Science.gov

Sample records for pseudo cereals genotypes

  1. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; O'Hanlon, Karen A; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-09-01

    The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking. Fungal diversity in leaves from a range of cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and a smaller number of samples from oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and triticale (Triticum × Secale) was studied using next-generation sequencing. The effects of host genotype, fungicide treatment and location on fungal communities were explored. In total, 635 251 fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) reads were obtained from 210 leaf samples. Visual disease assessments and relative read abundance of Zymoseptoria tritici and Ramularia collo-cygni were strongly positively related. Crop genotype at the species level explained 43% of the variance in the total dataset, followed by fungicide treatment (13%) and location (4%). Indicator species, including plant pathogens, responding to factors such as crop species, location and treatment were identified. Host genotype at both the species and cultivar level is important in shaping phyllosphere fungal communities, whereas fungicide treatment and location have minor effects. We found many host-specific fungal pathogens, but also a large diversity of fungi that were relatively insensitive to host genetic background, indicating that host-specific pathogens live in a 'sea' of nonspecific fungi. PMID:25898906

  2. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter; Schenkel, Hans; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Schollenberger, Margit; Laux, Meike; Eklund, Meike; Siegert, Wolfgang; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred to as GrainUp. Genotypes of one grain species were grown on the same site, except maize. In general, concentrations of proximate nutrients were not largely different from feed tables. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the ether extract concentration of maize was high because the data pool comprised speciality maize bred for its high oil content. A subset of 8 barley, 20 rye, 20 triticale and 20 wheat samples was analysed to differ significantly in several carbohydrate fractions. Gross energy concentration of cereal grains could be predicted from proximate nutrient concentration with good accuracy. The mean lysine concentration of protein was the highest in oats (4.2 g/16 g N) and the lowest in wheat (2.7 g/16 g N). Significant differences were also detected in the concentrations of macro elements as well as iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were below the limit of detection. The concentration of lower inositol phosphates was low, but some inositol pentaphosphates were detected in all grains. In barley, relatively high inositol tetraphosphate concentration also was found. Intrinsic phytase activity was the highest in rye, followed by triticale, wheat, barley and maize, and it was not detectable in oats. Substantial differences were seen in the thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number and extract viscoelasticity characteristics. The study is a comprehensive overview of the composition of different cereal grain genotypes when grown on the same location. The relevance of the variation in composition for digestibility in different animal species will be subject of other communications. PMID:26829392

  3. The Draft Genome and Transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus: A C4 Dicot Producing High-Lysine Edible Pseudo-Cereal

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Meeta; Hariharan, Arun K.; Nayak, Soumya; Gupta, Saurabh; Nambisan, Suran R.; Gupta, Ravi P.; Panda, Binay; Choudhary, Bibha; Srinivasan, Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranths, edible C4 dicots, produce pseudo-cereals high in lysine. Lysine being one of the most limiting essential amino acids in cereals and C4 photosynthesis being one of the most sought-after phenotypes in protein-rich legume crops, the genome of one of the grain amaranths is likely to play a critical role in crop research. We have sequenced the genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a diploid (2n = 32) belonging to the order Caryophyllales with an estimated genome size of 466 Mb. Of the 411 linkage single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported for grain amaranths, 355 SNPs (86%) are represented in the scaffolds and 74% of the 8.6 billion bases of the sequenced transcriptome map to the genomic scaffolds. The genome of A. hypochondriacus, codes for at least 24,829 proteins, shares the paleohexaploidy event with species under the superorders Rosids and Asterids, harbours 1 SNP in 1,000 bases, and contains 13.76% of repeat elements. Annotation of all the genes in the lysine biosynthetic pathway using comparative genomics and expression analysis offers insights into the high-lysine phenotype. As the first grain species under Caryophyllales and the first C4 dicot genome reported, the work presented here will be beneficial in improving crops and in expanding our understanding of angiosperm evolution. PMID:25071079

  4. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. PMID:20071045

  5. Use of the Illumina GoldenGate assay for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping in cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shiaoman; Lawley, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Highly parallel genotyping assays, such as the GoldenGate assay developed by Illumina, capable of interrogating up to 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously, have greatly facilitated genome-wide studies, particularly for crops with large and complex genome structures. In this report, we provide detailed information and guidelines regarding genomic DNA preparation, SNP assay design, SNP assay protocols, and genotype calling using Illumina's GenomeStudio software. PMID:25373766

  6. Use of the Illumina GoldenGate assay for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping in cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly parallel genotyping assay, such as the GoldenGate assay developed by Illumina, capable of interrogating up to 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously, has greatly facilitated the genome-wide studies particularly for crops with large and complex genome structures. In th...

  7. BREAKFAST CEREALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter written for the Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition summarizes the Cereal Breakfast industry in world up to 2003. The areas covered are the brief history of cereal processing, their classification i.e., ready to eat or hot cereals and their processing methods. It covers the re...

  8. Deciphering the role of NADPH oxidase in complex interactions between maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-07-22

    Plant NADPH oxidases (NOXs) encompass a group of membrane-bound enzymes participating in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions as well as in response to environmental stressors. The purpose of the survey was to unveil the role of NADPH oxidase in pro-oxidative responses of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling leaves exposed to cereal aphids' infestation. The impact of apteral females of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) feeding on expression levels of all four NADPH oxidase genes (rbohA, rbohB, rbohC, rbohD) and total activity of NOX enzyme in maize plants were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effect of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) pre-treatment on NOX activity and hydrogen peroxide content in aphid-stressed maize seedlings was studied. Leaf infestation biotests were accomplished on 14-day-old seedlings representing two aphid-resistant varieties (Ambrozja and Waza) and two aphid-susceptible ones (Tasty Sweet and Złota Karłowa). Insects' attack led to profound upregulation of rbohA and rbohD genes in tested host plants, lower elevations were noted in level of rbohB mRNA, whereas abundance of rbohC transcript was not significantly altered. It was uncovered aphid-induced enhancement of NOX activity in examined plants. Higher increases in expression of all investigated rboh genes and activity of NADPH oxidase occurred in tissues of more resistant maize cultivars than in susceptible ones. Furthermore, DPI treatment resulted in strong reduction of NOX activity and H2O2 accumulation in aphid-infested Z. mays plants, thus evidencing circumstantial role of the enzyme in insect-elicited ROS generation. PMID:27178208

  9. Electronic Cereal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frentrup, Julie R.; Phillips, Donald B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes activities that use Froot Loops breakfast cereal to help students master the concepts of valence electrons and chemical bonding and the implications of the duet and octet rules. Involves students working in groups to create electron dot structures for various compounds. (JRH)

  10. Cereal Germplasm Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm resources for the cereals are available from several sources. This paper discusses the history of germplasm banks, types of germplasm available and where to request seeds for different cereal species from....

  11. Classifying Cereal Data

    Cancer.gov

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  12. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; Hönow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs. PMID:16608223

  13. A positive genotype-phenotype correlation in a large cohort of patients with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ia and Pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism and 33 newly identified mutations in the GNAS gene.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Susanne; Werner, Ralf; Grötzinger, Joachim; Brix, Bettina; Staedt, Pia; Struve, Dagmar; Reiz, Benedikt; Farida, Jennane; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    Maternally inherited inactivating GNAS mutations are the most common cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) leading to pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) due to Gsα deficiency. Paternally inherited inactivating mutations lead to isolated AHO signs characterizing pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). Mutations are distributed throughout the Gsα coding exons of GNAS and there is a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation. In this study, we sequenced exon 1-13 of GNAS in a large cohort of PHPIa- and PPHP patients and identified 58 different mutations in 88 patients and 27 relatives. Thirty-three mutations including 15 missense mutations were newly discovered. Furthermore, we found three hot spots: a known hotspot (p.D190MfsX14), a second at codon 166 (p.R166C), and a third at the exon 5 acceptor splice site (c.435 + 1G>A), found in 15, 5, and 4 unrelated patients, respectively. Comparing the clinical features to the molecular genetic data, a significantly higher occurrence of subcutaneous calcifications in patients harboring truncating versus missense mutations was demonstrated. Thus, in the largest cohort of PHPIa patients described to date, we extend the spectrum of known GNAS mutations and hot spots and demonstrate for the first time a correlation between the genetic defects and the expression of a clinical AHO-feature. PMID:25802881

  14. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  15. Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains

    PubMed Central

    Foroud, Nora A.; Eudes, François

    2009-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity in plants and humans, followed by the current methods of screening and breeding for resistance to FHB and trichothecene accumulation. PMID:19333439

  16. Genotypic variation in the ability of landraces and commercial cereal varieties to avoid manganese deficiency in soils with limited manganese availability: is there a role for root-exuded phytases?

    PubMed

    George, Timothy S; French, Andrew S; Brown, Lawrie K; Karley, Alison J; White, Philip J; Ramsay, Luke; Daniell, Tim J

    2014-07-01

    The marginal agricultural-systems of the Machair in the Western Isles of Scotland often have limited micronutrient availability because of alkaline soils. Traditional landraces of oats, barley and rye are thought to be better adapted to cope with the limited manganese (Mn) availability of these soils. When commercial cultivars are grown on the Machair, limited Mn-availability reduces crop yield and quality. We hypothesised that traditional cereal landraces selected on the Machair acquire Mn more effectively and that this could be linked to exudation of phytase from roots which would release Mn complexed with inositol phosphates. Growth and Mn-acquisition of five landraces and three commercial cultivars of barley and oats were determined in Machair soil. In addition, root phytase activities were assayed under Mn-starvation and sufficiency in hydroponics. In Machair soil, landraces had greater capacity for acquiring Mn and a greater ability to achieve maximum yield compared to the commercial cultivars. Under Mn-starvation, root phytase exudation was upregulated in all plants, suggesting that this trait might allow cereals to acquire more Mn when Mn-availability is limited. In the landraces, exuded phytase activity related positively to relative Mn-accumulation, whereas in the commercial cultivars this relationship was negative, suggesting that this trait may be secondary to an efficiency trait that has been lost from commercial germplasm by breeding. This research shows that cereal landraces possess traits that could be useful for improving the Mn-acquisition of commercial varieties. Exploiting the genetic diversity of landraces could improve the sustainability of agriculture on marginal calcareous lands globally. PMID:24438182

  17. Cereal Box Totems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  18. Extracting Iron from Cereal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students can investigate and evaluate the amount of iron found in most fortified breakfast cereals or cream of wheat. Includes a list of necessary materials, safety precautions, experimental procedure, disposal protocol, and nutritional explanation, utilization, and variations. (JJK)

  19. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  20. Modeling branching in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Jochem B.; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose–response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance. PMID:24133499

  1. Winter cereal canopy effect on cereal and interseeded legume productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeding red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) into winter cereals in the North Central USA can provide forage and a green manure crop. We hypothesize that winter cereal canopy traits such as leaf area index (LAI) and whole plant dry matter (DM) influence interseeded...

  2. Insect vector interations and transmission of cereal infecting Cereal rhabdoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cereal infecting cytorhabdoviruses and nucelorhabdoviruses are transmitted to new plant hosts in a persistent, propagative manner by their leafhopper (Cicadellidae) and planthopper (Fulgoroidea) vectors. We discuss our current knowledge of virus acquisition by, replication and movement in, and ...

  3. Camelina: Adaptation and performance of genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) has shown potential as an alternative and biofuel crop in cereal-based cropping systems. Our study investigated the adaption, performance, and yield stability among camelina genotypes across diverse US Pacific Northwest (PNW) environments. Seven named camelina ge...

  4. Pseudo-outbreak of pre-extensively drug-resistant (Pre-XDR) tuberculosis in Kinshasa: collateral damage caused by false detection of fluoroquinolone resistance by GenoType MTBDRsl.

    PubMed

    Kaswa, Michel K; Aloni, Muriel; Nkuku, Léontine; Bakoko, Brian; Lebeke, Rossin; Nzita, Albert; Muyembe, Jean Jacques; de Jong, Bouke C; de Rijk, Pim; Verhaegen, Jan; Boelaert, Marleen; Ieven, Margareta; Van Deun, Armand

    2014-08-01

    Fluoroquinolones are the core drugs for the management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Molecular drug susceptibility testing methods provide considerable advantages for scaling up programmatic management and surveillance of drug-resistant TB. We describe here the misidentification of fluoroquinolone resistance by the GenoType MTBDRsl (MTBDRsl) (Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) line probe assay (LPA) encountered during a feasibility and validation study for the introduction of this rapid drug susceptibility test in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The double gyrA mutation 80Ala and 90Gly represented 57% of all fluoroquinolone mutations identified from MDR-TB patient sputum samples, as confirmed by DNA sequencing. This double mutation was previously found to be associated with susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, yet it leads to absent hybridization of a wild-type band in the MTBDRsl and is thus falsely scored as resistance. Our findings suggest that MTBDRsl results must be interpreted with caution when the interpretation is based solely on the absence of a wild-type band without confirmation by visualization of a mutant band. Performance of the MTBDRsl LPA might be improved by replacing the gyrA wild-type probes by additional probes specific for well-documented gyrA mutations that confer clinically relevant resistance. PMID:24871222

  5. Influence of host and geographic locale on the distribution of Colletotrichum cereale lineages.

    PubMed

    Beirn, Lisa A; Clarke, Bruce B; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2014-01-01

    Colletotrichum cereale is an ascomycete inhabitant of cool-season Pooideae grasses. The fungus has increased in frequency over the past decade as a destructive pathogen of Poa annua and Agrostis stolonifera turfgrass. Colletotrichum cereale exists as two lineages, designated clades A and B, but little is known about the distribution of these clades in natural environments, or what role these subdivisions may play in the trajectory of disease outbreaks. In this study, our objective was to determine the frequency of C. cereale clades A and B. To rapidly discriminate between the two C. cereale clades, a real-time PCR assay was developed based on the Apn2 gene. A collection of 700 C. cereale pathogens and endophytes from twenty Pooideae grass genera were genotyped. 87% of the collection was identifed as part of clade A, 11.7% as part of clade B, and 1.3% was a mixture. Colletotrichum cereale from turfgrass hosts in North America were most commonly members of clade A (78%). The overabundance of clade A in turfgrass isolates was directly attributable to the dominance of this lineage from southern sampling sites, irrespective of host. In contrast, 111 C. cereale turfgrass isolates collected from northern sampling sites were evenly distributed between clades A and B. Only 28% of C. cereale from A. stolonifera at northern sampling sites were part of clade A. These data show that environmental factors such as geographic location and host identity likely played a role in the distribution of the major C. cereale clades in North American turfgrass. PMID:24842654

  6. Influence of Host and Geographic Locale on the Distribution of Colletotrichum cereale Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Beirn, Lisa A.; Clarke, Bruce B.; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2014-01-01

    Colletotrichum cereale is an ascomycete inhabitant of cool-season Pooideae grasses. The fungus has increased in frequency over the past decade as a destructive pathogen of Poa annua and Agrostis stolonifera turfgrass. Colletotrichum cereale exists as two lineages, designated clades A and B, but little is known about the distribution of these clades in natural environments, or what role these subdivisions may play in the trajectory of disease outbreaks. In this study, our objective was to determine the frequency of C. cereale clades A and B. To rapidly discriminate between the two C. cereale clades, a real-time PCR assay was developed based on the Apn2 gene. A collection of 700 C. cereale pathogens and endophytes from twenty Pooideae grass genera were genotyped. 87% of the collection was identifed as part of clade A, 11.7% as part of clade B, and 1.3% was a mixture. Colletotrichum cereale from turfgrass hosts in North America were most commonly members of clade A (78%). The overabundance of clade A in turfgrass isolates was directly attributable to the dominance of this lineage from southern sampling sites, irrespective of host. In contrast, 111 C. cereale turfgrass isolates collected from northern sampling sites were evenly distributed between clades A and B. Only 28% of C. cereale from A. stolonifera at northern sampling sites were part of clade A. These data show that environmental factors such as geographic location and host identity likely played a role in the distribution of the major C. cereale clades in North American turfgrass. PMID:24842654

  7. The Cereal Box Problem Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the cereal box problem using both an experimental and theoretical framework, and Monte Carlo methods. Using empirical data, students can discover patterns and relationships that help them understand the origin of the theoretical solution to the problem. Contains 17 references. (Author/ASK)

  8. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  9. On pseudo-Boolean polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leont'ev, V. K.

    2015-11-01

    A pseudo-Boolean function is an arbitrary mapping of the set of binary n-tuples to the real line. Such functions are a natural generalization of classical Boolean functions and find numerous applications in various applied studies. Specifically, the Fourier transform of a Boolean function is a pseudo-Boolean function. A number of facts associated with pseudo-Boolean polynomials are presented, and their applications to well-known discrete optimization problems are described.

  10. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  11. Cereal transformation through particle bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, A. M.; Kononowicz, A. K.; Bressan, R. A.; Hasegawa, P. M.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The review focuses on experiments that lead to stable transformation in cereals using microprojectile bombardment. The discussion of biological factors that affect transformation examines target tissues and vector systems for gene transfer. The vector systems include reporter genes, selectable markers, genes of agronomic interest, and vector constructions. Other topics include physical parameters that affect DNA delivery, selection of stably transformed cells and plant regeneration, and analysis of gene expression and transmission to the progeny.

  12. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  13. Impacts of Cereal Ergot in Food Animal Production.

    PubMed

    Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total), reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and rye, favoring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements that may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids, including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety, and genotype. Considerable animal-to-animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors, such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome. PMID:26942186

  14. Impacts of Cereal Ergot in Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total), reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and rye, favoring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements that may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids, including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety, and genotype. Considerable animal-to-animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors, such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome. PMID:26942186

  15. Evaluating Healthful Properties of Cereals and Cereal Fractions by Their Bile-Acid-Binding Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The healthful, cholesterol-lowering (atherosclerosis amelioration) or detoxification of harmful metabolites (cancer prevention) potential of cereals and cereal fractions could be predicted by evaluating their in vitro bile acid binding under physiological conditions. Using equal dry matter per incu...

  16. Evaluation of Breakfast Cereals and Cereal Advertising by a Young Adult Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnard, Alice

    A study examined the knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition in general and specifically toward cold breakfast cereals and cereal advertising with different creative appeals. Subjects, 117 undergraduate university students, completed a questionnaire about their use of cold breakfast cereal and their sources of information about nutrition.…

  17. Pseudo Linear Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2003-01-01

    Previous high fidelity onboard attitude algorithms estimated only the spacecraft attitude and gyro bias. The desire to promote spacecraft and ground autonomy and improvements in onboard computing power has spurred development of more sophisticated calibration algorithms. Namely, there is a desire to provide for sensor calibration through calibration parameter estimation onboard the spacecraft as well as autonomous estimation on the ground. Gyro calibration is a particularly challenging area of research. There are a variety of gyro devices available for any prospective mission ranging from inexpensive low fidelity gyros with potentially unstable scale factors to much more expensive extremely stable high fidelity units. Much research has been devoted to designing dedicated estimators such as particular Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithms or Square Root Information Filters. This paper builds upon previous attitude, rate, and specialized gyro parameter estimation work performed with Pseudo Linear Kalman Filter (PSELIKA). The PSELIKA advantage is the use of the standard linear Kalman Filter algorithm. A PSELIKA algorithm for an orthogonal gyro set which includes estimates of attitude, rate, gyro misalignments, gyro scale factors, and gyro bias is developed and tested using simulated and flight data. The measurements PSELIKA uses include gyro and quaternion tracker data.

  18. Metabolic and regulatory networks for cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gramene is an open-source, curated comparative plant genomics database (www.gramene.org). In order to represent the metabolomes of cereal crops and thereby support their analysis and comparison, we develop and curate pathway databases for cereal species. The Gramene portal includes pathways for rice...

  19. Shakespeare Cereals: A Popular Culture Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Offers an exercise involving popular culture to help students experience the contemporary power of Shakespeare. Explains that after reading a Shakespeare play, students develop new cereal brands based upon the work's plot, characters, or themes, afterward naming, designing, creating, and displaying the cereal package. Combines literary analysis,…

  20. Functional genomic approaches in cereal rusts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal rust fungi are pathogens of major importance to agriculture, threatening cereal production world-wide. Targeted breeding for resistance, based on information from fungal surveys and population structure analyses of virulence, has been effective. Nevertheless, breakdown of resistance occurs fr...

  1. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…

  2. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria: exploration of non-wheat cereal-based fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view. PMID:24230473

  3. BARLEY DISEASES, GENETICS, AND GENOTYPING: FOR A FEW DOLLARS MORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the barley-related research programs within the Cereal Crops Research Unit will be presented, followed by a brief overview of plans and progress in establishing an ARS Genotyping Laboratory. Topics covered will include research on virus diseases of barley, particularly research ...

  4. On pseudo-stochastic matrices and pseudo-positive maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chruściński, D.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Ventriglia, F.

    2015-11-01

    Stochastic matrices and positive maps in matrix algebras have proved to be very important tools for analysing classical and quantum systems. In particular they represent a natural set of transformations for classical and quantum states, respectively. Here we introduce the notion of pseudo-stochastic matrices and consider their semigroup property. Unlike stochastic matrices, pseudo-stochastic matrices are permitted to have matrix elements which are negative while respecting the requirement that the sum of the elements of each column is one. They also allow for convex combinations, and carry a Lie group structure which permits the introduction of Lie algebra generators. The quantum analog of a pseudo-stochastic matrix exists and is called a pseudo-positive map. They have the property of transforming a subset of quantum states (characterized by maximal purity or minimal von Neumann entropy requirements) into quantum states. Examples of qubit dynamics connected with ‘diamond’ sets of stochastic matrices and pseudo-positive maps are dealt with.

  5. Cereal grains and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Truswell, A S

    2002-01-01

    Cereal grains and their products provide around 30% of total energy intake in British adults, (much more than any of the other major food groups). Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the largest single cause of death in Britain and many other Western countries. This review examines the question whether there is a relation between cereal consumption and CHD. Several of the nutrients in cereals have known potential for reducing risk factors for CHD: the linoleic acid, fibre, vitamin E, selenium and folate. Cereals also contain phytoestrogens of the lignan family and several phenolic acids with antioxidant properties. Processing generally reduces the content of these nutrients and bioprotective substances. Although cereals at the farm gate are very low in salt, processed cereal foods, eg bread and some breakfast cereals, are high-salt foods and thus could contribute to raising blood pressure. Human experiments have clearly shown that oat fibre tends to lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol but wheat fibre does not. Rice bran and barley may also lower cholesterol but most people do not eat enough barley to have an effect. Cereal foods with low glycaemic index such as pasta and oats are beneficial for people with diabetes and might lower plasma lipids. Between 1996 and 2001 an accumulation of five very large cohort studies in the USA, Finland and Norway have all reported that subjects consuming relatively large amounts of whole grain cereals have significantly lower rates of CHD. This confirms an earlier report from a small British cohort. The protective effect does not seem to be due to cholesterol-lowering. While cohort studies have shown this consistent protective effect of whole grain cereals, there has been (only one) randomised controlled secondary prevention trial of advice to eat more cereal fibre. In this there was no reduction of the rate of reinfarction. The trial had some weaknesses, eg there were eight different diets, compliance was not checked objectively

  6. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

  7. Iron in Breakfast Cereal. Demonstrations for National Chemistry Week 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.; Maynard, James

    2004-11-01

    Cereal manufacturers have a few choices for how they include iron in their products. Some cereal manufacturers prefer to add particles of pure iron metal (called elemental iron or reduced iron) because elemental iron is stable in storage and does not affect the cereal's flavor. General Mills' brand-name "Total" is one such cereal. The addition of this strongly magnetic form of iron allows "Total" cereal to be used in the two demonstrations described in this article. In the first, a flake of "Total" cereal is inserted between the two poles of a permanent magnet. The iron in the cereal allows the flake to remain suspended between the two poles. The second uses crushed "Total" cereal and a neodymium magnet. The crushed cereal is scattered over clear Plexiglas and the magnet can be moved around underneath. This drags the iron filings through the crushed cereal.

  8. Grass Hosts Harbor More Diverse Isolates of Puccinia striiformis Than Cereal Crops.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P; Chen, X M; See, D R

    2016-04-01

    Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on cereal crops and many grass species. However, it is not clear whether the stripe rust populations on grasses are able to infect cereal crops and how closely they are related to each other. In this study, 103 isolates collected from wheat, barley, triticale, rye, and grasses in the United States were characterized by virulence tests and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Of 69 pathotypes identified, 41 were virulent on some differentials of wheat only, 10 were virulent on some differentials of barley only, and 18 were virulent on some differentials of both wheat and barley. These pathotypes were clustered into three groups: group one containing isolates from wheat, triticale, rye, and grasses; group two isolates were from barley and grasses; and group three isolates were from grasses and wheat. SSR markers identified 44 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and clustered them into three major molecular groups (MG) with MLGs in MG3 further classified into three subgroups. Isolates from cereal crops were present in one or more of the major or subgroups, but not all, whereas grass isolates were present in all of the major and subgroups. The results indicate that grasses harbor more diverse isolates of P. striiformis than the cereals. PMID:26667189

  9. Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Charalampopoulos, D; Wang, R; Pandiella, S S; Webb, C

    2002-11-15

    The food industry is directing new product development towards the area of functional foods and functional food ingredients due to consumers' demand for healthier foods. In this respect, probiotic dairy foods containing human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species and prebiotic food formulations containing ingredients that cannot be digested by the human host in the upper gastrointestinal tract and can selectively stimulate the growth of one or a limited number of colonic bacteria have been recently introduced into the market. The aim of these products is to affect beneficially the gut microbial composition and activities. Cereals offer another alternative for the production of functional foods. The multiple beneficial effects of cereals can be exploited in different ways leading to the design of novel cereal foods or cereal ingredients that can target specific populations. Cereals can be used as fermentable substrates for the growth of probiotic microorganisms. The main parameters that have to be considered are the composition and processing of the cereal grains, the substrate formulation, the growth capability and productivity of the starter culture, the stability of the probiotic strain during storage, the organoleptic properties and the nutritional value of the final product. Additionally, cereals can be used as sources of nondigestible carbohydrates that besides promoting several beneficial physiological effects can also selectively stimulate the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria present in the colon and act as prebiotics. Cereals contain water-soluble fibre, such as beta-glucan and arabinoxylan, oilgosaccharides, such as galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides and resistant starch, which have been suggested to fulfil the prebiotic concept. Separation of specific fractions of fibre from different cereal varieties or cereal by-products, according to the knowledge of fibre distribution in cereal grains, could be achieved through processing

  10. Molecular Genetics of Disease Resistance in Cereals

    PubMed Central

    AYLIFFE, MICHAEL A.; LAGUDAH, EVANS S.

    2004-01-01

    • Aims This Botanical Briefing attempts to summarize what is currently known about the molecular bases of disease resistance in cereal species and suggests future research directions. • Scope An increasing number of resistance (R) genes have been isolated from rice, maize, wheat and barley that encode both structurally related and unique proteins. This R protein diversity may be attributable to the different modus operandi employed by pathogen species in some cases, but it is also a consequence of multiple defence strategies being employed against phytopathogens. Mutational analysis of barley has identified additional genes required for activation of an R gene-mediated defence response upon pathogen infection. In some instances very closely related barley R proteins require different proteins for defence activation, demonstrating that, within a single plant species, multiple resistance signalling pathways and different resistance strategies have evolved to confer protection against a single pathogen species. Despite the apparent diversity of cereal resistance mechanisms, some of the additional molecules required for R protein function are conserved amongst cereal and dicotyledonous species and even other eukaryotic species. Thus the derivation of functional homologues and interacting partner proteins from other species is contributing to the understanding of resistance signalling in cereals. The potential and limit of utilizing the rice genome sequence for further R gene isolation from cereal species is also considered, as are the new biotechnological possibilities for disease control arising from R gene isolation. • Conclusions Molecular analyses in cereals have further highlighted the complexity of plant–pathogen co-evolution and have shown that numerous active and passive defence strategies are employed by plants against phytopathogens. Many advances in understanding the molecular basis of disease resistance in cereals have focused on monogenic

  11. Compressed Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv; Gordon, Assaf; Brand, Michael; Hannon, Gregory J.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have steadily increased our knowledge on the genetic basis of many severe disorders. Nevertheless, there are still great challenges in applying this knowledge routinely in the clinic, mainly due to the relatively tedious and expensive process of genotyping. Since the genetic variations that underlie the disorders are relatively rare in the population, they can be thought of as a sparse signal. Using methods and ideas from compressed sensing and group testing, we have developed a cost-effective genotyping protocol to detect carriers for severe genetic disorders. In particular, we have adapted our scheme to a recently developed class of high throughput DNA sequencing technologies. The mathematical framework presented here has some important distinctions from the ’traditional’ compressed sensing and group testing frameworks in order to address biological and technical constraints of our setting. PMID:21451737

  12. Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals.

    PubMed

    Monro, John A

    2002-01-01

    Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE

  13. Inertial pseudo star reference unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luniewicz, Michael F.; Woodbury, Dale T.; Gilmore, Jerold P.; Chien, Tze T.

    1994-05-01

    Advanced space systems for earth observation sensing and defense applications share a common objective: high-resolution monitoring. They require subsystems that accurately provide precise line-of-sight (LOS) pointing of the monitoring sensor with extreme jitter suppression and a precision attitude control system. To address this objective, Draper has developed a pointing system, the Inertial Pseudo Star Reference Unit (IPSRU). The IPSRU effort is a DARPA and SDI sponsored program at Draper under contract with the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The IPSRU implements a collimated light source mounted on a wide-band, extremely low-noise inertially stabilized platform. The collimated light beam becomes, in effect, a jitter-stabilized pseudo star. In addition, its direction in inertial space can be pointed at a precise rate by commands applied to the platform.

  14. Allelic variation at a single gene increases food value in a drought-tolerant staple cereal.

    PubMed

    Gilding, Edward K; Frère, Celine H; Cruickshank, Alan; Rada, Anna K; Prentis, Peter J; Mudge, Agnieszka M; Mace, Emma S; Jordan, David R; Godwin, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The production of adequate agricultural outputs to support the growing human population places great demands on agriculture, especially in light of ever-greater restrictions on input resources. Sorghum is a drought-adapted cereal capable of reliable production where other cereals fail, and thus represents a good candidate to address food security as agricultural inputs of water and arable land grow scarce. A long-standing issue with sorghum grain is that it has an inherently lower digestibility. Here we show that a low-frequency allele type in the starch metabolic gene, pullulanase, is associated with increased digestibility, regardless of genotypic background. We also provide evidence that the beneficial allele type is not associated with deleterious pleiotropic effects in the modern field environment. We argue that increasing the digestibility of an adapted crop is a viable way forward towards addressing food security while maximizing water and land-use efficiency. PMID:23403584

  15. Genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Degewione, A; Alamerew, S

    2013-11-01

    Wheat is one most important cereal crops grown in Ethiopia. Yet, keeping in view insufficient information on exotic bread wheat genotypes is limiting the access to useful traits present among the genotypes in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity among bread wheat genotypes. Twenty six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes obtained from ICARDA-CIMMYT were tested at Gode and Kelafo research sites at three cropping seasons (2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12) under irrigation. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Ten agronomic traits were included in the study. The mean values, ranges and the coefficient of variation of the 10 characters indicated the existence of sufficient variability among genotypes. Multivariate techniques were used to classify 26 bread wheat genotypes. Principal component analysis showed that the first six principal components explained about 91.87% of the total variation. D2 analysis showed the 26 bread wheat genotypes grouped into six clusters. This made to become moderate diversity among the genotypes. The crosses between genotypes selected from cluster-III with cluster-VI and cluster V with cluster VI are expected to produce better genetic recombination and segregation in their progenies. Therefore, these bread wheat genotypes need to be crossed and selected to develop high yielding pure line variety. PMID:24511742

  16. Genotyping methods.

    PubMed

    Tümmler, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping allows for the identification of bacterial isolates to the strain level and provides basic information about the evolutionary biology, population biology, taxonomy, ecology, and genetics of bacteria. Depending on the underlying question and available resources, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains may be typed by anonymous fingerprinting techniques or electronically portable sequence-based typing methods such as multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing, or oligonucleotide microarray. Macrorestriction fragment pattern analysis is a genotyping method that is globally applicable to all bacteria and hence has been and still is the reference method for strain typing in bacteriology. Agarose-embedded chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a rare-cutting restriction endonuclease and the generated 20-70 fragments are then separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The chapter provides a detailed step-by-step manual for SpeI genome fingerprinting of Pseudomonas chromosomes that has been optimized for SpeI fragment pattern analysis of P. aeruginosa. PMID:24818895

  17. Pseudo-hypertriglyceridaemia or hyperglycerolemia?

    PubMed

    Arrobas-Velilla, T; Mondéjar-García, R; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Cañizares Díaz, I; Cruz Mengibar, M C; Orive de Diego, A; Fabiani-Romero, F

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycerolemia is a very rare genetic disorder caused by glycerol kinase deficiency. Although usually is presented unexpectedly in routine checks, there are severe forms, especially in children. In general, glycerol and glycerol kinase activity analyses are not included in routine laboratory determination. Glycerol presents positive interferences with some biochemical analytic techniques, e.g. in serum triglycerides and plasma ethylene glycol levels assays. Here, we report a Spanish patient with a pseudo-hypertriglyceridaemia, a falsely elevated triglycerides concentration that was not corrected with lipid-lowering therapy for 3 years. PMID:23877006

  18. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  19. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Cereal Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of five cereal grains (wheat, corn, barley, oats, and grain sorghum) were 19 measured at 23 oC over broad microwave frequency range (5 GHz to 15 GHz) with a free-space-transmission 20 technique. Results of dielectric properties measurement are tabulated for each material for mo...

  20. Breakfast cereal sampling study for nutritional elements

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laura J.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Phillips, Melissa M.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Heckert, N. Alan; Leigh, Stefan D.; Moors, Amanda J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Rust, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has established a Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program (DSQAP) in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (NIH-ODS). The DSQAP invites laboratories twice annually to participate in interlaboratory studies where participants elect to measure concentrations of nutritional and/or toxic elements as well as active and/or marker compounds. One of these studies was designed to determine the effects of material granularity and sample processing techniques on measurement variability (precision) as well as to provide participating laboratories information on their performance relative to the NIST assigned values (bias) and to the other participants (concordance). Participants were asked to determine the mass fractions of Ca, Fe, and Zn, in mg/kg, in six breakfast cereal samples. Cereal samples consisted of three ground materials (homogenized wheat, wheat, and rice), two flake materials (wheat and rice) and a partially crushed material (a wheat/rice mixture). In general, approximately 25 % of the laboratories processed and analyzed the suite of six cereal materials with adequate to exemplary measurement precision. Over half of the laboratories (60 %) experienced measurement issues related to only a particular type of cereal matrix or for only a single element. A small number (15 %) of laboratories experienced significant sample processing or measurement problems. Future studies planned by the DSQAP may be designed to use commercial products to aid laboratories with their sampling and analytical techniques. PMID:23380950

  1. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  2. Pseudo force acting between bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Abhinav Ray; Deva, Anish; Sarma, Arun

    It has been shown that a non-contact force acts between two macroscopic physical objects held close together, which is not associated with the gravitational and electrostatic force. An experiment was conducted with objects of different mass, material and geometry to find the magnitude and properties of this apparent or pseudo force. The order of magnitude was found to be 10-5 and it remained constant for all types of objects while only the coefficient increased as the distance between the objects reduced. It only started acting at small distances and failed to make a body move if it experienced static friction from any contact surface. The nature of the force was found to be attractive as well as repulsive. Due to gravitation being a solely attractive force, it was eliminated as a possible reason for the pseudo force. The experiment was performed twice, once by grounding the apparatus and then again without grounding. The order of the force remained the same for both cases. As the test objects were held by hand, they were grounded through the human body. Also, none of the objects used were in contact with each other for the duration of this work, preventing any contact electrification. Due to these factors, the force was not considered electrostatic in nature.

  3. Acroangiodermatitis (Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Manchanda, Kajal

    2014-01-01

    Acroangiodermatitis or Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a rare angioproliferative entity, related to chronic venous insufficiency or certain other vascular anomalies. It is often associated with chronic venous insufficiency, arteriovenous malformation of the legs, chronic renal failure treated with dialysis, paralyzed legs and amputation stumps. We hereby describe a case of 45 year old female presenting with pitting pedal edema, multiple ulcers over bilateral lower limbs with irregular margins with erythema and hyperpigmentation of the surrounding skin. Color Doppler study of bilateral lower limbs was normal. Histopathological examination from one of the lesions showed hyperplastic epidermis, proliferation of capillaries in dermis, hemosiderin deposits and lymphocytic infiltrate. These features thus confirmed the diagnosis of Acroangiodermatitis. PMID:25165656

  4. Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Panganamamula, Kashyap V; Parkman, Henry P

    2005-02-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder characterized by chronic symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction in the absence of a fixed, lumen-occluding lesion. Radiographic findings consist of dilated bowel with air-fluid levels. Pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon condition and can result from primary or secondary causes. The management is primarily focused on symptom control and nutritional support to prevent weight loss and malnutrition. The principles of management of patients with CIP involve 1) establishing a correct clinical diagnosis and excluding mechanical obstruction; 2) differentiating between idiopathic and secondary forms; 3) performing a symptomatic and physiologic assessment of the parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract involved by manometric and whole gut transit scintigraphic studies; 4) careful assessment of nutritional status of the patient; and 5) developing a therapeutic plan addressing the patient's symptoms and nutritional status. Treatment of CIP includes frequent small meals with a low-fat, low-fiber diet, liquid nutritional supplements may be needed; prokinetic agents such as metoclopramide may help to reduce upper GI symptoms. Trials of drugs such as erythromycin, domperidone, cisapride, and tegaserod may be considered if there is no response. Subcutaneous octreotide may be helpful to improve small bowel dysmotility especially in patients with scleroderma. In patients with symptoms suggestive of bacterial overgrowth, courses of antibiotics such as metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline may be needed. Nutritional assessment and support is an important aspect of management. Enteral nutrition is usually preferred. In carefully selected patients, feeding jejunostomy with or without decompression gastrostomy may be tried. Long term parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who can not tolerate enteral nutrition. Complications associated with total parenteral nutrition include

  5. Molecular Approaches to Understand Nutritional Potential of Coarse Cereals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Rakesh; Subramani, Rajkumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash P

    2016-06-01

    Coarse grains are important group of crops that constitutes staple food for large population residing primarily in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Coarse grains are designated as nutri-cereals as they are rich in essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins. In spite of having several nutritional virtues in coarse grain as mentioned above, there is still scope for improvement in quality parameters such as cooking qualities, modulation of nutritional constituents and reduction or elimination of anti-nutritional factors. Besides its use in traditional cooking, coarse grains have been used mainly in the weaning food preparation and other malted food production. Improvement in quality parameters will certainly increase consumer's preference for coarse grains and increase their demand. The overall genetic gain in quality traits of economic importance in the cultivated varieties will enhance their industrial value and simultaneously increase income of farmers growing these varieties. The urgent step for improvement of quality traits in coarse grains requires a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms responsible for varied level of different nutritional contents in different genotypes of these crops. In this review we have discussed the progresses made in understanding of coarse grain biology with various omics tool coupled with modern breeding approaches and the current status with regard to our effort towards dissecting traits related to improvement of quality and nutritional constituents of grains. PMID:27252585

  6. Fumonisins, Trichothecenes and Zearalenone in Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Yazar, Selma; Omurtag, Gülden Z.

    2008-01-01

    Fumonisins are phytotoxic mycotoxins which are synthesized by various species of the fungal genus Fusarium such as Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (ex F.moniliforme Sheldon) and Fusarium proliferatum. The trichothecene (TC) mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produce by species that belong to several fungal genera, especially Fusarium, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Trichoderma, Memnoniella and Myrothecium. Fusarium mycotoxins are widely dispersed in cereals and their products. Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic compound produced by Fusarium spp. such as F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Fumonisins, the TCs and ZEA are hazardous for human and animal health. Contamination with TCs causes a number of illnesses in human and animal such as decrease in food consumption (anorexia), depression or inhibition on immune system function and haematoxicity. The purpose of this paper is to give a review of the papers published on the field of fumonisin, TC and ZEA mycotoxins in cereals consumed in the world. PMID:19330061

  7. Determination of phosphorus in cereal lipids.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, M I

    1986-05-01

    The effect of digestion methods on the determination of phosphorus in cereal lipids was reinvestigated. Samples were either digested with sulfuric acid or ashed in a muffle furnace at 600 degrees C. The standard deviation and the coefficient of variation were significantly higher for the acid-digested samples. Ashing gave more reliable results, especially when large amounts of lipid material had to be oxidized. PMID:3728960

  8. Nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals. Are they improving?

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Walker, Karen Z; Gill, Timothy P

    2012-10-01

    The nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals is not systematically monitored despite the importance of breakfast for general health. We examined whether the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals has improved between 2004 and 2010, and whether any change could be detected after the introduction of Daily Intake Guide (DIG) front-of-pack labelling. Supermarket surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010 using the same methodology to collect information from the nutrition information panels of Australian breakfast cereals and the nutrient content of cereals was compared by year. Breakfast cereals with and without DIG labelling in 2010 were also compared. Nutritional quality was assessed using UK Traffic Light criteria. No significant difference was detected in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals between 2004 and 2010. There was no notable improvement in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals marketed as the same product in both years. Overall there has been little improvement in the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals in the 6 year period. A large proportion of Australian breakfast cereals were considered high sugar. In conclusion, the introduction of DIG labelling does not appear to have promoted product reformulation, and breakfast cereals carrying DIG labels were not consistently healthier. PMID:22728950

  9. Therapeutic Effect of Cereal Grains: A Review.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Poonam; Kaushik, Geetanjali

    2016-04-01

    Over the last few decades, life style changes have resulted in drastic increase in the incidence of diabetes all over the world, especially in the developing countries. Oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin form the main stay in controlling diabetes but they have prominent side effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications. Appropriate diet and exercise programs that form a part of lifestyle modifications have proven to be greatly effective in the management of this disease. Dietary therapy is showing a bright future in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Cereal grains which form the staple diet for humans in most of the countries are increasingly being used to treat diabetes and other associated disorders in view of their anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic potential. Given this background, this paper reviews the possible mechanisms of lowering blood sugar and cholesterol levels possessed by various commonly consumed cereal grains. It is concluded that cereal grains are not only the potential sources of energy but also possess the therapeutic role in preventing metabolic disorders and decreasing the risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases. PMID:25746052

  10. Genetic transformation of major cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Xu, Xing; Wang, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Of the more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, at least 10,000 species are cereal grains. Three major cereal crops, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum sp.), provide two-thirds of the world's food energy intake. Although crop yields have improved tremendously thanks to technological advances in the past 50 years, population increases and climate changes continue to threaten the sustainability of current crop productions. Whereas conventional and marker-assisted breeding programs continue to play a major role in crop improvement, genetic engineering has drawn an intense worldwide interest from the scientific community. In the past decade, genetic transformation technologies have revolutionized agricultural practices and millions of hectares of biotech crops have been cultured. Because of its unique ability to insert well-characterized gene sequences into the plant genome, genetic engineering can also provide effective tools to address fundamental biological questions. This technology is expected to continue to be an indispensable approach for both basic and applied research. Here, we overview briefly the development of the genetic transformation in the top seven cereals, namely maize, rice, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum sp.), oat (Avena sativa), and millets. The advantages and disadvantages of the two major transformation methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated and biolistic methods, are also discussed. PMID:24166432

  11. Evolutionary ecology of the wild cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Blumler, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The evolutionary ecology of the Near Eastern wild cereal grasses sheds light on the environmental conditions under which the Neolithic Revolution took place. Globally, as well as in the Near East, the annual habit, large seed size, and seasonal drought are associated with each other and with agricultural origins. The connection with agricultural appears to involve ease of cultivation and necessity for seasonal storage rather than hunter-gatherer preference for large seeds. The Near Eastern wild cereal species separate ecologically according to seasonality of precipitation, primarily, though there may also be minor differences in temperature and edaphic tolerances. This reflects the evolution, over the course of the Quaternary, of species with increased seed size in response to increasingly pronounced seasonal drought. Wild emmer and wild barley, the progenitors of perhaps the very first domesticates, are evolutionary monstrosities that represent the culmination of this trend. The possibly complex changes in seasonality, aridity, and atmospheric CO2 during the millenia leading up to the Neolithic should have produced equally complex, but to some extent predictable, changes in the abundance and distribution of the different wild cereal species.

  12. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  13. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rowan A C; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain. PMID:24817784

  14. In vitro analysis of zinc solubility in breakfast cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, L.R.; Carlson, M.S.; King, J.C. )

    1991-03-15

    Breakfast cereals are often fortified with zinc (Zn), as well as other minerals. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the grain matrix of the cereal affects the solubility of the Zn. Ten whole or mixed-grain cereals were analyzed for Zn content by AAS, and Zn solubility was assessed by an in vitro digestion method. Cereals used were fortified with Zn to 100% US RDA, 25% US RDA, and non-fortified . An in vitro digestion method was developed using pepsin and pancreatin, followed by a filtration step, in order to determine the percent of Zn released from the matrix, defined as Zn solubility. The 100% fortified cereals yielded 19-35% soluble Zn, the 25% fortified cereals yielded 6-25% soluble Zn, and the non-fortified cereals yielded 0-17% soluble Zn. Those fortified cereals containing corn, rice, oat, or wheat as the primary ingredient showed decreasing Zn solubility values of 31-35%, 25%, 23%, and 6-20%, respectively. Theoretically, only the soluble Zn would be available for absorption, suggesting that these results may give a rough estimation of Zn bioavailability. In general, a 100% Zn-may give a rough estimation of Zn bioavailability. In general, a 100% Zn-fortified cereal will provide more available Zn than a 25% or non-fortified cereal, and the extent of availability depends in part on the grain matrix of the cereal. Those Zn-fortified cereals containing grains other than wheat may provide a more absorbable Zn source.

  15. Tube surfaces in pseudo-Galilean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dede, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce the tube surfaces in pseudo-Galilean 3-space. We classify the tube surfaces into two types according to the spine curve which generates the tube surface in pseudo-Galilean space. Moreover, we show that both types of tube surfaces are spacelike surfaces. Then, we begin to study the local geometry of the tube surfaces. We obtain the first and second fundamental forms of the tube surfaces. In addition, we investigate the Gauss and mean curvatures of the tube surfaces in pseudo-Galilean space.

  16. Oxidative Metabolism of Rye (Secale cereale L.) after Short Term Exposure to Aluminum: Uncovering the Glutathione–Ascorbate Redox Network

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Alexandra; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Han, Asard; Teixeira, Jorge; Matos, Manuela; Fidalgo, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    One of the major limitations to plant growth and yield in acidic soils is the prevalence of soluble aluminum ions (Al3+) in the soil solution, which can irreversible damage the root apex cells. Nonetheless, many Al-tolerant species overcome Al toxicity and are well-adapted to acidic soils, being able to complete their life cycle under such stressful conditions. At this point, the complex physiological and biochemical processes inherent to Al tolerance remain unclear, especially in what concerns the behavior of antioxidant enzymes and stress indicators at early plant development. Since rye (Secale cereale L.), is considered the most Al-tolerant cereal, in this study we resort to seedlings of two genotypes with different Al sensitivities in order to evaluate their oxidative metabolism after short term Al exposure. Al-induced toxicity and antioxidant responses were dependent on rye genotype, organ and exposure period. Al affected biomass production and membrane integrity in roots and leaves of the sensitive (RioDeva) genotype. Catalase was the primary enzyme involved in H2O2 detoxification in the tolerant (Beira) genotype, while in RioDeva this task was mainly performed by GPX and POX. Evaluation of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle, as well the oxalate content, revealed that Beira genotype coped with Al stress by converting DHA into oxalate and tartarate, which posteriorly may bind to Al forming non-toxic chelates. In contrast, RioDeva genotype used a much more ineffective strategy which passed through ascorbate regeneration. So, remarkable differences between MDHAR and DHAR activities appear to be the key for a higher Al tolerance. PMID:27252711

  17. Oxidative Metabolism of Rye (Secale cereale L.) after Short Term Exposure to Aluminum: Uncovering the Glutathione-Ascorbate Redox Network.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Alexandra; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Han, Asard; Teixeira, Jorge; Matos, Manuela; Fidalgo, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    One of the major limitations to plant growth and yield in acidic soils is the prevalence of soluble aluminum ions (Al(3+)) in the soil solution, which can irreversible damage the root apex cells. Nonetheless, many Al-tolerant species overcome Al toxicity and are well-adapted to acidic soils, being able to complete their life cycle under such stressful conditions. At this point, the complex physiological and biochemical processes inherent to Al tolerance remain unclear, especially in what concerns the behavior of antioxidant enzymes and stress indicators at early plant development. Since rye (Secale cereale L.), is considered the most Al-tolerant cereal, in this study we resort to seedlings of two genotypes with different Al sensitivities in order to evaluate their oxidative metabolism after short term Al exposure. Al-induced toxicity and antioxidant responses were dependent on rye genotype, organ and exposure period. Al affected biomass production and membrane integrity in roots and leaves of the sensitive (RioDeva) genotype. Catalase was the primary enzyme involved in H2O2 detoxification in the tolerant (Beira) genotype, while in RioDeva this task was mainly performed by GPX and POX. Evaluation of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as well the oxalate content, revealed that Beira genotype coped with Al stress by converting DHA into oxalate and tartarate, which posteriorly may bind to Al forming non-toxic chelates. In contrast, RioDeva genotype used a much more ineffective strategy which passed through ascorbate regeneration. So, remarkable differences between MDHAR and DHAR activities appear to be the key for a higher Al tolerance. PMID:27252711

  18. Surface, Interfacial and Tribological Properties of Cereal-based Amphiphiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch, protein and oil are the major components of most cereals such as corn and soybean. These components, with or without further chemical modification, display a number of important amphiphilic characteristics that are of interest in a number of applications. Cereal-based oils have polar compo...

  19. Family Income, TV Viewing, and Children's Cereal Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 148 children revealed that although the majority of children from both low-income and moderate-to-high income backgrounds understood the selling intent of television commercials for cereals, there were significant differences between income groups in children's ability to evaluate the nutritional value of heavily advertised cereals.…

  20. Note: A device for the preperation of cereal endosperm bricks.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of cereal chemistry has been advanced by the analysis of the material properties of cereal endosperm. In particular, the study of wheat (Triticum sp. L.) endosperm hardness (kernel texture) has been a topic of intense interest for the past ca. 100 years (Pomeranz and Williams 1990, Morris...

  1. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  2. Resistant and susceptible responses of cereal hosts to aphid feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cereal host resistance to aphids has been examined extensively, little information is available on etiology of aphid injury and biochemical responses of resistant and susceptible cereal hosts to aphid feeding. Our team examined both aphid and plant factors for the Russian wheat aphid (RWA)...

  3. Parallel domestication of the heading date 1 gene in cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering time is one of the key determinants of crop adaptation to local environments during domestication. However, the genetic basis underlying flowering time is yet to be elucidated in most cereals. Although staple cereals, such as rice, maize, wheat, barley and sorghum, have spread and adapted ...

  4. Cereals: Overview of uses: accent on wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereals are grass species that are the primary source of food for humankind. Energy in the form of starch is their leading contribution but they are also important sources of protein, lipid, vitamins and minerals. Cereal grains are all processed to varying degrees, and made into a limitless array of...

  5. Composition of Cereal Crop Residue in Dryland Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal crops and cultivars vary in their composition, and also in their decomposition and contribution to soil organic matter. Large quantities of cereal crop residue that decompose slowly present an obstacle to the adoption of minimum till or no-till seeding, conversely lower quantities of crop re...

  6. Fall Growth Potential of Cereal-Grain Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Arkansas, producers utilizing cereal grains as fall forage for weaned calves usually do not produce a grain crop the following summer. Our objectives were to evaluate eight diverse varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and triticale (X Triticos...

  7. Engineering Value-Added Traits in Cereal Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal crops – chiefly wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, and pearl millet – are the main food source for more than two-thirds of the world population. Conventional breeding is mainly responsible for the genetic improvement of cereal crops and has resulted in cultivars with superior agronomic traits. Ho...

  8. Concern over ready-to-eat breakfast cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Research and Professional Brief published in the April 2008 issue of the Journal entitled "Examining the Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Cereals Marketed to Children" (1) is of concern. The authors concluded that the "the majority of children's cereals failed to meet national nutrition standard...

  9. Grain-Quality attributes for cereals other than wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereals are grass species that are the primary source of food for humankind and important source of animal feed. Energy in the form of starch is their leading contribution but they are also important sources of protein, lipid, vitamins and minerals. Cereal grains are all processed to varying degrees...

  10. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was demonstrated that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley, and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens. PMID:25426132

  11. THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-03-20

    A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M{sub 200{rho}-bar} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.

  12. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species. PMID:26479494

  13. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1998-11-24

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Opseudo-capacitance, affords high energy/power density in the pseudo-capacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity. 8 figs.

  14. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Prakash, Jai; Thackeray, Michael M.; Dees, Dennis W.; Vissers, Donald R.; Myles, Kevin M.

    1998-01-01

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 ›B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Opseudo-capacitance, affords high energy/power density in the pseudo-capacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity.

  15. SEARCHING FOR LOW WEIGHT PSEUDO-CODEWORDS

    SciTech Connect

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL

    2007-01-23

    Belief Propagation (BP) and Linear Programming (LP) decodings of LDPC codes are discussed. The authors summarize results of instanton/pseudo-codeword approach developed for analysis of the error-floor domain of the codes. Instantons are special, code and decoding specific, configurations of the channel noise contributing most to the Frame-Error-Rate (FER). Instantons are decoded into pseudo-codewords. Instanton/pseudo-codeword with the lowest weight describes the largest Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) asymptotic of FER, while the whole spectra of the low weight instantons is descriptive of the FER vs. SNR profile in the extended error-floor domain. First, they describe a general optimization method that allows to find the instantons for any coding/decoding. Second, they introduce LP-specific pseudo-codeword search algorithm that allows efficient calculations of the pseudo-codeword spectra. Finally, they discuss results of combined BP/LP error-floor exploration experiments for two mode codes.

  16. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  17. Cytomixis in the cereal (Gramineae) microsporogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sidorchuk, Yuri V; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Deineko, Elena V

    2016-03-01

    The specific features in behavior of the nuclei and chromatin migrating through cytomictic channels as well as in formation of micronuclei in the cereal microsporogenesis have been studied. Immunofluorescence microscopy has allowed for demonstration that the tubulin cytoskeleton does not play a significant role in the intercellular migration of nuclei. Potential involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and SUN-KASH linker complexes in cytomixis is discussed. Comparative analysis of the published and own data suggests that the cytological patterns of cytomixis in monocots and dicots are conserved. As has been shown, each higher ploidy level in the polyploid series of the family Gramineae is accompanied by an increase in the rate of cytomixis independently of individual species. The results confirm the assumption on a correlation between the rate of cytomixis, ploidy level, and genome balance. PMID:25860793

  18. Changes of paramagnetic species in cereal grains upon short-term ozone action as a marker of oxidative stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2016-01-15

    The increase of the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere, being the direct source of reactive oxygen species, results in the yield loss of agronomic crops. On the other hand, ozone is also used as a protector against microorganisms, living in plants and present in materials obtained from them, dangerous for human and animal health. In this work it has been studied if ozone in doses similar to those used for removal of microorganisms can have significant influence on the generation of stable organic radicals and changes in the character of transition metal ions and in the antioxidative biochemical parameters of cereal grains. The aim of this work was to find if the response of grains of three cereals (wheat, oat and barley) to ozone depended on their oxidative stress tolerance. The influence of direct short-term ozone application on grains of these cereals, each represented by two genotypes with different oxidative stress tolerance, was studied by biochemical analyses and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Whole grains as well as their parts: embryo, endosperm and seed coat were subjected to ozone treatment for 30 min. Biochemical investigation of control samples showed that their antioxidant activity increased in order: wheatcereal, stress tolerance of particular genotype and the part of grain. The control samples of whole grains and their parts originating from sensitive genotypes contained higher amounts of stable organic radicals (semiquinone, phenoxyl and carbohydrate types) than those from tolerant ones. In embryos of grains from sensitive genotypes their amount increased upon ozone treatment stronger than in embryos from grains of tolerant cultivars. In seed coats and endosperms such relation was not found and the changes in

  19. Fisher exponent from pseudo-ε expansion.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, A I; Nikitina, M A

    2014-07-01

    The critical exponent η for three-dimensional systems with an n-vector order parameter is evaluated in the framework of the pseudo-ε expansion approach. The pseudo-ε expansion (τ series) for η found up to the τ(7) term for n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and within the τ(6) order for general n is shown to have a structure that is rather favorable for getting numerical estimates. The use of Padé approximants and direct summation of the τ series result in iteration procedures rapidly converging to the asymptotic values that are very close to the most reliable numerical estimates of η known today. The origin of such an efficiency is discussed and shown to lie in the general properties of the pseudo-ε expansion machinery interfering with some peculiarities of the renormalization group expansion of η. PMID:25122246

  20. Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. > We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. > We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. > We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.

  1. Next Generation Characterisation of Cereal Genomes for Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Visendi, Paul; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2013-01-01

    Cereal crops form the bulk of the world’s food sources, and thus their importance cannot be understated. Crop breeding programs increasingly rely on high-resolution molecular genetic markers to accelerate the breeding process. The development of these markers is hampered by the complexity of some of the major cereal crop genomes, as well as the time and cost required. In this review, we address current and future methods available for the characterisation of cereal genomes, with an emphasis on faster and more cost effective approaches for genome sequencing and the development of markers for trait association and marker assisted selection (MAS) in crop breeding programs. PMID:24833229

  2. Evolution of wild cereals during 28 years of global warming in Israel.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Yong-Bi; Pavlicek, Tomas; Khalifa, Souad; Tavasi, Mordechai; Beiles, Avigdor

    2012-02-28

    Climate change is a major environmental stress threatening biodiversity and human civilization. The best hope to secure staple food for humans and animal feed by future crop improvement depends on wild progenitors. We examined 10 wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) populations and 10 wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch) populations in Israel, sampling them in 1980 and again in 2008, and performed phenotypic and genotypic analyses on the collected samples. We witnessed the profound adaptive changes of these wild cereals in Israel over the last 28 y in flowering time and simple sequence repeat allelic turnover. The revealed evolutionary changes imply unrealized risks present in genetic resources for crop improvement and human food production. PMID:22334646

  3. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ready-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory. The... produce various breakfast cereals normally available for human consumption without cooking....

  4. Science, Pseudo-Science, and Natural Theology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferre, Frederick

    1983-01-01

    Religions are unfalsifiable in the short run but open to long-term influence by science. Conversely, scientists sometimes extend their findings to mythic proportions. The struggle between evolutionary science and pseudo-scientific creationism rests on tensions resulting at this interface. Good education and social fairness require greater…

  5. Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…

  6. A Case of Pseudo-Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, D. H.

    Review of a case study of a 4-year-old girl who assumed the role of a retardate reveals that the girl probably suffered multiple congenital impairments of a minor character that affected the central nervous system and the structures governing social behavior and maturation. The stated basis for pseudo-retardation is the person's ability to…

  7. Teaching Outside the (Cereal) Box: A Molecular Genetics Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching about DNA using looped cereals. Outlines the procedure and concept in detail. Presents several possible concepts that allow the instructor to choose what is the most appropriate for students. (SAH)

  8. Functional cereals for production in new and variable climates.

    PubMed

    Henry, Robert J; Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo

    2016-04-01

    Adaptation of cereal crops to variable or changing climates requires that essential quality attributes are maintained to deliver food that will be acceptable to human consumers. Advances in cereal genomics are delivering insights into the molecular basis of nutritional and functional quality traits in cereals and defining new genetic resources. Understanding the influence of the environment on expression of these traits will support the retention of these essential functional properties during climate adaptation. New cereals for use as whole grain or ground to flour for other food products may be based upon the traditional species such as rice and wheat currently used in these food applications but may also include new options exploiting genomics tools to allow accelerated domestication of new species. PMID:26828379

  9. Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

  10. Improving cereal grain carbohydrates for diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Lafiandra, Domenico; Riccardi, Gabriele; Shewry, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Starch and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fibre) of cereal grains contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereal products, including reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. The physiological bases for these effects are reviewed in relation to the structures and physical properties of the polysaccharides and their behaviour (including digestion and fermentation) in the gastro-intestinal tract. Strategies for modifying the content and composition of grain polysaccharides to increase their health benefits are discussed, including exploiting natural variation and using mutagenesis and transgenesis to generate further variation. These studies will facilitate the development of new types of cereals and cereal products to face the major health challenges of the 21st century. PMID:24966450

  11. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality. PMID:23904655

  12. Intestinal T cell responses to cereal proteins in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Kilmartin, C; Wieser, H; Abuzakouk, M; Kelly, J; Jackson, J; Feighery, C

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease is caused by sensitivity to wheat gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The etiological role of the other wheat-related cereals, barley, rye, and oats, is still debated. In order to investigate this issue further, in this study we examined the immune response of celiac mucosal T cell lines to fractions from all four cereals. Cell stimulation was assessed by measuring proliferation (employing (3)H-thymidine incorporation) or cytokine (IL-2, IFN-gamma) production. All five T cell lines demonstrated immunoreactivity to protein fractions from the four related cereals. In some cell lines, reactivity to wheat, barley, and rye was only evident when these cereal fractions had been pretreated with tissue transglutaminase. This study confirms the similar T cell antigenic reactivity of these four related cereals and has implications for their exclusion in the gluten-free diet. However, despite oats stimulation of T cell lines, this cereal does not activate a mucosal lesion in most celiac patients. PMID:16416236

  13. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with Massive Ascites: A Case of Pseudo-Pseudo Meigs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Song, J.; Abrudescu-Opran, A.

    2016-01-01

    The case presented is consistent with the phenomenon known as Pseudo-Pseudo Meigs Syndrome (PPMS). In it, we describe a young woman with newly diagnosed Systemic Lupus Erythematosus presenting with ascites, pleural effusions, and an elevated CA-125 level. Although rare, and of uncertain etiology, PPMS is becoming increasingly recognized in the literature. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis in such patients, along with the search for malignancy. PMID:27366341

  14. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  15. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  16. Epidemiology and integrated management of persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses of legume and cereal crops in West Asia and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G

    2009-05-01

    Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and

  17. A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.

  18. Efficient pseudo-enantiomeric carbohydrate olefin ligands.

    PubMed

    Grugel, Holger; Albrecht, Fabian; Minuth, Tobias; Boysen, Mike M K

    2012-07-20

    Highly efficient pseudo-enantiomeric olefin ligands were designed from D-glucose and D-galactose. These ligands yield consistently excellent levels of enantioselectivity in Rh(I)-catalyzed 1,4-additions of aryl- and alkenylboronic acids to achiral enones and high diastereoselectivity with chiral substrates. Contrary to established olefin ligands, they are obtained enantiomerically pure via short syntheses without racemic resolution steps, making them a valuable addition to the arsenal of chiral ligands with olefinic donor sites. PMID:22780685

  19. Physiological tremor under pseudo-fraction gravity.

    PubMed

    Miao, T; Sakamoto, K

    1995-01-01

    The effect of pseudo-fraction gravity on physiological tremor of the human finger (finger tremor) has been examined experimentally by immersing an index finger into water at different immersion levels. The pseudo-fraction gravity, gamma G, was established by water buoyancy at immersion level omega, G being gravitation acceleration and gamma between zero and unit. The nature of variations of finger tremor under the influence of gamma G is estimated based on FFT spectral analysis. It is illustrated that with a decrease in gamma, or equivalently an increase in omega, two dominant peaks remaining approximately constant in frequencies around 10Hz and 20Hz are found, while peak amplitude is decreased rapidly for higher peak and slowly for lower one. Theoretically the effect of pseudo-fraction gravity is analyzed in terms of a specific model for finger tremor. The experimental results presented in this paper are predicted rather well by two resonant modes which occurred in our model system. It is possible to conclude that the model, which is characterized by a pair of antagonistic muscles and two reflex pathways, provides an adequate quantitative description of finger tremor. PMID:7621132

  20. A European Database of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum Trichothecene Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Logrieco, Antonio; Audenaert, Kris; Balmas, Virgilio; Basler, Ryan; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Chrpová, Jana; Czembor, Elżbieta; Gagkaeva, Tatiana; González-Jaén, María T.; Hofgaard, Ingerd S.; Köycü, Nagehan D.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Lević, Jelena; Marin, Patricia; Miedaner, Thomas; Migheli, Quirico; Moretti, Antonio; Müller, Marina E. H.; Munaut, Françoise; Parikka, Päivi; Pallez-Barthel, Marine; Piec, Jonathan; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Scherm, Barbara; Stanković, Slavica; Thrane, Ulf; Uhlig, Silvio; Vanheule, Adriaan; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related variables (sampling method, host cultivar, previous crop, etc.) that would allow more effective analysis of factors influencing the spatial and temporal population distribution, is lacking. Consequently, based on the available data, it is difficult to identify factors influencing chemotype distribution and spread at the European level. Here we describe the results of a collaborative integrated work which aims (1) to characterize the trichothecene genotypes of strains from three Fusarium species, collected over the period 2000–2013 and (2) to enhance the standardization of epidemiological data collection. Information on host plant, country of origin, sampling location, year of sampling and previous crop of 1147 F. graminearum, 479 F. culmorum, and 3 F. cortaderiae strains obtained from 17 European countries was compiled and a map of trichothecene type B genotype distribution was plotted for each species. All information on the strains was collected in a freely accessible and updatable database (www.catalogueeu.luxmcc.lu), which will serve as a starting point for epidemiological analysis of potential spatial and temporal trichothecene genotype shifts in Europe. The analysis of the currently available European dataset showed that in F. graminearum, the predominant genotype was 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) (82.9%), followed by 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) (13.6%), and nivalenol (NIV) (3.5%). In F. culmorum, the prevalent genotype was 3-ADON (59.9%), while the NIV genotype accounted for the remaining 40.1%. Both, geographical and temporal patterns of trichothecene genotypes distribution were identified. PMID:27092107

  1. A European Database of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum Trichothecene Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Logrieco, Antonio; Audenaert, Kris; Balmas, Virgilio; Basler, Ryan; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Chrpová, Jana; Czembor, Elżbieta; Gagkaeva, Tatiana; González-Jaén, María T; Hofgaard, Ingerd S; Köycü, Nagehan D; Hoffmann, Lucien; Lević, Jelena; Marin, Patricia; Miedaner, Thomas; Migheli, Quirico; Moretti, Antonio; Müller, Marina E H; Munaut, Françoise; Parikka, Päivi; Pallez-Barthel, Marine; Piec, Jonathan; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Scherm, Barbara; Stanković, Slavica; Thrane, Ulf; Uhlig, Silvio; Vanheule, Adriaan; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related variables (sampling method, host cultivar, previous crop, etc.) that would allow more effective analysis of factors influencing the spatial and temporal population distribution, is lacking. Consequently, based on the available data, it is difficult to identify factors influencing chemotype distribution and spread at the European level. Here we describe the results of a collaborative integrated work which aims (1) to characterize the trichothecene genotypes of strains from three Fusarium species, collected over the period 2000-2013 and (2) to enhance the standardization of epidemiological data collection. Information on host plant, country of origin, sampling location, year of sampling and previous crop of 1147 F. graminearum, 479 F. culmorum, and 3 F. cortaderiae strains obtained from 17 European countries was compiled and a map of trichothecene type B genotype distribution was plotted for each species. All information on the strains was collected in a freely accessible and updatable database (www.catalogueeu.luxmcc.lu), which will serve as a starting point for epidemiological analysis of potential spatial and temporal trichothecene genotype shifts in Europe. The analysis of the currently available European dataset showed that in F. graminearum, the predominant genotype was 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) (82.9%), followed by 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) (13.6%), and nivalenol (NIV) (3.5%). In F. culmorum, the prevalent genotype was 3-ADON (59.9%), while the NIV genotype accounted for the remaining 40.1%. Both, geographical and temporal patterns of trichothecene genotypes distribution were identified. PMID:27092107

  2. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  3. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  4. Storage stability and quality assessment of processed cereal brans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Savita; Kaur, Satinder; Dar, B N; Singh, Baljit

    2014-03-01

    Quality improvement of cereal brans, a health promoting ingredient for functional foods is the emerging research concept due to their low shelf stability and presence of non-nutrient components. A study was conducted to evaluate the storage quality of processed milling industry byproducts so that these can be potentially utilized as a dietary fibre source. Different cereal brans (wheat, rice, barley and oat) were processed by dry, wet, microwave heating, extrusion cooking and chemical methods at variable conditions. Processed brans were stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Quality assessments (moisture, free fatty acids, water activity and physical quality) of brans were done up to six months, at one month intervals. Free fatty acid content, moisture and water activity of the cereal brans remained stable during the entire storage period. Among treatments, extrusion processing is the most effective for stability. Processing treatments and storage temperature have the positive effect on extending the shelf life of all cereal brans. Therefore, processed cereal brans can be used as a dietary fortificant for the development of value added food products. PMID:24587536

  5. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:23915993

  6. Presweetened dry breakfast cereals: potential for dental danger.

    PubMed

    Shannon, I L; McCartney, J C

    1981-01-01

    Sugar concentrations were measured by enzymatic methods in twenty-eight presweetened breakfast cereals. Means for the various sugars were in essential agreement with recently published gas-liquid chromatography results and also with the sugar values expressed on the labels of these cereals. Thus, accurate and reproducible analytical methods are available for sugar measurements in foods; sugar levels in foods can now be assessed with confidence and the information disseminated to interested food purchasers. Oral retention time, as measured by salivary sucrose determinations, was prolonged after ingestion of these cereals directly from the box; oral clearance was more rapid, when the same subject drank a sugar solution of the same concentration. Presweetened cereals are candidates for frequent ingestion as snacks, due to their candy-like taste. This fact plus the high sugar levels in these cereals and the tendency to prolonged intraoral retention, automatically classifies these materials as potential dental hazards, when used as snacks. It is not implied that this is the case, when these products are eaten at mealtime with milk. PMID:6944319

  7. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Anti-retroviral Drug Resistance Testing; ARV Resistance Testing Formal name: ...

  8. HCV genotypes in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benani, A; El-Turk, J; Benjelloun, S; Sekkat, S; Nadifi, S; Hda, N; Benslimane, A

    1997-08-01

    To determine the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes circulating in Morocco, virus isolates from 105 chronically infected and 19 hemodialysis patients were examined using the line probe assay. Genotypes 1 and 2 only were found among Moroccan patients. Subtypes 1b (47.6%) and 2a/2c (37.1%) were the most common, whereas subtype 1a (2.8%) was less common. Among the hemodialysis patients, only genotype 1 was found with a prevalence of 68.4% for subtype 1b and 15.8% for the subtype 1a. It was also shown that the HCV genotypes distribution varies with age in both studied populations. Subtype 1b was most prevalent among older patients, whereas subtype 2a/2c was mainly found among younger ones. Although Morocco belongs to the African continent, the circulating HCV strains are similar to those observed in some American and European countries. PMID:9260687

  9. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Assessment ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Lipid Profile ; Triglycerides Were you looking instead for APOE genotyping ordered ... the skin called xanthomas, a high level of triglycerides in the blood, and atherosclerosis that develops at ...

  10. Ochratoxin A in cereal-derived products in Turkey: occurrence and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent

    2009-02-01

    Eighty-three samples of cereal-derived products including 24 breakfast cereals, 24 cereal-based baby foods and 35 beers purchased from supermarkets and small shops of Adana in Turkey were analysed for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) using immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). The average OTA recoveries from spiked breakfast cereal and cereal-based baby food and beers samples were in the range of 79.33-83.86%, 72.93-80.34% and 76.47-83.11%, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD(r)) of recoveries for breakfast cereals, cereal-based baby foods and beers were 1.1-3.39%, 2.56-8.37% and 5.73-13.61%, respectively. OTA was detected in 38% of breakfast cereals, in 17% of cereal-based baby food and in 14% of beer samples. OTA levels ranged from 0.172 to 1.84, from 0.122 to 0.374 and from 0.012 to 0.045 ng ml(-1), respectively. All cereal-derived products examined contained OTA at concentrations very much lower below the limit recommended by European Commission Regulation. The results of this study suggest that cereal-derived products such as breakfast cereals, cereal-based baby foods and beer consumed in Turkey presents no risk by human exposure to OTA through their consumption. PMID:19056455

  11. Aflatoxin levels and exposure assessment of Spanish infant cereals.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Raquel; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) are immunosuppressant, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic agents with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Since human exposure to aflatoxins occurs primarily by contaminated food intake, and given the greater susceptibility of infants to their adverse effects, the quantification of these mycotoxins in infant food based on cereals is of relevance. Aflatoxin levels were determined in 91 Spanish infant cereals classified in terms of non- and organically produced and several types from 10 different manufacturers, using a extraction procedure followed by inmunoaffinity column clean-up step and HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD) and post-column derivatisation (Kobra Cell system). Daily aflatoxin intake was also assessed. Preliminary analysis showed a valuable incidence of detected infant cereal samples at an upper concentration level than the detection limit for total aflatoxin (66%), corresponding to a 46, 40, 34 and 11% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. Lower aflatoxin values (median, Q1, Q3) in conventional infant cereal (n = 74, AFB1: cereal ecologically produced (n = 17, AFB1: 0.02 (0.02; 0.21), AFB2: n.d. (n.d.; 0.03), AFG1: 0.02 (0.01; 0.05), and AFG2: 0.007 (n.d.; 0.02) and AFtotal: 0.05 (0.03; 0.31 µg kg(-1)) were found. In addition, five organic formulations (3.11, 1.98, 0.94, 0.47 and 0.21 µg kg(-1)) exceeded European AFB1 legislation (0.10 µg kg(-1)) versus two conventional cereals (0.35 and 0.12 µg kg(-1)). According to the type of infant cereal, those with cocoa had the highest aflatoxin levels. Gluten-free and cereals with dehydrated fruits had an intermediate level and milk- or honey-based cereals and multi-cereals contained the lowest levels. With the exception of the non-compliant cocoa-based organic formulation

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cereal products on the Turkish market.

    PubMed

    Kacmaz, Sibel

    2016-09-01

    The contamination level of four EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some cereal-derived products was surveyed in this study. Thirty-eight samples, 20 bread and 18 breakfast cereals, were purchased from retail shops and local markets of East Black sea region in Turkey. The samples were analysed for four EU marker PAHs, using ultrasonic extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean up and stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. The method was validated with the parameters linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and uncertainty. Total content of the four PAHs in bread varied from 0.19 to 0.46 µg kg(-1) and in breakfast cereals from 0.10 to 0.87 µg kg(-1). PMID:26986946

  13. Microbotanical Evidence of Domestic Cereals in Africa 7000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Madella, Marco; García-Granero, Juan José; Out, Welmoed A.; Ryan, Philippa; Usai, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    The study of plant exploitation and early use of cereals in Africa has seen over the years a great input from charred and desiccated macrobotanical remains. This paper presents the results of one of the few examples in Africa of microbotanical analyses. Three grave contexts of phytolith-rich deposits and the dental calculus of 20 individuals were analysed from two Neolithic cemeteries in North and Central Sudan. The radiocarbon-dated phytoliths from the burial samples show the presence of Near East domestic cereals in Northern Sudan at least 7000 years ago. Phytoliths also indicate the exploitation of wild, savannah-adapted millets in Central Sudan between 7500 and 6500 years ago. The calculus samples contained starch grains from wheat/barley, pulses and millets, as well as panicoid phytoliths. This evidence shows that Near East domestic cereals were consumed in Northern Africa at least 500 years earlier than previously thought. PMID:25338096

  14. Regulation, evolution, and functionality of flavonoids in cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zehou; Liu, Yaxi; Pu, Zhien; Wang, Jirui; Zheng, Youliang; Li, Yanhong; Wei, Yuming

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites that contribute to the adaptation of plants to environmental stresses, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. Flavonoids are also beneficial for human health and depress the progression of some chronic diseases. The biosynthesis of flavonoids, which belong to a large family of phenolic compounds, is a complex metabolic process with many pathways that produce different metabolites, controlled by key enzymes. There is limited knowledge about the composition, biosynthesis and regulation of flavonoids in cereals. Improved understanding of the accumulation of flavonoids in cereal grains would help to improve human nutrition through these staple foods. The biosynthesis of flavonoids, scope for altering the flavonoid composition in cereal crops and benefits for human nutrition are reviewed here. PMID:23881316

  15. Development of shelf stable protein rich composite cereal bar.

    PubMed

    Padmashree, Ananthan; Sharma, Gopal Kumar; Srihari, Kadaba Anantharaman; Bawa, Amarinder Singh

    2012-06-01

    Protein rich composite cereal bar based on cereal ingredients was prepared using semi automatic tablet making machine, packed in poly propylene (PP), paper aluminium foil polyethylene (PFP), metallised polyester (MP) followed by vacuum packing in metallized polyester films. Proximate composition, mineral contents as well as changes in peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid value (FFA), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), browning, fatty acid profile, vitamins, effect of water activity on lipid peroxidation, fortification with vitamins and minerals, microbiological as well as sensory parameters during storage under ambient (15-34°C) and 37°C temperature conditions were studied. Composite cereal bar remained shelf stable for 3 months in PP and 6 months in PFP, MP and MP plus vacuum packing under ambient and 37°C temperature conditions. PMID:23729853

  16. Microbotanical evidence of domestic cereals in Africa 7000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Madella, Marco; García-Granero, Juan José; Out, Welmoed A; Ryan, Philippa; Usai, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    The study of plant exploitation and early use of cereals in Africa has seen over the years a great input from charred and desiccated macrobotanical remains. This paper presents the results of one of the few examples in Africa of microbotanical analyses. Three grave contexts of phytolith-rich deposits and the dental calculus of 20 individuals were analysed from two Neolithic cemeteries in North and Central Sudan. The radiocarbon-dated phytoliths from the burial samples show the presence of Near East domestic cereals in Northern Sudan at least 7000 years ago. Phytoliths also indicate the exploitation of wild, savannah-adapted millets in Central Sudan between 7500 and 6500 years ago. The calculus samples contained starch grains from wheat/barley, pulses and millets, as well as panicoid phytoliths. This evidence shows that Near East domestic cereals were consumed in Northern Africa at least 500 years earlier than previously thought. PMID:25338096

  17. Global synthesis of drought effects on cereal production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryanto, S.; Wang, L.; Jacinthe, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Cereal grains remain as the most important source of calories for the majority of human population. Yet drought has adversely affected their production which co-varies with factors such as crop species, phenological phases and agro-ecosystem. The extent to which those factors affect the vulnerability of cereal agriculture to drought, however, remains unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, this study aims to better characterize the effects of these factors and to provide critical information on minimizing yield loss. We collected data from peer-reviewed publications between 1980 and 2015 which examined cereal yield responses to drought using field experiments. We performed unweighted analysis using the log response ratio to calculate the bootstrapped confidence limits of yield responses and calculated drought sensitivities for different species (i.e., maize, wheat, rice, barley, sorghum, millet), phenological phases (i.e., vegetative, reproductive, and throughout growing season), soil texture (i.e., fine, medium, coarse), and agro-ecosystems (i.e., dryland vs non-dryland). Our result showed that yield reduction varied with species, with wheat having lower sensitivity and yield reduction (20.6%) compared to maize (39.3%) at approximately 60% water reduction. Millet had the lowest yield reduction compared to other cereal species while rice showed a sharp decline in yield with greater than 50% of water reduction. Drought that occurred during crop reproductive phase caused greater yield reduction (30%) than that occurred during vegetative phase (20%). Maize was particularly sensitive to yield loss when drought occurred during reproductive phase while other cereal species tended to have similar sensitivity to drought during vegetative or reproductive phase. We also found that cereal cultivation in the drylands was more prone to yield loss than in the non-dryland regions, but no difference was observed among different soil textures.

  18. Waxy Phenotype Evolution in the Allotetraploid Cereal Broomcorn Millet: Mutations at the GBSSI Locus in Their Functional and Phylogenetic Context

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Harriet V.; Moots, Hannah M.; Graybosch, Robert A.; Jones, Huw; Parker, Mary; Romanova, Olga; Jones, Martin K.; Howe, Christopher J.; Trafford, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Waxy mutants, in which endosperm starch contains ∼100% amylopectin rather than the wild-type composition of ∼70% amylopectin and ∼30% amylose, occur in many domesticated cereals. The cultivation of waxy varieties is concentrated in east Asia, where there is a culinary preference for glutinous-textured foods that may have developed from ancient food processing traditions. The waxy phenotype results from mutations in the GBSSI gene, which catalyzes amylose synthesis. Broomcorn or proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the world’s oldest cultivated cereals, which spread across Eurasia early in prehistory. Recent phylogeographic analysis has shown strong genetic structuring that likely reflects ancient expansion patterns. Broomcorn millet is highly unusual in being an allotetraploid cereal with fully waxy varieties. Previous work characterized two homeologous GBSSI loci, with multiple alleles at each, but could not determine whether both loci contributed to GBSSI function. We first tested the relative contribution of the two GBSSI loci to amylose synthesis and second tested the association between GBSSI alleles and phylogeographic structure inferred from simple sequence repeats (SSRs). We evaluated the phenotype of all known GBSSI genotypes in broomcorn millet by assaying starch composition and protein function. The results showed that the GBSSI-S locus is the major locus controlling endosperm amylose content, and the GBSSI-L locus has strongly reduced synthesis capacity. We genotyped 178 individuals from landraces from across Eurasia for the 2 GBSSI and 16 SSR loci and analyzed phylogeographic structuring and the geographic and phylogenetic distribution of GBSSI alleles. We found that GBSSI alleles have distinct spatial distributions and strong associations with particular genetic clusters defined by SSRs. The combination of alleles that results in a partially waxy phenotype does not exist in landrace populations. Our data suggest that broomcorn millet

  19. Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals.

    PubMed

    Milani, Jafar; Maleki, Gisoo

    2014-09-01

    The mycotoxins that generally occur in cereals and other products are not completely destroyed during food-processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most usually associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize high temperatures having the greatest effects. In general, the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. This review focuses on the effects of various thermal treatments on mycotoxins. PMID:24497303

  20. Pseudo exchange bias due to rotational anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, A.; Komraus, S.; Blachowicz, T.; Domino, K.; Nees, M. K.; Jakobs, P. J.; Leiste, H.; Mathes, M.; Schaarschmidt, M.

    2016-08-01

    Ferromagnetic nanostructure arrays with particle dimensions between 160 nm and 400 nm were created by electron-beam lithography. The permalloy structures consist of rectangular-shaped walls around a square open space. While measuring their magnetic properties using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE), in some angular regions an exchange bias (EB) seemed to appear. This paper gives an overview of possible reasons for this "pseudo exchange bias" and shows experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulations that this effect can be attributed to unintentionally measuring minor loops.

  1. Pseudo-Cushing - A Clinical Challenge?

    PubMed

    Pecori Giraldi, Francesca; Ambrogio, Alberto G

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between Cushing's syndrome and pseudo-Cushing is a major clinical challenge. Indeed, any endocrinologist used to dealing with Cushing's syndrome has certainly faced this dilemma more than once and is aware that there are no clear-cut solutions. Several factors contribute to this ongoing quandary, such as unbalanced epidemiology, overlap in clinical features and inherent variability in test responses. Thus, extreme care has to be taken in both excluding and confirming Cushing's syndrome in patients with mild clinical features and borderline laboratory alterations. PMID:27211794

  2. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  3. Avirulence Genes in Cereal Powdery Mildews: The Gene-for-Gene Hypothesis 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Bourras, Salim; McNally, Kaitlin E.; Müller, Marion C.; Wicker, Thomas; Keller, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The gene-for-gene hypothesis states that for each gene controlling resistance in the host, there is a corresponding, specific gene controlling avirulence in the pathogen. Allelic series of the cereal mildew resistance genes Pm3 and Mla provide an excellent system for genetic and molecular analysis of resistance specificity. Despite this opportunity for molecular research, avirulence genes in mildews remain underexplored. Earlier work in barley powdery mildew (B.g. hordei) has shown that the reaction to some Mla resistance alleles is controlled by multiple genes. Similarly, several genes are involved in the specific interaction of wheat mildew (B.g. tritici) with the Pm3 allelic series. We found that two mildew genes control avirulence on Pm3f: one gene is involved in recognition by the resistance protein as demonstrated by functional studies in wheat and the heterologous host Nicotiana benthamiana. A second gene is a suppressor, and resistance is only observed in mildew genotypes combining the inactive suppressor and the recognized Avr. We propose that such suppressor/avirulence gene combinations provide the basis of specificity in mildews. Depending on the particular gene combinations in a mildew race, different genes will be genetically identified as the “avirulence” gene. Additionally, the observation of two LINE retrotransposon-encoded avirulence genes in B.g. hordei further suggests that the control of avirulence in mildew is more complex than a canonical gene-for-gene interaction. To fully understand the mildew–cereal interactions, more knowledge on avirulence determinants is needed and we propose ways how this can be achieved based on recent advances in the field. PMID:26973683

  4. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  5. Nutritional quality, labelling and promotion of breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market.

    PubMed

    Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Rayner, Mike; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Swinburn, Boyd; Lonsdale-Cooper, Emily; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    Breakfast cereals substantially contribute to daily energy and nutrient intakes among children. In New Zealand, new regulations are being implemented to restrict nutrition and health claims to products that meet certain 'healthy' criteria. This study investigated the difference in nutritional quality, labelling and promotion between 'healthy' and 'less healthy' breakfast cereals, and between breakfast cereals intended for children compared with other breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market. The cross-sectional data collection involved taking pictures of the nutrition information panel (NIP) and front-of pack (FoP) for all breakfast cereals (n = 247) at two major supermarkets in Auckland in 2013. A nutrient profiling tool was used to classify products into 'healthy'/'less healthy'. In total 26% of cereals did not meet the 'healthy' criteria. 'Less healthy' cereals were significantly higher in energy density, sugar and sodium content and lower in protein and fibre content compared with 'healthy' cereals. Significantly more nutrition claims (75%) and health claims (89%) featured on 'healthy' compared with 'less healthy' cereals. On the 'less healthy' cereals, nutrition claims (65%) were more predominant than health claims (17%). Of the 52 products displaying promotional characters, 48% were for 'cereals for kids', and of those, 72% featured on 'less healthy' cereals. In conclusion, most breakfast cereals met the 'healthy' criteria; however, 'cereals for kids' were 'less healthy' and displayed more promotional characters than other cereal categories. Policy recommendations include: food composition targets set or endorsed by government, strengthening and enforcing current regulations on health and nutrition claims, considering the application of nutrient profiling for nutrition claims in addition to health claims, introducing an interpretative FoP labelling system and restricting the use of promotional characters on 'less healthy' breakfast cereals. PMID

  6. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  7. The Pseudo-Maxwell Equations Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavroudis, Orestes N.

    1982-02-01

    The so-called pseudo-Maxwell are a set of partial differential eauations that strongly resemble the Maxwell equations, yet are based only on Fermat's principle, the idea of an orthotomic system of rays, and certain theorems from differential gecmetry. From Fermat's principle, applying the Euler equation from the variational calculus, one obtains the ray equation whose solutions describe ray paths in an inhomogeneous medium. We define an aggregate of such rays as an orthotomic system if it is possible to find a sur-face orthogonal to all rays in the aggregate. Making use of the Frenet equations from differential geometry, one may derive relationships between certain geometrical vectors and their derivatives. These are the pseudo-Maxwell equations. Their existence is' paradoxical. Are they merely a mathematical artifact, an accidental quirk of the notation we are accustomed to use? Or do they indicate that there is more geometry lurking in the physics of electricity and magnetism than we ever dreamed of in our philosophies?

  8. Determining the basis of nonhost resistance in rice to cereal rusts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal rusts are a constant disease threat that limits the production of almost all agricultural cereals. Rice is atypical in that it is an intensively grown agricultural cereal that is immune to rust pathogens. This immunity is manifested by nonhost resistance (NHR), the mechanisms of which are poo...

  9. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory....

  12. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory....

  13. Resistant starch and dietary fibers from cereal by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains (DDG) are a cereal byproduct from ethanol distillation process. On a dry weight basis, DDG is composed of 13% fat, 30% protein, 33% fiber, with the remainder various carbohydrates. Only 6-8% of starch in DDG is in resistant form (dietary fiber). Because only about 6% of DD...

  14. Modeling Winter Cereal Grain Canopies for Legume Intercrop Establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As energy demands continue to increase and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) prices remain high, more North Central U.S. corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] producers may convert some production acres to wheat. Including a winter cereal grain in the rotation increases the opportunity ...

  15. Cecil Cereal's Supermarket Search. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Cynthia

    The document presents objectives, teaching methods, activities, and work sheets for a unit on choosing breakfast cereal. The unit is intended to be used as an integral part of the fifth grade health program. Activities take place in a classroom learning center and can be completed in approximately four to six hours of classroom time. Objectives…

  16. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  17. Assessment of grasshopper abundance in cereal crops using pan traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasshoppers and locusts frequently invade cereal crops from adjacent source habitats. To protect the crops from grasshopper damage, areas bordering crop fields may be treated with insecticides. Study of grasshopper dispersal into crops and evaluation of various management alternatives is hindered b...

  18. Prospects for advancing defense to cereal rusts through genetical genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rusts are one of the most severe threats for cereals because new races emerge regularly, typically resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKS or Ug99), was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barle...

  19. Fall Growth Potential of Cereal Grain Forages in Northern Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Arkansas, producers utilizing cereal grains as fall forage for weaned calves usually do not harvest a grain crop the following summer. This contrasts sharply from practices observed commonly in neighboring Oklahoma, and allows for much wider latitude with respect to management strategies, especia...

  20. RESPONSIVE IN-SEASON NITROGEN MANAGEMENT FOR CEREALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this review, we illustrate how traditional nitrogen (N) management schemes for worldwide cereal production systems have resulted in low N use efficiency (NUE), environmental contamination, and considerable debate regarding appropriate use of N fertilizers in crop production. Hence, development o...

  1. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Wegulo, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. PMID:23202310

  2. Exploiting the Brachypodium Tool Box in cereal and grass research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is now a decade since Brachypodium distachyon was suggested as a model species for temperate grasses and cereals. Since then transformation protocols, large expressed sequence tag (EST) populations, tools for forward and reverse genetic screens, highly refined cytogenetic probes, germplasm coll...

  3. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity: Rice versus other common cereal grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of whole cereal grains has been strongly recommended by many governmental and non-profit health organizations based on epidemiological studies associating whole-grain consumption with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. Bioactive phytochemicals, such as polyphenolic compounds, ri...

  4. Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products Building at left, looking northeast from Heinz Street. Heinz Lofts archway added ca. 2005. The bridge in the rear connects to the Bean Building. - H.J. Heinz Company Factories, 300 Heinz Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Mike Gale and cereal genetics research in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mike was one of the leading scientists in agricultural research internationally. The significant contributions he made to wheat linkage map construction, comparative genomics among cereals, and the cloning genes of agronomic importance made him prominent in wheat genetics and agricultural biotechnol...

  6. Image description with generalized pseudo-Zernike moments

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ting; Zhu, Hongqing; Shu, Huazhong; Haigron, Pascal; Luo, Limin

    2007-01-01

    A new set of orthogonal moment functions for describing images is proposed. It is based on the generalized pseudo-Zernike polynomials that are orthogonal on the unit circle. The generalized pseudo-Zernike polynomials are scaled to ensure the numerical stability, and some properties are discussed. The performance of the proposed moments is analyzed in terms of image reconstruction capability and invariant character recognition accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of generalized pseudo-Zernike moments compared with pseudo-Zernike and Chebyshev-Fourier moments in both noise-free and noisy conditions. PMID:17164842

  7. The generation of pseudo VSP data: Field data example

    SciTech Connect

    Ala`i, R.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors review the method for the generation of VSP data from seismic surface measurements, the result being called the Pseudo VSP. A method is introduced for the verification of the correctness of the macro model by means of the Pseudo VSP generation technique (two-way wave field extrapolation operators). The Pseudo VSP generation method is a new method for the transformation with a numerical procedure of surface seismic data into vertical seismic profiles (VSP). The main objective of this paper is to present some examples of the Pseudo VSP method and its value in interpretation aspects on the Marmousi dataset and on field data.

  8. Flights in a pseudo-chaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstein, J. H.; Vivaldi, F.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problem of transport in a one-parameter family of piecewise rotations of the torus, for rotation number approaching 1/4. This is a zero-entropy system which in this limit exhibits a divided phase space, with island chains immersed in a "pseudo-chaotic" region. We identify a novel mechanism for long-range transport, namely the adiabatic destruction of accelerator-mode islands. This process originates from the approximate translational invariance of the phase space and leads to long flights of linear motion, for a significant measure of initial conditions. We show that the asymptotic probability distribution of the flight lengths is determined by the geometric properties of a partition of the accelerator-mode island associated with the flight. We establish the existence of flights travelling distances of order O(1) in phase space. We provide evidence for the existence of a scattering process that connects flights travelling in opposite directions.

  9. Pseudo Linear Attitude Determination of Spinning Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard R.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the overall mathematical model and results from pseudo linear recursive estimators of attitude and rate for a spinning spacecraft. The measurements considered are vector measurements obtained by sun-sensors, fixed head star trackers, horizon sensors, and three axis magnetometers. Two filters are proposed for estimating the attitude as well as the angular rate vector. One filter, called the q-Filter, yields the attitude estimate as a quaternion estimate, and the other filter, called the D-Filter, yields the estimated direction cosine matrix. Because the spacecraft is gyro-less, Euler's equation of angular motion of rigid bodies is used to enable the estimation of the angular velocity. A simpler Markov model is suggested as a replacement for Euler's equation in the case where the vector measurements are obtained at high rates relative to the spacecraft angular rate.

  10. Anisotropic star on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanpal, B. S.; Thomas, V. O.; Pandya, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    A new class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations representing anisotropic distribution of matter on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime is obtained. The parameters appearing in the model are restricted through physical requirements of the model. It is found that the models given in the present work is compatible with observational data of a wide variety of compact objects like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, PSR J1614-2230, SMC X-4, Cen X-3. A particular model of pulsar PSR J1614-2230 is studied in detail and found that it satisfies all physical requirements needed for physically acceptable model.

  11. [Pseudo-radicular referred leg pain].

    PubMed

    von Heymann, W

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-radicular leg pain as initially described by Bruegger more than 55 years ago was at that time a genius explanation for so many non-radicular pain syndromes that needed not any kind of surgical intervention but in first line a manual treatment or a treatment by therapeutic local anesthetics. Today we describe this pain as a "referred pain" originating from other anatomic structures that may occur during the development of chronic pain. Nevertheless this pain is found in many patients and it still seems to be a big problem for many physicians and surgeons. Imaging does not help either. The history and the clinical symptoms, the examinations, the chain reactions in the motor system as well as the treatment options from the point of view of manual medicine are described. PMID:26563144

  12. Pseudo-Z symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Suh, Young Jin

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate Pseudo-Z symmetric space-time manifolds. First, we deal with elementary properties showing that the associated form A{sub k} is closed: in the case the Ricci tensor results to be Weyl compatible. This notion was recently introduced by one of the present authors. The consequences of the Weyl compatibility on the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor are pointed out. This determines the Petrov types of such space times. Finally, we investigate some interesting properties of (PZS){sub 4} space-time; in particular, we take into consideration perfect fluid and scalar field space-time, and interesting properties are pointed out, including the Petrov classification. In the case of scalar field space-time, it is shown that the scalar field satisfies a generalized eikonal equation. Further, it is shown that the integral curves of the gradient field are geodesics. A classical method to find a general integral is presented.

  13. Head related transfer function pseudo-stereophony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for producing pseudo-stereophonic sound from a monaural signal is discussed. The apparatus includes a monaural source that has a speaker placed in an anechoic room and has a sound output generated by the monaural signal. The second, third, fourth, and fifth speakers are placed in the anechoic room symmetrically about a listener. The monaural signal from the source is processed to output processed signals to each of the second, third, fourth, and fifth speakers, each speaker producing a sound output corresponding to the received processed signal. A pair of microphones is placed in the ears of the listener for receiving the sound outputs of the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth speakers and producing two differentiated audio channels.

  14. Long period pseudo random number sequence generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A circuit for generating a sequence of pseudo random numbers, (A sub K). There is an exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) for the normal basis representation of elements in a finite field GF(2 sup m) each represented by m binary digits and having two inputs and an output from which the sequence (A sub K). Of pseudo random numbers is taken. One of the two inputs is connected to receive the outputs (E sub K) of maximal length shift register of n stages. There is a switch having a pair of inputs and an output. The switch outputs is connected to the other of the two inputs of the exponentiator. One of the switch inputs is connected for initially receiving a primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m). Finally, there is a delay circuit having an input and an output. The delay circuit output is connected to the other of the switch inputs and the delay circuit input is connected to the output of the exponentiator. Whereby after the exponentiator initially receives the primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m) through the switch, the switch can be switched to cause the exponentiator to receive as its input a delayed output A(K-1) from the exponentiator thereby generating (A sub K) continuously at the output of the exponentiator. The exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) is novel and comprises a cyclic-shift circuit; a Massey-Omura multiplier; and, a control logic circuit all operably connected together to perform the function U(sub i) = 92(sup i) (for n(sub i) = 1 or 1 (for n(subi) = 0).

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  16. Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: A review on in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-04-01

    Cereal grains and products have gained popularity in contributing to healthy eating behavior because of their antioxidant properties associated with protection against chronic diseases. In this review, notable studies on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereal grains are summarized. Cereals contain phytochemicals or certain minor components with antioxidant properties. The antioxidant potential of cereals depends on their bioaccessibility, absorption in the gastrointestinal and their bioavailability utilization in vivo. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of cereals increased their antioxidant potentials which are significantly correlated with their total phenolic contents. Most studies performed in vivo have been concerned with the antioxidant properties of colored rice, wheat bran and rye products. There are inadequate in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidative potentials of fermented versus unfermented cereals. Therefore, further studies are necessary to maximize possible health benefits of cereal antioxidative phytochemicals. PMID:26593469

  17. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  18. Responses of peripheral blood mononucleated cells from non-celiac gluten sensitive patients to various cereal sources.

    PubMed

    Valerii, Maria Chiara; Ricci, Chiara; Spisni, Enzo; Di Silvestro, Raffaella; De Fazio, Luigia; Cavazza, Elena; Lanzini, Alberto; Campieri, Massimo; Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Pavan, Barbara; Volta, Umberto; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is still an undefined syndrome whose triggering mechanisms remain unsettled. This study aimed to clarify how cultured peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) obtained from NCGS patients responded to contact with wheat proteins. Results demonstrated that wheat protein induced an overactivation of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL10 in PBMC from NCGS patients, and that the overactivation level depends on the cereal source from which proteins are obtained. CXCL10 is able to decrease the transepithelial resistance of monolayers of normal colonocytes (NCM 460) by diminishing the mRNA expression of cadherin-1 (CDH1) and tight junction protein 2 (TJP2), two primary components of the tight junction strands. Thus, CXCL10 overactivation is one of the mechanisms triggered by wheat proteins in PBMC obtained from NCGS patients. This mechanism is activated to a greater extent by proteins from modern with respect to those extracted from ancient wheat genotypes. PMID:25624220

  19. Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina

    2015-12-07

    We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found.

  20. Tarzan Helps to Find Dyslexics: A Pseudo-Word Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Kuusela, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    A pseudo-word test called Tarzan will be presented and standard scores for high school-aged students between 16 and 18 will be suggested. The test uses E. R. Burroughs' text, in which pseudo-words are added in order to study phonological coding and, through that, possible dyslexia. Girls performed better on the test and their scores correlated…

  1. Pseudo Hermitian formulation of the quantum Black-Scholes Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, T. K.; Roy, P.

    2012-04-01

    We show that the non-Hermitian Black-Scholes Hamiltonian and its various generalizations are η-pseudo Hermitian. The metric operator η is explicitly constructed for this class of Hamiltonians. It is also shown that the effective Black-Scholes Hamiltonian and its partner form a pseudo supersymmetric system.

  2. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Wheat Genotypes, with Contrasting Levels of Minerals in Grains, Shows Expression Differences during Grain Filling

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir P.; Jeet, Raja; Kumar, Jitendra; Shukla, Vishnu; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mantri, Shrikant S.; Tuli, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. To identify the candidate genes for mineral accumulation, it is important to examine differential transcriptome between wheat genotypes, with contrasting levels of minerals in grains. A transcriptional comparison of developing grains was carried out between two wheat genotypes- Triticum aestivum Cv. WL711 (low grain mineral), and T. aestivum L. IITR26 (high grain mineral), using Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. The study identified a total of 580 probe sets as differentially expressed (with log2 fold change of ≥2 at p≤0.01) between the two genotypes, during grain filling. Transcripts with significant differences in induction or repression between the two genotypes included genes related to metal homeostasis, metal tolerance, lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid and protein transport, vacuolar-sorting receptor, aquaporins, and stress responses. Meta-analysis revealed spatial and temporal signatures of a majority of the differentially regulated transcripts. PMID:25364903

  3. Mass genotyping by sequencing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large scale genotyping of a moderate number of loci is cost prohibitive with current chip-based technologies. We demonstrate the ability to use next generation sequencing technologies to genotype many DNA samples for a moderate number of loci – a mass genotyping by sequencing technology (MGST). Ou...

  4. PseudoBase++: an extension of PseudoBase for easy searching, formatting and visualization of pseudoknots

    PubMed Central

    Taufer, Michela; Licon, Abel; Araiza, Roberto; Mireles, David; van Batenburg, F. H. D.; Gultyaev, Alexander P.; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Pseudoknots have been recognized to be an important type of RNA secondary structures responsible for many biological functions. PseudoBase, a widely used database of pseudoknot secondary structures developed at Leiden University, contains over 250 records of pseudoknots obtained in the past 25 years through crystallography, NMR, mutational experiments and sequence comparisons. To promptly address the growing analysis requests of the researchers on RNA structures and bring together information from multiple sources across the Internet to a single platform, we designed and implemented PseudoBase++, an extension of PseudoBase for easy searching, formatting and visualization of pseudoknots. PseudoBase++ (http://pseudobaseplusplus.utep.edu) maps the PseudoBase dataset into a searchable relational database including additional functionalities such as pseudoknot type. PseudoBase++ links each pseudoknot in PseudoBase to the GenBank record of the corresponding nucleotide sequence and allows scientists to automatically visualize RNA secondary structures with PseudoViewer. It also includes the capabilities of fine-grained reference searching and collecting new pseudoknot information. PMID:18988624

  5. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in cereal breakfast products].

    PubMed

    Ciemniak, Artur; Chrachol, Lucyna

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants formed by incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of several organic materials. PAHs occur as complex mixtures, never as individual components. They are chemically stable and highly lipophilic in nature and occur as contaminants in different food categories: vegetables, fruit, cereals, oils and fats, especially barbecued and smoked food. The present study was carried out to determine 16 PAHs in cereal products: musli, corn, oats and barley flakes, and crunchy. The analytical procedure was based on alkaline digestion, extraction with n-hexane and cleaned up in a florisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The levels of PAHs in most samples were generally low and excepting one sample of bred varied between 4.2 to 169 microg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene, was detected in all samples, at level 0.02 microg/kg to 16 microg/kg. PMID:19143427

  6. Root system architecture: insights from Arabidopsis and cereal crops

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie; De Smet, Ive

    2012-01-01

    Roots are important to plants for a wide variety of processes, including nutrient and water uptake, anchoring and mechanical support, storage functions, and as the major interface between the plant and various biotic and abiotic factors in the soil environment. Understanding the development and architecture of roots holds potential for the exploitation and manipulation of root characteristics to both increase food plant yield and optimize agricultural land use. This theme issue highlights the importance of investigating specific aspects of root architecture in both the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and (cereal) crops, presents novel insights into elements that are currently hardly addressed and provides new tools and technologies to study various aspects of root system architecture. This introduction gives a broad overview of the importance of the root system and provides a snapshot of the molecular control mechanisms associated with root branching and responses to the environment in A. thaliana and cereal crops. PMID:22527386

  7. La tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale

    PubMed Central

    El Barni, Rachid; Lahkim, Mohamed; Achour, Abdessamad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L’objectif de ce travail est de rapporter cinq cas de tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale afin d’en souligner les aspects diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. Cinq observations sont colligées dans le service de chirurgie générale de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech au cours de l’année 2007. Les aspects cliniques sont disparates. Ainsi, les auteurs ont noté un syndrome péritonéal dans un cas, une masse épigastrique dans un cas, une lésion suspect du sigmoïde dans un cas, une masse de la fosse iliaque droite dans un cas et une altération de l’état général avec fièvre dans le dernier cas. Un seul patient avaient bénéficié d’une biopsie scano-guidée et les quatre patients restants avaient été opérés. Une masse du méso côlon était notée dans le premier cas. Dans le second cas, l’aspect de la masse épigastrique et son siège avaient orienté vers une tumeur du grand omentum. Une localisation tuberculeuse péritonéale et sigmoïdienne avait été trouvée dans le troisième cas. Le diagnostic d’une tumeur du côlon droit était hautement suspect chez le patient séropositif qui avait présenté une péritonite post-opératoire et décédé à J + 3 dans un tableau de choc septique. Le siège et l’aspect nécrotique des lésions trouvées à la tomodensitométrie chez la seule patiente de l’étude avaient fait discuter en premier un lymphome. Même en l’absence d’antécédents de tuberculose pulmonaire, le diagnostic tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale doit être évoqué surtout dans un pays d’endémie comme le notre et le recours à une laparotomie est justifié chaque fois que persiste un doute diagnostique ou en cas de complication. PMID:23330023

  8. A need for determination of arsenic species at low levels in cereal-based food and infant cereals. Validation of a method by IC-ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Calderón, Josep; Centrich, Francesc; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2014-03-15

    The present study arose from the need to determine inorganic arsenic (iAs) at low levels in cereal-based food. Validated methods with a low limit of detection (LOD) are required to analyse these kinds of food. An analytical method for the determination of iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in cereal-based food and infant cereals is reported. The method was optimised and validated to achieve low LODs. Ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICPMS) was used for arsenic speciation. The main quality parameters were established. To expand the applicability of the method, different cereal products were analysed: bread, biscuits, breakfast cereals, wheat flour, corn snacks, pasta and infant cereals. The total and inorganic arsenic content of 29 cereal-based food samples ranged between 3.7-35.6 and 3.1-26.0 μg As kg(-1), respectively. The present method could be considered a valuable tool for assessing inorganic arsenic contents in cereal-based foods. PMID:24206733

  9. Alternative futures for world cereal and meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Rosegrant, M W; Leach, N; Gerpacio, R V

    1999-05-01

    Fundamental changes in the global structure of food demand will lead to an extraordinary increase in the importance of developing countries in global food markets. Economic growth in developing countries is changing consumption patterns, with slower growth (and in many countries actual declines) in per capita food consumption of grains and rapidly growing per capita and total meat consumption, combined with induced growth in cereal feed consumption. The present paper examines the hypothesis, suggested by some researchers, that high-meat diets in developed countries limit improvement in food security in developing countries. These analysts argue that reduced meat consumption in developed countries would release cereals from livestock feed to food for poorer populations, thus improving food security in developing countries. Using the International Food Policy Research Institute (Washington, DC, USA) global food projections model, the international model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade (see Rosegrant et al. 1995), we first analyse the implications for future global cereal and meat supply and demand resulting from changes in global income, population growth and other structural changes, then simulate alternative scenarios to examine the effect of large reductions in meat consumption in developed countries on food consumption and food security in developing countries. The paper shows that while the long-term prospects for food supply, demand and trade indicate a strengthening of world cereal and livestock markets, the improvement in food security in the developing world will be slow, and changes in the dietary patterns in developed countries are not an effective route to improvement in food security in developing countries. PMID:10466160

  10. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Tanya Y.; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

  11. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25075608

  12. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  13. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria induce metal stress tolerance in cereals.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Mitter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium usually hampers plant growth, but bacterial inoculation may improve stress tolerance in plants to Cd by involving various mechanisms. The objective was to characterize and identify bacteria that improve plant growth under Cd stress and reduce Cd uptake. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil, which was irrigated with tannery effluent, and six strains were selected as highly tolerant to Cd, showing minimum inhibitory concentration as 500 mg L(-1) or 4.45 mmol L(-1). These strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and functional analysis in regard to plant growth promotion characteristics. To determine their effect on cereal growth under Cd stress, seeds were inoculated with these strains individually and grown in soil contaminated with three Cd levels (0, 40 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Biomass production, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (ELL) and tissue Cd concentration were measured. Biomass of both cereals was inhibited strongly when exposed to Cd; however, bacterial inoculation significantly reduced the suppressive effect of Cd on cereal growth and physiology. The bacterial isolates belonged to the genera Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus and Serratia. Maize was more sensitive than wheat to Cd. Klebsiella sp. strain CIK-502 had the most pronounced effects in promoting maize and wheat growth and lowering Cd uptake under Cd stress. PMID:24849374

  14. Pseudo-Gabor wavelet for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xudong; Liu, Wentao; Lam, Kin-Man

    2013-04-01

    An efficient face-recognition algorithm is proposed, which not only possesses the advantages of linear subspace analysis approaches-such as low computational complexity-but also has the advantage of a high recognition performance with the wavelet-based algorithms. Based on the linearity of Gabor-wavelet transformation and some basic assumptions on face images, we can extract pseudo-Gabor features from the face images without performing any complex Gabor-wavelet transformations. The computational complexity can therefore be reduced while a high recognition performance is still maintained by using the principal component analysis (PCA) method. The proposed algorithm is evaluated based on the Yale database, the Caltech database, the ORL database, the AR database, and the Facial Recognition Technology database, and is compared with several different face recognition methods such as PCA, Gabor wavelets plus PCA, kernel PCA, locality preserving projection, and dual-tree complex wavelet transformation plus PCA. Experiments show that consistent and promising results are obtained.

  15. Pseudo-interactive monitoring in distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Bradley, D.; Livny, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-05-01

    Distributed computing, and in particular Grid computing, enables physicists to use thousands of CPU days worth of computing every day, by submitting thousands of compute jobs. Unfortunately, a small fraction of such jobs regularly fail; the reasons vary from disk and network problems to bugs in the user code. A subset of these failures result in jobs being stuck for long periods of time. In order to debug such failures, interactive monitoring is highly desirable; users need to browse through the job log files and check the status of the running processes. Batch systems typically don't provide such services; at best, users get job logs at job termination, and even this may not be possible if the job is stuck in an infinite loop. In this paper we present a novel approach of using regular batch system capabilities of Condor to enable users to access the logs and processes of any running job. This does not provide true interactive access, so commands like vi are not viable, but it does allow operations like ls, cat, top, ps, lsof, netstat and dumping the stack of any process owned by the user; we call this pseudo-interactive monitoring. It is worth noting that the same method can be used to monitor Grid jobs in a glidein-based environment. We further believe that the same mechanism could be applied to many other batch systems.

  16. Development of Combined Drought Indicator in Cereals to use its predictive value in the Agricultural Insurances: CDI_Cereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Donaire, Pilar; Tarquis, Ana M.; Giráldez, Juan V.

    2015-04-01

    The agrometeorological or agricultural drought is one of the most severe problems of agriculture. Drought damage is defined in terms of harvest loss due to precipitation shortage that limits soil moisture availability for the crops, substantially reducing crop yield. A method is proposed to identify the rain fed cereal agricultural drought in several Andalusian regions, based on the combination of three indices or anomalies: (i) standard precipitation index (SPI-3) based on Mishra and Desai (2005), (ii) soil moisture described with a water balance model based on the hydrological model by Brocca et al., 2008, and (iii) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on Kogan (1995). Coupling the three anomalies, a Combined Drought Indicator -for rain fed cereals- (CDI) has been obtained. This indicator characterizes different warning levels of agricultural drought, which has been successfully assessed with the data of the period 2003-2013 (Jiménez-Donaire, 2014). The final aim of the proposed CDI is to design a warning system based on its components' combination to forecast the drought risk helping both farmers and agricultural insurance agencies. Keywords: drought, SPI, soil moisture, NDVI. References Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T.(2008) On the estimation of antecedent wetness conditions in rainfall-runoff modelling. Hydrol. Process. 22, 629-642. Jiménez-Donaire, M.P. (2014) Indicador combinado de sequía para cereales y su valor predictivo en los seguros agrarios: ICS_CEREAL. Master thesis, UCO (In Spanish). Kogan, F.N., 1995. Droughts of the Late 1980s in the United States as Derived from NOAA Polar-Orbiting Satellite Data. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 655-668. Mishra, A.K., Desai, V.R., 2005. Drought forecasting using stochastic models. Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess. 19, 326-339. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the Research Grant obtained from CEIGRAM in 2014

  17. Neutron activation analysis for Dy, Hf, Rb, Sc and Se in some Ghanaian cereals and vegetables using short-lived nuclides and Compton suppression spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Fletcher, J J; Chatt, A

    2008-08-01

    A pseudo-cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis (PCINAA) method has been developed to determine selected elements in various types of cereal and vegetable from Ghana using relatively short-lived nuclides (t1/2<80 s) and the Compton suppression counting. The samples were irradiated for 10 s at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor facility (DUSR) and allowed to decay for 20 s, and counted for 40 s. The process is repeated every 50 s for 4 cycles to quantify Dy, Hf, Rb, Sc and Se through 165mDy, 179Hf, 86mRb, 46mSc, and 77mSe. The detection limits were generally of the order of 1.0 ng g(-1) except for Rb which is about 1 microg g(-1). Both precision and accuracy of the method were found to be good. PMID:18424050

  18. Variation for N Uptake System in Maize: Genotypic Response to N Supply.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Trevor; Plett, Darren; Conn, Vanessa; Conn, Simon; Rabie, Huwaida; Rafalski, J Antoni; Dhugga, Kanwarpal; Tester, Mark A; Kaiser, Brent N

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the adaptations made by plants in their nitrogen (N) uptake systems in response to reduced N supply is important to the development of cereals with enhanced N uptake efficiency (NUpE). Twenty seven diverse genotypes of maize (Zea mays, L.) were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks with limiting or adequate N supply. Genotypic response to N was assessed on the basis of biomass characteristics and the activities of the nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and ammonium ([Formula: see text]) high-affinity transport systems. Genotypes differed greatly for the ability to maintain biomass with reduced N. Although, the N response in underlying biomass and N transport related characteristics was less than that for biomass, there were clear relationships, most importantly, lines that maintained biomass at reduced N maintained net N uptake with no change in size of the root relative to the shoot. The root uptake capacity for both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] increased with reduced N. Transcript levels of putative [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] transporter genes in the root tissue of a subset of the genotypes revealed that predominately ZmNRT2 transcript levels responded to N treatments. The correlation between the ratio of transcripts of ZmNRT2.2 between the two N levels and a genotype's ability to maintain biomass with reduced N suggests a role for these transporters in enhancing NUpE. The observed variation in the ability to capture N at low N provides scope for both improving NUpE in maize and also to better understand the N uptake system in cereals. PMID:26617612

  19. Variation for N Uptake System in Maize: Genotypic Response to N Supply

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Trevor; Plett, Darren; Conn, Vanessa; Conn, Simon; Rabie, Huwaida; Rafalski, J. Antoni; Dhugga, Kanwarpal; Tester, Mark A.; Kaiser, Brent N.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the adaptations made by plants in their nitrogen (N) uptake systems in response to reduced N supply is important to the development of cereals with enhanced N uptake efficiency (NUpE). Twenty seven diverse genotypes of maize (Zea mays, L.) were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks with limiting or adequate N supply. Genotypic response to N was assessed on the basis of biomass characteristics and the activities of the nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) high-affinity transport systems. Genotypes differed greatly for the ability to maintain biomass with reduced N. Although, the N response in underlying biomass and N transport related characteristics was less than that for biomass, there were clear relationships, most importantly, lines that maintained biomass at reduced N maintained net N uptake with no change in size of the root relative to the shoot. The root uptake capacity for both NO3− and NH4+ increased with reduced N. Transcript levels of putative NO3− and NH4+ transporter genes in the root tissue of a subset of the genotypes revealed that predominately ZmNRT2 transcript levels responded to N treatments. The correlation between the ratio of transcripts of ZmNRT2.2 between the two N levels and a genotype's ability to maintain biomass with reduced N suggests a role for these transporters in enhancing NUpE. The observed variation in the ability to capture N at low N provides scope for both improving NUpE in maize and also to better understand the N uptake system in cereals. PMID:26617612

  20. Pseudo-Dirac Dark Matter Leaves a Trace

    SciTech Connect

    De Simone, Andrea; Sanz, Veronica; Sato, Hiromitsu Phil

    2010-09-17

    Pseudo-Dirac dark matter is a viable type of dark matter which originates from a new Dirac fermion whose two Weyl states get slightly split in mass by a small Majorana term. The decay of the heavier to the lighter state naturally occurs over a detectable length scale. Thus, whenever pseudo-Dirac dark matter is produced in a collider, it leaves a clear trace: a visible displaced vertex in association with missing energy. Moreover, pseudo-Dirac dark matter behaves Dirac-like for relic abundance and Majorana-like in direct detection experiments. We provide a general effective field theory treatment, specializing to a pseudo-Dirac bino. The dark matter mass and the mass splitting can be extracted from measurements of the decay length and the invariant mass of the products, even in the presence of missing energy.

  1. Pseudo-Dirac dark matter leaves a trace.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Andrea; Sanz, Veronica; Sato, Hiromitsu Phil

    2010-09-17

    Pseudo-Dirac dark matter is a viable type of dark matter which originates from a new Dirac fermion whose two Weyl states get slightly split in mass by a small Majorana term. The decay of the heavier to the lighter state naturally occurs over a detectable length scale. Thus, whenever pseudo-Dirac dark matter is produced in a collider, it leaves a clear trace: a visible displaced vertex in association with missing energy. Moreover, pseudo-Dirac dark matter behaves Dirac-like for relic abundance and Majorana-like in direct detection experiments. We provide a general effective field theory treatment, specializing to a pseudo-Dirac bino. The dark matter mass and the mass splitting can be extracted from measurements of the decay length and the invariant mass of the products, even in the presence of missing energy. PMID:20867629

  2. On a projectively invariant pseudo-distance in Finsler geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidabad, Behroz; Sepasi, Maryam

    2015-03-01

    Here, a nonlinear analysis method is applied rather than classical one to study projective changes of Finsler metrics. More intuitively, a projectively invariant pseudo-distance is introduced and characterized with respect to the Ricci tensor and its covariant derivatives.

  3. Finite block pseudo-spin approach of proton glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang-Sei; Koo, Je Huan; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2016-08-01

    We herein propose an alternative phenomenology to explain the phase of proton glass by reference to finite block spin theory in magnetism, in which the phase may be considered as being a short-range ferroelectric ordering of block pseudo-spins comprised of random pseudo-spins that have a majority of individual pseudo-spins in a given sense. By making use of the Curie law of block pseudo-spins, we obtained the dielectric susceptibility for the lower and higher temperature approximations of the Brillouin function. The experimental results for the susceptibility in hydrogen-bonded mixed crystals of ferroelectric RbH2P(As)O4 and antiferroelectric NH4H2P(As)O4 were thus fitted fairly well at low temperatures in the proton glass phase whereas some deviation from our formulation was seen at high temperatures in the paraelectric phase.

  4. A pseudo-icosahedral cage {Gd12} based on aminomethylphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze-Min; Zangana, Karzan H; Kostopoulos, Andreas K; Tong, Ming-Liang; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-05-31

    Reaction of (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid (ampH2) with a mixture of gadolinium and cobalt pivalates under solvothermal conditions, led to a pseudo-icosahedral cage {Gd12}, which shows a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE). PMID:27188600

  5. Pseudo-Outbreak of Actinomyces graevenitzii Associated with Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peaper, David R.; Havill, Nancy L.; Aniskiewicz, Michael; Callan, Deborah; Pop, Olivia; Towle, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of infection related to bronchoscopy typically involve Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacterium species or Legionella species. We report an unusual bronchoscopy-related pseudo-outbreak due to Actinomyces graevenitzii. Extensive epidemiological and microbiological investigation failed to identify a common source. Strain typing revealed that the cluster was comprised of heterogeneous strains of A. graevenitzii. A change in laboratory procedures for Actinomyces cultures was coincident with the emergence of the pseudo-outbreak, and we determined that A. graevenitzii isolates more readily adopted a white, dry, molar tooth appearance on anaerobic colistin nalidixic acid (CNA) agar which likely facilitated its detection and identification in bronchoscopic specimens. This unusual pseudo-outbreak was related to frequent requests of bronchoscopists for Actinomyces cultures combined with a change in microbiology laboratory practices. PMID:25355767

  6. Mycotic pseudo-aneurysm of the extracranial carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Desimpelaere, J; Seynaeve, P; Kockx, M; Appel, B; Gyselinck, J; Mortelmans, L

    1997-08-01

    A rare case of mycotic pseudo-aneurysm of the common carotid artery as a complication in an immunosuppressed paediatric patient is presented. Treatment of pseudo-aneurysms of the common carotid artery is generally considered to be an emergency, necessitating quick and accurate diagnosis. In patients with septicemia, angiography has to be avoided. We were able to provide the surgeon with the exact diagnosis and accurate topographical information with helical CT with 3D reformation. PMID:9351308

  7. Saturated linkage map construction in Rubus idaeus using genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry). Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs) linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in R. idaeus, which

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes between sorghum genotypes with contrasting nitrogen stress tolerance by genome-wide transcriptional profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sorghum is an important cereal crop, which requires large quantities of nitrogen fertilizer for achieving commercial yields. Identification of the genes responsible for low-N tolerance in sorghum will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of low-N tolerance, and also facilitate the genetic improvement of sorghum through marker-assisted selection or gene transformation. In this study we compared the transcriptomes of root tissues from seven sorghum genotypes having differential response to low-N stress. Results Illumina RNA-sequencing detected several common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between four low-N tolerant sorghum genotypes (San Chi San, China17, KS78 and high-NUE bulk) and three sensitive genotypes (CK60, BTx623 and low-NUE bulk). In sensitive genotypes, N-stress increased the abundance of DEG transcripts associated with stress responses including oxidative stress and stimuli were abundant. The tolerant genotypes adapt to N deficiency by producing greater root mass for efficient uptake of nutrients. In tolerant genotypes, higher abundance of transcripts related to high affinity nitrate transporters (NRT2.2, NRT2.3, NRT2.5, and NRT2.6) and lysine histidine transporter 1 (LHT1), may suggest an improved uptake efficiency of inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen. Higher abundance of SEC14 cytosolic factor family protein transcript in tolerant genotypes could lead to increased membrane stability and tolerance to N-stress. Conclusions Comparison of transcriptomes between N-stress tolerant and sensitive genotypes revealed several common DEG transcripts. Some of these DEGs were evaluated further by comparing the transcriptomes of genotypes grown under full N. The DEG transcripts showed higher expression in tolerant genotypes could be used for transgenic over-expression in sensitive genotypes of sorghum and related crops for increased tolerance to N-stress, which results in increased nitrogen use efficiency for sustainable

  9. Convergent dental adaptations in pseudo-tribosphenic and tribosphenic mammals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhe-Xi; Ji, Qiang; Yuan, Chong-Xi

    2007-11-01

    Tribosphenic molars of basal marsupials and placentals are a major adaptation, with the protocone (pestle) of the upper molar crushing and grinding in the talonid basin (mortar) on the lower molar. The extinct pseudo-tribosphenic mammals have a reversed tribosphenic molar in which a pseudo-talonid is anterior to the trigonid, to receive the pseudo-protocone of the upper molar. The pseudo-protocone is analogous to the protocone, but the anteriorly placed pseudo-talonid is opposite to the posterior talonid basin of true tribosphenic mammals. Here we describe a mammal of the Middle Jurassic period with highly derived pseudo-tribosphenic molars but predominantly primitive mandibular and skeletal features, and place it in a basal position in mammal phylogeny. Its shoulder girdle and limbs show fossorial features similar to those of mammaliaforms and monotremes, but different compared with those of the earliest-known Laurasian tribosphenic (boreosphenid) mammals. The find reveals a much greater range of dental evolution in Mesozoic mammals than in their extant descendants, and strengthens the hypothesis of homoplasy of 'tribosphenic-like' molars among mammals. PMID:17972884

  10. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research participants who were undergoing clinical polysomnograms. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. These were thought to be related to depression, circadian sleep disorders, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome (RLS), excessive sleepiness, or to slow waves in sleep. Results With multivariate generalized linear models, the association of TEF rs738499 with depressive symptoms was confirmed. Equivocal statistical evidence of association of rs1801260 (the C3111T SNP in the CLOCK gene) with morningness/eveningness and an association of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) rs429358 with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were obtained, but these associations were not strong enough to be of clinical value by themselves. Predicted association of SNPs with sleep apnea, RLS, and slow wave sleep were not confirmed. Conclusion The SNPs tested would not, by themselves, be of use for clinical genotyping in a sleep clinic. PMID:20396431

  11. Synthetic biology approaches to engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christian; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen is abundant in the earth's atmosphere but, unlike carbon, cannot be directly assimilated by plants. The limitation this places on plant productivity has been circumvented in contemporary agriculture through the production and application of chemical fertilizers. The chemical reduction of nitrogen for this purpose consumes large amounts of energy and the reactive nitrogen released into the environment as a result of fertilizer application leads to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as widespread eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The environmental impacts are intensified by injudicious use of fertilizers in many parts of the world. Simultaneously, limitations in the production and supply of chemical fertilizers in other regions are leading to low agricultural productivity and malnutrition. Nitrogen can be directly fixed from the atmosphere by some bacteria and Archaea, which possess the enzyme nitrogenase. Some plant species, most notably legumes, have evolved close symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Engineering cereal crops with the capability to fix their own nitrogen could one day address the problems created by the over- and under-use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture. This could be achieved either by expression of a functional nitrogenase enzyme in the cells of the cereal crop or through transferring the capability to form a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. While potentially transformative, these biotechnological approaches are challenging; however, with recent advances in synthetic biology they are viable long-term goals. This review discusses the possibility of these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem, focusing on engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals. PMID:24687978

  12. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  13. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  14. Thermomagnetic Stability in Pseudo Single Domain Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian; Fabian, Karl; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of paleomagnetic remanences are well understood for fine grains of magnetite that are single-domain (SD, uniformly magnetized). In particular Néel's theory [1] outlined the thermal energies required to block and unblock magnetic remanences. This lead to determination of thermal stability for magnetization in fine grains as outlined in Pullaiah et. al. [2] and a comprehensive understanding of SD paleomagnetic recordings. It has been known for some time that single domain magnetite is possible only in the grain size range 30 - 80nm, which may only account for a small fraction of the grain size distribution in any rock sample. Indeed rocks are often dominated by grains in the pseudo single domain (PSD) size range, at approximately 80 - 1000nm. Toward the top end of this range multi-domain features begin to dominate. In order to determine thermomagnetic stability in PSD grains we need to identify the energy barriers between all possible pairs of local energy minima (LEM) domain states as a function of both temperature and grain size. We have attempted to do this using the nudged elastic band (NEB) method [3] which searches for minimum energy paths between any given pair of LEM states. Using this technique we have determined, for the first time, complete thermomagnetic stability curves for PSD magnetite. The work presented is at a preliminary stage. However it can be shown that PSD grains of magnetite with simple geometries (e.g. cubes or cuboctahedra) have very few low energy transition paths and the stability is likely to be similar to that observed for SD grains (as expected form experimental observations). The results will provide a basis for a much more rigorous understanding of the fidelity of paleomagnetic signals in assemblages of PSD grains and their ability to retain ancient recordings of the geomagnetic field. References: [1] Néel, Louis. "Théorie du traînage magnétique des ferromagnétiques en grains fins avec applications aux terres

  15. A case of mixed connective tissue disease with pseudo-pseudo Meigs' syndrome (PPMS)-like features.

    PubMed

    Cheah, C K; Ramanujam, S; Mohd Noor, N; Gandhi, C; D Souza, Beryl A; Gun, S C

    2016-02-01

    Pseudo-pseudo Meigs' syndrome (PPMS) has been reported to be a rare presentation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, such a presentation is not common in other forms of connective tissue disease. We presented a case of gross ascites, pleural effusion, and marked elevation of CA-125 level (PPMS-like features) that led to a diagnosis of MCTD. The patient responded to systemic steroid therapy. PMID:26377236

  16. Pseudo-ε expansion and renormalized coupling constants at criticality.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, A I; Nikitina, M A

    2014-05-01

    Universal values of dimensional effective coupling constants g(2k) that determine nonlinear susceptibilities χ(2k) and enter the scaling equation of state are calculated for n-vector field theory within the pseudo-ε expansion approach. Pseudo-ε expansions for g(6) and g(8) at criticality are derived for arbitrary n. Analogous series for ratios R(6) = g(6)/g(4)(2) and R(8) = g(8)/g(4)(3) that figure in the equation of state are also found, and the pseudo-ε expansion for Wilson fixed point location g(4)(*) descending from the six-loop renormalization group (RG) expansion for the β function is reported. Numerical results are presented for 0 ≤ n ≤ 64, with the most attention paid to the physically important cases n = 0,1,2,3. Pseudo-ε expansions for quartic and sextic couplings have rapidly diminishing coefficients, so Padé resummation turns out to be sufficient to yield high-precision numerical estimates. Moreover, direct summation of these series with optimal truncation gives values of g(4)(*) and R(6)(*) that are almost as accurate as those provided by the Padé technique. Pseudo-ε expansion estimates for g(8)(*) and R(8)(*) are found to be much worse than those for lower-order couplings independently of the resummation method employed. The numerical effectiveness of the pseudo-ε expansion approach in two dimensions is also studied. Pseudo-ε expansion for g(4)(*) originating from the five-loop RG series for the β function of two-dimensional λϕ(4) field theory is used to get numerical estimates for n ranging from 0 to 64. The approach discussed gives accurate enough values of g(4)(*) down to n = 2 and leads to fair estimates for Ising and polymer (n = 0) models. PMID:25353759

  17. Pseudo-ɛ expansion and renormalized coupling constants at criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A. I.; Nikitina, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    Universal values of dimensional effective coupling constants g2k that determine nonlinear susceptibilities χ2k and enter the scaling equation of state are calculated for n-vector field theory within the pseudo-ɛ expansion approach. Pseudo-ɛ expansions for g6 and g8 at criticality are derived for arbitrary n. Analogous series for ratios R6=g6/g42 and R8=g8/g43 that figure in the equation of state are also found, and the pseudo-ɛ expansion for Wilson fixed point location g4* descending from the six-loop renormalization group (RG) expansion for the β function is reported. Numerical results are presented for 0≤n≤64, with the most attention paid to the physically important cases n =0,1,2,3. Pseudo-ɛ expansions for quartic and sextic couplings have rapidly diminishing coefficients, so Padé resummation turns out to be sufficient to yield high-precision numerical estimates. Moreover, direct summation of these series with optimal truncation gives values of g4* and R6* that are almost as accurate as those provided by the Padé technique. Pseudo-ɛ expansion estimates for g8* and R8* are found to be much worse than those for lower-order couplings independently of the resummation method employed. The numerical effectiveness of the pseudo-ɛ expansion approach in two dimensions is also studied. Pseudo-ɛ expansion for g4* originating from the five-loop RG series for the β function of two-dimensional λϕ4 field theory is used to get numerical estimates for n ranging from 0 to 64. The approach discussed gives accurate enough values of g4* down to n =2 and leads to fair estimates for Ising and polymer (n =0) models.

  18. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2015-05-18

    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). PMID:25841355

  19. Determination of pesticides and their metabolites in processed cereal samples.

    PubMed

    González-Curbelo, M Á; Hernández-Borges, J; Borges-Miquel, T M; Rodríguez-Delgado, M Á

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen pesticides including some of their metabolites (disulfoton sulfoxide, ethoprophos, cadusafos, dimethoate, terbufos, disulfoton, chlorpyrifos-methyl, malaoxon, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, chlorpyrifos, terbufos sulfone, disulfoton sulfone and fensulfothion) were analysed in milled toasted wheat and maize as well as in wheat flour and baby cereals. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) methodology was used and its dispersive solid-phase extraction procedure was optimised by means of an experimental design with the aim of reducing the amount of co-extracted lipids and obtaining a clean extract. Gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection were used as the separation and detection techniques, respectively. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, recoveries, calibration, precision and accuracy as well as matrix effects. Limits of detection were between 0.07 and 34.8 µg kg(-1) with recoveries in the range of 71-110% (relative standard deviations were below 9%). A total of 40 samples of different origin were analysed. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl were found in six of the samples at concentrations in the range 0.08-0.47 mg kg(-1), which were below the MRLs established for this pesticide in cereal grains. Tandem mass spectrometry confirmation was also carried out in order to identify unequivocally the presence of this pesticide. PMID:22043870

  20. Crunchiness Loss and Moisture Toughening in Puffed Cereals and Snacks.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Micha

    2015-09-01

    Upon moisture uptake, dry cellular cereals and snacks loose their brittleness and become soggy. This familiar phenomenon is manifested in smoothing their compressive force-displacement curves. These curves' degree of jaggedness, expressed by their apparent fractal dimension, can serve as an instrumental measure of the particles' crunchiness. The relationship between the apparent fractal dimension and moisture content or water activity has a characteristic sigmoid shape. The relationship between the sensorily perceived crunchiness and moisture also has a sigmoid shape whose inflection point lies at about the same location. The transition between the brittle and soggy states, however, appears sharper in the apparent fractal dimension compared with moisture plot. Less familiar is the observation that at moderate levels of moisture content, while the particles' crunchiness is being lost, their stiffness actually rises, a phenomenon that can be dubbed "moisture toughening." We show this phenomenon in commercial Peanut Butter Crunch® (sweet starch-based cereal), Cheese Balls (salty starch-based snack), and Pork Rind also known as "Chicharon" (salty deep-fried pork skin), 3 crunchy foods that have very different chemical composition. We also show that in the first 2 foods, moisture toughening was perceived sensorily as increased "hardness." We have concluded that the partial plasticization, which caused the brittleness loss, also inhibited failure propagation, which allowed the solid matrix to sustain higher stresses. This can explain other published reports of the phenomenon in different foods and model systems. PMID:26223457

  1. Metabolomics of cereals under biotic stress: current knowledge and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Balmer, Dirk; Flors, Victor; Glauser, Gaetan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Prone to attacks by pathogens and pests, plants employ intricate chemical defense mechanisms consisting of metabolic adaptations. However, many plant attackers are manipulating the host metabolism to counteract defense responses and to induce favorable nutritional conditions. Advances in analytical chemistry have allowed the generation of extensive metabolic profiles during plant-pathogen and pest interactions. Thereby, metabolic processes were found to be highly specific for given tissues, species, and plant-pathogen/pest interactions. The clusters of identified compounds not only serve as base in the quest of novel defense compounds, but also as markers for the characterization of the plants' defensive state. The latter is especially useful in agronomic applications where meaningful markers are essential for crop protection. Cereals such as maize make use of their metabolic arsenal during both local and systemic defense responses, and the chemical response is highly adapted to specific attackers. Here, we summarize highlights and recent findings of metabolic patterns of cereals under pathogen and pest attack. PMID:23630531

  2. Prospects for advancing defense to cereal rusts through genetical genomics.

    PubMed

    Ballini, Elsa; Lauter, Nick; Wise, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Rusts are one of the most severe threats to cereal crops because new pathogen races emerge regularly, resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKSK or Ug99), was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barley cultivars grown currently worldwide are susceptible to this new race. Pgt TTKSK has already spread northward into Iran and will likely spread eastward throughout the Indian subcontinent in the near future. This scenario is not unique to stem rust; new races of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) have also emerged recently. One strategy for countering the persistent adaptability of these pathogens is to stack complete- and partial-resistance genes, which requires significant breeding efforts in order to reduce deleterious effects of linkage drag. These varied resistance combinations are typically more difficult for the pathogen to defeat, since they would be predicted to apply lower selection pressure. Genetical genomics or expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis enables the identification of regulatory loci that control the expression of many to hundreds of genes. Integrated deployment of these technologies coupled with efficient phenotyping offers significant potential to elucidate the regulatory nodes in genetic networks that orchestrate host defense responses. The focus of this review will be to present advances in genetical genomic experimental designs and analysis, particularly as they apply to the prospects for discovering partial disease resistance alleles in cereals. PMID:23641250

  3. The C-Glycosylation of Flavonoids in Cereals*♦

    PubMed Central

    Brazier-Hicks, Melissa; Evans, Kathryn M.; Gershater, Markus C.; Puschmann, Horst; Steel, Patrick G.; Edwards, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoids normally accumulate in plants as O-glycosylated derivatives, but several species, including major cereal crops, predominantly synthesize flavone-C-glycosides, which are stable to hydrolysis and are biologically active both in planta and as dietary components. An enzyme (OsCGT) catalyzing the UDP-glucose-dependent C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxyflavanone precursors of flavonoids has been identified and cloned from rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica), with a similar protein characterized in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). OsCGT is a 49-kDa family 1 glycosyltransferase related to known O-glucosyltransferases. The recombinant enzyme C-glucosylated 2-hydroxyflavanones but had negligible O-glucosyltransferase activity with flavonoid acceptors. Enzyme chemistry studies suggested that OsCGT preferentially C-glucosylated the dibenzoylmethane tautomers formed in equilibrium with 2-hydroxyflavanones. The resulting 2-hydroxyflavanone-C-glucosides were unstable and spontaneously dehydrated in vitro to yield a mixture of 6C- and 8C-glucosyl derivatives of the respective flavones. In contrast, in planta, only the respective 6C-glucosides accumulated. Consistent with this selectivity in glycosylation product, a dehydratase activity that preferentially converted 2-hydroxyflavanone-C-glucosides to the corresponding flavone-6C-glucosides was identified in both rice and wheat. Our results demonstrate that cereal crops synthesize C-glucosylated flavones through the concerted action of a CGT and dehydratase acting on activated 2-hydroxyflavanones, as an alternative means of generating flavonoid metabolites. PMID:19411659

  4. Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-06-15

    Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis. PMID:25660886

  5. Analysing lodging of the panicle bearing cereal teff (Eragrostis tef).

    PubMed

    van Delden, S H; Vos, J; Ennos, A R; Stomph, T J

    2010-05-01

    Lodging, the permanent displacement of crop plants from their vertical because of root or shoot failure, is a major yield constraint of the gluten free, panicle bearing cereal teff. The objective of this paper was to analyse the causes of lodging of teff by using, modifying and validating conventional biomechanical models. The model parameters were obtained from a field trial with two contrasting teff cultivars, using novel in situ and laboratory measurements under wet and dry conditions. Cross-species model validation was done with rice (Oryza sativa). Teff is more susceptible to root lodging than to shoot lodging, although the data indicated that shoot strength is also insufficient. Hence, simultaneously breeding for both improved root anchorage and shoot strength is advocated. The study showed that the lodging model, derived for the spike-bearing cereal wheat, needed modifications in order to be able to deal with panicle-bearing plants such as teff and rice. Water adhering to plants owing to rain or dew increased calculated lodging susceptibility. To prevent underestimation of lodging susceptibility, future lodging research should be done under completely wet conditions (water saturated soil and wetted shoots). PMID:20345637

  6. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  7. Self-Seeded Cereal Cover Crop Effects on Interspecific Competition with Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perpetuating cereal cover crops through self-seeding may increase adoption by reducing risk and cost. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn...

  8. Near-infrared (NIR) prediction of trans-fatty acids in ground cereal foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid method for prediction of trans-fatty acid content in ground cereal products without the need for oil extraction. NIR spectra (400-2498 nm) of ground cereal products were obtained with a dispersive NIR spectrometer and correlated ...

  9. Determining cereal starch amylose content using a dual wavelength iodine binding 96 well plate assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal starch amylose/amylopectin (AM/AP) ratios are critical in functional properties for food and industrial applications. Conventional determination of AM/AP of cereal starches are very time consuming and labor intensive making it very difficult to screen large sample sets. Studying these large...

  10. Grass hosts of cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) between wheat-cropping cycles in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several grasses may serve as alternative hosts for cereal aphids during the interim between small-grain crops in South Dakota, but field studies to determine which grasses are important have not been undertaken. We sampled annual and perennial grasses for cereal aphids in 18 counties in South Dakot...

  11. High-throughput gene expression studies provide clues for how cereal crops grow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was one of the first domesticated cereal grains, originating in the Fertile Crescent over 10,000 years ago. Barley ranks fourth among the cereals in worldwide production and is widely cultivated in all temperate regions from the Arctic Circle to the tropics. In addition...

  12. USE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR INCORPORATING VALUE-ADDED TRAITS IN CEREAL CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal crops – chiefly wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, and pearl millet – are the main food source for more than two-thirds of the world population. From time immemorial humans, particularly those in the Asian and African countries, have relied heavily on cereals for their dietary carbohydrates. Brea...

  13. Nutritive Value of Fall-Grown Cereal-Grain Forages Over Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time can affect cattle performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritive values of various fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time. One variety each of hard red (HR) and soft red (SR) winter wheat (Triticum aesti...

  14. Nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages can affect cattle performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of various fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time. One variety each of hard red (HR) and soft red (SR) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), ...

  15. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. Role of alternate hosts in epidemiology and pathogen variation of cereal rusts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal rusts, caused by obligate and biotrophic fungi in the genus Puccinia of basidiomycete are an important group of diseases threatening the world food security. With the recent discovery of alternate hosts for the stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis), all cereal rust fungi are now known ...

  1. Site-specific trade-offs of harvesting cereal residues as biofuel feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal residues are considered an important feedstock for future biofuel production. Harvesting cereal residues, however, could lead to substantial soil degradation. Our objective was to evaluate trade-offs associated with harvesting straw including impacts on soil erosion and quality, soil organic ...

  2. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  3. A Pilot Study Assesing Climate Change Impacts on Cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Sevilay; Sen, Burak; Turkes, Murat

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal impacts of climate change on the growth and yield of major cereals (first and second-crop corn) as well as wheat grown in Cukurova Region in the southern Turkey have been assessed, by combining the outputs from a regional climate model with a crop growth simulation model. With its 1.1 million ha of agricultural land, the Cukurova Region is one of the major agricultural production regions in Turkey. Wheat dominates in rain-fed areas while corn crops are grown in more than 50 % of the irrigated land in the region. Thus, the Region is providing half of the country's total cereal production. Since the region has a typical Mediterranean climate with almost no rain and high temperatures during the summer months, agricultural production is vulnerable to changes in climate in terms of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures and consequently shortage of water resources. To predict the future climate for the period 2070-2100, the regional climate model RegCM3 conditions was performed using IPCC's SRESS-A2 scenario, and climatic parameter such as daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, radiation as well as total annual precipitation were selected for the simulation study. Data for the period 1961 to 1990 were used as historical reference. The WOFOST model was used to simulate cereal growths and yields for two different water availability senarios: 1) potential production and 2) water-limited production conditions. Potential growth represents the conditions where no limiting factor such as water and nutrients is present, however due to the water-limited production situation, water for irrigation is limited as a consequence of water shortage. The detailed results of previous field experiments carried out with three cereal crops in different locations with different regional soil and climate conditions were used for the verification of the WOFOST model. According to the verification results, the model simulated the yield with less than 5

  4. Pseudo LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. When SIRAL operates in SAR or SARin mode, the obtained waveforms have an along-track resolution and a speckle reduction which is increased with respect to the pulse-limited waveforms. Anyway, in order to analyze the continuity of the geophysical retrieved parameters among different acquisition modes, techniques to transform SARin mode data to pseudo-LRM mode data are welcome. The transformation process is known as SAR reduction and it is worth recalling here that only approximate pseudo-LRM waveforms can be obtained in case of closed burst acquisitions, as SIRAL operates. A SAR reduction processing scheme has been developed to obtain pseudo-LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition. As a trade-off between the along-track length on Earth surface contributing to one SARin pseudo-LRM waveform and the noisiness of the waveform itself, it has been chosen a SAR reduction approach based on the averaging of all the SARin echoes received each 20Hz, resulting in one pseudo-LRM waveform for each SARin burst given the SARin burst repetition period. SARin pseudo-LRM waveforms have been produced for CryoSat acquisition both on ice and sea surfaces, aiming at verifying the continuity of the retracked surface height over the ellipsoid between genuine LRM products and pseudo-LRM products. Moreover, the retracked height from the SARin pseudo-LRM has been

  5. Regular biorthogonal pairs and pseudo-bosonic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, H.; Takakura, M.

    2016-08-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to show a method of constructing a regular biorthogonal pair based on the commutation rule: ab - ba = I for a pair of operators a and b acting on a Hilbert space H with inner product (ṡ| ṡ ). Here, sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H are biorthogonal if (ϕn|ψm) = δnm, n, m = 0, 1, …, and they are regular if both Dϕ ≡ Span{ϕn} and Dψ ≡ Span{ψn} are dense in H . Indeed, the assumptions to construct the regular biorthogonal pair coincide with the definition of pseudo-bosons as originally given in F. Bagarello ["Pseudobosons, Riesz bases, and coherent states," J. Math. Phys. 51, 023531 (2010)]. Furthermore, we study the connections between the pseudo-bosonic operators a, b, a†, b† and the pseudo-bosonic operators defined by a regular biorthogonal pair ({ϕn}, {ψn}) and an ONB e of H in H. Inoue ["General theory of regular biorthogonal pairs and its physical applications," e-print arXiv:math-ph/1604.01967]. The second purpose is to define and study the notion of D -pseudo-bosons in F. Bagarello ["More mathematics for pseudo-bosons," J. Math. Phys. 54, 063512 (2013)] and F. Bagarello ["From self-adjoint to non self-adjoint harmonic oscillators: Physical consequences and mathematical pitfalls," Phys. Rev. A 88, 032120 (2013)] and give a method of constructing D -pseudo-bosons on some steps. Then it is shown that for any ONB e = {en} in H and any operators T and T-1 in L † ( D ) , we may construct operators A and B satisfying D -pseudo bosons, where D is a dense subspace in a Hilbert space H and L † ( D ) the set of all linear operators T from D to D such that T * D ⊂ D , where T* is the adjoint of T. Finally, we give some physical examples of D -pseudo-bosons based on standard bosons by the method of constructing D -pseudo-bosons stated above.

  6. Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. PMID:22633991

  7. Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet--analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Zangger, Alicia; Guiraud, Seu Ping

    2014-02-15

    Betaine and its precursor choline are important components of one-carbon metabolism, remethylating homocysteine into methionine and providing methyl groups for DNA methylation. Cereals are the main source of betaine in the diet, though there is little literature available on the content of betaine in cereal products, nor on betaine intake from cereals. Betaine and free-choline concentrations were measured by liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a wide range of commercially available cereal foods and cereal fractions. Whole grain wheat and related fractions were the best overall common source of betaine, while the pseudocereal quinoa had the highest amount of betaine measured (3900 μg/g). Based on estimates of dietary intake data cereal foods provide approximately 60-67% of betaine in Western diets, and 20-40% of betaine in South-East Asian diets. Average intake of betaine was 131 mg/d, well below those used in intervention studies using betaine to lower blood homocysteine. PMID:24128557

  8. Pseudo-scalar form factors at three loops in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Taushif; Gehrmann, Thomas; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V.

    2015-11-01

    The coupling of a pseudo-scalar Higgs boson to gluons is mediated through a heavy quark loop. In the limit of large quark mass, it is described by an effective Lagrangian that only admits light degrees of freedom. In this effective theory, we compute the three-loop massless QCD corrections to the form factor that describes the coupling of a pseudo-scalar Higgs boson to gluons. Due to the axial anomaly, the pseudo-scalar operator for the gluonic field strength mixes with the divergence of the axial vector current. Working in dimensional regularization and using the 't Hooft-Veltman prescription for the axial vector current, we compute the three-loop pseudo-scalar form factors for massless quarks and gluons. Using the universal infrared factorization properties, we independently derive the three-loop operator mixing and finite operator renormalisation from the renormalisation group equation for the form factors, thereby confirming recent results in the operator product expansion. The finite part of the three-loop form factor is an important ingredient to the precise prediction of the pseudo-scalar Higgs boson production cross section at hadron colliders. We discuss potential applications and derive the hard matching coefficient in soft-collinear effective theory.

  9. Current reduction in a pseudo-breakup event: THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z. H.; Pu, Z. Y.; Owen, C. J.; Fu, S. Y.; Chu, X. N.; Liu, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Rae, I. J.; Yue, C.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zong, Q.-G.; Cao, X.; Shi, Q. Q.; Forsyth, C.; Du, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    Pseudo-breakup events are thought to be generated by the same physical processes as substorms. This paper reports on the cross-tail current reduction in an isolated pseudo-breakup observed by three of the THEMIS probes (THEMIS A (THA), THEMIS D (THD), and THEMIS E (THE)) on 22 March 2010. During this pseudo-breakup, several localized auroral intensifications were seen by ground-based observatories. Using the unique spatial configuration of the three THEMIS probes, we have estimated the inertial and diamagnetic currents in the near-Earth plasma sheet associated with flow braking and diversion. We found the diamagnetic current to be the major contributor to the current reduction in this pseudo-breakup event. During flow braking, the plasma pressure was reinforced, and a weak electrojet and an auroral intensification appeared. After flow braking/diversion, the electrojet was enhanced, and a new auroral intensification was seen. The peak current intensity of the electrojet estimated from ground-based magnetometers, ~0.7 × 105 A, was about 1 order of magnitude lower than that in a typical substorm. We suggest that this pseudo-breakup event involved two dynamical processes: a current-reduction associated with plasma compression ahead of the earthward flow and a current-disruption related to the flow braking/diversion. Both processes are closely connected to the fundamental interaction between fast flows, the near-Earth ambient plasma, and the magnetic field.

  10. Pseudo-hypertension and arterial stiffness: a review.

    PubMed

    Foran, Timothy G; Sheahan, Noirin F; Cunningham, Conal; Feely, John

    2004-04-01

    Hypertension is a condition of persistently elevated blood pressure, associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Non-invasive BP measurement using Korotkoff sounds is the most common method of screening for the condition. The possibility of inaccurate readings leading to a false diagnosis of hypertension (pseudo-hypertension) is of concern. Stiffened arteries in the elderly have been proposed as being the primary cause of pseudo-hypertension. Non-invasive detection of pseudo-hypertension remains problematic. This paper reviews clinical literature on pseudo hypertension and approaches to measuring the compressive stiffness of arteries, as well as biomechanical literature regarding models of arterial stiffness and the origin of Korotkoff sounds. Models of the latter show the importance of the relationship between transmural pressure and cross-sectional area (P1/Csa curve) of the brachial artery as it closes under the influence of the pressure cuff. The review concludes that future research on pseudo-hypertension should include development of new instrumentation to measure the P1/Csa curve of the brachial artery in vivo using non-invasive techniques suitable for application to an elderly population. PMID:15132306

  11. Modelling Pseudo-nitzschia events off southwest Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Caroline; Mouriño, Helena; Moita, Maria Teresa; Silke, Joe

    2015-11-01

    Toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms are common in coastal waters worldwide including Ireland. Off southwest Ireland, the timing of blooms on a weekly scale is highly variable, while the seasonal pattern is more regular with a bimodal distribution. Upwelling conditions are closely linked to Pseudo-nitzschia blooms. The work presented here describes a mathematical model, a Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Model, employed to forecast the onset, abundance and duration of Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in the bays of southwest Ireland. Variables used in the model included field observations of Pseudo-nitzschia, sea surface temperature and wind. The estimated model reveals that, on average, cell levels on a given day depend on sea surface temperature, the value of a wind index on the previous day and the number of Pseudo-nitzschia in the water the previous week. The model forecast performed well for the onset and duration of blooms. However, the magnitude of blooms was sometimes underestimated by the model.

  12. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4-86, 196-1326 and 36-374 µg·kg(-1) range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some "emerging mycotoxins" (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of samples

  13. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of

  14. AN EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM GENOTYPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of 11 previously described species differentiation and genotyping PCR protocols for detection of Cryptosporidium parasites. Genomic DNA from three species of Crytosporidium parasites (genotype 1 and genotype 2 of C. parvum, C. muris, a...

  15. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  16. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  17. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  18. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  19. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  20. Pseudo-dirac neutrinos: a challenge for neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Beacom, John F; Bell, Nicole F; Hooper, Dan; Learned, John G; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Neutrinos may be pseudo-Dirac states, such that each generation is actually composed of two maximally mixed Majorana neutrinos separated by a tiny mass difference. The usual active neutrino oscillation phenomenology would be unaltered if the pseudo-Dirac splittings are deltam(2) less, similar 10(-12) eV(2); in addition, neutrinoless double beta decay would be highly suppressed. However, it may be possible to distinguish pseudo-Dirac from Dirac neutrinos using high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. By measuring flavor ratios as a function of L/E, mass-squared differences down to deltam(2) approximately 10(-18) eV(2) can be reached. We comment on the possibility of probing cosmological parameters with neutrinos. PMID:14753977

  1. Interspecific plastidial recombination in the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

    PubMed

    D'Alelio, Domenico; Ruggiero, Maria Valeria

    2015-12-01

    Plastids are usually uni-parentally inherited and genetic recombination between these organelles is seldom observed. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia, a globally relevant marine diatom, features bi-parental plastid inheritance in the course of sexual reproduction. This observation inspired the recombination detection we pursued in this paper over a ~1,400-nucleotide-long region of the plastidial rbcL, a marker used in both molecular taxonomy and phylogenetic studies in diatoms. Among all the rbcL-sequences available in web-databases for Pseudo-nitzschia, 42 haplotypes were identified and grouped in five clusters by Bayesian phylogeny. Signs of hybridization were evident in four of five clusters, at both intra- and interspecific levels, suggesting that, in diatoms, (i) plastidial recombination is not absent and (ii) hybridization can play a role in speciation of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. PMID:26986997

  2. Effects of erythromycin in chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Minami, T; Nishibayashi, H; Shinomura, Y; Matsuzawa, Y

    1996-12-01

    The prokinetic effects of erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on the gastrointestinal tract as a motilin receptor agonist and its potential value for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders have recently attracted interest. The effects of erythromycin on the clinical symptoms and gastrointestinal motility of patients with chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction have not been investigated extensively. We presented a case of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, in a 67-year-old man in whom oral erythromycin (900 mg/day) dramatically improved postprandial abdominal distention, nausea, and vomiting. Other agents with prokinetic effects on intestinal motility, i.e., cisapride, domperidone, metoclopramide, and trimebutine maleate did not have a favorable effect. Gastric emptying, measured by the sulfamethizole method; and intestinal transit, evaluated using radio-opaque markers, were markedly improved by treatment with erythromycin. Our experience suggests that the prokinetic effects of erythromycin may be of therapeutic value in chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. PMID:9027652

  3. Pseudo-Glassification Material for G-Demption

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Gates, Robert O.; Riley, Brian J.

    2014-09-30

    G-Demption, LLC has requested that PPNL provide design input for a “pseudo-glassification” process associated with their proposed technology for generating gamma irradiation stations from used nuclear fuel. The irradiation design currently consists of an aluminum enclosure designed to allow for proper encapsulation of and heat flow from a used fuel rod while minimally impacting the streaming of gamma rays from the fuel. In order to make their design more robust, G-Demption is investigating the benefits of backfilling this aluminum enclosure with a setting material once the used fuel rod is properly placed. This process has been initially referred to as “pseudo-glassification”, and strives not to impact heat transport or gamma streaming from the used fuel rod while providing increased fuel rod protection and fission gas retention. PNNL has compiled an internal material evaluation and discussion for the “pseudo-glassification” process in this report.

  4. Statistical properties of filtered pseudo-random digital sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    A tutorial presentation of pseudo-random digital sequences, their generation and properties is given. The results of a study of filtered pseudo-random sequences, and their statistical properties are reported. The generator, to be used in a telemetry communications system test unit, must generate its pseudo-random signals by filtering a long digital sequence. Desired signal properties include: (1) approximately Gaussian amplitude probability density function; and (2) signal spectral envelope approximately that of the filter being used in the generator. Filtered maximum-length sequences have been used for this, and similar applications in the past. The results were good for low-pass filtered sequences when the ratio of digital clock frequency to filter cutoff frequency was between fifteen and twenty. However, for higher values of this ratio, a definite skewing of the amplitude density function was observed.

  5. Evolution and development of cell walls in cereal grains

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Rachel A.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of cell walls in cereal grains and other grass species differs markedly from walls in seeds of other plants. In the maternal tissues that surround the embryo and endosperm of the grain, walls contain higher levels of cellulose and in many cases are heavily lignified. This may be contrasted with walls of the endosperm, where the amount of cellulose is relatively low, and the walls are generally not lignified. The low cellulose and lignin contents are possible because the walls of the endosperm perform no load-bearing function in the mature grain and indeed the low levels of these relatively intractable wall components are necessary because they allow rapid degradation of the walls following germination of the grain. The major non-cellulosic components of endosperm walls are usually heteroxylans and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans, with lower levels of xyloglucans, glucomannans, and pectic polysaccharides. Pectic polysaccharides and xyloglucans are the major non-cellulosic wall constituents in most dicot species, in which (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans are usually absent and heteroxylans are found at relatively low levels. Thus, the “core” non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides in grain of the cereals and other grasses are the heteroxylans and, more specifically, arabinoxylans. The (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans appear in the endosperm of some grass species but are essentially absent from others; they may constitute from zero to more than 45% of the cell walls of the endosperm, depending on the species. It is clear that in some cases these (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans function as a major store of metabolizable glucose in the grain. Cereal grains and their constituent cell wall polysaccharides are centrally important as a source of dietary fiber in human societies and breeders have started to select for high levels of non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides in grain. To meet end-user requirements, it is important that we understand cell wall biology in the grain both during development and

  6. Genotype Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren

    2016-06-17

    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility. PMID:26886161

  7. "Divine water" in the alchemical writings of pseudo-Democritus.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Matteo

    2009-03-01

    The name of the chemical solution (divine water) or (sulfur water) is characterised by semantic ambiguity: the term theion means both "divine" and "sulfur," and Greek alchemists frequently play on this polysemy. This article analyses the use of this and similar expressions in the writings of pseudo-Democritus from both a technical and a philological point of view. A fragment preserved by the alchemists Moses and Synesius shows that pseudo-Democritus knows two different kinds of this "water," the second of which recalls a recipe found in the chemical Leiden Papyrus, and that the composition of the substance determines the form of its name. PMID:19831256

  8. On the usability and security of pseudo-signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Lopresti, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Handwriting has been proposed as a possible biometric for a number of years. However, recent work has shown that handwritten passphrases are vulnerable to both human-based and machine-based forgeries. Pseudosignatures as an alternative are designed to thwart such attacks while still being easy for users to create, remember, and reproduce. In this paper, we briefly review the concept of pseudo-signatures, then describe an evaluation framework that considers aspects of both usability and security. We present results from preliminary experiments that examine user choice in creating pseudo-signatures and discuss the implications when sketching is used for generating cryptographic keys.

  9. Dynamic pseudos: How accurate outside their parent case?

    SciTech Connect

    Ekrann, S.; Mykkeltveit, J.

    1995-12-31

    If properly constructed, dynamic pseudos allow the parent solution from which they were derived to be exactly reproduced, in a certain well-defined sense, in a subsequent coarse grid simulation. The paper reports extensive numerical experimentation, in 1D homogeneous and heterogeneous media, to determine the performance of pseudos when used outside their parent case. The authors perturb fluid viscosities and injection rate, as well as realization. Parent solutions are produced analytically, via a generalization of the Buckley-Leverett technique, as are true solutions in off-parent cases. Capillarity is neglected in these experiments, while gravity is sometimes retained in order to force rate sensitivity.

  10. Observation of diesel spray by pseudo-high-speed photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, Seiji; Oka, Mohachiro

    2001-04-01

    Pseudo high speed photography has been developed to observe intermittent, periodic and high speed phenomena like diesel spray. Main device of this photography consists of Automatic Variable Retarder (AVR) which delays gradually timing between diesel injection and strobe spark with the micrometer. This technique enables us to observe diesel spray development just like images taken by a high speed video camera. This paper describes a principle of pseudo high speed photography, experimental results of adaptation to diesel spray and analysis of the diesel atomization mechanism.

  11. Enhancing pseudo-telepathy in the magic square game.

    PubMed

    Pawela, Lukasz; Gawron, Piotr; Puchała, Zbigniew; Sładkowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We study the possibility of reversing an action of a quantum channel. Our principal objective is to find a specific channel that reverses as accurately as possible an action of a given quantum channel. To achieve this goal we use semidefinite programming. We show the benefits of our method using the quantum pseudo-telepathy Magic Square game with noise. Our strategy is to move the pseudo-telepathy region to higher noise values. We show that it is possible to reverse the action of a noise channel using semidefinite programming. PMID:23762246

  12. Enhancing Pseudo-Telepathy in the Magic Square Game

    PubMed Central

    Pawela, Łukasz; Gawron, Piotr; Puchała, Zbigniew; Sładkowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We study the possibility of reversing an action of a quantum channel. Our principal objective is to find a specific channel that reverses as accurately as possible an action of a given quantum channel. To achieve this goal we use semidefinite programming. We show the benefits of our method using the quantum pseudo-telepathy Magic Square game with noise. Our strategy is to move the pseudo-telepathy region to higher noise values. We show that it is possible to reverse the action of a noise channel using semidefinite programming. PMID:23762246

  13. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  14. Dry Cereals Fortified with Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Fumarate Are Equally Effective in Breast-fed Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Ekhard E.; Fomon, Samuel J.; Nelson, Steven E.; Jeter, Janice M.; Theuer, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin < 55 μg/L at 2 mo) and 54% of these infants had ID with or without anemia by 4 mo. We conclude that electrolytic iron and ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal. PMID:21178077

  15. Dry cereals fortified with electrolytic iron or ferrous fumarate are equally effective in breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Fomon, Samuel J; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M; Theuer, Richard C

    2011-02-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅d(-1) from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅d(-1) from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin < 55 μg/L at 2 mo) and 54% of these infants had ID with or without anemia by 4 mo. We conclude that electrolytic iron and ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal. PMID:21178077

  16. Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals harvested from Hungarian fields.

    PubMed

    Tima, Helga; Brückner, Andrea; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Kiskó, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 frequently contaminate grain crops in Middle and Eastern Europe. In this survey, 116 cereal samples (maize, wheat, barley and oat) were examined for DON, ZEN and T-2 mycotoxins. Samples were collected from different areas in two Hungarian regions (North and South Transdanubia). The method of analysis was indirect competitive ELISA. Maize was the most contaminated grain regarding DON (86%), ZEN (41%) and T-2 (55%) toxins. The average results of the deoxynivalenol and zearalenone tests of maize proved to be significantly higher than those of barley or oat. DON was the most represented Fusarium mycotoxin followed by T-2 and ZEN. The examination of these mycotoxins would be necessary at a larger scale as to re-evaluate permissible levels, so increase of the monitoring programme would be advisable for the future. PMID:26892197

  17. Functional Agents to Biologically Control Deoxynivalenol Contamination in Cereal Grains

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Tan, Yanglan; Liu, Na; Liao, Yucai; Sun, Changpo; Wang, Shuangxia; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, as microbial secondary metabolites, frequently contaminate cereal grains and pose a serious threat to human and animal health around the globe. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a commonly detected Fusarium mycotoxin, has drawn utmost attention due to high exposure levels and contamination frequency in the food chain. Biological control is emerging as a promising technology for the management of DON contamination. Functional biological control agents (BCAs), which include antagonistic microbes, natural fungicides derived from plants and detoxification enzymes, can be used to control DON contamination at different stages of grain production. In this review, studies regarding different biological agents for DON control in recent years are summarized for the first time. Furthermore, this article highlights the significance of BCAs for controlling DON contamination, as well as the need for more practical and efficient BCAs concerning food safety. PMID:27064760

  18. Whole grain cereals: functional components and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Borneo, Rafael; León, Alberto Edel

    2012-02-01

    Cereal-based food products have been the basis of the human diet since ancient times. Dietary guidelines all over the world are recommending the inclusion of whole grains because of the increasing evidence that whole grains and whole-grain-based products have the ability to enhance health beyond the simple provision of energy and nutrients. In this review we will examine the main chemical components present in whole grains that may have health enhancing properties (dietary fiber, inulin, beta-glucan, resistant starch, carotenoids, phenolics, tocotrienols, and tocopherols) and the role that whole grains may play in disease prevention (cardiovascular diseases and strokes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, as well as different forms of cancer). The knowledge derived from the functional properties of the different chemical components present in whole grains will aid in the formulation and development of new food products with health enhancing characteristics. PMID:22134555

  19. New radiocarbon dates on the cereals from Wadi Kubbaniya

    SciTech Connect

    Wendorf, F.; Schild, R.; Close, A.E.; Donahue, D.J.; Jull, A.J.T.; Zabel, T.H.; Wieckowska, H.; Kobusiewicz, M.; Issawi, B.; el Hadidi, N.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978, three carbonized grains of barley and a carbonized grain of einkorn wheat were found in a buried hearth at a Late Paleolithic site at Wadi Kubbaniya in Egypt. In 1981, two large clusters of barley seeds, which were identified as six-row barley and thus domestic, were found at a nearby site of comparable age. Numerous grinding stones, presumed to have been used for processing the cereals, were found in these and other sites, often deeply buried, and 30 radiocarbon dates placed the occupations between 18,500 and 17,000 radiocarbon years ago. These finds led us to suggest an early origin of food production, with implications for the initial development of complex societies. Several barley seeds were analyzed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy to determine the maximal temperature to which they had been subjected before burial. Six barley seeds and three small pieces of wood charcoal were dated directly by using a tandem accelerator mass spectrometer.

  20. Valorization of Cereal Based Biorefinery Byproducts: Reality and Expectations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the biobased economy will lead to an increase in new biorefinery activities. All biorefineries face the regular challenges of efficiently and economically treating their effluent to be compatible with local discharge requirements and to minimize net water consumption. The amount of wastes resulting from biorefineries industry is exponentially growing. The valorization of such wastes has drawn considerable attention with respect to resources with an observable economic and environmental concern. This has been a promising field which shows great prospective toward byproduct usage and increasing value obtained from the biorefinery. However, full-scale realization of biorefinery wastes valorization is not straightforward because several microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved. In this review we considered valorization options for cereals based biorefineries wastes while identifying their challenges and exploring the opportunities for future process. PMID:23931701

  1. Genetic variation for resistance to ergot (Claviceps purpurea [Fr.] Tul.) among full-sib families of five populations of winter rye (Secale cereale L.).

    PubMed

    Mirdita, V; Dhillon, B S; Geiger, H H; Miedaner, T

    2008-12-01

    Ergot (Claviceps purpurea [Fr.] Tul.) is a serious disease of rye (Secale cereale L.) and it adversely affects the quality of grain. The present investigation was undertaken to study genotypic variability among full-sib families (FSF) of five open-pollinated (OP) winter rye populations of highly diverse origin, namely Dankovskie Selekcyine (Poland), Charkovskaja (Ukraine), NEM4 (Russia), Halo and Carokurz, both from Germany. About 50 FSF were developed at random in each population, and the FSF of each population were evaluated in separate but adjacent experiments conducted in four environments under artificial inoculation. A mixture of conidia of C. purpurea isolates was sprayed thrice during the flowering period. The materials were manually harvested at yellow-ripe stage. Resistance trait recorded was disease severity, i.e. percent ergot sclerotia in grain by weight. Mean ergot severity ranged from 2.29 to 4.08% for the five populations across environments. Significant genotypic variation (P < 0.01) due to FSF and FSF x environment interaction was observed within each population. Genotypic variation within all populations was higher than that among five populations. All populations showed high estimates of heritability (0.72-0.89). The study indicated that the evaluated OP populations are rich reservoirs of genetic variation that should also be used in hybrid breeding. Recurrent selection to further improve ergot resistance should be successful. PMID:18797841

  2. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading. PMID:24175878

  3. Efficient measurement of amylose content in cereal grains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid and economical measurement of amylose content in barley is important for genetic study and breeding improvement of this trait. Seventeen genotypes with a wide range of amylose contents were used to compare the amylose measurement accuracy of the cost-effective iodine-potassium iodide (I:KI) me...

  4. Wholegrain oat-based cereals have prebiotic potential and low glycaemic index.

    PubMed

    Connolly, M L; Tuohy, K M; Lovegrove, J A

    2012-12-28

    Population studies show a positive association between increased dietary intake of wholegrains and reduced risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Consumption of wholegrain food has been associated with lower blood glucose and therefore may contribute to a low-glycaemic load diet. The ability to mediate a prebiotic modulation of gut microbiota has recently been suggested to have an inverse correlation with risk of cardiometabolic disease. To date very little work has been carried out on the functionality of wholegrain breakfast cereals in terms of glycaemic response or impact on gut microbiota. An investigation into identifying wholegrain-based breakfast cereals demonstrating both low glycaemic index (GI) and prebiotic attributes was performed. After in vitro digestion, cereal samples were supplemented to pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures of the human faecal microbiota. Total bacteria populations increased significantly (P < 0·05) in all treated cultures, and the fermentation of a wholegrain oat cluster cereal was associated with proliferation of the Bifidobacterium genus (P = 0·02). Smaller, but significant increases in the Bifidobacterium genus were observed for a further four oat-based cereals. Significant increases in the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group were observed for granola (P = 0·01), 100 % wholegrain aggregate (P = 0·04) and 70 % wholegrain loops (P = 0·01). Cereals demonstrating prebiotic potential were selected for GI determination in twelve healthy subjects. The wholegrain oat aggregate cereal achieved the lowest GI value (40), three other cereals ranged between 44 and 74, with instant porridge resulting in a GI value similar to the standard glucose control. The present study suggests that wholegrain oat-based breakfast cereals may be prebiotics and have the potential to have low GI. PMID:22360862

  5. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

  6. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base1234

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  7. The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter G

    2014-09-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  8. Correlated genotypes in friendship networks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H.; Settle, Jaime E.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that humans tend to associate with other humans who have similar characteristics, but it is unclear whether this tendency has consequences for the distribution of genotypes in a population. Although geneticists have shown that populations tend to stratify genetically, this process results from geographic sorting or assortative mating, and it is unknown whether genotypes may be correlated as a consequence of nonreproductive associations or other processes. Here, we study six available genotypes from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test for genetic similarity between friends. Maps of the friendship networks show clustering of genotypes and, after we apply strict controls for population stratification, the results show that one genotype is positively correlated (homophily) and one genotype is negatively correlated (heterophily). A replication study in an independent sample from the Framingham Heart Study verifies that DRD2 exhibits significant homophily and that CYP2A6 exhibits significant heterophily. These unique results show that homophily and heterophily obtain on a genetic (indeed, an allelic) level, which has implications for the study of population genetics and social behavior. In particular, the results suggest that association tests should include friends’ genes and that theories of evolution should take into account the fact that humans might, in some sense, be metagenomic with respect to the humans around them. PMID:21245293

  9. A pseudo-state sensitivity study on hydrogenic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, C. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Smyth, E. S.

    2003-09-01

    An electron-impact excitation study of light hydrogenic ions has been carried out to quantify the effects of coupling to high bound/continuum states utilizing the R-matrix with pseudo-states method. As the ionization stage increases, the neglect of loss of flux into high-lying excitation/ionization channels impacts less upon excitation between the bound terms explicitly included within our close coupling expansion. C5+ is used as our benchmark study. The differences in Maxwell averaged collision strengths between a standard R-matrix calculation and those of a similar pseudo-state model across a range of temperatures shall be our criteria for judging differences. We carried out calculations for He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, C5+, O7+ and Ne9+ so as to provide excitation data amongst terms up to n = 5. Pseudo-state calculations were carried out for the first five ions, following a similar model to earlier neutral hydrogen work, whilst non-pseudo-state calculations sufficed for the remaining two ions. The results of these seven calculations will enhance existing excitation data sets for use in the modelling of controlled nuclear fusion plasma experiments.

  10. Thinking Process of Pseudo Construction in Mathematics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subanji; Nusantara, Toto

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at studying pseudo construction of student thinking in mathematical concepts, integer number operation, algebraic forms, area concepts, and triangle concepts. 391 junior high school students from four districts of East Java Province Indonesia were taken as the subjects. Data were collected by means of distributing the main…

  11. Critical exponents in two dimensions and pseudo-ε expansion.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, M A; Sokolov, A I

    2014-04-01

    The critical behavior of two-dimensional n-vector λϕ4 field model is studied within the framework of pseudo-ε expansion approach. Pseudo-ε expansions for Wilson fixed-point location g* and critical exponents originating from five-loop two-dimensional renormalization-group series are derived. Numerical estimates obtained within Padé and Padé-Borel resummation procedures as well as by direct summation are presented for n=1, n=0, and n=-1, i.e., for the models which are exactly solvable. The pseudo-ε expansions for g*, critical exponents γ, and ν have small lower-order coefficients and slow increasing higher-order ones. As a result, direct summation of these series with optimal cutoff provides numerical estimates that are no worse than those given by the resummation approaches mentioned. This enables one to consider the pseudo-ε expansion technique itself as some specific resummation method. PMID:24827231

  12. Pseudo-Hermitian ensemble of random Gaussian matrices.

    PubMed

    Marinello, G; Pato, M P

    2016-07-01

    It is shown how pseudo-Hermiticity, a necessary condition satisfied by operators of PT symmetric systems can be introduced in the three Gaussian classes of random matrix theory. The model describes transitions from real eigenvalues to a situation in which, apart from a residual number, the eigenvalues are complex conjugate. PMID:27575116

  13. Pseudo-Hermitian ensemble of random Gaussian matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinello, G.; Pato, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown how pseudo-Hermiticity, a necessary condition satisfied by operators of PT symmetric systems can be introduced in the three Gaussian classes of random matrix theory. The model describes transitions from real eigenvalues to a situation in which, apart from a residual number, the eigenvalues are complex conjugate.

  14. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: Banana pseudo stem

    PubMed Central

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J.; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production. PMID:25477922

  15. Trajectories of a DAE near a pseudo-equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardmore, R. E.; Laister, R.; Peplow, A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a class of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) defined by analytic nonlinearities and study its singular solutions. The main assumption used is that the linearization of the DAE represents a Kronecker index-2 matrix pencil and that the constraint manifold has a quadratic fold along its singularity. From these assumptions we obtain a normal form for the DAE where the presence of the singularity and its effects on the dynamics of the problem are made explicit in the form of a quasi-linear differential equation. Subsequently, two distinct types of singular points are identified through which there pass exactly two analytic solutions: pseudo-nodes and pseudo-saddles. We also demonstrate that a singular point called a pseudo-node supports an uncountable infinity of solutions which are not analytic in general. Moreover, akin to known results in the literature for DAEs with singular equilibria, a degenerate singularity is found through which there passes one analytic solution such that the singular point in question is contained within a quasi-invariant manifold of solutions. We call this type of singularity a pseudo-centre and it provides not only a manifold of solutions which intersects the singularity, but also a local flow on that manifold which solves the DAE.

  16. Pseudo-Symmetry and Majorana Operators in pf-Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, J. P.; Wu, H. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Majorana operator of the pseudo ds-shell preserves the SU-tilde(4) symmetry, and in a unified manner it reproduces reasonably well the ground state energies of the nine nuclei in this shell. The study of {beta} decay in the same shell provides further support for the SU-tilde(4) symmetry.

  17. Semi-classical analysis and pseudo-spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, E. B.

    We prove an approximate spectral theorem for non-self-adjoint operators and investigate its applications to second-order differential operators in the semi-classical limit. This leads to the construction of a twisted FBI transform. We also investigate the connections between pseudo-spectra and boundary conditions in the semi-classical limit.

  18. The Higgs as a pseudo-Goldstone boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgi, Howard

    2007-11-01

    The old idea of the Higgs as a pseudo-Goldstone boson has been revived and re-energized as a possible solution to the little hierarchy puzzle in the Standard Model. Its most natural implementation may be in the context of models with supersymmetry not far above the electroweak breaking scale. To cite this article: H. Georgi, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  19. A new class of pseudo-differential operators

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Alexander; Stein, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a class of pseudo-differential operators and their singular integral realizations and show how these may be used to give precise estimates in various function spaces. Application will be given in particular to several situations in which subelliptic estimates arise for partial differential equations. PMID:16592493

  20. Hypokalemia Associated with Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Sunnoqrot, Naseem; Reilly, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of hypokalemia resulting from colonic pseudo-obstruction or Ogilvie's syndrome. Colonic pseudo-obstruction is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea that has a low sodium and high potassium concentration. It is seen in a variety of medical and surgical conditions, but its exact cause remains unknown. It is thought to result from an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic input in the distal colon. The diarrhea is secretory and driven by potassium secretion rather than the inhibition of sodium reabsorption or chloride secretion, which are the most common pathophysiologic mechanisms of secretory diarrhea. Affected patients often lose >100 mmol of potassium daily. Colonic pseudo-obstruction is associated with a dramatic upregulation of the maxiK or BK potassium channel. This channel plays a prominent role in flow-mediated potassium secretion in the connecting tubule and collecting duct and is also upregulated in the distal colon in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In vitro studies show that the channel is regulated by catecholamine binding to the β receptor and cyclic AMP upregulation, somatostatin and aldosterone, insights that can be used to help guide pharmacologic therapy. Nephrologists should be aware of colonic pseudo-obstruction as a cause of extrarenal potassium loss. PMID:26120577

  1. Appearances of pseudo-bosons from Black-Scholes equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.

    2016-04-01

    It is a well known fact that the Black-Scholes equation admits an alternative representation as a Schrödinger equation expressed in terms of a non-self-adjoint Hamiltonian. We show how pseudo-bosons, linear or not, naturally arise in this context, and how they can be used in the computation of the pricing kernel.

  2. Pseudo-discontinuities in the isomer shift near magnetic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolk, B.; Hall, D. B.; Zheng, Y.; Lumetta, J. T.

    1983-12-01

    It is shown that a relatively small non-linear behavior of the velocity drive system used in Mössbauer effect studies yields pseudo-discontinuities in the isomer shift near the critical temperature T c of a magnetic-paramagnetic transition. The anomaly of the57Fe isomer shift in iron is attributed to this effect.

  3. Newcastle disease: genotypic variation and gross pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are currently 18 genotypes described for class II Newcastle disease viruses and one genotype for class I. While class I viruses are globally distributed in wild birds, the class II genotypes are found more selectively in different countries. For instance the NDV isolates in genotype V are mo...

  4. GENOME ENABLED ECOLOGY OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA INFECTING VIRUSES AND THEIR IMPACT ON PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With short infection cycles and large burst sizes (viruses per cell), the infection dynamics of diatom viruses appear to be optimized for rapidly growing diatom populations. On the timescale of bloom events, total Pseudo-nitzschia virus abundance should increase rapidly ove...

  5. Genetic variation in isolates of the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex recovered from cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) includes mycotoxigenic species associated with several diseases of cereals and other crops. These species are considered moderately aggressive and are reported to produce multiple mycotoxins, including beauvericin, zearalenone, equisetin, fusa...

  6. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin-producing fungi on cereal grain in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhihong, Liang; Kunlun, Huang; Yunbo, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be the main contaminant of cereal grain and has become increasingly important in recent years. Therefore, a survey of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA contamination in China is a special challenge. This paper summarises data on cereals and moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus, for example) and on grain and OTA from 1973 by searching Chinese information databases (NCKI, VIP, DuXiu etc.), calculating the OTA-producing mould detection rate, referring to sampling locations, latitude and temperature, and also combining six grain-producing areas of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA positive rate through a comprehensive analysis. It is concluded that in China rice (excluding shell rice) has less OTA contamination than wheat or maize. The contamination of cereal grains with Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly of the A. niger group) is a serious problem in China, and these fungi may be the main ochratoxigenic fungi on cereals. PMID:25571918

  7. Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds To avoid potential harm, experts ... rice-based foods may have significantly higher "inorganic" arsenic concentrations in their urine than babies who never ...

  8. Dielectric properties of cereals at frequencies useful for processes with microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Torrealba-Meléndez, Richard; Sosa-Morales, María Elena; Olvera-Cervantes, José Luis; Corona-Chávez, Alonso

    2015-12-01

    Dielectric properties of barley, corn (white and yellow), sorghum, and wheat at microwave frequencies for heating purpose were analyzed. Properties were determined at 915, 2450 and 5800 MHz with the free space transmission method in the cereals at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C. ε´ and ε"of all the cereals decreased with increasing frequency. ε´ slightly increased with temperature, while ε "remained practically constant for all the cereals in the temperature range from 20 to 60 °C. Penetration depth decreased with increasing frequency for all the samples, and increased with increasing temperature at 915 MHz, except for barley. These results are useful for further microwave heating applications for the studies on cereals. PMID:26604422

  9. Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Juergen; Themeier, Heinz; Neese, Ursula; Lindhauer, Meinolf G

    2013-10-01

    The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure. PMID:23601411

  10. Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158484.html Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds ... April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Parents commonly give rice to their babies as a first food. Now, ...

  11. Comparative Genetics of Seed Size Traits in Divergent Cereal Lineages Represented by Sorghum (Panicoidae) and Rice (Oryzoidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Jingping; Compton, Rosana O.; Robertson, Jon; Goff, Valorie H.; Epps, Ethan; Kong, Wenqian; Kim, Changsoo; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Seed size is closely related to fitness of wild plants, and its modification has been a key recurring element in domestication of seed/grain crops. In sorghum, a genomic and morphological model for panicoid cereals, a rich history of research into the genetics of seed size is reflected by a total of 13 likelihood intervals determined by conventional QTL (linkage) mapping in 11 nonoverlapping regions of the genome. To complement QTL data and investigate whether the discovery of seed size QTL is approaching “saturation,” we compared QTL data to GWAS for seed mass, seed length, and seed width studied in 354 accessions from a sorghum association panel (SAP) that have been genotyped at 265,487 SNPs. We identified nine independent GWAS-based “hotspots” for seed size associations. Targeted resequencing near four association peaks with the most notable linkage disequilibrium provides further support of the role(s) of these regions in the genetic control of sorghum seed size and identifies two candidate causal variants with nonsynonymous mutations. Of nine GWAS hotspots in sorghum, seven have significant correspondence with rice QTL intervals and known genes for components of seed size on orthologous chromosomes. Identifying intersections between positional and association genetic data are a potentially powerful means to mitigate constraints associated with each approach, and nonrandom correspondence of sorghum (panicoid) GWAS signals to rice (oryzoid) QTL adds a new dimension to the ability to leverage genetic data about this important trait across divergent plants. PMID:25834216

  12. Comparative Genetics of Seed Size Traits in Divergent Cereal Lineages Represented by Sorghum (Panicoidae) and Rice (Oryzoidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Jingping; Compton, Rosana O; Robertson, Jon; Goff, Valorie H; Epps, Ethan; Kong, Wenqian; Kim, Changsoo; Paterson, Andrew H

    2015-06-01

    Seed size is closely related to fitness of wild plants, and its modification has been a key recurring element in domestication of seed/grain crops. In sorghum, a genomic and morphological model for panicoid cereals, a rich history of research into the genetics of seed size is reflected by a total of 13 likelihood intervals determined by conventional QTL (linkage) mapping in 11 nonoverlapping regions of the genome. To complement QTL data and investigate whether the discovery of seed size QTL is approaching "saturation," we compared QTL data to GWAS for seed mass, seed length, and seed width studied in 354 accessions from a sorghum association panel (SAP) that have been genotyped at 265,487 SNPs. We identified nine independent GWAS-based "hotspots" for seed size associations. Targeted resequencing near four association peaks with the most notable linkage disequilibrium provides further support of the role(s) of these regions in the genetic control of sorghum seed size and identifies two candidate causal variants with nonsynonymous mutations. Of nine GWAS hotspots in sorghum, seven have significant correspondence with rice QTL intervals and known genes for components of seed size on orthologous chromosomes. Identifying intersections between positional and association genetic data are a potentially powerful means to mitigate constraints associated with each approach, and nonrandom correspondence of sorghum (panicoid) GWAS signals to rice (oryzoid) QTL adds a new dimension to the ability to leverage genetic data about this important trait across divergent plants. PMID:25834216

  13. An evaluation of EDTA compounds for iron fortification of cereal-based foods.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, R F; Reddy, M B; Burri, J; Cook, J D

    2000-12-01

    Fe absorption was measured in adult human subjects consuming different cereal foods fortified with radiolabelled FeSO4, ferrous fumarate or NaFeEDTA, or with radiolabelled FeSO4 or ferric pyrophosphate in combination with different concentrations of Na2EDTA. Mean Fe absorption from wheat, wheat-soyabean and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) infant cereals fortified with FeSO4 or ferrous fumarate ranged from 0.6 to 2.2%. For each infant cereal, mean Fe absorption from ferrous fumarate was similar to that from FeSO4 (absorption ratio 0.91-1.28). Mean Fe absorption from FeSO4-fortified bread rolls was 1.0% when made from high-extraction wheat flour and 5.7% when made from low-extraction wheat flour. Fe absorption from infant cereals and bread rolls fortified with NaFeEDTA was 1.9-3.9 times greater than when the same product was fortified with FeSO4. Both high phytate content and consumption of tea decreased Fe absorption from the NaFeEDTA-fortified rolls. When Na2EDTA up to a 1:1 molar ratio (EDTA:Fe) was added to FeSO4-fortified wheat cereal and wheat-soyabean cereal mean Fe absorption from the wheat cereal increased from 1.0% to a maximum of 5.7% at a molar ratio of 0.67:1, and from the wheat-soyabean cereal from 0.7% to a maximum of 2.9% at a molar ratio of 1:1. Adding Na2EDTA to ferric pyrophosphate-fortified wheat cereal did not significantly increase absorption (P > 0.05). We conclude that Fe absorption is higher from cereal foods fortified with NaFeEDTA than when fortified with FeSO4 or ferrous fumarate, and that Na2EDTA can be added to cereal foods to enhance absorption of soluble Fe-fortification compounds such as FeSO4. PMID:11177208

  14. Material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastio, Michael Joseph, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly seventy-five years ago, the single screw extruder was introduced as a means to produce metal products. Shortly after that, the extruder found its way into the plastics industry. Today much of the world's polymer industry utilizes extruders to produce items such as soda bottles, PVC piping, and toy figurines. Given the significant economical advantages of extruders over conventional batch flow systems, extruders have also migrated into the food industry. Food applications include the meat, pet food, and cereal industries to name just a few. Cereal manufacturers utilize extruders to produce various forms of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereals. These cereals are made from grains such as rice, oats, wheat, and corn. The food industry has been incorrectly viewed as an extruder application requiring only minimal energy control and performance capability. This misconception has resulted in very little research in the area of material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruders. Breakfast cereal extruder barrels and individual screw elements are subjected to the extreme pressures and temperatures required to shear and cook the cereal ingredients, resulting in excessive material wear and catastrophic failure of these components. Therefore, this project focuses on the material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements, modeled as a Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) process in which historical data is used to predict future failures. Such predictive analysis will yield cost savings opportunities by providing insight into extruder maintenance scheduling and interchangeability of screw elements. In this DTMC wear analysis, four states of wear are defined and a probability transition matrix is determined based upon 24,041 hours of operational data. This probability transition matrix is used to predict when an extruder component will move to the next state of wear and/or failure. This information can be used to determine

  15. The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients.

    PubMed

    Comino, Isabel; Moreno, María de Lourdes; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-10-01

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition. PMID:24152755

  16. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  17. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    Comino, Isabel; de Lourdes Moreno, María; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition. PMID:24152755

  18. Biharmonic Submanifolds with Parallel Mean Curvature Vector in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate biharmonic submanifolds in pseudo-Euclidean spaces with arbitrary index and dimension. We give a complete classification of biharmonic spacelike submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We also determine all biharmonic Lorentzian surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector field in pseudo-Euclidean spaces.

  19. From the concept of totipotency to biofortified cereals.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    I was a college teacher when opportunity opened a path into academia. A fascination with totipotency channeled me into research on tissue culture. As I was more interested in contributions to food security than in scientific novelty, I turned my attention to the development of genetic modification technology for cereals. From my cell culture experience, I had reasons not to trust Agrobacterium for that purpose, and I developed direct gene transfer instead. In the early 1990s, I became aware of the problem of micronutrient deficiency, particularly vitamin A deficiency in rice-eating populations. Golden Rice, which contains increased amounts of provitamin A, was probably instrumental for the concept of biofortification to take off. I realized that this rice would remain an academic exercise if product development and product registration were not addressed, and this is what I focused on after my retirement. Although progress is slowly being made, had I known what this pursuit would entail, perhaps I would not have started. Hopefully Golden Rice will reach the needy during my lifetime. PMID:25423078

  20. Streptomyces strains producing mitochondriotoxic antimycin A found in cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Rasimus-Sahari, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Jestoi, Marika; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2016-02-01

    Reasons for mammalian cell toxicity observed in barley and spring wheat grains were sought. Streptomyces sp. isolates from wheat and barley produced heat-stable methanol-soluble substances which inhibited the motility of exposed porcine spermatozoa used as a toxicity indicator. Several barley isolates produced antimycin A (2 to 5 ng/mg wet wt of biomass), a macrolide antibiotic known to block oxygen utilization in mitochondria. The antimycin-producing isolates were members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus group. In in vitro assays with porcine kidney tubular epithelial cells, the specific toxicity of antimycin A towards mitochondria was higher than that of the mycotoxin enniatin B but lower than that of the mitochondriotoxins cereulide and paenilide, produced by food-related Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus tundrae, respectively. The toxic wheat isolates, related to Streptomyces sedi, did not produce antimycin A and or any other known toxin. Our results suggest that the presence of toxin-producing streptomycetes in stored cereal grains may pose a thus far unrecognized threat for food and feed safety. PMID:26619316

  1. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rohan G. T.; McCorkelle, Owen; Bleackley, Mark; Collins, Christine; Faou, Pierre; Mathivanan, Suresh; Anderson, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr) creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab) of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality, and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviors. A high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis defined the extracellular proteases secreted by F. graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases. PMID:26635820

  2. Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ergundenler, A.

    1991-12-31

    The termogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air and nitrogen atmospheres. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined for these straws in both atmospheres. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate, and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The thermal degradation rate in active pyrolysis zone was lower in air atmosphere than in nitrogen atmosphere, whereas the thermal degradation rate in passive pyrolysis zone and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were higher in nitrogen atmosphere than in air atmosphere.

  3. Guiding deployment of resistance in cereals using evolutionary principles

    PubMed Central

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Barrett, Luke G; Rebetzke, Greg; Thrall, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Genetically controlled resistance provides plant breeders with an efficient means of controlling plant disease, but this approach has been constrained by practical difficulties associated with combining many resistance genes together and strong evolutionary responses from pathogen populations leading to subsequent resistance breakdown. However, continuing advances in molecular marker technologies are revolutionizing the ability to rapidly and reliably manipulate resistances of all types – major gene, adult plant and quantitative resistance loci singly or multiply into individual host lines. Here, we argue that these advances provide major opportunities to deliberately design deployment strategies in cereals that can take advantage of the evolutionary pressures faced by target pathogens. Different combinations of genes deployed either within single host individuals or between different individuals within or among crops, can be used to reduce the size of pathogen populations and generate patterns of disruptive selection. This will simultaneously limit immediate epidemic development and reduce the probability of subsequent evolutionary change in the pathogen for broader infectivity or increased aggressiveness. The same general principles are relevant to the control of noncereal diseases, but the most efficacious controls will vary reflecting the range of genetic options available and their fit with specific ecology and life-history combinations. PMID:25067946

  4. Health benefits of cereal fibre: a review of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Cereal fibre and whole-grain intakes have been consistently associated in the epidemiological literature with reduced mortality and risk of chronic disease including obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present review focuses on intervention trials with three primary aims: (1) understanding the mechanisms through which fibre consumption improves health (for example, examination of intermediate endpoints reflecting improved lipid, glucose and energy metabolism); (2) close evaluation of qualitative factors which modify fibre’s effectiveness including physiochemical properties (for example, solubility, fermentability and viscosity), fibre extract molecular weight, fibre particle size and botanical structure of the fibre source grain; and (3) identification of areas in which additional research is needed. The first two aims typify the goals of nutrition research, in that improved understanding of the specific factors which determine fibre’s health benefits has critical implications for dietary recommendations as well as improving understanding of physiological mechanisms. The third aim acknowledges the substantial gap between recommended and actual fibre intakes in many developed countries including the USA and the UK. In recognition of this deficit in total fibre intake, food manufacturing processes increasingly utilise fibre extracts and concentrates as food additives. However, whether fibre extracts provide similar health benefits to the fibre supplied in the constituents of whole grain is largely unexplored. The relative benefits of fibre extracts compared with whole-grain fibre sources therefore represent a critical area in which additional research is needed. PMID:21320383

  5. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D.; West, Paul C.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; Polasky, Stephen; Foley, Jonathan A.

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ˜50% less nitrogen application and ˜60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ˜30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ˜40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains.

  6. Health benefits of cereal fibre: a review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-06-01

    Cereal fibre and whole-grain intakes have been consistently associated in the epidemiological literature with reduced mortality and risk of chronic disease including obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present review focuses on intervention trials with three primary aims: (1) understanding the mechanisms through which fibre consumption improves health (for example, examination of intermediate endpoints reflecting improved lipid, glucose and energy metabolism); (2) close evaluation of qualitative factors which modify fibre's effectiveness including physiochemical properties (for example, solubility, fermentability and viscosity), fibre extract molecular weight, fibre particle size and botanical structure of the fibre source grain; and (3) identification of areas in which additional research is needed. The first two aims typify the goals of nutrition research, in that improved understanding of the specific factors which determine fibre's health benefits has critical implications for dietary recommendations as well as improving understanding of physiological mechanisms. The third aim acknowledges the substantial gap between recommended and actual fibre intakes in many developed countries including the USA and the UK. In recognition of this deficit in total fibre intake, food manufacturing processes increasingly utilise fibre extracts and concentrates as food additives. However, whether fibre extracts provide similar health benefits to the fibre supplied in the constituents of whole grain is largely unexplored. The relative benefits of fibre extracts compared with whole-grain fibre sources therefore represent a critical area in which additional research is needed. PMID:21320383

  7. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure. PMID:23511708

  8. Where do Protein Bodies of Cereal Seeds Come From?

    PubMed Central

    Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Mainieri, Davide; Marrano, Claudia A.; Vitale, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Protein bodies of cereal seeds consist of ordered, largely insoluble heteropolymers formed by prolamin storage proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of developing endosperm cells. Often these structures are permanently unable to traffic along the secretory pathway, thus representing a unique example for the use of the ER as a protein storage compartment. In recent years, marked progress has been made in understanding what is needed to make a protein body and in formulating hypotheses on how protein body formation might have evolved as an efficient mechanism to store large amounts of protein during seed development, as opposed to the much more common system of seed storage protein accumulation in vacuoles. The major key evolutionary events that have generated prolamins appear to have been insertions or deletions that have disrupted the conformation of the eight-cysteine motif, a protein folding motif common to many proteins with different functions and locations along the secretory pathway, and, alternatively, the fusion between the eight-cysteine motif and domains containing additional cysteine residues. PMID:27540384

  9. Pseudo-Casimir force in chiral smectic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Markun, B; Zumer, S

    2003-08-01

    We present a theoretical study of the pseudo-Casimir force in two chiral smectic systems: a homeotropic cell and a free-standing film. We consider the interaction induced by the fluctuations of orientational order. We demonstrate how the character of the force depends on the type of fluctuation modes and on boundary conditions. We focus on the temperature dependence of the force, which is marked by the vicinity of the smectic-A*-->smectic-C* phase transition. We find that at this transition the force diverges if the system is frustrated; otherwise it remains finite. We expose the analogy between the force in these smectic systems and in previously studied nematic systems, thus demonstrating the universality of the pseudo-Casimir interaction. PMID:14524990

  10. Extended pseudo-screen migration with multiple reference velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lian-Jie; Fehler, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    The pseudo-screen propagator is a kind of one way wave propagation based on the local Born approximation. The problem of the propagator is that it is difficult to calculate the scattered fields when the velocity perturbation is large; not to mention the accuracy of the propagator. We develop an extended pseudo-screen propagator by introducing different reference velocities in different regions of a medium to ensure the condition of small perturbation. The exploding reflector data for a 2D slice of the SEG/EAEG 3D salt model is generated by a finite difference scheme to test the feasibility of the method. The migration result demonstrates that the method can handle severe lateral velocity variations and provides high quality images for complex structures.

  11. Numerical stability of pseudo-spectral PIC code generalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Brendan B.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    Laser Plasma Accelerator (LPA) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are computationally demanding, because they require beam transport over times and distances long compared with the natural scales of the acceleration mechanism and because they are prone to numerical instabilities. To provide greater flexibility in LPA PIC simulations, we have generalized the Pseudo-Spectral Time Domain (PSTD) algorithm to accommodate arbitrary order spatial derivative approximations and substantially longer time steps. Here, we show that, by extending approaches developed by us for other PIC algorithms, numerical Cherenkov instabilities can be suppressed for the generalized PSTD algorithm. We also illustrate the relationships between the generalized PSTD and other PIC algorithms, such as Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) and Pseudo-Spectral Analytical Time Domain (PSATD) algorithms. Background information can be found at http://hifweb.lbl.gov/public/BLAST/Godfrey/. Work supported in part by DOE under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  12. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with smoothed pseudo-density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Satoko; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which, unlike the standard SPH (SSPH), is well behaved at the contact discontinuity. The SSPH scheme cannot handle discontinuities in density (e.g., the contact discontinuity and the free surface), because it requires that the density of fluid is positive and continuous everywhere. Thus there is inconsistency in the formulation of the SSPH scheme at discontinuities of the fluid density. To solve this problem, we introduce a new quantity associated with particles and the "density" of that quantity. This "density" evolves through the usual continuity equation with an additional artificial diffusion term, in order to guarantee the continuity of the "density." We use this "density," or pseudo-density, instead of the mass density, to formulate our SPH scheme. We call our new method SPH with smoothed pseudo-density, and we show that it is physically consistent and can handle discontinuities quite well.

  13. Pseudo- ɛ expansion and critical exponents of superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A. I.; Nikitina, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The pseudo- ɛ expansions (τ-series) for critical exponents of the three-dimensional XY model describing λ-transition in liquid helium are derived up to the τ6 terms. Numerical estimates extracted from the τ-series obtained using the Padé-Borel resummation technique, scaling relations and the seven-loop (τ7) estimate for the Fisher exponent η are presented including those for the exponents α and ν measured in experiments with a record accuracy. For the exponent α the procedure argued to be most reliable gives α = - 0.0117, the number that is very close to the most accurate experimental values. It signals that the pseudo- ɛ expansion approach is a powerful tool robust enough to evaluate critical exponents with small absolute errors. The arguments in favor of such a robustness are presented.

  14. A pseudo-single-crystalline germanium film for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, H.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Hamaya, K.; Kasahara, K.; Park, J.-H.; Miyao, M.; Kudo, K.; Okamoto, H.; Moto, K.; Tsunoda, I.

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate large-area (∼600 μm), (111)-oriented, and high-crystallinity, i.e., pseudo-single-crystalline, germanium (Ge) films at 275 °C, where the temperature is lower than the softening temperature of a flexible substrate. A modulated gold-induced layer exchange crystallization method with an atomic-layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier and amorphous-Ge/Au multilayers is established. From the Raman measurements, we can judge that the crystallinity of the obtained Ge films is higher than those grown by aluminum-induced-crystallization methods. Even on a flexible substrate, the pseudo-single-crystalline Ge films for the circuit with thin-film transistor arrays can be achieved, leading to high-performance flexible electronics based on an inorganic-semiconductor channel.

  15. Genotype imputation via matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Gary K; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    Most current genotype imputation methods are model-based and computationally intensive, taking days to impute one chromosome pair on 1000 people. We describe an efficient genotype imputation method based on matrix completion. Our matrix completion method is implemented in MATLAB and tested on real data from HapMap 3, simulated pedigree data, and simulated low-coverage sequencing data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with leading imputation programs, the matrix completion algorithm embodied in our program MENDEL-IMPUTE achieves comparable imputation accuracy while reducing run times significantly. Implementation in a lower-level language such as Fortran or C is apt to further improve computational efficiency. PMID:23233546

  16. Natural inflation with pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freese, Katherine; Frieman, Joshua A.; Olinto, Angela V.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of given potential can naturally give rise to an epoch of inflation in the early universe. Mass scales which arise in particle physics models with a gauge group that becomes strongly interacting at a certain scales are shown to be conditions for successful inflation. The density fluctuation spectrum is nonscale-invariant, with extra power on large length scales.

  17. Simulations of accretion disks in pseudo-complex General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. O.; Algalán B., M.; Schönenbach, T.; Greiner, W.

    2015-11-01

    After a summary on pseudo-complex General Relativity (pc-GR), circular orbits and stable orbits in general are discussed, including predictions compared to observations. Using a modified version of a model for accretions disks, presented by Page and Thorne in 1974, we apply the raytracing technique in order to simulate the appearance of an accretion disk as it should be observed in a detector. In pc-GR we predict a dark ring near a very massive, rapidly rotating object.

  18. mRNA-Producing Pseudo-nucleus System.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Woo Jung; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-11-01

    A pseudo-eukaryotic nucleus (PEN) system consisting of a gene-containing DNA hydrogel encapsulated in a liposome is fabricated. Owing to the structural characteristics of gene-containing DNA hydrogel, mRNA transcription efficiency is promoted 2.57-fold. Through the use of PEN as a platform for mRNA delivery to the cytosol, prolonged protein translation is achieved. PMID:26310990

  19. Pseudo-coherent demodulation for mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes three so-called pseudo-coherent demodulation schemes for use in land mobile satellite channels. The schemes are derived based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and detection of an N-symbol observation of the received signal. Simulation results for all three demodulators are presented to allow comparison with the performance of differential PSK (DPSK) and ideal coherent demodulation for various system parameter sets of practical interest.

  20. Wave and pseudo-diffusion equations from squeezed states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daboul, Jamil

    1993-01-01

    We show that the probability distributions P(sub n)(q,p;y) := the absolute value squared of (n(p,q;y), which are obtained from squeezed states, obey an interesting partial differential equation, to which we give two intuitive interpretations: as a wave equation in one space dimension; and as a pseudo-diffusion equation. We also study the corresponding Wehrl entropies S(sub n)(y), and we show that they have minima at zero squeezing, y = 0.

  1. A deterministic pseudo-fractal networks with time-delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Changming; Yang, Lin; Ma, Jun

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, inspired by the pseudo-fractal networks (PFN) and the delayed pseudo-fractal networks (DPFN), we present a novel delayed pseudo-fractal networks model, denoted by NDPFN. Different from the generation algorithm of those two networks, every edge of the novel model has a time-delay to generate new nodes after producing one node. We derive exactly the main structural properties of the novel networks: degree distribution, clustering coefficient, diameter and average path length. Analytical results show that the novel networks have small-world effect and scale-free topology. Comparing topological parameters of these three networks, we find that the degree exponent of the novel networks is the largest while the clustering coefficient and the average path length are the smallest. It means that this kind of delay could weaken the heterogeneity and the small-world features of the network. Particularly, the delay effect in the NDPFN is contrary to that in the DPFN, which illustrates the variety of delay method could produce different effects on the network structure. These present findings may be helpful for a deeper understanding of the time-delay influence on the network topology.

  2. Fermionic dark matter with pseudo-scalar Yukawa interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Karim

    2015-01-01

    We consider a renormalizable extension of the standard model whose fermionic dark matter (DM) candidate interacts with a real singlet pseudo-scalar via a pseudo-scalar Yukawa term while we assume that the full Lagrangian is CP-conserved in the classical level. When the pseudo-scalar boson develops a non-zero vacuum expectation value, spontaneous CP-violation occurs and this provides a CP-violated interaction of the dark sector with the SM particles through mixing between the Higgs-like boson and the SM-like Higgs boson. This scenario suggests a minimal number of free parameters. Focusing mainly on the indirect detection observables, we calculate the dark matter annihilation cross section and then compute the DM relic density in the range up to mDM = 300 GeV.We then find viable regions in the parameter space constrained by the observed DM relic abundance as well as invisible Higgs decay width in the light of 125 GeV Higgs discovery at the LHC. We find that within the constrained region of the parameter space, there exists a model with dark matter mass mDM ~ 38 GeV annihilating predominantly into b quarks, which can explain the Fermi-LAT galactic gamma-ray excess.

  3. Pseudo-Reference-Based Assembly of Vertebrate Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoungwoo; Jeong, Heesu; Nam, Jin-Wu

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, including the identity, structure, quantity, and variability of expressed transcripts in cells, through the assembly of sequenced short RNA-seq reads. Although the reference-based approach guarantees the high quality of the resulting transcriptome, this approach is only applicable when the relevant reference genome is present. Here, we developed a pseudo-reference-based assembly (PRA) that reconstructs a transcriptome based on a linear regression function of the optimized mapping parameters and genetic distances of the closest species. Using the linear model, we reconstructed transcriptomes of four different aves, the white leg horn, turkey, duck, and zebra finch, with the Gallus gallus genome as a pseudo-reference, and of three primates, the chimpanzee, gorilla, and macaque, with the human genome as a pseudo-reference. The resulting transcriptomes show that the PRAs outperformed the de novo approach for species with within about 10% mutation rate among orthologous transcriptomes, enough to cover distantly related species as far as chicken and duck. Taken together, we suggest that the PRA method can be used as a tool for reconstructing transcriptome maps of vertebrates whose genomes have not yet been sequenced. PMID:26927182

  4. Pseudo-Reference-Based Assembly of Vertebrate Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyoungwoo; Jeong, Heesu; Nam, Jin-Wu

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, including the identity, structure, quantity, and variability of expressed transcripts in cells, through the assembly of sequenced short RNA-seq reads. Although the reference-based approach guarantees the high quality of the resulting transcriptome, this approach is only applicable when the relevant reference genome is present. Here, we developed a pseudo-reference-based assembly (PRA) that reconstructs a transcriptome based on a linear regression function of the optimized mapping parameters and genetic distances of the closest species. Using the linear model, we reconstructed transcriptomes of four different aves, the white leg horn, turkey, duck, and zebra finch, with the Gallus gallus genome as a pseudo-reference, and of three primates, the chimpanzee, gorilla, and macaque, with the human genome as a pseudo-reference. The resulting transcriptomes show that the PRAs outperformed the de novo approach for species with within about 10% mutation rate among orthologous transcriptomes, enough to cover distantly related species as far as chicken and duck. Taken together, we suggest that the PRA method can be used as a tool for reconstructing transcriptome maps of vertebrates whose genomes have not yet been sequenced. PMID:26927182

  5. Fermionic dark matter with pseudo-scalar Yukawa interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorbani, Karim

    2015-01-01

    We consider a renormalizable extension of the standard model whose fermionic dark matter (DM) candidate interacts with a real singlet pseudo-scalar via a pseudo-scalar Yukawa term while we assume that the full Lagrangian is CP-conserved in the classical level. When the pseudo-scalar boson develops a non-zero vacuum expectation value, spontaneous CP-violation occurs and this provides a CP-violated interaction of the dark sector with the SM particles through mixing between the Higgs-like boson and the SM-like Higgs boson. This scenario suggests a minimal number of free parameters. Focusing mainly on the indirect detection observables, we calculate the dark matter annihilation cross section and then compute the DM relic density in the range up to m{sub DM} = 300 GeV.We then find viable regions in the parameter space constrained by the observed DM relic abundance as well as invisible Higgs decay width in the light of 125 GeV Higgs discovery at the LHC. We find that within the constrained region of the parameter space, there exists a model with dark matter mass m{sub DM} ∼ 38 GeV annihilating predominantly into b quarks, which can explain the Fermi-LAT galactic gamma-ray excess.

  6. A parallel adaptive method for pseudo-arclength continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruliah, D. A.; van Veen, L.; Dubitski, A.

    2012-10-01

    Pseudo-arclength continuation is a well-established method for constructing a numerical curve comprising solutions of a system of nonlinear equations. In many complicated high-dimensional systems, the corrector steps within pseudo-arclength continuation are extremely costly to compute; as a result, the step-length of the preceding prediction step must be adapted carefully to avoid prohibitively many failed steps. We describe the essence of a parallel method for adapting the step-length of pseudo-arclength continuation. Our method employs several predictor-corrector sequences with differing step-lengths running concurrently on distinct processors. Our parallel framework permits intermediate results of correction sequences that have not yet converged to seed new predictor-corrector sequences with various step-lengths; the goal is to amortize the cost of corrector steps to make further progress along the underlying numerical curve. Results from numerical experiments suggest a three-fold speedup is attainable when the continuation curve sought has great topological complexity and the corrector steps require significant processor time.

  7. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Brian; Haase, Jana K; Velayudhan, Vimalkumar; Murphy, Ronan A; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of < €25 per strain. Since developing this pipeline, >200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost. PMID:23144721

  8. Transforming Microbial Genotyping: A Robotic Pipeline for Genotyping Bacterial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Vimalkumar; Murphy, Ronan A.; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of < €25 per strain. Since developing this pipeline, >200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost. PMID:23144721

  9. Essential and toxic heavy metals in cereals and agricultural products marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Sharafi, Kiomars; Khamotian, Razieh; Atafar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Levels of some essential and toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and copper in cereals and agricultural products obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, west Iran, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average concentrations for lead and cadmium in some cereals were higher than the maximum levels set by the Codex Alimentarius. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating cereals and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. In combination with recent cereal consumption data, the EWIs of heavy metals were calculated for the Kermanshah population. EWI data for the studied metals through cereal consumption were lower than the PTWI values. Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu levels in all samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar cereals from various parts of the world. PMID:26465977

  10. Genotype × genotype interactions between the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis and its grazer, the waterflea Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Veerle; Brusciotti, Silvia; van Gremberghe, Ineke; Vyverman, Wim; Vanoverbeke, Joost; De Meester, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Toxic algal blooms are an important problem worldwide. The literature on toxic cyanobacteria blooms in inland waters reports widely divergent results on whether zooplankton can control cyanobacteria blooms or cyanobacteria suppress zooplankton by their toxins. Here we test whether this may be due to genotype × genotype interactions, in which interactions between the large-bodied and efficient grazer Daphnia and the widespread cyanobacterium Microcystis are not only dependent on Microcystis strain or Daphnia genotype but are specific to genotype × genotype combinations. We show that genotype × genotype interactions are important in explaining mortality in short-time exposures of Daphnia to Microcystis. These genotype × genotype interactions may result in local coadaptation and a geographic mosaic of coevolution. Genotype × genotype interactions can explain why the literature on zooplankton–cyanobacteria interactions is seemingly inconsistent, and provide hope that zooplankton can contribute to the suppression of cyanobacteria blooms in restoration projects. PMID:25568039

  11. Variability in nutrient composition of cereal grains from different origins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Nam, Doo Seok; Kong, Changsu

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient composition of individual feed ingredient in mixed feed is important for accurate formulation of animal feeds. However, each feed ingredient can be different depending on its origin. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the variability in nutrient compositions of corn, wheat, and barley grains from different origins. Cereal grains used in this study were from 5 countries for 432 corn samples, 5 countries for 65 wheat samples, and 3 countries for 60 barley samples. They were imported to Korea between 2006 and 2015. These grain samples were subjected to analysis for moisture, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and gross energy (GE). The concentrations of moisture, CP, EE, CF, ash, Ca, P, and GE of corn differed (P < 0.05) among countries. GE in corn samples ranged from 3836 kcal/kg (Ukraine) to 3995 kcal/kg (Brazil). There were also differences (P < 0.05) in moisture, CP, ash, and P of wheat and in moisture, CF, Ca, P, and GE in barley from different countries. GE values in wheat ranged from 3957 kcal/kg (Brazil) to 4058 kcal/kg (United States) and GE values in barley samples ranged from 3894 kcal/kg (India) to 4059 kcal/kg (Australia). The most different nutrient depending on origins was Ca. The coefficient of variation was 65.7 % for corn, 57.4 % for wheat, and 28.8 % for barley. In conclusion, nutrients and energy contents in corn, wheat, and barley from various origins investigated in the present study were different. Therefore, it is important to consider these variations when formulating animal feeds. PMID:27099824

  12. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  13. Molecular characterization of Pseudo-nitzschia community structure and species ecology in a hydrographically complex estuarine system (Puget Sound, Washington, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Katherine A.; Olson, Claire H.; Armbrust, E. Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Species within the toxic marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia coexist in coastal and estuarine waters globally and are difficult to distinguish by microscopy. Here, we describe a sensitive, high throughput PCR-based Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) approach to determine the relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species within natural communities over space and time. The method was quantitatively validated using simplified mixtures of DNA or ITS1 standards from isolates of P. pungens, P. multiseries, and P. delicatissima. Relative abundance calculations based on ARISA profiles from these mixtures reflected input ratios, with minor deviations resulting from intraspecific variability. ARISA was used to identify and quantify at least eight species within Puget Sound and the eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington, USA: P. americana, P. australis/P. seriata, P. cuspidata, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. fryxelliana, P. multiseries, and P. pungens; genotypes corresponding to P. pungens var. pungens and P. pungens var. cingulata were identified by environmental sequencing. The different species were significantly correlated with physical (temperature, salinity), biological (chlorophyll a fluorescence, oxygen), and/or chemical (ammonium, nutrient ratios) factors. The ability to determine shifts in the relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species over spatial and temporal scales relevant to dispersion and selection facilitates dissection of the varied mechanisms driving vertical and horizontal species distribution patterns in hydrographically complex systems. PMID:27239082

  14. Trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of Fusarium graminearum isolates obtained from barley cultivated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Castañares, Eliana; Albuquerque, Diana Ramirez; Dinolfo, María Inés; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Patriarca, Andrea; Stenglein, Sebastián Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important pathogens isolated from small cereal grains with Fusarium Head Blight symptoms. The presence of this fungus is often linked to the occurrence of several mycotoxins in barley and wheat. The aim of our study was to characterize trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates obtained from barley grains in Argentina. A total of 110 F. graminearum s.s. isolates were analyzed by PCR assays to predict deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) production, and all isolates were found to belong to the same molecular 15-ADON genotype. Trichothecene production in autoclaved rice was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by GC-MS. Of the 110 isolates, 95% were able to produce DON, 71% produced 15-ADON, 63% 3-ADON and 52% NIV. With the exception of a single isolate, all isolates that produced NIV, also produced DON. However, the NIV production was very low, ranging from 0.13 to 0.30 μg/g. Six different production profiles of DON and its acetyl-derivatives were detected, the predominant being simultaneous production of DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, followed by DON production, and DON and 15-ADON co-production. This work is the first attempt to characterize the trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum s.s. isolates from Argentinean barley. PMID:24727383

  15. Including different groups of genotyped females for genomic prediction in a Nordic Jersey population.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Su, G; Byskov, K; Jensen, J

    2015-12-01

    Including genotyped females in a reference population (RP) is an obvious way to increase the RP in genomic selection, especially for dairy breeds of limited population size. However, the incorporation of these females must be conducted cautiously because of the potential preferential treatment of the genotyped cows and lower reliabilities of phenotypes compared with the proven pseudo-phenotypes of bulls. Breeding organizations in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden have implemented a female-genotyping project with the possibility of genotyping entire herds using the low-density (LD) chip. In the present study, 5 scenarios for building an RP were investigated in the Nordic Jersey population: (1) bulls only, (2) bulls with females from the LD project, (3) bulls with females from the LD project plus non-LD project females genotyped before their first calving, (4) bulls with females from the LD project plus non-LD project females genotyped after their first calving, and (5) bulls with all genotyped females. The genomically enhanced breeding value (GEBV) was predicted for 8 traits in the Nordic total merit index through a genomic BLUP model using deregressed proof (DRP) as the response variable in all scenarios. In addition, (daughter) yield deviation and raw phenotypic data were studied as response variables for comparison with the DRP, using stature as a model trait. The validation population was formed using a cut-off birth year of 2005 based on the genotyped Nordic Jersey bulls with DRP. The average increment in reliability of the GEBV across the 8 traits investigated was 1.9 to 4.5 percentage points compared with using only bulls in the RP (scenario 1). The addition of all the genotyped females to the RP resulted in the highest gain in reliability (scenario 5), followed by scenario 3, scenario 2, and scenario 4. All scenarios led to inflated GEBV because the regression coefficients are less than 1. However, scenario 2 and scenario 3 led to less bias of genomic predictions

  16. Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In fungi, transcriptional activation of genes involved in NO3- assimilation requires the presence of an inducer (nitrate or nitrite) and low intracellular concentrations of the pathway products ammonium or glutamine. In Aspergillus nidulans, the two transcription factors NirA and AreA act synergistically to mediate nitrate/nitrite induction and nitrogen metabolite derepression, respectively. In all studied fungi and in plants, mutants lacking nitrate reductase (NR) activity express nitrate-metabolizing enzymes constitutively without the addition of inducer molecules. Based on their work in A. nidulans, Cove and Pateman proposed an “autoregulation control” model for the synthesis of nitrate metabolizing enzymes in which the functional nitrate reductase molecule would act as co-repressor in the absence and as co-inducer in the presence of nitrate. However, NR mutants could simply show “pseudo-constitutivity” due to induction by nitrate which accumulates over time in NR-deficient strains. Here we examined this possibility using strains which lack flavohemoglobins (fhbs), and are thus unable to generate nitrate internally, in combination with nitrate transporter mutations (nrtA, nrtB) and a GFP-labeled NirA protein. Using different combinations of genotypes we demonstrate that nitrate transporters are functional also in NR null mutants and show that the constitutive phenotype of NR mutants is not due to nitrate accumulation from intracellular sources but depends on the activity of nitrate transporters. However, these transporters are not required for nitrate signaling because addition of external nitrate (10 mM) leads to standard induction of nitrate assimilatory genes in the nitrate transporter double mutants. We finally show that NR does not regulate NirA localization and activity, and thus the autoregulation model, in which NR would act as a co-repressor of NirA in the absence of nitrate, is unlikely to be correct. Results from this study instead suggest

  17. The molecular biology of seasonal flowering-responses in Arabidopsis and the cereals

    PubMed Central

    Greenup, Aaron; Peacock, W. James; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Background In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) play key roles in regulating seasonal flowering-responses to synchronize flowering with optimal conditions. FT is a promoter of flowering activated by long days and by warm conditions. FLC represses FT to delay flowering until plants experience winter. Scope The identification of genes controlling flowering in cereals allows comparison of the molecular pathways controlling seasonal flowering-responses in cereals with those of arabidopsis. The role of FT has been conserved between arabidopsis and cereals; FT-like genes trigger flowering in response to short days in rice or long days in temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Many varieties of wheat and barley require vernalization to flower but FLC-like genes have not been identified in cereals. Instead, VERNALIZATION2 (VRN2) inhibits long-day induction of FT-like1 (FT1) prior to winter. VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) is activated by low-temperatures during winter to repress VRN2 and to allow the long-day response to occur in spring. In rice (Oryza sativa) a VRN2-like gene Ghd7, which influences grain number, plant height and heading date, represses the FT-like gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a) in long days, suggesting a broader role for VRN2-like genes in regulating day-length responses in cereals. Other genes, including Early heading date (Ehd1), Oryza sativa MADS51 (OsMADS51) and INDETERMINATE1 (OsID1) up-regulate Hd3a in short days. These genes might account for the different day-length response of rice compared with the temperate cereals. No genes homologous to VRN2, Ehd1, Ehd2 or OsMADS51 occur in arabidopsis. Conclusions It seems that different genes regulate FT orthologues to elicit seasonal flowering-responses in arabidopsis and the cereals. This highlights the need for more detailed study into the molecular basis of seasonal flowering-responses in cereal crops or in closely

  18. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals.

    PubMed

    Shelden, Megan C; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice) and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive), yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript/metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance. PMID:23717314

  19. Comparative Pathogenomics Reveals Horizontally Acquired Novel Virulence Genes in Fungi Infecting Cereal Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Donald M.; McDonald, Megan C.; Covarelli, Lorenzo; Solomon, Peter S.; Rusu, Anca G.; Marshall, Mhairi; Kazan, Kemal; Chakraborty, Sukumar; McDonald, Bruce A.; Manners, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analyses of pathogen genomes provide new insights into how pathogens have evolved common and divergent virulence strategies to invade related plant species. Fusarium crown and root rots are important diseases of wheat and barley world-wide. In Australia, these diseases are primarily caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum. Comparative genomic analyses showed that the F. pseudograminearum genome encodes proteins that are present in other fungal pathogens of cereals but absent in non-cereal pathogens. In some cases, these cereal pathogen specific genes were also found in bacteria associated with plants. Phylogenetic analysis of selected F. pseudograminearum genes supported the hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer into diverse cereal pathogens. Two horizontally acquired genes with no previously known role in fungal pathogenesis were studied functionally via gene knockout methods and shown to significantly affect virulence of F. pseudograminearum on the cereal hosts wheat and barley. Our results indicate using comparative genomics to identify genes specific to pathogens of related hosts reveals novel virulence genes and illustrates the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of plant infecting fungal pathogens. PMID:23028337

  20. Population dynamics and associated factors of cereal aphids and armyworms under global change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leyun; Hui, Cang; Sandhu, Hardev S.; Li, Zhihong; Zhao, Zihua

    2015-01-01

    Studying the impacts of global change, which comprises largely climate and landscape changes, on agricultural pests is crucial for developing sustainable pest management. This research is focused on understanding the factors associated with population dynamics of cereal aphids and armyworms feeding on wheat in Henan province in China from 1987 to 2010. Association between changes in climate (temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity) and agricultural characteristics (wheat proportion, crop diversity, fertilizer input, and wheat yield per unit area) and damage from cereal aphids and armyworms were examined. Cereal aphid damage has been rising, while armyworm damage had no obvious trends, but with strong year-to-year fluctuations. The analysis indicates that the factors most strongly associated with the population dynamics of cereal aphids are fertilizer input and mean temperature in February, while the population dynamics of armyworms is significantly related to precipitation in May. By comparing the characteristics of these two agricultural pests, we identify possible reasons for the disparity between their associated factors, which are related to the differences in their foraging behaviour, host range, migration capacity, and life history. These results may contribute to developing ecologically based pest management for cereal aphids and armyworms under global change. PMID:26689373

  1. Characterisation of dietary fibre components in cereals and legumes used in Serbian diet.

    PubMed

    Dodevska, Margarita S; Djordjevic, Brizita I; Sobajic, Sladjana S; Miletic, Ivanka D; Djordjevic, Predrag B; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna S

    2013-12-01

    The typical Serbian diet is characterised by high intake of cereal products and also legumes are often used. The content of total fibre as well as certain fibre fractions was determined in cereals, cereal products, and cooked legumes. The content of total fibre in cooked cereals and cereal products ranged from 2.5 to 20.8 g/100 g, and in cooked legumes from 14.0 to 24.5 g/100 g (on dry matter basis). Distribution of analysed fibre fractions and their quantities differed significantly depending on food groups. Fructans and arabinoxylans were the most significant fibre fractions in rye flakes, and β-glucan in oat flakes, cellulose and resistant starch were present in significant amounts in peas and kidney beans. When the size of regular food portions was taken into consideration, the best sources of total dietary fibre were peas and kidney beans (more than 11 g/serving). The same foods were the best sources of cellulose (4.98 and 3.56 g/serving) and resistant starch (3.90 and 2.83 g/serving). High intake of arabinoxylans and fructans could be accomplished with cooked wheat (3.20 g and 1.60 g/serving, respectively). Oat (1.39 g/serving) and barley flakes (1.30 g/serving) can be recommended as the best sources of β-glucan. PMID:23870869

  2. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models. PMID:20537276

  3. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Adam M.; Titgemeier, Brigid; Kirkpatrick, Kristin; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake. PMID:23628720

  4. Relationship between total antioxidant capacities of cereals measured before and after in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lingxiao; Jin, Cheng; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), which is the cumulative capacity of different antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress, proved to be very useful to correlate the antioxidant capacity of the diet with the incidence of some disease or with modification of disease biomarkers. Therefore, it is important to estimate the real antioxidant potential of cereals. Most methods are based mainly on extractive methods which may largely underestimate the TAC of cereals. Several recent articles have reported a direct approach, the Quencher procedure, which produces a higher TAC compared to extractive methods. However, both the extractive methods and the Quencher procedure are performed prior to digestion. In this article, an in vitro approach using enzymatic digestion, designed to mimic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract (physiological conditions), had been used to release antioxidants from cereals. Seven whole cereals were employed for the determination of DPPH as well as ABTS radical scavenging activity before and after simulated digestion. The objective was to compare the in vitro procedure of antioxidant extraction with the Quencher procedure and water extraction. The values of the TAC's from the cereal grains obtained from the in vitro procedure were 1.8-10.3 times higher than the Quencher procedure and 3.5-10.5 times higher than water extraction. Correlation between the results of the TAC obtained using the three different procedures was also investigated. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion procedure is more useful in the screening of grains, assessing their beneficial health effects compared to the Quencher procedure or water extraction. PMID:23651493

  5. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı

    2013-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals. PMID:23954552

  6. Effect of flaxseed flour incorporation on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of cereal bars.

    PubMed

    Khouryieh, H; Aramouni, F

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has revealed numerous nutritional and health benefits of flaxseed due primarily to its nutrients content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed flour addition on the physical and sensory characteristics of cereal bars. Four formulations of the flaxseed cereal bars were prepared by partially replacing oats with flaxseed flour added at levels of 0 (control), 6%, 12% and 18%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in water activity, moisture and firmness values between the flaxseed bars and control. Flaxseed addition significantly (p < 0.05) decreased lightness and increased redness of the bars. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the 12% flax cereal bars and the control with respect to sensory attributes and overall acceptability. The overall acceptability for both 12% flax bars and the control was in between 'like moderately' and 'like slightly' on the 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability was most highly correlated with flavor acceptability for both control (r = 0.80) and 12% flax (r = 0.82) cereal bars. Flaxseed bars provided 12% dietary fiber of the daily recommended value. These results indicated that flaxseed flour incorporation up to 12% substantially enhanced the nutritional qualities of the cereal bars without affecting their sensory and quality properties. PMID:23733813

  7. Population dynamics and associated factors of cereal aphids and armyworms under global change.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyun; Hui, Cang; Sandhu, Hardev S; Li, Zhihong; Zhao, Zihua

    2015-01-01

    Studying the impacts of global change, which comprises largely climate and landscape changes, on agricultural pests is crucial for developing sustainable pest management. This research is focused on understanding the factors associated with population dynamics of cereal aphids and armyworms feeding on wheat in Henan province in China from 1987 to 2010. Association between changes in climate (temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity) and agricultural characteristics (wheat proportion, crop diversity, fertilizer input, and wheat yield per unit area) and damage from cereal aphids and armyworms were examined. Cereal aphid damage has been rising, while armyworm damage had no obvious trends, but with strong year-to-year fluctuations. The analysis indicates that the factors most strongly associated with the population dynamics of cereal aphids are fertilizer input and mean temperature in February, while the population dynamics of armyworms is significantly related to precipitation in May. By comparing the characteristics of these two agricultural pests, we identify possible reasons for the disparity between their associated factors, which are related to the differences in their foraging behaviour, host range, migration capacity, and life history. These results may contribute to developing ecologically based pest management for cereal aphids and armyworms under global change. PMID:26689373

  8. Mass spectrometric profiling of lipids in intestinal tissue from rats fed cereals processed for medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Jennische, Eva; Lange, Stefan; Ewing, Andrew G; Malmberg, Per

    2016-06-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used for lipid profiling of intestine tissue sections from rats fed specially processed cereals and rats fed ordinary feed as a control. This cereal is known to increase the activity of antisecretory factor in plasma and the exact mechanism for the activation process at the cellular level is unclear. ToF-SIMS has been used to track food induced changes in lipid content in intestinal tissue sections to gain insight into the possible mechanisms involved. Data from 20 intestine sections belonging to four different rats from each group of control and specially processed cereals-fed rats were obtained using the stage scan macroraster with a lateral resolution of 5 μm. Data were subsequently subjected to orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The data clearly show that changes of certain lipids are induced by the specially processed cereal feed. Scores plots show a well-defined separation between the two groups. The corresponding loading plots reveal that the groups separate mainly due to changes of vitamin E, phosphocholine, and phosphosphingolipid fragments, and that for the c18:2 fatty acid. The observed changes in lipids might give insight into the working mechanisms of antisecretory factor in the body, and this has been successfully used to understand the working mechanism of specially processed cereal-induced antisecretory factor activation in intestine. PMID:26753787

  9. Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, A P; Clark, R; Gallagher, J

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function. One hundred and forty-four volunteers (72 male, 72 female, mean age 21 years) were assigned to one of the groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal versus no breakfast) and caffeine (caffeinated versus decaffeinated coffee) conditions. The volunteers completed a baseline session between 0800 and 0845 h. The breakfast/caffeine administration took place between 0845 and 0915 h. They then completed another test session (starting at 0945) and had a coffee break at 1045, followed by a final session starting at 1145. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal had a more positive mood at the start of the test sessions, performed better on a spatial memory task, and felt calmer at the end of the test session than those in the no breakfast condition. Ingestion of caffeine had no effect on initial mood or working memory, but it did improve encoding of new information and counteracted the fatigue that developed over the test session. Caffeine increased blood pressure and pulse rate, whereas breakfast cereal consumption only had an effect on pulse. Overall, these results confirm previous findings on the effects of breakfast and caffeine, and demonstrate distinct profiles for two common examples of early-morning food and drink, breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee. PMID:10463623

  10. Practical pseudo-3D registration for large tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Laperre, Kjell; Sasov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Image registration is a powerful tool in various tomographic applications. Our main focus is on microCT applications in which samples/animals can be scanned multiple times under different conditions or at different time points. For this purpose, a registration tool capable of handling fairly large volumes has been developed, using a novel pseudo-3D method to achieve fast and interactive registration with simultaneous 3D visualization. To reduce computation complexity in 3D registration, we decompose it into several 2D registrations, which are applied to the orthogonal views (transaxial, sagittal and coronal) sequentially and iteratively. After registration in each view, the next view is retrieved with the new transformation matrix for registration. This reduces the computation complexity significantly. For rigid transform, we only need to search for 3 parameters (2 shifts, 1 rotation) in each of the 3 orthogonal views instead of 6 (3 shifts, 3 rotations) for full 3D volume. In addition, the amount of voxels involved is also significantly reduced. For the proposed pseudo-3D method, image-based registration is employed, with Sum of Square Difference (SSD) as the similarity measure. The searching engine is Powell's conjugate direction method. In this paper, only rigid transform is used. However, it can be extended to affine transform by adding scaling and possibly shearing to the transform model. We have noticed that more information can be used in the 2D registration if Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) or Parallel Projections (PP) is used instead of the orthogonal views. Also, other similarity measures, such as covariance or mutual information, can be easily incorporated. The initial evaluation on microCT data shows very promising results. Two application examples are shown: dental samples before and after treatment and structural changes in materials before and after compression. Evaluation on registration accuracy between pseudo-3D method and true 3D method has

  11. Force method in a pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Anjie; Li, Longjian; Uddin, Rizwan

    2015-08-01

    Single component pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann models have been widely studied due to their simplicity and stability in multiphase simulations. While numerous models have been proposed, comparative analysis and advantages and disadvantages of different force schemes are often lacking. A pseudo-potential model to simulate large density ratios proposed by Kupershtokh et al. [1] is analyzed in detail in this work. Several common used force schemes are utilized and results compared. Based on the numerical results, the relatively most accurate force scheme proposed by Guo et al. [2] is selected and applied to improve the accuracy of Kupershtokh et al.'s model. Results obtained using the modified Kupershtokh et al.'s model [1] for different value of τ are compared with those obtained using Li et al.'s model [3]. Effect of relaxation time τ on the accuracy of the results is reported. Moreover, it is noted that the error in the density ratio predicted by the model is directly correlated with the magnitude of the spurious velocities on (curved) interfaces. Simulation results show that, the accuracy of Kupershtokh et al.'s model can be improved with Guo et al.'s force scheme [2]. However, the errors and τ's effects are still noticeable when density ratios are large. To improve the accuracy of the pseudo-potential model and to reduce the effects of τ, two possible methods were discussed in the present work. Both, a rescaling of the equation of state and multi-relaxation time, are applied and are shown to improve the prediction of the density ratios.

  12. On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseevsky, D. V.; Cortes, V.

    2009-02-02

    Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than (3/4)N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n {identical_to} 1(mod 4) and s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k{sub +} independent Killing spinors with Killing number {lambda} and k{sub -} independent Killing spinors with Killing number -{lambda} such that k{sub +}+k{sub -}>(3/2)N, unless n {identical_to} s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). Similarly, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold with more than (3/4)N independent conformal Killing spinors is conformally locally homogeneous. For (positive or negative) definite metrics, the bounds (3/4)N and (3/2)N in the above results can be relaxed to (1/2)N and N, respectively. Furthermore, we prove that a pseudo-Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/4)N parallel spinors is flat and that (1/4)N parallel spinors suffice if the metric is definite. Similarly, a Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/8)N Killing spinors with the Killing number {lambda}(set-membership sign)R has constant curvature 4{lambda}{sup 2}. For Lorentzian or negative definite metrics the same is true with the bound (1/2)N. Finally, we give a classification of (not necessarily complete) Riemannian manifolds admitting Killing spinors, which provides an inductive construction of such manifolds.

  13. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability. PMID:27525915

  14. Novel pseudo-delocalized anions for lithium battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Erlendur; Armand, Michel; Johansson, Patrik

    2012-05-01

    A novel anion concept of pseudo-delocalized anions, anions with distinct positive and negative charge regions, has been studied by a computer aided synthesis using DFT calculations. With the aim to find safer and better performing lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes two factors have been evaluated: the cation-anion interaction strength via the dissociation reaction LiAn ⇌ Li(+) + An(-) and the anion oxidative stability via a vertical ionisation from anion to radical. Based on our computational results some of these anions have shown promise to perform well as lithium salts for modern lithium batteries and should be interesting synthetic targets for future research. PMID:22441354

  15. 3D registration through pseudo x-ray image generation.

    PubMed

    Domergue, G; Viant, W J

    2000-01-01

    One of the less effective processes within current Computer Assisted Surgery systems, utilizing pre-operative planning, is the registration of the plan with the intra-operative position of the patient. The technique described in this paper requires no digitisation of anatomical features or fiducial markers but instead relies on image matching between pseudo and real x-ray images generated by a virtual and a real image intensifier respectively. The technique is an extension to the work undertaken by Weese [1]. PMID:10977585

  16. Composite (pseudo) scalar contributions to muon g - 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Deog Ki; Kim, Du Hwan

    2016-07-01

    We have calculated the composite (pseudo) scalar contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of muons in models of walking technicolor. By the axial or scale anomaly the light scalars such as techni-dilaton, techni-pions or techni-eta have anomalous couplings to two-photons, which make them natural candidates for the recent 750 GeV resonance excess, observed at LHC. Due to the anomalous couplings, their contributions to muon (g - 2) are less suppressed and might explain the current deviation in muon (g - 2) measurements from theory.

  17. Cosmological bounds on pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier E-mail: redondo@mppmu.mpg.de

    2012-02-01

    We review the cosmological implications of a relic population of pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGB) with an anomalous coupling to two photons, often called axion-like particles (ALPs). We establish constraints on the pNGB mass and two-photon coupling by considering big bang nucleosynthesis, the physics of the cosmic microwave background, and the diffuse photon background. The bounds from WMAP7 and other large-scale-structure data on the effective number of neutrino species can be stronger than the traditional bounds from the primordial helium abundance. These bounds, together with those from primordial deuterium abundance, constitute the most stringent probes of early decays.

  18. Symmetric quadratic Hamiltonians with pseudo-Hermitian matrix representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Francisco M.

    2016-06-01

    We prove that any symmetric Hamiltonian that is a quadratic function of the coordinates and momenta has a pseudo-Hermitian adjoint or regular matrix representation. The eigenvalues of the latter matrix are the natural frequencies of the Hamiltonian operator. When all the eigenvalues of the matrix are real, then the spectrum of the symmetric Hamiltonian is real and the operator is Hermitian. As illustrative examples we choose the quadratic Hamiltonians that model a pair of coupled resonators with balanced gain and loss, the electromagnetic self-force on an oscillating charged particle and an active LRC circuit.

  19. Canonical Functional Quantization of Pseudo-Photons in Planar Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, P. Castelo

    2008-06-25

    Extended U{sub e}(1)xU{sub g}(1) electromagnetism containing both a photon and a pseudo-photon is introduced at the variational level and is justified by the violation of the Bianchi identities in conceptual systems, either in the presence of magnetic monopoles or non-regular external fields, not being accounted for by the standard Maxwell Lagrangian. A dimensional reduction is carried out that yields a U{sub e}(1)xU{sub g}(1) Maxwell-BF type theory and a canonical functional quantization in planar systems is considered which may be relevant in Hall systems.

  20. Accelerating Pseudo-Random Number Generator for MCNP on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Hu, Qingfeng; Deng, Li; Gong, Zhenghu

    2010-09-01

    Pseudo-random number generators (PRNG) are intensively used in many stochastic algorithms in particle simulations, artificial neural networks and other scientific computation. The PRNG in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) requires long period, high quality, flexible jump and fast enough. In this paper, we implement such a PRNG for MCNP on NVIDIA's GTX200 Graphics Processor Units (GPU) using CUDA programming model. Results shows that 3.80 to 8.10 times speedup are achieved compared with 4 to 6 cores CPUs and more than 679.18 million double precision random numbers can be generated per second on GPU.

  1. Euler-Lagrange formulas for pseudo-Kähler manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, JeongHyeong

    2016-01-01

    Let c be a characteristic form of degree k which is defined on a Kähler manifold of real dimension m > 2 k. Taking the inner product with the Kähler form Ωk gives a scalar invariant which can be considered as a generalized Lovelock functional. The associated Euler-Lagrange equations are a generalized Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity theory; this theory restricts to the canonical formalism if c =c2 is the second Chern form. We extend previous work studying these equations from the Kähler to the pseudo-Kähler setting.

  2. A pseudo-spin surface-acoustic-wave quantum computer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, C H W

    2003-07-15

    A modification to the surface-acoustic-wave quantum computer is described. The use of pseudo-spin qubits is introduced as a way to simplify the fabrication and programming of the computer. A form of optical readout that relies on the electrons in each surface-acoustic-wave minimum recombining with holes in a two-dimensional hole gas is suggested as a means to measure the output. The suggested modification would allow the quantum computer to be made smaller and to operate faster. PMID:12869323

  3. Cauchy problems of pseudo-parabolic equations with inhomogeneous terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongping; Du, Wanjuan

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with Cauchy problems of pseudo-parabolic equations with inhomogeneous terms. The aim of the paper is to study the influence of the inhomogeneous term on the asymptotic behavior of solutions. We at first determine the critical Fujita exponent and then give the secondary critical exponent on the decay asymptotic behavior of an initial value at infinity. Furthermore, the precise estimate of life span for the blow-up solution is obtained. Our results show that the asymptotic behavior of solutions is seriously affected by the inhomogeneous term.

  4. Pseudo-time algorithms for the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Turkel, E.

    1986-01-01

    A pseudo-time method is introduced to integrate the compressible Navier-Stokes equations to a steady state. This method is a generalization of a method used by Crocco and also by Allen and Cheng. We show that for a simple heat equation that this is just a renormalization of the time. For a convection-diffusion equation the renormalization is dependent only on the viscous terms. We implement the method for the Navier-Stokes equations using a Runge-Kutta type algorithm. This permits the time step to be chosen based on the inviscid model only. We also discuss the use of residual smoothing when viscous terms are present.

  5. Pseudo-compressibility methods for the incompressible flow equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli; Arnone, A.

    1993-01-01

    Preconditioning methods to accelerate convergence to a steady state for the incompressible fluid dynamics equations are considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Thus the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. The method is compared to other types of pseudo-compressibility. For finite difference methods preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to viscous flow around a cascade with a non-periodic mesh is presented.

  6. An adaptive pseudo-spectral method for reaction diffusion problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, A.; Gottlieb, D.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Minkoff, M.

    1987-01-01

    The spectral interpolation error was considered for both the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral and Galerkin approximations. A family of functionals I sub r (u), with the property that the maximum norm of the error is bounded by I sub r (u)/J sub r, where r is an integer and J is the degree of the polynomial approximation, was developed. These functionals are used in the adaptive procedure whereby the problem is dynamically transformed to minimize I sub r (u). The number of collocation points is then chosen to maintain a prescribed error bound. The method is illustrated by various examples from combustion problems in one and two dimensions.

  7. Phaeochromocytoma presenting with pseudo-intestinal obstruction and lactic acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Kek, Peng Chin; Ho, Emily Tse Lin; Loh, Lih Ming

    2015-01-01

    Phaeochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours with variable clinical signs and symptoms. Hypertension, tachycardia, sweating and headaches are cardinal manifestations. Although nausea and abdominal pain are the more common gastrointestinal features, rare gastrointestinal spectrums have been reported that can mimic abdominal emergencies. Metabolic effects of hypercatecholaminaemia are vast and one such rare presentation is lactic acidosis. We describe a case of phaeochromocytoma presenting with both intestinal pseudo-obstruction as well as lactic acidosis. This case report highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion for and early recognition of the gastrointestinal and metabolic manifestations of phaeochromocytomas. PMID:26311913

  8. Current software for genotype imputation.

    PubMed

    Ellinghaus, David; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Nothnagel, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Genotype imputation for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been shown to be a powerful means to include genetic markers in exploratory genetic association studies without having to genotype them, and is becoming a standard procedure. A number of different software programs are available. In our experience, user-friendliness is often the deciding factor in the choice of software to solve a particular task. We therefore evaluated the usability of three publicly available imputation programs: BEAGLE, IMPUTE and MACH. We found all three programs to perform well with HapMap reference data, with little effort needed for data preparation and subsequent association analysis. Each of them has different strengths and weaknesses, however, and none is optimal for all situations. PMID:19706367

  9. A recurrent, multistate outbreak of salmonella serotype agona infections associated with dry, unsweetened cereal consumption, United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    Russo, Elizabeth T; Biggerstaff, Gwen; Hoekstra, R Michael; Meyer, Stephanie; Patel, Nehal; Miller, Benjamin; Quick, Rob

    2013-02-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Agona infections associated with nationwide distribution of cereal from Company X was identified in April 2008. This outbreak was detected using PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, which coincided with Company X's voluntary recall of unsweetened puffed rice and wheat cereals after routine product sampling yielded Salmonella Agona. A case patient was defined as being infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Agona, with illness onset from 1 January through 1 July 2008. Case patients were interviewed using a standard questionnaire, and the proportion of ill persons who reported eating Company X puffed rice cereal was compared with Company X's market share data using binomial testing. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture inspected the cereal production facility and collected both product and environmental swab samples. Routine surveillance identified 33 case patients in 17 states. Of 32 patients interviewed, 24 (83%) reported eating Company X puffed rice cereal. Company X puffed rice cereal represented 0.063% of the total ready-to-eat dry cereal market share in the United States at the time of the investigation. Binomial testing suggested that the proportion of exposed case patients would not likely occur by chance (P < 0.0001). Of 17 cereal samples collected from case patient homes for laboratory testing, 2 (12%) yielded Salmonella Agona indistinguishable from the outbreak strain. Twelve environmental swabs and nine product samples from the cereal plant yielded the outbreak strain of Salmonella Agona. Company X cereal was implicated in a similar outbreak of Salmonella Agona infection in 1998 with the same outbreak strain linked to the same production facility. We hypothesize that a recent construction project at this facility created an open wall near the cereal production area allowing reintroduction of Salmonella Agona into the product, highlighting the

  10. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Yin, Binjie; Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of 'b' fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater 'a' fraction, 'b' fraction, 'c' values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn-rye exhibited a greater

  11. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing.; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of ‘b’ fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater ‘a’ fraction, ‘b’ fraction, ‘c’ values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn

  12. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  13. A potent bidirectional promoter from the monocot cereal Eleusine coracana.

    PubMed

    Sen, Saswati; Dutta, Samir Kr

    2016-09-01

    Ragi bifunctional α-amylase-trypsin inhibitor (RBI) of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (finger millet) simultaneously inhibits α-amylase and trypsin. In continuation of previous work on the cloning, expression and characterization of RBI, a bidirectional promoter from finger millet was explored on the basis of experimental observations. Two trypsin inhibitors were identified while purifying RBI from a trypsin-Sepharose column eluent. Using an FPLC gel filtration column, these three inhibitors were purified to homogeneity and subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Both ragi trypsin inhibitors (RTIs) showed the same N-terminal sequence and considerable sequence similarity to RBI, indicating the presence of a multigene protease inhibitor family in finger millet. To gain insight into the evolution of these genes, the upstream region of RBI was explored by Genome Walking. Interestingly, on sequencing, a genome walking product of ∼1 Kb showed presence of an N-terminal RBI specific primer sequence twice but in opposite directions and leaving an intervening region of ∼0.9 Kb. The intervening region was presumed to represent an E. coracana bidirectional promoter (EcBDP), intuitively having a divergent RBI-RTI gene pair at two sides. For assaying the bidirectionality of promoter activity, a dual reporter GUS-GFP vector construct was made for plant expression containing the reporter genes at two ends of EcBDP, which was used to transform Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. Transient plant transformation by recombinant Agrobacterium cells was carried out in onion scale epidermal cells and finger millet seedling leaves. Simultaneous expression of GUS and GFP under EcBDP established it as a potent natural bidirectional promoter from monocot origin, thereby potentially having vast application in cereal gene manipulations. In addition, inducibility of the EcBDP by either abscisic acid or cold treatment, as determined by transient

  14. The impact of image-size manipulation and sugar content on children's cereal consumption.

    PubMed

    Neyens, E; Aerts, G; Smits, T

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that portion sizes and food energy-density influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential effects of front-of-pack image-sizes of serving suggestions and sugar content have not been tested. Using a mixed experimental design among young children, this study examines the effects of image-size manipulation and sugar content on cereal and milk consumption. Children poured and consumed significantly more cereal and drank significantly more milk when exposed to a larger sized image of serving suggestion as compared to a smaller image-size. Sugar content showed no main effects. Nevertheless, cereal consumption only differed significantly between small and large image-sizes when sugar content was low. An advantage of this study was the mundane setting in which the data were collected: a school's dining room instead of an artificial lab. Future studies should include a control condition, with children eating by themselves to reflect an even more natural context. PMID:26162951

  15. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Mock, Hans-Peter; Marko, Doris; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages [β(2,1); β(2,6)-fructans] or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, which are possibly related to the different phases of grain development, such as cellular differentiation of grain tissues and storage product accumulation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation kinetics in cereal grains. We focus on the spatiotemporal dynamics and regulation of oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation in developing barley grains (deduced from a combination of metabolite, transcript and proteome analyses). Finally, putative physiological functions of oligofructans in developing grains are discussed. PMID:26834760

  16. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Mock, Hans-Peter; Marko, Doris; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water-soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages [β(2,1); β(2,6)-fructans] or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, which are possibly related to the different phases of grain development, such as cellular differentiation of grain tissues and storage product accumulation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation kinetics in cereal grains. We focus on the spatiotemporal dynamics and regulation of oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation in developing barley grains (deduced from a combination of metabolite, transcript and proteome analyses). Finally, putative physiological functions of oligofructans in developing grains are discussed. PMID:26834760

  17. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  18. Physical properties and sixth graders' acceptance of an extruded ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dansby, M. Y.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    Extruded ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTEBCs) were made from varying levels of sweetpotato flour (SPF), whole-wheat bran (WWB), and extrusion cooking. Moisture, protein, and ash contents were lower in the 100% SPF than the 100% WWB. Carbohydrate, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid contents were higher in the 100% SPF. Fat, thiamin, riboflavin contents, bulk densities, and the water absorption index were similar for the cereals. However, the expansion ratio was highest in the 100% SPF cereal. The 100% WWB had the lightest color and most fibrous morphology. Extruded RTEBC containing 100% SPF and 75%/25% SPF/WWB were well-liked and acceptable to sixth graders attending an elementary school in Auburn, Alabama, but the 100% WWB was unacceptable.

  19. Archaeobotanical Study of Ancient Food and Cereal Remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3rd to 9th centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  20. Inhibition of Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth by allelochemicals identified in cereals.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego

    2013-10-16

    Orobanche crenata is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in important grain and forage legume crops. Cereals have been reported to inhibit O. crenata parasitism when grown intercropped with susceptible legumes, but the responsible metabolites have not been identified. A number of metabolites have been reported in cereals that have allelopathic properties against weeds, pests, and pathogens. We tested the effect of several allelochemicals identified in cereals on O. crenata seed germination and radicle development. We found that 2-benzoxazolinone, its derivative 6-chloroacetyl-2-benzoxazolinone, and scopoletin significantly inhibited O. crenata seed germination. Benzoxazolinones, l-tryptophan, and coumalic acid caused the stronger inhibition of radicle growth. Also, other metabolites reduced radicle length, this inhibition being dose-dependent. Only scopoletin caused cell necrotic-like darkening in the young radicles. Prospects for their application to parasitic weed management are discussed. PMID:24044614

  1. High resolution melting analysis as a new approach to discriminate gluten-containing cereals.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; Costa, Joana; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; López-Ruiz, Beatriz; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2016-11-15

    With this work, it is intended to propose a novel approach based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to detect wheat and discriminate it from other gluten-containing cereals. The method consisted of a real-time PCR assay targeting the gene encoding for the germ agglutinin isolectin A protein (Tri a 18 allergen), using the fluorescent Evagreen dye combined with HRM analysis. The results enabled wheat differentiation from other phylogenetically related cereals, namely barley, rye and oat with high level of confidence. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR approach was proposed, allowing detecting and quantifying wheat down to 20mg/kg in rice flour and 20pg of wheat DNA (∼1.1 DNA copies). Its application was successfully achieved in the analysis of processed foods to verify labelling compliance, being considered as a cost-effective tool for the specific detection of cereals in gluten-free foods. PMID:27283646

  2. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole) grain products per day, cereal grains contain “anti-nutrients,” such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response. PMID:23482055

  3. Development and use of microsatellite markers to study diversity, reproduction and population genetic structure of the cereal pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, M J; Ennos, R A; Fountaine, J M; Burnett, F J; Kaczmarek, M; Hoebe, P N

    2016-02-01

    Ramularia collo-cygni (Rcc) is a major pathogen of barley that causes economically serious yield losses. Disease epidemics during the growing season are mainly propagated by asexual air-borne spores of Rcc, but it is thought that Rcc undergoes sexual reproduction during its life cycle and may also disperse by means of sexual ascospores. To obtain population genetic information from which to infer the extent of sexual reproduction and local genotype dispersal in Rcc, and by implication the pathogen's ability to adapt to fungicides and resistant cultivars, we developed ten polymorphic microsatellite markers, for which primers are presented. We used these markers to analyse the population genetic structure of this cereal pathogen in two geographically distant populations from the Czech Republic (n=30) and the United Kingdom (n=60) that had been sampled in a spatially explicit manner. Genetic diversity at the microsatellite loci was substantial, Ht=0.392 and Ht=0.411 in the Czech and UK populations respectively, and the populations were moderately differentiated at these loci (Θ=0.111, P<0.01). In both populations the multilocus genotypic diversity was very high (one clonal pair per population, resulting in >96% unique genotypes in each of the populations) and there was a lack of linkage disequilibrium among loci, strongly suggesting that sexual reproduction is an important component of the life cycle of Rcc. In an analysis of spatial genetic structure, kinship coefficients in all distance classes were very low (-0.0533 to 0.0142 in the Czech and -0.0268 to 0.0042 in the Scottish population) and non-significant (P>0.05) indicating lack of subpopulation structuring at the field scale and implying extensive dissemination of spores. These results suggest that Rcc possesses a high evolutionary potential for developing resistance to fungicides and overcoming host resistance genes, and argue for the development of an integrated disease management system that does not rely

  4. The Fourier analysis technique and epsilon-pseudo-eigenvalues

    SciTech Connect

    Donato, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    The spectral radii of iteration matrices and the spectra and condition numbers of preconditioned systems are important in forecasting the convergence rates for iterative methods. Unfortunately, the spectra of iteration matrices or preconditioned systems is rarely easily available. The Fourier analysis technique has been shown to be a useful tool in studying the effectiveness of iterative methods by determining approximate expressions for the eigenvalues or condition numbers of matrix systems. For non-symmetric matrices the eigenvalues may be highly sensitive to perturbations. The spectral radii of nonsymmetric iteration matrices may not give a numerically realistic indication of the convergence of the iterative method. Trefethen and others have presented a theory on the use of {epsilon}-pseudo-eigenvalues in the study of matrix equations. For Toeplitz matrices, we show that the theory of c-pseudo-eigenvalues includes the Fourier analysis technique as a limiting case. For non-Toeplitz matrices, the relationship is not clear. We shall examine this relationship for non-Toeplitz matrices that arise when studying preconditioned systems for methods applied to a two-dimensional discretized elliptic differential equation.

  5. Dual Double-Wedge Pseudo-Depolarizer with Anamorphic PSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Peter; Thompson, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A polarized scene, which may occur at oblique illumination angles, creates a radiometric signal that varies as a function of viewing angle. One common optical component that is used to minimize such an effect is a polarization scrambler or depolarizer. As part of the CLARREO mission, the SOLARIS instrument project at Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a new class of polarization scramblers using a dual double-wedge pseudo-depolarizer that produces an anamorphic point spread function (PSF). The SOLARIS instrument uses two Wollaston type scramblers in series, each with a distinct wedge angle, to image a pseudo-depolarized scene that is free of eigenstates. Since each wedge is distinct, the scrambler is able to produce an anamorphic PSF that maintains high spatial resolution in one dimension by sacrificing the spatial resolution in the other dimension. This scrambler geometry is ideal for 1-D imagers, such as pushbroom slit spectrometers, which require high spectral resolution, high spatial resolution, and low sensitivity to polarized light. Moreover, the geometry is applicable to a wide range of scientific instruments that require both high SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and low sensitivity to polarized scenes

  6. Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24381629

  7. A pseudo zeta function and the distribution of primes.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, P R

    2000-07-01

    The Riemann zeta function is given by: [equation, see published text]. Zeta(s) may be analytically continued to the entire s-plane, except for a simple pole at s = 0. Of great interest are the complex zeros of zeta(s). The Riemann hypothesis states that the complex zeros all have real part 1/2. According to the prime number theorem, pn approximately n logn, where pn is the nth prime. Suppose that pn were exactly nlogn. In other words, in the Euler product above, replace the nth prime by nlogn. In this way, we define a pseudo zeta function C(s) for Re s > 1. One can show that C(s) may be analytically continued at least into the half-plane Re s > 0 except for an isolated singularity (presumably a simple pole) at s = 0. It may be shown that the pseudo zeta function C(s) has no complex zeros whatsoever. This means that the complex zeros of the zeta function are associated with the irregularity of the distribution of the primes. PMID:10884402

  8. Patterned Photonic Nitrocellulose for Pseudo-Paper Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bingbing; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-05-17

    We report a pseudo-paper microfluidic chip based on patterned photonic nitrocellulose. The photonic nitrocellulose is fabricated using self-assembled monodisperse SiO2 nanoparticles as template. The SiO2 nanoparticles form a photonic crystal having a close-packed hexagonal structure in the microchannels, so the resulting nitrocellulose has a complementary inverse-opal structure. After lamination, a hollow channel is obtained that is partially filled with the photonic nitrocellulose. Owing to the highly ordered photonic structure of the pseudo-paper chip, the flow profile of aqueous solution wicking through the channel is more uniform than conventional paper microfluidic chip. It is also found that the wicking rate of aqueous solution can be easily manipulated by changing the diameter of the self-assembled monodisperse SiO2 nanoparticles, which determines the pore size of the photonic nitrocellulose. The fluorescent enhancement property of the photonic nitrocellulose is used to increase the fluorescent intensity for multiplex detection of two cancer biomarkers. Label-free detection of human immunoglobin G based on the structure color of the photonic nitrocellulose is also demonstrated. PMID:27088587

  9. Calculating room acoustic parameters from pseudo-impulsive acoustic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Martin, Maria L.; Vela, Antonio; San Martin, Ricardo; Arana, Miguel A.

    2002-11-01

    The impulse response function provides complete information to predict the acoustic response of a room to an acoustic input of arbitrary characteristics. At this job study, small explosions of firecrackers are proposed to be used as pseudo-impulsive acoustics sources to determine some acoustic parameters of a room such as reverberation time, definition, and clarity, comparing these results to those obtained with other techniques. A previous characterization of these sources allows us to state that they can be used for this purpose because they are, in practice, omnidirectional, their temporary pattern is highly repetitive and their spectral power is, as well, repetitive and with enough power in octave bands from 125 Hz to 8 kHz. If the linear time-invariant system impulse response h(t) is known, output signal s(t) regarding any arbitrary signal s(t) can be obtained. For our pseudo-impulsive sources, the output signal s(t) has been taken as impulse response h(t). Using the integrated impulse response method suggested by Schroeder, it has been stated that both the mean values and standard deviations for some parameters are practically identical to results obtained with other usual techniques. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  10. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Perlemuter, G; Chaussade, S; Wechsler, B; Cacoub, P; Dapoigny, M; Kahan, A; Godeau, P; Couturier, D

    1998-01-01

    Background/Aims—Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) reflects a dysfunction of the visceral smooth muscle or the enteric nervous system. Gastrointestinal manifestations are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but CIPO has not been reported. Features of CIPO are reported in five patients with SLE. 
Methods—From 1988 to 1993, five patients with SLE or SLE-like syndrome were hospitalised for gastrointestinal manometric studies. CIPO was the onset feature in two cases. Antroduodenal manometry (three hours fasting, two hours fed) was performed in all patients, and oesophageal manometry in four. 
Results—Intestinal hypomotility associated with reduced bladder capacity and bilateral ureteral distension was found in four patients and aperistalsis of the oesophagus in three. Treatment, which consisted of high dose corticosteroids, parenteral nutrition, promotility agents, and antibiotics, led to remission of both CIPO and urinary abnormalities in all cases. Antroduodenal manometry performed in two patients after remission showed increased intestinal motility. One patient died, and postmortem examination showed intestinal vasculitis. 
Conclusions—CIPO in SLE is a life threatening situation that can be reversed by treatment. It may be: (a) a complication or onset feature of the disease; (b) secondary to smooth muscle involvement; (c) associated with ureteral and vesical involvement; (d) the result of intestinal vasculitis. 

 Keywords: chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; systemic lupus erythematosus PMID:9771415

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) grain and by-products (flour, popping, cereal).

    PubMed

    Paśko, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Fołta, Maria; Gwizdz, Jadwiga

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our study was evaluation antioxidant activity of Amaranthus cruentus grain and by-products (flour, cereals and popping). The evaluation was performed by FRAP, DPPH and ABTS methods. FRAP and ABTS assays gave comparable results, DPPH method gave lower values. Among by-products cereal had the highest activity as the least processed product. Additionally, antioxidant capacities of two cultivars of amaranth (varieties Aztek and Rawa) were compared and the influence of grain soaking on antioxidant properties was taken into account. It was found, that soaking decreased antioxidant activity of amaranth seed. PMID:17711088

  12. Physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of raw cereals for newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Doucet, F J; Hill, S E; Wiseman, J

    2008-06-01

    The digestibility of the starch component of raw cereals in newly weaned piglets is highly variable. Reasons for this must be elucidated if the most suitable cereals are to be used. A novel approach was employed, which consisted of assessing the physicochemical properties (rapid visco analysis, water absorption and solubility indices, particle size distribution and in vitro amylolytic digestion) of eight raw cereals contained within piglet diets and subsequently relating this in vitro data to the biological responses of weaned piglets. Trial 1 examined soft and hard wheat, trial 2 - soft wheat, barley, rye and triticale, and trial 3 - soft wheat, naked oats, whole oats and maize. The initial observation was that in vitro testing prior to animal trials is recommended in nutritional evaluation since it indicated fundamental differences between raw cereals, such as for example the levels of endogenous amylase in wheat. Starch and nitrogen digestibility differed between cereals (apparent digestibility coefficients at the 0.5 site of the small intestine ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 for starch and from 0.17 to 0.68 for nitrogen). There is also a probable relationship between the coefficients of ileal apparent starch digestibility, at approximately halfway from the gastric pylorus to the ileocaecal valve, and the presence of endogenous amylase (mean values of 0.53 and 0.62 in trials 2 and 3, respectively, for the higher amylase wheat; 0.38 for the low-amylase wheat used in trial 1). This additional variable (i.e. the unforeseen presence of endogenous amylase) in wheat made it more difficult to draw a firm conclusion about the nutritional suitability of the different cereals. All raw-cereal diets caused atrophy of the villi during the initial week following weaning, but the soft wheat was associated with the highest comparative villi height and might therefore be considered the best of all raw cereals in minimising the post-weaning growth check. For wheat, this might also

  13. Selective medium for isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, S; Pitt, J I

    1986-01-01

    A selective medium containing 2 micrograms of dichloran per ml, 200 micrograms of chloramphenicol per ml, and 1.5% bacteriological peptone was developed for the isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals. The medium, designated DCPA, was shown to select against species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and mucoraceous fungi. DCPA was evaluated for use as an enumeration medium and compared satisfactorily with dichloran-rose bengal-chloramphenicol agar when both media were tested with a range of cereal samples. Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes produced well-formed colonies with good conidial production on DCPA, permitting rapid identification of such isolates on this medium. PMID:3729399

  14. Selective medium for isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S; Pitt, J I

    1986-06-01

    A selective medium containing 2 micrograms of dichloran per ml, 200 micrograms of chloramphenicol per ml, and 1.5% bacteriological peptone was developed for the isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals. The medium, designated DCPA, was shown to select against species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and mucoraceous fungi. DCPA was evaluated for use as an enumeration medium and compared satisfactorily with dichloran-rose bengal-chloramphenicol agar when both media were tested with a range of cereal samples. Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes produced well-formed colonies with good conidial production on DCPA, permitting rapid identification of such isolates on this medium. PMID:3729399

  15. A Study on the Stability of Deoxynivalenol during the Production of Selected Flour-Based Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that is commonly found in cereals and cereal-based products. Some processing methods reduce its concentrations in the finished products whereas others do not. The concentrations of DON in flour, wheat and a selection of food products prepared from them using co...

  16. Establishment and Growth of Self-Seeded Winter Cereal Cover Crops in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perpetuating cereal cover crops through self-seeding may increase adoption by reducing risk and cost. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn...

  17. Stability of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) during the production of flour-based foods and wheat flake cereal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin found in cereal grains and cereal-based foods. Its concentrations in finished products are reduced under some processing conditions, but not others. DON concentrations in flour, wheat and selected foods made from them under commercially relevant con...

  18. [Peripheral arterial pseudo-aneurysm in Behçet's disease: Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Abissegue, Y; Ouldsalek, E; Lyazidi, Y; El Ochi, M R; El Fatemi, B; Chtata, H T; Bensaid, Y; Taberkant, M

    2016-05-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiopathogenesis. Arterial events such as pseudo-aneurysms are rare and may be the mode of occurrence of the disease. These pseudo-aneurysms tend, regardless of size, to progress rapidly to life-threatening rupture. We report two cases of arterial pseudo-aneurysms that ruptured. Treatment consisted of surgical repair in one case and arterial ligation in the other; the postoperative course was uneventful in both cases. PMID:26947054

  19. T-2 and HT-2 toxin analysis in cereals and cereal products following IAC cleanup and determination via GC-ECD after derivatization.

    PubMed

    Majerus, P; Hain, J; Scheer, M

    2008-03-01

    The authors present a new and sensitive method for the determination of T-2- und HT-2 Toxin in cereals and cereal products in the low ppb level. A representative part of the cereal sample is extracted with a mixture of methanol-water (90:10) and the extract is cleaned on the commercially available immunoaffinity column T-2test™ (IAC), eluted with methanol, derivatized by pentafluorpropionic anhydride (PFPA) and measured on a GC-ECD. The method has been successfully validated on wheat, rye and oats. The recovery rates with wheat and rye endowed on a level of 50 ppb and with 85 ppb naturally contaminated oats were 71-115% with a coefficient of variation of 5.7-19.5%. The detection limits of the method with a signal to noise level of 3:1 were 1.5-2.3 μg/kg for HT-2 and 1.1-1.7 μg/kg for T-2 toxin. PMID:23606077

  20. a Pseudo-Random Number Generator Employing Multiple RÉNYI Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Oi-Yan; Yuen, Ching-Hung; Wong, Kwok-Wo

    2013-11-01

    The increasing risk along with the drastic development of multimedia data transmission has raised a big concern on data security. A good pseudo-random number generator is an essential tool in cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel pseudo-random number generator based on the controlled combination of the outputs of several digitized chaotic Rényi maps. The generated pseudo-random sequences have passed both the NIST 800-22 Revision 1a and the DIEHARD tests. Moreover, simulation results show that the proposed pseudo-random number generator requires less operation time than existing generators and is highly sensitive to the seed.

  1. Prevalence of HCV genotypes in district Mardan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The prevalence of chronic HCV infections in Pakistan is about 5%, with most individuals being infected with HCV genotype 3a. Data on HCV genotypes distribution across various districts of the country are scarce. One example is district Mardan from where such data is available only from 17 individuals. Accordingly, the present study aimed at determining HCV genotypes distribution among 177 HCV RNA positive individuals from district Mardan. Findings Serum samples (n = 215) from patients suspected of hepatitis C were collected and processed for Nested PCR based detection and subsequent genotyping. Gender-wise and age-wise differences in HCV prevalence and HCV genotypes distribution were determined by χ2 test. Out of the total 215 serum samples, 177 were found to be positive for HCV RNA. The genotype 3a was the most predominant genotype among HCV RNA positive samples with a prevalence of 90.3%, followed by genotype 1a (5.6%), mixed genotypes (2.8%), genotype 3b (0.6%) and genotype 4 (0.6%). The HCV prevalence was higher in young individuals than old people and was indicative of reduced survival rate beyond 40 years. Conclusion HCV genotype 3a is the most predominant genotype in district Mardan. The state of the art preventive and therapeutic strategies should be implemented to control the spread of HCV infections. Further temporal studies involving different geographical areas of Pakistan, are required to improve the control measures for HCV infection. PMID:23514695

  2. An arsenic-contaminated field trial to assess the uptake and translocation of arsenic by genotypes of rice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Tie, Baiqing; Zeng, Min; Qing, Pufeng; Song, Zhengguo; Williams, Paul N; Huang, Yizong

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand As uptake and translocation among different genotypes. A field study in Chenzhou city, Hunan province of China, was employed to evaluate the effect of arsenic-contaminated soil on uptake and distribution in 34 genotypes of rice (including unpolished rice, husk, shoot, and root). The soil As concentrations ranged from 52.49 to 83.86 mg kg(-1), with mean As concentration 64.44 mg kg(-1). The mean As concentrations in rice plant tissues were different among the 34 rice genotypes. The highest As concentrations were accumulated in rice root (196.27-385.98 mg kg(-1) dry weight), while the lowest was in unpolished rice (0.31-0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight). The distribution of As in rice tissue and paddy soil are as follows root ≫ soil > shoot > husk > unpolished rice. The ranges of concentrations of inorganic As in all of unpolished rice were from 0.26 to 0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight. In particular, the percentage of inorganic As in the total As was more than 67 %, indicating that the inorganic As was the predominant species in unpolished rice. The daily dietary intakes of inorganic As in unpolished rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.21 mg for an adult, and from 0.075 to 0.15 mg for a child. Comparison with tolerable daily intakes established by FAO/WHO, inorganic As in most of unpolished rice samples exceeded the recommended intake values. The 34 genotypes of rice were classified into four clusters using a criteria value of rescaled distance between 5 and 10. Among the 34 genotypes, the genotypes II you 416 (II416) with the lowest enrichment of As and the lowest daily dietary intakes of inorganic As could be selected as the main cultivar in As-contaminated field. PMID:23149722

  3. [Genotypic specificity of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Shakhmatova-Pavlova, I V; Gindilis, V M; Rokhlina, M L; Kozlova, I A

    1980-01-01

    A total of 610 probands with a disease manifestation in childhood, middle and old age and their families were examined by the clinico-genealogical method. The results allowed conclusions that (1) there is an undoubted genetic relationship between schizophrenia of childhood, middle and old age; and that (2) among the closest relatives in families of the probands there is no significant (in comparison to the general population) accumulation of non-schizophrenic pathology. The latter indicates a high genotypic specificity of schizophrenia. PMID:7415694

  4. Linear relationship between Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) genotypic frequencies and disease severity on wheat roots in the field.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Lionel; Gosme, Marie; Lucas, Philippe; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Sarniguet, Alain

    2007-02-01

    In order to investigate potential links existing between Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) population structure and disease development during polyetic take-all epidemics in sequences of Ggt host cereals, seven epidemics in fields with different cropping histories were monitored during the seasons 2001/2002 (two fields), 2002/2003 (two fields) and 2003/2004 (three fields). Take-all incidence and severity were measured at stem elongation and Ggt populations were characterized. The 73 isolates collected in the two fields in 2001/2002 were distributed into two multilocus genotypes, G1 and G2 according to amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. A monolocus molecular marker amplified by F-12 random amplification polymorphism DNA primer sizing between 1.9 and 2.0 kb that gave strictly the same distinction between the two multilocus genotypes was further applied to measure G1/G2 frequencies among Ggt populations in all fields (266 isolates). The ratios of G1 to G2 differed between fields with different cropping histories. A linear relationship between G2 frequency among Ggt populations and disease severity at stem elongation was measured during the three cropping seasons. When take-all decline was observed, G2 frequencies were low in first wheat crops, highest in short-term sequences and intermediate in longer sequences of consecutive crops of Ggt host cereals. This pattern could be the result of population selection by environmental conditions, in particular by microbial antagonism during the parasitic phase of the fungus. In order to better understand take-all epidemic dynamics, the distinction between these two genotypes could be a basis to develop models that link approaches of quantitative epidemiology and advances in population genetics of Ggt. PMID:17222147

  5. Plant Breeding and Drought in C3 Cereals: What Should We Breed For?

    PubMed Central

    ARAUS, J. L.; SLAFER, G. A.; REYNOLDS, M. P.; ROYO, C.

    2002-01-01

    Drought is the main abiotic constraint on cereal yield. Analysing physiological determinants of yield responses to water may help in breeding for higher yield and stability under drought conditions. The traits to select (either for stress escape, avoidance or tolerance) and the framework where breeding for drought stress is addressed will depend on the level and timing of stress in the targeted area. If the stress is severe, breeding under stress‐free conditions may be unsuccessful and traits that confer survival may become a priority. However, selecting for yield itself under stress‐alleviated conditions appears to produce superior cultivars, not only for optimum environments, but also for those characterized by frequent mild and moderate stress conditions. This implies that broad avoidance/tolerance to mild–moderate stresses is given by constitutive traits also expressed under stress‐free conditions. In this paper, we focus on physiological traits that contribute to improved productivity under mild–moderate drought. Increased crop performance may be achieved through improvements in water use, water‐use efficiency and harvest index. The first factor is relevant when soil water remains available at maturity or when deep‐rooted genotypes access water in the soil profile that is not normally available; the two latter conditions become more important when all available water is exhausted by the end of the crop cycle. Independent of the mechanism operating, a canopy able to use more water than another would have more open stomata and therefore higher canopy temperature depression, and 13C discrimination (Δ13C) in plant matter. The same traits would also seem to be relevant when breeding for hot, irrigated environments. Where additional water is not available to the crop, higher water‐use efficiency (WUE) appears to be an alternative strategy to improve crop performance. In this context Δ13C constitutes a simple but reliable measure of WUE. However, in

  6. The Smart Choices front-of-package nutrition label. Influence on perceptions and intake of cereal.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Christina A; Shivaram, Meenakshi; Martinez, Olivia; Boles, Cassie; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-04-01

    Numerous front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labeling systems exist, but it is unclear if such labels influence behavior. A single-summary label called Smart Choices (SC) appeared briefly on products in the United States in 2009. The current study aimed to evaluate (1) the influence the SC symbol has on the serving and consumption of cereal; and (2) the impact of providing calorie and serving size information on a FOP label. Two hundred and sixteen adults were randomized to a high-sugar breakfast cereal that had either (1) no label; (2) the SC symbol; or (3) a modified SC symbol with serving size information. Participants rated perceptions of healthfulness, taste, and purchase intent, estimated calories per serving and poured and ate the cereal for breakfast. Participants in the SC label conditions were better able to estimate calories per serving, but there were no differences across groups on perceptions of healthfulness, taste, purchase intent, and levels of vitamins, and sugar or amount of cereal poured or consumed. These results suggest that calories per serving information on FOP labels can increase knowledge, but the SC symbol had little impact on behavior. Studies examining FOP label influence on purchasing, consumption, and product reformulation are greatly needed to determine label utility. PMID:22248710

  7. Establishment and host effects of cereal aphids on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential widespread plantings of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for use as a high biomass-yielding crop for use in the cellulosic production of ethanol prompted its evaluation as a suitable host for economically important cereal aphids. Seedlings of four cultivars of switchgrass, 'Kanlow' (sout...

  8. SINAPATE DEHYDRODIMERS AND SINAPALE-FERULATE HETERODIMERS IN CEREAL DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 8 8-coupled sinapic acid dehydrodimers have been identified as saponification products from different insoluble and soluble cereal grain dietary fibers. The two 8-8-isomers were authenticated by comparison of their GLC retention times and mass spectra with authentic dehydrodimers synthesized fro...

  9. Diversity of tri-functional histidine biosynthesis gene (his) in cereal Phaeosphaeria species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The full length genomic sequences of tri-functional histidine biosynthesis (his) gene were obtained and compared from cereal Phaeosphaeria species by PCR amplification. The his gene coding sequence in wheat-biotype P. nodorum (PN-w) was 2697 bp in size. The his genes in barley-biotype P. nodorum (PN...

  10. Efficient Use of Plant Nutrients by Cereal Crops via Optimizing Soil Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The price of nitrogen (N) fertilizer has increased by 5 fold during the last decade. This has led to a significant decline in net returns. However, the increase in cereal grain price for the same period of time was negligible compared to that of N fertilizer price. Poorly managed N fertilization can...

  11. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05). These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption. PMID:26529009

  12. Tillage translocation and tillage erosion in cereal-based production in Manitoba, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage erosion is a major contributor to the total soil erosion occurring within cultivated fields. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted to measure tillage erosion associated with cereal-based production systems, which is the predominant form of crop production in the Canadian Prairies....

  13. Fecal phosphorus excretion and characterization from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of cereal grain phosphorus (P) source on faecal P composition, twenty crossbred barrows, weighing 35.8 plus or minus 3.09 kg, were fed one of five diets with four pigs assigned to each of the diets. The diets contained corn, wheat, high fat-low lignin oat, normal barley or l...

  14. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  15. Understanding mechanisms of host resistance against greenbug in cereal crops - an interdisciplinary, collaborative approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At Texas AgriLife Research - Amarillo, we have an ongoing research program focusing on elucidating the mechanisms of interactions between the phloem-feeding aphid pests and cereal crop hosts using the wheat-greenbug as a model system. During this workshop, recent results from our research on the fo...

  16. Voluntary fortification of breakfast cereals with folic acid: contribution to dietary intake in Australia.

    PubMed

    Japar, Devina; Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Shrestha, Ashok; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-05-01

    Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals have been voluntarily fortified with folic acid since 1995, with the purpose of reducing the prevalence of neural tube defects in utero. Using data from the recent Australian Health Survey, this study aimed to estimate folate intake from one serving of breakfast cereals (median amount). Various commercial brands were purchased in 2002 (n = 19) and in 2014 (n = 14); folate was determined by microbiological assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total folate (μg/100 g) in 2002 and 2014 selections were 144-633 and 147-564, respectively, and mostly comparable to nutrition labels. Folic acid (2014 selection) using HPLC, ranged from 85 to 411 μg/100 g. Intake of 51 g cereals/serving by individuals ≥2 years could contribute 75-288 μg dietary folate equivalent. It seems that folic acid intake among children (2-3 years) exceeds the recommended dietary intake, when certain brands of breakfast cereals are consumed. Accordingly, the benefits and potential detrimental effects of the voluntary fortification need to be further explored. PMID:26903206

  17. Mepiquat: A Process-Induced Byproduct in Roasted Cereal-Based Foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Stadler, Richard H; Wermann, Silke; Hofmann, Jocelyne; Theurillat, Viviane; Combremont, Raphaël; Delatour, Thierry

    2016-02-10

    Mepiquat, a growth regulator widely used in agriculture, is also known as a process-induced byproduct formed in coffee from natural constituents during heat treatments such as roasting. This study examines mepiquat formation in cereal-based foodstuffs treated at sufficiently high temperature to trigger methyl transfer reactions that involve glycine betaine and choline naturally present in cereals. Color measurements of roasted barley grains revealed a correlation between thermal treatment and mepiquat content. Trials at industrial scale on instant beverages composed of roasted cereals demonstrated significant increases in mepiquat during the thermal process (in the range of 140-205 μg/kg in final products). A targeted survey of commercial products showed mepiquat in the range 69-381 μg/kg in powdered cereal instant drinks and 42-168 μg/kg in mugicha tea, a roasted barley infusion. These findings will not significantly affect the exposure of consumers to mepiquat due to the low amounts detected. PMID:26805918

  18. Haemoglobin fortified cereal: a source of available iron to breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, E; Olivares, M; Pizarro, F; Walter, T; Cayazzo, M; Heresi, G; Llaguno, S; Chadud, P; Stekel, A

    1990-11-01

    We tested in the field an extruded rice flour, fortified with a bovine haemoglobin concentrate (Fe:14 mg/100 g of powder). This cereal has a high iron bioavailability, good protein quality and amino acid score. Healthy, term breast-fed infants were prospectively studied. One group (n = 92) received the fortified cereal (from 4 to 12 months of age). As control, 96 infants received regular solid foods (cooked vegetables and meat) from age 4 months. At the end of the field trial, a subsample of infants in both groups was supplemented with 45 mg Fe during 90 d. Iron nutrition status was determined at 9, 12 and 15 months. At 12 months, iron deficiency anaemia was present in 17 per cent of controls, in 10 per cent of fortified infants as a whole, but only in 6 per cent of the babies who consumed over 30 g of cereal/d. In addition, this latter group did not show any significant changes in iron nutrition status after the supplementation trial. Results demonstrate that the consumption of a haemoglobin fortified cereal is effective in markedly reducing the incidence of iron deficiency in breast-fed infants. PMID:2086208

  19. VARIABLE HESSIAN FLY (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE) POPULATIONS IN CEREAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN EASTERN WASHINGTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year study in Washington state quantified Hessian fly populations in different cereal production systems using on-farm replicated plots. This study also quantified natural mortality of fly populations in the systems, identified hymenopterous parasitoids of the fly, and determined the biotyp...

  20. The Profile and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds in Cereals Influenced by Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Chen, Jun; Gong, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment (IECT) on the phenolics and its bioaccessibility in cereals, represented by brown rice, wheat, and oat. Data showed that total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in free form were significantly decreased, while the bound form was increased after IECT. After IECT, the total free phenolic acids of brown rice and wheat were significantly decreased by 5.88% and 45.66%, respectively, while the total bound phenolic acids of brown rice, wheat, and oat were significantly increased by 6.45%, 8.78%, and 9.10%, respectively. Brown rice provided the most bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant compounds, followed by oat and wheat. IECT significantly decreased the bioaccessible phenolics of brown rice and oat by 31.09% and 30.95%, while it had minimal effect on the bioaccessible phenolics of wheat. These results showed that IECT greatly affected the phenolics and its bioaccessibiltiy of cereals, with the effect depending on cereal matrix and the sensitivity of free and bound phenolics. Furthermore, bioaccessible phenolic acids of raw and processed cereals were considerably low, and it slightly contributed to the bioaccessible phenolics. PMID:27513581

  1. The Profile and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds in Cereals Influenced by Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Chen, Jun; Gong, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment (IECT) on the phenolics and its bioaccessibility in cereals, represented by brown rice, wheat, and oat. Data showed that total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in free form were significantly decreased, while the bound form was increased after IECT. After IECT, the total free phenolic acids of brown rice and wheat were significantly decreased by 5.88% and 45.66%, respectively, while the total bound phenolic acids of brown rice, wheat, and oat were significantly increased by 6.45%, 8.78%, and 9.10%, respectively. Brown rice provided the most bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant compounds, followed by oat and wheat. IECT significantly decreased the bioaccessible phenolics of brown rice and oat by 31.09% and 30.95%, while it had minimal effect on the bioaccessible phenolics of wheat. These results showed that IECT greatly affected the phenolics and its bioaccessibiltiy of cereals, with the effect depending on cereal matrix and the sensitivity of free and bound phenolics. Furthermore, bioaccessible phenolic acids of raw and processed cereals were considerably low, and it slightly contributed to the bioaccessible phenolics. PMID:27513581

  2. Stability of the Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol in Processed Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, principally F. graminearum and F. culmorum. These fungi are natural contaminants of wheat, barley and corn and, consequently, DON is found in cereal-based foods. The effect of thermal processing on DON is variable: som...

  3. Brachypodium seed - a potential model for studying grain development of cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of small grains are important resources for human and animal food. The understanding of seed biology is essential for crop improvement by increasing grain yields and nutritional value. In the last decade, Brachypodium distachyon has been developed as a model plant for temperate cereal grasses...

  4. Digestive and physiological effects of a wheat bran extract, arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide, in breakfast cereal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed whether a wheat bran extract containing arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide (AXOS) elicited a prebiotic effect and influenced other physiologic parameters when consumed in ready-to-eat cereal at two dose levels. This double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial evaluated the effects o...

  5. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

    PubMed

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05). These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption. PMID:26529009

  6. Meloidogyne Incognita Host Suitability and Benzoxazinoid Content of Rye (secale cereale) Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to investigate factors which may aid in the selection of a rye cultivar for plant-parasitic nematode management. Six geographically diverse cultivars of rye (Secale cereale) wheat (Triticum aestivum) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), were screened for Meloidogyne incognit...

  7. Barley yellow dwarf virus effects on cereal plant growth and transpiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how changes in root system biomass caused by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) infection impact water relations in cereal plants. Objectives of these greenhouse studies were to elucidate virus infection effects on plant growth and apparent transpiration rate in oats (Avena sati...

  8. New Trends in Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals, Nutraceuticals, Baby Foods, and Related Processed Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide residue methods have been developed for a wide variety of food products including cereal-based foods, nutraceuticals and related plant products, and baby foods. These cereal, fruit, vegetable, and plant-based products provide the basis for many processed consumer products. For cereal and nutraceuticals, which are dry sample products, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method has been used with additional steps to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix and subsequent cleanup using dispersive or cartridge format SPE to reduce matrix effects. More processed foods may have lower pesticide concentrations but higher co-extracts that can lead to signal suppression or enhancement with MS detection. For complex matrixes, GC/MS/MS or LC/electrospray ionization (positive or negative ion)-MS/MS is more frequently used. The extraction and cleanup methods vary with different sample types particularly for cereal-based products, and these different approaches are discussed in this review. General instrument considerations are also discussed. PMID:26525234

  9. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi (Entomophthoromycota) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) of cereal crops in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spectrum of entomophthoroid fungal species parasitizing aphids of cereal crops and a study of the phenology and prevalence of these pathogens was investigated in Argentina. The studies were conducted at six different sites cultivated with crops of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), Avena sativa L. (o...

  10. Resistance to the Poerovirus Cereal Yellow Dwarf Virus in Wheat: A Two-component system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of resistance to Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV), introgressed into wheat from Thinopyrum intermedium, is unclear as previous data demonstrated that it was not due to a block in virus replication. Through cellular analysis we have examined the movement of CYDV within inoculated and u...

  11. Winter Cereal Termination and Conservation Agriculture Cotton Yield Following Mechanical and Chemical Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integral component of conservation-tillage systems in cotton is the use of a high-residue winter cover crop; however, managing such cover crops is a challenge. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) winter cover crops were established in ear...

  12. Efficacy of Ethanedinitile (C2N2) against some cereal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanedinitrile (EDN) is being investigated by CSIRO Australia as an alternative to methyl bromide for a range of uses, including soil and timber fumigation. EDN is an effective devitalisation agent of cereals and is being evaluated for devitalising feed grain imports into Australia. Part of this ...

  13. Establishment and host effects of cereal aphids on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential for widespread plantings of switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., as a biomass feedstock prompted its evaluation as a host for economically important cereal aphids. Seedlings of four cultivars of switchgrass, 'Kanlow', 'Blackwell', 'Cave-In-Rock', and 'Sunburst', were evaluated as hosts for g...

  14. Precision zonal management systems for resilient cereal yields and ecosystem services under variable climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing climatic variability is likely to increase production risks in cereal production and to exacerbate harmful biogeochemical impacts of these systems. Reduced tillage and continuous living cover (e.g., cover crops) may help manage these effects, but both impose other costs and risks. Conside...

  15. Influence of host and geographic locale on the distribution of Colletotrichum cereale lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletotrichum cereale is an ascomycete inhabitant of cool-season grasses of the Pooideae subfamily. The fungus has increased in frequency over the past decade as a destructive pathogen of Poa annua and Agrostis stolonifera cultivated as turfgrass. DNA fingerprinting has revealed two distinct C. c...

  16. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective.

    PubMed

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2013-08-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t(-1) the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

  17. Mapping of QTL for tolerance to cereal yellow dwarf virus in two-rowed spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV) causes a serious viral disease affecting small grain crops around the world. In the US, it frequently is present in California where it causes significant yield losses, and when infections start early in development, plant death. CYDV is transmitted by aphids, an...

  18. Tillage impacts cereal-aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestations in spring small grains.

    PubMed

    Hesler, L S; Berg, R K

    2003-12-01

    We compared infestation levels of cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in spring-seeded wheat and barley grown with and without preplant tillage for 8 site yr in eastern South Dakota. Crop residue covered approximately 25% of the soil surface with preplant tillage, whereas without preplant tillage 50% or more of surface residue was conserved. Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) comprised nearly 90% of all cereal aphids sampled, and R. maidis (Fitch), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Sitobion avenae (F.) collectively comprised the remainder. R. padi routinely infested lower parts of tillers and were generally concealed by surface residue in plots with no preplant tillage. Across 7 site yr, R. padi were more abundant in plots with no preplant tillage than with preplant tillage (272.6 +/- 54.4 versus 170.1 +/- 37.2 aphid days per 25 tillers). However, in comparisons at individual site years, R. padi were greater in no-preplant tillage plots only once. For all cereal-aphid species combined, infestations were greater in plots with no preplant tillage for 1 of 8 site yr, but did not differ with tillage when compared across all site years. Cereal aphids were never more abundant in plots with preplant tillage. Our results show that conservation tillage leads to greater infestations of R. padi in spring small grains, as increased surface residue provides a favorable microhabitat for this aphid. PMID:14977117

  19. First report of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi on winter wheat in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the cereal cyst nematode complex, three species-Heterodera avenae, H. filipjevi and H. latipons-are the most destructive for wheat. Although H. avenae occurs in several U.S. states, H. filipjevi was discovered in the United States in Oregon in 2008 and has since been reported only in Washingto...

  20. CEREAL RUST GENOMICS AND THE PURSUIT OF VIRULENCE AND AVIRULENCE FACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rust diseases cause significant reductions annually in yield of cereal crops world-wide. Traditional monoculture cropping systems apply significant selection pressure on the pathogen to cause rapid shifts in pathotypes. Plant breeders strive to stay ahead of the evolving pathogens by releasing new...

  1. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  2. Changes on image texture features of breakfast flakes cereals during water absorption.

    PubMed

    Medina, Wenceslao T; Quevedo, Roberto A; Aguilera, José M

    2013-02-01

    Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25 °C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5 °C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times) × 22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state. PMID:23345324

  3. The potential for cereal rye cover crops to host corn seedling pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil health and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects by growing two grass species in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathog...

  4. Measurement of Trans-Fatty Acids in Cereal Products Without Oil Extraction Using NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid technique, to determine the trans-fatty acid content of ground cereal products. NIR spectra were obtained with a dispersive spectrometer and trans-fatty acids determined by modified AOAC Method 996.01. First derivative PLS1 mode...

  5. Organellar genome analysis of rye (Secale cereale) representing diverse geographic regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye (Secale cereale) is an important diploid (2n = 14, RR) crop species of the Tritceae and a better understanding of it organellar genome variation can aid in its improvement. Previous genetic analyses of rye focused on the nuclear genome. In the present study, the objective was to investigate the ...

  6. Anomericity of T-2 toxin-glucosides; masked mycotoxins in cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when the fungus Fusarium infects small grains, especially oats. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called m...

  7. The cereal rust mite, Abacarus hystrix, cannot be used for biological control of quackgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quackgrass, Elymus repens, is a perennial grass spreading by vigorous underground rhizomes. Because of its capacity for rapid spread and persistence it is considered as a common weed in many settings worldwide. The cereal rust mite (CRM) Abacarus hystrix is a polyphagous, phytophagous mite attacking...

  8. Systematics, phylogeny and trichothecene mycotoxin potential of fusarium head blight cereal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight(FHB)or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. Prior to 2000, the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species,Fusarium graminearum. However, a series of studies we conducted over the p...

  9. Recent trends in ready-to-eat breakfast cereals in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) were examined to discern trends in ready-to-eat breakfast cereals resulting from manufacturers’ reformulations, many in response to public health concerns and consumer demand. The majority of the nutrient data for breakfast cer...

  10. Systematics, Phylogeny and Trichothecene Mycotoxin potential of Fusarium head blight cereal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. Prior to 2000, the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species, Fusarium graminearum. However, a series of studies we conducted over th...

  11. Pseudo noise code and data transmission method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerkoski, L. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Pseudo noise ranging codes, having a predetermined chipping rate, and a pair of binary data sources, each having a bit rate no greater than one tenth the chipping rate, quadriphase, digitally modulate a suppressed carrier wave having a first frequency are examined. Two additional binary data sources, each having a bit rate that is not restricted by the chipping rate of the first carrier, quadriphase, digitally modulate a suppressed carrier wave having a second frequency. The first and second frequencies are only slightly displaced so that there is overlap in the frequency bands which modulate the two carriers. The two suppressed carrier waves are linearly combined and transmitted from a first station to a second station so that the amplitude of the transmitted first wave is controlled so as not to degrade the detectability of the second wave at the second station.

  12. 3D registration through pseudo x-ray image generation.

    PubMed

    Viant, W J; Barnel, F

    2001-01-01

    Registration of a pre operative plan with the intra operative position of the patient is still a largely unsolved problem. Current techniques generally require fiducials, either artificial or anatomic, to achieve the registration solution. Invariably these fiducials require implantation and/or direct digitisation. The technique described in this paper requires no digitisation or implantation of fiducials, but instead relies on the shape and form of the anatomy through a fully automated image comparison process. A pseudo image, generated from a virtual image intensifier's view of a CT dataset, is intra operatively compared with a real x-ray image. The principle is to align the virtual with the real image intensifier. The technique is an extension to the work undertaken by Domergue [1] and based on original ideas by Weese [4]. PMID:11317805

  13. Pseudo-fermions in an Electronic Loss-Gain Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.; Pantano, G.

    2013-12-01

    In some recent papers a loss-gain electronic circuit has been introduced and analyzed within the context of PT-quantum mechanics. In this paper we show that this circuit can be analyzed using the formalism of the so-called pseudo-fermions. In particular we discuss the time behavior of the circuit, and we construct two biorthogonal bases associated to the Liouville matrix used in the treatment of the dynamics. We relate these bases to and , and we also show that a self-adjoint Liouville-like operator could be introduced in the game. Finally, we describe the time evolution of the circuit in an Heisenberg-like representation, driven by a non self-adjoint Hamiltonian.

  14. Pseudo-Linear Attitude Determination of Spinning Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the overall mathematical model and results from pseudo linear recursive estimators of attitude and rate for a spinning spacecraft. The measurements considered are vector measurements obtained by sun-sensors, fixed head star trackers, horizon sensors, and three axis magnetometers. Two filters are proposed for estimating the attitude as well as the angular rate vector. One filter, called the q-Filter, yields the attitude estimate as a quaternion estimate, and the other filter, called the D-Filter, yields the estimated direction cosine matrix. Because the spacecraft is gyro-less, Euler s equation of angular motion of rigid bodies is used to enable the estimation of the angular velocity. A simpler Markov model is suggested as a replacement for Euler's equation in the case where the vector measurements are obtained at high rates relative to the spacecraft angular rate. The performance of the two filters is examined using simulated data.

  15. Eyeball pseudo-muscular actuators for an android face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; De Rossi, Danilo

    2005-05-01

    The human attention system is based on the capability of the eye of focusing and tracking. These actions are performed by the eyeball muscle system, as a consequence of visual stimuli. The F.A.C.E. (Facial Automaton for Conveying Emotions) project at our lab concerns the development of an android face endowed with dynamic expressiveness and artificial vision. Aimed at realising an artificial attention system for such an automaton, we present here a study for the development of pseudo-muscular polymer actuators for its eyeballs. The system is based on the mimicry of the muscular architecture of the human eye. In particular, linear actuators made of dielectric elastomers have been designed to replicate actions exerted by the main ocular muscles.

  16. Bayesian pseudo-confirmation, use-novelty, and genuine confirmation.

    PubMed

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    According to the comparative Bayesian concept of confirmation, rationalized versions of creationism come out as empirically confirmed. From a scientific viewpoint, however, they are pseudo-explanations because with their help all kinds of experiences are explainable in an ex-post fashion, by way of ad-hoc fitting of an empirically empty theoretical framework to the given evidence. An alternative concept of confirmation that attempts to capture this intuition is the use novelty (UN) criterion of confirmation. Serious objections have been raised against this criterion. In this paper I suggest solutions to these objections. Based on them, I develop an account of genuine confirmation that unifies the UN-criterion with a refined probabilistic confirmation concept that is explicated in terms of the confirmation of evidence-transcending content parts of the hypothesis. PMID:24984454

  17. Pseudo-MHD ballooning modes in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1996-08-01

    The MHD description of a plasma is extended to allow electrons to have both fluid-like and adiabatic-regime responses within an instability eigenmode. In the resultant {open_quotes}pseudo-MHD{close_quotes} model, magnetic field line bending is reduced in the adiabatic electron regime. This makes possible a new class of ballooning-type, long parallel extent, MHD-like instabilities in tokamak plasmas for {alpha} > s{sup 2}(2 {sup 7/3}/9) (r{sub p}/R{sub 0}) or-d{radical}{Beta}/dr > (2{sup 1/6} /3)(s/ R{sub 0q}), which is well below the ideal-MHD stability boundary. The marginally stable pressure profile is similar in both magnitude and shape to that observed in ohmically heated tokamak plasmas.

  18. Cosmological constraints on pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    1991-01-01

    Particle physics models with pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (PNGBs) are characterized by two mass scales: a global spontaneous symmetry breaking scale, f, and a soft (explicit) symmetry breaking scale, Lambda. General model insensitive constraints were studied on this 2-D parameter space arising from the cosmological and astrophysical effects of PNGBs. In particular, constraints were studied arising from vacuum misalignment and thermal production of PNGBs, topological defects, and the cosmological effects of PNGB decay products, as well as astrophysical constraints from stellar PNGB emission. Bounds on the Peccei-Quinn axion scale, 10(exp 10) GeV approx. = or less than f sub pq approx. = or less than 10(exp 10) to 10(exp 12) GeV, emerge as a special case, where the soft breaking scale is fixed at Lambda sub QCD approx. = 100 MeV.

  19. Pseudo-DNA damage response in senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Pospelova, Tatyana V.; Demidenko, Zoya N.; Bukreeva, Elena I.; Pospelov, Valery A.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is currently viewed as a response to DNA damage. In this report, we showed that non-damaging agents such as sodium butyrate-induced p21 and ectopic expression of either p21 or p16 cause cellular senescence without detectable DNA breaks. Nevertheless, senescent cells displayed components of DNA damage response (DDR) such as γH2AX foci and uniform nuclear staining for p-ATM. Importantly, there was no accumulation of 53BP1 in γH2AX foci of senescent cells. Consistently, comet assay failed to detect DNA damage. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, which was shown to suppress cellular senescence, decreased γH2AX foci formation. Thus, cellular senescence leads to activation of atypical DDR without detectable DNA damage. Pseudo-DDR may be a marker of general over-activation of senescent cells. PMID:19946210

  20. Pseudo-random number generator for the Sigma 5 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is presented for developing a pseudo-random number generator based on the linear congruential form. The two numbers used for the generator are a prime number and a corresponding primitive root, where the prime is the largest prime number that can be accurately represented on a particular computer. The primitive root is selected by applying Marsaglia's lattice test. The technique presented was applied to write a random number program for the Sigma 5 computer. The new program, named S:RANDOM1, is judged to be superior to the older program named S:RANDOM. For applications requiring several independent random number generators, a table is included showing several acceptable primitive roots. The technique and programs described can be applied to any computer having word length different from that of the Sigma 5.

  1. Internal carotid pseudo-occlusion: early and late results.

    PubMed

    Pulli, R; Frosini, P; Gatti, M; Narcetti, S; Bernacchi, R; Pratesi, C

    1997-02-01

    Internal carotid pseudo-occlusion (ICP) is a pathology of difficult diagnostic evaluation and treatment in the group of extracranial carotid diseases. The authors report the results of 24 ICP(S) surgically treated in the last five years. No perioperative death was reported. The neurological morbility rate was as low as 4% (1/24), which is quite a good results for this high-risk pathology. Clinical and instrumental follow-up was performed (at 1-3-6-12-24 months from surgery). Six early asymptomatic thromboses (25%) were observed, and the remaining patients showed patent vessels and no symptoms at all. In conclusion surgical treatment of ICP is often able to prevent cerebral ischaemia, and the high rate of early occlusion should not limit surgical indication. PMID:9128116

  2. Polymeric Pseudo-Liquid Membranes from Poly(N-oleylacrylamide)

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    A polymeric pseudo-liquid membrane (PPLM) was constructed from poly(N-oleylacrylamide) (PC18AAm), which exhibited a rubbery state under membrane transport conditions and used as the membrane matrix. In the present study, dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) and dibenzo-21-crown-7 (DB21C7) were adopted as transporters for alkali metal ions. KCl was adopted as a model substrate for DB18C6 and CsCl the latter. Chiral transporter, O-allyl-N-(9-anthracenylmethyl)cinchonidinium bromide (AAMC) was used as a transporter for chiral separation of a racemic mixture of phenylglycine (Phegly). The l-somer was transported in preference to the antipode. The present study revealed that PPLMs are applicable to membrane transport, such as metal ion transport and chiral separation. PMID:24957173

  3. Rotavirus Genotypes in Belarus, 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Semeiko, Galina; Yermalovich, Marina; Poliakova, Nadezhda; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Kerin, Tara; Wasley, Annemarie; Videbaek, Dovile; Gentsch, Jon R.; Bowen, Michael D.; Samoilovich, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study describes group A rotavirus (RVA) genotype prevalence in Belarus from 2008–2012. In 2008, data from 3 sites in Belarus (Brest, Mogilev, Minsk) indicated that G4P[8] was the predominant genotype. Data from Minsk (2008–2012) showed that G4P[8] was the predominant RVA genotype in all years except in 2011 when G3P[8] was most frequently detected. Other RVA genotypes common in Europe (G1P[8], G2P[4]) were detected each year of the study. This study reveals the dominance of genotype G4P[8] in Belarus and helps to establish the baseline genotype prevalence prior to RVA vaccine introduction in the country. PMID:25218086

  4. Phytate degradation determines the effect of industrial processing and home cooking on iron absorption from cereal-based foods.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Richard F; Hurrell, Richard F; Reddy, Manju B; Burri, Joseph; Cook, James D

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare Fe absorption from industrially-manufactured and home-cooked cereal foods. Fe absorption was measured using the radiolabelled Fe extrinsic tag technique in thirty-nine adult human subjects from cereal porridges manufactured by extrusion cooking or roller-drying, and from the same cereal flours after home cooking to produce pancakes, chappattis or bread. One series of cereal porridges was amylase-treated in addition before roller-drying. Fe absorption was relatively low from all products, ranging from 1.8-5.5 % for rice, 2.5-3.5 % for maize, 4.9-13.6 % for low-extraction wheat, and <1 % for high-extraction wheat foods. The phytic acid content remained high after drying of the cereal porridges being about 1.20, 1.70, 3.20, 3.30 mg/g in low-extraction wheat, rice, high-extraction wheat and maize products respectively, and could explain the low Fe absorption. There were little or no differences in Fe absorption between the extruded and roller-dried cereals, although amylase pre-treatment increased Fe absorption from the roller-dried rice cereal 3-fold. This was not due to phytate degradation but possibly because of the more liquid nature of the cereal meal as fed. There were similarly few or no differences in Fe absorption between the industrially-processed cereals and home-cooked cereals made into pancakes or chappattis. Bread-making, however, degraded phytic acid to zero in the low-extraction wheat flour and Fe absorption increased to 13.6 %, the greatest from all cereal foods tested. It is concluded that Fe absorption from extruded, roller-dried or home-cooked cereal foods is similarly low and that only those cooking procedures such as bread-making, which extensively degrades phytic acid, or amylase pre-treatment, which substantially liquifies cereal porridges, improve Fe absorption. PMID:12144715

  5. Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling Influences on Pseudo-Breakup Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brittnacher, M.; Parks, G. K.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudo-breakups are brief, localized aurora[ arc brightening, which do not lead to a global expansion, are historically observed during the growth phase of substorms. Previous studies have demonstrated that phenomenologically there is very little difference between substorm onsets and pseudo-breakups except for the degree of localization and the absence of a global expansion phase. A key open question is what physical mechanism prevents a pseudo-breakup form expanding globally. Using Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) images, we identify periods of pseudo-breakup activity. Foe the data analyzed we find that most pseudo-breakups occur near local midnight, between magnetic local times of 21 and 03, at magnetic latitudes near 70 degrees, through this value may change by several degrees. While often discussed in the context of substorm growth phase events, pseudo-breakups are also shown to occur during prolonged relatively inactive periods. These quiet time pseudo-breakups can occur over a period of several hours without the development of a significant substorm for at least an hour after pseudo-breakup activity stops. In an attempt to understand the cause of quiet time pseudo-breakups, we compute the epsilon parameter as a measure of the efficiency of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. It is noted that quiet time pseudo-breakups occur typically when epsilon is low; less than about 50 GW. We suggest that quiet time pseudo-breakups are driven by relatively small amounts of energy transferred to the magnetosphere by the solar wind insufficient to initiate a substorm expansion onset.

  6. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Win, Nan Nwe; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-21

    Myanmar is adjacent to India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos and China. In Myanmar, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is 2%, and HCV infection accounts for 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we reviewed the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar. HCV genotypes 1, 3 and 6 were observed in volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Although there are several reports of HCV genotype 6 and its variants in Myanmar, the distribution of the HCV genotypes has not been well documented in areas other than Yangon. Previous studies showed that treatment with peginterferon and a weight-based dose of ribavirin for 24 or 48 wk could lead to an 80%-100% sustained virological response (SVR) rates in Myanmar. Current interferon-free treatments could lead to higher SVR rates (90%-95%) in patients infected with almost all HCV genotypes other than HCV genotype 3. In an era of heavy reliance on direct-acting antivirals against HCV, there is an increasing need to measure HCV genotypes, and this need will also increase specifically in Myanmar. Current available information of HCV genotypes were mostly from Yangon and other countries than Myanmar. The prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar should be determined. PMID:27468202

  7. Hepatitis B virus: the genotype E puzzle.

    PubMed

    Andernach, Iris E; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P

    2009-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. One of the two genotypes A and E dominates in most countries. With several subgenotypes and variants, genotype A is more diverse in Africa (4.00%) than in the rest of the world (2.96%), suggesting an African origin and a long history on the continent. Despite the African slave trade, genotype E has only sporadically been found within the Americas, indicating that this genotype was introduced only during the past 200 years into the general African population. A short history for this genotype in Africa is also supported by its conspicuously low genetic diversity (1.75%), which contrasts, however, with its excessively high HBsAg prevalence and its extensive spread throughout the vast West-African genotype E crescent. We discuss the spread and routes of transmission of genotype E and suggest that the distribution and current high prevalence levels of HBV (genotype E) in Africa are the result of the extensive use of unsafe needles, potentially solving the current African genotype E puzzle and shedding new light on the high HBV prevalence in Africa. PMID:19475565

  8. Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.

    PubMed

    Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2012-12-21

    Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. PMID:22819587

  9. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Win, Nan Nwe; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar is adjacent to India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos and China. In Myanmar, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is 2%, and HCV infection accounts for 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we reviewed the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar. HCV genotypes 1, 3 and 6 were observed in volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Although there are several reports of HCV genotype 6 and its variants in Myanmar, the distribution of the HCV genotypes has not been well documented in areas other than Yangon. Previous studies showed that treatment with peginterferon and a weight-based dose of ribavirin for 24 or 48 wk could lead to an 80%-100% sustained virological response (SVR) rates in Myanmar. Current interferon-free treatments could lead to higher SVR rates (90%-95%) in patients infected with almost all HCV genotypes other than HCV genotype 3. In an era of heavy reliance on direct-acting antivirals against HCV, there is an increasing need to measure HCV genotypes, and this need will also increase specifically in Myanmar. Current available information of HCV genotypes were mostly from Yangon and other countries than Myanmar. The prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar should be determined. PMID:27468202

  10. [Cereal bars with soy protein and wheat germ, physicochemical characteristics and texture during the storage].

    PubMed

    Castro Freitas, Daniela D G

    2005-09-01

    Studies analyzing cereal bars have reported on consumer characteristics and preferences in sensory analyses and on their market growth, however little has been published on their physicochemical data and texture properties. Thus the objective of this research was to provide information about the storage of a cereal bar formulation with high protein and vitamin levels based on soy protein and wheat germ, packaged in 3 different films (A: PET/PEBD; B: PETmet/PEBD; C: PET/PEBD/AL/PEBD), during 6 months under environmental conditions of temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) and relative humidity (56%). The moisture content, water activity, pH and total acidity of the cereal bars were determined. The textural measurements accompanied during storage were breaking strength, hardness and cohesiveness. The cereal bars presented variations in water activity (Aw), moisture content and total acidity during storage. The moisture content of the bars tended to increase, which led to a significant (p = 0.05) influence on the texture characteristics of breaking strength and hardness, in the different packaging films tested. The increase in the values for breaking strength (A: 4756,5N; B: 5093,0N; C: 5575,6N) at 45 days of storage was attributed to a possible crystallization of the agglutinating syrup used for the bars. The textured soy protein used in the formulation could also have contributed to this fact due to its hygroscopic character, also interfering in the decrease in the cohesiveness measurements (deformation) with time. The effect of the different barrier properties of the packaging films tested was significant (p < 0.05) in the stability of the cereal bars during storage. PMID:16454057

  11. Human exposure to mycotoxins and their masked forms through cereal-based foods in Belgium.

    PubMed

    De Boevre, Marthe; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Lachat, Carl; Eeckhout, Mia; Di Mavungu, José Diana; Audenaert, Kris; Maene, Peter; Haesaert, Geert; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Meulenaer, Bruno; De Saeger, Sarah

    2013-04-26

    In the present study, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of mycotoxins and their masked forms was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population using the contamination data of cereal-based foods. Cereal-based food products (n=174) were analysed for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, T-2-toxin, HT-2-toxin, and their respective masked forms, including, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone-4-glucoside, α-zearalenol-4-glucoside, β-zearalenol-4-glucoside and zearalenone-4-sulfate. Fibre-enriched bread, bran-enriched bread, breakfast cereals, popcorn and oatmeal were collected in Belgian supermarkets according to a structured sampling plan and analysed during the period from April 2010 to October 2011. The habitual intake of these food groups was estimated from a national representative food intake survey. According to a probabilistic exposure analysis, the mean (and P95) mycotoxin intake for the sum of the deoxynivalenol-equivalents, zearalenone-equivalents, and the sum of HT-2-and T-2-toxin for all cereal-based foods was 0.1162 (0.4047, P95), 0.0447 (0.1568, P95) and 0.0258 (0.0924, P95) μg kg(-1)body weight day(-1), respectively. These values were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxin (1.0, 0.25 and 0.1 μg kg(-1)body weight day(-1), respectively). The absolute level exceeding the TDI for all cereal-based foods was calculated, and recorded 0.85%, 2.75% and 4.11% of the Belgian population, respectively. PMID:23454655

  12. Dating the introduction of cereal cultivation to the British Isles: early palaeoecological evidence from the Isle of Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Davey, Peter J.

    2003-10-01

    The adoption of cereal cultivation is a key benchmark in the transition from Mesolithic hunter-gatherer foraging to Neolithic farming economies, but the nature, timing and ecological-cultural context of the earliest cereal use in the British Isles and northwest Europe is still uncertain. We present AMS radiocarbon dating and fine-resolution pollen evidence from the Isle of Man for cereal growing in the latter stages of a distinct episode of forest disturbance at almost 6000 yr BP (uncalibrated). The coherent ecological structure of this phase at the fine resolution level suggests that it records cereal cultivation well before the Ulmus decline, rather than wild grass pollen grains. This example is one of a cluster of early dates for cereal-type pollen near the start of the sixth millenium BP, including several around the Irish Sea, which indicate that the introduction of cereal agriculture probably occurred as early in the central British Isles as in the northern European plain. This early cereal phase is followed later by a probable phase of pre-Ulmus decline pastoral activity. We also report Mesolithic age woodland disturbance around 7000 yr BP (uncalibrated) and the first radiocarbon dates for mid-Holocene forest history of the Isle of Man. Copyright

  13. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Results: Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. Conclusion: The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required. PMID:26649001

  14. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, F S; Lyman, G J

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is on-going that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical techniques, the sampling methodologies applied to the shipments must also keep pace to ensure that the uncertainties attached to the sampling procedures do not overwhelm the analytical uncertainties. There is a need to understand and quantify sampling uncertainties under varying conditions of contamination. The analysis required is statistical and is challenging as the nature of the distribution of contaminants within a shipment is not well understood; very limited data exist. Limited work has been undertaken to quantify the variability of the contaminant concentrations in the flow of grain coming from a ship and the impact that this has on the variance of sampling. Relatively recent work by Paoletti et al. in 2006 [Paoletti C, Heissenberger A, Mazzara M, Larcher S, Grazioli E, Corbisier P, Hess N, Berben G, Lübeck PS, De Loose M, et al. 2006. Kernel lot distribution assessment (KeLDA): a study on the distribution of GMO in large soybean shipments. Eur Food Res Tech. 224:129-139] provides some insight into the variation in GMO concentrations in soybeans on cargo out-turn. Paoletti et al. analysed the data using correlogram analysis with the objective of quantifying the sampling uncertainty (variance) that attaches to the final cargo analysis, but this is only one possible means of quantifying sampling uncertainty. It is possible that in many cases the levels of contamination passing the sampler on out-loading are essentially random, negating the value of variographic quantitation of

  15. Spatial Frequency Or Grey Level Pseudo-Color Coding Using Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courjon, D.; Bulabois, J.; Mered, C.

    1986-07-01

    Pseudo-color techniques involve the introduction of colors in a monochromatic image to increase the ability of the human viewer to analyze and memorize the information. Several quantities can be coded in pseudo-color, for example temperature gradient, index variations of transparent materials, spatial frequencies of periodic objects or densities.

  16. Formative Feedback Using Pseudo Peer Diagrams: Evaluating System Equilibrium of Buoyancy Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Sensen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces an innovative instructional method, called "pseudo peer diagram" (PPD), where students employ executive skills to compare and contrast their work with others' as a formative feedback mechanism. The focus of this study is how students compare and contrast their own diagrams with the pseudo peer diagrams as a stimulus…

  17. Korn's inequality and Donati's theorem for the conformal Killing operator on pseudo-Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2008-09-01

    We prove the Korn's inequality for the conformal Killing operator on pseudo-Euclidean space , and an existence theorem for solutions to the non-homogeneous conformal Killing equation, which is a pseudo-Euclidean conformal generalization of Donati's theorem for Euclidean Killing operator.

  18. Essaying a Pseudo-Panel Approach: Studies on Education, Women, and Income Inequality in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warunsiri, Sasiwimon

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of three studies on Thai labor markets using a pseudo-panel data set: The first chapter estimates the rate of return to education in Thailand, while treating the endogeneity bias common to estimates from data on individuals. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from repeated cross sections of Labor Force Surveys…

  19. Minimality on biharmonic space-like submanifolds in pseudo-Riemannian space forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiancheng; Du, Li; Zhang, Juan

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the minimality or the constraint of the mean curvature of three kinds of biharmonic space-like submanifolds in pseudo-Riemannian space forms: (1) pseudo-umbilical ones; (2) the ones with parallel mean curvature vector; (3) with constant mean curvature.

  20. Returns to Education in Sri Lanka: A Pseudo-Panel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himaz, Rozana; Aturupane, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    This study employs a pseudo-panel approach to estimate the returns to education among income earners in Sri Lanka. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from nine repeated cross sections of Sri Lanka's Labor Force Survey data from 1997 to 2008, for workers born during 1953-1974. The results show that for males, one extra year of education increases…