias Repair during Childhood: A New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Djinovic, Rados; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Background. The repair of complications in patients who had undergone hypospadias repair is still an open problem. Patients and Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of patients treated for late complications after hypospadias repair. Study inclusion criteria were patients presenting urethral, corpora cavernosa deformity, and/or penile defects due to previous hypospadias repair. Exclusion criteria were precancerous or malignant lesions and incomplete data on personal medical charts. Preoperative evaluation included clinical history, physical examination, urine culture, residual urine measurement, uroflowmetry, urethrography, urethral sonography, and urethroscopy. The patients were classified into four different groups. Success was defined as a normal functional urethra, with apical meatus, no residual penile curvature or esthetic deformity of the genitalia. Results. A total of 1,176 patients were entered in our survey. Out of the 1,176 patients, 301 patients (25.5%) underwent urethroplasty (group 1), 60 (5.2%) corporoplasty (group 2), 166 (14.1%) urethroplasty and corporoplasty (group 3), and 649 (55.2%) complex genitalia resurfacing (group 4). Mean followup was 60.4 months. Out of the 1,176 cases, 1,036 (88.1%) were considered successful and 140 (11.9%) failures. Conclusion. The majority of patients (55.2%) with failed hypospadias repair require surgical reconstruction to fully resurfacing the glans and penile shaft. PMID:22567003

  15. Functional and aesthetic results in hypospadias repair with Hinderer's techniques.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, U T

    2000-01-01

    In his editorial to the first issue of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery in 1976, the Managing Editor, Dr. Blair Rogers lays special emphasis on the publication of papers and reports dealing with the increasing role of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery as the final step in the overall rehabilitation of Reconstructive Surgery patients. In genitourinary malformations-hypospadias and epispadias-without any doubt a satisfactory sexual and urinary functional result is essential. However, also a normal aesthetic appearance, resembling a circumcised penis, and with the meatus at the tip of the glans, is becoming increasingly important, notably since the second half of the last century. An abnormal aesthetic appearance affects the patient's body image and has a negative influence on his self-esteem and sexual behaviour. Psychological stress is brought on from genital comparison with school-mates, in adulthood in gym changing rooms and, specifically, in sexual relations. In these days of greater sexual freedom, the knowledge of male genital anatomy and aesthetic appearance has considerably improved. Penile hypoplasia creates a psychological impact perhaps only comparable with that of female mammary hypoplasia. It is therefore unsurprising that not only normal aesthetic appearance after hypospadias surgery is essential, but also the demand for penile lengthening and girth augmentation has progressively increased over these past recent years. PMID:11084694

  16. A modified onlay island flap vs. Mathieu urethroplasty for distal hypospadias repair: A prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    ElGanainy, Ehab O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of a modified onlay island flap (MOIF) with that of the Mathieu urethroplasty for distal hypospadias repair. Patients and methods In a prospective randomised study, 60 patients with coronal, subcoronal and distal penile hypospadias, with a urethral plate width of ?6 mm, and minimal or no chordee, underwent either MOIF using a midline longitudinal outer preputial skin flap passed ventrally by penile buttonholing through dartos fascia incision, or a Mathieu urethroplasty. Closed envelopes were used for randomly selecting patients for each procedure. The operative duration, complications, cosmetic outcome, urinary stream and relatives’ satisfaction were reported for each procedure. Results Preoperative data (patients’ age and site of urethral meatus) and operative duration were insignificantly different between the groups (P = 0.653, 0.786 and 0.710, respectively). There were no intraoperative complications in either group. The duration of follow-up was insignificantly different between the groups. Patients treated with the MOIF had a statistically significant lower complication rate (P = 0.036), and a better cosmetic outcome, urinary stream and relatives’ satisfaction (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions The MOIF urethroplasty seemed to be better than the Mathieu urethroplasty in patients with distal hypospadias and narrow urethral plates. Further studies including more patients, and a longer follow-up with an objective evaluation of functional outcome should be encouraged to confirm these early results. PMID:26413341

  17. Urethroplasty by Use of Turnover Flaps (Modified Mathieu Procedure) for Distal Hypospadias Repair in Adolescents: Comparison With the Tubularized Incised Plate Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine whether urethroplasty with a turnover flap, as an alternative method of distal hypospadias repair in adolescents, improves the outcome of surgery. Materials and Methods Between January 2004 and December 2013, a total of 38 adolescents (aged 11-17 years) underwent distal hypospadias repair with either the tubularized incised plate (TIP) procedure (n=25) or the turnover flap procedure (n=13). The turnover flap procedure was performed with a proximal, ventral penile flap that was turned over to cover the urethral plate. Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes, complications, and postoperative uroflowmetry in each surgical group were analyzed retrospectively. Results The patient demographics were similar in the two groups. There were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes between the groups, including mean operative time, duration of hospital stay, and urethral catheterization. The number of patients with at least one complication, including wound dehiscence, urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, and urethral stricture, was lower in the turnover flap group (1/13, 7.7%) than in the TIP group (11/25, 44%, p=0.030). The incidence of meatal stenosis was lower in the turnover flap group (0/12, 0%) than in the TIP group (6/25, 24%). In postoperative uroflowmetry, the plateau-shaped curve rate was lower in the turnover flap group (1/12, 8.3%) than in the TIP group (5/19, 26.3%); the peak flow was higher (p=0.030). Conclusions The turnover flap procedure is clinically useful for repairing adolescent distal hypospadias because it offers lower complication rates and better functional outcomes than TIP. PMID:25405018

  18. Simple procedure to repair distal penile hypospadias without chordee in adult males.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, E

    1989-01-01

    Penile, glanular and preputial flaps repair was done in 7 adult male patients with distal penile hypospadias without chordee. They suffered from psychological problems because of the abnormal shape of their penis. The procedure consisted in a simplified perimeatal-based flap technique with special attention given to the incision and suturing of the flaps. The operation resulted into a normally looking penis through the creation of a wide neourethra starting with a meatus at the apex of the glans and covered by a pliable elastic hair-less skin. This procedure is rapid, simple and needs a short hospitalization period without urinary diversion. It proved satisfactory for adults with distal penile hypospadias without chordee, resulting in a long penis, flat glans with pliable skin and well developed dorsal hooded foreskin. The procedure should be performed when the meatus is at a distance not suitable for meatoplasty and glanuloplasty or other techniques. It is recommended to correct the shape of the penis of any hypospadiac during childhood to prevent psychosexual neuroses in adulthood. PMID:2753689

  19. A Complication in Hypospadias Surgery Due to Anchoring Suture

    PubMed Central

    Gollu, Gulnur; Kucuk, Gonul; Karabulut, Ayse An?l; Yagmurlu, Aydin; Cakmak, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The complication rates are still 1–90% both in proximal and distal hypospadias regardless of the surgeon’s experience and the usage of most developed techniques. The literature survey revealed few complications of glans penis including meatal stenosis, prolapsus and retraction. Despite our literature survey, we could not find any article concerning the permanent scar tissue at the dorsal part of glans following hypospadias surgeries. A new complication can be added to these, concerning glans which is the formation of postoperative scar tissue as a reaction to suture material used in traction, stent anchoring or both. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate four cases which had glanular scar due to traction suture following the surgical procedures for hypospadias repair. PMID:26180503

  20. Distal extension of the midline urethral-plate incision in the Snodgrass hypospadias repair: An objective assessment of the functional and cosmetic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Adl, Ahmed M.; El-Karamany, Tarek M.; Bassiouny, Ayman S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To objectively assess the functional and cosmetic outcomes of a modified tubularised incised-plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass) technique, with particular attention to the uroflowmetry study and Hypospadias Objective Scoring Evaluation (HOSE) score. Patients and methods In a prospective case-series study, 43 consecutive patients with primary distal hypospadias were evaluated. The modified Snodgrass technique included an extension of the midline relaxing incision of the urethral plate from within the hypospadiac meatus to the very tip of the glans. The neourethra was tubularised starting at the neomeatus and proceeding proximally. The neourethra was covered with either a single or double dartos flap. In toilet-trained boys, at least 3 months after surgery, the flow pattern, maximum (Qmax), and mean urinary flow rate (Qave) were recorded, and the results plotted against a recently published flow-rate nomogram from normal children. The postvoid residual urine volume was measured using ultrasonography. The cosmetic outcome was assessed using the HOSE system. Results The native meatus was coronal in 11 (26%), subcoronal in 23 (53%) and distal penile in nine (21%) of the patients. The median (range) age was 4.2 (0.5–14) years. The neourethra was covered by a single dorsal dartos flap in 25 and a double dartos flap in 18 patients. At a median (range) follow-up of 6 (3–24) months, the uroflowmetry findings in 26 uncomplicated toilet-trained boys with a median (range) age of 5.2 (3.3–14) years showed an abnormal Qmax below the fifth percentile in four (15%), with the Qave above the fifth percentile in all. The flow pattern was bell-shaped in nine boys (35%), interrupted/intermittent in five (19%), slightly flattened in 10 (39%) and a plateau in two (8%). A vertical slit-like meatus located at the distal glans was created in 39 (91%) boys, and at the proximal glans in four (9%). The urinary stream was single and straight in 39 and angled in four patients. A straight erection was observed in 42 (98%) boys. Four patients had preoperative mild penile torsion of <45°, that was corrected by surgery. The mean (SD, range) HOSE score was 15.8 (0.6, 13–16). Two patients had a small, single subcoronal fistula. Conclusion Extending the midline urethral plate-incision in the modified Snodgrass repair to the apical part of the glans can be done safely with a high rate of locating the neomeatus at the glans tip, with no resultant meatal stenosis. The functional and cosmetic results of the procedure are good, but long-term data and comparative studies are required to confirm these results. PMID:26019935

  1. THE TREATMENT OF HYPOSPADIAS

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Donald R.

    1953-01-01

    With recent improvements in techniques, the operative cure of hypospadias has been much improved and a satisfactory cure of this defect can be anticipated. This paper discusses the most promising types of surgical repairs and presents a method which has been particularly successful in almost 50 cases. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:13019602

  2. Proximal humerus shaft fracture after pectoralis major tendon rupture repair.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Jeff A; Goldberg, Ben; Wolin, Preston

    2011-06-01

    Surgical repair of a complete pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion has superior results compared to nonoperative treatment. To our knowledge, a proximal humerus shaft fracture occurring at the site of the bone trough and cortical drill holes after a pectoralis major tendon rupture repair has not been reported in the literature.A 45-year-old man sustained an acute left pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion while performing a bench press maneuver. He underwent acute surgical repair. Approximately 8 weeks postoperatively, the patient fell from a standing height and sustained a proximal humerus shaft fracture through the repair site at the bone trough. Three days after the fracture, the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus shaft fracture and exploration of the pectoralis major tendon repair. The fracture was found to be at the level of the repair site, and the pectoralis major tendon was completely intact to the distal fragment. The fracture healed uneventfully, and the patient regained full motion and strength of his extremity with no limitations.Any type of surgical fixation that creates a hole in the humerus or decreases the cross-sectional area such as a bone trough creates a stress riser. Patients undergoing pectoralis tendon repair that involves violating the humerus with a bone trough or hole have a slight risk of postoperative humerus fracture, especially if sustaining an early traumatic event such as a fall. PMID:21667914

  3. Facts about Hypospadias

    MedlinePLUS

    ... larger image Hypospadias is a birth defect in boys in which the opening of the urethra (the ... located at the tip of the penis. In boys with hypospadias, the urethra forms abnormally during weeks ...

  4. Comparison of Transverse Island Flap Onlay and Tubularized Incised-Plate Urethroplasties for Primary Proximal Hypospadias: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dongdong; Nie, Xin; Wang, Wenyue; Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong; Lu, Mujun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This meta-analysis was conducted to compare postoperative outcomes between transverse island flap (TVIF) onlay and tubularized incised-plate (TIP) urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias. Materials and Methods A comprehensive literature search updated to 21st May 2014 was carried out for relevant studies. After literature identification and data extraction, odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidential interval (CI) was calculated to compare postoperative complication rate between TVIF onlay and TIP. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were applied to find potential affective factors. Results A total of 6 studies including 309 patients receiving TVIF onlay and 262 individuals subjected to TIP met inclusion criteria. The synthetic data suggested that TVIF onlay and TIP were comparable in terms of total complication rate (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.56–1.30, p?=?0.461), fistula (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.38–1.21, p?=?0.194), recurrent curvature (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.43–3.12, p?=?0.766), dehiscence (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.33–2.74, p?=?0.920), diverticulum (OR 1.90, 95% CI 0.53–6.78, p?=?0.321), meatal stenosis (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.20–2.77, p?=?0.651) and urethral stricture (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.41–5.50, p?=?0.545), without significant heterogeneity for each comparison group. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses revealed no significant findings. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were stable. No publication bias was detected using both funnel plot and Egger’s test. Also, there were no obvious differences observed in cosmetic and functional outcomes. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that TVIF onlay and TIP urethroplasties are clinically equivalent. Given the inherent limitations of included studies, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution and wait to be confirmed by more well-designed randomized controlled trials with high quality in the future. PMID:25197970

  5. Necrosis of the ventral penile skin flap: a complication of hypospadias surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Bakal, Ünal; Abe?, Musa; Sarac, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To review cases of hypospadias that were repaired with TIPU method and consequently resulted in the necrosis of ventral penile skin flaps. Methods. Eighty-three patients with hypospadias underwent TIPU procedure by two surgeons. Neourethra in all patients was covered with dartos flap prepared from the preputium or penile shaft. In cases where ventral skin could not be covered primarily, closure was ensured by using preputial Ombredanne or Byars' flaps to repair ventral defects. Results. The median age of patients was 4 years. Twenty-five (30.12%) patients that underwent hypospadias repair had urethral opening at the coronal level, 33 (39.75%) at the distal penis, 10 (12.04%) at the midpenis, and 15 (18.07%) at the proximal penis. The ventral skin defect could not be primarily covered in 10 patients with penile shaft hypospadias. Consequently, Byars' method was used in 8 of these patients to cover the defect and the Ombredanne method was used in the remaining 2. Ventral skin flap necrosis developed in 5 patients (4 Byars and 1 Ombredanne). It was medically treated in 4 patients. Urethral fistula developed in the other patient whose necrosis was deeper. The mean hospital stay was 7 days for patients without necrosis, and 14 for those with necrosis. Conclusion. We are of the opinion that dartos flaps used in the TIPU method in order to cover neourethra and decrease the incidence of fistula development lead to necrosis in the Ombredanne or Byars' flaps by causing low blood supply to the preputium and thus extend hospital stay. PMID:25922604

  6. Necrosis of the Ventral Penile Skin Flap: A Complication of Hypospadias Surgery in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Ünal; Abe?, Musa; Sarac, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To review cases of hypospadias that were repaired with TIPU method and consequently resulted in the necrosis of ventral penile skin flaps. Methods. Eighty-three patients with hypospadias underwent TIPU procedure by two surgeons. Neourethra in all patients was covered with dartos flap prepared from the preputium or penile shaft. In cases where ventral skin could not be covered primarily, closure was ensured by using preputial Ombredanne or Byars' flaps to repair ventral defects. Results. The median age of patients was 4 years. Twenty-five (30.12%) patients that underwent hypospadias repair had urethral opening at the coronal level, 33 (39.75%) at the distal penis, 10 (12.04%) at the midpenis, and 15 (18.07%) at the proximal penis. The ventral skin defect could not be primarily covered in 10 patients with penile shaft hypospadias. Consequently, Byars' method was used in 8 of these patients to cover the defect and the Ombredanne method was used in the remaining 2. Ventral skin flap necrosis developed in 5 patients (4 Byars and 1 Ombredanne). It was medically treated in 4 patients. Urethral fistula developed in the other patient whose necrosis was deeper. The mean hospital stay was 7 days for patients without necrosis, and 14 for those with necrosis. Conclusion. We are of the opinion that dartos flaps used in the TIPU method in order to cover neourethra and decrease the incidence of fistula development lead to necrosis in the Ombredanne or Byars' flaps by causing low blood supply to the preputium and thus extend hospital stay. PMID:25922604

  7. Inpatients hypospadias care: Trends and outcomes from the American nationwide inpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Shyam; Sood, Akshay; Hanske, Julian; Vetterlein, Malte; Elder, Jack S.; Fisch, Margit; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Friedman, Ariella A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hypospadias is the most common congenital penile anomaly. Information about current utilization patterns of inpatient hypospadias repair as well as complication rates remain poorly evaluated. Materials and Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify all patients undergoing inpatient hypospadias repair between 1998 and 2010. Patient and hospital characteristics were attained and outcomes of interest included intra- and immediate postoperative complications. Utilization was evaluated temporally and also according to patient and hospital characteristics. Predictors of complications and excess length of stay were evaluated by logistic regression models. Results A weighted 10,201 patients underwent inpatient hypospadias repair between 1998 and 2010. Half were infants (52.2%), and were operated in urban and teaching hospitals. Trend analyses demonstrated a decline in incidence of inpatient hypospadias repair (estimated annual percentage change, -6.80%; range, -0.51% to -12.69%; p=0.037). Postoperative complication rate was 4.9% and most commonly wound-related. Hospital volume was inversely related to complication rates. Specifically, higher hospital volume (>31 cases annually) was the only variable associated with decreased postoperative complications. Conclusions Inpatient hypospadias repair have substantially decreased since the late 1990's. Older age groups and presumably more complex procedures constitute most of the inpatient procedures nowadays. PMID:26279829

  8. Agricultural Pesticide Use and Hypospadias in Eastern Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kristy J.; Reif, John S.; Veeramachaneni, D.N. Rao; Luben, Thomas J.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Nuckols, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the relationship between hypospadias and proximity to agricultural pesticide applications using a GIS-based exposure method. Methods We obtained information for 354 cases of hypospadias born between 1998 and 2002 in eastern Arkansas; 727 controls were selected from birth certificates. We classified exposure on pounds of pesticides (estimated by crop type) applied or persisting within 500 m of each subject’s home during gestational weeks 6 to 16. We restricted our analyses to 38 pesticides with some evidence of reproductive, developmental, estrogenic, and/or antiandrogenic effects. We estimated timing of pesticide applications using crop phenology and published records. Results Gestational age at birth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–0.99], parity (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.95), and delaying prenatal care until the third trimester (OR = 4.04; 95% CI, 1.46–11.23) were significantly associated with hypospadias. Risk of hypospadias increased by 8% for every 0.05-pound increase in estimated exposure to diclofop-methyl use (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01–1.15). Pesticide applications in aggregate (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70–0.96) and applications of alachlor (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.89) and permethrin (OR = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.86) were negatively associated with hypospadias. Conclusions Except for diclofop-methyl, we did not find evidence that estimated exposure to pesticides known to have reproductive, developmental, or endocrine-disrupting effects increases risk of hypospadias. Further research on the potential effects of exposure to diclofop-methyl is recommended. PMID:17035148

  9. Regulation of MUTYH, a DNA Repair Enzyme, in Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianping; Li, Xinxiu; Zhang, Mingcao; Chen, Zhaohong; Wang, Yaping; Zeng, Caihong; Liu, Zhihong; Chen, Huimei

    2015-01-01

    MUTYH is a DNA repair enzyme that initiates a base excision repair (BER) by recognizing and removing 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and its paired adenine. We demonstrated that both TGF-?1 and H2O2 treatment led to an increased 8-oxoG in cultured human proximal tubule epithelial (HK-2) cells, while the former induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the latter caused cell apoptosis. Without stimulation, HK-2 cells showed MUTYH expression in mitochondria. TGF-?1 triggered a transient upregulation of mitochondrial MUTYH and induced the expression of nuclear isoforms, while H2O2 showed no role on MUTYH expression. Ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice exhibited high 8-oxoG reactivity with tubulointerstitial lesions. After obstruction, the MUTYH expression was increased only in tubules at day 3 and decreased with obvious tubular atrophy at day 10. Particularly, MUTYH was primarily located in normal tubular cytoplasm with a dominant mitochondrial form. A few cells with nuclear MUTYH expression were observed in the fibrotic interstitium. We confirmed that increased MUTYH expression was upregulated and positively correlated with the severity of kidney fibrosis. Thus, renal fibrosis caused a cell-type-specific and time-dependent response of oxidative DNA repairs, even within the same tissues. It suggests that intervention of MUTYH might be effective for therapies. PMID:26576226

  10. [Isolated hypospadias in 5 brothers].

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Stelios; Czeizel, Endre

    2015-08-16

    The healthy couple had five sons with hypospadias (glandular 1, coronal 4) without other child. Similar familial cluster has not reported in the sons of European parents without consanguinity. Mild form androgen insensitivity syndrome was expected in these 5 boys because of the X-linked androgen receptor gene, however, sequencing of the entire coding region (exons 1-8) and all intron-exon boundaries of the androgen receptor gene did not reveal abnormality and the CAG repeat was found in the normal range (21 repeats). This extreme familial cluster may help us to elucidate gene polymorphisms in the polygenic background of the multifactorial origin of isolated hypospadias. Therefore, the authors collaborate with a genetic institute in Pittsburg, USA to perform whole genome sequencing in these probands and their parents. PMID:26256499

  11. Staged hybrid approach using proximal TEVAR and distal open repair for the treatment of extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, William F.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Tracci, Margaret C.; Cherry, Kenneth J.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kern, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Repair of patients with extent I and II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, while repair of more distal extent III and IV TAAAs has a lower risk of mortality and paraplegia. Therefore, we describe an approach using thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) as the index operation to convert extent I and II TAAAs to extent III and IV TAAAs amenable to subsequent open aortic repair to minimize patient risk. Methods Between July 2007 and March 2012, 10 staged hybrid operations were performed to treat 1 extent I and 9 extent II TAAAs. Aortic aneurysm pathology included 5 chronic type B dissections, 3 acute type B dissections, and 2 penetrating aortic ulcers. Initially, the proximal descending thoracic aorta was repaired with TEVAR for coverage of the most proximal fenestration or penetrating ulcer, with 7 elective and 3 emergent repairs. Interval open distal aortic replacement was performed either in a short-term planned setting or for progressive dilation of the distal aortic segment. In the open repair, the proximal end of the graft was sewn directly to the distal end of the TEVAR and outer wall of the aorta. Results Average patient age was 48 years with the majority of patients male (60%). Risk factors included hypertension (80%), current tobacco use (50%), and Marfan syndrome (30%). Postoperative complications following TEVAR included endoleaks [type IA (n=1); type II (n=3)], pleural effusions (n=3), and acute kidney injury (n=1). Endovascular re-interventions were required in 3 cases. In dissection cases, persistent filling of the false lumen was common and associated with distal thoracic aortic dilation. Complications of open repair included acute kidney injury (n=2) but no cardiac, pulmonary, or neurologic morbidity. Median time between TEVAR and open repair was 14 weeks. Most importantly, there was no mortality or neurologic deficit after either procedure with a median follow up of 35 weeks. Conclusions A staged hybrid approach to extensive TAAAs combining proximal TEVAR followed by interval open distal TAAA repair is safe and appears to be an effective alternative to traditional open repair. This approach may decrease the significant morbidity associated with single stage open extent I and II TAAA repairs and may be applicable to many TAAA etiologies. PMID:22832268

  12. A case report of periprosthetic fracture left proximal humerus with radial nerve palsy following pectoralis major repair

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jaydeep; Marson, Ben A

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Primary repair of pectoralis major tendon with bony tunnels and anchor sutures in the proximal humerus creates a potential weakness and stress riser leading to increased risk of periprosthetic fracture and nerve damage at the site of weakness with subsequent injury, if not allowed to heal satisfactorily with adequate period of rest. PMID:26185650

  13. The role of two-stage repair in modern hypospadiology

    PubMed Central

    Bracka, Aivar

    2008-01-01

    Hypospadias surgery continues to evolve. The enthusiasm for flap-based urethroplasty is waning and instead there is an increasing preference for urethroplasty that uses either the urethral plate alone or in combination with grafts. From the vast armamentarium of hypospadias repairs that are still in use, the author suggests a simple protocol of just three closely related procedures with which we can now repair almost all hypospadias. The tubularised incised plate (TIP) repair and the ‘Snodgraft’ modification of the TIP principle are simple and effective one-stage solutions when partial circumference urethroplasty is required. Conversely, the Bracka two-stage graft repair remains an ideal and versatile solution when a full circumference urethroplasty is required. It is particularly appropriate for severe primary hypospadias associated with a poor plate and marked chordee and also to replace a scarred, hairy or balanitis xerotica obliterans diseased urethra in re-operative salvage hypospadias. PMID:19468400

  14. Change of Proximal Descending Aortic False Lumen after Conventional Repair of Acute Type I Dissection: Is It Always Unfavorable?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sue Hyun; Kim, Jun Sung; Shin, Yoon Cheol; Kim, Dong Jung; Lim, Cheong; Park, Kay-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients show favorable changes in the descending aortic false lumen after conventional repair of acute type A dissection, although the incidence of favorable changes has been reported to be low. We aimed to investigate the incidence of positive postoperative changes in the false lumen and the factors associated with positive outcomes. Methods In 63 patients who underwent surgery for type A acute dissection as well as serial computed tomography (CT) scanning, morphological parameters were compared between the preoperative, early postoperative (mean interval, 5.4 days), and late CT scans (mean interval, 31.0 months) at three levels of the descending thoracic aorta. Results In the early postoperative CT images, complete false lumen thrombosis and/or true lumen expansion at the proximal descending aorta was observed in 46% of the patients. In the late images, complete thrombosis or resolution of the proximal descending false lumen occurred in 42.9% of the patients. Multivariate analysis found that juxta-anastomotic false lumen thrombosis was predictive of favorable early changes, which were in turn predictive of continuing later improvement. Conclusion Even after conventional repair without inserting a frozen elephant trunk, the proximal descending aortic false lumen showed positive remodeling in a substantial number of patients. We believe that the long-term prognosis of type A dissection can be improved by refining surgical technique, and particularly by avoiding large intimal tears at the anastomosis site during the initial repair. PMID:26290834

  15. Hypospadias

    MedlinePLUS

    ... speak to your son's urologist. How Does the Penis Normally Work? Male Reproductive System Medical Illustration Copyright © ... All rights reserved The main roles of the penis are to carry urine and sperm out of ...

  16. Waterproofing in hypospadias: a refinement of the two-stage reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Khan, U; Zic, R; Boorman, J

    2001-09-01

    A new technique for 'waterproofing' during the second stage of a two-stage hypospadias repair is described. It is simpler and involves less tissue dissection than other waterproofing techniques. The senior author has used it over a period of 6 years as standard practice. The technique has been used in a total of 24 cases, in which the fistula rate was 8% (two cases). PMID:11513517

  17. Propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations in newborns with hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Andrzej; Mydlak, Dariusz; O?tarzewski, Mariusz; Bauer, Anna; Sawicka, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Of interest is if factors like maternal diet can influence the risk of hypospadias–affected pregnancy. Increased propionylcarnitine (C3) is regarded as a biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine and low methionine in newborns are associated with hypospadias. Material and methods 41 newborns with hypospadias and 90 control newborns without congenital anomalies were investigated. Whole blood propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Results The mean concentration of propionylcarnitine was higher in newborns with hypospadias compared with newborns without congenital anomalies (p = 0.026). The mean methionine level in cases was insignificantly lower than in controls. Conclusion There appears to be an association between decreased vitamin B12, as indexed by an increase of propionylcarnitine, and hypospadias in the investigated group of patients. PMID:24707392

  18. A de-epithelialised 'turnover dartos flap' in the repair of urethral fistula.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2009-03-01

    We report our experience in the management of urethrocutaneous fistulae following hypospadias repair by using a turnover, de-epithelialiszed dartos flap. From May 2003 to June 2007 we operated on 10 patients with urethral fistulae following hypospadias repair. Their ages ranged from 4 to 25 years (mean: 7 years). Four of these patients had their urethroplasty done elsewhere and reported for fistula repair alone. These four patients had no record of the urethroplasty procedure that was used. A solitary fistula was located at the corona in two patients, on the mid-shaft in three patients, and proximal penile in one patient. Two patients had multiple fistulae on the shaft, one patient had two fistulae on the shaft, and one patient had a long fistula from the proximal penile to peno-scrotal region. The technique involves using a circumscribing incision around the fistula and closing the inner skin edges by an inverting subcuticular stitch to form the urethral layer. A flap is marked on the skin adjacent to the circumscribing incision and de-epithelialised. It is raised with underlying dartos fascia/muscle and turned over the first layer of closure and secured. The vascular supply to the flap is based on a hinge of tissue around the defect. A long skin flap developed from shaft or the scrotum is approximated over this layer to complete the repair. Alternatively, the skin is closed in a 'pants over vest' technique. An indwelling catheter is placed for 3-4 days. Nine patients healed without complications, and one patient with multiple fistulae on the shaft had a residual tiny pin-point fistula which closed spontaneously. Thus, the success rate with this technique was 100%. Although dartos flaps have been used for many years as a waterproofing layer in urethroplasties or while repairing urethrocutaneous fistulae, their use as a 'de-epithelialised turnover flap' provides another reliable tool in the surgical repertoire. PMID:18640885

  19. Embolisation of a proximal type I endoleak post-Nellix aortic aneurysm repair complicated by reflux of Onyx into the Nellix endograft limb.

    PubMed

    Ameli-Renani, S; Das, R; Weller, A; Chung, R; Morgan, R A

    2015-06-01

    We report the first case of intervention for a proximal type 1 endoleak following Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing repair of an aortic aneurysm. This was complicated by migration of Onyx into one of the Nellix graft limbs causing significant stenosis. Subsequent placement of a covered stent to affix the Onyx between the stent and the wall of the Nellix endograft successfully restored stent patency. PMID:25547081

  20. The prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus and hypospadias: A case report and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weigang; Wang, Yuantao; Zhu, Dechun; Yan, Pengfei; Dong, Biao; Zhou, Honglan

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic utricle cysts with calculus and hypospadias are rare. There are a few reported cases. We present a case of a prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus in a 25-year-old male. He had a history of left cryptorchidism and surgery for penoscrotal hypospadias in his infancy. He was referred for frequent micturition, urgency of urination, urine pain, terminal hematuria, and dysuria. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a retrovesical cystic lesion of low density, showing a 5 × 5-cm calcification. Retrograde urethrocystography showed a 5 × 5-cm high-density shadow in the posterior urethra. The cyst was incised by transperineal approach and the stone was clearly observed and removed. Urethral stricture repair was performed simultaneously. The patient recovered smoothly after surgery. PMID:26029314

  1. Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, L S; Himes, K; Colborn, T

    2001-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies in the United States, occurring in approximately 1 in 250 newborns or roughly 1 in 125 live male births. It is the result of arrested development of the urethra, foreskin, and ventral surface of the penis where the urethral opening may be anywhere along the shaft, within the scrotum, or in the perineum. The only treatment is surgery. Thus, prevention is imperative. To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine the etiology of hypospadias, the majority of which have been classified as idiopathic. In this paper we briefly describe the normal development of the male external genitalia and review the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of hypospadias. The majority of hypospadias are believed to have a multifactorial etiology, although a small percentage do result from single gene mutations. Recent findings suggest that some hypospadias could be the result of disrupted gene expression. Discoveries about the antiandrogenic mechanisms of action of some contemporary-use chemicals have provided new knowledge about the organization and development of the urogenital system and may provide additional insight into the etiology of hypospadias and direction for prevention. PMID:11713004

  2. The management of moderate and severe congenital penile torsion associated with hypospadias: Urethral mobilisation is not a panacea against torsion

    PubMed Central

    Elbakry, Adel; Zakaria, Ahmed; Matar, Adel; El Nashar, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of urethral mobilisation for correcting moderate and severe penile torsion associated with distal hypospadias. Patients and methods Nineteen patients with distal hypospadias and congenital moderate and severe penile torsion were treated surgically. The hypospadias was at the distal shaft, coronal and glanular in seven, eight and four patients, respectively, and six had mild chordee. The mean (SD, range) angle of torsion was 94.7 (19.9, 75–160)°. The urethra was mobilised down to the perineum. If the urethral mobilisation was insufficient the right border of the tunica albuginea was anchored to the pubic periosteum. The hypospadias was repaired using the urethral mobilisation and advancement technique, with a triangular plate flap for meatoplasty. The patients were followed up for 12–18 months. Results All patients had a successful functional and cosmetic outcome, with no residual torsion. Two patients had a small subcutaneous haematoma that resolved after conservative treatment. Massive oedema occurred in three patients and was treated conservatively. Urethral mobilisation did not correct the penile torsion completely. Although the mean (SD, range) angle of torsion was reduced to 86.1 (14.3, 65–130)°, statistically significantly different (P = 0.001), it was not clinically important. The presence of chordee had no significant correlation with the reduction of penile torsion. Conclusion Urethral mobilisation cannot completely correct moderate and severe penile torsion but it might only partly decrease the angle of torsion. Periosteal anchoring of the tunica albuginea might be the most reliable manoeuvre for the complete correction of penile torsion.

  3. Snodgrass' urethroplasty in hypospadias surgery in Clinical Hospital Mostar--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Brekalo, Zdrinko; Kvesi?, Ante; Nikoli?, Harry; Tomi?, Davor; Martinovi?, Vlatka

    2007-03-01

    Amongst the various methods of reconstructing the hypospadic urethra such as the MAGPI, Mathieu's and Preputial island flap urethroplasty method and the Snodgrass method, the latter is being used more frequently nowadays in patients with the urethral meatus located in the proximity of the penis. In the Pediatric ward at Mostar Clinical Hospital, we have recently adopted the Snodgrass method when reconstructing the hypospadic urethra. We herewith present our research regarding the successful results in adopting the aforementioned method. Success was evaluated according to the frequency of post-operative complications, as well as the patients' satisfaction with the functional and the cosmetic result of the urethra reconstruction. The conclusions relating to our research result in an addition basis from which to evaluate whether the Snodgrass method should receive privileged preference in future operative treatment of the hypospadias over others methods, as can be seen from our research. PMID:17598400

  4. Surgical Repair with External Fixation of Epiphyseal Fractures of the Proximal Phalanges of Three Fingers: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Yasushi; Takayama, Shinichiro; Sato, Kazuki

    2015-10-01

    A 13-year-old girl sustained epiphyseal fractures of the proximal phalanges of the left index, middle, and ring fingers. Though manual reduction of the 3 fingers was possible, it was difficult to maintain the reduction due to severe instability of the middle and ring fingers, and closed reduction with external fixation was performed. At 4 years post-injury, the patient had no impairment of daily activities. The use of external fixation (1) causes no injury to the epiphyseal cartilage, (2) enables accurate reduction and maintenance of reduction, (3) is technically easier than pinning, (4) enables earlier range of motion (ROM) exercises of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the externally fixated and other fingers, and (5) allows repeated fine adjustments after reduction. External fixation is an option for the treatment of children with highly unstable epiphyseal fractures of the proximal phalanges. PMID:26388013

  5. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Hypospadias (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypospadias, one of the most common birth defects in human male infants, is a condition in which the urethral opening is misplaced along ventral aspect of the penis. We developed an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and computer simulation that describes the pathogenesis of...

  6. Evaluation of an association between loratadine and hypospadias--United States, 1997-2001.

    PubMed

    2004-03-19

    Hypospadias is a birth defect that affects approximately seven in 1,000 male infants in the United States. In affected infants, the urethral opening is located along the underside of the penis, scrotum, or perineum; the condition usually is corrected by surgery. Hypospadias is classified in order of increasing severity as first, second, or third degree. In 2002, a study in Sweden noted that among male infants born to women who while pregnant had taken loratadine (Claritin), a nonsedating antihistamine commonly used for seasonal allergies, hypospadias prevalence was twice that of the general population. However, insufficient data were available to determine the severity of the hypospadias cases, and the study did not control for confounding variables (e.g., family history of hypospadias or maternal age). In 2003, a prospective study using data from four countries indicated that five of 142 pregnancies in women exposed to loratadine resulted in infants with major malformations, a prevalence consistent with that of the general population; none had hypospadias. To further assess any potential association between loratadine and hypospadias, CDC analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which determined that no increased risk for second- or third-degree hypospadias existed among women who used loratadine in early pregnancy. These results might be useful for women and health-care providers to address concerns about loratadine use and hypospadias. PMID:15029117

  7. Hormone therapy in hypospadias surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Netto, Jose Murillo B; Ferrarez, Carlos Eduardo P F; Schindler Leal, Anucha Andrade; Tucci, Silvio; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2013-12-01

    Surgical correction of hypospadias is proposed to improve the aesthetic and functional quality of the penis. Hormone therapy preceding surgical correction is indicated to obtain better surgical conditions. However, there is divergence in the literature regarding the hormone therapy of choice, time of its use before surgery, appropriate dose, and route of application. To try to elucidate this matter, an electronic survey of the databases PubMed and Cochrane Central Library was conducted, limited to articles in English published since 1980. Search strategy identified 14 clinical trials that matched the inclusion criteria. Analysis was made in terms of study design, classification of hypospadias, association with chordee and cryptorchidism, type of hormone, route of application, dose and duration of treatment, penile length before and after hormone therapy, glans circumference before and after hormone therapy, adverse effects, and surgical complications. From the trials evaluated it was not possible to determine the ideal neoadjuvant treatment. A preference for use of testosterone was observed. Intramuscular administration seems to have fewer adverse effects than topical treatment. Side effects were seldom described, and treated patients were not followed on a long-term basis. The scarcity of randomized and controlled clinical trials regarding the topic impairs the establishment of a protocol. In conclusion, although preoperative hormone therapy is currently used before hypospadias surgery, its real benefit in terms of improvement of the penis and surgical results has not been defined. PMID:23602841

  8. Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Hypospadias: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates current knowledge related to trends in the prevalence of hypospadias, the association of hypospadias with endocrine-disrupting exposures, and the potential contribution of genetic susceptibility to its etiology. The review focuses on epidemiologic evidence. Increasing prevalence of hypospadias has been observed, but such increases tend to be localized to specific regions or time periods. Thus, generalized statements that hypospadias is increasing are unsupported. Due to limitations of study designs and inconsistent results, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the association of endocrine-disrupting exposures with hypospadias. Studies with more rigorous study designs (e.g., larger and more detailed phenotypes) and exposure assessment that encompasses more breadth as well as depth (e.g., specific endocrine-related chemicals) will be critical to make better inferences about these important environmental exposures. Many candidate genes for hypospadias have been identified, but few of them have been examined to an extent that enables solid conclusions. Further studies are needed that include larger sample sizes, comparison groups that are more representative of the populations from which the cases were derived, phenotype-specific analyses, and more extensive exploration of variants. In conclusion, examining the associations of environmental and genetic factors with hypospadias remain important areas of inquiry, although our actual understanding of their contribution to hypospadias risk in humans is currently limited. PMID:22678668

  9. Variation spatiotemporelle de la cryptorchidie et de l’hypospadias au Québec : Une étude exploratoire

    PubMed Central

    Guertin, Sophie; Lemieux, Karine-Sylvie; Makhoulian, Natalie; Michaud, Sébastien; Patry, Rose-Marie; Côté, Anne-Andrée; Gagnon, Fabien; Ayotte, Pierre; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectifs : La majorité des études effectuées au cours des dernières décennies ont mis en évidence une augmentation du nombre de cas de cryptorchidie et d’hypospadias entre 1970 et 1990. De plus, l’importante variabilité géographique de ces anomalies est bien décrite. Cette étude vise à mesurer la prévalence à la naissance de la cryptorchidie et de l’hypospadias au Québec, à vérifier si ces anomalies sont en augmentation et à en évaluer la répartition interrégionale. Méthode : Une étude épidémiologique descriptive a été réalisée à partir du nombre de garçons de cinq ans et moins hospitalisés pour une cryptorchidie ou un hypospadias au Québec de 1989 à 2004 selon les données du fichier administratif d’hospitalisation MED-ÉCHO. Les données sur les naissances provenaient de l’Institut de la statistique du Québec. Résultats : La prévalence annuelle moyenne pour 1000 naissances vivantes de sexe masculin est de 19,1 (IC à 95 % : 18,8–19,4) pour la cryptorchidie et 11,4 (IC à 95 % 11,1–11,6) pour l’hypospadias au Québec. Au cours de la période étudiée, la prévalence de cryptorchidie a légèrement diminué, alors que celle de l’hypospadias est demeurée stable. Comparativement à la province du Québec, des régions présentent une prévalence significativement différente de cryptorchidie et/ou d’hypospadias. . Conclusion : Au Québec, la prévalence de cryptorchidie est en légère diminution alors que celle de l’hypospadias est stable. Des variations régionales significatives sont observables. D’autres études sont nécessaires afin d’évaluer l’hypothèse d’un lien avec les contaminants environnementaux en émergence. L’implantation d’un système de surveillance des anomalies congénitales permettrait une représentation plus valide de la situation. PMID:21672476

  10. Chordee without hypospadias: Operative classification and its management

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunita; Rawat, Jiledar; Kureel, Shiv Narayan; Pandey, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Context: Developing countries. Aims: To propose a operative classification of Chordee without hypospadias (CWH) with its management. Settings and Design: Tertiary referral centre; Retrospective study from January 2000 to January 2011. Materials and Methods: Total 26 patients were classified peroperatively into sixtypes (A: Cutaneous chordee? Degloving skin and dartos (1/26); B: Fibrous chordee? chordectomy (4/26);C: Corporocavernosalchordee? Corporoplasty ± Urethral mobilization (4/26); D: Urethral tethering with Hypoplastic urethra? Urethral mobilization ± urethral reconstruction because of hypoplastic urethra (14/26); E: Congenital short urethra? excision of urethra from the meatus and urethroplasty (2/26); and F: Complex chordee? Degloving ± Corporoplasty ± urethroplasty (1/26 patients). The follow-up over 6 months to 9 years were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS soft ware version 17.0 for Windows. Results: The mean age of surgery was 5.33 ± 0.11 years. The success rate defined on uroflowmetry and voiding cystourethrography was 65.6%. The coronal urethra-cutaneous fistula developed in 26.9% (7/26) {including 7.7% (3/26) of associated metal stenosis}. The urethral stricture developed in 3.8% (1/26). Conclusions: CWH needs stepwise surgical management. The operative classification may help in better understanding and management of this difficult entity. Meticulous tissue handling and urethroplasty is needed for good and promising results. PMID:23798865

  11. Severe forms of concealed penis without hypospadias: Surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Dekermacher, Samuel; Anderson, Kleber M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Concealed penis (CP) may vary in severity and includes megaprepuce (MP) as a variant. Many different surgical strategies have been described in order to maximize penile exposure and to deal with skin deficiency. We describe the strategies that we use to overcome technical problems in severe cases of CP. Materials and Methods: Six consecutive cases of severe CP (including 3 with MP) were treated in a 2-year period between January 2011 and April 2013. These patients were treated using extensive degloving, removal of dysplastic dartos, Alexander's preputial flap, scrotal flaps and skin grafts. Three patients had been previously circumcised. Cases associated with hypospadias, obesity, disorders of sexual differentiation and micropenises were excluded. Results: All six patients attained good results, with good exposure of the penis, ability to void standing with a well-directed flow and reasonable esthetic results. A technical algorithm for the treatment of primary or recurring cases of CP is proposed. Conclusion: Alexander’ s distally based ventral preputial flap is a useful technical resource to treat MP cases. Free skin grafts and/or laterally based scrotal flaps may be used to cover the penis after release in severe cases of CP.

  12. No increased risk of infant hypospadias after maternal use of loratadine in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Källén, Bengt; Olausson, Petra Otterblad

    2006-01-01

    The original report published in 2001 on a possible association between maternal use of loratadine and an increased risk of infant hypospadias, based on data in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1995-2001, has been followed up by continued surveillance in the same register. The original “signal” was based on 15 infants with hypospadias among 2780 loratadine-exposed infants born, representing an adjusted odd ratio of about 2.3, statistically significant. Since then another 10 cases have been identified, and 12.5 expected. For the period 2001-2004, another 1911 loratadine-exposed infants have been identified and only two had hypospadias (4 expected). Our present position is that the primary finding was a “signal” which had occurred by chance and the follow-up agrees with independent studies which indicate an absence of an association. This illustrates the care with which apparent statistically significant increases have to be handled when no prior hypothesis exists. PMID:16761079

  13. Failed surgical ligation of the proximal left subclavian artery during hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair successfully managed by percutaneous plug or coil occlusion: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Maleux, Geert; Vaninbroukx, Johan; Heye, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Open surgical rerouting and proximal ligation of one or more supra-aortic vessels prior to endovascular stent-graft placement has become an alternative to major open thoracic surgery in the treatment of complex thoracic aortic disease. Complications owing to failed surgical ligation of the left subclavian artery are rare. In this report, 3 cases of failed ligation are presented. Diagnosis was made by CT-scan and treatment was performed by transcatheter coil and plug embolization, avoiding redo neck surgery. PMID:21477301

  14. Effect of Pre-Designed Instructions for Mothers of Children with Hypospadias on Reducing Postoperative Complications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Sanaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital anomaly with a prevalence estimated to be as high as 1 in 125 live male births. Complications after surgical procedures are possible. The incidence of complications can be reduced by meticulous preoperative planning, and judicious postoperative care. So the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of…

  15. Proximal Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

    2013-01-01

    The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

  16. Proximal nephron.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Jia L; Li, Xiao C

    2013-07-01

    The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

  17. Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

  18. Ejaculatory ducts opening into accessory urethral channel with hypospadias and absent verumontanum: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Ravi Kumar, Valkodai Ramanthan; Duraisami, Vijayagiri

    2013-12-01

    Ejaculatory ducts draining into accessory urethral channel opening into perineum is rare. This is a case report of a 27-year-old male who had hypospadias surgery at 3 years of age, presenting with discharge of semen through the perineal opening from adolescence. Cystoscopy and dye study showed that it was a short channel communicating with both ejaculatory ducts. Cystoscopy of the native urethra revealed that the vermontanum had not developed. The mucous lined accessory urethra was anastomosed to the bulbar urethra. Urethrogram done after one year showed that the accessory urethra was draining well into the bulbar urethra. Such type of accessory urethral channel communicating with ejaculatory ducts and associated with hypospadias and absent vermontanum has not been reported so far. PMID:23965229

  19. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998–2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year) (FAOSTAT-Database) in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999–2003) with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001). An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999–2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001). Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients. PMID:19440400

  20. Solitary Crossed Renal Ectopia: Concurrence of Posterior Urethral Valve and Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Amin; Khorramirouz, Reza; Keihani, Sorena; Fareghi, Mehdi; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Solitary crossed renal ectopia (SCRE) represents an exceedingly rare congenital disorder. Although skeletal and genitourinary abnormalities most commonly accompany this condition, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been described in only a few cases. Here, we present two unique cases of SCRE complicated by high-grade VUR concomitant with posterior urethral valve in one case and hypospadias in the other one. We also provide a brief review of the literature on this subject. PMID:26167315

  1. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Thomas R. (Stockton, CA)

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

  2. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

  3. Intracellular and nuclear binding of [3H]dihydrotestosterone in cultured genital skin fibroblasts of patients with severe hypospadias.

    PubMed Central

    Schweikert, H U; Schlüter, M; Romalo, G

    1989-01-01

    Androgens stimulate the development and growth of the male external genitalia. Because hypospadias is the most common congenital defect of the male urethra and because in most cases the cause of this malformation is unknown, we examined the hypothesis that the etiology of the severe forms of this disorder, which is frequently associated with other genital anomalies, might be explained by receptor abnormalities. Intracellular and nuclear binding of androgens were determined in cultured genital skin fibroblasts from 10 males who underwent circumcision for phimosis (controls A), 2 patients with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency (controls B), and 11 patients with severe forms of hypospadias of unknown etiology. Genital skin fibroblast monolayers were incubated for 60 min at 37 degrees C with varying concentrations of [3H]-dihydrotestosterone ([3H]DHT), and specific binding in whole cells and nuclei was measured. Maximum binding (Bmax) in the whole cell assay averaged 0.88 +/- 0.15 fmol . microgram DNA-1 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (controls A, 0.89 +/- 0.16 fmol . microgram DNA-1; controls B, 0.85 fmol . microgram DNA-1) and 0.7 +/- 0.25 fmol . microgram DNA-1 in the patients with hypospadias. In the latter group, Bmax in six patients was below the minimum values determined in the controls. Maximum specific nuclear binding in the control groups averaged 43% (range, 30-55%) of the corresponding intracellular binding. In contrast, nuclear binding in strains from patients with hypospadias was lower (range, 0-12% of whole cell Bmax). In particular, no high affinity saturable nuclear [3H]DHT binding could be measured in 6 of the 11 patients. We interpret these data to suggest that defective intracellular and/or nuclear binding might be the cause of defective genital development in some patients with severe hypospadias. PMID:2913055

  4. Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

  5. [Anterior hypospadias and chordee: a one-stage cure using a tubulated and reversed flap].

    PubMed

    Staerman, F; Babut, J M; Fremond, B

    1990-01-01

    A one stage urethroplasty using a tubulated and reversed flap was carried out by the authors in 74 cases of hypospadias with chordee between 1978 and 1988. The procedure is derived from the technic of Mustarde and the flip flap of Devine and Horton. The experience led to limit its indication to the patients who have a sufficient length of ventral skin of good quality between the hypospadic meatus and the peno scrotal junction to build the urethra up to the apex of the glans after correction of the chordee. This technic is simple and reliable: complications have been encountered in only two of the last forty cases (one fistula and one urethral stenosis) since the design of the flap was simplified. PMID:2341742

  6. [Hypospadias with chordee one-stage operation. An original procedure (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Babut, J M; Allouis, M; Paul, J L

    1980-01-01

    The common management of hypospadias involves the chordee correction before reconstructing the urethra; then staging of operative cure is so often necessary. This inconvenience is avoided by neglecting some moderate chordees as it was recorded by the authors in their own retrospective series. For the last two years they are performing a one stage procedure with simultaneous correction of chordee and urethroplasty; they briefly review main other one-stage procedures before describing their own using a tubulated and inverted flap. Twenty cases were managed with this procedure and the results were found satisfactory as well as functionally and aesthetically in spite of three transient fistulas and two meatal stenosis. However, definitive conclusion cannot be drawn because of a too short follow-up. PMID:7237673

  7. Environmental and childhood lead contamination in the proximity of boat-repair yards in southern Thailand--I: pattern and factors related to soil and household dust lead levels.

    PubMed

    Maharachpong, Nipa; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2006-07-01

    High blood lead levels have recently been documented in schoolchildren living in communities adjacent to boat-repair yards in southern Thailand. In this study, the spatial pattern of lead contamination of soil and household dust in an area surrounding several boat-repair yards is described, and household factors associated with elevated dust lead are identified. A cross-sectional spatial study was conducted in a coastal residential area within a distance of 2 km from three major boat-repair yards situated on the east coast of peninsular Thailand. Household dust specimens were collected from an undisturbed position in the residences of children, aged 4-14 years, sampled randomly from all children living in the study area. Soil specimens were obtained from the interstices of a square grid, 70 x 70 m2, superimposed on the area. Geographic coordinates of residence and soil sampling positions were recorded and semivariograms and kriging used to contour the spatial distribution of lead in dust and soil. Environmental lead levels were also modeled in terms of direction and minimum distance from a boat-repair yard and, for household dust lead content, in terms of household variables, including occupation of household members in boat-repair work, type of house construction, and general cleanliness. Household dust and soil lead content ranged from 10 to 3025 mg/kg and from 1 to 7700 mg/kg, respectively. The distribution of soil lead peaked at the location of the boat-repair yards, but outside the yards the distribution was generally below 400 mg/kg and irregular. About 24% of household dust lead specimens were equal to or above 400 mg/kg, but showed significant decrease with increasing distance from the boat-repair yards, at rates of between 7% and 14% per 100 m. In houses where a family member was a worker in one of the major boatyards and in houses where occasional repair of small boats was undertaken, household dust lead levels were significantly elevated, by 65% (95% CI: 18-130%) and 31% (95% CI: 5-63%), respectively. Siting of boat-repair yards at a distance from residential areas and measures to reduce the spread of lead-containing dust are recommended to alleviate the problem of elevated household dust lead levels. PMID:16832871

  8. Arthroscopic Surgical Techniques for the Management of Proximal Biceps Injuries.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Holzgrefe, Russell E; Brockmeier, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Current arthroscopic surgical techniques for the management of proximal biceps tendon disorders encompass 3 commonly advocated procedures: proximal biceps anchor reattachment (superior labrum anterior to posterior or SLAP repair), biceps tenotomy, and arthroscopic biceps tenodesis. The indications for each procedure vary based on injury pattern, symptomatic presentation, concomitant pathologic abnormality, and most notably, patient factors, such as age, functional demand, and specific sport or activity participation. Outcomes after SLAP repair are generally favorable, although recent studies have found biceps tenodesis to be the preferred treatment for certain patient populations. PMID:26614472

  9. Editorial Commentary: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Primary Repair, Revisited.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) primary repair shows good results at 2-year follow-up for proximal tears with good tissue quality. History teaches us to remain cautious pending 5-year follow-up. PMID:26542202

  10. Method for mask repair using defect compensation

    DOEpatents

    Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method for repair of amplitude and/or phase defects in lithographic masks. The method involves modifying or altering a portion of the absorber pattern on the surface of the mask blank proximate to the mask defect to compensate for the local disturbance (amplitude or phase) of the optical field due to the defect.

  11. Bladder exstrophy repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... in boys and is often linked to other birth defects. Surgery is necessary to: Allow the child to ...

  12. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  13. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  14. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  15. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  16. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  17. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  18. Steerable Capacitive Proximity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Steerable capacitive proximity sensor of "capaciflector" type based partly on sensing units described in GSC-13377 and GSC-13475. Position of maximum sensitivity adjusted without moving sensor. Voltage of each driven shield adjusted separately to concentrate sensing electric field more toward one side or other.

  19. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

  20. Delayed presentation of aortoesophageal fistula after endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Kouritas, Vasileios K; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Sotiriou, Konstantina; Klimopoulos, Serafim

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of aortoesophageal fistula after thoracic endovascular aortic repair has increased following an increase in thoracic endovascular aortic procedures. A 68-year-old man was diagnosed with aortoesophageal fistula 6 years after thoracic endovascular aortic repair of a descending aortic aneurysm. Due to massive hematemesis and instability, he underwent a left thoracotomy, graft repair of the aorta with stent removal, gastrostomy, and proximal esophagostomy. Unfortunately, he died 1 week later due to sepsis. Aortoesophageal fistula may present long after thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and clinicians treating such cases should always be aware of this complication. PMID:24899044

  1. Meniscal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyoung Ho

    2014-01-01

    The meniscus has several important roles, such as transmission of the load, absorption of the shock in the knee joint, acting as a secondary anteroposterior stabilizer of the knee joint, and contributing to proprioception of the knee joint. Degenerative changes of the knee joint develop in the long-term follow-up even after partial meniscectomy. Thus, there has been growing interest in meniscal repair. In addition, with increased understanding of the important roles of the meniscal root and advancement of diagnostic methods, efforts have been made to ensure preservation of the meniscal roots. In this review article, we will discuss operative techniques and clinical outcomes of arthroscopic repair of the meniscus and the meniscal root and postoperative rehabilitation and complications as well. PMID:24944971

  2. Repairing Conveyor 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ..................................................................................................... 26 2.9 Bronze anchor from the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, with associated stock showing clear curvature ................. 27 x 2.10 Wood remains attached to ABX-7 and what appears... intended as a repair or an attempt to complete the construction of a previously unfinished temple.3 Having sourced the drums 1 Pulak and Rogers 1994, 18-20. 2 Carlson and Aylward 2010, 145. 3...

  3. Proximity Networks and Epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guclu, Hasan; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2007-03-01

    We presented the basis of a framework to account for the dynamics of contacts in epidemic processes, through the notion of dynamic proximity graphs. By varying the integration time-parameter T, which is the period of infectivity one can give a simple account for some of the differences in the observed contact networks for different diseases, such as smallpox, or AIDS. Our simplistic model also seems to shed some light on the shape of the degree distribution of the measured people-people contact network from the EPISIM data. We certainly do not claim that the simplistic graph integration model above is a good model for dynamic contact graphs. It only contains the essential ingredients for such processes to produce a qualitative agreement with some observations. We expect that further refinements and extensions to this picture, in particular deriving the link-probabilities in the dynamic proximity graph from more realistic contact dynamics should improve the agreement between models and data.

  4. Proximate analysis of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A.

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  5. Distributed proximity sensor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to sensors embedded on the surface of a robot hand, or other moving member. By distributing proximity sensors capable of detecting distances and angles to points on the surface of an object, information is obtained for achieving noncontacting shape and distance perception, i.e., for automatic determination of the object's shape, direction, and distance, as well as the orientation of the object relative to the robot hand or other moving member.

  6. Arthroscopic Transosseous Bony Bankart Repair

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Matthew D.; Burns, Joseph P.; Snyder, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of glenoid bony integrity is critical to minimizing the risk of recurrence and re-creating normal kinematics in the setting of anterior glenohumeral instability. We present an arthroscopic suture anchor–based technique for treating large bony Bankart fractures in which the fragment is secured to the intact glenoid using mattress sutures placed through the bony fragment and augmented with soft-tissue repair proximal and distal to the bony lesion. This straightforward technique has led to excellent fragment reduction and good outcomes in our experience. PMID:25973373

  7. [Proximal tibial fractures].

    PubMed

    Schneidmueller, D; Gercek, E; Lehnert, M; Walcher, F; Marzi, I

    2011-05-01

    Only 1-4% of all long bone fractures in children involve the proximal tibia. To evaluate these fractures appropriately, it is mandatory to differentiate between articular fractures and metaphyseal fractures. Articular fractures of the proximal physis are rare and include Salter Harris type III and IV injuries. The reconstruction of the articular surface is the fundamental goal of therapy. Injuries of the anterior crucial ligament which typically appear as an avulsion of the tibial spine and the avulsion fracture of the tibial tubercle apophysis can involve the articular surface. Dislocated fractures should be reduced and stabilized. Extraarticular fractures include Salter Harris type I and II fractures. Other types of metaphyseal fractures are the complete fracture, the compression fracture and the bending fracture of the proximal tibia. Care should be taken while treating bending fractures, especially a valgus deformity must be excluded. Due to unequal growth stimulation during remodelling, a progressive valgus deformity frequently develops. Small deformities in the sagittal plane can be compensated by spontaneous remodelling during further growth. Dislocated fractures should be reduced and stabilized by K-wires. The retention of bending fractures by a compression plate or external fixator for medial compression might be more beneficial. PMID:21528394

  8. NISTIR 7200 Proximity Beacons and

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7200 Proximity Beacons and Mobile Device Authentication: AnOverviewandImplementation WayneJansen SerbanGavrila VladKorolev #12;NISTIR 7200 Proximity Beacons and Mobile Handheld Devices: Overview from a wireless beacon for access to be granted. Such proximity beacons can be either organizational

  9. A hybrid repair of a superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysm using open mesenteric bypass and endovascular exclusion.

    PubMed

    Cumbie, Todd A; Kedora, John C; Pearl, Gregory J; Shutze, William P

    2015-07-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms are uncommonly encountered in vascular surgery practice, but they typically require repair. Historically, they have been repaired with open aneurysmorrhaphy, bypass and exclusion, or simple ligation. More recently, endovascular repair with coil embolization and stent graft exclusion have been advocated. We present a repair of an SMA pseudoaneurysm via a hybrid approach with common hepatic artery to SMA bypass, exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm with ligation of the SMA proximal to the bypass, plug occlusion of the proximal SMA, and coil embolization of the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:26130888

  10. A hybrid repair of a superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysm using open mesenteric bypass and endovascular exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Cumbie, Todd A.; Kedora, John C.; Pearl, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms are uncommonly encountered in vascular surgery practice, but they typically require repair. Historically, they have been repaired with open aneurysmorrhaphy, bypass and exclusion, or simple ligation. More recently, endovascular repair with coil embolization and stent graft exclusion have been advocated. We present a repair of an SMA pseudoaneurysm via a hybrid approach with common hepatic artery to SMA bypass, exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm with ligation of the SMA proximal to the bypass, plug occlusion of the proximal SMA, and coil embolization of the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:26130888

  11. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  12. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePLUS

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

  13. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  14. Proximity networks and epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toroczkai, Zoltán; Guclu, Hasan

    2007-05-01

    Disease spread in most biological populations requires the proximity of agents. In populations where the individuals have spatial mobility, the contact graph is generated by the “collision dynamics” of the agents, and thus the evolution of epidemics couples directly to the spatial dynamics of the population. We first briefly review the properties and the methodology of an agent-based simulation (EPISIMS) to model disease spread in realistic urban dynamic contact networks. Using the data generated by this simulation, we introduce the notion of dynamic proximity networks which takes into account the relevant time-scales for disease spread: contact duration, infectivity period, and rate of contact creation. This approach promises to be a good candidate for a unified treatment of epidemic types that are driven by agent collision dynamics. In particular, using a simple model, we show that it can account for the observed qualitative differences between the degree distributions of contact graphs of diseases with short infectivity period (such as air-transmitted diseases) or long infectivity periods (such as HIV).

  15. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaisiam, W.; Laithong, T.; Meekhun, S.; Chaiwathyothin, N.; Thanlarp, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2013-03-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography.

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  17. Distributed Optoelectronic Proximity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Hahn, Hernsoo

    1994-01-01

    Optoelectronic proximity sensor comprises seven identical units functioning together to provide partially redundant data on spatial relationship between sensor and nearby diffusely reflecting surface. Provides data on distance, relative orientation, and curvature of surface. Sensor called "Hexeye" because its units exhibit hexagonal symmetry when viewed along optical axes and mounted together in hexagonal close packing. Because all six arrays of photodetectors in unit measure essentially identical distributions of light in operating mode, each provides redundant information averaged to increase accuracy or used to verify operation of others. Malfunctioning photodector identified, and output ignored or replaced by interpolated value. Developed for use in such robotic applications as noncontact probing or scanning of surfaces, localization and recognition of objects, and guiding "smart" robot hands in grasping objects.

  18. Pectoralis major tendon rupture: a biomechanical analysis of repair techniques.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan D; Lindsey, Derek P; McAdams, Timothy R

    2011-11-01

    Rupture of the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle to the proximal humerus is becoming a common injury. Repair of these ruptures increases patient satisfaction, strength, and cosmesis, and shortens return to competitive sports. Several repair techniques have been described, but recently many surgeons are using suture anchors. The traditional repair technique uses transosseous sutures, but no study has biomechanically compared the strength of these two repair techniques in human cadavers. Twelve fresh-frozen human shoulder specimens were dissected. The pectoralis major tendon insertion was cut from the bone and repaired using one of the two repair techniques: specimens were randomly assigned to transosseous trough with suture tied over bone versus four suture anchors. The fixation constructs were pulled to failure at 4?mm/s on a materials testing system. The mean ultimate failure load of the transosseous repairs was 611?N and the mean ultimate failure load of the suture anchor repair was 620?N. The mean stiffness of the transosseous repair was 32 and 28?N/mm for the suture anchor group. We found no statistically significant difference between these two repair techniques. PMID:21538507

  19. Hypertelorism and hypospadias associated with a de novo apparently balanced translocation between 8q22.3-23 and 20p13

    SciTech Connect

    Tar, A.; Ion, A.; Gyoervari, B.; Solyom, J.

    1997-01-20

    A de novo apparently balanced translocation involving chromosomes 8 and 20 was found in a 14-year-old boy with minor anomalies, mild skeletal abnormalities and ambiguous external genitalia including perineoscrotal hypospadias, rudimentary fused labioscrotal folds, bilateral cryptorchidism, and small penis. The karyotype was 46,XY, t(8;20)(q22.3-23;p13). No signs of other conditions known to be associated with structural anomalies of either chromosome 8 or 20 were present and incomplete masculinisation of the external genitalia appears to be the main component of the phenotype. Clinical and biological studies showed apparently normal testicular function in utero and after birth. Examinations excluded 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency or a block in any enzymatic steps of testosterone, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid biosynthesis. Coding sequences of the sex-determining gene (SRY) and androgen receptor gene (AR) were found to be identical to those of a normal male excluding their role in the cause of the present condition. Since several other reports describe the association of hypospadias and hypertelorism with deletions or translocations involving 8q, we suggest that a locus necessary for male sex differentiation is located at distal 8q. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal

    E-print Network

    Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal Point Methods Yves Lucet & Warren Hare July 24, 2013 1 / 26 #12;Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Outline 1

  1. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  2. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  3. SLAP tear associated with a minimally displaced proximal humerus fracture.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Corey B; Tanner, Stephanie L; Tolan, Stefan J

    2007-12-01

    Nondisplaced proximal humerus fracture may be associated with soft tissue injury. This case report examines 2 cases of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears in association with nondisplaced fractures of the proximal humerus. In the first case, the patient fell from a jet ski, causing a traction injury to his arm. A greater tuberosity fracture was identified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not reveal a definitive labral tear. After conservative management had failed, a type IV SLAP tear and a small rotator cuff tear were arthroscopically identified and repaired. In the second case, a power company lineman fell from a lift and attempted to hold on with his dominant arm. A nondisplaced greater tuberosity and a surgical neck fracture were discovered. MR arthrography revealed no evidence of SLAP tear. Four months after injury, a type II SLAP tear was arthroscopically identified and repaired. In these 2 cases, the presence of the fracture likely slowed operative intervention because pain was attributed to the fracture itself, and not to the SLAP tear. If patients do not follow the usual course of improvement after a proximal humerus fracture from a superior traction mechanism, consideration should be given to associated superior labral tears that may require surgical intervention. PMID:18063188

  4. Tools for proximal soil sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proximal soil sensing (i.e. near-surface geophysical methods) are used to study soil phenomena across spatial scales. Geophysical methods exploit contrasts in physical properties (dielectric permittivity, apparent electrical conductivity or resistivity, magnetic susceptibility) to indirectly measur...

  5. Retinal detachment repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a retina back into its normal position. The retina is ... it. This article describes the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. These occur due to a hole or tear ...

  6. Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

  7. Prevalence of rotator cuff tears in operative proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Choo, Andrew; Sobol, Garret; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Getz, Charles; Abboud, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Proximal humerus fractures and rotator cuff tears have been shown to have increasing rates with advancing age, theoretically leading to significant overlap in the 2 pathologies. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence, associated factors, and effect on treatment of rotator cuff tears in surgically treated proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who had surgery for a proximal humerus fracture from January 2007 to June 2012 in the shoulder department of a large academic institution. Patient demographics, the presence and management of rotator cuff tears, and surgical factors were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were associated with rotator cuff tears. This study reviewed 349 fractures in 345 patients. Of these, 30 (8.6%) had concomitant rotator cuff tears. Those with a rotator cuff tear were older (average age, 68.7 vs 63.1 years), were more likely to have had a dislocation (40% vs 12.5%), and were more likely to have undergone subsequent arthroscopic repair or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty than those without a rotator cuff tear. Most (22 of 30) were treated with suture repair at the time of surgery, but 5 patients underwent reverse total shoulder arthroplasty based primarily on the intraoperative finding of a significant rotator cuff tear. A concomitant rotator cuff tear in association with a proximal humerus fracture is relatively common. Rotator cuff tears are associated with older patients and those with a fracture-dislocation. In rare cases, these cases may require the availability of a reverse shoulder prosthesis. PMID:25361372

  8. Endovascular Repair versus Open Repair for Isolated Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Chae; Joo, Hyun-Chel; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sak; Chang, Byung-Chul; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with those of open repair for descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAA). Materials and Methods We compared the outcomes of 114 patients with DTAA and proximal landing zones 3 or 4 after TEVAR to those of 53 patients after conventional open repairs. Thirty-day and late mortality were the primary endpoints, and early morbidities, aneurysm-related death, and re-intervention were the secondary endpoints. Results The TEVAR group was older and had more incidences of dissecting aneurysm. The mean follow-up was 36±26 months (follow-up rate, 97.8%). The 30-day mortality in the TEVAR and open repair groups were 3.5% and 9.4% (p=0.11). Perioperative stroke and paraplegia incidences were similar between the groups [5.3% vs. 7.5% (p=0.56) and 7.5% vs. 3.5% (p=0.26), respectively]. Respiratory failure occurred more in the open repair group (1.8% vs. 26.4%, p<0.01). The incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis was higher in the open repair group (1.8% vs. 9.4%, p<0.01). The cumulative survival rate was higher in the TEVAR group at 2 to 5 years (79.6% vs. 58.3%, p=0.03). The free from re-intervention was lower in the TEVAR group (65.3% vs. 100%, p=0.02), and the free from aneurysm-related death in the TEVAR and open repair groups were 88.5% and 86.1% (p=0.45). Conclusion TEVAR is safe and effective for treating DTAAs with improved perioperative and long-term outcomes compared with open repair. PMID:26069110

  9. Microcephaly with agenesis of corticospinal tracts and arthrogryposis, hypospadias, single umbilical artery, hypertelorism, and renal and adrenal hypoplasia--previously undescribed syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coad, J E; Angel, C; Pierpont, M E; Gorlin, R J; Anderson, M L

    1997-09-01

    We describe a small, term, male infant with corticospinal tract aplasia secondary to motor cortex dysplasia from a neuronal proliferation and/or migrational defect. The infant also had microdolichocephaly, sloping forehead, hypertelorism, flat nose, apparently low-set ears, micrognathia, arthrogryposis without muscle wasting, cortical thumbs, rocker-bottom feet, scoliosis, single umbilical artery, and hypospadias with chordee. Oligohydramnios was present prenatally. Neurologic examination showed a comatose state, seizures, minimal spontaneous movement, minimal response to pain, and absent primitive reflexes. At autopsy, hypoplasia of kidneys and adrenal glands was found. There was no aqueductal stenosis or pulmonary hypoplasia. Chromosomes were apparently normal. These manifestations do not correspond to those of any recognized syndrome; therefore, this patient may represent a previously undefined syndrome. PMID:9286455

  10. Phacomatosis cesiomarmorata with hypospadias and phacomatosis cesioflammea with Sturge-Weber syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and aplasia of veins -- case reports with rare associations.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejinder; Sharma, Nidhi; Sethi, Anisha; Kooner, Shitij; Banger, Harmeet

    2015-01-01

    Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by the co-existence of an extensive vascular and a pigmentary nevus with or without extracutaneous manifestations. We report two such rare cases. The first is a 3-year-old boy exhibiting a rare association of cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita with aberrant dermal melanocytosis along with hypospadias and melanosis oculi (traditionally classified as PPV type Vb or phacomatosis cesiomarmorata - Happle's classification). The other patient is a 5-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, aplasia of iliac, femoral, and popliteal veins and congenital heart disease, associated with aberrant dermal melanocytosis and melanosis oculi (also classified as PPV type IIb or phacomatosis cesioflammea). These sporadic cases display a unique constellation of additional, previously unreported systemic associations, which will further expand the clinical spectrum of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis. PMID:26437284

  11. Unexpected and just missed: the separate influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, Evelien; Moors, Agnes; De Houwer, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that a goal-incongruent outcome leads to more intense negative emotions when it is unexpected and close to a goal-congruent outcome. Until now, however, no studies have disentangled the influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on emotions. We experimentally manipulated each of these variables in 3 slot machine experiments and measured emotions via differences in motivation (i.e., the tendency to repair the goal incongruence) and feelings (i.e., disappointment, frustration, and anger). The experiments consisted of a series of trials that each started with the sequential presentation of 3 symbols. In case of a win trial, all symbols were equal (e.g., AAA) and the participant gained 10 cents; in case of a loss trial, one or more of the symbols differed and the participant gained 0 cents. Three different loss trials were compared: unexpected proximal ones (e.g., AAB), expected proximal ones (e.g., ABA), and expected distal ones (e.g., ABC). The tendency to repair was measured online via behavior as well as retrospectively via self-reports; feelings were measured retrospectively (Experiments 1 and 2) or online (Experiment 3). Unexpected losses seemed to increase the tendency to repair as well as feelings of disappointment (in all experiments) and feelings of frustration and anger (in Experiments 1 and 3). Proximal losses increased only the tendency to repair (in all experiments). This suggests that the appraisals of expectancy and proximity have a distinct influence on emotions. PMID:24364851

  12. Driven shielding capacitive proximity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor); McConnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A capacitive proximity sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage as and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect the field lines away from a grounded robot arm towards an intruding object, thus dramatically increasing the sensor's range and sensitivity.

  13. Proximity Sensors Make Robot Dexterous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Cliff; Li, Larry C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Control system enables robot hand to grasp objects of varied shapes. Key features of system: reflective proximity sensors furnishing data on position, orientation, and distance of object and software protocol controlling sequence of operations in approaching and grasping objects. Reflected-beam sensing concept applied to simple opposed-jaw industrial grippers as well as to dexterous robot hands.

  14. Fiber-optic proximity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Hermann, W. A.; Primus, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Proximity sensor for mechanical hand of remote manipulator incorporates fiber optics to conduct signals between light source and light detector. Fiber optics are not prone to noise from electromagnetic interference and radio-frequency interference as are sensors using long electrical cables.

  15. Optoelectronic Proximity Sensor Finds Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1987-01-01

    Seams tracked for automatic control of welding. Optoelectronic system based on relatively simple array of optical proximity sensors locates edge of plate. Used to control automatic production machinery. System follows curved seams as well as straight ones, and neither special control programming nor precise initial positioning workpiece necessary for accurate tracking of seam.

  16. Alternating proximal regularized dictionary learning.

    PubMed

    Salzo, Saverio; Masecchia, Salvatore; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

    2014-12-01

    We present an algorithm for dictionary learning that is based on the alternating proximal algorithm studied by Attouch, Bolte, Redont, and Soubeyran (2010), coupled with a reliable and efficient dual algorithm for computation of the related proximity operators. This algorithm is suitable for a general dictionary learning model composed of a Bregman-type data fit term that accounts for the goodness of the representation and several convex penalization terms on the coefficients and atoms, explaining the prior knowledge at hand. As Attouch et al. recently proved, an alternating proximal scheme ensures better convergence properties than the simpler alternating minimization. We take care of the issue of inexactness in the computation of the involved proximity operators, giving a sound stopping criterion for the dual inner algorithm, which keeps under control the related errors, unavoidable for such a complex penalty terms, providing ultimately an overall effective procedure. Thanks to the generality of the proposed framework, we give an application in the context of genome-wide data understanding, revising the model proposed by Nowak, Hastie, Pollack, and Tibshirani (2011). The aim is to extract latent features (atoms) and perform segmentation on array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data. We improve several important aspects that increase the quality and interpretability of the results. We show the effectiveness of the proposed model with two experiments on synthetic data, which highlight the enhancements over the original model. PMID:25248086

  17. Outcome of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with spongioplasty alone as additional tissue cover: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Amilal; Sabharwal, Karamveer; Bhat, Mahakshit; Saran, Ramakishan; Singla, Manish; Kumar, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Additional cover after neourethra formation to decrease the fistula rate, has been described using the dartos, tunica, denuded skin and corpus spongiosum. The use of corpus spongiosum alone to cover the neourethra is infrequent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of spongioplasty alone as an intervening layer in the prevention of urethral fistula following tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU). Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed including 113 primary hypospadias cases undergoing TIPU with spongioplasty from June 2010 to March 2012. Correction of chordee was carried out by penile degloving alone in 5, mobilization of urethral plate with spongiosum in 22 and combination of both in 45 cases. Intra-operatively, spongiosum was taken to be poorly developed if it was thin and fibrous, moderate if good spongiosal tissue with good vascularization and well-developed if healthy robust spongiosum, which became bulkier than native spongiosum after tubularisation. Spongioplasty was done in a single layer after mobilization of spongiosum, starting just proximal to the native meatus and into the glans distally. Results: The mean age of the patients was 11.53 years. The type of hypospadias was distal, mid and proximal in 81, 12 and 20 cases respectively. Spongiosum was poorly developed in 13, moderate in 53 and well-developed in 47 cases. The mean hospital stay was 8-10 days and follow-up ranged from 6 months to 2 years. Urethral fistula was seen in six patients (11.3%) with moderate spongiosum (distal 1, mid 1 and proximal 4), and three (23.03%) with poorly developed spongiosum (one each in distal, mid and proximal) with an overall 7.96% fistula rate. None of the patients with well-developed spongiosum developed a fistula. Poorer spongiosum correlated with a greater number of complications (P = 0.011). Five out of thirteen cases with poor spongiosum (38.46%) had proximal hypospadias, i.e. more proximal was the hypospadias, poorer was the development of the spongiosum (P = 0.05). Meatal stenosis was seen in two patients (1.76%) with proximal hypospadias, one with moderate and the other with poorly developed spongiosum. More proximal was the hypospadias, greater were the number of complications (P = 0.0019). Conclusion: TIPU with spongioplasty reconstructs a near normal urethra with low complications. Better developed and thicker spongiosum results in lower incidence of fistula and meatal stenosis. More proximal hypospadias is associated with poorer spongiosum. We recommend spongioplasty to be incorporated as an essential step in all patients undergoing tubularized incised-plate repair for hypospadias. PMID:25378820

  18. Repairs of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and the host composite structure.

  19. [Traumatic injury of the proximal aortic arch after blunt chest trauma;report of a case].

    PubMed

    Kato, Masanori; Sugimura, Yukiharu

    2015-02-01

    We report a rare case of an proximal aortic arch injury caused by blunt chest trauma. A 48-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital because of traffic accident. Computed tomography (CT) showed a small ulcer-like projection (ULP) at the proximal part of the aortic arch. An elective surgery for aortic repair was performed because of significant enlargement of the ULP in the aortic arch revealed by follow-up CT. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged on the 14th postoperative day. PMID:25743354

  20. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  1. Mitral Valve Repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Thoracic Surgeon? Adult Cardiac Surgery What is Pediatric Heart Disease? What is Risk Adjustment? Valve Repair/Replacement Surgery Mitral Valve Replacement Aortic Valve Mitral Valve Repair Esophageal Surgery Lung/Thoracic Surgery Aneurysm Surgery Arrhythmia Surgery Other Types of Surgery Clinical ...

  2. Proximity effect with noncentrosymmetric superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziata, Gaetano; Manske, Dirk; Linder, Jacob

    2012-11-01

    We describe the superconducting proximity effect taking place in a contact between a noncentrosymmetric superconductor and a diffusive normal/ferromagnetic metal within the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity. By solving numerically the Usadel equation with boundary conditions valid for arbitrary interface transparency, we show that the analysis of the proximity-modified local density of states in the normal side can be used to obtain information about the exotic superconductivity of noncentrosymmetric materials. We point out the signatures of triplet pairing, the coexistence of triplet and singlet pairing, and particular orbital symmetries of the pair potential. Exploiting the directional dependence of the spin polarization pair breaking effect on the triplet correlations, we show how the order relation between triplet and singlet gaps can be discriminated and that an estimation of the specific gap ratio is possible in some cases.

  3. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  4. Proximate and polyphenolic characterization of cranberry pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proximate composition and identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds in dried cranberry pomace were determined. Proximate analysis was conducted based on AOAC methods for moisture, protein, fat, and ash. Total carbohydrates were determined by the difference method. Polyphenolic ...

  5. Micropower RF material proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is of the sensor. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt's configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna.

  6. Micropower RF material proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-11-10

    A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is disclosed. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt`s configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna. 5 figs.

  7. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  8. Active Targets For Capacitive Proximity Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power active targets devised for use with improved capacitive proximity sensors described in "Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range" (GSC-13377), and "Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields" (GSC-13475). Active targets are short-distance electrostatic beacons; they generate known alternating electro-static fields used for alignment and/or to measure distances.

  9. Stand-alone remotely interrogated device for the real-time health monitoring of bonded structural repairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Powlesland, Ian G.; Baker, Alan A.

    1997-11-01

    Adhesively-bonded fiber reinforced composite patches have been used extensively, over the last two decades, on Royal Australian Air Force aircraft to repair fatigue-cracked metallic aircraft components. The bonded repair to the cracked structure - crack patching - allows the restoration of strength and stiffness to the structure, as well as slowing crack growth by reducing stress intensity. However, especially for repairs to critical components the bonded repair needs continuous health monitoring to ensure structural integrity is not compromised. The ultimate goal for very demanding repair applications is to incorporate sensor, actuators and electronics in repair systems - smart repair systems - to monitor and report on the health of the repair and the repaired structure, as well as to actuate in order to prevent damage or failure of the repaired structure. The initial focus in the development of smart repair systems is on the assessment of new sensors and instrumentation which may be incorporate in bonded repair system in order to achieve on-line measurement of patch integrity and effectiveness. This application would allow the operator to move away from current costly time-based maintenance procedures toward real-time health condition monitoring of the bonded repair and the repaired structure. These systems would allow timely decisions on preventative and schedule maintenance before failure of the repair or repaired structure. To this end a 'stand-alone' data logger device, for the real-time health monitoring of bonded repaired system, which is in lose proximity to sensors on a repair is being developed. The instrumentation will measure, process and store sensor measurements during flight and then allow this data to be down loaded, after the flight, onto a PC, via remote data access.

  10. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  11. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  12. Responses of Proximal Tubular Cells to Injury in Congenital Renal Disease: Fight or Flight

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Robert L.; Forbes, Michael S.; Galarreta, Carolina I.; Thornhill, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The PCY mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knock out mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial “fight” response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a “flight” response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration. PMID:23949631

  13. A patient with a unique frameshift mutation in GPC3, causing Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, presenting with craniosynostosis, penoscrotal hypospadias, and a large prostatic utricle.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Diana D; Villarreal, Humberto; Paez, Ana Maria; Peppas, Dennis; Lynch, Jane; Roeder, Elizabeth; Powers, George C

    2013-12-01

    We present a Hispanic male with the clinical and molecular diagnosis of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS). The patient was born with multiple anomalies not entirely typical of SGBS patients, including penoscrotal hypospadias, a large prostatic utricle, and left coronal craniosynostosis. In addition, he demonstrated endocrine anomalies including a low random cortisol level suspicious for adrenal insufficiency and low testosterone level. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a prostatic utricle in SGBS and the second report of craniosynostosis. The unique disease-causing mutation likely arose de novo in the mother. It is a deletion-insertion that leads to a frameshift at the p.p. S359 [corrected] residue of GPC3 and a premature stop codon after five more amino acids. p. S359 [corrected] is the same residue that is normally cleaved by the Furin convertase, although the significance of this novel mutation with respect to the patient's multiple anomalies is unknown. We present this case as the perinatal course of a patient with unique features of SGBS and a confirmed molecular diagnosis. PMID:24115482

  14. Automated rendezvous and proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flecklin, Anton F., II

    1991-01-01

    IR&D efforts in recent years have focused on effective means of performing automated rendezvous and proximity operations. The primary focus for application has been to the Space Shuttle Orbiter and potential derivations, such as the Reusable Cargo Vehicle (RCV), studied in FY 1990. All candidate vehicle mission scenarios have included approach to docking or berthing with the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Results to date indicate that application of appropriate guidance algorithms can reduce docking contact or relative offset conditions, resulting in potential simplification of capture systems.

  15. The HTV Proximity Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) as an unmanned logistic support vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS). The HTV, which is launched by the H-IIA rocket, transports both pressurized and un-pressurized cargoes to the ISS, reloads disposal items from the ISS and performs destructive reentry over ocean area. NASDA plans the first flight of HTV in 2005 for demonstration. The HTV will contribute the ISS assembly and logistic re-supply operations with international commonality. For unmanned vehicle operation, communication link is critical with commanding and control, especially in proximity region to the ISS. As for the HTV operation, NASDA is developing dedicated communication system installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the ISS, which is called the Proximity Communication System (PROX). The HTV receives commands and transmits telemetry data through the PROX in its proximity operation to the ISS. To achieve this, the PROX can communicate with the HTV on its nominal trajectory within 23km of the ISS. Especially within 3km of the ISS, the PROX has capability to perform omni-directional communication to the HTV. The PROX also has GPS receiver and send GPS data to the HTV to support the HTV navigation for relative GPS navigation used in "far" range (500m away from the ISS). In addition to the above fundamental functions, the PROX has a capability of range and range-rate measurement between the ISS and the HTV by the pseudo noise (PN) code epoch and the Doppler shift frequency. This provides a reference data independent of "main" navigation methods (rendezvous sensor navigation or GPS navigation) of the HTV. The PROX also assists the ISS crew with its commanding device, called the Hardware Command Panel (HCP), to issue time-dependent safety-related critical commands for HTV berthing/un-berthing operation. When a failure occurs somewhere on "communication path" from the PROX Base Band Processor (BBP) to the HTV Guidance and Control Computer (GCC) including data handling and communication equipments, the PROX detects it by monitoring interruption of the "heartbeat" signal and conducts automatic redundancy switching of all the equipments on that "communication path" including those of the HTV. This paper describes the PROX functions such as communication, data handling and GPS navigation and some unique functions for the HTV proximity operation to the ISS.

  16. Proximal Biceps in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Peter N; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-01-01

    The proximal long head of the biceps tendon and its attachment at the superior glenoid tubercle and labrum are subject to a spectrum of disorders in overhead athletes. Biceps disorders are commonly characterized by intermittent anterior or deep-seated shoulder pain exacerbated by activity. Diagnosis is reached via various physical examination maneuvers; MRI can be uncertain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, targeted ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections, and supervised physical therapy are the mainstays of nonoperative treatment. Operative treatment, which remains controversial, provides reliable pain relief, restoration of function for activities of daily living, and low complication rates, but return to play can be unpredictable. PMID:26614475

  17. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... endovascular repair: You may have pain in your groin area. You may have some bruising around and ... the doctor put a catheter in through your groin (endovascular surgery), it is okay to walk short ...

  18. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    You had a fracture (break) in the femur, also called the thigh bone, in your leg. You may have needed surgery to repair ... surgeon will make a cut to open your fracture. Your surgeon will then use special metal devices ...

  19. Achilles tendon repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one ...

  20. Complex Abdominal Wall Repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bowel and underwent placement of Veritas in an inlay. And as we talked about during the case, ... repair either utilizing an underlay technique or an inlay technique. I would not recommend placing this in ...

  1. Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Version Find a SAGES Surgeon About ... 2015 CME Credits Healthy Sooner: Patient Information Contact SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 ...

  2. Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Login Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Version Find a SAGES Surgeon Approximately ... 2015 CME Credits Healthy Sooner: Patient Information Contact SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 ...

  3. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - congenital

    MedlinePLUS

    ... correct an opening or space in a baby's diaphragm. This opening is called a hernia. It is ... down into place through the opening in the diaphragm and into the abdominal cavity. The surgeon repairs ...

  4. Rotator Cuff Repair

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... REPAIR DOCTORS HOSPITAL CENTER FOR ORTHOPEDICS AND SPORTS MEDICINE CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA June 18, 2008 00:00: ... Gables, Florida. I'm Dr. John Zvijac, sports medicine and shoulder surgeon here at Doctors Hospital, and ...

  5. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  6. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. PMID:26638062

  7. Parastomal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Conor H; Borrazzo, Edward C; Hyman, Neil H

    2015-04-01

    Parastomal herniation is a common clinical occurrence. Historically, there has been a high recurrence rate after repair, and conservative management is usually recommended for patients with mild symptoms. When operative intervention is warranted, we opt for a laparoscopic mesh sublay over the fascial defect and lateralization of the stoma limb, or the Sugarbaker technique. In patients who are considered poor risk for laparoscopy/laparotomy requiring repair, we perform a fascial onlay with mesh utilizing an anterior circumstomal approach. PMID:25504464

  8. Fibrosis: ultimate and proximate causes

    PubMed Central

    Thannickal, Victor J.; Zhou, Yong; Gaggar, Amit; Duncan, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrotic disorders account for an increasing burden of disease-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although numerous risk factors have been recognized, the etiologies of many of these clinical syndromes have not been identified, and they are often termed idiopathic or cryptogenic. Here, we provide an evolutionary perspective on fibrosis aimed at elucidating its etiopathogenesis. By asking the ultimate question of “why” this process evolved in multicellular organisms, we hope to uncover proximate explanations for “how” it causes disease in humans. We posit that physiological fibrosis-like reactions evolved as an essential process in host defense against pathogens and in normal wound healing. Based on this premise, we reason that pathological fibrosis is related to one or more of the following: unidentified infectious or noninfectious antigens, autoimmunity, impaired regenerative responses, and the antagonistically pleiotropic action of genes involved in wound healing or development. The importance of genetic susceptibility, epigenetics, aging, and the modern-day environment are highlighted. Consideration of both ultimate and proximate causation goes beyond philosophical cogitations, as it will better inform pathobiological mechanisms of disease and aid in the prevention and treatment of fibrotic diseases. PMID:25365073

  9. Protein Neighbors and Proximity Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Johanna S.; Li, Xue-Wen; Perrett, Sarah; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Jackson, Antony P.

    2015-01-01

    Within cells, proteins can co-assemble into functionally integrated and spatially restricted multicomponent complexes. Often, the affinities between individual proteins are relatively weak, and proteins within such clusters may interact only indirectly with many of their other protein neighbors. This makes proteomic characterization difficult using methods such as immunoprecipitation or cross-linking. Recently, several groups have described the use of enzyme-catalyzed proximity labeling reagents that covalently tag the neighbors of a targeted protein with a small molecule such as fluorescein or biotin. The modified proteins can then be isolated by standard pulldown methods and identified by mass spectrometry. Here we will describe the techniques as well as their similarities and differences. We discuss their applications both to study protein assemblies and to provide a new way for characterizing organelle proteomes. We stress the importance of proteomic quantitation and independent target validation in such experiments. Furthermore, we suggest that there are biophysical and cell-biological principles that dictate the appropriateness of enzyme-catalyzed proximity labeling methods to address particular biological questions of interest. PMID:26355100

  10. Protein Neighbors and Proximity Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Rees, Johanna S; Li, Xue-Wen; Perrett, Sarah; Lilley, Kathryn S; Jackson, Antony P

    2015-11-01

    Within cells, proteins can co-assemble into functionally integrated and spatially restricted multicomponent complexes. Often, the affinities between individual proteins are relatively weak, and proteins within such clusters may interact only indirectly with many of their other protein neighbors. This makes proteomic characterization difficult using methods such as immunoprecipitation or cross-linking. Recently, several groups have described the use of enzyme-catalyzed proximity labeling reagents that covalently tag the neighbors of a targeted protein with a small molecule such as fluorescein or biotin. The modified proteins can then be isolated by standard pulldown methods and identified by mass spectrometry. Here we will describe the techniques as well as their similarities and differences. We discuss their applications both to study protein assemblies and to provide a new way for characterizing organelle proteomes. We stress the importance of proteomic quantitation and independent target validation in such experiments. Furthermore, we suggest that there are biophysical and cell-biological principles that dictate the appropriateness of enzyme-catalyzed proximity labeling methods to address particular biological questions of interest. PMID:26355100

  11. Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-01-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  12. Residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brender, Jean D; Maantay, Juliana A; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-12-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  13. Hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lauchlan; Dines, Joshua S; Lorich, Dean G; Dines, David M

    2013-03-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries that are increasing in incidence with the aging of the population. While nonoperative treatment of some fracture patterns results in clinical success, other, more displaced and comminuted fractures may require surgery to ensure a successful outcome. It is important to evaluate both patient and fracture characteristics in deciding upon the appropriate type of treatment. Every effort should be made to perform a humeral sparing procedure in younger patients. In the elderly, especially with more complex four-part fractures and fracture dislocations, hemiarthroplasty and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty are indicated to decrease complication rates and improve functional outcomes. In hemiarthroplasties, it is critical to achieve proper implant height and positioning of the tuberosities. For those patients or fractures in which the tuberosities are unlikely to heal or cannot be adequately reconstructed, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty should be considered. PMID:23355218

  14. Pitfalls of proximal tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kettelkamp, D B; Leach, R E; Nasca, R

    1975-01-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomy for degenerative genu varus and valgus has an excellent success rate with proper patient selection and technical proficiency. The following are some infrequently recognized pitfalls. Excessive bone loss prevents two plateau weight-bearing after osteotomy, introduces a "teeter effect," and is therefore a contraindication. Patellofemoral arthritis may produce symptoms, particularly on stair climbing and necessitate secondary surgery. Varus and planning indicates postoperative articular surface obliquity in excess of 10 to 15 degrees another type of reconstruction is indicated. Secure fixation, closing wedge osteotomy, and non-displacement of the d-stal fragment prevent loss of correction. Peroneal nerve palsy may be avoided by careful surgical technique and postoperative dressings. Cracking the apical cortex and visualization of the plateau fragment will usually prevent fracture. PMID:1126080

  15. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  16. Proximity and emergency department use

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Patrick; Courteau, Josiane; Vanasse, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if geographic proximity to an emergency department (ED) is related to ED use in a metropolitan population of patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Design Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Setting The census metropolitan area of Montreal, Que. Participants Cohort of 99 400 patients with diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia in 2007 without a history of cardiovascular disease. Each patient was spatially referred to 1 of 5857 dissemination areas (DAs). Main outcome measures Annual number of visits to an ED with respect to the distance between the centroid of a patient’s DA and the closest ED, controlling for age, sex, comorbidities, and neighbourhood immigration, social, and material characteristics. Multilevel logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to determine if the proximity to the closest ED was related to ED use, frequent ED use (? 4 visits in a year), and number of ED visits. Results A total of 25 889 (26.0%) patients in the cohort visited an ED at least once during a 1-year period, among which 4563 (4.6%) were frequent users with at least 4 visits. These frequent users were responsible for 28 249 (45.5%) of all 62 021 visits to EDs. The distance between a DA and its closest ED was significantly and negatively correlated with ED use (P < .001), even after controlling for confounding variables. Patients living in a DA close to an ED were also more likely to be frequent users, but the extent of use among them (range from 4 to 82 ED visits) was not related to the distance to the closest ED. Conclusion These results suggest that patients at risk of cardiovascular disease living in a metropolitan area are more likely to seek a medical encounter at the ED if they live closer to it. PMID:26505061

  17. LCD testing and repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Rodney L.; Pothoven, Floyd R.; Branst, Lee

    1994-04-01

    Active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) have come into increasing use in a variety of applications. As the size of the displays has gotten larger, their proper testing and repair has become critical. Quite simply, it is too costly to discard displays that fail to pass initial tests. Schemes have been devised that test AMLCDs as to whether they are operating or not, i.e., test that merely indicate whether the display will work, or not, once it is assembled. That is no longer enough. Manufacturers must know why a device is inoperable and whether it can be repaired. Since AMLCDs are basically large integrated circuits, a number of test and repair techniques have been borrowed from the semiconductor industry. This paper describes a method by which AMLCDs, especially large area devices, can be tested and repaired. This method primarily involves the incorporation of electrical probing to test individual lines and pixels. Once the defects have been located, lasers are used to effect the required repairs via material removal and deposition.

  18. Agreement among dentists’ restorative treatment planning thresholds for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Heaven, Tim J.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Litaker, Mark S.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Rindal, D. Brad; Firestone, Allen R.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement among individual National Dental Practice-Based Research Network dentists’ self-reported treatment decisions for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations. Methods Five hypothetical clinical scenarios were presented: primary occlusal caries; primary proximal caries; and whether three existing restorations should be repaired or replaced. We quantified the probability that dentists who recommended later restorative intervention for primary caries were the same ones who recommended that existing restorations be repaired instead of replaced. Results Dentists who recommended later restorative treatment of primary occlusal caries and proximal caries at a more-advanced stage were significantly more likely to recommend repair instead of replacement. Agreement among dentists on a threshold stage for the treatment of primary caries ranged from 40 to 68%, while that for repair or replacement of existing restorations was 36 to 43%. Conclusions Dentists who recommended repair rather than replacement of existing restorations were significantly more likely to recommend later treatment of primary caries. Conversely, dentists who recommended treatment of primary caries at an earlier stage were significantly more likely to recommend replacement of the entire restoration. Between-dentist agreement for primary caries treatment was better than between-dentist agreement for repair or replacement of existing restorations. Clinical implications These findings suggest consistency in how individual dentists approach the treatment of primary caries and existing restorations. However, substantial variation was found between dentists in their treatment decisions about the same teeth. PMID:23743181

  19. Base Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Krokan, Hans E.; Bjørås, Magnar

    2013-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA damage from oxidation, deamination and alkylation. Such base lesions cause little distortion to the DNA helix structure. BER is initiated by a DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes the damaged base, leaving an abasic site that is further processed by short-patch repair or long-patch repair that largely uses different proteins to complete BER. At least 11 distinct mammalian DNA glycosylases are known, each recognizing a few related lesions, frequently with some overlap in specificities. Impressively, the damaged bases are rapidly identified in a vast excess of normal bases, without a supply of energy. BER protects against cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration and takes place both in nuclei and mitochondria. More recently, an important role of uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 in adaptive immunity was revealed. Furthermore, other DNA glycosylases may have important roles in epigenetics, thus expanding the repertoire of BER proteins. PMID:23545420

  20. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, and produce modified schedules quickly. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  1. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping...SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form...

  4. Imperforate anus repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for passage of stool. Complete absence of an anal opening requires emergency surgery for the newborn. Surgical ... for several months before attempting the more complex anal repair. The anal repair involves an abdominal incision, ...

  5. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  6. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The three main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a surgery to repair the fracture-frequently, metal rods, screws or plates are used to repair the ...

  7. Practical Attacks on Proximity Identification Systems

    E-print Network

    Hancke, Gerhard

    Attacks on Proximity Identification Systems ­ p. #12;RFID Devices Applications Logistics Access control" Identification Power Clock Token RFID RFID Reader Data ISO 14443 A (and B) 13.56 MHz Reader Token Modified Practical Attacks on Proximity Identification Systems ­ p. #12;Passive Eavesdropping RFID 10 cm Legitimate

  8. Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

  9. Protein methylation and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Lake, Aimee N; Bedford, Mark T

    2007-05-01

    DNA is under constant attack from intracellular and external mutagens. Sites of DNA damage need to be pinpointed so that the DNA repair machinery can be mobilized to the proper location. The identification of damaged sites, recruitment of repair factors, and assembly of repair "factories" is orchestrated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs). These PTMs include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, and methylation. Here we discuss recent data surrounding the roles of arginine and lysine methylation in DNA repair processes. PMID:17306845

  10. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-01-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX™, Péronnas, France). PMID:25715859

  11. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  12. Proximal Priority Laser Therapy: PPLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    The author has, in the past, classified treatment methods for pain geometrically as point, line, two-dimensional, three-dimensional treatment and has used these over the years. However as a practitioner of western medicine, the author originally treated pain only directed at the painful site, and encountered cases where local treatment did not suffice. The author proved with SPECT and the Rand Phantom that treating the neck which is the midpoint of the brain, the center of the nervous system and the heart, the center of circulation, increased cerebral blood flow and also that laser emitted to neck will reach the spinal chord no matter from where on the neck the laser is emitted. From such research and 25 years of clinical experience, the author has created an anatomy based, systemic treatment method called the Proximal Priority Laser Therapy (PPLT) where not only the cerebral cortex, spinal chord and peripheral nerves are treated but also the tracts of blood vessels and lymph ducts are treated as well. Treatment method and cases are presented herein.

  13. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  14. Optical proximity sensors for manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    A breadboard optical proximity sensor intended for application to remotely operated manipulators has been constructed and evaluated in the laboratory. The sensing head was 20 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm in size, and could be made considerably smaller. Several such devices could be conveniently mounted on a manipulator hand, for example, to align the hand with an object. Type 1 and Type 2 optical configurations are discussed, Type 1 having a sharply defined sensitive volume, Type 2 an extended one. The sensitive volume can be placed at any distance between 1 cm and approximately 1 m by choice of a replaceable prism. The Type 1 lateral resolution was 0.5 mm on one axis and 5 mm perpendicular to it for a unit focused at 7.5 cm. The corresponding resolution in the axial direction was 2.4 cm, but improvement to 0.5 cm is possible. The effect of surface reflectivity is discussed and possible modes of application are suggested.

  15. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  16. Laboratory For Telerobotic Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Bejczy, Antal K.; Das, Hari; Zak, Haya

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory telerobotic system performs such complicated tasks as picking up tools, removing thermal blanket, and replacing screws. Human operator in control room operates remote robot with aid of video monitors, torque and force displays, and force feedback. System used to perform research and to develop telerobotic-repair capabilities equal to those of human operator.

  17. Automotive Body Repair Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Armond, Jack; And Others

    Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

  18. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  19. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  20. Histomorphometric changes in repaired mouse sciatic nerves are unaffected by the application of a scar-reducing agent

    PubMed Central

    Ngeow, Wei Cheong; Atkins, Simon; Morgan, Claire R; Metcalfe, Anthony D; Boissonade, Fiona M; Loescher, Alison R; Robinson, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Microsurgical repair of transected peripheral nerves is compromised by the formation of scar tissue and the development of a neuroma, thereby limiting the success of regeneration. The aim of this study was to quantify histomorphometrically the structural changes in neural tissue that result from repair, and determine the effect of mannose-6-phosphate (M6P), a scar-reducing agent previously shown to enhance regeneration. In anaesthetised C57-black-6 mice, the left sciatic nerve was sectioned and repaired using four epineurial sutures. Either 100 ?L of 600 mm M6P (five animals) or 100 ?L of phosphate-buffered saline (placebo controls, five animals) was injected into and around the nerve repair site. A further group acted as sham-operated controls. After recovery for 6 weeks, the nerve was harvested for analysis using light and electron microscopy. Analysis revealed that when compared with sham controls, myelinated axons had smaller diameters both proximal and distal to the repair. Myelinated axon counts, axonal density and size all decreased across the repair site. There were normal numbers and densities of non-myelinated axons both proximal and distal to the repair. However, there were more Remak bundles distal to the repair site, and fewer non-myelinated axons per Remak bundle. Application of M6P did not affect any of these parameters. PMID:21812777

  1. Histomorphometric changes in repaired mouse sciatic nerves are unaffected by the application of a scar-reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Ngeow, Wei Cheong; Atkins, Simon; Morgan, Claire R; Metcalfe, Anthony D; Boissonade, Fiona M; Loescher, Alison R; Robinson, Peter P

    2011-11-01

    Microsurgical repair of transected peripheral nerves is compromised by the formation of scar tissue and the development of a neuroma, thereby limiting the success of regeneration. The aim of this study was to quantify histomorphometrically the structural changes in neural tissue that result from repair, and determine the effect of mannose-6-phosphate (M6P), a scar-reducing agent previously shown to enhance regeneration. In anaesthetised C57-black-6 mice, the left sciatic nerve was sectioned and repaired using four epineurial sutures. Either 100 ?L of 600 mm M6P (five animals) or 100 ?L of phosphate-buffered saline (placebo controls, five animals) was injected into and around the nerve repair site. A further group acted as sham-operated controls. After recovery for 6 weeks, the nerve was harvested for analysis using light and electron microscopy. Analysis revealed that when compared with sham controls, myelinated axons had smaller diameters both proximal and distal to the repair. Myelinated axon counts, axonal density and size all decreased across the repair site. There were normal numbers and densities of non-myelinated axons both proximal and distal to the repair. However, there were more Remak bundles distal to the repair site, and fewer non-myelinated axons per Remak bundle. Application of M6P did not affect any of these parameters. PMID:21812777

  2. Release of the A4 pulley to facilitate zone II flexor tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo

    2014-11-01

    During primary or delayed primary repair of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon, surgeons often face difficulty in passing the retracted tendon or repaired tendon under the dense, fibrous A4 pulley. The A4 pulley is the narrowest part of the flexor sheath, proximal to the terminal tendon. Disrupted tendon ends (or surgically repaired tendons) are usually swelling, making passage of the tendons under this pulley difficult or even impossible. During tendon repair in the A4 pulley area, when the trauma is in the middle part of the middle phalanx and the A3 pulley is intact, the A4 pulley can be vented entirely to accommodate surgical repair and facilitate gliding of the repaired tendon after surgery. Venting the pulley does not disturb tendon function when the other major pulleys are intact and when the venting of the A4 pulley and adjacent sheath is limited to the middle half of the middle phalanx. Such venting is easily achieved through a palmar midline or lateral incision of the A4 pulley and its adjacent distal or/and proximal sheath, which helps ensure a more predictable recovery of digital flexion and extension. PMID:25282719

  3. Proximity sensing with wavelet generated video Steven E. Noel

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    wavelet video processing of proximity sensor signals. Proximity sensing is required for a wide range. In this paper we propose a novel wavelet video based method of processing proximity sensor signals. In proximity transform video from time varying proximity sensor signal, to provide neural network features. Temporary

  4. Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Henning; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The concept of using gene transfer strategies for cartilage repair originates from the idea of transferring genes encoding therapeutic factors into the repair tissue, resulting in a temporarily and spatially defined delivery of therapeutic molecules to sites of cartilage damage. This review focuses on the potential benefits of using gene therapy approaches for the repair of articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage, including articular cartilage defects resulting from acute trauma, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Possible applications for meniscal repair comprise meniscal lesions, meniscal sutures, and meniscal transplantation. Recent studies in both small and large animal models have demonstrated the applicability of gene-based approaches for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic pathways were stimulated in the repair tissue and in osteoarthritic cartilage using genes for polypeptide growth factors and transcription factors. Although encouraging data have been generated, a successful translation of gene therapy for cartilage repair will require an ongoing combined effort of orthopedic surgeons and of basic scientists. PMID:26069580

  5. Clinical use of a combined grasping and locking core suture technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2013-12-01

    Previous authors have used either a grasping or a locking technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II. A combined (grasping and locking) 10-strand repair was used by the author in 22 adults (n = 28 fingers) with lacerations of both flexor tendons in zone II. The combined repair is known to be strong (mean tensile strength of 164 N), and the technique was used in selected cases who were thought to be at higher risk of rupture either because of excessive digital oedema (in early tendon repairs) or because of tendon retraction (in late primary tendon repairs). The 10-strand repair was bulky and, hence, only the profundus tendon was repaired; and "venting" of the pulley system was done proximal to the repair site as recommended by other authors. Supervised early active mobilisation was done immediately after the operation. At final follow-up, the outcome was calculated using the original Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures and the final outcome was considered excellent in 19 patients (n = 25 fingers), good in two patients (n = 2 fingers), and fair in the remaining patient (n = 1 finger). It was concluded that the bulky 10-strand repair may be used for zone II finger flexor tendon lacerations as long as a profundus-(?) only repair and "venting" of the pulley system are performed. PMID:23829500

  6. Dual functional transparent film for proximity and pressure sensing

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Heidelberg 2014 KEYWORDS proximity sensor, pressure sensor, mutual capacitance, silver nanowire, transparent a transparent, matrix-structure dual functional capacitive sensor which integrates the capability of proximity], proximity sensors based on capacitance measurement are attractive considering their easy fabrication

  7. Prokaryotic Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation. PMID:23457260

  8. Opportunistic, collaborative and synchronized, proximal device ecology

    E-print Network

    Toledano, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    CoSync is an on-device software framework for coordinating proximal consumer electronic devices in order to create a synchronized, opportunistic and collaborative device ecology. The CoSync device ecology combines multiple ...

  9. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  10. Control of spacecraft in proximity orbits

    E-print Network

    Breger, Louis Scott, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Formation flying of spacecraft and autonomous rendezvous and docking of spacecraft are two missions in which satellites operate in close proximity and their relative trajectories are critically important. Both classes of ...

  11. Focal plane array optical proximity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An optical proximity sensor for optically detecting an object within a predetermined detection volume is described. More specifically, an optical proximity sensor is disclosed having an illuminator assembly including lens and a plurality of light-emitting diodes located at first predetermined positions along the focal plane of the illuminator lens. A detector assembly including a detector lens and a plurality of photodiodes located at second predetermined positions along the focal plane of the detector lens is also provided. The two lenses are spaced apart a predetermined distance in order to define a predetermined detection volume. Additionally, a combination of optical proximity sensors, according to the invention, is disclosed wherein the sensors can be used in conjunction with a vehicle to provide a safety system for warning an operator when an object is within a volume defined by the proximity sensor combination.

  12. Reactive Grasping Using Optical Proximity Sensors

    E-print Network

    Nangeroni, Paul

    We propose a system for improving grasping using fingertip optical proximity sensors that allows us to perform online grasp adjustments to an initial grasp point without requiring premature object contact or regrasping ...

  13. The Transverse Proximity Effect in Quasar Spectra

    E-print Network

    ;#12;ABSTRACT The intergalactic medium is kept highly photoionised by the intergalactic UV background radiation we search for a transverse proximity effect as a systematic underdensity in the intergalactic H I Ly

  14. Proximal tubular NHEs: sodium, protons and calcium?

    PubMed

    Alexander, R Todd; Dimke, Henrik; Cordat, Emmanuelle

    2013-08-01

    Na?/H? exchange activity in the apical membrane of the proximal tubule is fundamental to the reabsorption of Na? and water from the filtrate. The role of this exchange process in bicarbonate reclamation and, consequently, the maintenance of acid-base homeostasis has been appreciated for at least half a century and remains a pillar of renal tubular physiology. More recently, apical Na?/H? exchange, mediated by Na?/H? exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3), has been implicated in proximal tubular reabsorption of Ca²? and Ca²? homeostasis in general. Overexpression of NHE3 increased paracellular Ca²? flux in a proximal tubular cell model. Consistent with this observation, mice with genetic deletion of Nhe3 have a noticable renal Ca²? leak. These mice also display decreased intestinal Ca²? uptake and osteopenia. This review highlights the traditional roles of proximal tubular Na?/H? exchange and summarizes recent novel findings implicating the predominant isoform, NHE3, in Ca²? homeostasis. PMID:23761670

  15. Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, S S; Peterson, H A

    1979-10-01

    Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis are rare. A series of twenty-eight fractures classified according to the Salter-Harris method showed that nine were Type II and eight, Type IV. Lawn-mower injuries, a previously unreported mode of injury for this fracture, caused five of the eight Type-IV fractures and were associated with the worst prognosis by far. Two Type-V fractures in the proximal tibial epiphysis, previously unreported, are described. PMID:489664

  16. Molecular basis of proximal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takashi; Sekine, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) results from an impairment of bicarbonate (HCO3-) reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules, characterized by a decreased HCO3- threshold. pRTA commonly occurs as a manifestation of a generalized functional defect in proximal tubules. In contrast, pRTA can occur without other functional defects in proximal tubules (isolated pRTA). Most of the isolated pRTA in children are hereditary. Recent progress in molecular biological analyses is unraveling the molecular basis of hereditary pRTA. Mutations in the kidney type Na+/HCO3- cotransporter gene (SLC4A4) cause permanent isolated proximal RTA with ocular abnormalities. Mutations in carbonic anhydrase II gene lead to osteopetrosis, RTA (pRTA, distal RTA or combined proximal and distal RTA), cerebral calcification, and mental retardation. SLC9A3, encoding the Na+/H+ exchanger, is a candidate gene for pRTA without other manifestations. These results help further understand the molecular basis of hereditary pRTA and characterize the clinical and genetic manifestations of the disorder. PMID:12027212

  17. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  18. Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staas, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Experience from several recent spacecraft development programs, such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) has shown the need for factoring proximity operations considerations into the vehicle design process. Proximity operations, those orbital maneuvers and procedures which involve operation of two or more spacecraft at ranges of less than one nautical mile, are essential to the construction, servicing, and operation of complex spacecraft. Typical proximity operations considerations which drive spacecraft design may be broken into two broad categories; flight profile characteristics and concerns, and use of various spacecraft systems during proximity operations. Proximity operations flight profile concerns include the following: (1) relative approach/separation line; (2) relative orientation of the vehicles; (3) relative translational and rotational rates; (4) vehicle interaction, in the form of thruster plume impingement, mating or demating operations, or uncontrolled contact/collision; and (5) active vehicle piloting. Spacecraft systems used during proximity operations include the following: (1) sensors, such as radar, laser ranging devices, or optical ranging systems; (2) effector hardware, such as thrusters; (3) flight control software; and (4) mating hardware, needed for docking or berthing operations. A discussion of how these factors affect vehicle design follows, addressing both active and passive/cooperative vehicles.

  19. Repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transfemoral endovascular graft placement.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W S; Vescera, C L

    1994-01-01

    PURPOSE: The authors describe the initial clinical experience with a new device, approved by the FDA for investigation, for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transfemoral endovascular insertion of an aortic graft. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were screened, and ten were found to be suitable for endovascular grafting. Repair was done in the operating room using general anesthesia. One femoral artery was surgically exposed, and the device, containing a premeasured graft with proximal and distal self-expanding fixation devices, was inserted with fluoroscopic control through an open arteriotomy. FINDINGS: Eight of ten patients underwent successful graft placement, and two patients required conversion to an open repair. On follow-up, six of eight patients who underwent graft placement functioned normally, with documented aneurysm thrombosis. Two patients who underwent graft placement functioned normally, with contrast computed tomography evidence of incomplete aneurysm thrombosis, but without further expansion. CONCLUSION: Transfemoral repair is safe and appears to be effective. Phase II study currently is appropriate, with need for long-term follow-up. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8092899

  20. "V" aortoplasty of the proximal descending aorta in the elephant trunk procedure.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Adrian; Bily, Boris; Spak, Lubomir; Luczy, Jan; Artemiou, Panagiotis; Sabol, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Complex pathology of the aorta, especially in patients presenting an aneurysm involving the entire aortic arch and proximal descending aorta has been approached in one or two stages. Surgical management of those with an extremely wide diameter of the proximal descending aorta is not yet well defined. The patient in this case was an asymptomatic 47-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with aneurysm of the ascending aorta, whose aortic arch and descending aorta had presented only overall weakness (examination by inspection and palpation without histological verification). The imaging identified a giant aorta arising at the level of the sinotubular junction (STJ), ending up immediately below the diaphragm. In the first stage she underwent surgical replacement of the entire ascending aorta, aortic arch and proximal part of the descending aorta by combining the elephant trunk with a new type of aortoplasty. In the second stage an endovascular stent graft was inserted into the elephant trunk in the descending aorta. The patient continues to do well 20 months following the repair. In this manuscript type we describe a novel technique of "V" aortoplasty of the proximal descending aorta in order to facilitate the performing of anastomosis between the Dacron graft and aortic aneurysm. PMID:25637000

  1. Primary proximal tubule injury leads to epithelial cell cycle arrest, fibrosis, vascular rarefaction, and glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-01-01

    Tubular injury has a major etiological role in fibrosis. For many years, this relationship has been dominated by the perception that epithelial cells are transformed into myofibroblasts that proliferate and generate fibrotic matrix—the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Here we focus on mechanisms by which injury to the tubule results in fibrosis because of paracrine mechanisms. Specific injury to the proximal tubule results in inflammation, reversible injury, and adaptive repair if the insult is mild, self-limited in time, and occurs in a background of a normal kidney. Repeated injury, in contrast, leads to maladaptive repair with sustained tubule injury, chronic inflammation, proliferation of interstitial myofibroblasts, vascular rarefaction, interstitial fibrosis, and glomerular sclerosis. During the maladaptive repair process after the renal insult, many tubular cells become arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. This results in activation of the DNA repair response with the resultant synthesis and secretion of pro-fibrotic factors. Pharmacologic interventions that enhance the movement through G2/M or facilitate apoptosis of cells that otherwise would be blocked in G2/M may reduce the development of fibrosis after kidney injury and reduce the progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26310195

  2. Distinct gene expression profiles of proximal and distal colorectal cancer: implications for cytotoxic and targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Maus, M K H; Hanna, D L; Stephens, C L; Astrow, S H; Yang, D; Grimminger, P P; Loupakis, F; Hsiang, J H; Zeger, G; Wakatsuki, T; Barzi, A; Lenz, H-J

    2015-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with genetic profiles and clinical outcomes dependent on the anatomic location of the primary tumor. How location has an impact on the molecular makeup of a tumor and how prognostic and predictive biomarkers differ between proximal versus distal colon cancers is not well established. We investigated the associations between tumor location, KRAS and BRAF mutation status, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proteins involved in major signaling pathways, including tumor growth (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)), DNA repair (excision repair cross complement group 1 (ERCC1)) and fluoropyrimidine metabolism (thymidylate synthase (TS)). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 431 advanced CRC patients were analyzed. The presence of seven different KRAS base substitutions and the BRAF V600E mutation was determined. ERCC1, TS, EGFR and VEGFR2 mRNA expression levels were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR. BRAF mutations were significantly more common in the proximal colon (P<0.001), whereas KRAS mutations occurred at similar frequencies throughout the colorectum. Rectal cancers had significantly higher ERCC1 and VEGFR2 mRNA levels compared with distal and proximal colon tumors (P=0.001), and increased TS levels compared with distal colon cancers (P=0.02). Mutant KRAS status was associated with lower ERCC1, TS, EGFR and VEGFR2 gene expression in multivariate analysis. In a subgroup analysis, this association remained significant for all genes in the proximal colon and for VEGFR2 expression in rectal cancers. The mRNA expression patterns of predictive and prognostic biomarkers, as well as associations with KRAS and BRAF mutation status depend on primary tumor location. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings and determine the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25532759

  3. The Existence of Myocardial Repair

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Matthew; Frishman, William H.; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The lack of myocardial repair after myocardial infarction and the heart failure that eventually ensues was thought of as proof that myocardial cell regeneration and myocardial repair mechanisms do not exist. Recently, growing experimental and clinical evidence has proven this concept wrong. Cardiac stem cells and endogenous myocardial repair mechanisms do exist; however, they do not produce significant myocardial repair. Similarly, the preliminary results of stem cell therapy for myocardial repair have shown early promise but modest results. Preclinical studies are the key to understanding stem cell senescence and lack of cellular contact and vasculature in the infarcted region. Additional laboratory studies are sure to unlock the therapeutic mechanisms that will be required for significant myocardial repair. PMID:23568056

  4. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  5. DNA excision repair at telomeres.

    PubMed

    Jia, Pingping; Her, Chengtao; Chai, Weihang

    2015-12-01

    DNA damage is caused by either endogenous cellular metabolic processes such as hydrolysis, oxidation, alkylation, and DNA base mismatches, or exogenous sources including ultraviolet (UV) light, ionizing radiation, and chemical agents. Damaged DNA that is not properly repaired can lead to genomic instability, driving tumorigenesis. To protect genomic stability, mammalian cells have evolved highly conserved DNA repair mechanisms to remove and repair DNA lesions. Telomeres are composed of long tandem TTAGGG repeats located at the ends of chromosomes. Maintenance of functional telomeres is critical for preventing genome instability. The telomeric sequence possesses unique features that predispose telomeres to a variety of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxins. This review briefly describes the relevance of excision repair pathways in telomere maintenance, with the focus on base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR). By summarizing current knowledge on excision repair of telomere damage and outlining many unanswered questions, it is our hope to stimulate further interest in a better understanding of excision repair processes at telomeres and in how these processes contribute to telomere maintenance. PMID:26422132

  6. Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Composition of Bone during Microdamage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, loading activities result in microdamage in the living skeleton, which is repaired by bone remodeling. However, microdamage accumulation can affect the mechanical properties of bone and increase the risk of fracture. This study aimed to determine the effect of microdamage on the mechanical properties and composition of bone. Fourteen male goats aged 28 months were used in the present study. Cortical bone screws were placed in the tibiae to induce microdamage around the implant. The goats were euthanized, and 3 bone segments with the screws in each goat were removed at 0 days, 21 days, 4 months, and 8 months after implantation. The bone segments were used for observing microdamage and bone remodeling, as well as nanoindentation and bone composition, separately. Two regions were measured: the first region (R1), located 1.5 mm from the interface between the screw hole and bone; and the second region (R2), located>1.5 mm from the bone-screw interface. Both diffuse and linear microdamage decreased significantly with increasing time after surgery, with the diffuse microdamage disappearing after 8 months. Thus, screw implantation results in increased bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone, which repairs the microdamage. Moreover, bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, especially in the proximal bone tissue. Bone composition changed greatly during the production and repair of microdamage, especially for the C (Carbon) and Ca (Calcium) in the R1 region. In conclusion, the presence of mechanical microdamage accelerates bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone. The bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, with the micromechanical properties being restored on complete repair of the microdamage. Changes in bone composition may contribute to changes in bone mechanical properties. PMID:25313565

  7. MG53-mediated cell membrane repair protects against acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peihui; Tan, Tao; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Ken; Zhou, Xinyu; Gumpper, Kristyn; Zhu, Hua; Ludwig, Thomas; Mohler, Peter J.; Rovin, Brad; Abraham, William T.; Zeng, Chunyu; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Injury to the renal proximal tubular epithelium (PTE) represents the underlying consequence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after exposure to various stressors, including nephrotoxins and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Although the kidney has the ability to repair itself after mild injury, insufficient repair of PTE cells may trigger inflammatory and fibrotic responses, leading to chronic renal failure. We report that MG53, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, participates in repair of injured PTE cells and protects against the development of AKI. We show that MG53 translocates to acute injury sites on PTE cells and forms a repair patch. Ablation of MG53 leads to defective membrane repair. MG53-deficient mice develop pronounced tubulointerstitial injury and increased susceptibility to I/R-induced AKI compared to wild-type mice. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein can target injury sites on PTE cells to facilitate repair after I/R injury or nephrotoxin exposure. Moreover, in animal studies, intravenous delivery of rhMG53 ameliorates cisplatin-induced AKI without affecting the tumor suppressor efficacy of cisplatin. These findings identify MG53 as a vital component of reno-protection, and targeting MG53-mediated repair of PTE cells represents a potential approach to prevention and treatment of AKI. PMID:25787762

  8. Stimulating endogenous cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration, a combination of these approaches could ameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation of multiple cellular players. PMID:26484341

  9. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Rakesh P.; Katsargyris, Athanasios Verhoeven, Eric L. G.; Adam, Donald J.; Hardman, John A.

    2013-12-15

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

  10. Evolutionary Theory and the UltimateProximate Distinction in

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    ­proximate, cooperation, culture, epigenetics The difference between proximate and ultimate explanations of behaviorEvolutionary Theory and the Ultimate­Proximate Distinction in the Human Behavioral Sciences Thomas To properly understand behavior, we must obtain both ultimate and proximate explanations. Put briefly

  11. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship...

  14. Evaluation and Management of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Khmelnitskaya, Ekaterina; Lamont, Lauren E.; Taylor, Samuel A.; Lorich, Dean G.; Dines, David M.; Dines, Joshua S.

    2012-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries, especially among older osteoporotic women. Restoration of function requires a thorough understanding of the neurovascular, musculotendinous, and bony anatomy. This paper addresses the relevant anatomy and highlights various management options, including indication for arthroplasty. In the vast majority of cases, proximal humerus fractures may be treated nonoperatively. In the case of displaced fractures, when surgical intervention may be pursued, numerous constructs have been investigated. Of these, the proximal humerus locking plate is the most widely used. Arthroplasty is generally reserved for comminuted 4-part fractures, head-split fractures, or fractures with significant underlying arthritic changes. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reserved for patients with a deficient rotator cuff, or highly comminuted tuberosities. PMID:23316376

  15. Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

  16. Pipe inspection and repair system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

  17. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  18. Membrane Repair: Mechanisms and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sandra T; McNeil, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells have been confronted throughout their evolution with potentially lethal plasma membrane injuries, including those caused by osmotic stress, by infection from bacterial toxins and parasites, and by mechanical and ischemic stress. The wounded cell can survive if a rapid repair response is mounted that restores boundary integrity. Calcium has been identified as the key trigger to activate an effective membrane repair response that utilizes exocytosis and endocytosis to repair a membrane tear, or remove a membrane pore. We here review what is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of membrane repair, with particular emphasis on the relevance of repair as it relates to disease pathologies. Collective evidence reveals membrane repair employs primitive yet robust molecular machinery, such as vesicle fusion and contractile rings, processes evolutionarily honed for simplicity and success. Yet to be fully understood is whether core membrane repair machinery exists in all cells, or whether evolutionary adaptation has resulted in multiple compensatory repair pathways that specialize in different tissues and cells within our body. PMID:26336031

  19. Infrared-Proximity-Sensor Modules For Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parton, William; Wegerif, Daniel; Rosinski, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Collision-avoidance system for articulated robot manipulators uses infrared proximity sensors grouped together in array of sensor modules. Sensor modules, called "sensorCells," distributed processing board-level products for acquiring data from proximity-sensors strategically mounted on robot manipulators. Each sensorCell self-contained and consists of multiple sensing elements, discrete electronics, microcontroller and communications components. Modules connected to central control computer by redundant serial digital communication subsystem including both serial and a multi-drop bus. Detects objects made of various materials at distance of up to 50 cm. For some materials, such as thermal protection system tiles, detection range reduced to approximately 20 cm.

  20. Repairing leaks in casings

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, K.L.; Vinson, E.F.; Bour, D.L.; Ewert, D.P.; Ekstrand, B.B.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes a method for repairing a hole in a casing disposed in a wellbore. It comprises locating the hole in the casing; isolating the hole by defining a space within the casing in communication with the hole; introducing into the space a volume of a slurry of hydraulic cement in water; permitting the slurry to penetrate into the hole from the space; and maintaining the slurry in the hole for a time sufficient to enable the slurry to form a rigid plug of cement in the hole; wherein the slurry is comprised of a mixture of water and the hydraulic cement in the ratio of from about 0.5 to about 5.0 pounds of water per pound of cement.

  1. TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

  2. Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, B D

    1989-01-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

  3. EXTENDING GEOSPATIAL REPOSITORIES WITH GEOSEMANTIC PROXIMITY FUNCTIONALITIES

    E-print Network

    EXTENDING GEOSPATIAL REPOSITORIES WITH GEOSEMANTIC PROXIMITY FUNCTIONALITIES TO FACILITATE THE INTEROPERABILITY OF GEOSPATIAL DATA Jean Brodeur a, b , Yvan Bédard a a Centre for Research in Geomatics, Laval.Bedard@scg.ulaval.ca Commission IV, WG IV/1 KEY WORDS: Geospatial data interoperability, Geospatial repository, Geosemantic

  4. Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Improved capacitive proximity sensors constructed by incorporating one or more additional driven shield(s). Sensitivity and range of sensor altered by adjusting driving signal(s) applied to shield(s). Includes sensing electrode and driven isolating shield that correspond to sensing electrode and driven shield.

  5. Focal-Plane-Array Optical Proximity Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Objects detected at beam axis intersections. Group of light sources or detectors is mounted in box at focal plane of lens. Box can therefore illuminate or view several axes, each corresponding to source or detector of group. Proximity sensing system developed to trigger braking system of automatically controlled car.

  6. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  7. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter ? induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal- superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas ? turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  8. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter ? induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas ? turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  9. The Zone of Proximal "Teacher" Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warford, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Toward the end of his short life, Lev Vygotsky found himself teaching teachers in a remote part of the USSR. Though his influence as a developmental psychologist is well-established, little is known about his approach to teacher development. This article applies the researcher's core concept, the zone of proximal development to teacher education.…

  10. Inside-Out Meniscus Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Clay G.; Bonner, Kevin F.

    2013-01-01

    Meniscus repair over resection, when feasible, should be strongly considered in an effort to preserve meniscus integrity and function, especially in younger patients. Currently, a number of techniques and implants may be used to achieve a successful result. Although all-inside meniscus repair devices have evolved significantly since their introduction and have become the repair technique of choice for many surgeons, the classic inside-out repair technique is still very useful to have in one's armamentarium. Though less popular because of the ease of current-generation fixators, the inside-out technique can still offer advantages for those surgeons who are proficient. With the versatility to address most tear patterns, the ability to deliver sutures with smaller needle diameters, and proven long-term results, it has been considered the gold standard in meniscus repair. We review the inside-out repair technique for both a medial and lateral meniscus tear with some helpful tips when performing the technique, and we present a video demonstration of the lateral meniscus repair technique. PMID:24400199

  11. Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development

    SciTech Connect

    Kaskel, F.J.; Kumar, A.M.; Lockhart, E.A.; Evan, A.; Spitzer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of (/sup 3/H)inulin, (/sup 14/C)sucrose, and (/sup 14/C)creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of (/sup 14/C)mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated.

  12. Characteristics of He II Proximity Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Syphers, David; Meiksin, Avery; Kriss, Gerard A.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2015-06-01

    The proximity profile in the spectra of z? 3 quasars, where fluxes extend blueward of the He ii Ly? wavelength 304 (1+z) Å, is one of the most important spectral features in the study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Based on the Hubble Space Telescope spectra of 24 He ii quasars, we find that the majority of them display a proximity profile, corresponding to an ionization radius as large as 20 Mpc in the source's rest frame. In comparison with those in the H i spectra of the quasars at z ? 6, the He ii proximity effect is more prominent and is observed over a considerably longer period of reionization. The He ii proximity zone sizes decrease at higher redshifts, particularly at z\\gt 3.3. This trend is similar to that for H i, signaling an onset of He ii reionization at z? 4. For quasar SDSS1253+6817 (z = 3.48), the He ii absorption trough displays a gradual decline and serves as a good case for modeling the He ii reionization. To model such a broad profile requires a quasar radiation field whose energy distribution between 4 and 1 Rydberg is considerably harder than normally assumed. The UV continuum of this quasar is indeed exceptionally steep, and the He ii ionization level in the quasar vicinity is higher than the average level in the IGM. These results are evidence that a very hard EUV continuum from this quasar produces a large ionized zone around it. Distinct exceptions are the two brightest He ii quasars at z ? 2.8, for which no significant proximity profile is present, probably implying that they are very young.

  13. DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

  14. The cytoplasmic protein Pacsin 2 in kidney development and injury repair

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Gang; Luyten, Annouck; Takakura, Ayumi; Plomann, Markus; Zhou, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase C and casein kinase 2 substrate in neurons (Pacsin) is a subfamily of membrane-binding proteins that participates in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton organization. Here, we studied Pacsin 2 in kidney development and repair following injury. In the postnatal developing kidneys, Pacsin 2 was found to be expressed in both ureteric bud- and mesenchyme-derived structures including proximal and distal tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the glomerular tuft. In the adult kidney, its expression was decreased in proximal tubules but increased in glomerular tuft when compared to that in the developing kidneys. Interestingly, Pacsin 2 expression was significantly upregulated during the repair phase after ischemia–reperfusion injury, especially on the apical brush border of proximal tubules that experienced massive damage. Pacsin 2 localized to the primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Pacsin 2 by shRNA did not affect the cell cycle or cell polarity; however, it increased the length of primary cilia, and resulted in significant tubulogenic defects in three-dimensional cell culture. Thus, we propose that Pacsin 2 contributes to kidney development and repair in a nephron-specific manner. PMID:23235565

  15. 46 CFR 160.006-2 - Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repairing. 160.006-2 Section 160.006-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers: Repairing § 160.006-2 Repairing. (a) General. No repairs, except in emergency, shall be made...

  16. Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2010-01-01

    From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  18. Brachiocephalic Artery Cannulation in Proximal Aortic Surgery that Requires Circulatory Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Mehmet; Akar, Ilker; Ince, Ilker; Aslan, Cemal; Koc, Fatih; Kafali, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    The brachiocephalic artery is an alternative cannulation site in the repair of ascending aortic lesions that require circulatory arrest. We evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this technique. Proximal aortic surgery was performed in 32 patients from 2006 through 2012 via brachiocephalic artery cannulation and circulatory arrest. Twenty-four (75%) of the patients were men. The mean age was 48.69 ± 9.43 years (range, 30–68 yr). Twelve had type I dissection, 2 had type II dissection, and 18 had true aneurysms of the ascending aorta. All operations were performed through a median sternotomy. The arterial cannula was inserted through an 8-mm vascular graft anastomosed to the brachiocephalic artery in an end-to-side fashion. In dissections, the distal anastomosis was performed without clamping the aorta. The patients were cooled to 24 °C, and circulatory arrest was established. The brachiocephalic and left carotid arteries were clamped, and antegrade cerebral perfusion was started at a rate of 10 mL/kg/min. Cardiopulmonary bypass was resumed after completion of the distal anastomosis and the initiation of rewarming. The proximal anastomosis was then performed. None of the patients sustained a major neurologic deficit, but 5 patients experienced transient postoperative agitation (<24 hr). There were 2 early deaths (6.25%), on the 3rd and the 11th postoperative days, both unrelated to the cannulation technique. Brachiocephalic artery cannulation through a graft can be a safe and effective technique in proximal aortic surgical procedures that require circulatory arrest. PMID:25593522

  19. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ayad, K. E.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Bekheet, A. B.

    2009-09-27

    Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

  20. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  1. Cleft lip and palate repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Orofacial cleft; Craniofacial birth defect repair; Cheiloplasty; Cleft rhinoplasty; Palatoplasty; Tip rhinoplasty ... A cleft lip is a birth defect: A cleft lip may be just a small notch in the lip. It may also be a complete split in the ...

  2. Early Days of DNA Repair: Discovery of Nucleotide Excision Repair and Homology-Dependent Recombinational Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, W. Dean

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere. PMID:24348214

  3. Injection repair of composite delaminations

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrkam, P.A.; Alley, D.

    1995-12-31

    Composites are used extensively in Naval aircraft for increased strength and weight savings. These aircraft contain many composite access panels that require frequent removal for servicing equipment. Often during removal and replacement the edges of these panels are damaged from prying the panel off, impacting the edge of the panel, and excessive fastener torque. A proposed method for repairing these panels is to inject resin into the delaminations. The type of resin that can be used for repair must be ambient storable in the navy environment, have a low injection viscosity, and restore the structural integrity. Developmental efforts at the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Warminster, Pennsylvania supporting naval aircraft in the fleet led to the evaluation of four injection resins for delamination repair. The resins, including Dexter Hysol EA 9390, Dexter Hysol EA9396, Magnolia Plastics Magnobond 108-134, and Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) Delamination Repair Epoxy, were tested to determine compatibility with repair procedures, mechanical strength, and thermal stability in a 180 F wet environment. Results of the evaluation for the repair materials are presented.

  4. Goal-proximity decision-making.

    PubMed

    Veksler, Vladislav D; Gray, Wayne D; Schoelles, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed mechanism, Goal-Proximity Decision-making (GPD), is implemented within the ACT-R cognitive framework. GPD is found to be more efficient than RL in three maze-navigation simulations. GPD advantages over RL seem to grow as task difficulty is increased. An experiment is presented where participants are asked to make choices in the absence of prior reward. GPD captures human performance in this experiment better than RL. PMID:23551486

  5. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling.

    PubMed

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V

    2015-11-23

    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that ?-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. PMID:26585297

  6. Proximity Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy/Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2016-01-01

    Here a new microscopic method is proposed to image and characterize very thin samples like few-layer materials, organic molecules, and nanostructures with nanometer or sub-nanometer resolution using electron beams of energies lower than 20 eV. The microscopic technique achieves high resolution through the proximity (or near-field) effect, as in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), while it also allows detection of transmitted electrons for imaging and spectroscopy, as in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This proximity transmission electron microscopy (PSTEM) does not require any lens to focus the electron beam. It also allows detailed characterization of the interaction of low-energy electron with materials. PSTEM can operate in a way very similar to scanning tunneling microscopy, which provides high-resolution imaging of geometric and electronic structures of the sample surface. In addition, it allows imaging and characterization of the interior structures of the sample based on the detected...

  7. Spin-orbit proximity effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, A.; Tan, J. Y.; Taychatanapat, T.; Balakrishnan, J.; Koon, G. K. W.; Yeo, Y.; Lahiri, J.; Carvalho, A.; Rodin, A. S.; O'Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Özyilmaz, B.

    2014-09-01

    The development of spintronics devices relies on efficient generation of spin-polarized currents and their electric-field-controlled manipulation. While observation of exceptionally long spin relaxation lengths makes graphene an intriguing material for spintronics studies, electric field modulation of spin currents is almost impossible due to negligible intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of graphene. In this work, we create an artificial interface between monolayer graphene and few-layer semiconducting tungsten disulphide. In these devices, we observe that graphene acquires spin-orbit coupling up to 17?meV, three orders of magnitude higher than its intrinsic value, without modifying the structure of the graphene. The proximity spin-orbit coupling leads to the spin Hall effect even at room temperature, and opens the door to spin field effect transistors. We show that intrinsic defects in tungsten disulphide play an important role in this proximity effect and that graphene can act as a probe to detect defects in semiconducting surfaces.

  8. Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

  9. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  10. Dual-Fiberoptic Microcantilever Proximity Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Goedeke, S.M.

    2001-08-08

    Microcantilevers are key components of many Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Micro-Optical-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) because slight changes to them physically or chemically lead to changes in mechanical characteristics. An inexpensive dual-fiberoptic microcantilever proximity sensor and model to predict its performance are reported here. Motion of a magnetic-material-coated cantilever is the basis of a system under development for measuring magnetic fields. The dual fiber proximity sensor will be used to monitor the motion of the cantilever. The specific goal is to sense induction fields produced by a current carrying conductor. The proximity sensor consists of two fibers side by side with claddings in contact. The fiber core diameter, 50 microns, and cladding thickness, 10 microns, are as small as routinely available commercially with the exception of single mode fiber. Light is launched into one fiber from a light-emitting diode (LED). It emerges from that fiber and reflects from the cantilever into the adjacent receiving fiber connected to a detector. The sensing end is cast molded with a diameter of 3-mm over the last 20-mm, yielding a low profile sensor. This reflective triangulation approach is probably the oldest and simplest fiber proximity sensing approach, yet the novelty here is in demonstrating high sensitivity at low expense from a triangular microstructure with amorphous magnetic coatings of iron, cobalt, permalloy, etc. The signal intensity versus distance curve yields an approximate gaussian shape. For a typical configuration, the signal grows from 10% to 90% of maximum in traversing from 6 to 50 microns from a coated cantilever. With signal levels exceeding a volt, nanometer resolution should be readily achievable for periodic signals.

  11. Children's memory and proximity to violence.

    PubMed

    Pynoos, R S; Nader, K

    1989-03-01

    The study examined 133 school-age children's memory of a sniper attack at their elementary school. Researchers analyzed the role that spatial representation, memory markers, inner plans of action, and strategies of recall played in the memory process. In recalling the event, exposed children reduced their degree of life threat, while nonexposed children increased their proximity to the violence. Clinical and forensic implications are discussed. PMID:2925578

  12. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Casey; Sheele, Johnathan Michael

    2015-01-01

    Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED). We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up. PMID:26713164

  13. REACH : the local social favor exchange : a proximal messaging system

    E-print Network

    Kizelshteyn, Boris G. (Boris Grigory)

    2012-01-01

    We define proximal messaging as that category of information transaction that takes into account the physical, social and temporal proximity between the sender and recipient as it relates to the content of the message. We ...

  14. Proximity and Investment: Evidence from Plant-Level Data

    E-print Network

    Giroud, Xavier

    Proximity to plants makes it easier for headquarters to monitor and acquire information about plants. In this article, I estimate the effects of headquarters’ proximity to plants on plant-level investment and productivity. ...

  15. Trajectories in Close Proximity to Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft motion in close proximity to irregularly shaped, rotating bodies such as asteroids presents a unique dynamical environment as compared to most space missions. There are several fundamental novelties in this environment that spacecraft must deal with. These include the possibility of orbital instabilities that can act over very short time spans (on the order of hours for some systems), possible non-uniform rotation of the central gravity field, divergence of traditional gravity field representations when close to the asteroid surface, dominance of perturbing forces, an extremely large asteroid model parameter space that must be prepared for in the absence of reliable information, and the possibility of employing new and novel trajectory control techniques such as hovering and repeated landings on the asteroid surface. An overview of how these novelties impact the space of feasible close proximity operations and how different asteroid model properties will affect their implementation is given. In so doing, four fundamental types of close proximity operations will be defined. Listed in order of increasing technical difficulty these are: (1) close, stable orbits; (2) low-altitude flyovers; (3) landing trajectories; and (4) hovering trajectories. The feasibility and difficulty of implementing these operations will vary as a function of the asteroid shape, size, density, and rotation properties, and as a function of the spacecraft navigation capability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Proximity sensing with wavelet generated video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Steven E.; Szu, Harold H.

    1998-10-01

    In this paper we introduce wavelet video processing of proximity sensor signals. Proximity sensing is required for a wide range of military and commercial applications, including weapon fuzzing, robotics, and automotive collision avoidance. While our proposed method temporarily increases signal dimension, it eventually performs data compression through the extraction of salient signal features. This data compression in turn reduces the necessary complexity of the remaining computational processing. We demonstrate our method of wavelet video processing via the proximity sensing of nearby objects through their Doppler shift. In doing this we perform a continuous wavelet transform on the Doppler signal, after subjecting it to a time-varying window. We then extract signal features from the resulting wavelet video, which we use as input to pattern recognition neural networks. The networks are trained to estimate the time- varying Doppler shift from the extracted features. We test the estimation performance of the networks, using different degrees of nonlinearity in the frequency shift over time and different levels of noise. We give the analytical result that the signal-to-noise enhancement of our proposed method is at least as good as the square root of the number of video frames, although more work is needed to completely quantify this. Real-time wavelet-based video processing and compression technology recently developed under the DOD WAVENET program offers an exciting opportunity to more fully investigate our proposed method.

  17. Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults.

    PubMed

    Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

    2014-11-18

    The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes. PMID:25405098

  18. Links between soil modelling and proximal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitkenhead, Matt; McBratney, Alex; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-04-01

    Proximal sensing of soils can provide valuable information for soil modelling, by providing baseline data and validating model predictions through direct observation of soil characteristics. A wide range of soil parameters can be estimated using proximal sensing of soils (PSS), often simultaneously using single hand-held systems, of which there are many types. The benefits for soil modelling include direct observation of modelled parameters, rapid assessment in field conditions and digital data acquisition, making the transfer of information to soil models relatively straightforward. This is an active area of development, with research into improved methods of field-based capture of soil parameters directly relevant for soil modelling. A number of challenges exist, including the removal of or accounting for the effects of field conditions (e.g. soil moisture and structure), and the development of libraries of data that will allow calibration models to be produced. We present an overview of PSS as it relates to soil modelling, including equipment types, calibration approaches, cloud-based processing, soil parameters and processes estimated using PSS, and opportunities and challenges for the future. We also identify and discuss the possibilities for integration of modelling and proximal sensing within precision agriculture/precision land management.

  19. Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults

    PubMed Central

    Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

    2014-01-01

    The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes. PMID:25405098

  20. 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS

    E-print Network

    1 16.1 INVESTIGATING DERECHO AND SUPERCELL PROXIMITY SOUNDINGS Jeffry S. Evans* NOAA accumulated a number of proximity soundings associated with both derechos and discrete supercells. It can and analyzed 110 proximity soundings near 67 derechos. The period of study was from 1983-1993, and cases were

  1. Multiple Target Tracking With Binary Proximity Sensors 1 , 2

    E-print Network

    Suri, Subhash

    Multiple Target Tracking With Binary Proximity Sensors 1 , 2 Jaspreet Singh Samsung provided by a binary proximity sensor, a network of these sensors can provide remarkably good target We investigate the problem of tracking targets using a network of binary proximity sensors. Each

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF VISION SKIN: A PROXIMITY AND IMAGING SENSOR

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    DEVELOPMENT OF VISION SKIN: A PROXIMITY AND IMAGING SENSOR by Darren Edward Bergen B.A.Sc., Simon of Applied Science in Engineering Science Skin TITLE: A Proximity And Imaging Sensor Examining Committee of light seen by the sensor. With the mask the sensor needs no lenses for the imaging or proximity modes

  3. Inferring Mobile Trajectories using a Network of Binary Proximity Sensors

    E-print Network

    Gnawali, Omprakash

    Inferring Mobile Trajectories using a Network of Binary Proximity Sensors Eunjoon Cho, Kevin Wong movement. In our work, we show that we can use a network of binary proximity sensors to detect paths-world office building. I. INTRODUCTION A network of binary proximity sensors has been shown to successfully

  4. Target Tracking with Binary Proximity Sensors Nisheeth Shrivastava

    E-print Network

    Madhow, Upamanyu

    Target Tracking with Binary Proximity Sensors Nisheeth Shrivastava Bell-Labs Research, India performance limits of tracking a target in a two-dimensional field of binary proximity sensors, and design a network of binary proximity sensors: each sensor outputs a 1 when the target of interest is within its

  5. Tracking Multiple Targets Using Binary Proximity Sensors Jaspreet Singh

    E-print Network

    Scheuermann, Peter

    Tracking Multiple Targets Using Binary Proximity Sensors Jaspreet Singh Upamanyu Madhow Electrical targets using a network of binary proximity sensors. Each sensor produces a single bit of output, which@toyon.com ABSTRACT Recent work has shown that, despite the minimal informa- tion provided by a binary proximity

  6. Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations

    E-print Network

    Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations Brent Edward Tweddle, David W. Miller February 2010 SSL # 1-10 #12;#12;Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity of Technology. #12;2 #12;Computer Vision Based Navigation for Spacecraft Proximity Operations by Brent Edward

  7. Proximity and Interactive Learning in University-Firm Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Taran

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether proximity is always necessary for interactive learning, as proposed by recent European innovation theory. Recent research has provided a refined conceptualization of proximity, but there is little empirically-based knowledge about the actual role that proximity plays in relationships intended to foster…

  8. Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Alyx T.; McKinnon, Randall D.

    2013-01-01

    At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair. PMID:24961526

  9. Protein damage, repair and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Petropoulos, Isabelle; Grimm, Stefanie; Georgila, Konstantina; Catalgol, Betul; Friguet, Bertrand; Grune, Tilman; Gonos, Efstathios S

    2014-02-01

    Proteins are continuously affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Damaged proteins influence several intracellular pathways and result in different disorders and diseases. Aggregation of damaged proteins depends on the balance between their generation and their reversal or elimination by protein repair systems and degradation, respectively. With regard to protein repair, only few repair mechanisms have been evidenced including the reduction of methionine sulfoxide residues by the methionine sulfoxide reductases, the conversion of isoaspartyl residues to L-aspartate by L-isoaspartate methyl transferase and deglycation by phosphorylation of protein-bound fructosamine by fructosamine-3-kinase. Protein degradation is orchestrated by two major proteolytic systems, namely the lysosome and the proteasome. Alteration of the function for both systems has been involved in all aspects of cellular metabolic networks linked to either normal or pathological processes. Given the importance of protein repair and degradation, great effort has recently been made regarding the modulation of these systems in various physiological conditions such as aging, as well as in diseases. Genetic modulation has produced promising results in the area of protein repair enzymes but there are not yet any identified potent inhibitors, and, to our knowledge, only one activating compound has been reported so far. In contrast, different drugs as well as natural compounds that interfere with proteolysis have been identified and/or developed resulting in homeostatic maintenance and/or the delay of disease progression. PMID:23107776

  10. [A pediatric case of rupture of the brachial artery and radial nerve palsy secondary to proximal humeral exostosis].

    PubMed

    Parratte, S; Launay, F; Jouve, J-L; Malikov, S; Petit, P; Bollini, G

    2007-04-01

    Rupture of the brachial artery associated with radial nerve palsy in a context of exostosis of the proximal humerus has not been described to date in the literature. Our patient was a fourteen-year-old girl with a history of violent pain occurring suddenly with no prodrome or triggering factor. The pain was localized at the level of the proximal left humerus. Physical examination revealed the presence of a hematoma and complete motor radial nerve palsy. The diagnosis was not confirmed by computed tomography with contrast injection but was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging which eliminated malignant transformation of the exostosis. After checking the neurovascular bundles and evacuating the hematoma, treatment consisted in resection of the exostosis and arterial repair with an autologous venous graft. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges which present vascular complications due to exostosis. PMID:17401293

  11. Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest for Repair of the Brachiocephalic Artery and Aorta after a Gunshot Wound to the Chest

    PubMed Central

    Mutrie, Christopher J.; Eldaif, Shady M.; Rozycki, Grace D.; Chen, Edward P.; Morris, Cullen D.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of penetrating trauma to the brachiocephalic artery and aortic arch is not known, because most patients die of hemorrhage before they receive adequate treatment. Furthermore, when torrential hemorrhage from penetrating trauma is present, the anatomy of the thoracic vasculature can present a challenge for gaining adequate exposure, achieving vascular control, and performing proper repair. We describe the case of a patient with a gunshot wound to the anterior chest; he was placed under cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest while we performed a patch repair of the proximal brachiocephalic artery and aortic arch. PMID:19876438

  12. Proximal tubule function and response to acidosis.

    PubMed

    Curthoys, Norman P; Moe, Orson W

    2014-09-01

    The human kidneys produce approximately 160-170 L of ultrafiltrate per day. The proximal tubule contributes to fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient homeostasis by reabsorbing approximately 60%-70% of the water and NaCl, a greater proportion of the NaHCO3, and nearly all of the nutrients in the ultrafiltrate. The proximal tubule is also the site of active solute secretion, hormone production, and many of the metabolic functions of the kidney. This review discusses the transport of NaCl, NaHCO3, glucose, amino acids, and two clinically important anions, citrate and phosphate. NaCl and the accompanying water are reabsorbed in an isotonic fashion. The energy that drives this process is generated largely by the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which creates an inward negative membrane potential and Na(+)-gradient. Various Na(+)-dependent countertransporters and cotransporters use the energy of this gradient to promote the uptake of HCO3 (-) and various solutes, respectively. A Na(+)-dependent cotransporter mediates the movement of HCO3 (-) across the basolateral membrane, whereas various Na(+)-independent passive transporters accomplish the export of various other solutes. To illustrate its homeostatic feat, the proximal tubule alters its metabolism and transport properties in response to metabolic acidosis. The uptake and catabolism of glutamine and citrate are increased during acidosis, whereas the recovery of phosphate from the ultrafiltrate is decreased. The increased catabolism of glutamine results in increased ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Excretion of the resulting ammonium ions facilitates the excretion of acid, whereas the combined pathways accomplish the net production of HCO3 (-) ions that are added to the plasma to partially restore acid-base balance. PMID:23908456

  13. Recreation activity monitoring system using proximity sensors.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Tsumagari, Yuko; Hoshino, Hiroshi; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a recreational-activity monitoring system that records the existence of tools (removed or not from a predefined place) that are used in the recreation activities. The system is composed of three types (infrared, ultrasonic, and RFID) of proximity sensors to adapt to various sizes of the target object. The timings of when the target object was removed and returned are monitored. Simple experiments showed that the detectable range of the system was approximately 60 approximately 100 mm, and concluded that the infrared and ultrasonic sensors were useful for relatively large objects, and the RFID technology was suitable for small objects. PMID:19964355

  14. Open Subpectoral Tenodesis of the Proximal Biceps.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Cerciello, Simone; Yang, Justin; Beitzel, Knut; Cote, Mark P; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes both the various techniques for an open subpectoral biceps tenodesis as well as the biomechanics associated with these procedures. It provides information regarding the indications and contraindications to support the surgeon's decision. Furthermore, a postoperative protocol as well as an outcome overview is presented to address postoperative care. A short summary of the recent literature regarding potential complications is included to provide further insight on this technique. The open subpectoral tenodesis of the long head of the biceps is a safe and reproducible technique with a low complication rate for patients with pathologies of the proximal biceps. PMID:26614473

  15. Corrections beyond the proximity force approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, L. P.; Bordag, M.; Nikolaev, V.

    2011-12-01

    We recalculate the first analytic correction beyond proximity force approximation for a sphere in front of a plane for a scalar field and for the electromagnetic field. We use the method of Bordag and Nikolaev [J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-4470 41, 164002 (2008)10.1088/1751-8113/41/16/164002]. We confirm their result for Dirichlet boundary conditions whereas we find a different one for Robin, Neumann and conductor boundary conditions. The difference can be traced back to a sign error. As a result, the corrections depend on the Robin parameter. Agreement is found with a very recent method of derivative expansion.

  16. Complications of Proximal Biceps Tenotomy and Tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Virk, Mandeep S; Nicholson, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    The long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) is a well-recognized cause of anterior shoulder pain. Tenotomy or tenodesis of the LHBT is an effective surgical solution for relieving pain arising from the LHBT. Cosmetic deformity of the arm, cramping or soreness in the biceps muscle, and strength deficits in elbow flexion and supination are the three most common adverse events associated with tenotomy of the LHBT. Complications associated with tenodesis of the LHBT include loss of fixation resulting in cosmetic deformity, residual groove pain, pain or soreness in the biceps muscle, infection, stiffness, hematoma, neurologic injury, vascular injury, proximal humerus fracture, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy. PMID:26614476

  17. Giant cell tumour of the proximal radius.

    PubMed

    Singh, A P; Mahajan, S; Singh, A P

    2009-11-01

    A 52-year-old Indian woman presented with a progressively increasing swelling and pain in the right elbow for the past eight months, which was not associated with trauma or constitutional symptoms. The patient was diagnosed to have Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the proximal radius, and was treated with above elbow amputation. The patient has not shown any recurrence after five years of follow-up. The case was reported because of its rarity and the unusual site of occurrence of the tumour. PMID:19960152

  18. Casimir forces beyond the proximity approximation

    E-print Network

    Bimonte, G; Jaffe, R L; Kardar, M

    2011-01-01

    The proximity force approximation (PFA) relates the interaction between closely spaced, smoothly curved objects to the force between parallel plates. Precision experiments on Casimir forces necessitate, and spur research on, corrections to the PFA. We use a derivative expansion for gently curved surfaces to derive the leading curvature modifications to the PFA. Our methods apply to any homogeneous and isotropic materials; here we present results for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions and for perfect conductors. A Pad\\'e extrapolation constrained by a multipole expansion at large distance and our improved expansion at short distances, provides an accurate expression for the sphere-plate Casimir force at all separations.

  19. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  20. Proximal Biceps Tendon and Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Virk, Mandeep S; Cole, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) is frequently involved in rotator cuff tears and can cause anterior shoulder pain. Tendon hypertrophy, hourglass contracture, delamination, tears, and tendon instability in the bicipital groove are common macroscopic pathologic findings affecting the LHBT in the presence of rotator cuff tears. Failure to address LHBT disorders in the setting of rotator cuff tear can result in persistent shoulder pain and poor satisfaction after rotator cuff repair. Tenotomy or tenodesis of the LHBT are effective options for relieving pain arising from the LHBT in the setting of reparable and selected irreparable rotator cuff tears. PMID:26614474

  1. Sirtuins, Metabolism, and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jee-Eun; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Cells evolve to actively coordinate nutrient availability with cellular activity in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis. In addition, active pathways to repair DNA damage are crucial to avoid deleterious genomic instability. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that availability of intermediate metabolites may play an important role in DNA repair, suggesting that these two seemingly distant cellular activities may be highly coordinated. The sirtuin family of proteins now described as deacylases (they can also remove acyl groups other than acetyl moieties), it appears to have evolved to control both metabolism and DNA repair. In this review, we discuss recent advances that lay the foundation to understanding the role of sirtuins in these two biological processes, and the potential crosstalk to coordinate them. PMID:25005742

  2. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  3. A Knotless Labro-Bicipital Repair Technique for SLAP Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncu, Özgür; Eren, Ilker; Seyahi, Aksel; Uludag, Serkan; Demirhan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Fixation methods for SLAP lesions are still controversial, and the strength of the fixation, suture and knot irritation, and placement and number of anchors are still being discussed. This uncertainty is directly related to the function and anatomy of the superior labrum and attached biceps. Knotless fixation methods close to the biceps anchorage at the 12-o'clock position are favored in recent literature. We describe a practical SLAP repair technique, with a mattress configuration through the biceps anchorage, using a single knotless anchor. Fixing the biceps attachment instead of the labrum alone, in proximity to the biceps, without sutures or knots left in contact with the other intra-articular structures is the superiority of the described technique. PMID:26697310

  4. Superconducting Proximity Effect in Thin Semiconducting Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissers, Michael; Flexner, Soren; Welander, Paul; Inderhees, Kevin; McArdle, Tim; Eckstein, Jim

    2008-03-01

    We report results using a novel 3 terminal device structure that provides two independent resistance measurements that we use to examine the influence of the superconducting proximity effect on both the transport properties of the thin film N layer by quantifying its sheet resistance, Rs, as well as independently measuring the junction conductance across the N-S boundary, Gc. When the N layer is a degenerate semiconductor the changes in these quantities are large. Gc increases much more than the factor of 2 that Andreev Reflection or BTK theory predicts, and both Gc and Rs exhibit reentrance as temperature decreases. We interpret these effects as being due to a transition between a phase fluctuating and phase stiff proximity effect in the N layer. This manifests itself by moving the N-S electrical boundary into the semiconductor, increasing Gc, while simultaneously removing volume available to normal transport forcing the measured Rs to increase. This work was supported by the DOE BES at the F. Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois, Urbana.

  5. Spin-orbit proximity effect in graphene.

    PubMed

    Avsar, A; Tan, J Y; Taychatanapat, T; Balakrishnan, J; Koon, G K W; Yeo, Y; Lahiri, J; Carvalho, A; Rodin, A S; O'Farrell, E C T; Eda, G; Castro Neto, A H; Özyilmaz, B

    2014-01-01

    The development of spintronics devices relies on efficient generation of spin-polarized currents and their electric-field-controlled manipulation. While observation of exceptionally long spin relaxation lengths makes graphene an intriguing material for spintronics studies, electric field modulation of spin currents is almost impossible due to negligible intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of graphene. In this work, we create an artificial interface between monolayer graphene and few-layer semiconducting tungsten disulphide. In these devices, we observe that graphene acquires spin-orbit coupling up to 17?meV, three orders of magnitude higher than its intrinsic value, without modifying the structure of the graphene. The proximity spin-orbit coupling leads to the spin Hall effect even at room temperature, and opens the door to spin field effect transistors. We show that intrinsic defects in tungsten disulphide play an important role in this proximity effect and that graphene can act as a probe to detect defects in semiconducting surfaces. PMID:25255743

  6. Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk?=?0.34; 95% confidence interval?=?0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

  7. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  8. Carbon nanotube proximity influences rice DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katti, Dinesh R.; Sharma, Anurag; Pradhan, Shashindra Man; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2015-07-01

    The uptake of carbon nanotubes (CNT) influences the output of plants, potentially through interactions between the DNA and CNTs. However, little is known about the changes in the plant DNA due to CNT proximity. We report changes in rice plant DNA in the proximity of single walled CNT (SWCNT) using molecular dynamics simulations. The DNA experiences breaking and forming of hydrogen bonds due to unzipping of Watson-Crick (WC) nucleobase pairs and wrapping onto SWCNT. The number of hydrogen bonds between water and DNA nucleobases decreases due to the presence of SWCNT. A higher number of guanine-cytosine (Gua-Cyt) WC hydrogen bonds break as compared to adenine-thymine (Ade-Thy), which suggests that Gua and Cyt bases play a dominant role in DNA-SWCNT interactions. We also find that changes to non-WC nucleobase pairs and van der Waals attractive interactions between WC nucleobase pairs and SWCNT cause significant changes in the conformation of the DNA.

  9. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  10. Updated classification system for proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Mora Guix, José M; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-06-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  11. Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

    2012-05-01

    The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth. PMID:21490114

  12. An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics

    SciTech Connect

    Fosco, Cesar D.; Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche ; Lombardo, Fernando C.; IFIBA ; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

    2012-08-15

    A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

  13. Artificial Topological Superconductor by the Proximity Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin-Peng; Liu, Canhua; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Ge, Jianfeng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Yang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhu-An; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Topological superconductors (TSCs), featuring fully gapped bulk and gapless surface states as well as Majorana fermions, have potential applications in fault-tolerant topological quantum computing. Because TSCs are very rare in nature, an alternative way to study the TSC is to artificially introduce superconductivity into the surface states of a topological insulator through the proximity effect [X. L. Qi, T. L. Hughse, S. Raghu, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 187001 (2009); L. Fu and C. L. Kane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096407 (2008); J. Alicea, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 076501 (2012); C. W. J. Beenakker, Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 4, 113 (2013)]. Here we report the experimental realization of the proximity effect-induced TSC in Bi2Te3 thin films grown on a NbSe2 substrate, as demonstrated by the density of states probed using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed Abrikosov vortices and Andreev lower energy bound states on the surface of the topological insulator, with the superconducting coherence length depending on the film thickness and the magnetic field. These results also indicate that the topological surface states of Bi2Te3 thin films are superconducting and, thus, that the Bi2Te3/NbSe2 is an artificial TSC. The feasibility of fabricating a TSC with an individual Majorana fermion bound to a superconducting vortex for topological quantum computing is discussed.

  14. Reducing Your Leak Rate Without Repairing Leaks 

    E-print Network

    Beals, C.

    2005-01-01

    As plant personnel know, repairing compressed air leaks can be an expensive, labor intensive and never-ending process. This article discusses ways plant personnel can reduce and maintain their leak rate at a lower level without repairing leaks...

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

  16. Bilateral Proximal Tibial Sleeve Fractures in a Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Daniel; Kahane, Steven; Chou, Daud; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A sleeve fracture classically describes an avulsion of cartilage or periosteum with or without osseous fragments and usually occurs at the inferior margin of the patella. Tibial tubercle sleeve fractures in the skeletally immature are extremely rare. Case Presentation: In this report the authors describe a 12-year-old boy with no systemic disease and no steroid use who sustained bilateral proximal tibial sleeve fractures whilst playing football. Both ruptures were associated with rupture of the medial patellofemoral ligament and tear of the medial retinaculum. Treatment was performed with primary end-to-end repair, reinforcement with bone anchors and cerclage wires with an excellent outcome. Conclusions: We feel this rare, currently unclassified variant of a tibial tubercle avulsion fracture should be recognised and consideration taken to adding it to existing classification systems. PMID:26566509

  17. The Value of Accurate Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in the Setting of Multiligament Knee Injury: Imaging Features Predictive of Early Repair vs Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Goiney, Christoper C; Porrino, Jack; Twaddle, Bruce; Richardson, Michael L; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Chew, Felix S

    2016-01-01

    Multiligament knee injury (MLKI) represents a complex set of pathologies treated with a wide variety of surgical approaches. If early surgical intervention is performed, the disrupted posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be treated with primary repair or reconstruction. The purpose of our study was to retrospectively identify a critical length of the distal component of the torn PCL on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that may predict the ability to perform early proximal femoral repair of the ligament, as opposed to reconstruction. A total of 50 MLKIs were managed at Harborview Medical Center from May 1, 2013, through July 15, 2014, by an orthopedic surgeon. Following exclusions, there were 27 knees with complete disruption of the PCL that underwent either early reattachment to the femoral insertion or reconstruction and were evaluated using preoperative MRI. In a consensus fashion, 2 radiologists measured the proximal and distal fragments of each disrupted PCL using preoperative MRI in multiple planes, as needed. MRI findings were correlated with what was performed at surgery. Those knees with a distal fragment PCL length of ?41mm were capable of, and underwent, early proximal femoral repair. With repair, the distal stump was attached to the distal femur. Alternatively, those with a distal PCL length of ?32mm could not undergo repair because of insufficient length and as such, were reconstructed. If early surgical intervention for an MLKI involving disruption of the PCL is considered, attention should be given to the length of the distal PCL fragment on MRI to plan appropriately for proximal femoral reattachment vs reconstruction. If the distal PCL fragment measures ?41mm, surgical repair is achievable and can be considered as a surgical option. PMID:26183069

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  1. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  2. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  6. Bringing mask repair to the next level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Auth, N.; Spies, P.; Oster, J.; Schneider, H.; Budach, M.; Hofmann, T.; Waiblinger, M.

    2014-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. These challenges require sophisticated technologies to bring mask repair to the next level. For high end masks ion-beam based and e-based repair technologies are the obvious choice when it comes to the repair of small features. Both technologies have their pro and cons. The scope of this paper is to review and compare the performance of ion-beam based mask repair to e-beam based mask repair. We will analyze the limits of both technologies theoretically and experimentally and show mask repair related performance data. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair tools.

  7. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  8. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  9. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  10. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  11. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  13. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  14. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  15. Computer Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in a course to train students to repair computer equipment and perform related administrative and customer service tasks. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics (with selected subtopics in brackets): performing administrative functions (preparing service bills, maintaining accounts and labor…

  16. Verification of Motor Repair Quality 

    E-print Network

    Butler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Motor testing at Advanced Energy has shown that a motor that has not suffered irreparable damage as a result of failure can be repaired to perform as well as before the failure. But the only way to achieve the performance level of an energy...

  17. Small Engine Repair Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeClouet, Fred

    Small engines as referred to here are engines used on lawn mowers, chain saws, power plants, outboards, and cycles. It does not include engines used on automobiles. The course outlined is intended to show how small two-cycle and four-cycle gas engines are constructed, how they operate, what goes wrong, and how to service and repair them. It is…

  18. Tube joint leak repair coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, W. B.

    1968-01-01

    Tube joint leak repair coupling consists of 2 split seals, 1 male split nut, 1 female split nut, and two aligning pins. Each split nut consists of 2 half-shell sections which, when engaged, are held together by a dovetail joint and an aligning pin.

  19. Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are includes by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

  20. Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are included by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

  1. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

  2. PTH 1-34 (teriparatide) may not improve healing in proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    Background and purpose - There is solid evidence from animal experiments that parathyroid hormone (PTH) improves fracture healing. So far, only 3 papers on PTH and fracture repair in humans have been published. They suggest that PTH may enhance fracture healing, but the results do not appear to justify specific clinical recommendations. This study was carried out to determine whether teriparatide enhances fracture healing of proximal humerus fractures. Patients and methods - 40 post-menopausal women with a proximal humerus fracture were randomized to either daily injections with 20 µg teriparatide (PTH 1-34 (Forteo)) for 4 weeks or control treatment. At randomization, the patients were asked to assess how their pain at rest and during activity (visual analog scale (VAS)) and also function (DASH score) had been prior to the fracture. At 7 weeks and again at 3 months, their current state was assessed and the tests were repeated, including radiographs. 2 radiologists performed a blind qualitative scoring of the callus at 7 weeks. Callus formation was arbitrarily classified as "normal" or "better". Results - 39 patients completed the follow-up. The radiographic assessment showed a correct correlation, "better" in the teriparatide group and "normal" in the control group, in 21 of the 39 cases. There were no statistically significant differences in pain, in use of strong analgesics, or in function between the groups at the follow-up examinations. Interpretation - There were no radiographic signs of enhanced healing or improved clinical results in the group treated with teriparatide. PMID:26179771

  3. Isosmotic volume reabsorption in rat proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model incorporation both active and passive forces has been developed for fluid reabsorption from split oil droplets in rat intermediate and late proximal tubule. Of necessity, simplifying assumptions have been introduced; we have assumed that the epithelium can be treated as a single membrane and that the membrane "effective" HCO3 permeability is near zero. Based on this model with its underlying assumptions, the following conclusions are drawn. Regardless of the presence or absence of active NaCl transport, fluid reabsorption from the split oil droplet is isosmotic. The reabsorbate osmolarity can be affected by changes in tubular permeability parameters and applied forces but is not readily altered from an osmolarity essentially equal to that of plasma. In a split droplet, isosmotic flow need not be a special consequence of active Na transport, is not the result of a particular set of permeability properties, and is not merely a trivial consequence of a very high hydraulic conductivity; isosmotic flow can be obtained with hydraulic conductivity nearly an order of magnitude lower than that previously measured in the rat proximal convoluted tubule. Isosmotic reabsorption is, in part, the result of the interdependence of salt and water flows, their changing in parallel, and thus their ratio, the reabsorbate concentration being relatively invariant. Active NaCl transport can cause osmotic water flow by reducing the luminal fluid osmolarity. In the presence of passive forces the luminal fluid can be hypertonic to plasma, and active NaCl transport can still exert its osmotic effect on volume flow. There are two passive forces for volume flow: the Cl gradient and the difference in effective osmotic pressure; they have an approximately equivalent effect on volume flow. Experimentally, we have measured volume changes in a droplet made hyperosmotic by the addition of 50 mM NaCl; the experimental results are predicted reasonably well by our theoretical model. PMID:7441196

  4. Proximity of adjacent velocities and collision detection.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Carissa; Andersen, George

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the detection of an impending collision on a linear trajectory is specified by an object maintaining constant bearing (position in the visual field). Additionally, velocity information adjacent to an approaching object has been shown to alter the ability to determine bearing information. In the present study we examined the effect of proximity of adjacent velocity on collision detection judgments. Observers were presented with 3D scenes consisting of either a ground plane or with a ground plane with objects in the scene that extended vertically from the ground. These scene objects were presented on either both sides of the scene or on only one the side scene (the side opposing the approaching object). Two independent variables were manipulated: the presence of adjacent velocities (scene objects absent, scene objects present on both sides, and scene objects present on only one side), and display duration (1000ms and 5000ms). We found that sensitivity to detect a collision (d') decreased with display duration (F(1, 7)= 101.194, p< .001) and with the presence of scene objects (F(2, 7)= 5.744, p=0.015). Post-hoc analysis indicated scene objects on both sides compared to scene objects on only one side did not differ significantly from one another but scene objects absent differed significantly from scene objects present on both sides. These results demonstrate that the effect of adjacent velocities found in previous research was not due to the mere presence of objects within the scene and that proximity of adjacent velocities is the important factor. This provides further evidence suggesting opponent motion mechanisms in area MT average velocities across local regions in the visual field. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326698

  5. Chromatin Disassembly and Reassembly During DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Tyler, Jessica K.

    2008-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that the packaging of the eukaryotic genome together with histone proteins into chromatin is playing a fundamental role in DNA repair and the maintenance of genomic integrity. As is well established to be the case for transcription, the chromatin structure dynamically changes during DNA repair. Recent studies indicate that the complete removal of histones from DNA and their subsequent reassembly onto DNA accompanies DNA repair. This review will present evidence indicating that chromatin disassembly and reassembly occur during DNA repair and that these are critical processes for cell survival after DNA repair. Concomitantly, candidate proteins utilized for these processes will be highlighted. PMID:17303193

  6. Shuttle orbiter TPS flight repair kit development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of a TPS repair kit is presented. The repair kit is designed for on orbit use by a crew member working in the manned maneuvering unit (MMU). The kit includes the necessary equipment and materials to accomplish the repair tasks which include the following: HRSI emittance coating repair, damaged tile repair, missing tile repair, and multiple tile repair. Two types of repair materials required to do the small area repair and the large area repair are described. The materials area cure in place, silicone base ablator for small damaged areas and precured ablator tile for repair of larger damaged areas is examined. The cure in place ablator is also used as an adhesive to bond the precured tiles in place. An applicator for the cure in place ablator, designed to contain a two-part silicon compound, mix the two components at correct ratio, and dispense the materials at rates compatible with mission timelines established for the EVA is described.

  7. A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzzel, Doug; Garetto, Anthony; Magnusson, Krister; Tabbone, Gilles

    2013-09-01

    The ZEISS AIMS™ platform is well established as the industry standard for qualifying the printability of mask features based on the aerial image. Typically the critical dimension (CD) and intensity at a certain through-focus range are the parameters which are monitored in order to verify printability or to ensure a successful repair. This information is essential in determining if a feature will pass printability, but in the case that the feature does fail, other metrology is often required in order to isolate the reason why the failure occurred, e.g., quartz level deviates from nominal. Photronics-nanoFab, in collaboration with Carl Zeiss, demonstrate the ability to use AIMSTM to provide quantitative feedback on a given repair process; beyond simple pass/fail of the repair. This technique is used in lieu of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to determine if failing post-repair regions are "under-repaired" (too little material removed) or "over-repaired" (too much material removed). Using the ZEISS MeRiT E-beam repair tool as the test platform, the AIMSTM technique is used to characterize a series of opaque repairs with differing repair times for each. The AIMSTM technique provides a means to determine the etch depth based on through-focus response of the Bossung plot and further to predict the amount of MeRiT® recipe change required in order to bring out of spec repairs to a passing state.

  8. Methods of repairing a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  9. Scrunching During DNA Repair Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Larrea, Andres A.; Havener, Jody M.; Perera, Lalith; Krahn, Joseph M.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Ramsden, Dale A.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Family X polymerases like DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) are well suited for filling short gaps during DNA repair because they simultaneously bind both the 5? and 3? ends of short gaps. DNA binding and gap filling are well characterized for one nucleotide gaps, but the location of yet-to-be-copied template nucleotides in longer gaps is unknown. Here we present crystal structures revealing that when bound to a two-nucleotide gap, pol ? scrunches the template strand and binds the additional uncopied template base in an extrahelical position within a binding pocket comprised of three conserved amino acids. Replacing these amino acids with alanine results in less processive gap filling and less efficient NHEJ involving two nucleotide gaps. Thus, akin to scrunching by RNA polymerase during transcription initiation, scrunching occurs during gap filling DNA synthesis associated with DNA repair. PMID:19701199

  10. Which mesh for hernia repair?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, CN; Finch, JG

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The concept of using a mesh to repair hernias was introduced over 50 years ago. Mesh repair is now standard in most countries and widely accepted as superior to primary suture repair. As a result, there has been a rapid growth in the variety of meshes available and choosing the appropriate one can be difficult. This article outlines the general properties of meshes and factors to be considered when selecting one. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a search of the medical literature from 1950 to 1 May 2009, as indexed by Medline, using the PubMed search engine (). To capture all potentially relevant articles with the highest degree of sensitivity, the search terms were intentionally broad. We used the following terms: ‘mesh, pore size, strength, recurrence, complications, lightweight, properties’. We also hand-searched the bibliographies of relevant articles and product literature to identify additional pertinent reports. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The most important properties of meshes were found to be the type of filament, tensile strength and porosity. These determine the weight of the mesh and its biocompatibility. The tensile strength required is much less than originally presumed and light-weight meshes are thought to be superior due to their increased flexibility and reduction in discomfort. Large pores are also associated with a reduced risk of infection and shrinkage. For meshes placed in the peritoneal cavity, consideration should also be given to the risk of adhesion formation. A variety of composite meshes have been promoted to address this, but none appears superior to the others. Finally, biomaterials such as acellular dermis have a place for use in infected fields but have yet to prove their worth in routine hernia repair. PMID:20501011

  11. Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the brassboard and proto-type NGAVGS units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

  12. Animal models of cartilage repair

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. L.; Hung, C. T.; Kuroki, K.; Stoker, A. M.; Cook, C. R.; Pfeiffer, F. M.; Sherman, S. L.; Stannard, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage repair in terms of replacement, or regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage with functional tissue, is the ‘holy grail’ of joint surgery. A wide spectrum of strategies for cartilage repair currently exists and several of these techniques have been reported to be associated with successful clinical outcomes for appropriately selected indications. However, based on respective advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, no single strategy, or even combination of strategies, provides surgeons with viable options for attaining successful long-term outcomes in the majority of patients. As such, development of novel techniques and optimisation of current techniques need to be, and are, the focus of a great deal of research from the basic science level to clinical trials. Translational research that bridges scientific discoveries to clinical application involves the use of animal models in order to assess safety and efficacy for regulatory approval for human use. This review article provides an overview of animal models for cartilage repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;4:89–94. PMID:24695750

  13. XPD polymorphisms: effects on DNA repair proficiency.

    PubMed

    Lunn, R M; Helzlsouer, K J; Parshad, R; Umbach, D M; Harris, E L; Sanford, K K; Bell, D A

    2000-04-01

    XPD codes for a DNA helicase involved in transcription and nucleotide excision repair. Rare XPD mutations diminish nucleotide excision repair resulting in hypersensitivity to UV light and increased risk of skin cancer. Several polymorphisms in this gene have been identified but their impact on DNA repair is not known. We compared XPD genotypes at codons 312 and 751 with DNA repair proficiency in 31 women. XPD genotypes were measured by PCR-RFLP. DNA repair proficiency was assessed using a cytogenetic assay that detects X-ray induced chromatid aberrations (breaks and gaps). Chromatid aberrations were scored per 100 metaphase cells following incubation at 37 degrees C (1.5 h after irradiation) to allow for repair of DNA damage. Individuals with the Lys/Lys codon 751 XPD genotype had a higher number of chromatid aberrations (132/100 metaphase cells) than those having a 751Gln allele (34/100 metaphase cells). Individuals having greater than 60 chromatid breaks plus gaps were categorized as having sub-optimal repair. Possessing a Lys/Lys751 genotype increased the risk of sub-optimal DNA repair (odds ratio = 7.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-87.7). The Asp312Asn XPD polymorphism did not appear to affect DNA repair proficiency. These results suggest that the Lys751 (common) allele may alter the XPD protein product resulting in sub-optimal repair of X-ray-induced DNA damage. PMID:10753184

  14. Motivation Smoothing Projected gradient Proximal Gradient Non-Smooth Optimization

    E-print Network

    Marlin, Benjamin

    Motivation Smoothing Projected gradient Proximal Gradient Non-Smooth Optimization Jason Hartford (with slides from Mark Schmidt) October 2015 #12;Motivation Smoothing Projected gradient Proximal-dimensional problems Nesterov-style and Newton-like methods allow better performance. #12;Motivation Smoothing

  15. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Uncertainty-aware visualization and proximity

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    excavation: a geospatial augmented reality approach Xing Su1 , Sanat Talmaki2 , Hubo Cai3* and Vineet R Kamat an uncertainty-aware, geospatial augmented reality (AR) to visualize and monitor the proximity between invisible, and judge the proximity between them in real time. Geospatial augmented reality (AR) is an enabling

  16. PROXIMITY OF INFORMATION IN GAMES WITH INCOMPLETE INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Monderer, Dov

    PROXIMITY OF INFORMATION IN GAMES WITH INCOMPLETE INFORMATION by Dov Monderer * and Dov Samet of Management, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel #12;Abstract Existing notions of proximity of information fail to satisfy desired continuity properties of equilibria in games with incomplete information. We

  17. Tracking Multiple Targets Using Binary Proximity Sensors Jaspreet Singh

    E-print Network

    Madhow, Upamanyu

    Tracking Multiple Targets Using Binary Proximity Sensors Jaspreet Singh Upamanyu Madhow Electrical@toyon.com ABSTRACT Recent work has shown that, despite the minimal informa- tion provided by a binary proximity sensor, a network of such sensors can provide remarkably good target tracking performance. In this paper

  18. Control of Spacecraft in Proximity Orbits Louis Scott Breger

    E-print Network

    Control of Spacecraft in Proximity Orbits by Louis Scott Breger Bachelor of Science Aeronautics INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY June 2007 c Louis Scott Breger, MMVII. All rights reserved. The author hereby grants;Control of Spacecraft in Proximity Orbits by Louis Scott Breger Author

  19. Proximal Probes based Nanorobotic Drawing of Polymer Micro/Nanofibers

    E-print Network

    Sitti, Metin

    1 Proximal Probes based Nanorobotic Drawing of Polymer Micro/Nanofibers Amrinder S. Nain, Cristina the mechanical properties of the drawn micro/nanofibers could vary from the bulk polymer material significantly Terms-- Polymer micro/nanofibers, nanorobotics, proximal probes, nanomanipulation I. INTRODUCTION

  20. Analysis of pattern density on process proximity compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunwook; Lo, Fred; Yang, Tien-Chu; Yang, Ta-Hong; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2007-03-01

    The challenges of ever-smaller CD (Critical Dimension) budget for advanced memory product requires tight ACLV (Across-Chip Line-width Variation) control. In addition to the lithographic MOPC (Model-based Optical Proximity Correction) for DCD (photo CD) control, the process correction for etch proximity effect can no longer be ignored. To meet on our requirement on final CD accuracy for critical layer, a set of test pattern, that represents memory array in one of our critical layers, has been generated for both photo and etch process characterizations. Through the combination of different pattern-coverage areas in the test mask and wafer map design, various local (chip-level) pattern densities of 40%~70% and global (wafer-level) pattern densities of 35%~65% were achieved for optical and etch proximity study. The key contributors to the process proximity effect were identified and voluminous data has been extracted from the memory block like patterns for statistical analysis. The photo and etch proximity effects were hence modeled as function of memory block separation, local pattern density as well as global pattern density. Finally, the respective photo and etch proximity effects through model-based proximity correction and rule-based proximity correction were applied in a multi-step flow to products.

  1. Comparative studies for different proximity potentials applied to ? decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Qu, W. W.; Qian, J. Q.

    2015-09-01

    Half-lives of ? decay of even-even nuclei calculated by using fourteen different versions of proximity potentials are compared to experimental data. The results show that the results of the generalized proximity potential 1977 are very much in agreement with the experimental data. In comparison with the distributions of nuclear potentials at small distances and the distributions of total potentials above the released energy Q ? , it is found that at small distances the distributions of nuclear potentials have large difference and the distributions of total potentials are different among the listed proximity potentials. The different potential distributions affect the penetration probability of ?, which is related to the half-life of the ? decay for each nucleus. The generalized proximity potential 1977 is also used to calculate the half-lives of ? decay of nuclei with odd mass numbers. The results show that the generalized proximity potential 1977 can calculate the half-lives of the ? decay of almost all nuclei, which underlines and supports the use of the generalized proximity potential 1977 by Santhosh et al. in the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) and the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN).

  2. End-to-side nerve repair in the upper extremity of rat.

    PubMed

    Bontioti, Eleana; Kanje, Martin; Lundborg, Göran; Dahlin, Lars B

    2005-03-01

    The end-to-side nerve-repair technique, i.e., when the distal end of an injured nerve is attached end-to-side to an intact nerve trunk in an attempt to attract nerve fibers by collateral sprouting, has been used clinically. The technique has, however, been questioned. The aim of the present study was to investigate end-to-side repair in the upper extremity of rats with emphasis on functional recovery, source, type, and extent of regenerating fibers. End-to-side repair was used in the upper limb, and the radial or both median/ulnar nerves were attached end-to-side to the musculocutaneous nerve. Pawprints and tetanic muscle force were used to evaluate functional recovery during a 6-month recovery period, and double retrograde labeling was used to detect the source of the regenerated nerve fibers. The pawprints showed that, in end-to-side repair of either one or two recipient nerves, there was a recovery of toe spreading to 60-72% of the preoperative value (lowest value around 47%). Electrical stimulation of the end-to-side attached radial or median/ulnar nerves 6 months after repair resulted in contraction of muscles in the forearm innervated by these nerves (median tetanic muscle force up to 70% of the contralateral side). Retrograde labeling showed that both myelinated (morphometry) sensory and motor axons were recruited to the end-to-side attached nerve and that these axons emerged from the motor and sensory neuronal pool of the brachial plexus. Double retrograde labeling indicated that collateral sprouting was one mechanism by which regeneration occurred. We also found that two recipient nerves could be supported from a single donor nerve. Our results suggest that end-to-side repair may be one alternative to reconstruct a brachial plexus injury when no proximal nerve end is available. PMID:15703019

  3. Long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kompaniiets, M.; Porrati, F.; Huth, M.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Neetzel, C.; Brötz, J.; Ensinger, W.

    2014-02-03

    We report experimental evidence of a long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co nanowires in contact with a superconducting W-based floating electrode (inducer). For electrical resistance measurements, voltage leads were connected to the Co nanowire on both sides of the superconducting inducer at a distance of 7.2 ?m. We observed a 28% reduction of the nanowire resistance when sweeping the temperature below the inducer's transition temperature T{sub c} = 5.2 K. Our analysis of the resistance data shows that the superconducting proximity length in polycrystalline Co is as large as 1 ?m at 2.4 K, attesting to a long-range proximity effect. Moreover, this long-range proximity effect is insusceptible to magnetic fields up to 11 T, which is indicative of spin-triplet pairing. Our results provide evidence that magnetic inhomogeneity of the ferromagnet enlarges the spatial extend of the spin-triplet superconducting proximity effect.

  4. Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

  5. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2008-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  6. [Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus].

    PubMed

    Lill, H; Ellwein, A; Katthagen, C; Voigt, C

    2012-10-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus are typical osteoporotic fractures of the elderly with an increasing incidence. Computed tomography (CT) with 3D reconstruction plays a more and more decisive role in the diagnostics because of an improved understanding of fractures in 3D images. The resulting correct fracture classification has significance for the decision of the best therapy procedure. Currently an extended version of the Codman classification with its four and more fragments is used to give additive information about varus or valgus dislocation, impression or distraction. The comparison of conservative and operative treatment showed no predominance of one of the procedures, therefore both strategies are justified. An operative treatment is recommended in complex fractures. Thus, early functional mobilization, early self-dependence and return to the activities of daily living are possible. Intramedullary nailing is advised in 2-part fractures, in dislocated multipart fractures locking plating or a primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty with refixation of the tuberosities in patients over 75 years. However, the improved plate and nail systems with polyaxiality, calcar screws, modern plate and nails designs as well as the possibility of arthroscopy-assisted nail implantation or plate removal combined with arthroscopic arthrolysis are innovative. PMID:23051983

  7. Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staas, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Proximity operations can be defined as the maneuvering of two or more spacecraft within 1 nautical mile range, with relative velocity less than 10 feet per second. The passive vehicle is nontranslating and should provide for maintenance of the desired approach attitude. It must accommodate the active (translating) vehicle induced structural loads and performance characteristics (mating hardware tolerances), and support sensor compatibility (transponder, visual targets, etc.). The active vehicle must provide adequate sensor systems (relative state information, field-of-view, redundancy), flight control hardware (thruster sizing, minimal cross-coupling, performance margins, redundancy) and software (reconfigurable, attitude/rate modes, translation and rotation fine control authority) characteristic, and adequate non-propulsive consumables such as power. Operational concerns must be considered. These include the following: (1) the desired approach trajectory and relative orientation; (2) the active vehicle thruster plume effects (forces, torques, contamination) on the passive vehicle; and (3) procedures for contingencies such as loss of communications, sensor or propulsion failures, and target vehicle loss of control.

  8. Effects of thrust reversing in ground proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, P. B.; Hughes, R. V.

    1987-01-01

    The changes in stability and control characteristics encountered by a thrust reversing aircraft during its final approach, landing, and ground roll are described. These changes include a strong pitch-up accompanied by the loss of horizontal tail and aileron control effectiveness. The magnitude of reverser induced changes in ground effect are much larger than corresponding changes in free air. Some unexpected unsteady motions exhibited in wind tunnel by an aircraft model with reversers operating in ground proximity are also described. The cause of this oscillatory behavior was determined to be an unsteady interaction between the wall jets formed by impingement of reverser jets on the ground and the on-coming free stream. Time histories of rolling moments measured by the wind tunnel balance or support system were removed and frequencies were scaled by Strouhal number to full scale. Corrected time series were used to simulate the motion of a fighter aircraft with thrust reversers in ground effect. The simulation predicted large roll angles and nose down attitude at touchdown. Some phenomena of jet attachment to solid surfaces are discussed and areas for future research are recommended.

  9. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  10. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  11. Challenging management of a complex distal aortic arch pseudoaneurysm following previous aortic dissection repair.

    PubMed

    Moore, Krista; Kakani, Nirmal; Chu, Michael W A

    2012-07-01

    The primary goals of surgery for acute aortic dissection are to resect or control the intimal flap, prevent distal malperfusion, protect the brain and have a viable patient. However, several technical measures are important to prevent early and late sequalae, including adequate aortic resection, creating a stable anastamotic suture line, appropriate graft measurement and tailoring and completely resecting inciting aortic aneurysms. Utilizing simultaneous sternotomy and thoracotomy incisions, we report the re-operative management of a patient with an expanding distal aortic arch pseudoaneurysm, extending into the left pleural space, superimposed upon severely kinked proximal ascending aortic grafts and an aneurysmal aortic root only 6 months after initial repair. PMID:22508892

  12. Condylar fracture repair: use of the endoscope to advance traditional treatment philosophy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Reid V; Czerwinski, Marcin; Lee, Chen; Kellman, Robert M

    2006-02-01

    Traditional treatment of subcondylar fractures with maxillomandibular fixation often results in a malreduction and significant functional and aesthetic sequelae, including facial asymmetry, decreased jaw opening, and potential for late derangements of the temporomandibular joint. When used selectively, based on preoperative CT scans, the endoscopic technique will reliably restore condylar anatomy in nearly 95% of patients, thus obviating the consequences of malunion. Furthermore, unlike traditional open techniques no significant facial scarring or permanent facial nerve palsies have resulted. Thus, the authors strongly advocate endoscopic repair of adult condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that demonstrate displacement or dislocation and have adequate proximal bone stock to accept miniplate fixation. PMID:16466977

  13. Endovascular Stent-Graft Repair as a Late Secondary Procedure After Previous Aortic Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Matsagas, Miltiadis I. Anagnostopoulos, Constantine E.; Papakostas, John C.; DeRose, Joseph J.; Siminelakis, Stavros; Katsouras, Christos S.; Toumpoulis, Ioannis K.; Drossos, George E.; Michalis, Lampros K.

    2006-08-15

    Thoracic and abdominal aortic endovascular procedures as alternatives to aortic reoperations were studied in three different cases. An anastomotic aneurysm after previous thoracic aortic graft for coarctation, a second-stage elephant trunk repair (descending thoracic aortic aneurysm), and a secondary aneurysm proximal to a previous abdominal aortic graft were successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafts. During the follow-up period no lethal events or major aortic or graft-related complications were observed, except a type II endoleak in the anastomotic aortic aneurysm case. An endovascular stent-graft can be safely deployed into a previously implanted vascular graft, avoiding repeat surgery.

  14. Trapping and visualizing intermediate steps in the mismatch repair pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Justin S; Pillon, Monica C; Guarné, Alba; Simmons, Lyle A

    2013-11-01

    During mismatch repair, MutS is responsible for mismatch detection and the recruitment of MutL to the mismatch through a mechanism that is unknown in most organisms. Here, we identified a discrete site on MutS that is occupied by MutL in Bacillus subtilis. The MutL binding site is composed of two adjacent phenylalanine residues located laterally in an exposed loop of MutS. Disruption of this site renders MutS defective in binding MutL?in vitro and in vivo, while also eliminating mismatch repair. Analysis of MutS repair complexes in vivo shows that MutS mutants defective in interaction with MutL are 'trapped' in a repetitive loading response. Furthermore, these mutant MutS repair complexes persist on DNA away from the DNA polymerase, suggesting that MutS remains loaded on mismatch proximal DNA awaiting arrival of MutL. We also provide evidence that MutS and MutL interact independent of mismatch binding by MutS?in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that MutL can transiently probe MutS to determine if MutS is mismatch bound. Together, these data provide insights into the mechanism that MutS employs to recruit MutL, and the consequences that ensue when MutL recruitment is blocked. PMID:23998896

  15. [Repair of pulp defect of thumb by free palmaris brevis musculocutaneous flap].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Li, Z; Li, Q

    1997-09-01

    It is difficult to repair the pulp defect of finger with good function. Here reported two cases of pulp defect of the thumb which were repaired with free palmris brevis musculo-cutaneous flap. The flap was designed as the following: taken the line crossing the pisiform and metacarpo-phalangeal joint of the little finger as the longitudinal axis of the flap. The proximal end of the flap was at the level of pisiform and the distal end was the distal transverse palmar crease. The radial border was the radial side of the palmris brevis and ulnar border was the ulnar edge of the palm. The flap should not be larger than 6.5 cm x 2.5 cm. The flap was dissected with proper ulnar vessels and the accompanying arterial branch and superficial branch of the ulnar nerve. The flap was transferred to repair the pulp defect of the thumb. The vessels were anastomosed with the radial artery and cephalic vein at the snuffbox. The nerves were sutured to the digital nerve. Three months after operation, the defect was healed and the sensation of pulp was recovered. The donor area was painless and without sensation disturbance. The motion of the little finger was normal. The function of the thumb was restored. It was concluded that the palmaris brevis musculocutaneous flap is one of the best donor region to repair pulp defect of thumb. PMID:9867933

  16. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others, and other...insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others, and...

  17. Thermal protection system repair kit program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility and conceptual design aspects of repair materials and procedures for in orbit repair of the space shuttle orbiter TPS tiles are investigated. Material studies to investigate cure in place materials are described including catalyst and cure studies, ablation tests and evaluations, and support mixing and applicator design. The feasibility of the repair procedures, the storage of the TPS, dispensing, and cure problems are addressed.

  18. You Can Do It!: Repairing A Toilet. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    it closes the intake valve, shutting off the supply of fresh water when the tank is full. Toilet parts most often requiring repair are the flush valve, intake valve and float ball. Inexpensive replacements for these parts are readily available for most... ? YOU CAN DO IT! REPAIRING A TOILET Extension Housing and Home Furnishing Specialists The Texas A&M University System Water closets or toilets vary somewhat in design but are enough alike that the same general repair information applies to most...

  19. Alternative approaches for mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Unique situations arise in which alternative exposures for mitral valve surgery offer distinct advantages over traditional approaches. Each exposure facilitates both mitral valve repair and replacement, although the standard repair procedures must be modified to accommodate these non-traditional exposures. Here, we detail the technical considerations required to perform transventricular and transaortic mitral valve repair as well as discuss the advantages for employing these less conventional approaches. PMID:26539353

  20. Cellular repair/misrepair track model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1991-01-01

    A repair/misrepair cell kinetics model is superimposed onto the track structure model of Katz to provide for a repair mechanism. The model is tested on the repair-dependent data of Yang et al. and provides an adequate description of that data. The misrepair rate determines the maximum relative biological effectiveness (RBE), but similar results could arise from indirect X-ray lethality not include in the present model.

  1. 24 CFR 206.47 - Property standards; repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Property standards; repair work... Property standards; repair work. (a) Need for repairs. Properties must meet the applicable property... insured mortgage. (b) Assurance that repairs are made. The mortgage may be closed before the repair...

  2. 24 CFR 206.47 - Property standards; repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property standards; repair work... Property standards; repair work. (a) Need for repairs. Properties must meet the applicable property... insured mortgage. (b) Assurance that repairs are made. The mortgage may be closed before the repair...

  3. 24 CFR 206.47 - Property standards; repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Property standards; repair work... Property standards; repair work. (a) Need for repairs. Properties must meet the applicable property... insured mortgage. (b) Assurance that repairs are made. The mortgage may be closed before the repair...

  4. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  5. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  6. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  7. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  8. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  9. Selection of proximal fusion level for degenerative scoliosis and the entailing proximal-related late complications

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Wang, Kaifeng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huimin; Jin, Zhaohui; Zhu, Zhenqi; Liu, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the optimal selection of proximal fusion level for degenerative scoliosis (DS) and investigate the long-term proximal-related complications. Methods: Profiles of 95 consecutive patients with DS who underwent posterior long instrumented fusion were analyzed retrospectively. Perioperative parameters were reviewed stratified into 3 groups according to the relationship between the upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV), horizontal vertebrae (HV) and upper end vertebrae (UEV), namely HV Group (UIV = HV or above), HV-UEV Group (UIV = between HV and UEV) and UEV Group (UIV = UEV or below) in coronal plane and 3 groups in sagittal plane according to segment levels. Clinical and radiographic parameters were studied statistically. Results: Average follow-up was 7.8 years (range, 5-13 years). HV Group showed a significant increase in operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative in-bed time, and hospital stays. UEV Group showed greater average Cobb angle, AVT and DW. UEV Group showed significant increase in operative time, blood loss, postoperative in-bed time, and inpatient stay. All three groups showed significant improvement in ODI compared to baseline, while there was no significant difference in LL between three groups. Proximal-related late complications included recurrent junctional scoliosis in 4 cases and junctional kyphosis in 4 cases. Conclusions: Recurrent junctional scoliosis developed more commonly when the fusion was at or below the UEV, and fusion at L1 or L2 showed the highest incidence of junctional kyphosis. Long instrumented fusion to T11 or T12 appeared to be a reasonable alternative when the UIV was above UEV in DS. PMID:26131158

  10. Scheduling and rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the GERRY scheduling and rescheduling system being applied to coordinate Space Shuttle Ground Processing. The system uses constraint-based iterative repair, a technique that starts with a complete but possibly flawed schedule and iteratively improves it by using constraint knowledge within repair heuristics. In this paper we explore the tradeoff between the informedness and the computational cost of several repair heuristics. We show empirically that some knowledge can greatly improve the convergence speed of a repair-based system, but that too much knowledge, such as the knowledge embodied within the MIN-CONFLICTS lookahead heuristic, can overwhelm a system and result in degraded performance.

  11. Preferential DNA repair in expressed genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanawalt, P.C.

    1987-12-01

    Potentially deleterious alterations to DNA occur nonrandomly within the mammalian genome. These alterations include the adducts produced by many chemical carcinogens, but not the UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, which may be an exception. Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers and certain other lesions is nonrandom in the mammalian genome, exhibiting a distinct preference for actively transcribed DNA sequences. An important consequence of this fact is that mutagenesis and carcinogenesis may be determined in part by the activities of the relevant genes. Repair may also be processive, and a model is proposed in which excision repair is coupled to transcription at the nuclear matrix. Similar but freely diffusing repair complexes may account for the lower overall repair efficiencies in the silent domains of the genome. Risk assessment in relations to chemical carcinogenesis requires assays that determine effective levels of DNA damage for producing malignancy. The existence of nonrandom repair in the genome casts into doubt the reliability of overall indicators of DNA binding and lesion repair for such determinations. Furthermore, some apparent differences between the intragenomic repair heterogeneity in rodent cells and that in human cells mandate a reevaluation of rodent test systems for human risk assessment. Tissue-specific and cell-specific differences in the coordinate regulation of gene expression and DNA repair may account for corresponding differences in the carcinogenic response.

  12. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  13. Current Trends in Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Patapis, Paul; Zavras, Nick; Tzanetis, Panagiotis; Machairas, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical technique, postoperative complications, and possible recurrence after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) in comparison with open ventral hernia repair (OVHR), based on the international literature. Database: A Medline search of the current English literature was performed using the terms laparoscopic ventral hernia repair and incisional hernia repair. Conclusions: LVHR is a safe alternative to the open method, with the main advantages being minimal postoperative pain, shorter recovery, and decreased wound and mesh infections. Incidental enterotomy can be avoided by using a meticulous technique and sharp dissection to avoid thermal injury. PMID:26273186

  14. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, Shelley A

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  15. Transport Magnetic Proximity Effects in Platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ssu-Yen

    2013-03-01

    Platinum (Pt) metal, being non-magnetic and having a strong spin-orbit coupling interaction, has been central in detecting pure spin current and establishing most of the recent spin-based phenomena. Thus, it is important to ascertain the transport and magnetic characteristics of thin Pt films in contact with a ferromagnet. In this work, we use both electric and thermal means to conclusively show the transport magnetic proximity effects (MPE) of thin Pt film in contact with ferromagnetic insulator YIG. At thicknesses comparable to, and less than, the spin diffusion length, the strong ferromagnetic characteristics in Pt films on YIG are indistinguishable from those of ferromagnetic permalloy on YIG. The MPE occurs at the interface and decreases exponentially away from the interface, concentrating in only a few monolayers. As a result, the pure spin current detected by a thin Pt is tainted with a spin polarized current. The pure spin current phenomena, such as the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Seebeck effect, have been contaminated with the anomalous Hall effect and the anomalous Nernst effect respectively. These results raise serious questions about the suitability, and the validity, of using Pt in establishing pure spin current phenomena; on the other hand, a much stronger spin-based effect can be induced by the MPE at the interface. This research is in collaboration with X. Fin, Y. P. Chen, J. Wu, and J. Q. Xiao (University of Delaware), T. Y. Chen (Arizona State University) and D. Qu, W. G. Wang, and C. L. Chien (The Johns Hopkins University).

  16. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others, and other (accounts XX-22-01,...

  17. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  18. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  19. 46 CFR 272.24 - Subsidy repair summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SUBSIDY...and belief, and based on recorded entries...statement of repair and maintenance expenditures for...the repair and maintenance items...

  20. 46 CFR 272.24 - Subsidy repair summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SUBSIDY...and belief, and based on recorded entries...statement of repair and maintenance expenditures for...the repair and maintenance items...

  1. 46 CFR 272.24 - Subsidy repair summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SUBSIDY...and belief, and based on recorded entries...statement of repair and maintenance expenditures for...the repair and maintenance items...

  2. 46 CFR 272.24 - Subsidy repair summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SUBSIDY...and belief, and based on recorded entries...statement of repair and maintenance expenditures for...the repair and maintenance items...

  3. 46 CFR 272.24 - Subsidy repair summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SUBSIDY...and belief, and based on recorded entries...statement of repair and maintenance expenditures for...the repair and maintenance items...

  4. Role of DNA repair protein ERCC1 in skin cancer 

    E-print Network

    Song, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the major repair systems for removal of DNA lesions. The NER pathway has evolved mainly to repair UV-induced DNA damage and is also active against a broad range of endogenously ...

  5. 5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE MOTOR REPAIR SHOP, BUILDING 104, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Motor Repair & Auto Hobby Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  6. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  7. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  8. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  9. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  10. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  11. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192...and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage...would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or...

  12. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published...Proximity Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

  13. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

  14. In vivo genetic selection of renal proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Held, Patrice K; Al-Dhalimy, Muhsen; Willenbring, Holger; Akkari, Yassmine; Jiang, Shuguang; Torimaru, Yumi; Olson, Susan; Fleming, William H; Finegold, Milton; Grompe, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Repopulation by transplanted cells can result in effective therapy for several regenerative organs including blood, liver, and skin. In contrast, cell therapies for renal diseases are not currently available. Here we developed an animal model in which cells genetically resistant to a toxic intermediate of tyrosine metabolism, homogentisic acid (HGA), were able to repopulate the damaged proximal tubule epithelium of mice with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) deficiency. HGA resistance was achieved by two independent mechanisms. First, Fah+ transplanted bone marrow cells produced significant replacement of damaged proximal tubular epithelium (up to 50%). The majority of bone marrow-derived epithelial cells were generated by cell fusion, not transdifferentiation. In addition to regeneration by fusion-derived epithelial cells, proximal tubular repopulation was also observed by host epithelial cells, which had lost the homogentisic acid dioxygenase gene. These data demonstrate that extensive regeneration of the renal proximal tubule compartment can be achieved through genetic selection of functional cells. PMID:16216560

  15. Computer vision based navigation for spacecraft proximity operations

    E-print Network

    Tweddle, Brent Edward

    2010-01-01

    The use of computer vision for spacecraft relative navigation and proximity operations within an unknown environment is an enabling technology for a number of future commercial and scientific space missions. This thesis ...

  16. Planning and scheduling proximity operations for autonomous orbital rendezvous

    E-print Network

    Guerra, Christopher J., 1978-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis develops a mixed integer programming formulation to solve the proximity operations scheduling problem for autonomous orbital rendezvous. The algorithm of this thesis allows the operator to specify planned modes, ...

  17. Interaction of cylinders In proximity under flow-induced vibration

    E-print Network

    Thekkoodan, Dilip Joy

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of a stationary cylinder that is placed in proximity to a flexibly mounted cylinder in the side-by-side arrangement. The problem is investigated with an immersed-boundary formulation of a ...

  18. Superconducting Proximity Effect in Single-Crystal Nanowires 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Haidong

    2010-07-14

    This dissertation describes experimental studies of the superconducting proximity effect in single-crystal Pb, Sn, and Zn nanowires of lengths up to 60 um, with both ends of the nanowires in contact with macroscopic electrodes that are either...

  19. Radiation interchange modeling for active infrared proximity sensor design 

    E-print Network

    Piper, James Clarice

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research was to create mathematical models suitable for use in the design and operation of active optical proximity sensors based on infrared optoelectronic components. Computer simulation using Monte Carlo techniques...

  20. Implementing Feedback Control on a Novel Proximity Operations Simulation Platform 

    E-print Network

    Aures-Cavalieri, Kurt Dale

    2012-07-16

    Recently, The Land, Air and Space Robotics (LASR) Laboratory has demonstrated a state-of-the-art proximity operations test bed that will revolutionize the concept of portable space systems simulation. The Holonomic Omni-directional Motion Emulation...

  1. View to northeast, showing west elevation and south side. Proximity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to northeast, showing west elevation and south side. Proximity of fence of adjacent subdivision precluded photography of north side. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, Barn, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...application of this technology to mobile equipment in...on proximity detection technologies independently at various...1990s to present day. The technologies include radio, ultrasonic, radar, infrared, and...

  3. Proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using Coherent Laser Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Goode, Plesent W.; Slotwinski, Anthony R.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of a telerobotic manipulator to operate in confined spaces while avoiding unwanted collisions is enhanced by the accurate sensing of its proximate environment. To achieve the fidelity required for precise manipulator control, a proportional proximity sensor system with a sufficiently large measurement envelope is required. Current proximity sensors provide a binary indication of the presence of obstacles within a small envelope with coarse or no proportional measurement of their location. A proportional proximity sensor system configured as a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Coherent Laser Radar (CLR) using a semiconductor laser as the energy source is described and analyzed. The source and reflected energies mix coherently to generate a radio frequency (RF) signal whose frequency is proportional to the range. The system is tested for accuracy, range, depth of range, speed, and sensitivity and the results are presented. Techniques to derive orientation information and an application to telerobotic control are also described.

  4. Reproductive skew in female common marmosets: what can proximate mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    -imposed by most subordinates, consistent with restraint models of reproductive skew. In contrast to restraint appears to be generated predominantly by subordinate self-restraint, in a proximate sense, but ultimately

  5. Technical tips: dualplate fixation technique for comminuted proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungwook; Kang, Hyunseong; Bang, Hyeongsig

    2014-08-01

    The authors report dualplate fixation technique for providing stable fixation in comminuted proximal humerus fractures. This technique has been used for proximal humerus fractures with metaphyseal comminution and provides excellent anatomical reduction and neck shaft angle (NSA). The recently locking plate is clinically more widely used due to its small size, low rigidity, high elasticity, and biomechanical properties such as fixed initial angle and rotational stability. However, in severely comminuted complex type proximal metaphyseal humerus fractures, the use of locking plate alone does not provide stable fixation, leading to complications such as varus collapse, anterior-posterior angulation, screw cutout, nonunion, malunion, and metal failure. Therefore, a more robust and enhanced fixation method, the dual plating technique using the locking compression plate (Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System and Variable Angle Locking Compression Plate) was developed. PMID:24813097

  6. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Marc L. (Harriman, TN); McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phototransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  7. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, M.L.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phtotransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  8. Repairing high-temperature glazed tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecord, G. M.; Schomburg, C.

    1981-01-01

    Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) mixture fills chips and cracks in glazed tile surface. Filler is made by mixing hydrolyzed TEOS, silicon tetraboride powder, and pulverized tile material. Repaired tiles survived testing by intense acoustic emissions, arc jets, and intense heat radiation. Repair is reliable and rapid, performed in 1-1 1/2 hours with tile in any or orientation.

  9. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Thermal protection system flight repair kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...monitoring. The leak identification on a connector in gas/vapor or light liquid service... (3) Delay of repair for valves, connectors, and agitators is also allowed if the...shutdown. (d) Unsafe-to-repair connectors. Any connector that is...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...monitoring. The leak identification on a connector in gas/vapor or light liquid service... (3) Delay of repair for valves, connectors, and agitators is also allowed if the...shutdown. (d) Unsafe-to-repair connectors. Any connector that is...

  13. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Tanks by Lining Without the Addition of Cathodic Protection.” (b) Repairs to fiberglass-reinforced... cathodic protection system must be tested in accordance with § 280.31 (b) and (c) to ensure that it is... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs allowed. 280.33 Section...

  14. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the Addition of Cathodic Protection.” (b) Repairs to fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks may be made by the manufacturer's...as a result of corrosion or other damage must be replaced. Fiberglass pipes and fittings may be repaired in accordance with...

  15. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the Addition of Cathodic Protection.” (b) Repairs to fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks may be made by the manufacturer's...as a result of corrosion or other damage must be replaced. Fiberglass pipes and fittings may be repaired in accordance with...

  16. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the Addition of Cathodic Protection.” (b) Repairs to fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks may be made by the manufacturer's...as a result of corrosion or other damage must be replaced. Fiberglass pipes and fittings may be repaired in accordance with...

  17. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the Addition of Cathodic Protection.” (b) Repairs to fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks may be made by the manufacturer's...as a result of corrosion or other damage must be replaced. Fiberglass pipes and fittings may be repaired in accordance with...

  18. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the Addition of Cathodic Protection.” (b) Repairs to fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks may be made by the manufacturer's...as a result of corrosion or other damage must be replaced. Fiberglass pipes and fittings may be repaired in accordance with...

  19. Robot Service and Repair. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburg State Univ., KS. Kansas Vocational Curriculum Dissemination Center.

    This document is a teacher's guide for teaching a course on robot service and repair. The guide is organized in four units covering the following topics: introduction to robots, power supply, robot control systems, and service and repair. Each unit contains several lesson plans on the unit topic. Lesson plans consist of objectives, tools and…

  20. Robot Service and Repair. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburg State Univ., KS. Kansas Vocational Curriculum Dissemination Center.

    This document is a student guide for a course on robot service and repair. It is organized in four units covering the following topics: introduction to robots, power supply, robot control systems, and service and repair. Each unit contains several lesson plans on the unit topic. Lesson plans consist of lesson objectives, lists of teaching aids and…

  1. Self repairing composites for drone air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of impact-initiated delivery of repair chemicals through hollow fiber architectures embedded within graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, representative of advanced drone aircraft component material systems. Self-repairing structures through coupon and elements were demonstrated, and evaluated.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... detected. First attempt at repair for pumps includes, but is not limited to, tightening the packing gland... the bonnet bolts, and/or tightening the packing gland nuts, and/or injecting lubricant into...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... detected. First attempt at repair for pumps includes, but is not limited to, tightening the packing gland... the bonnet bolts, and/or tightening the packing gland nuts, and/or injecting lubricant into...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... detected. First attempt at repair for pumps includes, but is not limited to, tightening the packing gland... the bonnet bolts, and/or tightening the packing gland nuts, and/or injecting lubricant into...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... detected. First attempt at repair for pumps includes, but is not limited to, tightening the packing gland... the bonnet bolts, and/or tightening the packing gland nuts, and/or injecting lubricant into...

  6. Lin28: time for tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Reddien, Peter W

    2013-11-01

    Embryos and juveniles in many organisms repair tissue injuries better than adults. In this issue, Shyh-Chang et al. find that postnatal activation of Lin28a, a gene typically active in embryonic development, promotes better than normal tissue repair in mice, including following ear and digit injuries. PMID:24209612

  7. Proximal canalicular imaging utilizing ultrasound biomicroscopy A: Normal canaliculi.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Jeffrey J.; Pavlin, Charles J.; Hassan, Abdul

    1998-03-01

    The proximal canaliculi are the most difficult structures within the lacrimal drainage pathways to be imaged. Dacryocystography has been the most useful method for imaging the canaliculi, but it cannot demonstrate the canaliculi distal to an obstruction, nor can it demonstrate the walls or tissue surrounding the walls of the canaliculi. Ultrasound biomicroscopy utilizing a high-resolution subsurface imaging technique is able to image the proximal canaliculi in the cadaver model. PMID:12048715

  8. 21 CFR 870.3710 - Pacemaker repair or replacement material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3710 Pacemaker repair or replacement material. (a) Identification. A pacemaker repair...

  9. On-Orbit Repair of RCC Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2004-01-01

    On-orbit repair technologies for reinforced carbon-carbon composite (RCC) structures are critically needed for space shuttle return to flight (RTF) efforts. These technologies are also critically needed for the repair and refurbishment of thermal protection system of future Crew Entry Vehicles (CEV) of space exploration programs. GRABER (Glenn Adhesive Refractory for Bonding and Exterior Repair) has shown multiuse capability for in-space repair of both large repairs and small cracks in space shuttle Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) leading edge material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste and then applying the paste tot he damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with caulking gun. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during vehicle re-entry conditions. Further development and testing are underway to optimize the materials properties and extend the application temperature.

  10. Chromatin structure and DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Dinant, Christoffel; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Vermeulen, Wim

    2008-01-01

    The integrity of the genome is continuously challenged by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. These damaging agents can induce a wide variety of lesions in the DNA, such as double strand breaks, single strand breaks, oxidative lesions and pyrimidine dimers. The cell has evolved intricate DNA damage response mechanisms to counteract the genotoxic effects of these lesions. The two main features of the DNA damage response mechanisms are cell-cycle checkpoint activation and, at the heart of the response, DNA repair. For both damage signalling and repair, chromatin remodelling is most likely a prerequisite. Here, we discuss current knowledge on chromatin remodelling with respect to the cellular response to DNA damage, with emphasis on the response to lesions resolved by nucleotide excision repair. We will discuss the role of histone modifications as well as their displacement or exchange in nucleotide excision repair and make a comparison with their requirement in transcription and double strand break repair. PMID:19014481

  11. Repair Development for a Composite Cryotank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Danley, Susan E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Cheshire, Brian C.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration Project is working to advance the technologies for composite cryogenic propellant tanks at diameters suitable for future heavy lift vehicles and other in-space applications. The main goals of the project are to reduce weight and cost. One aspect of this project has focused on damage evaluation and repair development. Test panels have been impacted, repaired, and tested. Several repair methods were used to compare their effectiveness at restoring the integrity of the composite. Panels were evaluated by nondestructive evaluations at several points during the process to assess the damage and repair. The testing performed and the results and conclusions from the nondestructive evaluations and the destructive testing will be discussed. These results will lead to further development of inspection techniques and repair methods.

  12. Outcomes of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Choke, Edward; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria; Loftus, Ian; McFarland, Robert; Loosemore, Thomas; Thompson, Matthew M.

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. The principal anatomic contraindication to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVR) is an unfavorable proximal aortic neck. With increasing experience, a greater proportion of patients with unfavorable neck anatomy are being offered EVR. This study aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients with challenging proximal aortic neck anatomy. Methods. Prospectively collected data from 147 consecutive patients who underwent EVR between December 1997 and April 2005 were supplemented with a retrospective review of medical records and radiological images. Unfavorable anatomic features were defined as neck diameter >28 mm, angulation >60 deg., circumferential thrombus >50%, and length <10 mm. Eighty-seven patients with 0 adverse features (good necks) were compared with 60 patients with one or more adverse features (hostile necks). Results. Comparing the good neck with the hostile neck group, there were no significant differences in the incidence of primary technical success (p = 0.15), intraoperative adjunctive procedures (p = 0.22), early proximal type I endoleak (<30 days) (p = 1.0), late proximal type I endoleak (>30 days) (p = 0.57), distal type I endoleak (p = 0.40), type III endoleak (p 0.51), secondary interventions (p = 1.0), aneurysm sac expansion (p = 0.44), or 30 day mortality (p = 0.70). The good neck group had a significantly increased incidence of type II endoleak (p = 0.023). By multivariate analysis, the incidence of intraoperative adjunctive procedures was significantly increased in the presence of severe angulation (p = 0.041, OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.05-9.04). Conclusion. Patients with severely hostile proximal aortic neck anatomy may be treated with EVR, although severely angulated necks require additional intraoperative procedures. Early outcomes are encouraging and suggest that indications for EVR may be expanded to include patients with hostile neck anatomy.

  13. Predictors of Reintervention After Endovascular Repair of Isolated Iliac Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Zayed, Hany A. Attia, Rizwan; Modarai, Bijan; Clough, Rachel E.; Bell, Rachel E.; Carrell, Tom; Sabharwal, Tarun; Reidy, John; Taylor, Peter R.

    2011-02-15

    The objective of this study was to identify factors predicting the need for reintervention after endovascular repair of isolated iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA). We reviewed prospectively collected database records of all patients who underwent endovascular repair of IIAA between 1999 and 2008. Detailed assessment of the aneurysms was performed using computed tomography angiography (CTA). Follow-up protocol included CTA at 3 months. If this showed no complication, then annual duplex scan was arranged. Multivariate analysis and analysis of patient survival and freedom from reintervention were performed using Kaplan-Meier life tables. Forty IIAAs (median diameter 44 mm) in 38 patients were treated (all men; median age 75 years), and median follow-up was 27 months. Endovascular repair of IIAA was required in 14 of 40 aneurysms (35%). The rate of type I endoleak was significantly higher with proximal landing zone (PLZ) diameter >30 mm in the aorta or >24 mm in the common iliac artery or distal landing zone (DLZ) diameter >24 mm (P = 0.03, 0.03, and 0.0014, respectively). Reintervention rate (RR) increased significantly with increased diameter or decreased length of PLZ; increased DLZ diameter; and endovascular IIAA repair (P = 0.005, 0.005, 0.02, and 0.02 respectively); however, RR was not significantly affected by length of PLZ or DLZ. Freedom-from-reintervention was 97, 93, and 86% at 12, 24, and 108 months. There was no in-hospital or aneurysm-related mortality. Endovascular IIAA repair is a safe treatment option. Proper patient selection is essential to decrease the RR.

  14. Cdt2-mediated XPG degradation promotes gap-filling DNA synthesis in nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chunhua; Wani, Gulzar; Zhao, Ran; Qian, Jiang; Sharma, Nidhi; He, Jinshan; Zhu, Qianzheng; Wang, Qi-En; Wani, Altaf A

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) protein is a structure-specific repair endonuclease, which cleaves DNA strands on the 3? side of the DNA damage during nucleotide excision repair (NER). XPG also plays a crucial role in initiating DNA repair synthesis through recruitment of PCNA to the repair sites. However, the fate of XPG protein subsequent to the excision of DNA damage has remained unresolved. Here, we show that XPG, following its action on bulky lesions resulting from exposures to UV irradiation and cisplatin, is subjected to proteasome-mediated proteolytic degradation. Productive NER processing is required for XPG degradation as both UV and cisplatin treatment-induced XPG degradation is compromised in NER-deficient XP-A, XP-B, XP-C, and XP-F cells. In addition, the NER-related XPG degradation requires Cdt2, a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CRL4Cdt2. Micropore local UV irradiation and in situ Proximity Ligation assays demonstrated that Cdt2 is recruited to the UV-damage sites and interacts with XPG in the presence of PCNA. Importantly, Cdt2-mediated XPG degradation is crucial to the subsequent recruitment of DNA polymerase ? and DNA repair synthesis. Collectively, our data support the idea of PCNA recruitment to damage sites which occurs in conjunction with XPG, recognition of the PCNA-bound XPG by CRL4Cdt2 for specific ubiquitylation and finally the protein degradation. In essence, XPG elimination from DNA damage sites clears the chromatin space needed for the subsequent recruitment of DNA polymerase ? to the damage site and completion of gap-filling DNA synthesis during the final stage of NER. PMID:25483071

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-09-01

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

  16. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  17. Walking and Proximity to the Urban Growth Boundary and Central Business District

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Pantin, Hilda; Affuso, Olivia; Kumar, Naresh; Wang, Kefeng; Szapocznik, José

    2014-01-01

    Background Planners have relied on the Urban Development Boundary (UDB)/Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) and Central Business District (CBD) to encourage contiguous urban development and conserve infrastructure. However, no studies have specifically examined the relationship between proximity to the UDB/UGB and CBD and walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship between UDB- and CBD-distance and walking in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who report little choice in where they live after arrival to the U.S. Methods Data were collected in 2008-2010 from 391 healthy, recent Cuban immigrants recruited and assessed within 90 days of arrival to the U.S. who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Analyses in 2012-2013 examined the relationship between each UDB- and CBD-distance for each participant’s residential address and purposive walking, controlling for key sociodemographics. Follow-up analyses examined whether Walk Score®, a built-environment walkability metric based on distance to amenities such as stores and parks, mediated the relationship between purposive walking and each of UDB- and CBD-distance. Results Each one-mile increase in distance from the UDB corresponded to an 11% increase in the number of minutes of purposive walking, whereas each one-mile increase from the CBD corresponded to a 5% decrease in the amount of purposive walking. Moreover, Walk Score® mediated the relationship between walking and each of UDB- and CBD-distance. Conclusions Given the lack of walking and walkable destinations observed in proximity to the UDB/UGB boundary, a sprawl repair approach could be implemented, which strategically introduces mixed-use zoning to encourage walking throughout the boundary’s zone. PMID:24975010

  18. Biochemical studies of DNA strand break repair and molecular characterization of mei-41, a gene involved in DNA break repair

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveri, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to repair X-irradiation induced single-strand DNA breaks was examined in mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. This analysis demonstrated that examined stocks possess a normal capacity to repair X-ray induced single-strand breaks. One of the mutants in this study, mei-41, has been shown to be involved in a number of DNA metabolizing functions. A molecular characterization of this mutant is presented. A cDNA hybridizing to genomic DNA both proximal and distal to a P element inducing a mei-41 mutation was isolated from both embryonic and adult female recombinant lambda phage libraries. A 2.2 kilobase embryonic cDNA clone was sequenced; the sequence of an open reading frame was identified which would predict a protein of 384 amino acids with a molecular weight of 43,132 daltons. An examination of homologies to sequences in protein and nucleic acid data bases revealed no sequences with significant homology to mei-41, however, two potential Zinc-finger domains were identified. Analysis of RNA hybridizing to the embryonic cDNA demonstrated the existence of a major 2.2 kilobase transcript expressed primarily in embryos and adult flies. An examination of the transcription of this gene in mei-41 mutants revealed significant variation from wild-type, an indication that the embryonic cDNA does represent a mei-41 transcript. Expression in tissues from adult animals demonstrated that the 2.2 kilobase RNA is expressed primarily in reproductive tissues. A 3.8kb transcript is the major species of RNA in the adult head and thorax. Evidence is presented which implies that expression of the mei-41 gene is strongly induced by exposure of certain cells to mutagens.

  19. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations that it could apply to ongoing maintenance work. According to Schuh, "SMART standardized and streamlined many shuttle repair processes, saving time and money while increasing safety and the quality of repairs." Maintenance technicians and engineers now had a tool that kept them in the field, and because SMART is capable of continually evolving, each time an engineer put it to use, it would enrich the Agency-wide knowledge base. "If an engineer sees something in the work environment that they could improve, a repair process or a procedure, SMART can incorporate that data for use in future operations," says Belson.

  20. Cardiac regeneration: epicardial mediated repair.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Lydon, Teresa; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2015-12-22

    The hearts of lower vertebrates such as fish and salamanders display scarless regeneration following injury, although this feature is lost in adult mammals. The remarkable capacity of the neonatal mammalian heart to regenerate suggests that the underlying machinery required for the regenerative process is evolutionarily retained. Recent studies highlight the epicardial covering of the heart as an important source of the signalling factors required for the repair process. The developing epicardium is also a major source of cardiac fibroblasts, smooth muscle, endothelial cells and stem cells. Here, we examine animal models that are capable of scarless regeneration, the role of the epicardium as a source of cells, signalling mechanisms implicated in the regenerative process and how these mechanisms influence cardiomyocyte proliferation. We also discuss recent advances in cardiac stem cell research and potential therapeutic targets arising from these studies. PMID:26702046

  1. Proper repair stretches belt life

    SciTech Connect

    Tindle, L.

    1982-12-01

    Shows how selecting the right belt repair method can save mine operators thousands of dollars, reduce downtime by 50% and make the conveyor belt last 30% longer. With a splice every 200 to 400 ft in a typical mine, US underground coal mines spend about $30 million a year on belt splicing. Vulcanizing has been the splicing system of choice for most permanent main haulage belts underground. Synthetic belts last longer and operate at higher tensions than natural materials, and most mines have started to convert to them from natural fabric belts. Because synthetic belts are thinner, they are more difficult to vulcanize. Discusses how thinner belts lead to mechanical fasteners, how to square belt ends, and how belt ends can be used for short-term splices.

  2. Injury to the Suprascapular Nerve During SLAP repair

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ryan; Henn, Ralph Frank; Dreese, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The suprascapular nerve is potentially at risk during superior labrum repair. We compared risk of injury to the suprascapular nerve during suture anchor placement through an anterosuperior versus a rotator interval portal. Our hypothesis was that the rotator interval portal provides a safer and more reproducible method for repair of Type-II SLAP tears. Methods: Each pair of ten bilateral fresh human cadaveric shoulders was randomized to suture anchor placement through an anterosuperior portal on one shoulder and a rotator interval portal on the contralateral shoulder. Suture anchors were placed into the glenoid rim (one o’clock, eleven o’clock, and ten o’clock positions for right shoulder; eleven o’clock, one o’clock, and two o’clock for left shoulder). Standard 3 × 14 mm suture anchors were placed, and the suprascapular nerve was carefully dissected. When glenoid perforation occurred, the distance from the suture anchor tip to the suprascapular nerve was measured. The anchors were removed, and the distance from the glenoid rim to the suprascapular nerve and drill hole depth at each suture anchor entry site was recorded. Results: All far posterior suture anchors (ten o’clock anchor for right shoulders, two o’clock anchor for left shoulders) perforated the glenoid rim using the anterosuperior or rotator interval portal. For the far posterior anchor, distance from anchor tip to suprascapular nerve averaged 8.02 mm (range, 3.4 to 14 mm) using the anterosuperior portal and 2.1 mm (range, 0 to 5.5 mm) using the rotator interval portal, a statistically significant difference of 5.92 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: ?7.81 to ?4.04; p ? 0.001). Conclusion: Using an anterosuperior or rotator interval portal results in consistent penetration of one o’clock and two o’clock posterior suture anchors and may place the suprascapular nerve at risk of iatrogenic injury. Based on the high likelihood of glenoid perforation and closer proximity of the suture anchor tip to the suprascapular nerve, the risk of injury is significantly greater with a rotator interval portal for superior labrum anterior and posterior repair. Clinical Relevance: It is important to recognize the high rate of glenoid perforation and risk of injury to the suprascapular nerve when placing anchors in the posterior glenoid from either portal.

  3. Leakage test during mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Taiju; Arai, Hirokuni

    2014-11-01

    Mitral valve repair is the preferred surgical treatment for mitral regurgitation. Cardiac surgeons must increasingly pursue high-quality mitral valve repair, which ensures excellent long-term outcomes. Intraoperative assessment of a competency of the repaired mitral valve before closure of the atrium is an important step in accomplishing successful mitral valve repair. Saline test is the most simple and popular method to evaluate the repaired valve. In addition, an "Ink test" can provide confirmation of the surface of coaptation, which is often insufficient in the assessment of saline test. There are sometimes differences between the findings of the leakage test in an arrested heart and the echocardiographic findings after surgery. Assessment of the mitral valve in an arrested heart may not accurately reflect its function in a contractile heart. Assessment of the valve on the beating heart induced by antegrade or retrograde coronary artery perfusion can provide a more physiological assessment of the repaired valve. Perfusion techniques during beating heart surgery mainly include antegrade coronary artery perfusion without aortic cross-clamping, and retrograde coronary artery perfusion via the coronary sinus with aortic cross-clamping. It is the most important point for the former approach to avoid air embolism with such precaution as CO2 insufflation, left ventricular venting, and transesophageal echocardiography, and for the latter approach to maintain high perfusion flow rate of coronary sinus and adequate venting. Leakage test during mitral valve repair increasingly takes an important role in successful mitral valve reconstruction. PMID:25156036

  4. AAPSM repair utilizing transparent etch stop layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Darren; Cangemi, Michael; Lassiter, Matthew; Cangemi, Marc; Poortinga, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Repair of etched quartz defects on AAPSM products negatively affect manufacturability in the mask shop. Currently there are few solutions to repair etched quartz defects, two of these include mechanical removal or a combination of topography mapping and FIB milling of the defect. Both of the above methods involve large capital investments specifically for etched quartz repair. The method presented in this study readily repairs etched quartz without the need to purchase additional tools for AAPSM repair. Photronics' Advanced Materials Program has developed a transparent etch stop layer (TESL) integrated into the binary blank for the purpose of building AAPSM products with a high yield component. This etch stop layer is located under a layer of sputtered SiO2 deposited to 180° for a given lithography wavelength. These blanks can be used for a variety of etched quartz applications including cPSM and CPL. Photronics has developed software that reads in defect locations from automatic inspection tools and the jobdeck. A "repair" layer is created for the defect file and the plate is then re-exposed on the mask lithography tool. The defects are then etched away using the etch stop to control the phase of the surrounding trench. The repair method was tested using programmed defect masks from single etched 193nm AAPSM technologies. Inspection, SEM, AIMS and profilometry results will be shown.

  5. Ejecta emplacement: from distal to proximal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, N.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Most part of impact ejecta is deposited ballistically at some distance from a crater, defined by ejection velocity V and ejection angle ?: d=v2sin?/g. In case of giant impacts, planetary curvature should be taken into account [1]. Combined with ejecta scaling [2], these relations allow to define ejecta thickness as a function of distance. Ejecta from large craters are deposited at velocity high enough to mobilize substrate material and to thicken ejecta deposits [3]. Ballistic approximation is valid for airless bodies (if impact vaporization is not vast) or for proximal ejecta of large impact craters, where ejecta mass per unit area is substantially greater than the mass of involved vapor/atmosphere (M-ratio). Deposition of distal ejecta, in which ejecta mass is negligible compared to the atmosphere, may be also treated in a simplified manner, i.e. as 1) passive motion of ejected particles within an impact plume and 2) later, as sedimentation of particles in undisturbed atmosphere (equilibrium between gravity and drag). In all intermediate M-ratio values, impact ejecta move like a surge, i.e. dilute suspension current in which particles are carried in turbulent flows under the influence of gravity. Surges are well-known for near-surface explosive tests, described in detail for volcanic explosions (Plinian column collapse, phreato-magmatic eruption, lateral blast), and found in ejecta from the Chicxulub [4] and the Ries [5]. Important aspects of surge transport include its ability to deposit ejecta over a larger area than that typical of continuous ballistic ejecta and to create multiple ejecta layers. Numerical model Two-phase hydrodynamics. Surges should be modeled in the frame of two-phase hydrodynamics, i.e. interaction between solid/molten particles and atmospheric gas/impact vapor should be taken into account. There are two techniques of solving equations for dust particle motion in a gas flow. The first one describes solid/molten particles as a liquid with specific properties, i.e. finite-difference equations are the same as in standard hydrodynamics [6-8]. Another approach is based on solving equations of motion for representative particles [9]. Each of these markers describes the motion of a large number of real particles with similar sizes, velocities, and trajectories. Equation of motion (gravity, viscosity, and drag) is solved for every marker and then exchange of momentum, heat and energy with surrounding vaporair mixture is taken into account. This approach is used in the SOVA code [10] and allows to vary particle sizes within a broad range (from a few m to a few microns). Implicit procedure of velocity update allows a larger time step. The substantial advantage of the model is its three-dimensional geometry, allowing modeling of asymmetric deposits of oblique impact ejecta. Turbulent diffusion is taken into account in a simplified manner [6]. Fragments size-frequency distribution (SFD) may be of crucial importance: while large fragments move ballistically, the smallest ones are passively involved in gas motion. Ejected material is usually transformed into particles under tension. The initial particle velocity is given by the hydrodynamic velocity, but the object's initial position within the cell is randomly defined. The SFD of solid fragments in high velocity impacts has been studied experimentally [2,11], numerically [12,13], and has been derived from the lunar and terrestrial crater observations [14,15]. Various approaches may be used to implement fragment size in a dynamic model: in Grady-Kipp model the average fragment size is defined by strain rate [12]; alternatively, average ejection velocity [16] or maximum shock compression [17] may be used. All methods may be verified through comparison with known data. Volcanic direct blast. Numerical modeling of pyroclastic flows, checked against recent observations and young deposits, may be then a useful instrument for reconstruction of terrestrial craters' ejecta, which are mostly eroded or buried; and for impact ejecta study on other planets

  6. Long-Term Results of Endovascular Repair for Distal Arch and Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms Treated by Custom-Made Endografts: Usefulness of Fenestrated Endografts

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kunihide; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Nina, Katsuhiko; Endou, Jouji; Kojima, Kazushi; Nishimura, Masanori; Ishii, Hirohito; Yokota, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated early and long-term results of atherosclerotic aneurysm repair with custom-made endografts. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair with custom-made endografts. Fenestrated grafts were used in 37 patients (45.7%) to maintain blood flow of the neck and a landing zone for as long as possible for distal arch or proximal descending aneurysms. The rates of perioperative mortality, stroke, paraplegia, and primary endoleaks were assessed to evaluate in-hospital safety. The rates of endoleak development, survival, and freedom from aortic-related death were assessed to evaluate long-term efficiency. Results: Twenty-four patients (29.6%) underwent urgent operations, and 38 (46.9%) underwent distal arch or proximal descending aortic aneurysm repair. There was one case (1.2%) of in-hospital mortality and no cases of stroke. Permanent spinal injury occurred in one patient (1.2%). Early and late endoleaks occurred in one and 16 patients, respectively. The actuarial survival rates were 88.9%, 64.9%, and 51.7% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The actuarial rates of freedom from endoleaks were 90.1%, 81.3%, and 68.6% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Conclusion: Early results of custom-made endografts were excellent, and fenestrated endografts were safe for distal arch and proximal descending aortic aneurysms. PMID:25593623

  7. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Johnson Space Center, the National Center for Space Exploration Research, and the U.S. Navy. The project goals are 1) develop and demonstrate a manually-operated electronics repair capability to be conducted in a spacecraft environment; and 2) develop guidelines for designs of electronics that facilitates component-level repair for future space exploration efforts. This multi-faceted program utilizes a cross-disciplinary approach to examine pre- and post-repair diagnostics, conformal coating removal and replacement, component soldering, and electronics design for supportability. These areas are investigated by a combination of trade studies, ground based testing, reduced gravity aircraft testing, and actual spaceflight testing on the International Space Station (ISS) in multiple experiments. This paper details the efforts of this program, with emphasis on early trade study results, ground-based efforts, and two upcoming ISS experiments.

  8. Method of repairing discontinuity in fiberglass structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, L. L.; Helbert, W. B., Jr.; Enie, R. B.; Mulliken, R. F. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    Damaged fiberglass structures are repaired by substantially filling the irregular surfaced damaged area with a liquid, self-curing resin, preferably an epoxy resin mixed with chopped fiberglass, and then applying to the resin surface the first of several woven fiberglass swatches which has stitching in a zig-zag pattern parallel to each of its edges and a fringe of warp and fill glass fibers about the edges outward of the stitching. The method is especially applicable to repair of fiberglass rocket engine casings and is particularly advantageous since it restores the repaired fiberglass structure to substantially its original strength without any significant changes in the geometry or mass of the structure.

  9. Fanconi-like crosslink repair in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Interstrand crosslinks covalently link complementary DNA strands, block replication and transcription, and can trigger cell death. In eukaryotic systems several pathways, including the Fanconi Anemia pathway, are involved in repairing interstrand crosslinks, but their precise mechanisms remain enigmatic. The lack of functional homologs in simpler model organisms has significantly hampered progress in this field. Two recent studies have finally identified a Fanconi-like interstrand crosslink repair pathway in yeast. Future studies in this simplistic model organism promise to greatly improve our basic understanding of complex interstrand crosslink repair pathways like the Fanconi pathway. PMID:23062727

  10. Successful early mobilization of major cuff repair using a suture post.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Robert N; Comley, Andrew S; Van Essen, John; Hallam, Peter J; Ashwood, Neil; Fogg, Quentin A

    2006-01-01

    Repair of massive rotator cuff tears in the elderly can be challenging because of degenerative, retracted, and contracted tendons producing an extensive defect. The quality of the tendon and particularly the bone of the proximal humerus is an inherent weakness in the repaired construct. We report a method that secures the rotator cuff to a fixation post placed in cortical bone at the surgical neck of the humerus, bypassing the weakest point. This is an evolution of techniques designed to fix to the greater tuberosity. We reviewed 32 repairs (16 men and 14 women; mean age, 68 years) with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up (mean, 4.3 years). Constant scores improved from a mean of 27.9 preoperatively to 78.2 postoperatively. Pain scores improved from 8.2 to 1.9, with 87% of patients being satisfied with the results of surgery. This is a robust construct that is easily learned and able to solve a technical problem. PMID:16517361

  11. Ntg1p, the base excision repair protein, generates mutagenic intermediates in yeast mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Naina; Mehta, Reema; Meednu, Nida; Sia, Elaine A

    2006-07-13

    Mitochondrial DNA is predicted to be highly prone to oxidative damage due to its proximity to free radicals generated by oxidative phosphorylation. Base excision repair (BER) is the primary repair pathway responsible for repairing oxidative damage in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In yeast mitochondria, three N-glycosylases have been identified so far, Ntg1p, Ogg1p and Ung1p. Ntg1p, a broad specificity N-glycosylase, takes part in catalyzing the first step of BER that involves the removal of the damaged base. In this study, we examined the role of Ntg1p in maintaining yeast mitochondrial genome integrity. Using genetic reporters and assays to assess mitochondrial mutations, we found that loss of Ntg1p suppresses mitochondrial point mutation rates, frameshifts and recombination rates. We also observed a suppression of respiration loss in the ntg1-Delta cells in response to ultraviolet light exposure implying an overlap between BER and UV-induced damage in the yeast mitochondrial compartment. Over-expression of the BER AP endonuclease, Apn1p, did not significantly affect the mitochondrial mutation rate in the presence of Ntg1p, whereas Apn1p over-expression in an ntg1-Delta background increased the frequency of mitochondrial mutations. In addition, loss of Apn1p also suppressed mitochondrial point mutations. Our work suggests that both Ntg1p and Apn1p generate mutagenic intermediates in the yeast mitochondrial genome. PMID:16730479

  12. Repair of a coracoid luxation and a tibiotarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bubenik, Loretta J; Lauer, Susanne K; Vasanjee, Sunil; Mitchell, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    A 4.5-kg, adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented after being found unable to fly. Crepitus was palpated in the left shoulder; however, the wing position was normal. Radiographs revealed caudoventral luxation of the left coracoid, affecting its distal articulation with the clavicle and its proximal articulation with the sternum. The luxation affecting the coracoid-sternum articulation was repaired by using a 4-hole, 1.5-mm T-plate and a 6-hole, 2.0-mm dynamic compression plate (DCP) placed side by side. The luxation affecting the coracoid and the clavicle was repaired by 2 cerclage wires in a simple interrupted pattern. Before a scheduled release, the bird sustained a closed, complete mid diaphyseal transverse fracture of the right tibiotarsus, which most likely occurred during recapture from the flight cage. The fracture was surgically repaired with 2 circumferential cerclage wires, an intramedullary Kirschner wire and one 10-hole, 2.7-mm DCP. The bird was successfully released, 105 days after the first surgery, near the location where it was found. PMID:18087935

  13. Competitive repair by naturally dispersed repetitive DNA during non-allelic homologous recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Margaret L.; Tan, Frederick J.; Lai, David C.; Celniker, Sue E.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Zheng, Yixian; Koshland, Douglas

    2010-08-27

    Genome rearrangements often result from non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between repetitive DNA elements dispersed throughout the genome. Here we systematically analyze NAHR between Ty retrotransposons using a genome-wide approach that exploits unique features of Saccharomyces cerevisiae purebred and Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Saccharomyces bayanus hybrid diploids. We find that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce NAHR-dependent rearrangements using Ty elements located 12 to 48 kilobases distal to the break site. This break-distal recombination (BDR) occurs frequently, even when allelic recombination can repair the break using the homolog. Robust BDR-dependent NAHR demonstrates that sequences very distal to DSBs can effectively compete with proximal sequences for repair of the break. In addition, our analysis of NAHR partner choice between Ty repeats shows that intrachromosomal Ty partners are preferred despite the abundance of potential interchromosomal Ty partners that share higher sequence identity. This competitive advantage of intrachromosomal Tys results from the relative efficiencies of different NAHR repair pathways. Finally, NAHR generates deleterious rearrangements more frequently when DSBs occur outside rather than within a Ty repeat. These findings yield insights into mechanisms of repeat-mediated genome rearrangements associated with evolution and cancer.

  14. Aneurysmal degeneration and type Ib endoleak with proximal aneurysm rupture: A case report, review of literature and technical suggestions

    PubMed Central

    Kordzadeh, Ali; Scott, Harriet; Railton, Nicholas; Panayiotopoulos, Yiannis P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the reduction in mortality incidences of AAA in proportion to increased use of EVAR, the natural history of aneurysms with the presence of an endoleak post EVAR remains unclear. With a cumulative AAA rupture incidence of 2% at six years post EVAR, the lack of an immediate endoleak is not an indicator of success. Case report We present a case of an 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with generalised abdominal pain and hypotension. Four years earlier he had underwent an EVAR for a 6 cm infra-renal AAA. The computed tomography angiogram (CTA) illustrated aneurysmal dilatation of the left common iliac artery with extensive retroperitoneal haemorrhage. The patient was transferred to the operating room for an endovascular repair but due to significant episodes of haemodynamic instability, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. To our surprise, there was a left-sided infra-renal anterolateral rupture of the aneurysm sac. The stent was explanted with difficulty from its fixed proximal aortic section down to left-sided common iliac artery. The fixed bare portion of the stent in the proximal aorta and in the right common iliac artery was left in-situ and the rest was integrated to a trouser graft with an end-to-end technique. Discussion On detection of an endoleak, the aim should focus on their endovascular management, as open conversions are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Conclusion: If open conversion is indicated, all technical aspects of the repair including partial stent extraction should be considered for best outcome. PMID:25568785

  15. DNA Repair Pathways in Trypanosomatids: from DNA Repair to Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Genois, Marie-Michelle; Paquet, Eric R.; Laffitte, Marie-Claude N.; Maity, Ranjan; Rodrigue, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY All living organisms are continuously faced with endogenous or exogenous stress conditions affecting genome stability. DNA repair pathways act as a defense mechanism, which is essential to maintain DNA integrity. There is much to learn about the regulation and functions of these mechanisms, not only in human cells but also equally in divergent organisms. In trypanosomatids, DNA repair pathways protect the genome against mutations but also act as an adaptive mechanism to promote drug resistance. In this review, we scrutinize the molecular mechanisms and DNA repair pathways which are conserved in trypanosomatids. The recent advances made by the genome consortiums reveal the complete genomic sequences of several pathogens. Therefore, using bioinformatics and genomic sequences, we analyze the conservation of DNA repair proteins and their key protein motifs in trypanosomatids. We thus present a comprehensive view of DNA repair processes in trypanosomatids at the crossroads of DNA repair and drug resistance. PMID:24600040

  16. REceptors in proximal tubular epithelial cells for tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Krishnamurti, U; Wayner, E A; Michael, A F; Charonis, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN-ag) is a novel basement membrane macromolecule that is involved in human antitubular-basement-membrane-mediated tubulointerstitial nephritis. The presence of antibodies to TIN-ag may result in an alteration of proximal tubule epithelial cell interaction with surrounding matrix and contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated tubulointerstitial disease. To study the adhesive interactions between TIN-ag and proximal tubule epithelial cells and the macromolecules that mediate these interactions, an immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney (HK-2) was used. Plastic-coated TIN-ag was able to promote adhesion of HK-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. the strength of the adhesive interaction was comparable to that of type IV collagen or laminin. to explore which members of the integrin family of cell surface receptors were involved in this interaction, we performed fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and adhesion-inhibition studies using monoclonal antibodies against various integrins. Both approaches suggested that integrins alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 3 are crucial for the adhesion of proximal tubule epithelial cells on TIN-ag, and that they are probably using independent domains of TIN-ag for their action. These data will help us to understand the interactions between proximal tubule epithelial cells and the underlying basement membrane, and will provide tubule clues to the pathogenesis of kidney tubular diseases at the molecular level. PMID:8770961

  17. Orthopaedic Approaches to Proximal Humeral Fractures Following Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mafi, Reza; Khan, Wasim; Mafi, Pouya; Hindocha, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and reduce pain during the healing process. Failure to achieve this can result in impairment of function, and significantly weaken the muscles inserting onto the proximal humerus. With the rising incidence of proximal humeral fractures, especially among the elderly, the short and long term burden for patients as well as the wider society is increasing. Furthermore, there is a lack of consistency in the definitive treatment and management of displaced fractures. This systematic review of literature compares the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures with their conservative management, by evaluating the available randomised controlled trials on this topic. PMID:25408786

  18. 48 CFR 252.247-7025 - Reflagging or repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reflagging or repair work... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7025 Reflagging or repair work. As prescribed in 247.574(d), use the following clause: Reflagging or Repair Work (JUN 2005) (a) Definition. Reflagging or repair...

  19. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  20. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  1. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  2. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  3. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  4. EVALUA TION OF PINNING MATERIALS FOR MARBLE REPAIR Christina Muir

    E-print Network

    EVALUA TION OF PINNING MATERIALS FOR MARBLE REPAIR Christina Muir Submitted in partial fulfillment, Planning and Preservation Columbia University (May 2008) #12;Abstract The practice of repairing marble material is best suited for use in marble repair. Marble cores were cut and repaired with pins

  5. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  6. Shear Bond Strength of Repaired Composites Using Surface Treatments and Repair Materials: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, M; Saritha, G; Rajasekhar, V; Pachlag, K Amit; Purushotham, R; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhancement of bond strength between new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness of old composite to promote mechanical interlocking and subsequent coating with bonding agents to improve surface wetting and chemical bonding. So this study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface treatments and repair materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite repairs The mode of failure of repaired composites whether cohesive or adhesive was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The substrates for 60 composite specimens were fabricated and aged with water treatment and subjected to various surface treatments. The surface treatment regimens used in the study were: No surface treatment, abraded with diamond bur, air abraded (sandblasted) with 50 µ aluminum oxide particles. Specimens were then repaired with fresh composite using either Clearfil™ repair or all-bond two adhesive systems. Specimens were water stored, thermocycled and tested for SBS using universal testing machine. Fractured specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope to determine the mode of failure. Results: It was clearly showed that surface roughening of the aged composite substrate with air abrasion, followed by the application of Clearfil™ repair adhesive system (Group IIIa) yielded the highest repair bond strength (32.3 ± 2.2 MPa). Conclusion: Surface treatment with air abrasion followed by bonding with Clearfil™ repair adhesive system can be attempted clinically for the repair of composite restorations. PMID:25628478

  7. Highway Repair: A New Silicosis Threat

    PubMed Central

    Valiante, David J.; Schill, Donald P.; Rosenman, Kenneth D.; Socie, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an emerging public health concern regarding silicosis in the fast-growing highway repair industry. Methods. We examined highway construction trends, silicosis surveillance case data, and environmental exposure data to evaluate the risk of silicosis among highway repair workers. We reviewed silicosis case data from the construction industry in 3 states that have silicosis registries, and we conducted environmental monitoring for silica at highway repair work sites. Results. Our findings indicate that a large population of highway workers is at risk of developing silicosis from exposure to crystalline silica. Conclusions. Exposure control methods, medical screenings, protective health standards, and safety-related contract language are necessary for preventing future occupational disease problems among highway repair workers. PMID:15117715

  8. Funding of Facility Repairs and Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    1984-01-01

    Compares the life cycle approach for campus building repair and renovation to the University of California's comprehensive building maintenance formula and advises that formulas be used cautiously as a method of determining appropriate budget levels. (MLF)

  9. Recombination and DNA Repair in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Dorer, Marion S.; Sessler, Tate H.; Salama, Nina R.

    2013-01-01

    All organisms have pathways that repair the genome, ensuring their survival and that of their progeny. But these pathways also serve to diversify the genome, causing changes on the level of nucleotide, whole gene, and genome structure. Sequencing of bacteria has revealed wide allelic diversity and differences in gene content within the same species, highlighting the importance of understanding pathways of recombination and DNA repair. The human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori is an excellent model system for studying these pathways. H. pylori harbors major recombination and repair pathways and is naturally competent, facilitating its ability to diversify its genome. Elucidation of DNA recombination, repair, and diversification programs in this pathogen will reveal connections between these pathways and their importance to infection. PMID:21682641

  10. Anesthesia For In Utero Repair of Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Ferschl, Marla; Ball, Robert; Lee, Hanmin; Rollins, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently published results suggest that prenatal repair of fetal myelomeningocele is a potentially preferable alternative when compared to postnatal repair. In this article, the pathology of myelomeningocele, unique physiologic considerations, perioperative anesthetic management, and ethical considerations of open fetal surgery for prenatal myelomeningocele repair are discussed. Open fetal surgeries have many unique anesthetic issues such as inducing profound uterine relaxation, vigilance for maternal or fetal blood loss, fetal monitoring, and possible fetal resuscitation. Postoperative management, including the requirement for postoperative tocolysis and maternal analgesia are also reviewed. The success of intrauterine myelomeningocele repair relies on a well-coordinated multidisciplinary approach. Fetal surgery is an important topic for anesthesiologists to understand, as the number of fetal procedures is likely to increase as new fetal treatment centers are opened across the United States. PMID:23508219

  11. One step closer to gut repair

    PubMed Central

    Shaker, Anisa; Rubin, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of adult-tissue stem cells to treat gastrointestinal diseases holds much promise. A method for in vitro growth of gut stem cells and their use in repairing damaged intestines in mice has been described. PMID:22575955

  12. Repairing Type Errors in Functional Programs 

    E-print Network

    McAdam, Bruce J

    Type systems for programming languages can be used by compilers to reject programs which are found to be unsound and which may, therefore, fail to execute successfully. When a program is rejected the programmer must repair ...

  13. Light-Curing Adhesive Repair Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald; Haight, Andrea Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Adhesive tapes, the adhesive resins of which can be cured (and thereby rigidized) by exposure to ultraviolet and/or visible light, are being developed as repair patch materials. The tapes, including their resin components, consist entirely of solid, low-outgassing, nonhazardous or minimally hazardous materials. They can be used in air or in vacuum and can be cured rapidly, even at temperatures as low as -20 C. Although these tapes were originally intended for use in repairing structures in outer space, they can also be used on Earth for quickly repairing a wide variety of structures. They can be expected to be especially useful in situations in which it is necessary to rigidize tapes after wrapping them around or pressing them onto the parts to be repaired.

  14. Screening EUV mask absorbers for defect repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogawa, Takeshi; Seki, Kazunori; Lawliss, Mark; Gallagher, Emily; Akima, Shinji; Konishi, Toshio

    2014-07-01

    Five EUV film stacks were prepared and evaluated from the multiple viewpoints of mask repair process: etching property, CD control and wafer print. Etching property results revealed a thicker lower reflective (LR) layer stack showed good performance. Some types of defects were repaired and a CD comparison done with both CD-SEM and EUV microscope. It was found thinner total film stack (LR plus absorber) performs better than thicker ones for CD control. In addition, thicker LR performed better than thinner LR. Wafer print performance on the repaired site was evaluated through focus by imaging on an EUV microscope. Wafer printability performance showed that thinner total film stack performed better than a thicker one. Finally the best stack for EUV mask repair performance was determined to be a thinner total film stack and thicker a LR from all the various points of view.

  15. A Flexible Proximity Sensor Fully Fabricated by Inkjet Printing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chin-Tsan; Huang, Kuo-Yi; Lin, David T. W.; Liao, Wei-Chia; Lin, Hua-Wei; Hu, Yuh-Chung

    2010-01-01

    A flexible proximity sensor fully fabricated by inkjet printing is proposed in this paper. The flexible proximity sensor is composed of a ZnO layer sandwiched in between a flexible aluminum sheet and a web-shaped top electrode layer. The flexible aluminum sheet serves as the bottom electrode. The material of the top electrode layer is nano silver. Both the ZnO and top electrode layers are deposited by inkjet printing. The fully inkjet printing process possesses the advantages of direct patterning and low-cost. It does not require photolithography and etching processes since the pattern is directly printed on the flexible aluminum sheet. The prototype demonstrates that the presented flexible sensor is sensitive to the human body. It may be applied to proximity sensing or thermal eradiation sensing. PMID:22399923

  16. Graphical Representation of Proximity Measures for Multidimensional Data

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Martin S.; Wang, Jiong; Hilchey, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    We describe the use of classical and metric multidimensional scaling methods for graphical representation of the proximity between collections of data consisting of cases characterized by multidimensional attributes. These methods can preserve metric differences between cases, while allowing for dimensional reduction and projection to two or three dimensions ideal for data exploration. We demonstrate these methods with three datasets for: (i) the immunological similarity of influenza proteins measured by a multidimensional assay; (ii) influenza protein sequence similarity; and (iii) reconstruction of airport-relative locations from paired proximity measurements. These examples highlight the use of proximity matrices, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and linear and nonlinear mappings using numerical minimization methods. Some considerations and caveats for each method are also discussed, and compact Mathematica programs are provided. PMID:26692757

  17. Proximity-dependent initiation of hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Koos, Björn; Cane, Gaëlle; Grannas, Karin; Löf, Liza; Arngården, Linda; Heldin, Johan; Clausson, Carl-Magnus; Klaesson, Axel; Hirvonen, M Karoliina; de Oliveira, Felipe M S; Talibov, Vladimir O; Pham, Nhan T; Auer, Manfred; Danielson, U Helena; Haybaeck, Johannes; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Söderberg, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive detection of protein interactions and post-translational modifications of native proteins is a challenge for research and diagnostic purposes. A method for this, which could be used in point-of-care devices and high-throughput screening, should be reliable, cost effective and robust. To achieve this, here we design a method (proxHCR) that combines the need for proximal binding with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for signal amplification. When two oligonucleotide hairpins conjugated to antibodies bind in close proximity, they can be activated to reveal an initiator sequence. This starts a chain reaction of hybridization events between a pair of fluorophore-labelled oligonucleotide hairpins, generating a fluorescent product. In conclusion, we show the applicability of the proxHCR method for the detection of protein interactions and posttranslational modifications in microscopy and flow cytometry. As no enzymes are needed, proxHCR may be an inexpensive and robust alternative to proximity ligation assays. PMID:26065580

  18. Proximity-dependent initiation of hybridization chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Koos, Björn; Cane, Gaëlle; Grannas, Karin; Löf, Liza; Arngården, Linda; Heldin, Johan; Clausson, Carl-Magnus; Klaesson, Axel; Hirvonen, M. Karoliina; de Oliveira, Felipe M. S.; Talibov, Vladimir O.; Pham, Nhan T.; Auer, Manfred; Danielson, U. Helena; Haybaeck, Johannes; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Söderberg, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive detection of protein interactions and post-translational modifications of native proteins is a challenge for research and diagnostic purposes. A method for this, which could be used in point-of-care devices and high-throughput screening, should be reliable, cost effective and robust. To achieve this, here we design a method (proxHCR) that combines the need for proximal binding with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for signal amplification. When two oligonucleotide hairpins conjugated to antibodies bind in close proximity, they can be activated to reveal an initiator sequence. This starts a chain reaction of hybridization events between a pair of fluorophore-labelled oligonucleotide hairpins, generating a fluorescent product. In conclusion, we show the applicability of the proxHCR method for the detection of protein interactions and posttranslational modifications in microscopy and flow cytometry. As no enzymes are needed, proxHCR may be an inexpensive and robust alternative to proximity ligation assays. PMID:26065580

  19. Intestinal Obstruction After Totally Extraperitoneal Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rink, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Laparoscopic hernia repair is a frequently performed operation. Although it has many advantages over open inguinal hernia repair, laparoscopic surgery is not without complications. Small bowel obstruction is a complication unique to laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernias. It is reported following transabdominal preperitoneal repairs. We present a case of small bowel incarceration through a peritoneal defect after a totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. Techniques to avoid this complication are presented. The literature is reviewed. PMID:14974673

  20. Proximal paraparesis due to aortic dissection extending into bilateral carotid arteries in a patient with Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goshgarian, C; Lugo, A; Salazar, R

    2013-12-01

    The authors report a 66 year-old female with past medical history relevant for thoracic abdominal aneurysm who presented with a complaint of chest pain radiating into her neck. The physical examination was significant for the distinctive facial features of wide spaced eyes and V-shaped uvula. Thoracic CT scan revealed a type I aortic dissection which warranted immediate surgical repair. On post-op day one she was noted to be confused and was found to have acute bilateral lower extremity paraparesis with proximal predominance. Furthermore, her left radial artery line had no pulse waves and no brachial, radial, or ulnar pulses could be detected with Doppler ultrasound. Emergent head CT scan revealed bilateral postcentral gyri infarctions and the thoracic CT scan demonstrated extension of the dissection into the aortic branches, including the left brachial and the bilateral carotid arteries. Consequently, surgical brachial artery repair ensued. In the interim, a repeated head CT scan demonstrated new ischemic infarcts involving the bilateral frontal lobes. Anticoagulation was not indicated due to the high risk of bleeding at surgical site. Genetic testing confirmed the presence of a mutation in the TGFBR2 gene at exon 5. Loeys-Dietz syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease caused by heterozygous mutations in the genes encoding type I or II transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) receptor. Loeys-Dietz syndrome manifests with aggressive vascular pathology. This case underscores the importance of recognition of this spectrum of clinical and pathologic manifestations to identify and manage Loeys-Dietz syndrome. PMID:23591182

  1. Double-driven shield capacitive type proximity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A capacity type proximity sensor comprised of a capacitance type sensor, a capacitance type reference, and two independent and mutually opposing driven shields respectively adjacent to the sensor and reference and which are coupled in an electrical bridge circuit configuration and driven by a single frequency crystal controlled oscillator is presented. The bridge circuit additionally includes a pair of fixed electrical impedance elements which form adjacent arms of the bridge and which comprise either a pair of precision resistances or capacitors. Detection of bridge unbalance provides an indication of the mutual proximity between an object and the sensor. Drift compensation is also utilized to improve performance and thus increase sensor range and sensitivity.

  2. Inverse Proximity Effect in Superconductor-ferromagnet Bilayer Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jing

    2010-04-05

    Measurements of the polar Kerr effect using a zero-area-loop Sagnac magnetometer on Pb/Ni and Al/(Co-Pd) proximity-effect bilayers show unambiguous evidence for the 'inverse proximity effect,' in which the ferromagnet (F) induces a finite magnetization in the superconducting (S) layer. To avoid probing the magnetic effects in the ferromagnet, the superconducting layer was prepared much thicker than the light's optical penetration depth. The sign and size of the effect, as well as its temperature dependence agree with recent predictions by Bergeret et al.[1].

  3. [Elbow dislocation in children associated with proximal radioulnar translocation].

    PubMed

    Wodecki, P; Maiza, D; Rozenblum, B

    2007-04-01

    We report a unique case of posterior elbow dislocation with proximal radioulnar translocation in a six-year-old child with 3D reconstruction CT images. Five other cases of this type of association have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is often established late. Our case illustrates the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The CT scan demonstrated the presence of the proximal radioulnar translocation and contributed greatly to understanding the pathogenic mechanism: the radius crossed over the ulna anteriorly. The CT-scan can reveal associated lesions missed on the plain x-rays. Surgical reduction is generally needed, preferably via a medial approach. PMID:17401294

  4. Effect of proximal phalangeal epiphysiodesis in the treatment of macrodactyly.

    PubMed

    Topoleski, T A; Ganel, A; Grogan, D P

    1997-08-01

    The recommended treatment for macrodactyly of the foot will often include epiphysiodesis of the proximal phalanx in an attempt to halt further longitudinal growth of the toe. Nine patients who underwent open epiphysiodesis and debulking of the excess soft tissues involving 11 toes were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure. In 9 of 11 toes, overall length of the proximal phalanx did not change after surgery. Two toes demonstrated continued growth; one of these toes underwent a repeat epiphysiodesis of the phalanx, and the other foot underwent epiphysiodesis of the affected metatarsal. Overall, this surgical approach led to radiographic results that satisfied the surgical goals. PMID:9278744

  5. An experiment in manipulator control with proximity sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Optical proximity sensors were used in a feedback loop to automatically position a manipulator hand for grasping. The experiment was a simplified one, involving two dimensional motion only. Two proximity sensors were mounted on the hand, and control signals derived from their outputs were used to drive the hand vertically and horizontally. The sensors employ a pulsed gallium arsenide light-emitting diode together with a silicon detector. They indicate, without contact, the approximate distance between the manipulator hand and object in the range from 5 to 12 cm. Positioning within approximately + or - 5 mm was observed. Extension of the technique to general three-dimensional control is briefly discussed.

  6. Subsidence resistant repair of a block basement

    SciTech Connect

    Mahar, J.W.; Marino, G.G.; Murphy, E.; Farnetti, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one story house was damaged by mine subsidence movement. The house is located in a small subsidence sag and is experiencing differential settlement and compressive ground strains. Instead of waiting for the ground movements to eventually stop, The Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund developed a permanent repair scheme that was implemented at the same time damaging mine subsidence movement was affecting the structure. This repair provided a significant structural resistance against the anticipated residual mine subsidence movement and was aesthetically acceptable to the homeowners. The repair consisted of epoxying vertical and horizontal steel straps and then applying a cover coat of fiber-cement on the unreinforced concrete block basement walls. The repair scheme was relatively untried, but had been successfully researched. This paper provides information on the mine subsidence movement/damage, the design concepts of steel strap/fiber-cement repair, construction details, performance and costs. Other applications of the use of the steel strap repair method are also discussed for releveling of a building and/or correcting subsidence damage to structures located in the tension zone.

  7. Repair of filament wound composite pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amali, Ramin; Arnall, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Filament wound pipes are used in a wide variety of industries, due to the advantages composites have over metal pipes, such as a high strength to weight ratio, and resistance against frost, corrosion and heat. Composite pipes require minimal maintenance to ensure they are safe. Any damage occurring in composite pipes could lead to failure; therefore all damage should be assessed through NDT. If it is decided that the damage makes the pipe unsafe then a decision needs to be made whether to repair or replace the pipe. Repairing a composite pipe can be quicker, easier and cheaper than replacing it and can restore the strength of the pipe effectively. This investigation looks at the repair process and the parameters involved in determining the strength of the pipe following repair through the use of over 150 models in FEA software, Abaqus. Parameters considered include the pipe diameter and thickness, damage removal size and wrap width and thickness. It was found that if the pipe is thin-walled then it can be assumed that the pipe's thickness has no effect on the FOS following repair. Formulas were created to predict the FOS following repair for varying pipe diameters, damage sizes and wrap thickness. Formulas were also created to determine the wrap width required for varying wrap thicknesses and damage sizes.

  8. Nuclear position dictates DNA repair pathway choice

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Charlène; Grabarz, Anastazja; Tsouroula, Katerina; Andronov, Leonid; Furst, Audrey; Pankotai, Tibor; Heyer, Vincent; Rogier, Mélanie; Attwood, Kathleen M.; Kessler, Pascal; Dellaire, Graham; Klaholz, Bruno; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo; Soutoglou, Evi

    2014-01-01

    Faithful DNA repair is essential to avoid chromosomal rearrangements and promote genome integrity. Nuclear organization has emerged as a key parameter in the formation of chromosomal translocations, yet little is known as to whether DNA repair can efficiently occur throughout the nucleus and whether it is affected by the location of the lesion. Here, we induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at different nuclear compartments and follow their fate. We demonstrate that DSBs induced at the nuclear membrane (but not at nuclear pores or nuclear interior) fail to rapidly activate the DNA damage response (DDR) and repair by homologous recombination (HR). Real-time and superresolution imaging reveal that DNA DSBs within lamina-associated domains do not migrate to more permissive environments for HR, like the nuclear pores or the nuclear interior, but instead are repaired in situ by alternative end-joining. Our results are consistent with a model in which nuclear position dictates the choice of DNA repair pathway, thus revealing a new level of regulation in DSB repair controlled by spatial organization of DNA within the nucleus. PMID:25366693

  9. Repair of radiation damage in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The responses, such as survival, mutation, and carcinogenesis, of mammalian cells and tissues to radiation are dependent not only on the magnitude of the damage to macromolecular structures - DNA, RNA, protein, and membranes - but on the rates of macromolecular syntheses of cells relative to the half-lives of the damages. Cells possess a number of mechanisms for repairing damage to DNA. If the repair systems are rapid and error free, cells can tolerate much larger doses than if repair is slow or error prone. It is important to understand the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage because there exist reasonable amounts of epidemiological data that permits the construction of dose-response curves for humans. The shapes of such curves or the magnitude of the response will depend on repair. Radiation damage is emphasized because: (a) radiation dosimetry, with all its uncertainties for populations, is excellent compared to chemical dosimetry; (b) a number of cancer-prone diseases are known in which there are defects in DNA repair and radiation results in more chromosomal damage in cells from such individuals than in cells from normal individuals; (c) in some cases, specific radiation products in DNA have been correlated with biological effects, and (d) many chemical effects seem to mimic radiation effects. A further reason for emphasizing damage to DNA is the wealth of experimental evidence indicating that damages to DNA can be initiating events in carcinogenesis.

  10. A comparison between the effects of three potential scar-reducing agents applied at a site of sciatic nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Ngeow, W C; Atkins, S; Morgan, C R; Metcalfe, A D; Boissonade, F M; Loescher, A R; Robinson, P P

    2011-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of three potential scar-reducing agents applied at a sciatic nerve repair site in C57-black-6 mice. Under anaesthesia the nerve was transected, repaired using four epineurial sutures, and 100 ?l of either triamcinolone acetonide (1 mg/100 ?l), an interleukin-10 peptide fragment (125 ng/100 ?l or 500 ng/100 ?l) or mannose-6-phosphate (M6P, 200 mM or 600 mM) was injected into and around the nerve. After 6 weeks the extent of regeneration was assessed electrophysiologically by determining the ratio of the compound action potential (CAP) modulus evoked by electrical stimulation of the nerve 2 mm distal or proximal to the repair site. The conduction velocity of the fastest components in the CAP was also calculated. The percentage area of collagen staining (PAS) at the repair site was analysed using Picrosirius Red and image analysis. Comparisons were made with a placebo group (100 ?l of phosphate buffered saline) and sham-operated controls. The median CAP modulus ratio in the 600 mM M6P group was 0.44, which was significantly higher than in the placebo group (0.24, P=0.012: Kruskal-Wallis test). Conduction velocities were also faster in the 600 mM M6P group (median 30 m s(-1)) than in the placebo group (median 27.8 m s(-1); P=0.0197: Kruskal-Wallis test). None of the other treated groups were significantly different from the placebo, and all had significantly lower CAP ratios than the sham controls (P<0.05). All repair groups had a significantly higher PAS for collagen than sham controls. We conclude that the administration of 600 mM mannose-6-phosphate to a nerve repair site enhances axonal regeneration. PMID:21377512

  11. Outcomes of Acute Type A Dissection Repair Before and After Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Thoracic Aortic Surgery Program

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nicholas D.; Ganapathi, Asvin M.; Hanna, Jennifer M.; Williams, Judson B.; Gaca, Jeffrey G.; Hughes, G. Chad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the results of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) repair before and after implementation of a multidisciplinary thoracic aortic surgery program (TASP) at our institution, with dedicated high-volume thoracic aortic surgeons, a multidisciplinary approach to thoracic aortic disease management, and a standardized protocol for ATAAD repair. Background Outcomes of ATAAD repair may be improved when operations are performed at specialized high-volume thoracic aortic surgical centers. Methods Between 1999 and 2011, 128 patients underwent ATAAD repair at our institution. Records of patients who underwent ATAAD repair 6 years before (n = 56) and 6 years after (n = 72) implementation of the TASP were retrospectively compared. Expected operative mortality rates were calculated using the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection pre-operative prediction model. Results Baseline risk profiles and expected operative mortality rates were comparable between patients who underwent surgery before and after implementation of the TASP. Operative mortality before TASP implementation was 33.9% and was statistically equivalent to the expected operative mortality rate of 26.0% (observed-to-expected mortality ratio 1.30; p = 0.54). Operative mortality after TASP implementation fell to 2.8% and was statistically improved compared with the expected operative mortality rate of 18.2% (observed-to-expected mortality ratio 0.15; p = 0.005). Differences in survival persisted over long-term follow-up, with 5-year survival rates of 85% observed for TASP patients compared with 55% for pre-TASP patients (p = 0.002). Conclusions ATAAD repair can be performed with results approximating those of elective proximal aortic surgery when operations are performed by a high-volume multidisciplinary thoracic aortic surgery team. Efforts to standardize or centralize care of patients undergoing ATAAD are warranted. PMID:24412454

  12. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  13. Urinary loss of glucose, phosphate, and protein by diffusion into proximal straight tubules injured by D-serine and maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Carone, F.A.; Nakamura, S.; Goldman, B.

    1985-06-01

    In several models of acute renal failure leakage of glomerular filtrate out of the tubule is an important pathogenetic mechanism; however, bidirectional diffusion of solute to account for certain pathophysiologic features of acute renal failure has received meager attention. Using micropuncture and clearance methods, the authors assessed sequentially leakage of solutes and inulin across proximal straight tubules (PST) injured by two nephrotoxins. In d-serine-treated rats with extensive necrosis of PST, the basis for glucosuria and tubular leakage of inulin was studied. Glucose absorption by the proximal convoluted tubule and glucose delivery to the PST were normal, but glucose delivery to the distal tubule was increased nearly 8-fold, indicating diffusion of glucose from interstitial to tubular luminal fluid across the necrotic PST. Total kidney inulin clearance was greatly reduced, but single nephron glomerular filtration rate, based on proximal convoluted tubule samples, was normal, indicating tubular loss of inulin. Urinary recovery of (/sup 14/C)inulin infused into tubular lumina revealed that proximal convoluted tubule and distal tubule were impermeable to inulin and that inulin diffused out of the necrotic PST. The progressive return over 6 days of tubular impermeability for inulin correlated with relining of PST with new cells. In maleic acid-treated rats the site and extent of tubular necrosis and the nature of urinary loss of solutes were studied. Microdissection revealed that maleic acid caused limited necrosis of PST which averaged 7.4% of total proximal tubular length. Increased urinary excretion of protein, phosphate, and glucose and increased tubular permeability to microinfused (/sup 14/C)inulin occurred with the onset of PST necrosis, and return of these abnormalities to normal correlated with the degree of cellular repair of the PST.

  14. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations, each spacecraft hosts 3 electro-optical sensors dedicated to imaging the companion satellite. The image processor will analyze the images to obtain estimates for range, bearing, and pose, with associated rates and uncertainties. These observations will be fed to the RPO processor's relative Kalman filter to perform relative navigation updates. This paper includes estimates for expected navigation accuracies for both absolute and relative position and velocity. Another key task for the RPO processor is maneuver planning. This includes automation to plan maneuvers to achieve a desired formation configuration or trajectory (including docking), as well as automation to safely react to potentially dangerous situations. This will allow each spacecraft to autonomously plan fuel-efficient maneuvers to achieve a desired trajectory as well as compute adjustment maneuvers to correct for thrusting errors. This paper discusses results from a trade study that has been conducted to examine maneuver targeting algorithms required on-board the spacecraft. Ground software will also work in conjunction with the on-board software to validate and approve maneuvers as necessary.

  15. Inhibition of Hsp27 Radiosensitizes Head-and-Neck Cancer by Modulating Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Guttmann, David M.; Hart, Lori; Du, Kevin; Seletsky, Andrew; Koumenis, Constantinos

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To present a novel method of tumor radiosensitization through Hsp27 knockdown using locked nucleic acid (LNA) and to investigate the role of Hsp27 in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival assays, immunoblotting, the proximity ligation assay, and ?H2AX foci analysis were conducted in SQ20B and FaDu human head-and-neck cancer cell lines treated with Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Additionally, nude mice with FaDu flank tumors were treated with fractionated radiation therapy after pretreatment with Hsp27 LNA and monitored for tumor growth. Results: Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 shRNA radiosensitized head-and-neck cancer cell lines in an Hsp27-dependent manner. Ataxia-Telangectasia Mutated-mediated DNA repair signaling was impaired in irradiated cells with Hsp27 knockdown. ATM kinase inhibition abrogated the radiosensitizing effect of Hsp27. Furthermore, Hsp27 LNA and shRNA both attenuated DNA repair kinetics after radiation, and Hsp27 was found to colocalize with ATM in both untreated and irradiated cells. Last, combined radiation and Hsp27 LNA treatment in tumor xenografts in nude mice suppressed tumor growth compared with either treatment alone. Conclusions: These results support a radiosensitizing property of Hsp27 LNA in vitro and in vivo, implicate Hsp27 in double strand break repair, and suggest that Hsp27 LNA might eventually serve as an effective clinical agent in the radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer.

  16. The theoretical simulation on electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liandong; Bai, Xiaofeng; Song, De; Fu, Shencheng; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo

    2015-03-01

    Low-light-level night vision technology is magnifying low light level signal large enough to be seen by naked eye, which uses the photons - photoelectron as information carrier. Until the micro-channel plate was invented, it has been possibility for the realization of high performance and miniaturization of low-light-level night vision device. The device is double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier which places a micro-channel plate close to photocathode and phosphor screen. The advantages of proximity focusing low-light-level night vision are small size, light weight, small power consumption, no distortion, fast response speed, wide dynamic range and so on. It is placed parallel to each other for Micro-channel plate (both sides of it with metal electrode), the photocathode and the phosphor screen are placed parallel to each other. The voltage is applied between photocathode and the input of micro-channel plate when image intensifier works. The emission electron excited by photo on the photocathode move towards to micro-channel plate under the electric field in 1st proximity focusing region, and then it is multiplied through the micro-channel. The movement locus of emission electrons can be calculated and simulated when the distributions of electrostatic field equipotential lines are determined in the 1st proximity focusing region. Furthermore the resolution of image tube can be determined. However the distributions of electrostatic fields and equipotential lines are complex due to a lot of micro-channel existing in the micro channel plate. This paper simulates electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier with the finite element simulation analysis software Ansoft maxwell 3D. The electrostatic field distributions of 1st proximity region are compared when the micro-channel plates' pore size, spacing and inclination angle ranged. We believe that the electron beam movement trajectory in 1st proximity region will be better simulated when the electronic electrostatic fields are simulated.

  17. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Auto Body Repair. Module 3.0: Basic Metal Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on basic metal repair is the third of four (CE 028 303-306) in the auto body repair course of a bilingual vocational training program. The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience in welding, metal straightening, metal finishing, painting, and use of power and hand tools. Module objectives are for students to…

  18. Aortic arch repair today: open repair is best for most arch lesions.

    PubMed

    Coselli, J S; Green, S Y

    2015-08-01

    The transverse aortic arch is challenging to repair by either evolving open or emerging endovascular approaches. Contemporary experience in aortic arch repair can be difficult to assess because clinical practice varies substantially among centers with regard to temperature targets for hypothermic circulatory arrest, temperature monitoring sites, circulating perfusate temperatures, cerebral perfusion monitoring techniques, perfusion catheter flow rates, cannulation sites, pH management, and protective pharmacologic agents. Repair of the aortic arch has changed substantially over the last decade; these changes appear to have substantially reduced patient risk. In general, contemporary outcomes of open aortic arch repair are good to excellent. When acute aortic dissection is absent, many centers report early mortality rates below 5%; when acute aortic dissection is present, these rates are doubled or tripled. Not unexpectedly, mortality rates for total transverse aortic arch repair with elephant trunk or frozen elephant trunk approaches are greater than those for hemiarch repair (7-17% vs. 3-4%). In contemporary reports of mixed hemiarch and total arch repairs for aortic aneurysm, several authors report early mortality rates and stroke rates below 5%. Surprisingly, mortality rates for reoperation are not unlike those for primary repair and range from 8% to 9%; however, the risk of stroke appears somewhat greater and ranges from 5% to 6%. PMID:25752255

  19. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

  20. Proximate and Ultimate Mechanisms of Spiny Lobster Gregariousness

    E-print Network

    Childress, Michael J.

    Abstract Proximate and Ultimate Mechanisms of Spiny Lobster Gregariousness Ken Sercy and Michael show clear differences in spiny lobster gregariousness. Panulirus argus is usually found sharing variation in lobster distribution and fitness. Spiny lobsters are a convenient model system for studying