Science.gov

Sample records for pseudoplatystoma fasciatum linnaeus

  1. Ovarian differentiation and development in cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum.

    PubMed

    Valentin, F N; Batlouni, S R; Nascimento, N F; Silva, R C; Manzini, B; Hilbig, C C; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O

    2016-07-01

    One thousand five hundred cachara or tiger shovelnose catfish Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, obtained from induced reproduction, were used to determine the onset of ovarian differentiation and development and to record the main characteristics of this process. Samples were collected from 0 to 240 days post-fertilization (dpf) and the results classified into stages I-XII. Ovarian formation was histologically detected for the first time when juveniles measured mean ± s.d. 51·5 ± 8·3 mm total length (LT ) at 39-45 dpf (stages I-V), with intense somatic cell proliferation originating in the ovarian cavity. Both LT and age of fish had a positive correlation (P < 0·001) with ovarian differentiation, but LT showed a greater correlation (r(2)  = 0·95) than age (r(2)  = 0·85), especially during the initial stages of development. From stages VI to VII, the ovarian cavity was enlarged and undifferentiated oogonia were present. At stage VIII, small projections formed in the ovarian stroma towards the ventral region of the gonad (future ovarian lamellae) and the basal membrane and differentiated oogonia nests could be seen. At stages IX and X, the germ cells entered meiosis and folliculogenesis was completed by stages XI and XII, which can be considered late in comparison to other Siluriformes. This study has demonstrated that ovarian differentiation in P. fasciatum begins with an intense proliferation of squamous epithelial cells (somatic cells) during the early stages of development and that sex inversion protocols could, thus, be applied successfully before this period. Furthermore, the results have demonstrated that both size and age can influence gonad differentiation and development in this species. PMID:27401482

  2. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

  3. Genetic divergence between Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Paraná River Basin.

    PubMed

    Bignotto, T S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Maniglia, T C; Boni, T A; Lucio, L C; Gomes, V N; Prioli, R A; Oliveira, A V; Júlio, H F; Prioli, L M

    2009-06-01

    Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz, 1829) and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eingenmann and Eigenmann, 1889) are large migratory catfishes of high biological importance and great commercial value in South America. Because fertile crossbreeds can be artificially produced in hatcheries, a high genetic proximity between these two Pimelodidae species is conceivable. Possible escape of crossbred specimens from pisciculture stations is a serious environmental concern. Despite their importance, knowledge of P. corruscans and P. reticulatum biology, ecology, population diversity and genetics is limited. In the present work, the genetic divergence between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum populations from the Paraná River Basin was analyzed on the basis of polymorphisms in ISSR fragments and in the hypervariable sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Estimates of intraspecific haplotype (h > 0.5) and nucleotide diversities (pi < 0.01) indicate that P. corruscans and P. reticulatum have survived a historical population decline, followed by a demographic expansion. The interspecific polymorphisms within the mtDNA control region and ISSR fragments were suitable as diagnostic molecular markers and could be used to discriminate the two species. A unique Pseudoplatystoma specimen, captured in the Upper Paraná River Floodplain, was identified by these DNA diagnostic markers as a hybrid P. reticulatum x P. corruscans, which possibly escaped from pisciculture. The integrity of the natural population of P. corruscans in the Upper Paraná River is at risk of genetic introgression or homogenization due to the presence of hybrids and the transposition of P. reticulatum upstream through the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam. Data presented herein improve the understanding of the genetic relatedness between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum and represent potential tools for future programs of conservation and surveillance of genetic introgression events and the

  4. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  5. Cytogenetic characterization of F1, F2 and backcross hybrids of the Neotropical catfish species Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Fernanda Dotti; Nunes, Tatiana Leite; Senhorini, José Augusto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    The cytogenetic characteristics of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum and their F1, F2 and backcross hybrids were assessed by using chromosome banding techniques. The diploid number of 56 chromosomes was constant in all species and lineages, with a karyotypic formula containing 20 metacentric, 12 submetacentric, 12 subtelocentric and 12 acrocentric chromosomes. Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in two subtelocentric chromosomes in the parents and hybrids, with partial nucleolar dominance in F1 and F2 specimens. Heterochromatic blocks were detected in the terminal and centromeric regions of some chromosomes in all individuals. For parental and hybrid lineages, 18S ribosomal clusters corresponding to NORs and 5S ribosomal genes were identified in distinct pairs of chromosomes. The striking conservation in the chromosomal macrostructure of the parental species may account for the fertility of their F1 hybrids. Similarly, the lack of marked alterations in the chromosomal structure of the F1 hybrids could account for the maintenance of these features in post-F1 lineages. PMID:22481875

  6. Spatial population structure of the Neotropical tiger catfish Pseudoplatystoma metaense: skull and otolith shape variation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A; Fabré, N N

    2013-05-01

    Using geometric morphometrics, the skull and otolith of tiger catfish Pseudoplatystoma metaense were analysed to identify population structure in tributaries of the Apure River (i.e. the Sarare, Caparo, Guanare, Portuguesa and San Carlos Rivers) in the Orinoco basin, Venezuela. The analyses show uniformity in skull and otolith shapes of P. metaense within and among four tributaries, with only the Caparo River showing significant differences. Within the Apure basin, the stock of P. metaense was differentiated through spawning, refuge and nursery areas. This study concludes that populations of P. metaense from each major tributary in the Orinoco basin should be considered as part of a metapopulation system for management purposes. Human disturbances in the catchment have directly reduced the spawning areas available to this species, decreased the total biomass and changed the spatial distribution of spawning areas. PMID:23639147

  7. Molecular phylogeny and ultrastructure of Myxobolus cf. cuneus, a parasite of patinga hybrid and Henneguya pseudoplatystoma, a parasite of pintado hybrid.

    PubMed

    Milanin, Tiago; Maia, Antônio Augusto Mendes; Silva, Márcia Ramos Monteiro; Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson Aparecido

    2015-09-01

    Through morphological, histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of Myxobolus cuneus Adriano, Arana et Cordeiro, 2006 and Henneguya pseudoplatystoma Naldoni, Arana, Maia, Ceccarelli, Tavares, Borges, Pozo et Adriano, 2009 were identified infecting pacu respectively (Piaractus mesopotamicus) and hybrid pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans x Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) taken from Brazilian fish farms. The present study describes 18S rDNA sequencing of Myxobolus cf. cuneus infecting the spleen of farmed patinga, a hybrid fish resulting from the crossing of P. mesopotamicus x Piaractus brachypomus, and H. pseudoplatystoma found in farmed hybrid pintado from the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study also provides new details of the host-parasite interface of M. cf. cuneus, which reveal that the plasmodial wall is composed of a single membrane connected to the plasmodium ectoplasm by numerous pinocytic canals. The plasmodia also displayed asynchronous development but had disporic pansporoblasts at different developmental stages; immature and mature spores were found at different depth levels of the plasmodium. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis showed that M. cf. cuneus appeared as a sister species of Henneguya pellucida Adriano, Arana et Cordeiro, 2005 in a sub-clade composed mainly of myxosporean parasites of characiforms, and that H. pseudoplatystoma clustered in a sub-clade composed of Henneguya/Myxobolus spp. parasites of siluriform fish. PMID:26204181

  8. Geographical genetics of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2014-01-01

    Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system. PMID:24854445

  9. Development and nutritional and sensory evaluation of cachapinta (Pseudoplatystoma sp) pâté

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Cátia Maria de Oliveira; Torrezan, Renata; de Furtado, Ângela Aparecida Lemos; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Freitas, Daniela De Grandi Castro; de Freitas, Sidinéa Cordeiro; Penteado, Ana Lúcia; de Oliveira, Cássia Soares; Junior, Carlos Adam Conte; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a technique for the preparation of pâté from cachapinta (Pseudoplatystoma sp) waste. For this, frozen minced cachapinta fish was crushed in a mini cutter and homogenized with all other ingredients. The prepared pâté was stored in seamed and thermally treated cans (volume 170 g). Weight proportions of mean moisture, ash, protein, and lipid contents of the minced fish were 75.49, 1.00, 15.00, and 7.92 (g/100 g), respectively. The formulation of the developed pâté is in accordance with legislation for fish products. Cachapinta pâté is a product with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, low level of trans fat, and good indices of nutritional quality. Tests of sensory acceptance, purchase intent, and sensory attributes (except spreadability) averaged a score above 6.0, indicating acceptability of the product. Our study suggests that the potential of minced cachapinta for pâté production is high, and that it can contribute a value-added product to seafood consumption. PMID:25649424

  10. Metazoan endoparasites diversity of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) as an indicator of environmental alterations on a tropical aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thamy S; Lizama, Maria A P; Takemoto, Ricardo M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the alterations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans parasite infracommunity structure, after the construction of the Porto Primavera dam on the high Paraná River floodplain. The execution of this research was based on 119 host specimens collected between March 2011 and September 2012, and the results were compared to studies performed on periods before the reservoir's construction, when 110 fishes were collected between March 1992 and February 1993. Five parasite species still remain on the environment, despite the environmental modifications: Choanoscolex abscissus, Spasskyelina spinulifera, Nomimoscolex pertierrae, Harriscolex kaparari and Contracaecum sp 2. The Berger-Parker dominance index, calculated to the parasite fauna of 1992, did not show the dominance of any species, while, on the present days, this same index accused the dominance of Nomimoscolex pertierrae (49%) and Choanoscolex abscissus (50%). The present study reports the disappearance of Megathylacus travassosi, Contracaecum sp. 1, Contracaecum sp. 3, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Cucullanus pseudoplatystomae, suggesting the possibility of a local extinction or a host switch of these species. It has also been registered an Acanthocephala specimen, a genus not observed on this host yet. The results here presented show that the antropic influences on natural systems alter the environmental conditions, what is reflected on the richness and diversity parasite levels. PMID:25119352

  11. Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J

    2014-11-01

    The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this

  12. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

    PubMed

    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica. PMID:27412708

  13. Morphological deformities in the osseous structure in spotted sorubim Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz & Spix, 1829) with vitamin C deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Santos, Rudã F B; Carneiro, Dalton J

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin C is essential for fish diets because many species cannot syntethize it. This vitamin is needed for bone and cartilage formation. Moreover, it acts as antioxidant and improve the immunological system. The present work investigated the effects of vitamin C diet supplementation to spotted sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans) fingerlings by frequency of bone and cartilage deformation. Ascorbyl poliphosphate (AP) was used as source of vitamin C in the diets for spotted sorubim fingerlings during three months. Six diets were formulated: one diet control (0 mg/kg of vitamin C) and 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 mg AP/kg diets. Fishes fed without vitamin C supplementation presented bone deformation in head and jaws, and fin fragilities. Thus, 500 mg AP/kg diet was enough to prevent deformation and the lack of vitamin C supplementation worsening the development of fingerlings. PMID:23460425

  14. Parasitological assessment in the hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans), with uncommon occurrence of Monogenea parasites.

    PubMed

    Jerônimo, Gabriela Tomas; Pádua, Santiago Benites de; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Gonçalves, Eduardo Luis Tavares; Ishikawa, Márcia Mayumi; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2016-06-14

    This study evaluated the parasite fauna of farmed hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans) and the host-parasite-environment relationship in two fish farms located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil, South America. A total of 120 hybrids from two different farms, 60 in each season (30 in the hot and 30 in cold season) were examined during a year. Water quality was weekly measured to evaluate the interaction among environmental conditions and parasitism. Histopathology was used to observe the effects of the parasites and environment on the fish gills. The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the monogeneans (Ameloblastella sp., Amphocleithrium paraguayensis, Vancleaveus ciccinus, V. fungulus and V. janacauensis) were the most prevalent parasites detected in both seasons in both farms, with prevalence above 80%. It was stated that parasites did not cause important damage in the health status of the hybrid surubim. These results might be related to general good management practices and environmental quality implemented by the fish farmers. The presence of uncommon monogenean parasites to this hybrid compared to their parents causing an environmental and ecological concern is here discussed. PMID:27334818

  15. Parasitological assessment in the hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans), with uncommon occurrence of Monogenea parasites.

    PubMed

    Jerônimo, Gabriela Tomas; Pádua, Santiago Benites de; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Gonçalves, Eduardo Luis Tavares; Ishikawa, Márcia Mayumi; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2016-06-14

    This study evaluated the parasite fauna of farmed hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans) and the host-parasite-environment relationship in two fish farms located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil, South America. A total of 120 hybrids from two different farms, 60 in each season (30 in the hot and 30 in cold season) were examined during a year. Water quality was weekly measured to evaluate the interaction among environmental conditions and parasitism. Histopathology was used to observe the effects of the parasites and environment on the fish gills. The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the monogeneans (Ameloblastella sp., Amphocleithrium paraguayensis, Vancleaveus ciccinus, V. fungulus and V. janacauensis) were the most prevalent parasites detected in both seasons in both farms, with prevalence above 80%. It was stated that parasites did not cause important damage in the health status of the hybrid surubim. These results might be related to general good management practices and environmental quality implemented by the fish farmers. The presence of uncommon monogenean parasites to this hybrid compared to their parents causing an environmental and ecological concern is here discussed. PMID:27304519

  16. In the field: exploring nature with Carolus Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hodacs, Hanna

    2010-06-01

    Teaching his students the art of observing nature outdoors was central to the Swedish naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus (1707-1778). These exercises came to influence both their progress and his work. The open-air classroom was a stage where Linnaeus could demonstrate his skills and mobilize support. It was also a testing, training and recruitment ground: the students' field observations helped Linnaeus to develop his new scientific nomenclature, and it was in the field that students could train their observational skills and progress from novices to naturalists. PMID:20061029

  17. Henneguya cuniculator sp. nov., a parasite of spotted sorubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in the São Francisco Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Naldoni, Juliana; Maia, Antônio A M; da Silva, Marcia R M; Adriano, Edson A

    2014-01-16

    Henneguya cuniculator sp. nov. was found infecting spotted sorubim catfish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from the São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The parasites form elongated plasmodia of up to 1 cm in length in the gill filaments. Mature spores were ellipsoidal from the frontal view, with total length of 29.4 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD, range 23.3-32.4) µm, body length of 12.1 ± 1.0 (10.0-14.7) µm, width of 4.8 ± 0.4 (4.0-5.9) µm, and tail length of 16.7 ± 2.0 (12.3-19.4) µm. From the lateral view, spores were biconvex, with thickness of 4.2 ± 0.7 (3.9-4.9) µm. The polar capsules were elongated and equal in size, 6.2 ± 0.3 (5.2-6.2) µm in length, and 1.8 ± 0.1 (1.4-1.9) µm in width. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the plasmodial wall had delicate projections towards the host tissue and a thin layer that prevented contact between the host cells and the parasite. In the ectoplasm, few mitochondria were observed, while generative cells, early stages of sporogenesis, and advanced spore development occurred in the plasmodial periphery, and more mature spores in internal regions. Histopathological analysis showed that plasmodia developed in the sub-epithelial connective tissue of gill filaments, causing compression of the adjacent tissues, deformation of gill filaments, and lamellar fusion. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 18S rDNA genes and using only Henneguya/Myxobolus species parasites of siluriform fish, showed grouping according to the fish family. PMID:24429472

  18. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  19. LINNAEUS: BOOSTING NEAR EARTH ASTEROID CHARACTERIZATION RATES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Beeson, C.; Galache, J.; DeMeo, F.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Konidaris, N.; Najita, J.; Allen, L.; Christensen, E.; Spahr, T.

    2013-10-01

    Near Earth objects (NEOs) are being discovered at a rate of about 1000 per year, and this rate is set to double by 2015. However, the physical characterization of NEOs is only ~100 per year for each type of follow-up observation. We have proposed the LINNAEUS program to NASA to raise the characterization rate of NEOs to the rate of their discovery. This rate matching is necessary as any given NEO is only available for a relatively short time (days to weeks), and they are usually fainter on subsequent apparitions. Hence follow-up observations must be initiated rapidly, without time to cherry-pick the optimum objects. LINNAEUS concentrates on NEO composition. Optical spectra, preferably extending into the near-infrared, provide compositions that can distinguish major compositional classes of NEOs with reasonable confidence (Bus and Binzel 2002, DeMeo et al. 2009). Armed with a taxonomic type the albedo, pV, of an NEO is better constrained, leading to more accurate sizes and masses. Time-resolved spectroscopy can give indications of period, axial ratio and surface homogeneity. A reasonable program of spectroscopy could keep pace with the NEO discovery rate. A ground-based telescope can observe faint NEOs about 210 nights a year, due to time lost due to weather, bright time, and equipment downtime (e.g. Gemini), for a total of ~2000 hours/year. At 1 hour per NEO spectrum, a well-run, dedicated, telescope could obtain almost 2000 spectra per year, about the rate required. If near-IR spectra are required then a 4 m or larger telescope is necessary to reach 20. However, if the Bus-Binzel taxomonmy suffices then only optical spectra are needed and a 2 meter class telescope is sufficient. LINNAEUS would use 50% of the KPNO 2.1 m telescope with an IFU spectrometer, the SED-machine (Ben-Ami et al. 2013), to obtain time-resolved optical spectra of 1200-2000 NEOs/year, or 4200-7000 in 3.5 years observing in an NEOO program. Robust pipeline analysis will release taxonomic types

  20. Ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Pleistophora hyphessobryconis (Microsporidia) infecting hybrid jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus × Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) in a Brazilian aquaculture facility.

    PubMed

    Winters, Andrew D; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Souza, Marcos D E A; Colodel, Edson M; Soares, Mauro P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A microsporidian infecting the skeletal muscle of hybrid jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus × Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) in a commercial aquaculture facility in Brazil is described. Affected fish exhibited massive infections in the skeletal muscle that were characterized by large opaque foci throughout the affected fillets. Histologically, skeletal muscle was replaced by inflammatory cells and masses of microsporidial developmental stages. Generally pyriform spores had a wrinkled bi-layer spore wall and measured 4·0 × 6·0 µm. Multinucleate meronts surrounded by a simple plasma membrane were observed. The polar filament had an external membrane and a central electron dense mass. The development of sporoblasts within a sporophorous vesicle appeared synchronized. Ultrastructural observations and molecular analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the microsporidian was Pleistophora hyphessobryconis. This study is the first report of a P. hyphessobryconis infection in a non-ornamental fish. PMID:26522338

  1. Linnaeus' herbarium cabinet: a piece of furniture and its function.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2006-06-01

    The Swedish 18th-century naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus is habitually credited with laying the foundations of modern taxonomy through the invention of binominal nomenclature. However, another innovation of Linnaeus' has largely gone unnoticed. He seems to have been one of the first botanists to leave his herbarium unbound, keeping the sheets of dried plants separate and stacking them in a purpose built-cabinet. Understanding the significance of this seemingly mundane and simple invention opens a window onto the profound changes that natural history underwent in the 18th century. PMID:16600379

  2. Systems and How Linnaeus Looked at Them in Retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A famous debate between John Ray, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and Augustus Quirinus Rivinus at the end of the seventeenth century has often been referred to as signalling the beginning of a rift between classificatory methods relying on logical division and classificatory methods relying on empirical grouping. Interestingly, a couple of decades later, Linnaeus showed very little excitement in reviewing this debate, and this although he was the first to introduce the terminological distinction of artificial vs. natural methods. In this paper, I will explain Linnaeus's indifference by the fact that earlier debates were revolving around problems of plant diagnosis rather than classification. From Linnaeus's perspective, they were therefore concerned with what he called artificial methods alone – diagnostic tools, that is, which were artificial no matter which characters were taken into account. The natural method Linnaeus proposed, on the other hand, was not about diagnosis, but about relations of equivalence which played a vital, although largely implicit role in the practices of specimen exchange on which naturalists relied to acquire knowledge of the natural world.

  3. LINNAEUS: Boosting near-Earth asteroid characterization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Allen, L.; Christensen, E.; DeMeo, F.; Evans, I.; DePonte Evans, J.; Galache, J.; Konidaris, N.; Najita, J.; Spahr, T.

    2014-07-01

    Without knowing the size and composition of Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) it is hard to assess their threat or their promise as either Earth-impactors or targets for exploration, retrieval or resources. The factor of about 10 uncertainty in albedo that exists with only an optical H magnitude in hand leads to a factor 30 uncertainty in volume and more in mass. A simple classification into carbonaceous, stony or metallic limits the albedo range to a factor about 2, the volume to a factor of about 2.5 and mass to about 5 (Mainzer et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). NEAs are being discovered at a rate of about 1000/year, and this rate will soon increase by a factor of several with upgrades to the Catalina Sky Survey and the greater use of Pan-STARRS-1 for NEA work from 2014 onwards. However, NEA characterization is falling well behind discovery, forming a bottleneck for programs. The largest program of 0.8-2.5 micron near-IR spectroscopy, the MIT-IRTF program, obtains about 100 NEA spectra/year, for an accumulated total of about 1000 spectra (mostly at H < 15, R.P. Binzel, priv.comm.). At current rates it will take 100 years to obtain compositions, sizes, and shapes of the roughly 20,000 H<22 NEAs. Moreover, NEAs fade quickly after discovery and are mostly much fainter on a subsequent apparition, so that rapid follow-up at discovery is essential (Beeson et al. 2014, see also Galache et al., this meeting). LINNAEUS is the program we have proposed in response to this need. Optical spectroscopy is sufficient to accomplish C/S/X classification and is much more sensitive than near-infrared spectroscopy. LINNAEUS combines 50% of the observing time on the Kitt Peak 2.1 meter telescope with an optimized low-resolution 0.4-0.9 micron optical spectrograph, the SED Machine (Ben-Mazi et al. 2013), to obtain 1200-2000 NEO spectra per year for a total of 4200 - 7000 spectra in 3.5 years of observing. LINNAEUS would provide an order of magnitude increase over current rates, keeping

  4. Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in ‘data-driven research.’ Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of ‘information overload.’ Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called ‘natural’ system. PMID:22326068

  5. Linnaeus' study of Swedish swidden cultivation: Pioneering ethnographic work on the 'economy of nature'.

    PubMed

    Dove, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Carl Linnaeus' work on the 'economy of nature' was a major early development in what became the modern field of ecology. This analysis suggests that a key subject of this work that has been ignored or misunderstood for 250 years is the rural livelihoods, especially swidden (or slash-and-burn) agriculture, which Linnaeus studied during his expeditions through rural Sweden. Rereading his reports in the light of modern work on swiddens, political ecology, and the history of science affords a new appreciation of Linnaeus' insights into traditional systems of resource exploitation. The logic of nutrient cycling in swidden agriculture and its utilization of natural dynamics to serve human ends exemplify the principles of the 'economy of nature', and gave Linnaeus a philosophical basis for understanding and defending this system of agriculture as well as other rural resource use systems in Sweden. This analysis sheds new light on Linnaeus' ethnographic work, his view of folk environmental knowledge, and his often derided identification with Sweden's ethnic peoples. PMID:25155194

  6. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  7. Cryopreservation of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Asa; Arge, Regin

    2015-01-01

    This study has established a successful protocol to cryopreserve lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt. Three cryosolutions were tested based on Mounib’s medium; the original medium including reduced l-glutathione (GSH), the basic sucrose and potassium bicarbonate medium without GSH, or with hen’s egg yolk (EY). Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was used as the cryoprotectant along with all three diluents in a 1–2 dilution. Cryopreservation was performed with the mentioned cryosolutions at two freezing rates. Motility percentages of spermatozoa were evaluated using ImageJ with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) plug-in. Findings revealed that spermatozoa cryopreserved in Mounib’s medium without GSH had a post-thaw motility score of 6.4 percentage points (pp) higher than those in the original Mounib’s medium, and an addition of EY to the modified Mounib’s medium lowered the post-thaw motility score by 19.3 pp. The difference in motility between both freezing rates was 13.0 pp, and samples cryopreserved on a 4.8 cm high tray resulted in a better post-thaw motility score. On average, cryopreserved milt had a 24.1 pp lower post-thaw motility score than fresh milt. There was no significant difference in fertilisation success between cryopreserved and fresh milt. Cryopreservation of lumpfish milt has, to our knowledge, never been successfully carried out before. The established protocol will be a main contributing factor in a stable production of lumpfish juveniles in future. PMID:26056612

  8. Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

    2012-09-01

    Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

  9. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion. PMID:27391666

  10. Grammoplites vittatus (Valenciennes), (Scorpaeniformes, Platycephalidae), removed from synonymy with Grammoplites scaber (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Leslie W; Imamura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Grammoplites vittatus (Valenciennes), often previously overlooked by authors or regarded as a junior synonym of G. scaber (Linnaeus), is shown here to be a valid species.  It has more gill rakers (7-8) then G. scaber and G. knappi (usually 6) and a narrower interorbital width than G. scaber.  A key to the species of Grammoplites Fowler is  given.  PMID:25112262

  11. Carolus Linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants.

    PubMed

    Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Thorsell, Walborg; Wahlgren, Mats

    2010-12-01

    In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (Artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. We here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of P. falciparum. The data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in Europe some 300 years ago. PMID:20936911

  12. Fried spicy Linnaeus-the consequences of indiscriminate citation of authors of scientific names.

    PubMed

    Kottelat, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Field work provides biologists with opportunities not only to observe and collect the organisms needed for their research, but also to collect information on the use of natural resources. Among ichthyologists, the most common method for the latter is probably culinary exploration. As a fish taxonomist, one of the most surprising offers I have ever had was to eat "Linnaeus". At first glance this sounded like the parricidal and canibalistic resolution of a taxonomic oedipus complex. PMID:25947428

  13. Regional and temporal changes in epizoobiontic bryozoan-communities of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) and implications for North Sea ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitschofsky, F.; Forster, S.; Scholz, J.

    2011-02-01

    Until recently, bryozoans have not been used as indicators for changes in bottom communities or climate control in the North Sea Basin, despite a 200-year history of bryozoan collecting. The epizoobiontic bryozoan fauna of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) was analysed on 51 sample stations kept in four German museums. The samples cover the entire North Sea and different time periods (1776-2008, mainly the period of 1904/1905 compared to 1980-87). Cluster analysis shows a differentiation into a northern and a southern North Sea assemblage. The northern assemblage is characterized by Amphiblestrum flemingii (Busk, 1854), Callopora dumerilii (Audouin, 1826) and Tricellaria ternata (Ellis & Solander, 1786), while the southern North Sea is characterized by Electra pilosa (Linnaeus, 1767), Crisia eburnea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Plagioecia patina (Lamarck, 1816). Spatial separation approximately follows the 50 m depth contour. The temporal distribution patterns of bryozoans are discussed in terms of NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and temperature variations.

  14. Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmanan, P.T. ); Nambisan, P.N.K. )

    1989-07-01

    Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

  15. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  16. The first detection of species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893 in moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus), in Norway.

    PubMed

    Puraite, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas

    2016-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease and various wildlife species are reservoir hosts for zoonotic species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of Babesia spp. in moose Alces alces (Linnaeus) in two regions of Norway. A total of 99 spleen samples were collected from animals of various ages from an area with the occurrence of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), and from an area where the ticks are known to be absent. Infection was detected by the amplification of different regions of the 18S rRNA gene by using two different PCR primer sets specific of Babesia. Babesia spp. were found in the spleen samples of four moose. All Babesia-infected animals were from an area where ticks occur, with an infection rate of 6% (4 of 70). Babesia-positive samples were obtained from a five-month old moose calf and three adults. Two Babesia species, Babesia capreoli (Enigk et Friedhoff, 1962) and a B. odocoilei-like, were identified. Co-infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was obtained in two animals. This is the first report of the occurrence of B. capreoli and B. odocoilei-like species in moose. PMID:27188749

  17. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  18. Helmintofauna of turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the southern Baltic Sea including new data.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, M; Rolbiecki, L

    2015-01-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a fish belonging to the Pleuronectiformes order. It is commonly observed in waters of the northern Atlantic, and also in the Baltic Sea. As an economically significant species, it is fished on an industrial scale, and also farmed in some European countries. Seventy-two turbots from the Gulf of Gdańsk (26th ICES zone) were examined for parasite presence in the years 2010-2012. The study revealed the presence of the tapeworm Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) and acanthocephalan Corynosoma semerme (Forssell, 1904). The overall (both parasites) prevalence of turbot infection was 100% with a mean intensity of 18.7. C. semerme is a parasite which has not been noted so far in turbot from the southern Baltic. The presence of C. semerme in turbot was emphasized in the context of possible infection of terrestrial mammals, including humans. PMID:26618593

  19. Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Knytl, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics the crucian carp (Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)) were revealed by means of conventional banding protocols (C, CMA3, AgNOR). The diploid chromosome number (2n) in this species was 100. Its karyotype was composed of 10 pairs of metacentric, 18 pairs of submetacentric and 22 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentric chromosomes without any microchromosomes. C-banding identified blocks of telomeric heterochromatin on seven chromosome pairs. The NORs were situated on the p arms of the 14th pair of submetacentric chromosomes and on the p arms of the 32nd pair of subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes; AgNOR-positive signals corresponded to the CMA3-positive signals. These chromosome characteristics may suggest a paleo-allotetraploid origin of Carassius carassius genome. PMID:24260701

  20. Accumulation and depuration of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by laboratory cultured purple clam Hiatula diphos Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hong Nong; Huang, Chen Ping; Chen, Chih Yu

    2005-10-01

    Purple clams (Hiatula diphos Linnaeus) accumulate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins produced by a toxic strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim in a laboratory study. The maximal toxicity of PSP toxins attained 31.3m MU/g after 20 days exposure. The toxin profile of H. diphos was similar to that reported for A. minutum at the end of the exposure period; and GTX1 was dominant. GTX congeners were found in muscle on day 16 and day 20, these substances could be detected during the depuration period as well. GTX1 was detected in the siphon only on day 32. The results show that H. diphos accumulates PSP toxins according to the amount and toxin profile of ingested A. minutum. PMID:16137734

  1. Orchid biology: from Linnaeus via Darwin to the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Michael F.; Chase, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Orchidaceae are the largest family of flowering plants, with at least 24 000 species, and perhaps better than any other family of flowering plants, orchids represent the extreme specializations that are possible. As a result, they have long fascinated luminaries of the botanical world including Linnaeus and Darwin, but the size of the family has historically been an impediment to their study. Specifically, the lack of detailed information about relationships within the family made it difficult to formulate explicit evolutionary hypotheses for such a large group, but the advent of molecular systematics has revolutionized our understanding of the orchids. Their complex life histories make orchids particularly vulnerable to environmental change, and as result many are now threatened with extinction. In this Special Issue we present a series of 20 papers on orchid biology ranging from phylogenetics, floral evolutionary development, taxonomy, mycorrhizal associations, pollination biology, population genetics and conservation. PMID:19654223

  2. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  3. The complete mitogenome of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Liang; Jia, Fu-Long; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) was determined in this study. The full length mitogenome is 16 157 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with the base composition of 33.70% for A, 18.99% for C, 12.22% for G, and 35.09% for T. The gene order of P. pelagicus mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of tRNA(His) gene. The mitogenome data provide a basis for further studies on population genetics and phylogenetics. PMID:26171873

  4. Structural and Immunological Activity Characterization of a Polysaccharide Isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Heng; Qian, Jianying; He, Yongfeng; Zheng, Jialin; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong; Shi, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from marine clams perform various biological activities, whereas information on structure is scarce. Here, a water-soluble polysaccharide MMPX-B2 was isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus. The proposed structure was deduced through characterization and its immunological activity was investigated. MMPX-B2 consisted of d-glucose and d-galctose residues at a molar ratio of 3.51:1.00. The average molecular weight of MMPX-B2 was 510 kDa. This polysaccharide possessed a main chain of (1→4)-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, partially substituted at the C-6 position by a few terminal β-d-galactose residues or branched chains consisting of (1→3)-linked β-d-galactose residues. Preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that MMPX-B2 could stimulate the murine macrophages to release various cytokines, and the structure-activity relationship was then established. The present study demonstrated the potential immunological activity of MMPX-B2, and provided references for studying the active ingredients in M. meretrix. PMID:26729136

  5. First data on trace elements in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Italy: Safety issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the concentrations of 10 metals in wild specimens of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) (Linnaeus, 1758) from three sites along the southern Italian coast: Gulf of Catania (CT), the Northern Coast of Messina (ME) and the harbor of Villa San Giovanni (VSG). The species is commonly found in the area and has significant commercial value. Additionally, it is long lived, thus suitable as bioindicator of the environmental monitoring. The potential human health risks due to consumption of Ht have been assessed by estimated average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals, respectively. In particular arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were quantified in the edible tissue of specimens by acid digestion of the samples and ICP-MS determination. The highest concentrations were found in CT sample area for most metals analyzed. Mean values for Pb, Cd and Hg were lower than the maximum levels (MLs) set for bivalve mollusks by Regulation (CE) no. 1881/2006 in all sites, and average intake values below the risk levels for human consumption. PMID:25912965

  6. Cutaneous myxidiosis in European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758): histopathology, histochemistry and laminin immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manera, M; Borreca, C; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-07-01

    Histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the integument of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), infected by Myxidium sp. are reported. Skin samples from affected and unaffected eels were dissected, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned and stained with H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff's staining method, Alcian Blue 8 GX pH 2.5/Periodic acid-Schiff's and McCallum-Goodpasture's Gram stain. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed using a primary polyclonal laminin antibody. Histologically, cysts (diameter 2-3 mm) were observed mainly under the scale pockets, encircled by a thin collagen layer, lined by elongated, flattened fibroblasts and containing bipolar, PAS- and Gram-positive spores with opposite polar capsules. The epidermis stretched by the underlying cyst appeared dysplastic, thinned with a significant reduction in mucous cells number. Only inconsistent and aspecific inflammatory reaction was noted around the cysts at the dermis/epidermis interface. Intense laminin-like protein immunolabel was documented in the plasmodial ectoplasm and related to host anergia. This was the first report of laminin immunolabel in a member of the Myxozoa. Epidermal dysplasia represents likely an aspecific response against the underlying tensile force exerted by the developing parasite cyst, while fibroblast and collagen encapsulation denote a parasite-driven host response protecting, rather than harming, the encircled parasite. PMID:26525491

  7. Metabolic plasticity of nitrogen assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jang K.; Kraemer, George P.; Yarish, Charles

    2012-12-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds. We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population ( i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress. We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and, interestingly, such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones. These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P. umbilicalis. The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P. umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available, and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  8. Prevalence of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Koderma, Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Dhiman, R C; Dua, V K

    2011-09-01

    Entomological survey was carried out in different localities of Koderma district of Jharkhand with a view to study the prevalence, distribution and stratification of areas for Aedes mosquito species. A total of 233 houses were covered during house to house larval and adult survey. Aedes breeding could be detected in 157 houses. In all, a total of 942 domestic water containers were searched, out of which 461 were found positive. The overall house index(HI) container index(CI) breteau index(B1) and pupal index(PI) were 67.38%, 48.94%, 197.85% and 79.4%, respectively. The survey revealed that Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse are well established in Koderma with most of the areas showing high adult and larval indices. The preventive strategy needs to be directed towards minimizing the breeding potential of Aedes and water management practice by individuals along with implementation of urban bye-laws as well as IEC activities to contain Aedes breeding in future. PMID:23781636

  9. In vitro culture of mantle tissue of the abalone Haliotis varia Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Suja, C P; Dharmaraj, S

    2005-02-01

    The study is aimed at developing a technology for the production of in vitro pearl through tissue culture of mantle of the abalone, Haliotis varia Linnaeus, as the production of free and spherical pearls in vivo is rather difficult in abalones. In the basic study, the cell yield was intensified from the explant after 24h incubation. Among the cells liberated, the granulocytes were dominant over hyalinocytes. The size of granulocytes ranged from 3 to 16 microm and of hyalinocytes from 13 to 18 microm. Fibroblast-like cells appeared in cultures after day 2. Both granulocytes and hyalinocytes developed pseudopodial-like extensions in all directions and formed organic matrix. Granulocytes contained granules in the cytoplasm. Specific granules were responsible for nucleation of crystals. Some crystals exhibited green colour resembling mother of pearl of abalone. scanning electron microscope (SEM) study revealed the oolitic amorphous state and rhombohedral state of crystals. Its analysis through energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDS) indicated the presence of calcium. The rhombohedral crystals under polarized light showed its high birefringence (0.18) and uniaxial optically negative calcite nature with high content of calcium. A mean survival of cells was found to be 102 days in T 25 flasks and 32 days in petri dishes. Growth of cells was studied. Thirty percent of cultures were found to have contaminated during the study. The study provides basic knowledge in the development of a technology for in vitro pearl production. PMID:15695171

  10. Feeding clusters and olfaction in the mangrove snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus) (Potamididae: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Fratini, S; Cannicci, S; Vannini, M

    2001-07-01

    Large numbers of the snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus) (Potamididae; Gastropoda) are frequently observed feeding in a cluster on a single fallen mangrove leaf, yet none are present on leaves nearby. Consequently, we investigated the food-finding ability of T. palustris in a Kenyan mangrove forest using field experiments. We estimated the attractive effect of different cues and analysed the paths (video-recorded) of snails when approaching a food-related odour. This intertidal snail can potentially use both air-borne and water-borne odours to locate food. T. palustris is attracted to conspecifics feeding on leaves, while intact leaves as well as non-feeding snails are not attractive. Moreover, the guiding stimulus appears to be compounds released when the leaves are damaged.T. palustris also seems able to discriminate between different food items; it is more strongly attracted to green mangrove leaves than senescent or fallen ones or mangrove propagules, probably because green leaves release a greater amount of attractive cues.Feeding snails thus recruit more snails to feed on the same leaf. The ecological implications of this behaviour are discussed: a large number of snails on the same leaf counteracts the ability of crabs to remove the leaf being eaten by the snails. PMID:11399273

  11. An overlooked sibling of the fruit-piercing moth Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763) from Africa (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Calpinae).

    PubMed

    Brou, V A; Zilli, A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have been investigating the tropical calpine genus Eudocima Billberg, 1920 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Calpinae) with the intent of producing a generic revision. There are a number of undescribed species and here we describe as new a closely related species to the widespread and economically important fruit-piercer Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763) (= fullonia Clerck, 1764), with which it has long been confused. Study material came from the private collection of Vernon Antoine Brou collection (VAB) and the Natural History Museum, London (NHM). PMID:27394873

  12. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

  13. Treatment of chronic kidney disease using a traditional Chinese medicine, Flos Abelmoschus manihot (Linnaeus) Medicus (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yizhi; Cai, Guangyan; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-02-01

    The flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (Linnaeus) Medicus (Malvaceae; Flos A. manihot) have been used in China for many centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. The Huangkui capsule is a single-plant drug extracted from the dry corolla of Flos A. manihot that has been approved by China's State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly some of the past experiences in rapid filtration and to present more fully a few facts brought out in recent studies. The primary chemical constituents of Flos A. manihot are flavonoids. In vivo, the flavonoids can be transformed into glucuronide-sulphate conjugates, which are the major metabolites of Flos A. manihot and could contribute to the renoprotective effects in vivo. Flos A. manihot can ameliorate proteinuria, podocyte apoptosis, glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferation. The renoprotective effects of Flos A. manihot are related to inhibition of caspase-3 and caspase-8 overexpression, reduction of the infiltration of ED1(+) and ED3(+) macrophages, downregulation of oxidative stress, inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and serine/threonine kinase pathways and suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 and tumour necrosis factor-α expression. Recently, a multicentre randomized controlled trial demonstrated that Flos A. manihot was more effective than the angiotensin-receptor blocker losartan in reducing proteinuria in patients with primary glomerular disease. Because Flos A. manihot is generally preferred by Chinese patients and clinicians, high-quality trials to test the efficacy and safety of Flos A. manihot are urgently needed. PMID:26667396

  14. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mácha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda. PMID:26130652

  15. Structural and ultrastructural features of the agouti tongue (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766)

    PubMed Central

    Ciena, Adriano Polican; Bolina, Cristina de Sousa; de Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; da da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2013-01-01

    The agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766) is a wild rodent belonging to the family Dasyproctidae that is found throughout Brazil and feeds on fruits and seeds. The aim of the present study was to describe the following features of the tongue of agouti: its morphological structures, the three-dimensional characteristics of the lingual papillae surface, the connective tissue cores (CTCs) and the epithelial cell ultrastructure. Four types of papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue with a triangular shape: filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate. Filiform papillae were distributed throughout the tongue surface, and removal of the epithelial surface revealed conical CTCs and multifilaments. Fungiform papillae were observed in the rostral and middle regions, whereas foliate papillae developed in pairs on the lateral margin of the caudal region. Removal of the epithelium in these regions revealed CTCs with parallel laminar conformation. Vallate papillae were arranged in a V-shape in the caudal region, and their CTCs ranged in shape from elongate to ovoid. The ultrastructural components of the dorsal epithelium were the basal, spinous, granular and keratinised layers. A broad area with cytoplasmic projections was identified in the interface region between the lamina propria and the basal layer. Flattened cells with intermediate filaments were observed in the transitional region between spinous and granular layers. The keratinised layer was composed of superimposed epithelial cells where desmosomes and cell-surface microridges were observed. These structural features, including the three-dimensional aspects of the lingual papillae, the CTCs and the epithelial ultrastructure, indicate that when compared with other animals, particularly other rodent species, the morphological features of the tongue of agouti are relatively well developed, especially regarding foliate and vallate papillae. PMID:23701183

  16. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    PubMed

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium. PMID:27186342

  17. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium. PMID:27186342

  18. Nosema sp. PM-1, a new isolate of microsporidian from infected Papilio machaon Linnaeus, based on ultrastructure and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tie; Xu, Jinshan; Luo, Bo; Chen, Jie; Li, Zeng; Li, Tian; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Xueyan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-06-01

    A new microsporidium, Nosema sp. PM-1, was first isolated from Papilio machaon Linnaeus. The spore shape of the PM-1 isolate was a long oval with an average size of 3.22 μm × 1.96 μm. Ultrastructure observation showed that PM-1 had a typical Nosema common diplokaryotic nuclei structure with 10-13 polar filament coils, spore wall, plasma membrane, and anchoring disk. The complete rRNA gene sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification and each rRNA unit was arrayed as follows: 5'-LSU (2497 bp)-ITS (179 bp)-SSU (1232 bp)-IGS (278 bp)-5S (115 bp)-3', which was the same as typical Nosema. The phylogenetic trees of rRNA, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit, and tubulin genes all show that PM-1 was a sister to the clade comprising Nosema bombycis, Nosema spodopterae, and Nosema sp. PX1. The spore morphology, ultrastructure, and complete rRNA structure indicate that this isolate assigned to the ˝true˝ Nosema group, can parasitized in Papilio machaon Linnaeus, which provides a wider host range for Nosema. PMID:26204003

  19. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of

  20. In vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective properties of polyphenols from Halimeda opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira e Silva, Ana Mara; Vidal-Novoa, Alexis; Batista-González, Ana Elsa; Pinto, José Ricardo; Portari Mancini, Dalva Assunção; Reina-Urquijo, Wilman; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective properties of the aqueous extract and tetrahydrofuran-extracted phenolic fractions of Halimeda opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux were investigated in rats with chemically induced liver injury. Total polyphenols were determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Liver damage was induced by CCl(4) and assessed by a histological technique. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) analysis showed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) gene expression and activities in the group treated with free phenolic acid (FPA) fractions of H. opuntia, suggesting inducing effects on both enzymes. In addition, rats treated with FPA fractions displayed lower liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels than those observed for rats in the CCl(4)-treated group. These data suggest that the phenolic fractions from H. opuntia may protect the liver against oxidative stress-inducing effects of chemicals by modulating its antioxidant enzymes and oxidative status. PMID:22564347

  1. Anti-tumor effect and influence of Gekko gecko Linnaeus on the immune system of sarcoma 180-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    You, Qi; Han, Shiyu; Zhang, Yuanlong; Zheng, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Gekko gecko Linnaeus (GgL) is an extract used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumor activity of GgL and its effect on the immune system of mice. Sarcoma 180-bearing mice were used as the animal model, and cisplatin was applied as the positive control drug. The mice were randomly divided into six groups, and each group was treated with a different drug or drug concentration. The effects of GgL were evaluated based on its anti-tumor activity and prolongation of the lifespan, the lymphocyte transformation rate and pathological changes observed in the tumors. The results suggest that GgL has anti-tumor activities and up-regulates the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides original data related to the anti-tumor and immune up-regulating function of GgL. PMID:21475868

  2. The mistaken manakin: a new genus-group name for Parus pipra Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Passeriformes: Pipridae).

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Guy M; David, Normand; Gregory, Steven M S; Jobling, James A; Steinheimer, Frank D; Brito, Guilherme Renzo Rocha

    2016-01-01

    The White-crowned Manakin Pipra pipra was long considered congeneric with other members of the genus Pipra, until Prum (1990, 1992, 1994) demonstrated that its display repertoire and syringeal morphology differ considerably from all other members of that genus. Subsequently, three different molecular phylogenies have all indicated that this manakin is more closely related to the genus Machaeropterus than to Pipra. Prum (1992) considered that the name Dixiphia Reichenbach, 1850, was available, and thus the combination Dixiphia pipra has since been in widespread use for this species. However, as first recognized more than 150 years ago, Dixiphia is a junior synonym of Arundinicola d'Orbigny, 1840. We show that no genus-group name is available for the manakin originally described as Parus pipra Linnaeus, 1758, and for which we therefore provide a new genus name. PMID:27395209

  3. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands--a controlled mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Limbu, Samwel; Cannicci, Stefano; Mgaya, Yunus; Kristensen, Erik; Paula, José

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. PMID:19640623

  4. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely. PMID:26751873

  5. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  6. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes. PMID:26739285

  7. Redescription of immatures and bionomy of the Palaearctic species dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Hispini), a leaf-mining hispine beetle.

    PubMed

    Swiętojańska, Jolanta; Borowiec, Lech; Stach, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) is a member of the tribe Hispini Gyllenhal, 1813 associated with plants of the family Cistaceae Juss. and is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin. Immature stages are described in detail, including line drawings, chaetotaxy, sculpture of integument, and SEM photos of morphological details. This is the first detailed description of immatures in the tribe Hispini, and this can be regarded as a model description for studies of other species in the tribe. Diagnostic characters for this species in comparison with other described larvae and pupae of the genus Dicladispa and the sympatric Hispa atra Linnaeus, 1767 are discussed. Some remarks on the biology of Dicladispa testacea, such as host plants, feeding patterns of adults, structure of larval and pupal mines, are also given. PMID:24943146

  8. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  9. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely

  10. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1949-01-01

    A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by

  11. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe.

    PubMed

    Sadílek, David; Sťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka; Zima, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of

  12. Trace Metals in Noah's Ark Shells (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758): Impact of Tourist Season and Human Health Risk.

    PubMed

    Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana; Župan, Ivan; Čulin, Jelena; Dragun, Zrinka; Bačić, Niko; Cindrić, Ana-Marija

    2016-10-01

    Commercially important bivalve Noah's Ark shell (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758) represents a high-quality seafood product, but the data on levels of metal contaminants that could pose a human health risk and also on some essential elements that are important for health protection are lacking. This study examined the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, and Zn in the soft tissue of A. noae from harvesting area in the central Adriatic Sea, to survey whether heavy metals are within the acceptable limits for public health and whether tourism could have an impact on them. The concentrations of analysed metals varied for Cd: 0.15-0.74, Pb: 0.06-0.26, Cr: 0.11-0.34, Ni: 0.09-0.22, Cu: 0.65-1.95, Co: 0.04-0.09, and Zn: 18.3-74.7 mg/kg wet weight. These levels were lower than the permissible limits for safe consummation of seafood, and only for Cd, some precautions should be taken into account if older shellfish were consumed. Increase of Cd, Cr, and Cu in shell tissue was observed during the tourist season at the site closest to the marine traffic routes, indicating that metal levels in shellfish tissue should be monitored especially carefully during the peak tourist season to prevent eventual toxic effects due to increased intake of metals, specifically of Cd. PMID:27423875

  13. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the German Wadden Sea.

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Zauke, G-P

    2008-07-30

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the suitability of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the German Wadden Sea as a biomonitor for the trace metals Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn and to analyse whether the two-compartment model sensu OECD could be used as a predictive tool to assess environmental quality. The tested decapods accumulated Cd and Pb upon exposure and it was possible to estimate significant model parameters of two-compartment models, while they did not respond to waterborn Cu and Zn. Kinetic BCFs at theoretical equilibrium were 860 for Cd and 750 for Pb. A tentative estimation showed the following sensitivity of C. crangon to an increase of soluble metal exposure: 0.4 microg Cd l(-1) and 0.9 microg Pb l(-1). Available information can be used to quantify a measure of agreement or disagreement between bioaccumulation in various decapods. This can be regarded as an important step in the calibration of biomonitors, which is necessary to assess the potential for bioaccumulation on different temporal and geographical scales. PMID:18571744

  14. Effect of unialgal diets on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jilin; Zhou, Haibo; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chengxu; Zhu, Peng; Ma, Bin

    2012-04-18

    This study has investigated the effects of six different unialgal diets ( Chaetoceros calcitrans , Platymonas helgolandica , Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana , Nannochloropsis oculata , and Pavlova viridis ) on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. The best feeding effects on the growth of shellfish were found in C. calcitrans, followed by I. galbana and P. viridis, whereas Chlorella sp. and N. oculata exhibited relatively poor effects. The fatty acid and sterol compositions in the six microalgae and the juvenile ark shell after feeding were analyzed, and 39 fatty acids and 18 sterols were identified. Although the results demonstrate a close correlation between the sterol compositions in algal species and juvenile ark shell, a similar correlation was not observed between fatty acids. In the juvenile ark shell fed microalgae, the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) rapidly decreases, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases considerably. The abundances of AA, EPA, and DHA increase most significantly in shellfish with better growth (fed C. calcitrans, I. galbana, and P. viridis). The number of sterol species is reduced, but the total sterol content in groups fed corresponding microalgae increases, and abundant plant sterols, instead of cholesterol, are accumulated in juvenile ark shell fed appropriate microalgae I. galbana and P. viridis. Therefore, to be more conducive to human health, I. galbana and P. viridis, of the six experimental microalgae, are recommended for artificial ark shell culture. PMID:22443233

  15. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity: a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Engel, Sophia; Biebach, Herbert; Visser, G Henk

    2006-06-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding to travel distances between 200 and 300 km, respectively. This represents the widest speed range where we could obtain voluntarily sustained flights. From a subset of these flights, data on the wing beat frequency (WBF) and intermittent flight behaviour were obtained. Over the range of speeds that were tested, flight costs did not change with velocity and were on an average 8.17+/-0.64 W or 114 W kg(-1). Body mass was the only parameter with a significant (positive) effect on flight costs, which can be described as EE(f)=0.741 M(0.554). WBF changed slightly with speed, but correlated better with body mass. Birds showed both types of intermittent flight, undulating and bounding, but their frequencies did not systematically change with flight speed. PMID:16425018

  16. Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Tuomainen, Arto; Tellervo Valtonen, E; Benesh, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual fish hosts. Worms from different parts of the gut did not differ in length, so site segregation was not obviously related to worm growth or age. We found proportionally more males in the caeca when a larger fraction of the females were found there, suggesting mating opportunities influence gut distribution. However, this result relied on a single parasite infrapopulation and is thus tentative. We discuss how mating strategies and/or sexual differences in life history might explain why males and females occupy different parts of the burbot gut. PMID:26580557

  17. Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.

    PubMed

    Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

    2011-07-01

    Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

  18. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  19. The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsoi, Kwok-Ho; Cheang, Chi-Chiu

    2016-05-01

    Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955 bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr). PMID:25405910

  20. Characterisation of Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Tomás, André; Thode, Fátima Regina P B; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2015-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a specimen of the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus held for rehabilitation and reintroduction into the wild in a centre for research and recovery of wild animals in Quinta de Marim, Olhão, Portugal. Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. has subspherical to ovoidal oöcysts, measuring on average 26.4 × 23.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μm thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 16.0 × 10.9 µm. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is prominent and rounded. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered spherules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. The morphological and morphometric data for the new species were compared with those for species parasitising birds of the Muscicapidae, Turdidae, Timaliidae, Troglodytidae and Cinclidae, which are considered phylogenetically close. The original histograms of Isospora turdi Schwalbach, 1959 were redrawn for comparison with I. lusitanensis n. sp. and a linear regression of width against length of the oöcysts is presented for characterisation. This is the first isosporoid coccidian described from T. merula in mainland Portugal. PMID:26358076

  1. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities <30. Our model results also suggest that red lionfish could continue to invade southern latitudes in the western Atlantic Ocean and may establish localized populations in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We reiterate the importance in the choice of the training data source (native, non-native, or native/non-native) used to develop correlative species distribution models for invasive species.

  2. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives.

    PubMed

    Souza, E A; Zaluski, R; Veiga, N; Orsi, R O

    2016-06-01

    The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, "intelligent" collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer's test to compare the mean values (p<0.05). The results showed that seasonal variations influence the contents of 5 minerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca). PMID:26934152

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Graciliana; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentão, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 Ω9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 Ω3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 Ω3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 Ω3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:24619274

  4. Ecological Status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Population at the Southern Edge of its Distribution (River Paiva, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, Ângela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (<500), a narrow distribution, and was mainly comprised by old specimens our data contradict these findings. Our assessment estimated a population with probably more than 5,000 individuals distributed across 80 km of the river length. From the 32 sites surveyed, 19 contained M. margaritifera with higher abundances verified in the middle and upper parts of the river (a maximum of 78 ind. per 100 m of river stretch was recorded). The pearl mussels showed a clear preference for areas near the banks, in shallow water, sandier and gravel sediments, and a high degree of riparian vegetation cover. The population structure was skewed with a very high percentage of large (and old) animals but 3.7 % of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60 mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density.

  5. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the

  6. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. PMID:25601334

  7. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  8. Polyamine effects on protein disulfide isomerase expression and implications for hypersalinity stress in the marine alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus(1).

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Chuan; Hsu, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Wu, Tzure-Meng; Sung, Ming-Shiuan; Cho, Chung-Lung; Lee, Tse-Min

    2013-12-01

    Full-length protein disulfide isomerase (UfPDI) cDNA was cloned from the intertidal macroalga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus. Modulation of UfPDI expression by stresses and polyamines (PA) was studied. UfPDI transcription and enzyme activity were increased by hypersalinity (90) or high light illumination (1,200 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ), decreased by the addition of 100 μM CuSO4 . An exposure to a salinity of 90 decreased PA contents. Treating with PA biosynthetic inhibitors, D-arginine (D-Arg) or α-methyl ornithine (α-MO), led to a further decrease and also inhibited UfPDI expression and recovery of the growth rate. These results suggest that PAs are required to activate UfPDI expression with hypersalinity, even PA contents are decreased at a salinity of 90. The induction of UfPDI expression by hypersalinity of 90 and tolerance to hypersalinity could be enhanced if internal PA contents rise. Sung et al. (2011b) showed that PA contents could be increased by pretreating with putrescine (Put, 1 mM), spermidine (Spd, 1 mM), or spermine (Spm, 1 mM) at a salinity of 30. Therefore, PA pretreatment effect on UfPDI expression was examined. Pretreatment with Spd and Spm, but not with Put, enhanced UfPDI expression after transferred to a salinity of 90 and restored the growth rate. In conclusion, induction of UfPDI expression by Spd or Spm before exposure to hypersaline conditions and continuous up-regulation after hypersalinity exposure are required for the acquisition of hypersalinity tolerance in the intertidal green macroalga U. lactuca. PMID:27007636

  9. Production and characterization of crude and refined oils obtained from the co-products of Nile tilapia and hybrid sorubim processing.

    PubMed

    Menegazzo, Mariana Lara; Petenuci, Maria Eugenia; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano

    2014-08-15

    In this study, crude oil was extracted by heating and filtering of the residual fat obtained from the processing of mechanically separated meats of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and hybrid sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans×P. fasciatum) for protein concentrate obtaining. The crude oil was refined by the following steps: degumming with 85% phosphoric acid, neutralization with 20% NaOH, washing with hot water at 85 °C, drying at 90 °C, clarification with activated charcoal and filtration with diatomaceous earth and anhydrous sodium sulfate. The quality of crude and refined oils was verified by acidity, peroxide, iodine, refractive, and saponification indexes, beyond moisture, lipid and free fatty acids contents, and density. The results show that the refining reduced the acidity index of the crude oil, however, favored the oil oxidation, as demonstrated by the increase in peroxide index. In most of the cases there was no change in the identity of the fish oils. PMID:24679757

  10. Levels and distribution pattern of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in razor clams Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Galicia (north-west Spain) in relation to biometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2006-11-01

    To establish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and distribution as well as their relationship to biometric parameters in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758), 15 individual samples collected from two points sited in the Islas Cies, Ría de Vigo in Galicia, Spain, collected monthly between February 2003 and April 2004, were analysed. PCBs (IUPAC No. 31, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 105, 138, 156 and 180) were isolated by Soxhlet extraction. Identification and quantification were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography (electron capture detector), respectively. The isomer concentrations in E. siliqua were in the order hexachlorobiphenyls > pentachlorobiphenyls > heptachlorobiphenyls > trichlorobiphenyls > tetrachlorbiphenyls. No correlation was observed between the E. siliqua shell length and PCBs levels. The PCBs 31, 101, 105 and 153 levels were statistically related with some biometric parameters (p < 0.05). Multivariate techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) show clear seasonal differences between samples. PMID:17071525

  11. Taxonomic and morphological survey of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Toxocampinae)

    PubMed Central

    Pekarsky, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The taxa of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group are revised. The genital features of all known taxa are described and illustrated with special reference to the structure of vesica. The male genitalia of L. pallida pallida (Bang-Haas, 1907) are described and illustrated for the first time. L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971) is treated here as a species, L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971), stat. n., distinct from L. pallida. A new species, L. minima, sp. n.,from South Russia is described. Illustrations of the holotype and its genitalia are provided; a diagnostic comparison with L. pallida is given. L. alaica Remm, 1983 is included in the L. lusoria species-group for the first time. PMID:24294088

  12. Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga Muñoz, Alejandra; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Ulises; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Guarner Lans, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, Δ(9)-, Δ(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased Δ(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition. PMID:23734849

  13. Swedenborg, Linnaeus and brain research--and the roles of Gustaf Retzius and Alfred Stroh in the rediscovery of Swedenborg's manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Gordh, Torsten E; Mair, William G P; Sourander, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) at the end of his long life became famous as a visionary mystic and founder of a new religion. However, at younger age, he was recognized as a prominent mining engineer and natural philosopher, particularly interested in geology, mineralogy, cosmology, paleontology and last but not least physiology of the brain. In his Oeconomica regni animalis (1740) and in several posthumously published extensive manuscripts, he described and analyzed e.g. the structural and functional organization of the cerebral cortex, the hierarchical construction of the nervous system, the localization of the cerebrospinal fluid and the secretory functions of the pituitary gland. In these fields, he presented remarkable insights and far reaching conclusions which in some cases have been experimentally verified in modern times. In spite of family relations Swedenborg rarely met the 19 years younger Linnaeus. Linnaeus was not only the founder of the systemic botany but as physician a keen and to some extent original observer of neurological symptoms; one of the first who adequately described motor aphasia. To regard these two men, among the few Swedish authors of the 18th century whose names are still internationally well known, as early precursors of neurological research, seems justified. The young Canadian, Alfred H. Stroh (1878-1922), had a crucial importance for the research on the works of Swedenborg, and the rediscovery of his manuscripts. His work was supported and financed to a large extent by professor Gustaf Retzius, at that time the most prominent Swedish researcher in anatomy and histology. There are many reasons to be thankful for the important contributions made by Alfred Stroh and Gustaf Retzius to stimulate the interest for Emanuel Swedenborg in Sweden and internationally. PMID:17578815

  14. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on two recent molecular analyses, augmented by the discovery of several published or unpublished novel morphological synapomorphies, a new classification is proposed for the order Lepidoptera. The new classification is more consistent with our growing knowledge of the phylogeny of the group an...

  15. Characterization of natural nanostructured hydroxyapatite obtained from the bones of Brazilian river fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, T. M.; Nogueira, E. S.; Steimacher, A.; Medina, A. N.; Weinand, W. R.; Lima, W. M.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the characterization of the optical properties of natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is discussed. In the first stage of the experiment, natural HAp was processed from the bones of Brazilian river fish such as pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans), jaú (Paulicea lutkeni), and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum). The bones were calcined at 900°C for different amounts of time (4-12h) and reduced to powder using two different milling times (2 and 4h) in a high-energy ball mill, in order to determine the best procedure for obtaining natural nanostructured HAp powder for the study. In the second stage, material calcined for 8h was milled for 2, 4, 8, and 16h. The techniques of photoacoustic spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry were applied to characterize these samples. The O-H stretching shown by photoacoustic spectroscopy was correlated to the HAp nanostructure. Structural analysis indicated a Ca /P ratio close to 1.67 (˜1.64±0.04) and the presence of morphology and particle phase structure in the nanostructured HAp powder.

  16. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  17. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon. PMID:26581747

  18. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  19. The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

  20. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  1. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( P<0.05). The protein efficiency ratio of the fish fed the MET diet was significantly higher than that of the fish fed the un-supplemented experimental diet and the fish in the other methionine supplementation groups ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that supplementation of crystalline Met in low-fish-meal diets promotes the growth performance of juvenile cobia.

  2. Characterization of a new insect cell line (NTU-YB) derived from the common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera) and its susceptibility to microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ru; Solter, Leellen F; Chien, Tsz-Ying; Jiang, Ming-Han; Lin, Hsieh-Fang; Fan, Huai-Sheng; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Chung-Hsiung

    2009-11-01

    A new lepidopteran cell line, NTU-YB, was derived from pupal tissue of Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera). The doubling time of YB cells in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 8% FBS at 28 degrees C was 26.87h. The chromosome numbers of YB cells varied widely from 21 to 196 with a mean of 86. Compared to other insect cell lines, the YB cells produced distinct esterase, malate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns. Identity of the internal transcribed spacer region-I (ITS-I) of YB cells to E. hecabe larvae was 96% and to Eurema blanda larvae (tissue isolated from head) was 81%. The YB cells were permissive to Nosema sp. isolated from E. blanda and the infected YB cells showed obvious cytopathic effects after 3weeks post inoculation. The highest level of spore production was at 4weeks post inoculation when cells were infected with the Nosema isolate, and spore production was 1.34+/-0.9x10(6)spore/ml. Ultrastructrual studies showed that YB cells can host in vitro propagation of the E. blanda Nosema isolate, and developing stages were observed in the host cell nuclei as observed in the natural host, E. blanda. The NTU-YB cell line is also susceptible to Nosema bombycis. PMID:19761771

  3. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam. PMID:27095662

  4. Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 μm and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μm thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

  5. Persistency of highly toxic coplanar PCBs in aquatic ecosystems: uptake and release kinetics of coplanar PCBs in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Tatsukawa, R; Phillips, D J

    1989-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of three highly toxic coplanar PCB isomers [3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (T(4)CB); 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (P(5)CB); and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (H(6)CB)] was investigated using green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis Linnaeus) as a bioindicator, through a transplantation experiment at two locations in Hong Kong waters. By contrast to the relatively rapid uptake and release of many other PCB isomers, the non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar PCB congeners exhibited slow uptake and clearance. The kinetic parameters of coplanar PCBs based on lipid weight-related data, and the degree of bioaccumulation based on the proportion of coplanar PCBs in total PCBs in mussels, clearly indicate that coplanar PCBs are highly bioaccumulative in lower organisms. On the assumption that mussels are unlikely to be particularly unusual with respect to their bioaccumulation of coplanar PCBs, it appears most likely that these highly toxic and persistent PCB congeners are concentrated by all aquatic organisms, and may reach higher consumers (including humans) in quantities of toxicological concern. PMID:15092492

  6. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  7. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776), Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), and surface sediments of Bafa Lake (Eastern Aegean).

    PubMed

    Aydin-Onen, S; Kucuksezgin, F; Kocak, F; Açik, S

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) and also in the muscle and liver of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from seven stations in the Bafa Lake was investigated. Sediment samples were also collected in each site to assess heavy metal levels and to provide additional information on pollution of the lake. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, H. diversicolor, and muscle and liver of the fish were found to be in the magnitude of Cr>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Hg, Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Hg>Cd, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr >Hg>Cd, and Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Hg, respectively. Hg, Cu, and Zn in H. diversicolor and Hg and Zn in muscle and also Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver of fish accumulated in a higher degree than in sediment. There was no clear relationship between metal concentrations in sediments, polychaetes, and fish, except Cr. According to international criteria and Turkish regulations, Pb and Zn values in edible muscle of the fish collected from stations S6 and S5 exceeded the food safety limits, respectively. The results of this study suggest that these sentinel species can be considered as good anthropogenic biological indicators for heavy metal pollution along the Bafa Lake. PMID:25567060

  8. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

  9. Natural History Museum Sound Archive I: Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae Leach, 1815, including 3D scans of burrow casts of Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Gryllotalpa vineae Bennet-Clark, 1970

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Yoke-Shum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) sound archive contains recordings of Gryllotalpidae, and the NHM collection holds plaster casts of the burrows of two species. These recordings and burrows have until now not been made available through the NHM's collection database, making it hard for researchers to make use of these resources. New information Eighteen recordings of mole crickets (three identified species) held by the NHM have been made available under open licenses via BioAcoustica. 3D scans of the burrows of Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Gryllotalpa vineae Bennet-Clark, 1970 have been made available via the NHM Data Portal. PMID:26752971

  10. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. PMID:26991291

  11. A taxonomic review of the centipede genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) in mainland Southeast Asia, with description of a new species from Laos.

    PubMed

    Siriwut, Warut; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The centipede genus Scolopendra in mainland Southeast Asia is reviewed taxonomically based on morphological characters, informed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences from three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA). Eight nominal species of Scolopendra, namely Scolopendra morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1816, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, Scolopendra calcarata Porat, 1876, Scolopendra japonica Koch, 1878, Scolopendra pinguis Pocock, 1891, and Scolopendra dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, are redescribed together with some revision of type materials. Geographical variation in each species has been compiled with reference to samples that span their distribution ranges in Southeast Asia and some parts of neighbouring areas such as East Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Africa. Comparative study of traditional taxonomic characters from external morphology provides further information to distinguish some closely related species. Scolopendra cataracta Siriwut, Edgecombe & Panha, sp. n., is described from the southern part of Laos, with additional records in Thailand and Vietnam. The phylogenetic framework for Southeast Asian Scolopendra recognizes Scolopendra calcarata + Scolopendra pinguis, Scolopendra morsitans, and a Scolopendra subspinipes group that unites the other six species as the main clades. Within the Scolopendra subspinipes group, two monophyletic groups can be distinguished by having either slender or short, thick ultimate leg prefemora and different numbers of apical spines on the coxopleuron. Scolopendra arborea Lewis, 1982, is placed in subjective synonymy with Scolopendra dehaani. A survey of external morphology of the genital segments confirms its potential for improving species identification in Scolopendra. Some observations on biology and behaviour are recorded based on field surveys in this area. PMID:27408540

  12. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected). PMID:24822321

  13. A taxonomic review of the centipede genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) in mainland Southeast Asia, with description of a new species from Laos

    PubMed Central

    Siriwut, Warut; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The centipede genus Scolopendra in mainland Southeast Asia is reviewed taxonomically based on morphological characters, informed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences from three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA). Eight nominal species of Scolopendra, namely Scolopendra morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1816, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, Scolopendra calcarata Porat, 1876, Scolopendra japonica Koch, 1878, Scolopendra pinguis Pocock, 1891, and Scolopendra dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, are redescribed together with some revision of type materials. Geographical variation in each species has been compiled with reference to samples that span their distribution ranges in Southeast Asia and some parts of neighbouring areas such as East Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Africa. Comparative study of traditional taxonomic characters from external morphology provides further information to distinguish some closely related species. Scolopendra cataracta Siriwut, Edgecombe & Panha, sp. n., is described from the southern part of Laos, with additional records in Thailand and Vietnam. The phylogenetic framework for Southeast Asian Scolopendra recognizes Scolopendra calcarata + Scolopendra pinguis, Scolopendra morsitans, and a Scolopendra subspinipes group that unites the other six species as the main clades. Within the Scolopendra subspinipes group, two monophyletic groups can be distinguished by having either slender or short, thick ultimate leg prefemora and different numbers of apical spines on the coxopleuron. Scolopendra arborea Lewis, 1982, is placed in subjective synonymy with Scolopendra dehaani. A survey of external morphology of the genital segments confirms its potential for improving species identification in Scolopendra. Some observations on biology and behaviour are recorded based on field surveys in this area. PMID:27408540

  14. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

  15. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known. PMID:27394312

  16. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  17. Pelopscreadium aegyptense n. gen., n. sp. and Pelopscreadium spongiosum (Bray & Cribb, 1998) n. comb., (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae), each from disjunct populations of the Yellow boxfish, Ostracion cubicus Linnaeus (Ostraciidae).

    PubMed

    Dronen, Norman O; Blend, Charles K; Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mohamadain, Hoda S; Karar, Yasser F M

    2016-01-01

    Bianium spongiosum Bray & Cribb, 1998 (Lepocreadiidae), described from the yellow boxfish, Ostracion cubicus Linnaeus (Ostraciidae), off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia, possesses a combination of the following three morphological features which distinguishes it from all the other species currently assigned to the genus: (1) large internal patches of large cells forming sponge-like pads we have termed "pelops"("pelop" sing.) laterally in the forebody extending from near the anterior extremity to about the level of the intestinal bifurcation rather than possessing a scoop; (2) ceca that reach to near the posterior extremity where they end blindly without ani; and (3) a vitellarium which is present laterally but not dorsal to the ceca. Based on this we propose the erection of Pelopscreadium n. gen. (Lepocreadiidae) with the assignment of B. spongiosum to this new genus as the type-species, Pelopscreadium spongiosum (Bray & Cribb, 1998) n. comb. Pelopscreadium aegyptense n. sp., also from the yellow boxfish but from the Red Sea off Sharm El-Naga, Egypt, is described as the second member of the new genus because it shares these three characteristics with P. spongiosum. PMID:27395641

  18. Anisakis infection in allis shad, Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), from Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: zoonotic and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Bao, M; Mota, M; Nachón, D J; Antunes, C; Cobo, F; Garci, M E; Pierce, G J; Pascual, S

    2015-06-01

    Spawning individuals of allis shad, Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), were sampled from three rivers on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula (Ulla, Minho, Mondego) during 2008 to 2013 to assess the presence of the zoonotic marine parasite Anisakis spp. larvae. The results revealed that both shad species were infected by third-larval stage Anisakis simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii. The latter is reported in mixed infections in both shad species of Western Iberian Peninsula for the first time. In A. alosa, the prevalence of Anisakis infection can reach 100%, while in A. fallax, prevalence was up to 83%. Infected individuals of the former species also often contain much higher number of parasites in theirs internal organs and flesh: from 1 to 1138 Anisakis spp. larvae as compared to 1 to 121 larvae, respectively. In general, numbers of A. pegreffii were higher than those of A. simplex s.s. Our results suggest that in the marine environment of the Western Iberian Peninsula, both anadromous shad species act as paratenic hosts for A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii, thus widening the distribution of the infective nematode larvae from the marine to the freshwater ecosystem. This finding is of great epidemiological relevance for wildlife managers and consumers, considering the zoonotic and gastroallergic threats posed of these parasites. PMID:25810220

  19. Morphological, molecular and developmental characterization of the thelastomatid nematode Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasite of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sota; Morffe, Jans; Vicente, Cláudia S L; Ikeda, Kenji; Shinya, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    The American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) has been spreading worldwide by commerce and has successfully adjusted to living with humans. There are many reports of thelastomatid parasitic nematode isolated from P. americana in many countries including USA, Canada, India, Argentina, Bulgaria, but not in Japan. We have investigated the parasitic nematodes in P. americana lab strain and field-captured individuals in Japan and found that Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasitizes with high infection rates. We described morphological, molecular, and developmental characters of the parasitic nematode because such information was missing despite it has been discovered more than one hundred years ago. We described morphometrics with DIC microscopy and fine structure of male and female adult with SEM observation. We also reveal the embryonic and postembryonic development of this nematode. This is the first report of a thelastomatid nematode isolated from American cockroach in Japan, and the data showed here is also very useful and fundamental for further analysis of the cockroach and parasite relations. PMID:27078647

  20. The effect of Plantago major Linnaeus on serum total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, some trace elements and minerals after administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats.

    PubMed

    Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Ozdemir, Hulya; Levent, Abdulkadir; Berber, Ismet

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Plantago major Linnaeus (PM) extract on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA), some trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron) and mineral levels (magnesium, calcium and sodium) in Wistar albino rat administrated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 6). Group I comprised the control group, group II was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg, single dose) and group III was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg single dose) and aqueous extract of PM 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days. After 60 days, statistical analyses showed that TSA and LSA levels in DMBA and DMBA + PM groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (TSA: p < 0.01, p < 0.05; LSA: p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). Serum Zn levels were decreased in subjects treated with DMBA (p < 0.01) and DMBA + PM (p < 0.05) compared to the control group values. Serum Cu levels were increased in DMBA group and PM-treated group compared to the control group values. The results of this investigation showed that the levels of TSA and LSA changed significantly, which are sensitive markers for detecting the toxic effects of DMBA. On the other hand, observed decline in Zn levels in rats from DMBA + PM group might be due to decreased generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Results from this study suggest that PM may be partially effective in preventing carcinogenesis initiated by environmental carcinogen DMBA. PMID:21996710

  1. First report on the occurrence of the comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (Bivalvia: Pinnidae) in Ulleungdo Island in the East Sea: Ecology and molecular identification of the species using COI gene sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Park, Heung-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Jeong, Eui-Young; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    Pen shell is one of the largest marine bivalves inhabiting shallow subtidal soft bottoms in the west Pacific and Indian Oceans. In Korea, the comb pen shell Atrina pectinata fisheries has been established on the south and west coasts. Recently, a pen shell population has been discovered from a subtidal sand flat (25-30 m depth) in Ulleungdo Island located in the East Sea of Korea, suggesting a potential shellfish resource in this area. In the present study, we first surveyed the population density and size of the unique pen shell using SCUBA, and identified the pen shell to species level using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) sequence. An underwater survey carried out from July to September 2013 revealed that populations of pen shell patched on subtidal sand flat at a depth of 20-25 m. Grain size analysis indicated that sand particles accounted for 99% of the 600 × 700 m sand flat. The underwater survey also indicated that density of the pen shell ranged between 6-19 ind/m2, with a mean of 11 ind/m2. Shell height (i.e. longest axis of the shell) of the pen shell on the sand flat varied between 17.2 cm to 28.8 cm, with a mean of 25.1 cm, and the age was estimated to range between 1.5-7.5 yrs, with a mean of 5 yr. COI DNA sequence obtained from the pen shell in this study showed 98.9-99.2% similarity to Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus 1767) reported from Japan. In the cluster analysis, the COI DNA sequence of the pen shells from Ulleungdo Island was grouped with A. pectinata reported from Japan and China, indicating that the pen shell discovered in this study was A. pectinata, commonly distributed on the west and south coasts of Korea.

  2. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 50. Oviparous gyrodactylids from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes in Brazil, with the proposal of Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. (Polyonchoinea: Gyrodactylidea).

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Vianna, Rogério T; Boeger, Walter A

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of Phanerothecium Kritsky & Thatcher, 1977 is amended, and Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g., all comprised of oviparous gyrodactylids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea), are proposed to accommodate 11 of the 15 species (14 new to science) herein described and/or reported from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in Brazil: Phanerothecium harrisi Kritsky & Boeger, 1991, P. spinatoides n. sp. and P. deiropedeum n. sp. all from Hypostomus spp.; P. spinulatum n. sp. from Hypostomus cf. regani; Phanerothecioides agostinhoi n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Hypostomus spp. and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum; Onychogyrodactylus sudis n. g., n. sp. (type-species) and O. hydaticus n. sp. both from Ancistrus multispinus; Aglaiogyrodactylus forficulatus n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Kronichthys lacerta; A. pedunculatus n. sp. from Hisonotus sp.; A. guttus n. sp. from Pseudotothyris obtusa; A. salebrosus n. sp., A. conei n. sp. and A. ctenistus n. sp. all from Pareiorhaphis parmula; and A. calamus n. sp. and A. forficuloides n. sp. both from Schizolecis guntheri. Phanerothecioides n. g. is characterised by oviparous forms lacking superficial and deep haptoral bars and pregermarial vitelline follicles, and by having a conspicuous testis in adult specimens, a syncytial prostatic gland, a reduced copulatory sac and vitelline ducts in the form of an inverted 'U'. Onychogyrodactylus n. g. is differentiated from all other oviparous gyrodactylid genera by its members having a spine-like accessory sclerite enclosed in a separate pouch associated with the terminal male genitalia. Species of Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. possess H-shaped vitelline ducts and a complex accessory piece and sclerotised or non-sclerotised male copulatory organ enclosed within the copulatory sac. PMID:16972154

  3. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P < 0.05). Specific growth rate ( SGR) of turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P < 0.05), and then kept stable when dietary protein content was higher than 51.0%. Fish which were fed the diet containing 63.6% protein showed the highest SGR while those fed the diet containing 59.3% protein showed the highest feed efficiency rate. No significant difference of feed intake and protein efficiency ratio was found among experimental diets ( P > 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  4. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard. PMID:27027551

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianrong; Yao, Chengyi; Li, Lei; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Papilio demoleus (GenBank accession number KR024009) by long PCR and primer walking methods. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 15,249 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (39.31%), T (41.57%), C (11.33%) and G (7.78%) with an A + T-rich region, similar to other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATG in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4, ND4L, Cob and ND1, while ATA for ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. The stop codon was mainly TAA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, whereas TAG was found in ND1 gene only. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et) with a length of 403 bp. PMID:26024148

  6. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  7. The Hindlimb Arterial Vessels in Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766).

    PubMed

    Leal, L M; de Freitas, H M G; Sasahara, T H C; Machado, M R F

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of the hindlimb arterial vessels. Five adult lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) were used. Stained and diluted latex was injected, caudally to the aorta. After fixation in 10% paraformaldehyde for 72 h, we dissected to visualize and identify the vessels. It was found out that the vascularization of the hindlimb in lowland paca derives from the terminal branch of the abdominal aorta. The common iliac artery divides into external iliac and internal iliac. The external iliac artery emits the deep iliac circumflex artery, the pudendal epigastric trunk, the deep femoral artery; the femoral artery originates the saphenous artery, it bifurcates into cranial and caudal saphenous arteries. Immediately after the knee joint, the femoral artery is called popliteal artery, which divides into tibial cranial and tibial caudal arteries at the level of the crural inter-osseous space. The origin and distribution of arteries in the hindlimb of lowland paca resembles that in other wild rodents, as well as in the domestic mammals. PMID:25370292

  8. Sex ratios and sexual dimorphism among recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Thomas, M.L.H.

    1965-01-01

    The sex, length, and weight were determined of nearly all recently transformed sea lampreys migrating downstream in the Carp Lake River, Michigan, in the fall, winter, and spring of 1960-61. Similar data were collected from samples of an earlier run in the Carp Lake River and of runs in three other tributaries of Lakes Huron and Michigan. The sex ratio of the 1960-61 migrants in the Carp Lake River was 324 males:100 females. Sex ratios of migrants in the other runs varied from 77 to 86 males:100 females. The high proportion of males in the 1960-61 run in the Carp Lake River is attributed to the effective prevention of recruitment of sea lampreys in the river and transformation of the females at an earlier age than is characteristic of the males. A near equal sex ratio among recently transformed migrants is considered normal for the species. The sex composition of a run changed during the period of migration. The proportion of males among the migrants was greatest at the beginning of the run and declined steadily thereafter. The average size was smaller for males than for females. Differences in the mean lengths and weights of the sexes were statistically significant. The length-weight relation differed for the sexes and showed a slower rate of increase of weight with increase in length than is characteristic of other stages of the animals' life cycle. Seasonal changes in the length-weight relation had a trend toward lower weights among the migrants coming downstream in the later months of the run.

  9. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation. PMID:26185112

  10. Activation of prophenoloxidase in the plasma and haemocytes of the marine mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Asokan, R; Arumugam, M; Mullainadhan, P

    1997-01-01

    Phenoloxidase activity was detected in plasma and haemocytes of the marine mussel Perna viridis. This enzyme exists as a proenzyme, prophenoloxidase (proPO), in both these haemolymph fractions and could be activated in vitro by exogenous proteases (trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin) and a detergent (sodium dodecyl sulphate). In addition, laminarin (a polymer of beta-1,3 glucan) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSa) effectively triggered proPO activation in these haemolymph fractions. The activation of proPO by non-self molecules was dependent upon calcium ions at a low concentration. This activation process appeared to involve a limited proteolysis, since serine protease inhibitors (soybean trypsin inhibitor, benzamidine or p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidinobenzoate) suppressed conversion of proPO to the active enzyme. This study demonstrates the selective response of plasma and haemocytic proPO to activation by different types of bacterial LPS tested and suggests that proPO system in both plasma and haemocytes of P. viridis serves an important function in non-self recognition and host immune reactions. PMID:9241484

  11. Vitamin A deficiency in the captive African lion cub Panthera loe (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Bartsch, R C; Imes, G D; Smit, J P

    1975-06-01

    Dietary, breeding and clinical histories and pathological findings are presented from 2 confirmed and 5 presumed cases of vitamin A deficiency in immature African lions. Five of the 7 animals were born in the wild while 2 were born in captivity. All animals were fed lean red meat sprinkled with a vitamin/mineral supplement. Salient clinical signs were incoordination, "star gazing", blindness and intermittent convulsions. Pathological lesions seen in 4 animals included severe thickening of the cranial bones, with consequent marked compression of the brain and partial herniation of the cerebellum. Vascular damage in the cerebellum and ensuing haemorrhages, resulting in acute increases of an already high intracranial pressure, were thought to be the cause of some of the clinical signs, particularly convulsions rather than direct pressure-necrosis and atrophy of nervous tissue. PMID:1208042

  12. NOTES ON THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD OF THE PINFISH LAGODON RHOMBOIDES (LINNAEUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides, were collected during September and October, 1974 and 1975. Following a minimum of one week holding period, females were initially injected with 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin and injected with 400 IU every second day thereafter until matur...

  13. Arterial Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-06-01

    Based on gross dissection of fifteen adult animals (11 females, 4 males), we described the arterial supply of the stomach and intestines of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a South American endangered species. The coeliac artery emitted the splenic, left gastric and hepatic arteries. The splenic artery directed towards the spleen, and the right ruminal artery, which is its only collateral directed towards the stomach, being the main artery of the rumen. The left gastric artery gave origin to the left ruminal, the reticular and the left gastroepiploic arteries. The left gastroepiploic artery originated the reticular accessory artery. Both arteries, gastric and left gastroepiploic, anastomosed their right counterparts derived from the hepatic artery on the curvatures of the abomasum. The cranial mesenteric artery irrigated the second half of the duodenum until the beginning of the descending colon. The thickest branch emitted by the cranial mesenteric artery was the ileocolic artery, which was destined to the ascending colon, caecum and ileum. The colic branches and the right colic arteries were irradiated on the right surface of the spiral loop of the ascending colon and distributed to both centripetal and centrifugal coils of the ascending colon; the colic branches were also anastomosed with the last jejunals and ileals and with the right colic arteries. There were no variations in the origin of any of the main branches derived from the coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries. This species had a basic pattern of arterial distribution similar to small domestic ruminants. PMID:26224544

  14. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  15. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. PMID:26923636

  16. Microscopic characterization of teeth of pacas bred in captivity (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, F S; Canola, J C; Oliveira, P T; Pécora, J D; Capelli, A

    2007-10-01

    The microscopic description of the teeth of pacas (Agouti paca) bred in captivity was developed for providing biological data on one of the largest American wild rodents, as not many references exist in the literature about this species. Two newborn males, two adult males (9 and 72 months old), one newborn female and two adult females (30 and 54 months old) were used after death due to fights, neonatal cannibalism or unknown causes. Animals were radiographed, and their teeth were extracted and put on an acrylic resin block, cut on a diamond-like disc microtome and diaphanized. It was noted that enamel surrounds the coronary dentine and projects to the root region, besides being present as internal laminae, arranged in a parallel way and in the vestibulolingual direction. The dentine is located between the enamel laminae and surrounds the pulp horns. The cementum is located internal to the enamel laminae. From scanning electronic microscopy, we find that the enamel is the outer element on the vestibular surface, and it is in direct contact with the dentine. On the lingual surface, the cementum and dentine are the outer elements. PMID:17845228

  17. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed. PMID:25900723

  18. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  19. Fine structure of spermatozoa in the common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus Linnaeus, 1758) (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Maricchiolo, G; Genovese, L; Laurà, R; Micale, V; Muglia, U

    2004-10-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the fine structure of the sperm of the Sparid fish Pagellus erythrinus L. The spermatozoon of pandora has a spherical head lacking an acrosome, a cone-shaped midpiece and a long tail. The midpiece houses a single mitochondrion. The centriolar complex lies inside the nuclear fossa and is composed of a proximal and a distal centriole which are arranged at right angles to each other. The flagellum is inserted medio-laterally into the head, contains the conventional 9+2 axoneme and possesses one pair of lateral fins. On the basis of its ultrastructural organization, the pandora sperm can be regarded as an evolved form of the primitive spermatozoon found in Teleosts. According to the morphological classification proposed by Mattei (1970), the sperm of pandora belongs to a "type I" designation, like that of the other Sparid fish. PMID:15375767

  20. Development of cardiovascular function in the marine gastropod Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Bitterli, Tabitha S; Rundle, Simon D; Spicer, John I

    2012-07-01

    The molluscan cardiovascular system typically incorporates a transient extracardiac structure, the larval heart, early in development, but the functional importance of this structure is unclear. We documented the ontogeny and regulatory ability of the larval heart in relation to two other circulatory structures, the true heart and the velum, in the intertidal gastropod Littorina obtusata. There was a mismatch between the appearance of the larval heart and the velum. Velar lobes appeared early in development (day 4), but the larval heart did not begin beating until day 13. The beating of the larval heart reached a maximum on day 17 and then decreased until the structure itself disappeared (day 24). The true heart began to beat on day 17. Its rate of beating increased as that of the larval heart decreased, possibly suggesting a gradual shift from a larval heart-driven to a true heart-driven circulation. The true heart was not sensitive to acutely declining P(O(2)) shortly after it began to beat, but increased in activity in response to acutely declining P(O(2)) by day 21. Larval heart responses were similar to those of the true heart, with early insensitivity to declining P(O(2)) (day 13) followed by a response by day 15. Increased velum-driven rotational activity under acutely declining P(O(2)) was greatest in early developmental stages. Together, these findings point to cardiovascular function in L. obtusata larvae being the result of a complex interaction between velum, larval and true heart activities, with the functions of the three structures coinciding but their relative importance changing throughout larval development. PMID:22675194

  1. Cytogenetic response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753) (Pinaceae) to heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Belousov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Mashkina, Olga Sergeyevna; Popov, Vasily Nikolayevich

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We studied cytogenetic reactions of Scots pine seedlings to heavy metals – lead, cupric and zinc nitrates applied at concentrations 0.5 to 2000 µM. We determined the range of concentrations of heavy metals that causes mutagenic effect. Lead was found to cause the strongest genotoxicity as manifested by significant increase in the frequency of pathological mitosis, occurrence of fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes, various types of bridges, and a significant number of the micronuclei which were absent in the control. Possible cytogenetic mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of heavy metals are discussed. PMID:24260654

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  3. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758) roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Mendes, S L; Chiarello, A G

    2015-08-01

    We report the roadkill of a jaguar in one of the longest highways in Brazil (BR-101), in the stretch where this road crosses one of the most important Atlantic Forest remnants in the country: the Linhares-Sooretama block. The jaguar population present in this area represents the very last in entire Espírito Santo state. There is an approved project to the lines duplication of the entire BR-101 Highway and the company responsible by the work has already started the first activities in the state. However, there is no environmental impact assessment already done neither planning for the implementation of measures to avoid or reduce the roadkill risk in the region. Thus, to minimize the impacts associated with the BR-101, we do not recommend its lines duplication along the 15 km stretch traversing the Linhares-Sooretama block. In addition, alternatively, we suggest the deviation of the current route of the BR-101 Highway or the construction of overpasses to fauna in the most critical points, interspersing these overpasses with electronic speed monitoring devices and warning and educational plates. PMID:26421765

  4. Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1972-01-01

    This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

  5. The complete mitogenome of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The clawed lobster Nephrops norvegicus is an important commercial species in European waters. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the species from a partial genome scan using Next-Gen sequencing. The N. norvegicus has a mitogenome of 16,132 base pairs (71.22% A+ T content) comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 21 transfer RNAs, and a putative 1259 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome is the second fully characterized for the family Nephropidae and the first for the genus Nephrops. The mitogenome gene order is identical to the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus with the exception of the possible loss of the trnI gene. PMID:25648918

  6. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Fujihara, Caroline J.; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Pantoja, José C. F.; Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots’ physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3–9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management. PMID:26717147

  7. Two new species of the genus Cobitis Linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  8. Removal of Pb (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter RL is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < RL < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C–H stretching vibrations of –CH3 and –CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II). PMID:22629198

  9. Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

  10. The biology of Haemogregarina bigemina Laveran & Mesnil, a parasite of the marine fish Blennius pholis Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Davies, A J; Johnston, M R

    1976-05-01

    Haemogregarina bigemina was found in all Blennius pholis which exceeded 5.0 cm in length, but in none measuring less than 3.5 cm. No exoerythrocytic development was recorded. The first B. pholis eggs hatched in May while the first patent infections of H. bigemina occurred from September onward in metamorphosed fish. Consequently, if the life cycle of H. bigemina includes a vector, that organism is active between May and September at least. Circumstantial evidence indicates that the hematophagous isopod, Gnathia maxillaris and not leeches, could be a vector of H. bigernina. Developmental stages of sporozoa were found in a small number of the isopods which had fed on infected B. pholis but the parasites could not be identified as H. bigemina with certainty. Subcellular organization, typical of sporozoa, was recorded by electron microscopy of H. bigemina. PMID:819650

  11. Morphology and morphometry of the reproductive system of female Saguinus midas (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Nathaly Cristine Da Silva; De Lima, Ana Rita; De Carvalho, Ana Flávia; De Carvalho Garcia, Rafael; Therrier, Joanne; Souza, Ana Carla Barros; Pereira, Luiza Correia; Branco, Erika

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the reproductive system's morphology of three young animals of the species Saguinus midas, from the bauxite mine in Paragominas, is described. The specimens were fixed and preserved in a solution of 10% aqueous formaldehyde, followed by dissection, measurement of the genital organs (uterus, vagina, ovaries, and uterine tubes), and histological processing. The vulva is delimited by the labia, with a clitoris. It is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with sebaceous glands of holocrine secretion. The vagina is an elongated tube with an average length of 26 mm and diameter of 1 mm, presenting a non-keratinized squamous epithelium, disposed between the vestibule of the vagina and cervix, the latter being relatively short. The uterus is simple, has globular shape and is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity, with an average length of 14 mm and average width of 7 mm. It is formed by vascular and serous layers of muscles, and undergoes a bifurcation to form two structures on the bottom of blind sac. The uterine tubes are long and convoluted with an average length of 35 mm (right) and 36 mm (left), consisting of loose connective tissue and muscle layer lined by simple ciliated columnar epithelium. The ovaries are large and ellipsoid with smooth surface. Histologically, one animal showed ovulation fosse. PMID:22131285

  12. Morphometry, Morphology and Ultrastructure of Ring-tailed Coati Sperm (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Silva, H V R; Magalhães, F F; Ribeiro, L R; Souza, A L P; Freitas, C I A; de Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R; Silva, L D M

    2015-12-01

    The ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua) is a procyonid whose population is in sharp decline. Therefore, studies are needed to better understand the reproduction of this animal. For this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the morphology, morphometry and sperm ultrastructure of ring-tailed coati sperm. Four captive adult males were used for this study. Slides stained with Bengal Rose were used for the morphometric and morphologic analyses. The length and width of the head were measured, as well as the length of the midpiece and tail and the total length of the sperm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for the ultrastructural analyses. The most obvious morphological abnormalities observed were coiled tails (6.1 ± 8.7%) and the lack of acrosomes (5.4 ± 4.4%). Regarding the morphometry, the measurements of the head (length × width), midpiece (length) and tail (length) were (mean ± SD) 6.2 ± 0.4 × 8.1 ± 0.6 μm, 14.1 ± 0.5 and 63.9 ± 4.1 μm, respectively, and the total length of the sperm was 86.1 ± 4.3 μm. Through electron microscopy, the presence of electron-lucent points in the nucleus and the presence of approximately 55 mitochondrial spirals in the midpiece were identified. The data obtained in this study provide detailed information on the sperm characteristics of coatis and may inform future research on germplasm conservation, both for this species and other threatened procyonids. PMID:26446691

  13. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola. PMID:27008189

  14. Elemental and biochemical composition of Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus 1758) larvae from the Mediterranean and Irish Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotllant, Guiomar; Anger, Klaus; Durfort, Mercè; Sardà, Francisco

    2004-10-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a commercially exploited decapod which is widely distributed throughout the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Ovigerous females originating from the Mediterranean and the Irish Seas were held in the laboratory until larvae hatched. Biomass and biochemical composition, as well as digestive gland structure, were examined in newly hatched larvae from these two regions. In addition, previously published data from a North Sea population were included in our comparison. Elemental analyses showed that the absolute quantities of dry mass (DM), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrogen (H) (collectively referred to as CHN) per individual, and the C:N mass ratios, were significantly lower, while the relative CHN, protein and lipid values (in % of DM) were higher in samples from the Irish Sea compared to larvae originating from either the Mediterranean or the North Sea. As in CHN, the absolute level of protein per individual was higher in larvae from the Mediterranean, while no significant differences were observed in the individual lipid contents. Likewise, the digestive gland structure at hatching did not show any differences between study areas. Intraspecific variability in biomass and chemical composition of newly hatched larvae from different regions may be related to differential patterns of reproduction in regions with different climatic conditions. Lobster larvae hatch in the Mediterranean Sea predominantly in winter when both water temperature and planktonic food availability are at a minimum, while hatching in the Irish Sea occurs under more favourable conditions in spring. Hence, significantly higher wet mass, dry mass and protein values in Mediterranean larvae may represent adaptive traits allowing for early posthatching survival and development under food-limited conditions in an oligotrophic environment.

  15. Effect of lower pH on settlement and development of coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viyakarn, Voranop; Lalitpattarakit, Wipada; Chinfak, Narainrit; Jandang, Suppakarn; Kuanui, Pataporn; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Chavanich, Suchana

    2015-06-01

    The effects of pH reduction on the settlement and development of the coral Pocillopora damicornis were investigated. Three different pH treatments (pH = 7.6, 7.9, and 8.1) were used. In addition, water quality (temperature, salinity, total alkalinity) around the study site was monitored. The results showed significant differences in the settlement rates of Pocillopora damicornis larvae between pH treatments (p ≤ 0.05). A decrease in pH levels caused a strong decline in larval settlement rate. In addition, at pH 7.6 and 7.9, all larvae were unable to complete metamorphosis, and metamorphosis delay was observed. Field monitoring showed low fluctuation of all seawater parameters within 24 hours, and there was no difference between seasons. From this study, a strong negative effect of pH reduction on P. damicornis larvae was observed. Although the function of physiology is still not clearly understood, correlations are likely to exist.

  16. Ingestion of domoic acid and its impact on king scallop ( Pecten maximus, Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Kelly, Maeve S.; Campbell, Dirk A.; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhu, Jianxin; Wang, Sufeng

    2007-04-01

    A simple method for spiking formulated feed with domoic acid (DA) was developed in this study. DA feed was prepared by mixing 0.15 mL 100 μg mL-1 DA with 0.1 g formulated feed, and drying the mixture at room temperature for 2h. The prepared DA feed contained 0.19 pg DA per particle. Of the added DA, 46.72% was retained in the feed. Relatively high DA retention (about 50%) was recorded after DA feed was soaked in water for 2h. Exposure to DA feed for 7 d did not cause the increase of tissue DA level of adult king scallop ( Pecten maximus) significantly in 60 d. The increase of their gonad index after DA exposure was not significantly different from the control. No significant change in DA level was found in spermary, ovary or fertilized eggs after DA exposure. These results indicated that DA excretion may be more efficient than DA accumulation under the current experimental conditions, and the mechanism of domoic acid incorporation in P. maximus may involve intracellular biotransformation.

  17. The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio Linnaeus) observed in mangroves in St. John, US Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, C.S.; Pietsch, T.W.; Randall, J.E.; Arnold, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio), the only pelagic member of the frogfish family Antennariidae, is considered an obligate associate of floating mats of the brown algae Sargassum natans and S. fluitans (Adams 1960; Dooley 1972; Pietsch and Grobecker 1987). Between February and April 2010, 20 of these fish were observed in three mangrove-fringed bays in Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, St. John, US Virgin Islands. All of them were clinging to clumps of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera growing on the submerged prop roots of red mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle) distributed along an estimated total of 2,160 mof shoreline (Fig. 1). All of the fish were at a depth of less than 0.5 meters. Two individuals were seen on one prop root, but the other 18 were solitary. Their estimated standard lengths ranged from about 20 to 100 mm. Littler and Littler (2000, p. 295) published a photograph of one individual in blades of the green alga Ulva lactuca growing on a prop root in Belize. This is the first report of the Sargassum Frogfish living in association with attached algae.

  18. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica. PMID:27514889

  19. Reproduction and polychlorinated biphenyls in Fundulus heteroclitus (linnaeus) from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.E.; Gutjahr-Gobell, R.; Pruell, R.J.; Bergen, B.; Mills, L.; McElroy, A.E.

    1998-07-01

    This investigation evaluated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation, survival, and reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus from four stations along a gradient of increasing sediment contamination from West Island in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA, to the most contaminated area of the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, Superfund site. Fish collected during their natural spawning season were held in the laboratory for 5 weeks. Liver concentrations of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs averaged 0.461, 9.48, 20.8, and 29.3 {micro}g/g dry weight, with dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of 0.006, 0.132, 0.543, and 1.56 ng/g: differences among stations were statistically significant. Females from two stations within the Superfund site had significantly greater mortality compared to those within West Island, and growth was reduced. Progeny of fish from the most contaminated station exhibited significantly reduced survival and greater incidence of spinal abnormalities compared to those from West Island. No differences in egg production or food consumption were observed. A significant residue-effect relationship was found between TEQs of liver PCBs and female mortality, consistent with that determined previously from laboratory exposures and validating TEQ as an effects indicator. Embryo and larval survival were inversely related to maternal liver TEQ.

  20. Rock preference of planulae of jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758) for settlement in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Won Duk; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Han, Changhoon; Park, Won Gyu

    2014-06-01

    Planulae of Aurelia aurita were exposed to 11 types of rocks (basalt, gabbro, granite, rhyolite, sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss, quartzite, marble and schist) to examine their attachment preference among rock material and position. Numbers of attached polyps was the highest on marble and the least on limestone. Their preference with regard to settling position was the same among the rocks, showing the highest density of polyps on the underside (88.5%) compared to upper (23.6%) and perpendicular sides (10.3%) of rock. The results showed that while position preference is more important than rock property, higher numbers of polyps were observed in rocks with a medium surface hardness.

  1. Discrimination of prey species of juvenile swordfish Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758) using signature fatty acid analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jock W.; Guest, Michaela A.; Lansdell, Matt; Phleger, Charles F.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2010-07-01

    Signature lipid and fatty acid analysis were used to discriminate the diet of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius, orbital fork length: 60-203 cm) from waters off eastern Australia. The fatty acid (FA) composition of a range of known prey (squid, myctophids, and other fishes) of swordfish, taken from stomach samples and from net tows, was compared with that of the white muscle tissue (WMT) of swordfish from the same region. Swordfish muscle was lipid rich (average 24-42% dry weight), as was the skeleton (28-41%). The robustness of the approach was also tested by comparison against a key squid prey species that was collected and stored using different protocols: (i) fresh frozen, (ii) fresh frozen, then thawed, and (iii) stomach content collection. The FA profiles were generally similar, with the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and palmitic acid (16:0) in particular showing no significant difference. Major fatty acids in swordfish WMT were 18:1ω9c, 16:0, 22:6ω3, and 18:0. Multidimensional scaling showed that the swordfish WMT grouped closely with small fish prey including myctophids, and not with squid. Squid contained markedly higher 22:6ω3 than swordfish. Individual prey species of the myctophidae could also be separated by the same technique. These results were supported by traditional stomach content analyses (SCA) that showed fish were the dominant prey for small swordfish sampled from southern waters whereas squid were the main prey in more northern waters, matching the FA patterns we found for the two regions. We propose that where general diet patterns are established, signature FA analysis has good potential to compliment or in some cases, replace temporal and spatial monitoring of trophic pathways for swordfish and other marine species.

  2. Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female’s pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

  3. [New record of a bat species from China, Megaderma spasma (Linnaeus, 1758)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Biao; Gong, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Hong, Ti-Yu; Zhao, Xu-Dong; Mao, Xiu-Guang

    2010-06-01

    One male bat was collected in a cave in Cuibi Hill (N: 21 degree 53', E: 101 degree 18', H: 683 m a.s.l.), Menglun Town, Mengla County, Yunnan Province, on November 26, 2006. This bat is of medium body size, with 60.7 mm forearm and 21.4 g body mass. Its ears are large ovals and joined medially to the forehead at about 15% of the height of inner margin. The tragus of each ear is slender and distinctly bifid. The noseleaf is simple, and the posterior noseleaf is oval with obtuse tip and convex sides, a significant longitudinal ridge laying middle, which connects to intermediate noseleaf at the base. Intermediate noseleaf presents triangle with a W-shaped tip. Frontal noseleaf is horseshoe shape and attached directly to the muzzle. The tail is absent, and the second finger of each wing has only one phalanx. There are no upper incisors, Pm3 and Pm3. The upper canine has an anterior and a large posterior basal cusps. This bat is identified as lesser false vampire, Megaderma spasma, which is a new record of China. Its external and craniodental measurements were presented and compared with those of M. lyra. The specimen is preserved in Guangdong Entomological Institute. PMID:20672423

  4. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de las; del Prado, Gema; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  5. Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the local distr...

  6. Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

  7. Organization of deutocerebral neuropils and olfactory behavior in the centipede Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Myriapoda: Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Sombke, Andy; Harzsch, Steffen; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-01-01

    Myriapods represent an arthropod lineage, that originating from a marine arthropod ancestor most likely conquered land independently from hexapods and crustaceans. Establishing aerial olfaction during a transition from the ocean to land requires molecules to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Considering that the olfactory sense of myriapods has evolved independently from that in hexapods and crustaceans, the question arises if and how myriapods have solved the tasks of odor detection and odor information processing in air. Comparative studies between arthropod taxa that independently have established a terrestrial life style provide a powerful means of investigating the evolution of chemosensory adaptations in this environment and to understand how the arthropod nervous system evolved in response to new environmental and ecological challenges. In general, the neuroethology of myriapods and the architecture of their central nervous systems are insufficiently understood. In a set of experiments with the centipede Scutigera coleoptrata, we analyzed the central olfactory pathway with serial semi-thin sectioning combined with 3-dimensional reconstruction, antennal backfilling with neuronal tracers, and immunofluorescence combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Furthermore, we conducted behavioral experiments to find out if these animals react to airborne stimuli. Our results show that the primary olfactory and mechanosensory centers are well developed in these organisms but that the shape of the olfactory neuropils in S. coleoptrata is strikingly different when compared with those of hexapods and malacostracan crustaceans. Nevertheless, the presence of distinct neuropils for chemosensory and mechanosensory qualities in S. coleoptrata, malacostracan Crustacea, and Hexapoda could indicate a common architectural principle within the Mandibulata. Furthermore, behavioral experiments indicate that S. coleoptrata is able to perceive airborne stimuli, both from live prey and from a chemical extract of the prey. These results are in line with the morphological findings concerning the well-developed olfactory centers in the deutocerebrum of this species. PMID:20962283

  8. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    PubMed

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. PMID:27192480

  9. Oocyte adhesiveness and embryonic development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2013-05-01

    This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group. PMID:22717095

  10. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  11. Seasonal variation in growth and survival of Strombus canarium (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae.

    PubMed

    Cob, Z C; Arshad, A; Bujang, J S; Ghaffar, M A

    2009-05-01

    This study was conducted to analyze variation in Strombus canarium larvae development, growth and survivals when cultured during wet (main reproductive period) and dry seasons. Larvae were reared at 200 larvae L(-1) in filtered seawater (0.22 microm) and fed with Isochrysis galbana at 1000 cells mL(-1) ad libitum. The culture environment was maintained at 29 +/- 1 degrees C, salinity of 30 +/- 1 PSU and photoperiod of 12:12 light dark cycle. Growth of the larvae was described on a length-at-age basis using the modified Gompertz regression. There was high correlation in shell length-at-age relationship for both wet season (R2 = 0.99) and dry season (R2 = 0.98) culture experiments. The maximal growth rate (M) and survival rate (S) were higher for larvae cultured during wet season (M = 62.44 microm day(-1), S = 14.36-2.31%), compared with dry season (M = 43.05 microm day(-1), S = 5 +/- 1.15%). The maximal attainable larval size (a) was however lower during wet season (950.19 +/- 66.93 microm shell length) compared with dry season (1343.05 +/- 586.51 microm shell length), which might be due to significantly low larvae density in the latter. Further studies are needed to investigate variation in bio-chemical composition of the egg mass, which was suggested as the main reason for the differences. PMID:19634470

  12. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth ( Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation.

  13. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. PMID:21440475

  14. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web. PMID:26851981

  15. Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the local distr...

  16. Metabolic rate and rates of protein turnover in food-deprived cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Lamarre, Simon G; MacCormack, Tyson J; Sykes, Antonio V; Hall, Jennifer R; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Callaghan, Neal I; Driedzic, William R

    2016-06-01

    To determine the metabolic response to food deprivation, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) juveniles were either fed, fasted (3 to 5 days food deprivation), or starved (12 days food deprivation). Fasting resulted in a decrease in triglyceride levels in the digestive gland, and after 12 days, these lipid reserves were essentially depleted. Oxygen consumption was decreased to 53% and NH4 excretion to 36% of the fed group following 3-5 days of food deprivation. Oxygen consumption remained low in the starved group, but NH4 excretion returned to the level recorded for fed animals during starvation. The fractional rate of protein synthesis of fasting animals decreased to 25% in both mantle and gill compared with fed animals and remained low in the mantle with the onset of starvation. In gill, however, protein synthesis rate increased to a level that was 45% of the fed group during starvation. In mantle, starvation led to an increase in cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like enzyme activity and a 2.3-fold increase in polyubiquitin mRNA that suggested an increase in ubiquitin-proteasome activity. In gill, there was a transient increase in the polyubiquitin transcript levels in the transition from fed through fasted to the starved state and cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like activity was lower in starved compared with fed animals. The response in gill appears more complex, as they better maintain rates of protein synthesis and show no evidence of enhanced protein breakdown through recognized catabolic processes. PMID:27053650

  17. Angiogenic activity of latex from Euphorbia tirucalli Linnaeus 1753 (Plantae, Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bessa, G; Melo-Reis, P R; Araújo, L A; Mrué, F; Freitas, G B; Brandão, M L; Silva Júnior, N J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the pro-angiogenic activity of Euphorbia tirucalli, commonly known as "avelós" plant, we performed a series of tests by applying an aqueous E. tirucalli latex solution (10 mg/mL) to the chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) of 80 fertilized chicken eggs incubated in a temperature- and humidity-controlled automatic incubator. The results indicated that the aqueous latex solution increased vascular network formation compared to that with the negative control (p < 0.05) and the inhibitor control (p < 0.05). This suggests that under the experimental conditions tested, the aqueous latex solution induced an inflammatory response leading to neoangiogenesis. PMID:26465734

  18. Hepatic profile of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentally infected by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, 1941.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Usha; Falqueto, Aline Duarte; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-02-10

    One of the species that causes avian malaria is Plasmodium juxtanucleare. It is commonly found in poultry, especially when the birds receive food free of coccidiostats. Since industrial and organic poultry breeding is increasing in the world and few studies have been conducted examining the clinical parameters of both healthy and infected birds, this work evaluated whether the infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus provokes alterations in the birds' hepatic profile. We analyzed the activity of ALT and AST and carried out histological analyses of liver sections of infected fowls by intracelomic inoculation with infected blood from a donor fowl with a parasite load of around 7%. The infected birds' parasite load was evaluated during 45 days by means of blood smears. There was a positive correlation between the increase in parasite load and higher ALT activity in the infected fowls, but there was no significant variation of the AST activity between the control and infected groups, possibly because of the non-specificity of this enzyme as an indicator of hepatic lesion. The results show that infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in G. gallus provokes hepatic alterations, indicated by the increase in the ALT enzyme activity and by the inflammatory infiltrates found in the liver sections of the infected fowls. PMID:21074323

  19. Disseminated pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in a crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Morandi, Federico; Galuppi, Roberta; Buitrago, Maria J; Delogu, Mauro; Lowenstine, Linda J; Panarese, Serena; Benazzi, Cinzia; Sarli, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Adiaspiromycosis is primarily a necrotizing granulomatous pneumonia caused by a dimorphic fungus of the genus Emmonsia. A young crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) found dead showed multiple fractures, chronic pleuritis, and granulomatous pneumonia. Microscopically, cystic structures were consistent with adiaspiromycosis by Emmonsia crescens. The diagnosis was confirmed using molecular methods. PMID:22493137

  20. Ectoparasite load in the crested porcupine Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758 in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Emiliano; Sforzi, Andrea; Menchetti, Mattia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Lovari, Sandro; Pisanu, Benoît

    2015-06-01

    The crested porcupine Hystrix cristata is a large body-sized rodent, occurring in Europe only in the Italian Peninsula, where it may have been introduced in early Medieval times. Its parasite fauna is currently poorly known and limited to few anecdotal observations. We have analyzed the ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines from Tuscany and Latium (Central Italy). Both captured and road-killed individuals were checked for fleas and ticks. Overall, only 39 porcupines were infested by four species of ticks and five of fleas. Abundance of ectoparasites was higher in areas with higher habitat richness, with respect to densely wooded areas. The most frequent species was the flea Pulex irritans (25%), whose prevalence peaked in winter probably because of optimal abiotic conditions in the porcupine's den. The remaining species of both hard ticks (Rhipicephalus bursa, Pholeoixodes hexagonus, and Ixodes ventalloi) and fleas (Paraceras melis, Ctenocephalides canis, Dasypsyllus gallinulae, and Hystrichopsylla talpae), all with prevalence lower than 5%, could be due to den sharing with other vertebrates, mainly carnivores such as, e.g., red foxes and badgers. The second most prevalent species was the generalist tick Ixodes ricinus (21%). An adult male-biased parasitism for ticks has been detected, suggesting a possible role of testosterone related immune-depressive effect. The low richness in dominant ectoparasite species, built up by locally acquired generalist taxa, provides support to the allochthonous origin of this rodent in Italy. PMID:25773184

  1. Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Lavery, Shane D; Farhadi, Ahmad; Farahmand, Hamid; Chan, Tin-Yam; Azhdehakoshpour, Ashkan; Thakur, Vibhavari; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region) and nuclear (18S, ITS-1) DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI), and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI), but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus. PMID:24892781

  2. Hematology and plasma biochemistry of wild-caught Indian cobra Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of snake physiological status. Although reference ranges are readily available for many snake species, they are lacking for most venomous ophidians. We determined hematology and plasma biochemistry reference ranges for the wild-caught Indian cobra, Naja naja. Results Blood samples, taken from the ventral tail vein, were assessed for erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, considering the sex of snakes. Results revealed the erythrocyte numbers (male, 390000 ± 12503.33/mm3 and female, 347500 ± 7505.55/mm3), shapes and the centrally located oval nuclei. Leukocytes were round, circular or disk-shaped, and the mean size was larger in male than female snakes. The maximum number of leukocytes was found to be 11700 ± 100/mm3 in male and 12100 ± 200/mm3 in female snakes, and mean values of differential leukocyte count differed statistically between male and female snakes. The total leukocyte levels were found to be higher in female snakes, but the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCV values were higher in male snakes. However, the MCH and MCHC values remained higher in female snakes throughout the study period. Mean protein and cholesterol contents differed significantly between male (45.32 ± 1.76 and 3.76 ± 0.06 mg/mL) and female (12.47 ± 0.82 and 4.72 ± 0.2 mg/mL) snakes. Conclusions In conclusion, monitoring snake hematological and biochemical parameters can serve as a means to evaluate the physiological and health status of N. naja populations, which may be a useful indicator of their environmental status. PMID:24735569

  3. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV) in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. Results In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. Conclusion These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior. PMID:19878557

  4. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide. PMID:23295821

  5. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  6. Sperm ultrastructure of the European hornet Vespa crabro (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Karina; Lino-Neto, José; Dolder, Heidi; Dallai, Romano

    2009-01-01

    This study represents the first sperm description of a Vespinae species (Vespa crabro). The acrosome consists of an acrosomal vesicle and a perforatorium. The nucleus has compact chromatin and shows lenticular structures on the nuclear envelope. These structures, which have never been observed in a hymenopteran sperm, could be clusters of nuclear pores. The centriolar adjunct has an asymmetric pattern and shows a structured periphery. The centriole consists of 9 accessory microtubules and 9 doublet microtubules devoid of arms and spokes. The axoneme has a 9+9+2 microtubule pattern and the accessory microtubules have 16 protofilaments. The mitochondrial derivatives differ in length and diameter. The larger one is adjacent to the nuclear base, while the smaller one begins below the centriolar adjunct. They possess three distinct areas and a large paracrystalline region, which occurs only in the large one. The large mitochondrial derivative ends first, followed by the small one. The axoneme gradually disorganizes: first the central microtubules disappear, then the doublets, which show opened B-tubules, and finally the accessory microtubules. The sperm morphology of V. crabro is very similar to that of the polistine wasp, Agelaia vicina. This can indicate that, in Vespidae, sperm morphology is maintained without important variations among subfamilies and/or that this similarity indicates close phylogenetic relationship between these two subfamilies. Although Vespidae phylogenetically related to Formicidae, these data suggest that the former more closely related to Apoidea than to Formicidae. PMID:18675936

  7. Two new species of the genus Panorpa Linnaeus (Mecoptera, Panorpidae) from Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji-Shen; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new scorpionfly species, Panorpa reflexa sp. n. and Panorpa parallela sp. n., are described and illustrated from Yunnan Province, China. Panorpa reflexa can be readily differentiated from its congeners by the 3-shaped parameres in male genitalia. Panorpa parallela is unique for its parallel parameres in male genitalia. The number of Panorpa species is raised to four in Yunnan Province, and to 113 throughout China. PMID:27408530

  8. Sublethal effect of copper toxicity against histopathological changes in the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Maharajan, A; Rajalakshmi, S; Vijayakumaran, M; Kumarasamy, P

    2012-02-01

    The tissue damage induced by various organic pollutants in aquatic animals is well documented, but there is a dearth of information relating to the histological alterations induced by copper in the spiny lobster. In the present study, intermoult juveniles of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (average weight 150-200 g) were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of the copper (9.55 and 19.1 μg/l) for a period of 28 days. The muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of the lobsters were then dissected out and processed for light microscopic studies. Exposure to copper was found to result in several alterations in the histoarchitecture of the muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of P. homarus. The alterations included disruption and congestion of muscle bundle in muscle tissue; blackened haemocytes; distended lumen and F cell; necrosis of the tubules of the hepatopancreas; disarrangement of circular muscle of the midgut; accumulation of haemocytes in the haemocoelic space; swelling and fusion of lamellae; abnormal gill tips; hyperplastic, necrotic, and blackened secondary gill lamellae of the gills; damaged neurosecretory cell and sensory and motor fibre; necrotic of the thoracic ganglion; dispersedly arranged muscle bands; clumped satellite cells and nucleus of the heart. The results obtained suggest that the muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of lobsters exposed to copper were structurally altered. Such alterations could affect vital physiological functions, such as absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas, digestion of gut and respiration, osmotic and ionic regulations of the gills, which in turn could ultimately affect the survival and growth of P. homarus. Thus, all possible remedial measures should be adopted to prevent the occurrence of copper contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:21861131

  9. First detection of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Riehn, K; Lalkovski, N; Hamedy, A; Lücker, Ernst

    2014-06-01

    The trematode Alaria alata, an intestinal parasite of different carnivore species is widely distributed throughout Europe. The mesocercarial stages of Alaria spp. may infect almost all vertebrate species, including humans, and, in particular, omnivorous scavengers such as wild boars serve as paratenic hosts for the parasite. The introduction of the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) opened the way to a reliable detection of Alaria spp. mesocercariae in different body tissues of their paratenic hosts. For the first time, it was possible to detect vital A. alata mesocercariae from two Bulgarian wild boars by means of this new method. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of the respective parasitic DNA allowed the unequivocal species identification of the parasites as A. alata. Isolation and molecular biological identification of the parasite's developmental stages make significant contributions to completion of data on both the distribution of Alaria spp. in stocks of European game and the relationship between different Eurasian Alaria spp. isolates. PMID:23374251

  10. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João C P; Fujihara, Caroline J; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Pantoja, José C F; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3-9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management. PMID:26717147

  11. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

  12. Manganese effects on haematopoietic cells and circulating coelomocytes of Asterias rubens (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Oweson, Carolina; Sköld, Helen; Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria; Hernroth, Bodil

    2008-08-29

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal in marine sediments where it mainly occurs as MnO(2). During hypoxic conditions it is converted into a bioavailable state, Mn(2+), and can reach levels that previously have shown effects on immune competent cells of the crustacean, Nephrops norvegicus. Here we investigated if Mn also affects circulating coelomocytes and their renewal in the common sea star, Asterias rubens, when exposed to concentrations of Mn that can be found in nature. When the sea stars were exposed to Mn it accumulated in the coelomic fluid and the number of circulating coelomocytes, in contrast to what was recorded in Nephrops, increased significantly. By using the substitute nucleotide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, for tracing cell division and by recording mitotic index by nuclei staining, we found that Mn induced proliferation of cells from a putative haematopoietic tissue, the coelomic epithelium. In addition, the haematopoietic tissue and coelomocytes showed stress response in terms of changes in HSP70 levels and protein carbonyls, as judged by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Measurement of dehydrogenase activity, using MTS/PMS, revealed that Mn showed cytotoxic properties. We also found that the phagocytotic capacity of coelomocytes was significantly inhibited by Mn. It was concluded that the exposure of A. rubens to Mn induced renewal of coelomocytes and impaired their immune response. PMID:18639346

  13. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

  14. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2010-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

  15. Dexamethasone action on caudal fin regeneration of carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ochandio, B S; Bechara, I J; Parise-Maltempi, P P

    2015-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the prolonged use of corticoids can delay the healing process, affecting re-epithelialization, neovascularization and collagen synthesis. As the fins of teleost fish contain a large amount of collagen, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (anti-inflammatory and glucocorticoid steroid widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases) during the regeneration process in the caudal fin of specimens of carp (Cyprinus carpio). For such, two glass aquaria were used - one for a group of fish treated with dexamethasone (Henrifarma) in a 20 mg/L concentration and the other for the control group. The caudal fins were amputated transversally and fish remained in their respective aquaria until regeneration occurred. Samples of regenerating fins were collected on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 after amputation. The fins in the control group regenerated normally and grew within the expected in time course. The fins in the group treated with dexamethasone were significantly smaller in comparison to the control group at every evaluation time. Thus, it was possible to verify that, at this concentration of dexamethasone, the regeneration of the caudal fins was delayed, but not completely inhibited. The results show that the caudal fin is a good model for histological studies on regeneration and the action of drug toxicity, but it's also of great importance the interaction with further studies for a better knowledge and understanding of all the changes in all the phases. PMID:26132030

  16. Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoppe, Sabine

    1991-09-01

    The association between Acyrtus rubiginosus (Gobiesocidae), Clastotoechus vanderhorsti (Porcellanidae), Ophiothrix sp. (Ophiotrichidae) and their rock-boring host Echinometra lucunter (Echinometridae) has been studied on the rocky shores of Santa Marta, Colombia. The three inhabitants of the sea urchin dwellings benefit from their cohabitation by receiving effective shelter from intertidal effects and from predators. The sea urchin, by contrast, seems neither to be benefitted nor harmed by the association.

  17. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  18. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  19. GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

  20. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  1. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    PubMed Central

    Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  2. Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

  3. Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rindoria, Nehemiah Mogoi; Mungai, Lewis Kamau; Yasindi, Andrew Wamalwa; Otachi, Elick Onyango

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. PMID:26691859

  4. [Periodicity of oviposition of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and field].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Adriana Dos Santos; de Sá Sciavico, Célia J; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The object of this work was to determine of gonotrophic diel pattern of female Aedes aegypti in laboratory and field conditions. Three day-old female mosquitoes were the fed on chicken blood and transferred to bioassay cages. Four oviposition substrates were offered: paper sulfite, filter, butter and towel. The results showed that filter paper received a significantly higher (40.4%) percentage of deposited eggs than the other oviposition substrates. After their first blood meal, females started to oviposit on the 3rd model day; 35.7% of the total number of eggs deposited. The oviposition diel patterns of females were observed every two hours during the photoperiod in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, the periodicity of oviposition showed that the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th- 12th h of photophase and 1st - 2nd h of scotophase. In the field, the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th - 12th h of photophase and 1st - 4th h of scotophase. These results point out that Aedes aegypti showed an oviposition periodicity pattern that can subsidize monitoring and or control of vector insect. itis suggested that ovitraps should be placed in the field during the morning hours since the captures occur during afternoon. PMID:17119745

  5. Evolutionary Divergence of Geographic Subspecies within the Scalloped Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, Shane D.; Farhadi, Ahmad; Farahmand, Hamid; Chan, Tin-Yam; Azhdehakoshpour, Ashkan; Thakur, Vibhavari; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region) and nuclear (18S, ITS-1) DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI), and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. “Brown” subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI), but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus. PMID:24892781

  6. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Alessandra; dos Santos, Rafaelle Cunha; Carvalho, Nadino; Martins, Áurea Linhares; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 μm and 137.6 × 104.9 μm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22166390

  7. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic. PMID:4024148

  8. Lionfish, Pterois volitans Linnaeus 1758, the complete mitochondrial DNA of an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Vargas-Peralta, Carmen E; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Hénaut, Yann; García-De-León, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans, native from the Indo-Pacific, has been found in Atlantic and Caribbean waters and is considered as an invasive species. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ739816), which has a total length of 16,500 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Pteroinae subfamily (family Scorpaenidae). This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic and population genetic studies of this invasive species. PMID:25187501

  9. The impact of water pollution on fish species in southeast region of Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vaz S Silva, Sabrina; Dias, Aurélio Henrique C; Dutra, Elaine S; Pavanin, Alfredo L; Morelli, Sandra; Pereira, Boscolli B

    2016-01-01

    The rivers from the region of Catalão, Southeast Goiás State, Brazil, are exposed to intense anthropogenic influences including agricultural activities, industry, and urban waste. The aim of this study was to determine the severity of water pollution by conducting an experiment involving in situ biomonitoring of water constituents on genotoxicity in fish inhabiting these sites. The genotoxicity of three sites of the region were analyzed utilizing the micronucleus (MN) test. It was of interest to determine whether there were differences between sampling sites such as urban perimeter, agriculture, and fertilizer industry in control, and monitored species including Astyanax fasciatus, Astyanax altiparanae, and Characidium fasciatum. Data demonstrated that the species at sites 1, 2, and 3 exhibited a marked increase in frequency of MN compared to fish from site 4. Significant elevation in frequency of MN occurred in erythrocytes of A. fasciatus and A. altiparanae at sites 1 and 2. At site 3 higher frequencies of MN were observed in C. fasciatum. MN induction in C. fasciatum was correlated with chromium levels in water and sediment, while A. fasciatum and A. altiparanae showed an association with zinc in water and sediment. Data suggest that benthic and nektonic fish species display different sensitivities in relation to anthropogenic contaminant influences. PMID:26699803

  10. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujisić, Ljubodrag V.; Vučković, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ilić, Bojan S.; Antić, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorović, Nina M.; Mrkić, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lučić, Luka R.; Ćurčić, Božidar P. M.; Mitić, Bojan M.

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

  11. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae).

    PubMed

    Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; Vučković, Ivan M; Makarov, Slobodan E; Ilić, Bojan S; Antić, Dragan Z; Jadranin, Milka B; Todorović, Nina M; Mrkić, Ivan V; Vajs, Vlatka E; Lučić, Luka R; Curčić, Božidar P M; Mitić, Bojan M

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises. PMID:23907296

  12. Identification and tissue-specific distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Costa-Filho, Adilson; Souza, Maisa L S; Martins, Rita C L; dos Santos, André V F; Silva, Gabriela V; Comaru, Michele W; Moreira, Mônica F; Atella, Georgia C; Allodi, Silvana; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

    2004-03-01

    We have previously characterized heparan sulfate (HS) as the major ovarian sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in females of Rhodnius prolixus, while chondroitin sulfate (CS) was the minor component. Using histochemical procedures we found that GAGs were concentrated in the ovarian tissue but not found inside the oocytes. Here, we extend our initial observations of GAG expression in R. prolixus by characterizing these molecules in other organs: the fat body, intestinal tract, and the reproductive tracts. Only HS and CS were found in the three organs analyzed, however CS was the major GAG species in these tissues. We also determined the compartmental distribution of GAGs in these organs by histochemical analysis using 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, and evaluated the specific distribution of CS within both male and female reproductive tracts by immunohistochemistry using an anti-CS antibody. We also determined the GAG composition in eggs at days 0 and 6 of embryonic development. Only HS and CS were found in eggs at day 6, while no sulfated GAGs were detected at day 0. Our results demonstrate that HS and CS are the only sulfated GAG species expressed in the fat body and in the intestinal and reproductive tracts of Rhodnius male and female adults. Both sulfated GAGs were also identified in Rhodnius embryos. Altogether, these results show no qualitative differences in the sulfated GAG composition regarding tissue-specific or development-specific distribution. PMID:14871621

  13. Field effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) in ornamental ceramic containers with common aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Seleena, B; Lau, K W; Daliza, A R; Ella Syafinas, S; Mohd Sofian, A

    2009-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the impact of larvaciding using a Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) formulation (VectoBac WG) against Aedes aegypti larvae in earthen jars containing aquatic plants. Aquatic plants commonly used for landscaping, Pistia stratiotes (L.) (Liliopsida: Araceae) and Sagittaria sp. (Liliopsida: Alismataceae) were placed inside earthen jars filled with 50 L tap water. All earthen jars were treated with Bti formulation at 8g/1000L. Untreated jars with and without aquatic plants were also set up as controls. Fifty laboratory-bred 2nd instar larvae were introduced into each earthen jar. All earthen jars were observed daily. Number of adults emerged was recorded and the larval mortality was calculated. The indicators of effectiveness of Bti for these studies were (i) residual activities of Bti, and (ii) larval mortality in earthen jars with or without aquatic plants. The treated earthen jars containing P. stratiotes and Sagittaria sp. showed significant residual larvicidal effect up to 7 weeks, in comparison to untreated control (p < 0.05). The larval mortality ranged from 77.34% - 100% for jars with aquatic plants vs 80.66% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Earthen jars treated with Bti without aquatic plants also exhibited significantly longer residual larvicidal activity of up to 10 weeks (p < 0.05). The larval mortality ranged from 12.66% - 100% for jars with aquatic plants vs 59.34% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Thus, earthen jars without aquatic plants exhibited longer residual larvicidal effect compared to those with aquatic plants. This study suggested that containers with aquatic plants for landscaping should be treated more frequently with Bti in view of the shortened residual activity. PMID:19696734

  14. Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:23569831

  15. Evaluation of the molluscicidal potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    PubMed

    Pereira Filho, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2014-01-01

    The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

  16. The first report of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-living European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Majewska, Anna C; Werner, Anna; Cabaj, Władysław; Moskwa, Bozena

    2014-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 is an apicomplexan parasite with a worldwide distribution. It is of great medical and veterinary importance because it may cause abortion or congenital disease in its intermediate hosts, including man. The European bison, the largest herbivorous animal in Europe, is a species that has been saved from extinction. Twenty-four of 95 examined sera of the European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) from the Białowieza Forest, Poland collected from 2008 to 2011 were found to be positive for the presence of T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies using a direct agglutination test, with the antibody titre in positive animals ranging from 40 to 18000. Statistically significant differences were observed only between years of sample collection. This is the first report on T. gondii in lowland European bison living in the natural environment. PMID:24684049

  17. Peptide toxin glacontryphan-M is present in the wings of the butterfly Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Bae, Narkhyun; Li, Lin; Lödl, Martin; Lubec, Gert

    2012-10-30

    Protein profiling has revealed the presence of glacontryphan-M, a peptide toxin identified only in the sea snail genus Conus, in the wings of Hebomoia glaucippe (HG). The wings and body of HG were homogenized and the proteins were extracted and analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion. Posttranslational protein modifications were detected and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. An antibody was generated against glacontryphan-M, and protein extracts from the wings of HG samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines were tested by immunoblotting. Glacontryphan-M was unambiguously identified in the wings of HG containing the following posttranslational protein modifications: monoglutamylation at E55, methylation at E53, quinone modification at W61, cyanylation at C56, and amidation of the C terminus at G63. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the toxin in the wings of HG from all origins, showing a single band for glacontryphan-M in HG samples from Malaysia and Philippines and a double band in HG samples from Indonesia. Intriguingly, sequence analysis indicated that the Conus glacontryphan is identical to that of HG. The toxin may function as a defense against diverse predators, including ants, mantes, spiders, lizards, green frogs, and birds. PMID:23071323

  18. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

  19. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

  20. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

  1. Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in south regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Forejtek, P; Hutarova, Z; Vodnansky, M

    2013-10-18

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 221 wild boar carcasses obtained from regular hunts in the Czech Republic were tested for Alaria alata mesocercariae using the Alaria-migration-technique. Most samples originated from South Moravia (173), and all 15 positive samples were found in this region, in particular in Tvrdonice (3/10) and Lanžhot (12/28), close to the site of the first description of this parasitic stage in wild boars in the territory of former ČSSR. These hunting grounds are located between the rivers March and Thaya, and rich in floodplains. Among the 38 carcasses tested in this area, higher carcass weights were associated with higher frequency of positive carcasses (P<0.05). Overall frequency of positive carcasses was 15/221 (6.8%). In positive samples (adipose and glandular tissue and muscle), the median number of mesocercariae was 14.3 per 100 g (range 3-69). PMID:23806746

  2. Supplementation with imuno-2865® in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    PubMed

    Župan, Ivan; Tkalčić, Suzana; Šarić, Tomislav; Čož-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Topić-Popović, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubić, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Poljičak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865(®) on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865(®) kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865(®) in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream. PMID:26455665

  3. The contribution of cytogenetics and flow cytometry for understanding the karyotype evolution in three Dorstenia (Linnaeus, 1753) species (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Amaral-Silva, Paulo Marcos; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Praça-Fontes, Milene Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and for understanding the evolutionary history of different taxa. However, the chromosome number is the only karyotype aspect reported for the species of Dorstenia so far. In this study, the nuclear genome size of Dorstenia arifolia (Lamarck, 1786), Dorstenia bonijesu (Carauta & C. Valente, 1983) and Dorstenia elata (Hooker, 1840) was evaluated and their karyotype morphometry accomplished, with the aim of verifying the potential of those parameters to understand evolutionary issues. Mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 3.49 picograms (pg) for Dorstenia elata to 2C = 5.47 pg for Dorstenia arifolia, a variation of ± 1.98 pg. Even though showing a marked difference in 2C value, the three species exhibited the same 2n = 32. Corroborating the flow cytometry data, differences in chromosome morphology were found among the karyotypes of the species investigated. Based on this and the only phylogeny proposed for Dorstenia thus far, structural rearrangements are related to the karyotype variations among the three species. Besides, the karyological analysis suggests a polyploid origin of the Dorstenia species studied here. PMID:27186340

  4. The contribution of cytogenetics and flow cytometry for understanding the karyotype evolution in three Dorstenia (Linnaeus, 1753) species (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Silva, Paulo Marcos; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Praça-Fontes, Milene Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and for understanding the evolutionary history of different taxa. However, the chromosome number is the only karyotype aspect reported for the species of Dorstenia so far. In this study, the nuclear genome size of Dorstenia arifolia (Lamarck, 1786), Dorstenia bonijesu (Carauta & C. Valente, 1983) and Dorstenia elata (Hooker, 1840) was evaluated and their karyotype morphometry accomplished, with the aim of verifying the potential of those parameters to understand evolutionary issues. Mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 3.49 picograms (pg) for Dorstenia elata to 2C = 5.47 pg for Dorstenia arifolia, a variation of ± 1.98 pg. Even though showing a marked difference in 2C value, the three species exhibited the same 2n = 32. Corroborating the flow cytometry data, differences in chromosome morphology were found among the karyotypes of the species investigated. Based on this and the only phylogeny proposed for Dorstenia thus far, structural rearrangements are related to the karyotype variations among the three species. Besides, the karyological analysis suggests a polyploid origin of the Dorstenia species studied here. PMID:27186340

  5. A COI Nonsynonymous Mutation as Diagnostic Tool for Intraspecific Discrimination in the European Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Federico, Concetta; Sabella, Giorgio; Saccone, Salvatore; Ferrito, Venera

    2015-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in Europe. In this study, the mitochondrial Control Region (CR) and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of E. encrasicolus from four localities in the central Mediterranean. In both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, A and B, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of molecular markers. Both CR and COI markers consistently identified two haplogroups. The COI sequence analysis identified a non-synonymous transversion (T to G) at position 116 of the translated sequence, resulting in an amino acid change. All COI sequences of haplogroup A had an amino acid sequence with alanine in this position, while serine was present in the same position in haplogroup B. The two haplogroups A and B were also discriminated by the variable number of TACA elements at the 5’-end of the mitochondrial CR. The selection tests applied to the COI dataset revealed that codon 116 was not under positive selection, that seven amino acid changes were under purifying selection, and that two amino acids were under episodic positive selection. PMID:26599908

  6. The essential oil of Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi in larval control of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and its allies, such as Stegomyia, to transmit diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, makes them important in public health. This study aims to evaluate the use of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper in biological control of by assessing and quantifying the larvicidal effect against S. aegypti, the only available access to dengue control, and test its risk of genotoxicity with Salmonella typhimurium as an indicator of safety for its environmental use. Results The density of the oil was 0.8622 g mL-1. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed six major constituents: δ-3-carene (55.43%), α-pinene (16.25%), sylvestrene (10.67%), germacrene D (2.17), β-myrcene (1.99%), and isoterpinolene (1.4%). The minimum inhibitory dose to larvae development was 862.20 μg mL-1. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the essential oil for larvae was between the concentrations of 172.44-344.88 μg mL-1. There was no mutagenic risk for the essential oil, since there were no biochemical or morphological changes in S. typhimurium after exposure to the essential oil. Conclusions The minimum inhibitory essential oil concentration and the median lethal dose pointed to the value of the use of water dispersions of Brazilian pepper essential oil as an environmental safe natural larvicidal for S. aegypti. PMID:20799936

  7. Seasonal fluctuation in the neuronal classes of parahippocampal area of P. krameri (Scopoli, 1769) and E. scolopaceus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, U C; Singh, S; Singh, D

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampus in birds is a relatively narrow, curved strip of tissue that lies on the dorsomedial surface of telencephalon. It is widest dorsally at the junction with parahippocampal area, and it tapers with septum. Parahippocampal area (APH), the most prominent field of hippocampus is a long structure that lies at the most rostral level and continues upto caudal extent. It has been indicated by behavioral studies that hippocampus in birds plays an important role in process of learning, memory formation, food storage and spatial navigation. The present study enlightens some interesting fluctuations occurring in the neuronal classes of parahippocampal area of two seasonally breeding birds viz. P. krameri and E. scolopaceus in terms of dendritic thickness, spine density and spine morphology during breeding and non-breeding time period of birds. The Golgi-impregnated sections were used to study these fluctuations and it was noticed that there was a significant increase in dendritic thickness, spine density, spine length and spine head diameter during breeding as compared to non-breeding period. The results obtained were comparable in two different seasonally breeding birds, supporting the view that avian parahippocampal area shows neuroanatomical plasticity associated with breeding and non-breeding period because of variations in endocrinology. PMID:23046870

  8. Fine structure and chemical analysis of the metathoracic scent gland secretion in Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Durak, Dilek; Kalender, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    Morphology and ultrastructure of metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) of Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Extracts of the volatile fraction of the MTG secretion from males and females were subjected to initial analysis. One pair of the MTG is composed of a reservoir and a pair of lateral glands connected to the reservoir with a duct. MTGs are open in between the meso- and metacoxae, on evaporation areas with a mushroom-like structure. Reservoir walls embody two types of cells, type I and type II, respectively. Cells of type I have numerous organelles, while type II cells have only been found in a certain area of the reservoir wall. They have large secretory ducts lined by a cuticular intima layer. The lateral glands connected to reservoir have two further types of cells. Lateral glands are lined by type A secretory cells and secretory duct is found in their cytoplasm. Type B cells are poor in organelles and are smaller than type A cells. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry examinations revealed that both in males and females of G. lineatum MTGs 14 chemical compounds occur, among which only 10 are common. These secretions indicate information such as defensive and pheromonal activities, other functions could be attributed to the secretion of the MTG of G. lineatum by comparison with other closely related bug species. In the analyses of MTGs of females of G. lineatum, n-octadecanoic acid was observed at the most and n-undecane was determined at lowest level, while males of G. lineatum n-tridecane was determined at the highest level; and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate has been observed at the lowest. PMID:19200924

  9. Fine structure and chemical analysis of the metathoracic scent gland of Eurygaster maura (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).

    PubMed

    Durak, Dilek; Kalender, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTG) of Eurygaster maura were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, extracts of the volatile fraction of the MTG secretion from males and females were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In SEM investigations, MTG are composed of a reservoir and a pair of lateral glands connected to the reservoir by a duct. MTG are open in between the meso- and the metacoxae. These areas, called evaporation areas, are composed of mushroom-like elements. In TEM investigations, the reservoir walls contained two types of cells. Generally, a reservoir is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells, type I cells, which have numerous organelles. Type II cells are found only in a certain area of the reservoir wall. These cells have large secretory ducts lined by a cuticular intima layer. The lateral glands are lined by secretory cells and a secretory duct found in their cytoplasm. Nuclei of secretory cells are closed to the basal region of the cells and circular-shaped. In GC-MS investigations, the MTG exhibited a typical scutellerid composition. In general, (E)-2-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, n-tridecane, n-hexanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and n-dodecane compounds were present, while diisooctyl acetate and 14-Beta-H-Pregna were detected only in the male extracts of Eurygaster maura. PMID:18274257

  10. Sexual Shape Dimorphism of the Mangrove Crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Decapoda, Ucididae) Accessed through Geometric Morphometric

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, C. E. R. D.; Lima-Filho, P. A.; Molina, W. F.; Freire, F. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is often observed in Crustaceans. Considering the great diversity of this subphylum, only few reports are found in the literature and most are mainly based on traditional morphometry. The present study uses geometric morphometrics analysis to identify sexual dimorphism by shape variation in the overexploited semiterrestrial crab Ucides cordatus, species with great social and economic importance in South America. Comparative morphology analyses were performed by using the outer face of the propodus of major cheliped, dorsal and anterior region of carapace shape. Significant differences in shape between sexes were detected in these body areas. The causes of dimorphism presented in this species are not clear but, analogous to other possibly associated species, it may be inferred that the causes are with adaptations to body ability of reproductive potential (females), and of reproductive behaviour and agonistics encounters (males). Additional analyses on courtship displays and other reproductive aspects should provide better comprehension of functionality of this morphological differentiation. PMID:25383362

  11. Three centuries of temperature records in Scotland preserved in sclerochronological archives from freshwater pearl mussels, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannell, C. L., ,, Dr; Fallick, A. E., ,, Prof.

    2009-04-01

    Bivalves are natural indicators of environmental variability as they reflect environmental conditions such as temperature in growth bands within the shell. During the winter period in temperate climes, shell growth ceases owing to the low water temperature and limited food supply. This hiatus is revealed by chemical staining as a very distinct etch-resistant band - termed the winter line. Winter lines alternate with less etch-resistant bands thus providing a chronology for any analyses which can be correlated to other proxy series and instrumental data. Freshwater pearl mussels have also been shown to form their shells in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the ambient water thus fluctuations in water temperature can be constrained from the ^18Ocarbonatedata. As long as the date of collection is known, annual growth increments provide a precise dating tool for isotope samples and allow the allocation of precise calendar years to each part of the shell. Measurements of consecutive increments serve as records of isotopic composition from which derived temperatures may be correlated with other sample series and annual instrumental records, giving a high resolution proxy for temperature for a given region. ....... The use of live-collected M. margaritifera shells is now prohibited in the UK due to the mussel's rarity and its protection under the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) and the European Union Habitats and Species Directive (EUHSD). Museum collections of freshwater pearl mussels thus provide an invaluable resource, with many collections in UK museums having been live-collected during 19th century. As M. margaritifera is one of the longest-lived invertebrates, attaining an age of up to 140 years, sclerochronological and ^18Oaragonite data have the potential to provide terrestrial climate records on the centennial scale. The use of museum specimens has the potential to establish a composite three hundred year record of Scottish environmental change. Shells from several localities in Scotland dating from the late 1700s to the present were sampled and the results compiled to construct a composite record of temperature change prior to and during the anthopogenically-induced contribution to climate change. The breadth of the collections used and the sampling protocol employed allows the examination of intra-individual and intraspecific variability in ^18Oaragonite data from contemporaneous individuals from the same locality. Results have implications for the use of archaeological and subfossil shells in the reconstruction of past climates.

  12. Distribution and biological features of the common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, B.; Bottari, T.; Giordano, D.; Profeta, A.; Rinelli, P.

    2014-12-01

    A synthetic analysis of the distribution, abundance and some biological traits of the common pandora ( Pagellus erythrinus) was performed. Data were gathered in 15 experimental bottom trawl surveys carried out off the southern Tyrrhenian Sea from 1994 to 2008. A total of 2,166 P. erythrinus were found in the investigated area, with a preference for the upper continental shelf (10-100 m). The highest persistence was recorded in the trawl-banned areas. The sex ratio Sr = F/( F + M) ranged between 0.60 and 0.96 (overall 0.78). The size at which 50 % of the individuals were mature was 157 and 170 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The length-weight relationship for all individuals was described by the following parameters: a = 0.016 and b = 2.905. Growth was evaluated (sexes combined) by applying length-based methods; up to eight significant modal components were evidenced. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for the whole population were estimated at L ∞ = 454 mm, K = 0.08 and t 0 = -2.57. The present results are in agreement with the information available for the other Mediterranean stocks suggesting common biological features.

  13. Effects of a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls on reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.E.; Gutjahr-Gobell, R.; Pruell, R.J.; Bergen, B.; McElroy, A.E.

    1998-07-01

    To assess the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction, female Fundulus heteroclitus were exposed to a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs, mimicking the mixture found in fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, a PCB-contaminated estuary. Exposure was by intraperitoneal injection of the mixture dissolved in corn oil. Doses of 0.76, 3.8, and 19 {micro}g PCB mixture per gram of wet weight produced liver concentrations of 2.99, 12.2, and 32.8 {micro}g non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs per gram of dry liver, with dioxin toxic equivalency concentrations (TEQs) of 0.0963, 0.409, and 0.720 ng/g, respectively. Female mortality was 58%, and egg production was reduced by 77% at the highest dose, compared to controls. Food consumption declined with increasing PCB concentration, suggesting that PCBs act indirectly to reduce fecundity through an energetic effect. Pituitary gonadotropin content appeared to be suppressed at the highest dose, but the ability of ovarian follicles to produce estradiol and testosterone in vitro was not impaired. Significant residue-effects linkages were found, with TEQ emerging as a potential indicator of adverse effects. Mortality was directly related, and egg production was inversely related to log{sub 10}TEQ. Multiple regression analysis indicated that egg production was directly related to pituitary gonadotropin content and food consumption.

  14. Thermal tolerance during early ontogeny in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1785): Bioenergetics, nurse egg partitioning and developmental success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

    2013-05-01

    Temperature is arguably the primary factor affecting development in ectotherms and, as a result, may be the driving force behind setting species' geographic limits. The shallow-water gastropod Buccinum undatum is distributed widely throughout the North Atlantic, with an overall annual thermal range of below zero to above 22 °C. In UK waters this species is a winter spawner. Egg masses are laid and develop when sea temperatures are at their coolest (4 to 10 °C) indicating future climate warming may have the potential to cause range shifts in this species. In order to examine the potential impacts of ocean warming, we investigate the effects of temperature on the early ontogeny of B. undatum across a thermal range of 0 to 22 °C. Each egg mass consists of approximately 100 capsules, in which embryos undergo direct development. Successful development was observed at temperatures ranging from 6 to 18 °C. Rates of development increased with temperature, but the proportion of each egg mass developing successfully decreased at the same time. With increasing temperature, the mean early veliger weight increased, but the number of early veligers developing per capsule decreased, suggesting a negative impact on the number of crawl-away juveniles produced per capsule. Elemental analysis showed both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to increase with temperature in early veligers but not in hatching juveniles, indicating greater energy reserves are accumulated during early ontogeny to compensate for the higher energetic demands of development at higher temperature. The developmental plasticity observed in B. undatum suggests this species to be capable of adapting to temperatures above those it currently experiences in nature. B. undatum may possess a thermal resilience to ocean warming at its current upper temperature distribution limit. This thermal resilience, however, may come at the cost of a reduced offspring number.

  15. Cotylogaster basiri Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 (Aspidobothrea: Aspidogastridae) in Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus, 1766) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae): first report from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallas, M; Silveira, E F; Périco, E

    2016-07-11

    Up until now, there have been few studies of the helminth fauna of Brazilian populations of Pogonias cromis. In North America, P. cromis is known to be a definitive host of Cotylogaster basiri, although there have been no reports of any species of Cotylogaster infecting fish in Brazil. During necropsies of marine fish obtained from professional fisherman in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, specimens of C. basiri were found in the intestine and rectum of P. cromis. In comparison with previous studies, differences were found in relation to the number of lobes in the buccal disc and the development of the biocellate larvae in the eggs of C. basiri. This is the first report of C. basiri in P. cromis from Brazil, contributing to the understanding of the helminth fauna of this fish from the coastal zone of Brazil. PMID:27409226

  16. Age, Growth, Reproduction and Feeding of the Spurdog ( Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758) in the South-eastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, D.

    2001-02-01

    Life-history parameters and diet of spurdog ( Squalus acanthias) sampled from the SE Black Sea were studied. Spurdog from age classes I to XIV were identified, with a dominance of age class VIII for both sexes. The length-weight relationship was W=0·0040*L 2·95and the mean annual growth rates in length and weight were 7·2 cm and 540·1 g, respectively. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: W ∞=12021 (g), L ∞=157 (cm), K=0·12 (year -1) and t 0=-1·30 (year). The size at first maturity was 82 cm for males and 88 cm for females. Mean biennial fecundity was also found to be 8 pups/female. The relationships between fecundity-length, fecundity-weight and fecundity-age were found to be: F=-17·0842+0·2369*L (R=0·93), F=0·3780+0·0018*W (R=0·89) and F =-0·7859+1·1609*A (R=0·94) respectively. The spurdog can be considered an opportunistic feeder. Their natural diet was composed mainly of teleost fishes, followed by Crustaceans, Nematodes and Actinarians (=sea anemones). Whiting ( Merlangius merlangus euxinus) was the predominant prey item among their fish prey. Demersal teleosts formed the majority of the diet, and there was no difference ( P>0·05) among the food items of immature, maturing and mature individuals of both sexes.

  17. Taxonomy and morphology of species of the genus Squalus Linnaeus, 1758 from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (Chondrichthyes: Squaliformes: Squalidae).

    PubMed

    Viana, Sarah T De F; Carvalho, Marcelo R De; Gomes, Ulisses L

    2016-01-01

    Squalus is a genus of reportedly cosmopolitan shark species that have a high taxonomic complexity due to difficulties in their morphological differentiation; many of its species need revision. Currently, there are 26 valid species of Squalus, which have been divided into three species-groups according to overall morphological similarity, the S. acanthias, S. megalops, and S. mitsukurii groups. Loss of type specimens, propagation of erroneous identifications in the literature, and difficulties in obtaining representative series for comparison are secondary challenges that have impeded a global taxonomic revision of the genus. This problem applies clearly to species from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, including species that occur off Brazil. Following a current global tendency, a regional taxonomic revision of Squalus was conducted in order to investigate which species are valid in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and provide diagnostic morphological characters that can be efficiently used for identifying species. Comparative detailed analysis of external (e.g. morphometrics, dentition, and color pattern) and skeletal morphology (primarily meristic data, neurocrania and claspers) of specimens of Squalus from the region revealed four new species that are herein described (S. albicaudus sp. nov., S. bahiensis sp. nov., S. lobularis sp. nov., and S. quasimodo sp. nov.), as well as S. acanthias, which is redescribed from the region based on new material. Comparisons are offered based on examinations of congeneric species; this work is part of a global systematic revision of Squalus. PMID:27395700

  18. Parasitizing of trematodes provokes warts on the hinge plate of the bivalve mollusk Macoma balthica Linnaeus, 1758 (Veneroida, Tellinidae).

    PubMed

    Gantsevich, M M; Strelkov, P P; Basova, L A; Malakhov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on non-random correlation between abnormalities in the structure of hinge plate and infection of mollusks Macoma balthica with trematodes of the family Gymnophallidae has been tested on the basis of material from the Barents Sea. Significant correlation between the presence of warts and infection was established upon intraand interpopulation comparison. The hypothesis states that parasitizing of trematodes in the extrapallial cavity of mollusks influences the mantle functioning and provokes abnormalities in the hinge plate structure. PMID:27021361

  19. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions. PMID:26394864

  20. Effects of Cadmium and Zinc on the Gamete Viability, Fertilization, and Embryonic Development of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Tualla, Ivan Patrick B.; Bitacura, Jayzon G.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are frequently reported for their mutagenic and teratogenic effects on benthic organisms. Thus, this study aimed to determine the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in the gametes of T. gratilla and to compare its fertilization and embryonic development under the highest nongametotoxic concentrations of these heavy metals. Gamete viability of T. gratilla under CdCl2 and ZnSO4 treatments was assayed through resazurin reduction test (RRT) and was confirmed through gamete morphology assay. ZnSO4 was more toxic to T. gratilla gametes than CdCl2 and egg cells were more sensitive to both than the sperm cells. Higher concentrations of CdCl2 and ZnSO4 induced gamete apoptosis and necrosis while highest nongametotoxic concentrations were determined at 1 × 10−3 M and 1 × 10−4 M, respectively, and were used in an in vitro fertilization and embryonic development experiment. ZnSO4 treatment inhibited fertilization more than CdCl2 and yielded more deformed embryos, while both induced abnormalities and hindered further embryonic development. This study gives the first report on the specific concentrations of Cd and Zn that are toxic to T. gratilla gametes and has confirmed the teratogenic effects of these heavy metals. PMID:27200213

  1. Age, Growth and Feeding Habits of the Brown Comber Serranus hepatus(Linnaeus, 1758) on the Cretan Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labropoulou, M.; Tserpes, G.; Tsimenides, N.

    1998-05-01

    Forty-five samples of the brown comber Serranus hepatuswere collected during experimental surveys carried out on a monthly basis (August 1990 to August 1992) along the Cretan continental shelf. A total of 1268 specimens 31-140 mm in total length were analysed. Growth was well described by both standard and seasonalized forms of the von Bertalanffy growth model and the computed parameters were L∞;=152 mm, k=0·36, t0=-0·57. Feeding intensity was high throughout the study period and varied significantly among the age classes of fish examined. Stomach content analysis revealed that S. hepatusis carnivorous, feeding mainly on decapods. Diets did not vary seasonally; decapods were the most important prey throughout the year. However, the composition of the prey consumed varied considerably with predator age coupled with differences in mean prey sizes utilized by each age class. The mean weight of stomach contents increased significantly for older specimens, while the mean number of prey items decreased. Age-specific dietary selection was primarily a function of body size of the predator and appears to reduce intra-specific competition among the members of the different age classes. The results suggest that S. hepatusplays an important trophic role as a macrophagic carnivorous species on the Cretan continental shelf.

  2. [PARASITE FAUNA AND STRUCTURE OF PARASITE COMPONENT COMMUNITIES IN THE MINNOW PHOXNUS PHOXINUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) IN AN OIL POLLUTED WATERSTREAM].

    PubMed

    Dorovskikh, G N; Stepanov, V G

    2015-01-01

    In June 1992 and July 1996, 238 minnow specimens of the 2+--3+ age were collected from 5 parts of the Kolva River and studied using the standard technique of the general parasitological dissection. Comparative analysis of parasite fauna and the structure of component parasite communities in the minnow from ecologically safe and variably polluted parts of the river was performed. The analysis had demonstrated that the increase in the water pollution by domestic wastewater, washings of fertilizers from agricultural fields and private country houses, cattle farm drains (Dorovskikh et al., 2005, 2008), and oil results in the change of dominant parasite species of the minnow, alteration of the sum of errors in the regression equation characterizing the spread of biomass values of the species forming the parasite community, changes in the "graphic" structure of the community, and alteration of the index D(E)'. It is proved, that the high concentration of nutrients has a destructive effect on natural systems, and, at the same time, causes the process of self-organizing, leading to the alteration of the community structure. As soon as even a small part of nutrients is stopped to come into the reservoir, and the quality of environment is restored, the community restores its structure. PMID:27055328

  3. Detoxification and protein quality control markers in the mussel Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) exposed to crude oil: Salinity-induced modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, Liudmila; Sukhovskaya, Irina; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Krupnova, Marina; Kantserova, Nadezda; Bakhmet, Igor'; Nemova, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems are influenced by oil from chronic contamination or sporadic oil spills. An oil spill was simulated in an aquarium-based experiment designed to reproduce interactions of crude oil with inert environmental components, particularly adhesion on shore gravel and dissolution in sea water. Total experimental oil concentrations were in the range of comparable hydrocarbon concentrations following an oil spill. Furthermore, the possible interaction of a chemical (anthropogenic) stressor, such as oil PAHs, and a "natural" stressor like desalination, was simulated. In order to assess the biological effects of crude oil contamination and desalination (each individually and in combination) on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L., biochemical responses were estimated including: detoxification capacity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, and protein quality control by autophagy-related proteases cathepsin B (CatB), cathepsin D (CatD), and calcium-dependent calpain-like proteases. Oil treatment stimulated defense system response in the mussels with primary effects on GST and protease-mediated reactions such as the activation of CatB, CatD, and calpains. Most of biomarkers responded to oil in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additional environmental stress, such as desalination, promoted the oil-induced activation of GST and CatD while resulting in a delay or impairement of the defense response to oil by GSH and proteases CatB and calpains. Thus, biomarker data shows that combined effects of oil compounds and desalination can be realized in both a synergistic and an antagonistic manner. The evaluated interaction between oil pollution effects and sub-optimal salinity on M. edulis indicates the potential risk of maladaptation to the biota of estuaries.

  4. Northern refugia and recent expansion in the North Sea: the case of the wrasse Symphodus melops (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Robalo, Joana I; Castilho, Rita; Francisco, Sara M; Almada, Frederico; Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per E; Pereira, Ana M; Almada, Vitor C

    2012-01-01

    Pleistocene climate changes have imposed extreme conditions to intertidal rocky marine communities, forcing many species to significant range shifts in their geographical distributions. Phylogeographic analyses based on both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers provide a useful approach to unravel phylogeographic patterns and processes of species after this time period, to gain general knowledge of how climatic changes affect shifts in species distributions. We analyzed these patterns on the corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops, Labridae), a rocky shore species inhabiting North Sea waters and temperate northeastern Atlantic Ocean from Norway to Morocco including the Azores, using a fragment of the mitochondrial control region and the first intron of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein gene. We found that S. melops shows a clear differentiation between the Atlantic and the Scandinavian populations and a sharp contrast in the genetic diversity, high in the south and low in the north. Within each of these main geographic areas there is little or no genetic differentiation. The species may have persisted throughout the last glacial maximum in the southern areas as paleotemperatures were not lower than they are today in North Scandinavia. The North Sea recolonization most likely took place during the current interglacial and is dominated by a haplotype absent from the south of the study area, but present in Plymouth and Belfast. The possibility of a glacial refugium in or near the English Channel is discussed. PMID:22408733

  5. The colonization history of British water vole (Arvicola amphibius (Linnaeus, 1758)): origins and development of the Celtic fringe.

    PubMed

    Brace, Selina; Ruddy, Mark; Miller, Rebecca; Schreve, Danielle C; Stewart, John R; Barnes, Ian

    2016-04-27

    The terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene, a period from 15 000 to 18 000 Before Present (BP), was critical in establishing the current Holarctic fauna, with temperate-climate species largely replacing cold-adapted ones at mid-latitudes. However, the timing and nature of this process remain unclear for many taxa, a point that impacts on current and future management strategies. Here, we use an ancient DNA dataset to test more directly postglacial histories of the water vole (Arvicola amphibius, formerly A terrestris), a species that is both a conservation priority and a pest in different parts of its range. We specifically examine colonization of Britain, where a complex genetic structure can be observed today. Although we focus on population history at the limits of the species' range, the inclusion of additional European samples allows insights into European postglacial colonization events and provides a molecular perspective on water vole taxonomy. PMID:27122559

  6. Relative growth and reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (Linnaeus, 1758) sampled from the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefi, Ferdaous Jaafar; Boubaker, Samir; Menif, Najoua Trigui El

    2014-09-01

    Relative growth and the reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga were studied from September 2002 to October 2003 in the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia). Relationships between shell length and shell width, shell height as well as volume-related variables (shell dry weight, soft tissues dry weight and total wet weight) showed negative allometries in both sexes except for shell width in males (isometry) and shell height in both sexes (positive allometry). The sex ratio was unbalanced, within the length range of 6-48 mm, 49.43 % of the animals were males, 24.39 % females and 26.17 % sexually undifferentiated; within the length range of 49-92 mm, the respective values were 41.19, 52.7 and 6.1 %. Histological investigations as well as analyses of the condition index and the gonadosomatic index (CI and GSI) revealed the presence of a single reproductive cycle per year. Spawning occurred at the end of August and early September and was associated with a decrease in seawater temperature and salinity. A resting phase occurred in winter, coinciding with the lowest water temperatures. Histological examinations of the gonads of a total of 130 specimens revealed only two cases of hermaphroditism. The present study constitutes a useful baseline for a sustainable management of local wild stocks of L. lithophaga.

  7. A preliminary observation on the pond culture of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) in Egypt: recommendations for future studies.

    PubMed

    El-Shebly, Abdalla A; El-kady, Mohamed A H; Hossain, M Yeamin

    2007-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla for earthen pond aquaculture without supplementary feeding at Lake Manzala, Egypt. Juvenile A. anguilla of mean length 11.7 cm and 2.4 g weight were stocked in earthen ponds measuring 3 feddans (about 12,600 m2) and 1 m deep. Stocking was done in May 2003 at a rate of 5000 fish feddan(-1) in a polyculture system including tilapia and mullets and fed mainly on natural occurring prey (natural spawned tilapia) and small shrimp. The eels were culture for a period of 2 years, May 2003 to April 2005. Sampling for growth and survival were evaluated yearly. At the end of the culture period, the gross weight of the harvested eels was measured and the net pond production calculated by the difference between weight stocked and weight harvested. Temperature varied from 11.5 to 28.2 degrees C and 12.2 to 29.3 degrees C; P(H), 7.3 to 8.9 and 7.5 to 8.8; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), 5.2 to 9.8 mg L(-1) and 4.1 to 8.3 mg L(-1); and Salinity, 2.5 to 5.5 psu and 3.0 to 6.8 psu for first year and second year, respectively. At the end of the culture period, A. anguilla attained average weight of 121.4 g fish(-1) at the end of the first year and a weight range of 152.5 to 430 g fish(-1) with an average of 280.36 g fish(-1) at the end of the second year. Survival rate ranged from 91% during the first year to 100% during the second year. Net eel production was 540.18 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the first year and 723.36 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the second year. Daily increments in weight per fish were 0.33 and 0.44 for first and second year, respectively. This experiment demonstrated the possibility of cultivation of eels as well as the higher growth rate in earthen ponds. The aquaculture strategy of eel with high stocking densities through low cost artificial feeds are recommended in future studies. PMID:19070049

  8. An Important Natural Genetic Resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Threatened by Aquaculture Activities in Loboi Drainage, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

  9. Analysis of the expression of p53 during the morphogenesis of the gastroesophageal mucosa of Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ventura, Adriana; do Nascimento, Aparecida Alves; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; Vieira-Lopes, Danielle Alcantara; Sales, Armando; Pinheiro, Nadja Lima

    2014-01-01

    Ontogenesis comprises a series of events including cell proliferation and apoptosis and resulting in the normal development of the embryo. Protein p53 has been described as being involved in the development of several animal species. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of protein p53 during the morphogenesis of the gastroesophageal mucosa of Gallus gallus domesticus and to correlate it with the histogenesis of structures present in this tissue. We used 24 embryos (at 12-20 days of incubation) and the thymus of two chickens. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed with the ABC indirect method. The expression of p53 in the gastroesophageal mucosa increased during the formation of the organ, mainly at the stages during which tissue remodeling and cell differentiation began. In the esophagus at stages 42 and 45, we observed immunoreactive (IR) cells in the surface epithelium and in early esophageal glands. In the proventriculus at stages 39-45, IR cells were present in the epithelial mucosa and rarely in the proventricular glands. In the gizzard after stage 42, we found IR cells mainly in the medial and basal epithelial layers of the mucosa and especially within the intercellular spaces that appeared at this phase and formed the tubular gland ducts. Thus, protein p53 occurs at key stages of development: in the esophagus during the remodeling of esophageal glands, in the proventriculus during the differentiation of the epithelium of the mucosa and in the gizzard during the formation of tubular glands. PMID:24068480

  10. Detailed morphological description of Habronema clarki Foster & Chitwood, 1937, a nematode parasite of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Ferreira, Daniel Fontana

    2014-01-01

    The genus Habronema has four valid species, of which only two are properly known. The present study aimed to describe in detail the morphology of Habronema clarki through optical and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Our results showed that the labial morphology of this parasite is closer to H. muscae than to H. microstoma. Even so, the characteristic pseudolabia and the slightly convex border of the dorsal and ventral lips are sufficient to distinguish these nematodes. Additional morphological data are presented, thus contributing to the knowledge on this little known nematode. In addition, this study provides new locality records for this species. PMID:25054508