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1

A comparison of pre-operative nerve stimulator-guided femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block in patients with a femoral neck fracture.  

PubMed

We undertook a randomised, controlled trial to compare the analgesic efficacy and opioid sparing effect of nerve stimulator-guided femoral nerve block with fascia iliaca compartment block in patients awaiting surgery for fractured neck of femur. Ten-centimetre visual analogue pain scores were measured before and 2 h after the block and opioid consumption was recorded in the 12-h period after the block. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned. Femoral nerve block provided superior pre-operative analgesia for fractured neck of femur compared with fascia iliaca compartment block. The difference in the mean reduction of pain score after the block was 0.9 (95% CI 0-1.8); p = 0.047. Patients receiving a femoral nerve block required less morphine after the block than those receiving fascia iliaca compartment block (p = 0.041). PMID:23789738

Newman, B; McCarthy, L; Thomas, P W; May, P; Layzell, M; Horn, K

2013-09-01

2

Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally ‘program’ the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

Huber, Matthias C.; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R.; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M.

2015-01-01

3

Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments.  

PubMed

Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally 'program' the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials. PMID:25362355

Huber, Matthias C; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M

2015-01-01

4

Indirubins Decrease Glioma Invasion by Blocking Migratory Phenotypes in Both the Tumor and Stromal Endothelial Cell Compartments  

PubMed Central

Invasion and proliferation in neoplasia require the cooperation of tumor cell and endothelial compartments. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to signaling pathways that modulate invasion and proliferation. Here we show that GSK-3 inhibitors of the indirubin family reduce invasion of glioma cells and glioma-initiating cell-enriched neurospheres both in vitro and in vivo, and we show that ?-catenin signaling plays an important role in mediating these effects. Indirubins improved survival in glioma-bearing mice in which a substantial decrease in blood vessel density was seen in treated animals. In addition, indirubins blocked migration of endothelial cells, suggesting that anti-invasive glioma therapy with GSK-3 inhibitors in vivo not only inhibits invasion of tumor cells, but blocks migration of endothelial cells, which is also required for tumor angiogenesis. Overall, our findings suggest that indirubin inhibition of GSK-3 offers a novel treatment paradigm to target 2 of the most important interacting cellular compartments in heterotypic models of cancer. PMID:21697283

Williams, Shanté P.; Nowicki, Michal O.; Liu, Fang; Press, Rachael; Godlewski, Jakub; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Kaur, Balveen; Fernandez, Soledad A.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Lawler, Sean E.

2014-01-01

5

Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations. PMID:25309762

Gharaibeh, Kamel A.; Yousuf, Tauqeer

2014-01-01

6

Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia. Aim: To test the hypothesis that, adding dexamethasone would significantly prolong the duration of Bupivacaine in FICB. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 80 years posted for ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) of fracture femur were included to receive FICB. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind study done at tertiary medical college hospital. Thirty patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml saline and another 30 patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml dexamethasone (8mg). Thirty minutes after FICB, patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anesthesia was recorded. In the post-operative period, duration of analgesia and the total doses of rescue analgesics were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients who received Bupivacaine with dexamethasone had significant prolongation of analgesia and required fewer doses of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone for FICB. However, the onset of analgesia, VAS scores and patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study shows that adding Dexamethasone (8mg) to Bupivacaine for FICB significantly prolonged the duration of block and decreased the requirement of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone. FICB is relatively easy and safe to perform. In our study we did not encounter any complication while doing the procedures and also by adding dexamethasone. PMID:25302209

Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

2014-01-01

7

Rehabilitating Psoas Tendonitis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

This case report describes the examination and physical therapy intervention for a woman with anterior hip pain whose medical diagnosis following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was bilateral labral tears and psoas tendinitis. Her physical therapy evaluation revealed findings consistent with psoas tendonitis. Utilizing theories of neuromuscular patterning and knowledge of normal muscle function, the patient was successfully treated in physical therapy following six physical therapy sessions, once a week for 6 weeks. The patient was found to have an overactive psoas muscle, as indicated by hip flexion being the primary mover in her movement patterns, and dysfunctional abdominal and pelvic floor muscles. Functionally based therapeutic exercise and electrical stimulation were used to reeducate the muscles of the abdomen, pelvic floor, and hips in order to create muscular balance and correct muscle dysfunction. PMID:19048347

2008-01-01

8

Foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protease induces fragmentation of the Golgi compartment and blocks intra-Golgi transport.  

PubMed

Picornavirus infection can cause Golgi fragmentation and impose a block in the secretory pathway which reduces expression of major histocompatibility antigens at the plasma membrane and slows secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we show that Golgi fragmentation and a block in secretion are induced by expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3C(pro) and that this requires the protease activity of 3C(pro). 3C(pro) caused fragmentation of early, medial, and late Golgi compartments, but the most marked effect was on early Golgi compartments, indicated by redistribution of ERGIC53 and membrin. Golgi fragments were dispersed in the cytoplasm and were able to receive a model membrane protein exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Golgi fragments were, however, unable to transfer the protein to the plasma membrane, indicating a block in intra-Golgi transport. Golgi fragmentation was coincident with a loss of microtubule organization resulting from an inhibition of microtubule regrowth from the centrosome. Inhibition of microtubule regrowth also required 3C(pro) protease activity. The loss of microtubule organization induced by 3C(pro) caused Golgi fragmentation, but loss of microtubule organization does not block intra-Golgi transport. It is likely that the block of intra-Golgi transport is imposed by separate actions of 3C(pro), possibly through degradation of proteins required for intra-Golgi transport. PMID:23986596

Zhou, Zhigang; Mogensen, Mette M; Powell, Penny P; Curry, Stephen; Wileman, Thomas

2013-11-01

9

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3C Protease Induces Fragmentation of the Golgi Compartment and Blocks Intra-Golgi Transport  

PubMed Central

Picornavirus infection can cause Golgi fragmentation and impose a block in the secretory pathway which reduces expression of major histocompatibility antigens at the plasma membrane and slows secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we show that Golgi fragmentation and a block in secretion are induced by expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3Cpro and that this requires the protease activity of 3Cpro. 3Cpro caused fragmentation of early, medial, and late Golgi compartments, but the most marked effect was on early Golgi compartments, indicated by redistribution of ERGIC53 and membrin. Golgi fragments were dispersed in the cytoplasm and were able to receive a model membrane protein exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Golgi fragments were, however, unable to transfer the protein to the plasma membrane, indicating a block in intra-Golgi transport. Golgi fragmentation was coincident with a loss of microtubule organization resulting from an inhibition of microtubule regrowth from the centrosome. Inhibition of microtubule regrowth also required 3Cpro protease activity. The loss of microtubule organization induced by 3Cpro caused Golgi fragmentation, but loss of microtubule organization does not block intra-Golgi transport. It is likely that the block of intra-Golgi transport is imposed by separate actions of 3Cpro, possibly through degradation of proteins required for intra-Golgi transport. PMID:23986596

Zhou, Zhigang; Mogensen, Mette M.; Powell, Penny P.; Curry, Stephen

2013-01-01

10

Compartments within a compartment  

PubMed Central

The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease. PMID:24732235

Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna AWM

2014-01-01

11

A psoas abscess caused by Propionibacterium propionicum.  

PubMed

Pelvic actinomycosis-like disease due to Propionibacterium propionicum has been very rare and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We herein report a probable first case of a psoas abscess caused by P. propionicum. Since P. propionicum is indistinguishable from Actinomyces israelii by morphological features or routine biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was useful to discriminate these two species in this case. PMID:25129856

Yonetani, Shota; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Araki, Koji; Hiroi, Megumi; Takagi, Yasushi; Ichimura, Shoichi; Watanabe, Takashi

2014-10-01

12

Primary pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. During a six-year period, eleven persons with primary pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle were treated at the Mackay Memorial\\u000a Hospital. Five were males and six were females and their average age was 47.2 years (range 6?–?83 years). The abscess was\\u000a identified by CT in 7 patients, MRI in 2 and ultrasonography in 1. One abscess was found during

T.-L. Wu; C.-H. Huang; D.-Y. Hwang; J.-H. Lai; R.-Y. Su

1998-01-01

13

An Easily Overlooked Presentation of Malignant Psoas Abscess: Hip Pain  

PubMed Central

Psoas abscess is a rare infectious disease with nonspecific clinical presentation that frequently causes a diagnostic difficulty. Its insidious onset and occult characteristics can cause diagnostic delays. It is classified as primary or secondary. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly causative pathogen in primary psoas abscess. Secondary psoas abscess usually occurs as a result of underlying diseases. A high index of clinical suspicion, the past and recent history of the patient, and imaging studies can be helpful in diagnosing the disease. The delay of the treatment is related with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, 54-year-old patient with severe hip pain having an abscess in the psoas muscle due to metastatic cervical carcinoma is presented.

Askin, Ayhan; Bayram, Korhan Baris; Demirdal, Umit Secil; Korkmaz, Merve Bergin; Gurgan, Alev Demirbilek; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

2015-01-01

14

Compartment syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

1989-01-01

15

Appendicitis with psoas abscess successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

Although acute appendicitis is a common disease, retroperitoneal abscesses are rarely observed. Here, we report a case consisting of a psoas abscess and cutaneous fistula caused by appendicitis. The patient was a 56-year-old male who was introduced to our institution due to an intractable right psoas abscess. Imaging tests had been performed over the previous 3 years; however, clinicians could not find the origin of the abscess and failed to resolve the problem. A successful operation was performed via a laparoscopic approach, and 17 mo have passed without recurrence. The advantage of laparoscopic surgery is well understood in cases of appendicitis with abscesses. However, the indication for laparoscopic approach is not clear for retroperitoneal abscesses. From our experience, we can conclude that appendicitis with retroperitoneal abscesses can be managed and treated using a laparoscopic approach. PMID:25009411

Otowa, Yasunori; Sumi, Yasuo; Kanaji, Shingo; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

2014-07-01

16

Appendicitis with psoas abscess successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery  

PubMed Central

Although acute appendicitis is a common disease, retroperitoneal abscesses are rarely observed. Here, we report a case consisting of a psoas abscess and cutaneous fistula caused by appendicitis. The patient was a 56-year-old male who was introduced to our institution due to an intractable right psoas abscess. Imaging tests had been performed over the previous 3 years; however, clinicians could not find the origin of the abscess and failed to resolve the problem. A successful operation was performed via a laparoscopic approach, and 17 mo have passed without recurrence. The advantage of laparoscopic surgery is well understood in cases of appendicitis with abscesses. However, the indication for laparoscopic approach is not clear for retroperitoneal abscesses. From our experience, we can conclude that appendicitis with retroperitoneal abscesses can be managed and treated using a laparoscopic approach. PMID:25009411

Otowa, Yasunori; Sumi, Yasuo; Kanaji, Shingo; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

17

Automated recognition of the psoas major muscles on X-ray CT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to recognize the psoas major muscle on X-ray CT images. For this purpose, we propose a novel recognition method. The recognition process in this method involves three steps: the generation of a shape model for the psoas major muscle, recognition of anatomical points such as the origin and insertion, and the recognition of the

N. Kamiya; X. Zhou; H. Chen; T. Hara; H. Hoshi; R. Yokoyama; M. Kanematsu; H. Fujita

2009-01-01

18

Massive psoas haematoma causing lumbar plexus palsy: a case report.  

PubMed

An 84-year-old man who was receiving oral anticoagulation therapy presented with complete lumbar plexus palsy caused by a massive psoas haematoma. Conservative treatment rather than drainage of the haematoma was undertaken, because of the risk of bleeding complications and mortality. At the one-year follow-up, the patient had no clinical signs of neurological recovery. The patient died 2 months later due to his concurrent medical problems. A high degree of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis because of the insidiously developing neurological deficit. PMID:22535820

Conesa, Xavier; Ares, Oscar; Seijas, Roberto

2012-04-01

19

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. Identification of a glutamine to proline substitution that leads to a transport block of sucrase-isomaltase in a pre-Golgi compartment.  

PubMed Central

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is an example of a disease in which mutant phenotypes generate transport-incompetent molecules. Here, we analyze at the molecular level a phenotype of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency in which sucrase-isomaltase (SI) is not transported to the brush border membrane but accumulates as a mannose-rich precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and the cis-Golgi, where it is finally degraded. A 6-kb clone containing the full-length cDNA encoding SI was isolated from the patient's intestinal tissue and from normal controls. Sequencing of the cDNA revealed a single mutation, A/C at nucleotide 3298 in the coding region of the sucrase subunit of the enzyme complex. The mutation leads to a substitution of the glutamine residue by a proline at amino acid 1098 (Q1098P). The Q1098P mutation lies in a region that is highly conserved between sucrase and isomaltase from different species and several other structurally and functionally related proteins. This is the first report that characterizes a point mutation in the SI gene that is responsible for the transport incompetence of SI and for its retention between the ER and the Golgi. PMID:8609217

Ouwendijk, J; Moolenaar, C E; Peters, W J; Hollenberg, C P; Ginsel, L A; Fransen, J A; Naim, H Y

1996-01-01

20

A model based method for recognizing psoas major muscles in torso CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In aging societies, it is important to analyze age-related hypokinesia. A psoas major muscle has many important functional capabilities such as capacity of balance and posture control. These functions can be measured by its cross sectional area (CSA), volume, and thickness. However, these values are calculated manually in the clinical situation. The purpose of our study is to propose an automated recognition method of psoas major muscles in X-ray torso CT images. The proposed recognition process involves three steps: 1) determination of anatomical points such as the origin and insertion of the psoas major muscle, 2) generation of a shape model for the psoas major muscle, and 3) recognition of the psoas major muscles by use of the shape model. The model was built using quadratic function, and was fit to the anatomical center line of psoas major muscle. The shape model was generated using 20 CT cases and tested by 20 other CT cases. The applied database consisted of 12 male and 8 female cases from the ages of 40's to 80's. The average value of Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) values employed in the evaluation was 0.7. Our experimental results indicated that the proposed method was effective for a volumetric analysis and could be possible to be used for a quantitative measurement of psoas major muscles in CT images.

Kamiya, Naoki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

2010-03-01

21

Psoas abscess and severe fasciitis due to a caecal carcinoma.  

PubMed

A man in his mid-50s presented with a painful and swollen right thigh and buttock. This was accompanied by a month long history of flank pain, back pain, vague abdominal pain, limp, fever and weight loss. On examination, there was extensive erythaema, heat, tenderness, oedema and crepitus over his right buttock and thigh. The patient was referred to plastic surgery to exclude necrotising fasciitis of the gluteal and thigh region. After CT imaging, a psoas abscess (PA) and caecal mass were identified. Subsequent right hemicolectomy, PA drainage and debridement of his right thigh were performed. This case reminds clinicians of the many non-specific ways a PA can present and that a high level of suspicion assists in making a timely diagnosis. PMID:25631760

Ng, Nigel Yong Boon; Twoon, Mark; Thomson, Suzanne E

2015-01-01

22

A proposed novel function of the psoas minor revealed through cadaver dissection.  

PubMed

There is sparse information about the anatomy and function of the psoas minor, specifically the extent and frequency to which the muscle attaches into the iliac fascia that drapes over the iliopsoas. This information may help clarify the function of the psoas minor, especially regarding the possibility of controlling the position and mechanical stability of the underlying iliopsoas. This descriptive, semiquantitative cadaveric study sought to clarify the gross anatomic detail of the psoas minor, particularly the muscle's distal attachments. Thirty-two embalmed cadaver hips were examined. Hips that presented with a psoas minor underwent further anatomic measurements. The psoas minor was present in 65.6% of the 32 hips. All of the psoas minor tendons attached firmly into iliac fascia, while 90.5% also had a firm bony attachment to the pelvis. On average, the muscle belly occupied the proximal 37.5 ± 6.0% of the entire musculotendinous unit, while the muscle belly's average anatomical cross-sectional area was 52.5 ± 34.3 mm(2) . The psoas minor's firm and consistent distal tendinous attachment into the iliac fascia may allow this muscle to partially control the position and mechanical stability of the underlying iliopsoas as it crosses the femoral head and adjacent regions. This hypothesized function may be clinically related to inflammation and pathology involving the iliopsoas tendon and adjacent tissues in the anterior region of the hip. Further study is now warranted to determine the clinical relevancy and biomechanical validity of this proposed function of the psoas minor. Clin. Anat. 28:243-252, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25227908

Neumann, Donald A; Garceau, Luke R

2015-03-01

23

Psoas abscess and cellulitis of the right gluteal region resulting from carcinoma of the cecum.  

PubMed

Although retroperitoneal or psoas abscess is an unusual clinical problem, the insidious and occult characteristics of this abscess sometimes cause diagnostic delays, resulting in considerably high morbidity and mortality. In particular, psoas abscess caused by perforated colon carcinoma is uncommon. We report a case of psoas abscess caused by a carcinoma of the cecum. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital, with pain in the right groin and buttock. The pain had appeared 6 months before admission, and the symptoms had then been relieved by oral antibiotics. On March 25, 1999, inflammatory signs in the right buttock indicated localized cellulitis, and incision and drainage was performed at a local hospital. The patient was referred to our hospital on the same day. On admission to our hospital, computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a thick right-sided colonic wall and enlargement of the right ileopsoas muscle. Barium enema and colonofiberscopy revealed an ulcerated tumor occupying the entire circumference of the cecum. A retroperitoneal abscess and fistula had been formed by the retroperitoneal perforation of cecum carcinoma: surgical resection was performed after remission of the local inflammatory signs. Operative findings indicated that the cancerous lesion and its surrounding tissues were firmly attached to the right iliopsoas and major psoas muscle, and en-bloc resection, including adjacent muscular tissue, was performed. The fact that carcinoma of the colon could be a cause of psoas abscess and cellulitis in the gluteal region should be considered when an unexplained psoas abscess is diagnosed. PMID:11578067

Kobayashi, H; Sakurai, Y; Shoji, M; Nakamura, Y; Suganuma, M; Imazu, H; Hasegawa, S; Matsubara, T; Ochiai, M; Funabiki, T

2001-09-01

24

Automated recognition of the psoas major muscles on X-ray CT images.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to recognize the psoas major muscle on X-ray CT images. For this purpose, we propose a novel recognition method. The recognition process in this method involves three steps: the generation of a shape model for the psoas major muscle, recognition of anatomical points such as the origin and insertion, and the recognition of the psoas major muscles by the use of the shape model. We generated the shape model using 20 CT cases and tested the model for recognition in 20 other CT cases. The average Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) and reproducibility rate were 0.704 and 0.783, respectively. Experimental results indicate that our method was effective for a 2-D cross-sectional area (CSA) analysis. PMID:19963589

Kamiya, N; Zhou, X; Chen, H; Hara, T; Hoshi, H; Yokoyama, R; Kanematsu, M; Fujita, H

2009-01-01

25

Psoas Major: a case report and review of its anatomy, biomechanics, and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

A 25-year-old male professional hockey player with right sided hip pain was diagnosed with myofascopathy of the right psoas major and rectus femoris. The patient maintained a conservative treatment regimen and was prescribed a four week active strengthening program. The program progressed from resisted concentric exercise to eccentric abduction/adduction exercises along with balance training, core stabilizing and endurance exercises in the first two weeks. In the final two weeks the program progressed to include sport specific exercises. At three weeks the patient was able to participate in non-contact practice and was clear for full contact at five weeks. The anatomy, biomechanics, and function of the psoas major muscle are discussed as is its influence on lumbar spine stability. Evidence-based evaluation and management strategies for psoas dysfunction are presented. PMID:20037696

Sajko, Sandy; Stuber, Kent

2009-01-01

26

Extension of pancreatic pseudocyst into psoas muscle in a setting of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Pancreatic pseudocysts are known to extend beyond the confines of the pancreatic bed due to the digestive nature of enzyme rich pancreatic fluid. Extension of a pseudocyst beyond the retroperitoneum, along the retrofascial plane within the psoas muscle is, however, unusual, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented with right lumbar pain and painful ipsilateral hip extension. Imaging findings revealed extension of the pseudocyst into psoas along with features of acute pancreatitis. The pseudocyst was drained percutaneously under image guidance, which led to resolution of symptoms. PMID:25628323

Aswani, Yashant; Anandpara, Karan Manoj; Hira, Priya

2015-01-01

27

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

28

Consistency in size and asymmetry of the psoas major muscle among elite footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle across multiple vertebral levels, to examine any asymmetry of the PM muscle and investigate the consistency across vertebral levels, and to determine whether a relationship exists between low back pain (LBP) and the size or asymmetry of the PM muscle among elite Australian

S. Stewart; W. Stanton; S. Wilson; J. Hides

2010-01-01

29

A model based method for recognizing psoas major muscles in torso CT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aging societies, it is important to analyze age-related hypokinesia. A psoas major muscle has many important functional capabilities such as capacity of balance and posture control. These functions can be measured by its cross sectional area (CSA), volume, and thickness. However, these values are calculated manually in the clinical situation. The purpose of our study is to propose an

Naoki Kamiya; Xiangrong Zhou; Huayue Chen; Takeshi Hara; Ryujiro Yokoyama; Masayuki Kanematsu; Hiroaki Hoshi; Hiroshi Fujita

2010-01-01

30

Anatomical dierences in the psoas muscles in young black and white men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy of the psoas major muscle (PMA) in young black and white men was studied during routine autopsies. The forensic autopsies included 44 fresh male cadavers (21 black, 23 white) with an age span of 14 to 25 y. The range for weight was 66-76 kg and for height 169-182 cm. The PMA was initially measured in its entire

PATRICK H ANSON; S. PETER M AGNUSSON; H ENRIK S ORENSEN; E RIK B. SIMONSEN

1999-01-01

31

Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. PMID:21691491

Khan, Sameer K.; Thati, Srinivas; Gozzard, Charles

2011-01-01

32

Psoas abscess with associated septic arthritis of the hip in infants.  

PubMed

We describe psoas abscess with concomitant septic hip arthritis in 2 infants, 3 and 7 months old. The common clinical features were a palpable mass in the inguinal region, irritable hip, and delayed treatment. The diagnosis of septic hip was delayed in one child, and they both had residual hip deformity at follow-up. It is possible that initial delay in diagnoses resulted in the concurrent pathologic condition because of spread of infection. These 2 cases demonstrate the first known reports of concurrent psoas abscess and septic hip arthritis in infancy. Magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable method to identify these concurrent pathologic conditions. A proposed etiologic mechanism is also discussed in the article. PMID:21129563

Wang, Enbo; Ma, Lili; Edmonds, Eric W; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Lijun; Ji, Shijun

2010-12-01

33

Bilateral psoas and bilateral perinephric abscesses complicating acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Acute pyelonephritis complicates 1-2% of pregnancies and causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of renal tuberculosis (TB) is often delayed and commonly presents with sterile pyuria or along with other pyogenic organisms. We report a case where the diagnosis of renal TB was missed in a pregnant woman when she presented with acute pyelonephritis, septic shock, and acute renal failure. There was clinical recovery with antibiotics, but bilateral psoas and perinephric abscesses (TB, Enterococcus sp., and E. coli) were diagnosed when she presented with loin pain and palpable left renal angle swelling. Bilateral psoas abscess due to TB in the absence of skeletal TB and human immunodeficiency virus infection is rare. The presentation of renal TB in pregnancy, its complications, and its management are discussed. PMID:23580809

Veerappan, I.; Shanmugam, A.; Kumar, S.; Velayutham, P.

2013-01-01

34

Modified laparoscopic intravesical nonrefluxing ureteral reimplantation with psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling  

PubMed Central

We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of the cystoscopy-assisted nonrefluxing ureteral reimplantation technique using submucosal tunneling during laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy (UNC) with a psoas hitch in patients with distal ureter stricture after gynecologic surgery. We reviewed six female patients who underwent gynecological surgeries. All patients showed persistent postoperative distal ureter stricture or obstruction. These patients underwent laparoscopic nonrefluxing UNC with a psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling technique combined with cystoscopy at our institute. They had corrective surgery at an average of 13.3 weeks after ureteral injury. The short-term success was confirmed either by voiding cystourethrography (VCU) or by diuretic isotope renal scan (MAG-3) conducted 3 months after the operation. None of the patients showed evidence of postoperative stricture at the reimplanted site and reflux on either MAG-3 renal scan or VCU. None of the patients showed major or minor complications during follow-up. It is safe and feasible to perform the laparoscopic nonrefluxing UNC with a psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling technique combined with cystoscopy for ureteral stricture. PMID:25610823

Kim, Chang-Hee; Ro, Joo Hwan; Jung, Han

2014-01-01

35

Composition of psoas major muscle fibers compared among humans, orangutans, and monkeys.  

PubMed

In primate species the m. psoas major, the only muscle simultaneously controlling the spinal column and lower extremity, is expected to reflect morpho-functional adaptation to diversified locomotor behavior. By using histochemical analysis with Sudan black B staining, composition of different types of muscle fibers in the psoas major was compared between 2 Japanese macaques, 2 hamadryas baboons, 2 anubis baboons, 2 orangutans, and 17 humans. The comparison has revealed unique features of this muscle in humans: 1) Type 1 or red fibers are thicker than Type 2 or white fibers in humans but vice versa in nonhumans; 2) among the species examined the number of the muscle fibers per unit cross-sectional area is largest, implying the fibers are thinnest, in humans; 3) frequency of Type 1 fibers is highest in humans, intermediate in monkeys, and lowest in the orangutan, whereas Type 2 fibers show an inverse trend among the species. These results suggest a correspondence in primates between the composition of the psoas major muscle fibers and difference in substrates inhabited as well as in their positional behaviors. PMID:12050900

Kimura, Tadanao

2002-03-01

36

Ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis type 1 with bilateral psoas muscle neurofibromas: a case report  

PubMed Central

The most common gastrointestinal involvement in neurofibromatosis is due to tumoral lesions which may present with gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. We report a case of concurrent ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis. A 39 year-old woman, known case of neurofibromatosis, was admitted to our department with complaint of chronic bloody diarrhea. After thorough clinical examination and paraclinical assessments, including colonoscopy and biopsy, ulcerative colitis was confirmed as the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Another rare finding in this patient was bilateral neurofibroma in psoas muscle that was detected on abdominal spiral Computer Tomography scan. PMID:21772893

Tavakkoli, Hamid; Asadi, Mehrnaz; Mahzouni, Parvin; Foroozmehr, Abdolali

2009-01-01

37

Anatomical differences in the psoas muscles in young black and white men.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the psoas major muscle (PMA) in young black and white men was studied during routine autopsies. The forensic autopsies included 44 fresh male cadavers (21 black, 23 white) with an age span of 14 to 25 y. The range for weight was 66-76 kg and for height 169-182 cm. The PMA was initially measured in its entire length before measuring the diameter and circumference at each segmental level (L1-S1). At each segmental level, the calculated anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) was more than 3 times greater in the black group compared with the white (P < 0.001). The psoas minor muscle (PMI) was absent in 91% of the black subjects, but only in 13% of the white subjects. These data show that the PMA is markedly larger in black than white subjects. The marked race specific difference in the size of the PMA may have implications for hip flexor strength, spine function and race specific incidence in low back pathology, and warrants further investigation. PMID:10337963

Hanson, P; Magnusson, S P; Sorensen, H; Simonsen, E B

1999-02-01

38

[Partial paralysis of the right lumbar plexus caused by a traumatic hematoma of the ileo-psoas muscle].  

PubMed

The authors show a case of paralysis of right femoral nerve, subsequent to extrinsic compression due to traumatic hematoma of ileo-psoas muscle. What emerges from the revitwing of the international literature, as well as from the personal experience is both a complete nosographic framing and the necessity for an early surgical intervention. PMID:4017141

Ginanneschi, U; Capus, L; Smrekar, V; Dell'Antonio, A; Fabiani, P; Visintin, A

1985-04-01

39

Different changes of quantity due to aging in the psoas major and quadriceps femoris muscles in women.  

PubMed

Bone fractures cause disabilities that leave the elderly bedridden and strengthening the muscles of the lower limbs, especially the quadriceps femoris, is the main kinematical method of preventing falls. Recently, however, it has become clear that the psoas major is critical for walking ability. We examined changes due to aging in the size of the psoas major compared with changes in the quadriceps femoris. Bone fractures are more frequent in women than in men; our participants (n=210) were therefore exclusively women ranging in age from 20 to 79 and divided into 6 age groups (n=35 each) in 10-year increments. Cross-sectional areas of the two muscles were measured by an MR scanner for a comparative estimation of muscle size. The psoas major showed the greatest quantity in subjects in their 20s, after which it declined steadily until the 60s and dramatically in the 70s, while the area of the quadriceps femoris was preserved until the 40s and showed no dramatic later decline. Exercise beyond regular daily activities is recommended to prevent the psoas major from decreasing in volume. We also recommend the development of a method of maintaining its muscle volume which would target women younger than 40 and older than 60. PMID:16849833

Takahashi, K; Takahashi, H E; Nakadaira, H; Yamamoto, M

2006-01-01

40

A case of skeletal tuberculosis and psoas abscess: disease activity evaluated using 18?F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Background Psoas abscess complicating tuberculous spondylitis is a rare morbidity in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. There are no established guidelines for evaluating the clinical response of psoas abscess. Although several studies have shown that positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 18?F-fluorodeoxyglucose can play a potential role in diagnosing multifocal tuberculosis and monitoring the clinical response of pulmonary tuberculosis, to our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating local inflammation and disease activity of a tuberculous psoas abscess. Case presentation We report a case of multifocal bone and lymph node tuberculosis with concomitant lumbar psoas abscess in a 77-year-old man, along with a literature review. An initial positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed intense 18?F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and lymph nodes. The patient was successfully treated with antitubercular agents and computed tomography-guided drainage therapy. A follow-up positron emission tomography-computed tomography after abscess drainage and 9 months of antitubercular drug treatment revealed that the majority of lesions improved; however, protracted inflammation surrounding the psoas abscess was still observed. These results indicate that disease activity of psoas abscess can remain, even after successful drainage and antitubercular medication regime of appropriate duration. Conclusion We have successfully followed up the extent of skeletal tuberculosis complicated with psoas abscess by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In this patient, positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating the disease activity of tuberculous psoas abscess and for assessing the appropriate duration of antitubercular drug therapy in psoas abscess. PMID:24225333

2013-01-01

41

[Compartment syndrome following adder bites].  

PubMed

Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, can have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. Meanwhile, the local swelling calls for attention as well. Two cases of seven- and eleven-year-old boys are reported. The first patient was bitten in the 5th toe, the second in the thumb. Both developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the lower and upper limb, respectively. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgery. However, compartment pressure measurement can be helpful in the assessment of children. PMID:19176169

Roed, Casper; Bayer, Lasse; Lebech, Anne-Mette Kjaer; Poulsen, Jesper Brřndum; Katzenstein, Terese

2009-01-26

42

Fibre type composition of the human psoas major muscle with regard to the level of its origin.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to explore the fibre type composition of the human psoas major muscle at different levels of its origin, from the first lumbar to the fourth lumbar vertebra, and to compare the muscle fibre size and distribution of different fibre types between levels with respect to its complex postural and dynamic function. Muscle samples were collected from 15 young males (younger than 35 years). Serial transverse sections (5 microm) of the samples were cut by cryomicrotome. Type I, IIA and IIX muscle fibres were typed using myosin heavy chain identification. The serial sections were analysed using a light microscope with a magnitude of 100x. The differences between measurements were evaluated using a repeated-measures anova and Scheffé test for post-hoc analysis. Our study showed that the human psoas major muscle was composed of type I, IIA and IIX muscle fibres. It had a predominance of type IIA muscle fibres, whereas type I muscle fibres had the largest cross-sectional area. Type IIX muscle fibres were present as a far smaller percentage and had the smallest cross-sectional area. Moreover, the fibre type composition of the psoas major muscle was different between levels of its origin starting from the first lumbar to the fourth lumbar vertebra. We conclude that the fibre type composition of the psoas major muscle indicated its dynamic and postural functions, which supports the fact that it is the main flexor of the hip joint (dynamic function) and stabilizer of the lumbar spine, sacroiliac and hip joints (postural function). The cranial part of the psoas major muscle has a primarily postural role, whereas the caudal part of the muscle has a dynamic role. PMID:19930517

Arbanas, Juraj; Klasan, Gordana Starcevic; Nikolic, Marina; Jerkovic, Romana; Miljanovic, Ivo; Malnar, Daniela

2009-12-01

43

The effects of psoas major and lumbar lordosis on hip flexion and sprint performance.  

PubMed

In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power; sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, and PM CSA, but LL showed no correlation with any parameter The impact of hip flexion power and LL on sprint stride pattern efficiency was considered. Hip flexion might not have a simple role in the passive knee replacement of the stride pattern; instead, it may be an active parameter. Other investigations are needed to determine the influence of pelvic architecture on sprint performance. PMID:22808701

Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

2012-06-01

44

Osteomyelitis, discitis, epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica in a man with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed ?-thalassaemia trait.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ?-thalassaemia trait. Investigations for relapsing and remitting fever found vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis and epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica. PMID:25608980

Farrar, Helen; Abbey, Aoife; Patel, Vinod; Nair, Rajiv

2015-01-01

45

Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

2012-01-01

46

Automated segmentation of psoas major muscle in X-ray CT images by use of a shape model: preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our motivation was to provide an automatic tool for radiologists and orthopedic surgeons for improving the quality of life\\u000a of an aging population. We propose a method for generating a shape model and a fully automated segmenting scheme for the psoas\\u000a major muscle in X-ray CT images by using the shape model. Our approach consists of two steps: (1) The

Naoki Kamiya; Xiangrong Zhou; Huayue Chen; Chisako Muramatsu; Takeshi Hara; Ryujiro Yokoyama; Masayuki Kanematsu; Hiroaki Hoshi; Hiroshi Fujita

47

Difficulties in estimating muscle forces from muscle cross-sectional area. An example using the psoas major muscle.  

PubMed

Most biomechanical models use muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) as an indicator of maximum isometric muscle force. In general, there are multiple estimates of CSA for the same muscle. For example, numerous studies have estimated the CSA of the psoas major muscle using different subject populations and positions. However, few studies have combined the available information to obtain an overall estimate of CSA or investigated the effect different subject characteristics may have on CSA. In the present update, nine studies that reported psoas major CSA or physiologic CSA were compared with respect to subject characteristics, methodology, and results. Corrections to cadaveric data were made to adjust physiologic CSA to CSA. Comparison of reported values for living subjects indicated that females have smaller mean CSA than males for the psoas major muscle and that body size does not significantly influence muscle CSA in males. Areas derived from cadaveric data were smaller than similar studies on living subjects, possibly because of subject age, removal of tendinous and fatty components of fascicles, and lack of detailed data for fascicle angles in the supine position. Results indicate that researchers who use muscle CSA in biomechanical models should carefully assess the appropriateness of the data used, particularly in relation to potential sex differences and the influence of postural changes on CSA. PMID:10423796

Gatton, M L; Pearcy, M J; Pettet, G J

1999-07-15

48

Exploring Water-Tight Compartments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Dewey employed the phrase "water-tight compartments" to mark deficiencies of integration within an individual's personality. For Dewey, the self is complex, but a strong personality integrates its various habits so that they reinforce rather than conflict with one another. Dewey's focus on this problem of personality has relevance for…

Fishman, Steve

49

36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

...COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be...

2014-07-01

50

Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

51

Hamstring and psoas length of crouch gait in cerebral palsy: a comparison with induced crouch gait in age- and sex-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait. Methods Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait. Results No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.456) lengths of patients and controls mimicking crouch gait. However, patients showed significantly shorter excursions of hamstring (p=0.022) and psoas (p=0.036) muscles than controls, whereas no significant excursion differences were observed between controls during normal gait and mimicking crouch gait. Conclusions Normal controls mimicking crouch gait and cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait demonstrate similar muscle length patterns. However, mimicked crouch gait did not reproduce the excursion pattern shown by patients with crouch gait, which suggests that reduced hamstring and psoas excursion is an innate characteristic of pathologic crouch gait. PMID:23363928

2013-01-01

52

Large eddy simulation of compartment fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at illustrating the capabilities of contemporary large eddy simulation (LES) solvers for compartment fire applications. Compartment fires refer to fires occurring indoors and feature a variety of complex phenomena associated with smoke accumulation and restricted air ventilation. The article provides a brief presentation of the main features of compartment fire dynamics followed by a review of

Arnaud Trouve; Yi Wang

2010-01-01

53

Forearm compartment syndrome caused by reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities' compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy. PMID:25120938

Sayar, Ufuk; Ozer, Tan?l; Matarac?, Ilker

2014-01-01

54

Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities' compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy. PMID:25120938

Sayar, Ufuk; Matarac?, ?lker

2014-01-01

55

Automated segmentation of psoas major muscle in X-ray CT images by use of a shape model: preliminary study.  

PubMed

Our motivation was to provide an automatic tool for radiologists and orthopedic surgeons for improving the quality of life of an aging population. We propose a method for generating a shape model and a fully automated segmenting scheme for the psoas major muscle in X-ray CT images by using the shape model. Our approach consists of two steps: (1) The generation of a shape model and its application to muscle segmentation. The shape model describes the muscle's outer shape and has two parameters, an outer shape parameter and a fitting parameter. The former was determined by approximating of the outer shape of the muscle region in training cases. The latter was determined for each test case in the recognition process. (2) Finally, the psoas major muscle was segmented by use of the shape model. To evaluate the performance of the method, we applied it to CT images for constructing the shape models by using 20 cases as training samples; 80 cases were used for testing. The accuracy of this method was measured by comparison of the extracted muscle regions with regions that were identified manually by an expert radiologist. The experimental results of the segmentation of the psoas major muscle gave a mean Jaccard similarity coefficient of 72.3%. The mean true segmentation coefficient was 76.2%. The proposed method can be used for the analysis of cross-sectional area and muscular thickness in a transverse section, offering radiologists an alternative to manual measurement for saving their time and improving the reproducibility of segmentation. PMID:21755416

Kamiya, Naoki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

56

Regulation of force development studied by photolysis of caged ADP in rabbit skinned psoas fibers.  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the effects of Ca(2+) and strongly bound cross-bridges on tension development induced by changes in the concentration of MgADP. Addition of MgADP to the bath increased isometric tension over a wide range of [Ca(2+)] in skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle. Tension-pCa (pCa is -log [Ca(2+)]) relationships and stiffness measurements indicated that MgADP increased mean force per cross-bridge at maximal Ca(2+) and increased recruitment of cross-bridges at submaximal Ca(2+). Photolysis of caged ADP to cause a 0.5 mM MgADP jump initiated an increase in isometric tension under all conditions examined, even at pCa 6.4 where there was no active tension before ADP release. Tension increased monophasically with an observed rate constant, k(ADP), which was similar in rate and Ca(2+) sensitivity to the rate constant of tension re-development, k(tr), measured in the same fibers by a release-re-stretch protocol. The amplitude of the caged ADP tension transient had a bell-shaped dependence on Ca(2+), reaching a maximum at intermediate Ca(2+) (pCa 6). The role of strong binding cross-bridges in the ADP response was tested by treatment of fibers with a strong binding derivative of myosin subfragment 1 (NEM-S1). In the presence of NEM-S1, the rate and amplitude of the caged ADP response were no longer sensitive to variations in the level of activator Ca(2+). The results are consistent with a model in which ADP-bound cross-bridges cooperatively activate the thin filament regulatory system at submaximal Ca(2+). This cooperative interaction influences both the magnitude and kinetics of force generation in skeletal muscle. PMID:11423418

Lu, Z; Swartz, D R; Metzger, J M; Moss, R L; Walker, J W

2001-01-01

57

Force and stiffness in glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers. Effects of calcium and elevated phosphate  

PubMed Central

Force (F) and stiffness (K) were measured in glycerinated psoas fibers at various calcium levels with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mM orthophosphate (Pi) added to the bathing solutions. The concentrations of bathing solution constituents were as follows: 110 mM potassium, 40 mM sodium, 4 mM MgATP, 10 mM total EGTA, and variable amounts of MOPS (pH buffer). The pH was 7.0, the ionic strength was 200 mM, and the temperature was 10 degrees C. Calcium levels were established by adding various amounts of CaCl2. All solutions contained 4% Dextran T-500. Fiber K was measured by imposing sinusoidal length changes (0.03-0.1%) at 1 kHz and by applying rapid steps in length and measuring the resulting F changes. At all [Pi] tested, K was more sensitive to calcium than F. Elevating bathing solution [Pi] caused a decrease in the calcium sensitivity of both F and K, while the slopes of F-calcium and K-calcium relations increased. In maximally activating calcium, raising [Pi] caused a continuous decrease in F over the range tested, while from very low to 10 mM Pi K remained constant. Above 10 mM Pi K declined, but to a lesser extent than did F. The results suggest that under our experimental conditions strongly attached crossbridges can exist in both force-producing and non-force-producing states, and that the relative population of these states may be calcium dependent. PMID:1607853

1992-01-01

58

Cross-sectional area of psoas major muscle and hip flexion strength in youth soccer players.  

PubMed

This study aimed to clarify the differences in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle and hip flexion force (HFF) of the right (dominant) side between adolescent male soccer players and age-matched non-athletes. PM CSA at L4–L5 and HFF at 1.05 rad/s were determined in 22 early (12.8–13.6 years) and 27 late (16.1–17.9 years) adolescent soccer players and 11 early (12.6–13.5 years) and 20 late (16.0–17.7 years) adolescent non-athletes. Fat-free mass (FFM) was greater in late adolescent soccer players than in late adolescent non-athletes, but was similar between the two early adolescent groups. Without the effect of age, PM CSA and HFF were greater in soccer players than in non-athletes. PM CSA and HFF were significantly correlated to FFM (soccer players, r = 0.860, P < 0.0001; non-athletes, r = 0.709, P < 0.0001) and PM CSA (soccer players, r = 0.760, P < 0.0001; non-athletes, r = 0.777, P < 0.0001), respectively. The difference between soccer players and non-athletes in PM CSA was still significant even when PM CSA was covaried for FFM. On the other hand, HFF covaried for PM CSA was similar between the two groups. The current results indicate that, as compared to age-matched non-athletes: (1) not only late, but also early adolescent soccer players have a greater PM CSA even when the difference in FFM was adjusted, and (2) their superiority in hip flexion force can be attributed to the difference in PM CSA. PMID:22297611

Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Iida, Tomomi; Ii, Nozomi; Muramatsu, Masataka; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Chumank, Kentaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

2012-10-01

59

Sex differences in the cross-sectional areas of psoas major and thigh muscles in high school track and field athletes and nonathletes.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to examine the sex differences in the cross-sectional areas of the psoas major, quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, and adductors in high school track and field athletes and nonathletes. The cross-sectional areas of the psoas major at L4-L5 and three thigh muscles at the mid-thigh were determined in the right side of the body using magnetic resonance imaging in 61 sprinters (29 boys and 32 girls), 50 jumpers (28 boys and 22 girls), 33 throwers (18 boys and 15 girls), and 40 nonathletes (20 boys and 20 girls), aged from 16 to 18 yrs. On the whole, the cross-sectional area for every muscle group was greater in the athletes than in the nonathletes and in the boys than in the girls. The average value of the cross-sectional area for the girls as a percentage of that for the boys in every subject group was lower in the psoas major (57.6-64.7%) than in the thigh muscles (67.8-82.9%). Among the thigh muscles, the muscle group which showed significant sex differences in the ratio of cross-sectional area to the two-third power of lean body mass was limited to the quadriceps femoris in the sprinters and nonathletes and hamstrings in the throwers. However, the ratio for the psoas major was significantly higher in the boys than in the girls in all subject groups. The current results indicate that, although regular participation in sports training during adolescence promotes hypertrophy in the psoas major and thigh muscles in not only boys but also girls, a greater sex difference exists in the muscularity of the psoas major than of the thigh muscles, in athletes and nonathletes. PMID:21483176

Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Muramatsu, Masataka; Iida, Tomomi; Ii, Nozomi; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

2011-01-01

60

Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treated by TAE.

Basile, Antonio [Ospedale Barone I, Department of Radiology (Italy); Medina, Jose Garcia [Hospital Universitario Virgen de Arrixaca, Department of Radiology (Spain); Mundo, Elena [Ospedale Barone I, Department of Radiology (Italy); Medina, Vicente Garcia [Hospital General Universitario, Department of Radiology (Spain); Leal, Rafael [Hospital Universitario Virgen de Arrixaca, Department of Radiology (Spain)

2004-11-15

61

Compartments revealed in food-web structure.  

PubMed

Compartments in food webs are subgroups of taxa in which many strong interactions occur within the subgroups and few weak interactions occur between the subgroups. Theoretically, compartments increase the stability in networks, such as food webs. Compartments have been difficult to detect in empirical food webs because of incompatible approaches or insufficient methodological rigour. Here we show that a method for detecting compartments from the social networking science identified significant compartments in three of five complex, empirical food webs. Detection of compartments was influenced by food web resolution, such as interactions with weights. Because the method identifies compartmental boundaries in which interactions are concentrated, it is compatible with the definition of compartments. The method is rigorous because it maximizes an explicit function, identifies the number of non-overlapping compartments, assigns membership to compartments, and tests the statistical significance of the results. A graphical presentation reveals systemic relationships and taxa-specific positions as structured by compartments. From this graphic, we explore two scenarios of disturbance to develop a hypothesis for testing how compartmentalized interactions increase stability in food webs. PMID:14628050

Krause, Ann E; Frank, Kenneth A; Mason, Doran M; Ulanowicz, Robert E; Taylor, William W

2003-11-20

62

Backdraft Experiments in a Small Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes results of preliminary backdraft experiments in a 0.85 m high, 0.78 m wide, 1.08 m long compartment,\\u000a a roughly one third scale residential room. Each surface of the compartment was made with two layers of insulation board to\\u000a obtain a highly insulated condition. The compartment had a small opening in the middle of the front wall to

Hiroshi Hayasaka; Yuji Kudo; Hideyoshi Kojima; Tsutomu Hashigami; Jun Ito; Takashi Ueda

63

Initiation of active contraction by photogeneration of adenosine-5'-triphosphate in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

Mechanical and biochemical descriptions of the muscle cross-bridge cycle have been correlated. Skinned muscle fibres of rabbit psoas muscle in rigor were incubated in solutions containing approximately equal to 30 microM-Ca2+ ions and P3-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyladenosine-5'-triphosphate, 'caged ATP', an inert photolabile precursor of ATP. ATP was liberated from caged ATP within the fibres by pulses of 347 nm radiation from a frequency-doubled ruby laser. The mechanical responses of muscle fibres to the rapid increase of ATP concentration were monitored. Tension dropped briefly and then rose above the rigor value to the level characteristic of a steady active contraction. Liberation of ATP decreased in-phase stiffness (measured at 500 Hz) from the rigor level to a maintained value intermediate between rigor and relaxed values. Out-of-phase stiffness increased to a maintained level indicating a phase lead of tension with respect to imposed length oscillations. Rigor tension was varied prior to photolysis by slight alterations of fibre length. Tension traces starting at different rigor tensions converged to a common tension level at the same rate, whether or not Ca2+ was included in the medium. These data suggest that the rate of cross-bridge detachment by ATP from the rigor state is not influenced by Ca2+. Analysis of the tension records, in terms of sequential detachment and reattachment reactions, provided a measure of cross-bridge reattachment rate and an alternate measure of the detachment rate. Detachment from the rigor state was approximately proportional to the ATP concentration, with a second-order rate constant of at least 5 X 10(5) M-1 S-1. Reattachment with force generation had no detectable dependence on the concentration of ATP liberated by photolysis. A simple kinetic model of the cross-bridge cycle in terms of chemically defined intermediates was compatible with most of the experimental data. The ATP dependence of cross-bridge detachment, the kinetics of maintained cross-bridge reattachment in the presence of Ca2+, and transient reattachment and final relaxation in the absence of Ca2+ were explained. In this model, reversibility of cross-bridge attachment and the steps leading to force production allow the relatively high observed detachment rate to be accommodated with other data relating to active contraction. These data include the steady ATPase rate of active muscle fibres and the fewer attached cross-bridges in active contractions compared to rigor. PMID:6481646

Goldman, Y E; Hibberd, M G; Trentham, D R

1984-01-01

64

Differential scanning calorimetry study of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibres in intermediate state of ATP hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal denaturation experiments were extended to study the thermal behaviour of the main motor proteins (actin and myosin) in their native environment in striated muscle fibres. The interaction of actin with myosin in the highly organized muscle structure is affected by internal forces; therefore their altered conformation and interaction may differ from those obtained in solution. The energetics of long functioning intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis cycle was studied in muscle fibres by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results SETARAM Micro DSC-II was used to monitor the thermal denaturation of the fibre system in rigor and in the presence of nucleotide and nucleotide analogues. The AM.ADP.Pi state of the ATP hydrolysis cycle has a very short lifetime therefore, we mimicked the different intermediate states with AMP.PNP and/or inorganic phosphate analogues Vi and AlF4 or BeFx. Studying glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from the rabbit psoas muscle by DSC, three characteristic thermal transitions were detected in rigor. The thermal transitions can be assigned to myosin heads, myosin rods and actin with transition temperatures (Tm) of 52.9 ± 0.7°C, 57.9 ± 0.7°C, 63.7 ± 1.0°C. In different intermediate states of the ATP hydrolysis mimicked by nucleotide analogues a fourth thermal transition was also detected which is very likely connected with nucleotide binding domain of myosin and/or actin filaments. This transition temperature Tm4 depended on the mimicked intermediate states, and varied in the range of 66°C – 77°C. Conclusion According to DSC measurements, strongly and weakly binding states of myosin to actin were significantly different. In the presence of ADP only a moderate change of the DSC pattern was detected in comparison with rigor, whereas in ADP.Pi state trapped by Vi, AlF4 or BeFx a remarkable stabilization was detected on the myosin head and actin filament which is reflected in a 3.0 – 10.0°C shift in Tm to higher temperature. A similar effect was observed in the case of the nonhydrolyzable AMP.PNP analogue. Differential DSC measurements suggest that stabilization actin structure in the intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis may play an additional role in actin-myosin interaction. PMID:17588264

Dergez, Timea; L?rinczy, Dénes; Könczöl, Franciska; Farkas, Nelli; Belagyi, Joseph

2007-01-01

65

Faster force transient kinetics at submaximal Ca2+ activation of skinned psoas fibers from rabbit.  

PubMed Central

The early, rapid phase of tension recovery (phase 2) after a step change in sarcomere length is thought to reflect the force-generating transition of myosin bound to actin. We have measured the relation between the rate of tension redevelopment during phase 2 (r), estimated from the half-time of tension recovery during phase 2 (r = t0.5(-1)), and steady-state force at varying [Ca2+] in single fibers from rabbit psoas. Sarcomere length was monitored continuously by laser diffraction of fiber segments (length approximately 1.6 mm), and sarcomere homogeneity was maintained using periodic length release/restretch cycles at 13-15 degrees C. At lower [Ca2+] and forces, r was elevated relative to that at pCa 4.0 for both releases and stretches (between +/- 8 nm). For releases of -3.4 +/- 0.7 nm.hs-1 at pCa 6.6 (where force was 10-20% of maximum force at pCa 4.0), r was 3.3 +/- 1.0 ms-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 5), whereas the corresponding value of r at pCa 4.0 was 1.0 +/- 0.2 ms-1 for releases of -3.5 +/- 0.5 nm.hs-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 5). For stretches of 1.9 +/- 0.7 nm.hs-1, r was 1.0 +/- 0.3 ms-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 9) at pCa 6.6, whereas r was 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms-1 at pCa 4.0 for stretches of 1.9 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SD; N = 14). Faster phase 2 transients at submaximal Ca(2+)-activation were not caused by changes in myofilament lattice spacing because 4% Dextran T-500, which minimizes lattice spacing changes, was present in all solutions. The inverse relationship between phase 2 kinetics and force obtained during steady-state activation of skinned fibers appears to be qualitatively similar to observations on intact frog skeletal fibers during the development of tetanic force. The data are consistent with models that incorporate a direct effect of [Ca2+] on phase 2 kinetics of individual cross-bridges or, alternatively, in which phase 2 kinetics depend on cooperative interactions between cross-bridges. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7711246

Martyn, D. A.; Chase, P. B.

1995-01-01

66

Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

2013-01-01

67

PARTICULATE CONCENTRATION IN AUTOMOBILE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the dust concentration in automobile passenger compartments was conducted to understand how driving conditions and a vehicle's ventilation system can affect cabin air quality. The results of this study are essential for designing appropriate cabin air filters and developing proper test procedures.The particle size distribution of atmospheric contaminants entering the vehicle's passenger compartment through air registers

T. J. PTAK; STEPHEN L. FALLON

1994-01-01

68

Total hip replacement infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complicated by Addison disease and psoas muscle abscess: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is occasionally encountered in clinical practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complicated by psoas abscesses and secondary Addison disease. Case presentation A 67-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian woman underwent total left hip arthroplasty because of osteoarthritis. After 18 months, she underwent arthroplasty revision for a possible prosthetic infection. Periprosthetic tissue specimens for bacteria were negative, and empirical antibiotic therapy was unsuccessful. She was then admitted to our department because of complications arising 22 months after arthroplasty. A physical examination revealed a sinus tract overlying her left hip and skin and mucosal pigmentation. Her levels of C-reactive protein, basal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and sodium were out of normal range. Results of the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold test were positive. Computed tomography revealed a periprosthetic abscess and the inclusion of the left psoas muscle. Results of microbiological tests were negative, but polymerase chain reaction of a specimen taken from the hip fistula was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our patient's condition was diagnosed as prosthetic joint infection and muscle psoas abscess due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and secondary Addison disease. She underwent standard treatment with rifampicin, ethambutol, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide associated with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone. At 15 months from the beginning of therapy, she was in good clinical condition and free of symptoms. Conclusions Prosthetic joint infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncommon. A differential diagnosis of tuberculosis should be considered when dealing with prosthetic joint infection, especially when repeated smears and histology examination from infected joints are negative. Clinical outcomes of prosthetic joint infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are unpredictable, especially given the limited literature in this field and the uncertainty of whether medical treatment alone can eradicate the infection without prosthesis removal. Furthermore, this case report raises interesting issues such as the necessity of a follow-up evaluation after treatment based on clinical conditions, the utility of a more standardized length of treatment for periprosthetic tuberculous infection, and the importance of a high diffusion capacity of anti-mycobacterial agents in order to eradicate the infection. PMID:22233936

2012-01-01

69

14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.  

... (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision for a second pilot, the rotorcraft must be controllable with equal safety from either...

2014-01-01

70

Analysis of post-lysosomal compartments.  

PubMed

Lysosomes are acidic intracellular compartments and are regarded as degradative and the end point, of the endocytic pathway. Here we provide evidence for the generation of acid hydrolase poor and non-acidic post-lysosomal compartments in NRK cells that have accumulated non-digestible macromolecules, Texas red-dextran (TR-Dex), within lysosomes. When TR-Dex was fed to the cells for 6h, most of the internalized TR-Dex colocalized with a lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D. With an increase in the chase period, however, the internalized TR-Dex gradually accumulated in cathepsin D-negative vesicles. These vesicles were positive for a lysosomal membrane protein, LGP85, and their formation was inhibited by treatment of the cells with U18666A, which impairs membrane transport out of late endosomal/lysosomal compartments, thereby suggesting that the vesicles are derived from lysosomes. Interestingly, these compartments are non-acidic as judged for the DAMP staining. The results, therefore, suggest that the excess accumulation of non-digestible macromolecules within lysosomes induces the formation of acid hydrolase poor and non-acidic post-lysosomal compartments. The fact that treatment of the cells with lysosomotropic amines or a microtubule-depolymerization agent resulted in extensive colocalization of TR-Dex with cathepsin D further indicates that the formation of the post-lysosomal compartments depends on the lysosomal acidification and microtubule organization. Furthermore, these results suggest bi-directional membrane transport between lysosomes and the post-lysosomal compartments, which implies that the latter are not resting compartments. PMID:14733906

Hirota, Yuko; Masuyama, Naoko; Kuronita, Toshio; Fujita, Hideaki; Himeno, Masaru; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

2004-02-01

71

Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

Blumke, R. E.

1977-01-01

72

Back extensor and psoas muscle cross-sectional area, prior physical training, and trunk muscle strength – a longitudinal study in adolescent girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between physical training, low back extensor (erector spinae plus multifidus muscles) and psoas muscle cross-sectional\\u000a areas (CSA) and strength characteristics of trunk extension and flexion were studied in adolescent girls. A group of athletes\\u000a (n=49) (age range 13.7–16.3 years) consisting of gymnasts, figure skaters and ballet dancers was age-matched with non-athletes\\u000a (n=17) who acted as a sedentary control

Juha E. Peltonen; Simo Taimela; Minna Erkintalo; Jouko J. Salminen; Airi Oksanen; Urho M. Kujala

1997-01-01

73

Biomass growth process with separate aeration and media compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a horizontal flow process for enhancing the growth of biomass comprising the steps of: connecting an open face of a media-free compartment with the open face of a media compartment; positioning a screen at the location of the connection of the compartments; depositing a number of biomass support bodies in the media compartment; circulating effluent comprising liquid

Tharp

1989-01-01

74

Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

2014-11-01

75

Zero-range process with finite compartments: Gentile's statistics and glassiness.  

PubMed

We discuss statics and dynamics of condensation in a zero-range process with compartments of limited sizes. For the symmetric dynamics the stationary state has a factorized form. For the asymmetric dynamics the steady state factorizes only for special hopping rules which allow for overjumps of fully occupied compartments. In the limit of large system size the grand canonical analysis is exact also in a condensed phase, and for a broader class of hopping rates as compared to the previously studied systems with infinite compartments. The dynamics of condensation exhibits dynamical self-blocking, which significantly prolongs relaxation times. These general features are illustrated with a concrete example: an inhomogeneous system with hopping rates that result in Bose-Einstein-like condensations. PMID:25353430

Ryabov, Artem

2014-02-01

76

Refrigerator compartment and method for accurately controlled temperature  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combined refrigerator-freezer of the type including a compartmented cabinet including a freezer compartment and a refrigerator compartment, a controlled temperature compartment for extended storage of perishable items and formed as a separate compartment in the cabinet comprising: means for defining a plenum chamber within the separate compartment including first and second air openings providing communication between the separate compartment and the plenum chamber, first and second air conduits extending between and in communication with the separate compartment and the freezer compartment, means for driving an air flow through the first air opening from the plenum chamber, means for controlling the air flow driving means depending on the air temperature within the separate compartment.

Frohbieter, E.H.

1988-03-22

77

Biomass growth process with separate aeration and media compartments  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a horizontal flow process for enhancing the growth of biomass comprising the steps of: connecting an open face of a media-free compartment with the open face of a media compartment; positioning a screen at the location of the connection of the compartments; depositing a number of biomass support bodies in the media compartment; circulating effluent comprising liquid and nutrient through the media compartment so that the effluent passes into contact with the biomass support bodies, thereby allowing some of the nutrient to contribute to the growth of biomass; permitting the effluent to pass horizontally through the screen into the media-free compartment; recirculating by means of a mechanical fluid circulator the effluent passing into the media-free compartment through the media compartment; and successively repeating the effluent circulation and recirculation process through additional alternately interconnected media compartments and media-free compartments, with screens positioned therebetween at the points of intersection.

Tharp, C.E.

1989-06-13

78

NMR characterization of general compartment size distributions.  

PubMed

The influence of molecular diffusion on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal can be exploited to estimate compartment size distributions in heterogeneous specimens. Theoretical relationships between the NMR signal intensity at long diffusion times and the moments of a general distribution of isolated pores with characteristic shapes (planar, cylindrical or spherical) are established. A numerical method based on expressing a general diffusion-attenuated NMR signal profile in a series of complete orthogonal basis functions is introduced and subsequently employed to estimate the moments of the compartment size distribution. The results on simulated and real data obtained from controlled water-filled microcapillaries demonstrate the power of the approach to create contrast based not only on the mean of the compartment size but also its variance. The technique can be employed to address a variety of problems such as characterizing distributions of droplet sizes in emulsions and of apparent axon diameters in nerve fascicles. PMID:21709780

Ozarslan, Evren; Shemesh, Noam; Koay, Cheng Guan; Cohen, Yoram; Basser, Peter J

2011-01-01

79

Space Shuttle crew compartment debris-contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remedial actions undertaken to reduce debris during manned flights and ground turnaround operations at Kennedy Space Center and Palmdale are addressed. They include redesign of selected ground support equipment and Orbiter hardware to reduce particularization/debris generation; development of new detachable filters for air-cooled avionics boxes; application of tape-on screens to filter debris; and implementation of new Orbiter maintenance and turnaround procedures to clean filters and the crew compartment. Most of these steps were implemented before the return-to-flight of STS-26 in September 1988 which resulted in improved crew compartment habitability and less potential for equipment malfunction.

Goodman, Jerry R.; Villarreal, Leopoldo J.

1992-01-01

80

Class E compartments form in response to ESCRT dysfunction in yeast due to hyperactivity of the Vps21 Rab GTPase  

PubMed Central

Summary The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) mediate the budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) at late endosomes. ESCRT dysfunction causes drastic changes in endosome morphology, which are manifested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the formation of aberrant endosomes known as class E compartments. Except for the absence of ILVs, the mechanistic basis for class E compartment biogenesis is unknown. We used electron microscopy to examine endosomal morphology in response to transient ESCRT inactivation and recovery in yeast expressing the temperature-sensitive mutant vps4ts allele. Our results show class E compartments accumulate fourfold the amount of membrane normally present at multivesicular bodies and that multivesicular bodies can form directly from class E compartments upon recovery of ESCRT function. We found class E compartment formation requires Vps21, which is orthologous to the Rab5A GTPase in metazoans that promotes fusion of endocytic vesicles with early endosomes and homotypic fusion of early endosomes with one another. We also determined that class E compartments accumulate GTP-bound Vps21 and its effector, the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET). Ypt7, the yeast ortholog of Rab7 that in metazoans promotes fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes, also accumulates at class E compartments but without its effector, the homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS), signifying that Ypt7 at class E compartments is dysfunctional. These results suggest that failure to complete Rab5–Rab7 conversion is a consequence of ESCRT dysfunction, which results in Vps21 hyperactivity that drives the class E compartment morphology. Indeed, genetic disruption of Rab conversion without ESCRT dysfunction autonomously drives the class E compartment morphology without blocking ILV budding. PMID:22899724

Russell, Matthew R. G.; Shideler, Tess; Nickerson, Daniel P.; West, Matt; Odorizzi, Greg

2012-01-01

81

Population Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

Smith, Martin H.

1992-01-01

82

[Gluteal compartment syndrome after intramuscular gluteal injection].  

PubMed

Complications after i.m. injection are rare. Only few cases need emergency operative treatment. This case report shows the exclusive situation of a gluteal compartment syndrome caused by a hematoma. Clinical findings showed signs of nerve compression with sciatic pain. Only immediate surgical treatment prevented persistent nerve or muscle tissue damage. PMID:11051025

Kühle, J W; Swoboda, B

1999-01-01

83

Carbon Monoxide Production in Compartment Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of empirical correlations for major species yields in compartment fires has become an important priority due to the inability to calculate these quantities from first principles. Studies of simplified upper layer environments have shown that major species production rates can be correlated with the equivalence ratio in what is known as the Global Equivalence Ratio concept (GER). Due

Daniel T. Gottuk; Richard J. Roby; Michelle J. Peatross; Craig L. Beyler

1992-01-01

84

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2012-01-01

85

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2014-01-01

86

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2011-01-01

87

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2010-01-01

88

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2010-01-01

89

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2011-01-01

90

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2014-01-01

91

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2012-01-01

92

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2013-01-01

93

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2013-01-01

94

14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Cargo Accommodations § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently...

2011-01-01

95

14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Cargo Accommodations § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently...

2010-01-01

96

14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Cargo Accommodations § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently...

2012-01-01

97

14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

...and Cargo Accommodations § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently...

2014-01-01

98

14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Pressurized compartment loads. 25.365 Section 25.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.365 Pressurized compartment loads. For airplanes...

2010-01-01

99

14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Pressurized compartment loads. 25.365 Section 25.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.365 Pressurized compartment loads. For airplanes...

2011-01-01

100

14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.  

...2014-01-01 false Pressurized compartment loads. 25.365 Section 25.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.365 Pressurized compartment loads. For airplanes...

2014-01-01

101

The evaluation and treatment ofexertional compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional compartment syndrome (ECS) is becoming increasingly recognized as a cause of exercise-induced legpain in the athletic population. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology is not clearly understood. The use of 31P-NMR has shown that ischemia is not a significant component of ECS because it is in the acute syndrome. A primary diagnosis can be made after a thorough history and physical examination.

Y. Raja Rampersaud; Annunziato Amendola

1995-01-01

102

Central compartment dissection in laryngeal cancer.  

PubMed

We report here a review of the literature intended to clarify the nomenclature and boundaries of the nodes in the "central compartment" of the neck, the frequency with which tumors from the different laryngeal sites metastasize to these nodes, and the indications for central compartment node dissection in the treatment of cancers of the larynx. From this review, we conclude that, until consensus is reached about grouping of the lymph nodes in this area, it is best to refer to these nodes by their anatomic location, ie, prelaryngeal, pretracheal, or paratracheal lymph nodes. It is also advisable to describe dissection of these nodes as selective neck dissection (SND) with an annotation about the specific lymph node groups removed. Metastases in prelaryngeal and paratracheal lymph nodes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx are associated with increased tumor recurrence, more frequent metastases in lymph nodes of the lateral compartment of the neck, and decreased survival. If untreated, they may lead to the development of peristomal recurrence. Therefore, elective treatment of level VI nodes is recommended in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the subglottic region, advanced glottis carcinomas with subglottic extension, and in certain advanced carcinomas of the supraglottic region. PMID:20652888

Medina, Jesus E; Ferlito, Alfio; Robbins, K Thomas; Silver, Carl E; Rodrigo, Juan P; de Bree, Remco; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Elsheikh, Mohamed N; Weber, Randal S; Werner, Jochen A

2011-05-01

103

Ionic Blocks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

104

Thinking Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thinking Blocks is an interactive Flash tool for modeling and solving math problems visually. Students represent quantities and relationships by placing blocks and braces on a work space and using the tools to resize and label them accordingly. Users can change the color of blocks, move them, copy them, divide them into equal parts, and separate them. A pencil tool and keyboard are also available. The site includes video tutorials demonstrating how to use the tool and how to model a wide variety of problem types. It also contains a bank of hundreds of word problems.

2011-01-01

105

Structural Characterization of the Binding of Myosin·ADP·Pi to Actin in Permeabilized Rabbit Psoas Muscle  

PubMed Central

When myosin is attached to actin in a muscle cell, various structures in the filaments are formed. The two strongly bound states (A·M·ADP and A·M) and the weakly bound A·M·ATP states are reasonably well understood. The orientation of the strongly bound myosin heads is uniform (“stereospecific” attachment), and the attached heads exhibit little spatial fluctuation. In the prehydrolysis weakly bound A·M·ATP state, the orientations of the attached myosin heads assume a wide range of azimuthal and axial angles, indicating considerable flexibility in the myosin head. The structure of the other weakly bound state, A·M·ADP·Pi, however, is poorly understood. This state is thought to be the critical pre-power-stroke state, poised to make the transition to the strongly binding, force-generating states, and hence it is of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of contraction. However, because of the low affinity between myosin and actin in the A·M·ADP·Pi state, the structure of this state has eluded determination both in isolated form and in muscle cells. With the knowledge recently gained in the structures of the weakly binding M·ATP, M·ADP·Pi states and the weakly attached A·M·ATP state in muscle fibers, it is now feasible to delineate the in vivo structure of the attached state of A·M·ADP·Pi. The series of experiments presented in this article were carried out under relaxing conditions at 25°C, where ?95% of the myosin heads in the skinned rabbit psoas muscle contain the hydrolysis products. The affinity for actin is enhanced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or by lowering the ionic strength in the bathing solution. Solution kinetics and binding constants were determined in the presence and in the absence of PEG. When the binding between actin and myosin was increased, both the myosin layer lines and the actin layer lines increased in intensity, but the intensity profiles did not change. The configuration (mode) of attachment in the A·M·ADP·Pi state is thus unique among the intermediate attached states of the cross-bridge ATP hydrolysis cycle. One of the simplest explanations is that both myosin filaments and actin filaments are stabilized (e.g., undergo reduced spatial fluctuations) by the attachment. The alignment of the myosin heads in the thick filaments and the alignment of the actin monomers in the thin filaments are improved as a result. The compact atomic structure of M·ADP·Pi with strongly coupled domains may contribute to the unique attachment configuration: the “primed” myosin heads may function as “transient struts” when attached to the thin filaments. PMID:16905611

Xu, Sengen; Gu, Jin; Belknap, Betty; White, Howard; Yu, Leepo C.

2006-01-01

106

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus compartment syndrome following scapular fracture  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a confined fascial space rises to a level impairing microvascular perfusion to surrounding tissues.[1234567] The majority of the reported literature is based on lower extremity compartment syndrome, but any muscle group within an osteofascial compartment has the potential to develop compartment syndrome. We report a case of a 64-year-old male who developed an acute compartment syndrome of both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus after sustaining a severely comminuted scapula fracture. Diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made after intracompartmental pressure measurements of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus revealed pressures within 30 mmHg of the diastolic blood pressure, prompting emergency decompressive fasciotomy. At final follow-up, the examination revealed full shoulder strength with near-full range of motion. There were no signs of sequelae from compartment syndrome at any point. Few case reports describe compartment syndrome of the periscapular fascial compartments. However, these cases were either retrospectively diagnosed[89] or diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and lab values.[910] Surgical management of acute compartment syndrome of the supraspinatus has been reported in only one other case.[10] To our knowledge, we report the only case of a patient with acute compartment syndrome of both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus compartments treated with emergent decompressive fasciotomy. Due to the devastating complications and functional loss of a missed diagnosis of compartment syndrome, a high index of clinical suspicion for developing compartment syndrome must be maintained in every fracture setting, regardless of anatomic location or rarity of reported cases. PMID:23858293

Kenny, Ryan M.; Beiser, Christopher W.; Patel, Arun

2013-01-01

107

An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes. ?? 1995 Birkha??user Verlag.

Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

1995-01-01

108

Acute Idiopathic Compartment Syndrome of the Forearm in an Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a condition typically associated with long bone fractures or severe trauma; however, non-traumatic etiologies also occur. We describe a case of an otherwise healthy female pediatric patient presenting with unilateral forearm pain without an inciting injury. Intracompartmental pressures of the forearm were measured and she was diagnosed with idiopathic compartment syndrome. Our goal is to encourage clinicians to consider acute compartment syndrome even in the absence of trauma.

Smith, Kelley; Wolford, Robert W.

2015-01-01

109

The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

1972-01-01

110

Regionally compartmented groundwater flow on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater flow on Mars likely contributed to the formation of several types of morphologic and mineralogic features, including chaotic terrains, valley networks, Meridiani Planum geologic units and, potentially, sulfate and phyllosilicate deposits. A central issue for these features is the spatial scale of groundwater flow required for their formation. For groundwater simulation purposes, a global Martian aquifer has frequently been assumed, but the validity of this assumption has not been tested. Chaotic terrains, thought to have formed owing to the disruption of a cryosphere under high aquifer pore pressures, provide the basis for such a test. Specifically, we use groundwater models to predict regions of cryosphere disruption due to recharge-driven pore pressure increases, and we compare these regions to observed Martian chaotic terrains. Our results suggest that a globally connected aquifer cannot give rise to cryosphere disruption at the two locations where large chaotic terrains are observed (the circum-Chryse region and the eastern Hellas Planitia). Conversely, modeled cryosphere disruption occurs in locations such as Amazonis Planitia and west Hellas Planitia where no supporting evidence is present, suggesting again that groundwater flow was likely regionally compartmented. Furthermore, the consistent occurrence of modeled breakouts in the Valles Marineris canyon system suggests that large-scale fractures there likely discharged most of the groundwater required for circum-Chryse outflow channel formation, with only minor contributions from chaotic terrains. The fractures are close to a likely source of recharge over Tharsis, and their low elevations lead to high pore pressures even if groundwater flow is regionally compartmented.

Harrison, Keith P.; Grimm, Robert E.

2009-04-01

111

Soft tissue vibrations within one soft tissue compartment.  

PubMed

The concept of muscle tuning suggests that vibrations of the soft tissue compartments of the leg initiated by impacts are minimized by muscular activity prior to heel-strike of heel-toe running. For the quantification of muscle tuning it has been assumed (1) that the soft tissue compartment acts as one lumped mass and (2) that vibration energy dissipation does occur within one muscle. The purpose of this study was to test these two assumptions. It was hypothesized that (H1) the movement of the soft tissue compartment is not homogeneous, (H2) the vibration frequencies for different muscles within one soft tissue compartment are different and (3) attenuation of vibration movement within one muscle does occur. Soft tissue vibrations were measured using accelerometers on four locations on the quadriceps soft tissue compartment during heel-toe running. There were differences in the peak soft tissue acceleration and time of peak acceleration between accelerometer locations. The dominant frequency was similar throughout the soft tissue compartment, however; there was an attenuation of high-frequency vibration energy between distal and proximal points overlying one muscle. This evidence suggests that accelerometer placement is important when quantifying the acceleration magnitude and timing of peak soft tissue compartment but not when estimating the resonant vibration characteristics of a soft tissue compartment. It also provides initial evidence to support the idea that vibration control through muscle tuning may be achieved through changes in energy dissipating properties within the soft tissue compartment. PMID:16439234

Boyer, Katherine A; Nigg, Benno M

2006-01-01

112

Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

1988-01-01

113

Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

2001-01-01

114

Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.  

PubMed

Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon. PMID:21667742

Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

2011-04-01

115

Gap junctional communication compartments in the Drosophila wing disk.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the gap junctional communication properties of cells in the wing imaginal disk of Drosophila, using intracellular injection of the fluorescent dye tracer Lucifer Yellow. The cell-to-cell passage of Lucifer Yellow is restricted at a boundary line that divides the wing disk into halves. We refer to each half as a "communication compartment" because there is a high level of gap junctional exchange within a compartment and much lower exchange between compartments. Comparison of the positions of the compartments with developmental fate maps suggests that cells in one communication compartment give rise to cuticular structures in the anterior half of the adult dorsal mesothorax, and cells in the other compartment contribute to posterior structures. This communication-restriction line appears to be coincident with the line between the anterior and posterior developmental compartments observed in studies of cell lineage. We propose that gap junctional communication restrictions may play a general role in generating or maintaining developmental compartments. Images PMID:6954475

Weir, M P; Lo, C W

1982-01-01

116

9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments...of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments...disposed of daily. (b) All windows, doors, and light fixtures...readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and...

2012-01-01

117

9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments...of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments...disposed of daily. (b) All windows, doors, and light fixtures...readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and...

2013-01-01

118

9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments...of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments...disposed of daily. (b) All windows, doors, and light fixtures...readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and...

2011-01-01

119

9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.  

... 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments...of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments...disposed of daily. (b) All windows, doors, and light fixtures...readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and...

2014-01-01

120

9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments...of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments...disposed of daily. (b) All windows, doors, and light fixtures...readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and...

2010-01-01

121

Glucose transporter 4: cycling, compartments and controversies  

PubMed Central

Insulin promotes glucose uptake into muscle and adipose tissues through glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). In unstimulated cells, rapid endocytosis, slow exocytosis and dynamic or static retention cause GLUT4 to concentrate in early recycling endosomes, the trans-Golgi network and vesicle-associated protein 2-containing vesicles. The coordinated action of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase effectors, protein kinase Akt, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and Akt substrate of 160-kDa (AS160), regulates the GLUT4 cycle by affecting its translocation, fusion with the plasma membrane, internalization and sorting. We review the evidence that supports such cycling, evaluate current models proposing static or dynamic retention, and highlight how distinct steps of GLUT4 transport are regulated by insulin signals. In particular, fusion seems to be regulated by aPKC (via munc18) and Akt (via syntaxin4-interacting protein (synip)). AS160 participates in GLUT4 intracellular retention, and possibly fusion, through candidate ras-related GTP-binding protein (Rab)2, Rab8, Rab10 and/or Rab14. The localization of the insulin-sensitive GLUT4 compartment and the precise target of insulin-derived signals remain open for future investigation. PMID:16319959

Dugani, Chandrasagar B; Klip, Amira

2005-01-01

122

Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung - Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing - D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Baeuerle, Guenther [Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), Scharnhorststrasse 34-37, 10115 Berlin (Germany)

2007-07-01

123

Effects of Spinal Stabilization Exercise on the Cross-sectional Areas of the Lumbar Multifidus and Psoas Major Muscles, Pain Intensity, and Lumbar Muscle Strength of Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spinal stabilizing exercise to reduce atrophy of the multifidus and psoas major muscles, reduce the levels of pain and disability, and increase paraspinal muscle strength in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). [Subjects and Methods] In 33 patients (Age range: 25–65?years) diagnosed with DDD, spinal stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks. The levels of pain and disability were measured before and after exercise using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Paraspinal muscular strength in four directions was evaluated with a CENTAUR 3D Spatial Rotation Device. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both the left and right multifidus and the psoas major at the upper endplate of L4 were measured before and after exercise using computed tomography (CT). [Results] After 8 weeks of spinal stabilization exercise, the pain and lumbar disability in subjects decreased significantly from 6.12±1.24 to 2.43±1.14. The ODI score also improved from 20.18±7.14 to 8.81±5.73. In addition, paraspinal muscle strength increased significantly, while the CSAs of the left and right multifidus and psoas major widened as compared with the pre-exercise size. [Conclusion] Spinal stabilization exercise was effective for reducing pain and disability in DDD patients. It was an effective adjunct to aid rehabilitation in these cases. PMID:24764637

Kim, Seongho; Kim, Hyungguen; Chung, Jaeyeop

2014-01-01

124

A rare case of acute compartment syndrome after saphenectomy  

PubMed Central

Saphenectomy is one of the most validated criteria to treat varicose veins of the lower legs. Although many complications were well described, little is known about compartment syndrome due to muscle ischemia caused by constrictive bandages applied after stripping of varicose veins. We presented a case of successful conservative treatment of compartment syndrome after saphenectomy. Rehabilitation was found effective in improving fatigue, stiffness and tenderness showing the effectiveness of the combined conservative-rehabilitative treatment. However conservative treatment could not be considered the treatment of choice in daily practice. A severity score assessment of compartment syndrome should be useful to assess to which patients is allowed to not perform fasciotomy. PMID:24303473

Milone, Marco; Venetucci, Piero; Iervolino, Salvatore; Taffuri, Caterina; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Milone, Francesco

2013-01-01

125

What Causes Heart Block?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Block? Heart block has many causes. Some people ... others develop it during their lifetimes (acquired). Congenital Heart Block One form of congenital heart block occurs ...

126

The impact of discrete compartments of a multi-compartment collagen-GAG scaffold on overall construct biophysical properties.  

PubMed

Orthopedic interfaces such as the tendon-bone junction (TBJ) present unique challenges for biomaterials development. Here we describe a multi-compartment collagen-GAG scaffold fabricated via lyophilization that contains discrete mineralized (CGCaP) and non-mineralized (CG) regions joined by a continuous interface. Modifying CGCaP preparation approaches, we demonstrated scaffold variants of increasing mineral content (40 vs. 80wt% CaP). We report the impact of fabrication parameters on microstructure, composition, elastic modulus, and permeability of the entire multi-compartment scaffold as well as discrete mineralized and non-mineralized compartments. Notably, individual mineralized and non-mineralized compartments differentially impacted the global properties of the multi-compartment composite. Of particular interest for the development of mechanically-loaded multi-compartment composites, the elastic modulus and permeability of the entire construct were governed primarily by the non-mineralized and mineralized compartments, respectively. Based on these results we hypothesize spatial variations in scaffold structural, compositional, and mechanical properties may be an important design parameter in orthopedic interface repair. PMID:23973610

Weisgerber, D W; Kelkhoff, D O; Caliari, S R; Harley, B A C

2013-12-01

127

The impact of discrete compartments of a multi-compartment collagen-GAG scaffold on overall construct biophysical properties  

PubMed Central

Orthopedic interfaces such as the tendon-bone junction (TBJ) present unique challenges for biomaterials development. Here we describe a multi-compartment collagen–GAG scaffold fabricated via lyophilization that contains discrete mineralized (CGCaP) and non-mineralized (CG) regions joined by a continuous interface. Modifying CGCaP preparation approaches, we demonstrated scaffold variants of increasing mineral content (40 vs. 80 wt% CaP). We report the impact of fabrication parameters on microstructure, composition, elastic modulus, and permeability of the entire multi-compartment scaffold as well as discrete mineralized and non-mineralized compartments. Notably, individual mineralized and non-mineralized compartments differentially impacted the global properties of the multi-compartment composite. Of particular interest for the development of mechanically-loaded multi-compartment composites, the elastic modulus and permeability of the entire construct were governed primarily by the non-mineralized and mineralized compartments, respectively. Based on these results we hypothesize spatial variations in scaffold structural, compositional, and mechanical properties may be an important design parameter in orthopedic interface repair. PMID:23973610

Weisgerber, D.W.; Kelkhoff, D.O.; Caliari, S.R.; Harley, B.A.C.

2014-01-01

128

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

129

46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the...

2012-10-01

130

Astronaut Richard Covey working in the Crew Compartment Trainer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Richard O. Covey retrieves a helmet from a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EM) spacesuit in the airlock of the one-G crew compartment trainer (CCT) at JSC. Covey was training for the STS 26 flight.

1986-01-01

131

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks, louvers, etc., to provide sufficient air for proper operation of the propulsion and auxiliary...

2012-10-01

132

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks, louvers, etc., to provide sufficient air for proper operation of the propulsion and auxiliary...

2011-10-01

133

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks, louvers, etc., to provide sufficient air for proper operation of the propulsion and auxiliary...

2013-10-01

134

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

...625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks, louvers, etc., to provide sufficient air for proper operation of the propulsion and auxiliary...

2014-10-01

135

The Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Current Management of Acute Compartment Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency warranting prompt evaluation and treatment. It can occur with any elevation in interstitial pressure in a closed osseo-fascial compartment. Resultant ischaemic damage may be irreversible within six hours and can result in long-term morbidity and even death. The diagnosis is largely clinical with the classical description of ‘pain out of proportion to the injury’. Compartment pressure monitors can be a helpful adjunct where the diagnosis is in doubt. Initial treatment is with the removal of any constricting dressings or casts, avoiding hypotension and optimizing tissue perfusion by keeping the limb at heart level. If symptoms persist, definitive treatment is necessary with timely surgical decompression of all the involved compartments. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of ACS. PMID:25067973

Donaldson, James; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim S

2014-01-01

136

A pressing diagnosis - a compromised testicle secondary to compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Hydrocoeles are a common cause of scrotal swelling and discomfort in a significant proportion of men. We report a case of compartment syndrome within the tunica vaginalis. This is an unusual and previously unreported complication of a hydrocoele. PMID:18325198

Douglas, J W; Hicks, J A; Manners, J; Hayes, M C

2008-03-01

137

Joint Compartmented Threshold Access Structures Ali Aydin Selcuk, Ramazan Yilmaz  

E-print Network

Joint Compartmented Threshold Access Structures Ali Aydin Sel¸cuk, Ramazan Yilmaz Department addresses: selcuk@cs.bilkent.edu.tr (Ali Aydin Sel¸cuk), ryilmaz@cs.bilkent.edu.tr (Ramazan Yilmaz) Preprint

138

14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view for safe operation. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the pilot's view. If certification for night operation is requested, this must be shown by...

2010-01-01

139

14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

2014-01-01

140

14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

2011-01-01

141

14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view for safe operation. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the pilot's view. If certification for night operation is requested, this must be shown by...

2011-01-01

142

14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

...sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view for safe operation. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the pilot's view. If certification for night operation is requested, this must be shown by...

2014-01-01

143

14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view for safe operation. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the pilot's view. If certification for night operation is requested, this must be shown by...

2012-01-01

144

14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

2013-01-01

145

14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

2012-01-01

146

14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

2010-01-01

147

7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and packaging rooms or compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate objectionable...

2013-01-01

148

Fire spread and percolation in polydisperse compartment structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we employ a cellular automata and percolation analysis to model fire spread in polydisperse amorphous massively multi-compartmented structures (e.g. naval vessels, high-rise buildings, warehouses, or nuclear plants). Various shapes and sizes of compartments are considered. Each compartment is composed of nc equal-size cells. It is found that increasing nc increases fingering and lacunarities of fire patterns, and subsequently front roughness. However, this also increases the probability of fire propagation throughout the system as the percolation threshold presents a power-law decrease with nc -1 for small values of nc. For large polydisperse compartments, the propagation/non propagation transition seems to be size-independent. A special emphasis is put on the dynamics of fire propagation. Further study is needed to evaluate network properties that should help in developing better strategies to reduce fire consequences.

Zekri, N.; Zekri, L.; Lallemand, C.; Pizzo, Y.; Kaiss, A.; Clerc, J.-P.; Porterie, B.

2012-11-01

149

Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M M; Rep, Martijn

2015-01-01

150

The periplastidal compartment: a naturally minimized eukaryotic cytoplasm.  

PubMed

Many important algae groups like diatoms, dinoflagellates and 'kelp' but also apicomplexan parasites evolved in secondary endosymbiosis. Here, a eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis created chimeric cells, in which a eukaryotic symbiont was reduced to a complex plastid. Although having lost nearly all of the eukaryotic compartments of the symbiont, a tiny lumen representing the remnant of the cytoplasm of the symbiont is still present in most of these organisms. This compartment, the periplastidal compartment, shows different degrees of reductions as in two algal groups the former nucleus is still present in a minimized form, called nucleomorph, whereas most others have lost the genetic system completely. Thus, the natural reduction of eukaryotic cytoplasms can be studied in terms of evolution and functionality, giving additionally advices for the design of synthetic minimized compartments. PMID:25460801

Grosche, Christopher; Hempel, Franziska; Bolte, Kathrin; Zauner, Stefan; Maier, Uwe G

2014-10-15

151

19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing...

2010-04-01

152

19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing...

2012-04-01

153

19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing...

2011-04-01

154

19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing...

2013-04-01

155

Successful early surgical treatment in neonatal compartment syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

Neonatal compartment syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed because other ischemic diseases can mimic clinical signs observed on the skin. A premature newborn infant presented with skin lesions during the first hours of life that were recognized as the sentinel finding in compartment syndrome of the newborn. We restored normal function by emergency surgery. The authors highlight the importance of effective collaboration between pediatricians and surgeons to improve the management of this neonatal condition. PMID:23664365

Plancq, M C; Buisson, P; Deroussen, F; Krim, G; Collet, L M; Gouron, R

2013-06-01

156

Differential gene expression in anatomical compartments of the human eye  

PubMed Central

Background The human eye is composed of multiple compartments, diverse in form, function, and embryologic origin, that work in concert to provide us with our sense of sight. We set out to systematically characterize the global gene expression patterns that specify the distinctive characteristics of the various eye compartments. Results We used DNA microarrays representing approximately 30,000 human genes to analyze gene expression in the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body, retina, and optic nerve. The distinctive patterns of expression in each compartment could be interpreted in relation to the physiology and cellular composition of each tissue. Notably, the sets of genes selectively expressed in the retina and in the lens were particularly large and diverse. Genes with roles in immune defense, particularly complement components, were expressed at especially high levels in the anterior segment tissues. We also found consistent differences between the gene expression patterns of the macula and peripheral retina, paralleling the differences in cell layer densities between these regions. Based on the hypothesis that genes responsible for diseases that affect a particular eye compartment are likely to be selectively expressed in that compartment, we compared our gene expression signatures with genetic mapping studies to identify candidate genes for diseases affecting the cornea, lens, and retina. Conclusion Through genome-scale gene expression profiling, we were able to discover distinct gene expression 'signatures' for each eye compartment and identified candidate disease genes that can serve as a reference database for investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the eye. PMID:16168081

Diehn, Jennifer J; Diehn, Maximilian; Marmor, Michael F; Brown, Patrick O

2005-01-01

157

Return to activity following fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is relatively rare but has been well documented in athletes. There are, however, few reports regarding return to athletic activity after surgery among elite-level athletes. We hypothesized that a majority of elite-level athletes would successfully return to their previous level of competition following fasciotomy for CECS. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify elite-level athletes (collegiate or professional sport participation) who underwent fasciotomy for CECS over a 3-year period. Data collected included sport or activity, treatment and surgical details, time away from sport/activity after surgery, and ability to return to prior level of activity. Six males and seven females were included in the analysis. Patient age ranged from 17 to 24 years with a mean of 19.7 years. Six patients underwent unilateral lower extremity compartment release, and seven underwent bilateral lower extremity compartment release. The anterior and lateral compartments alone were released in 11 patients (84.6%). Two patients (15.4%) underwent four-compartment releases. Eleven patients (84.6%) were able to return to their previous elite level of sport participation at a mean of 10.6 weeks following surgical fasciotomy. Patients who had four-compartment release had a more than 3.5 week average longer return to full sporting activities (p = 0.011). Fasciotomy is effective in allowing elite athletes with CECS to return to sport. PMID:24664450

Irion, Val; Magnussen, Robert A; Miller, Timothy L; Kaeding, Christopher C

2014-10-01

158

Hepatitis B surface antigen assembles in a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment  

PubMed Central

Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the major envelope protein of the virus, in the absence of other viral proteins leads to its secretion as oligomers in the form of disk-like or tubular lipoprotein particles. The observation that these lipoprotein particles are heavily disulphide crosslinked is paradoxical since HBsAg assembly is classically believed to occur in the ER, and hence in the presence of high levels of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) which should resolve these higher intermolecular crosslinks. Indeed, incubation of mature, highly disulphide crosslinked HBsAg with recombinant PDI causes the disassembly of HBsAg to dimers. We have used antibodies against resident ER proteins in double immunofluorescence studies to study the stages of the conversion of the HBsAg from individual protein subunits to the secreted, crosslinked, oligomer. We show that HBsAg is rapidly sorted to a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment which excludes PDI and other major soluble resident ER proteins although it overlaps with the distribution of rab2, an established marker of an intermediate compartment. Kinetic studies showed that disulphide-linked HBsAg dimers began to form during a short (2 min) pulse, increased in concentration to peak at 60 min, and then decreased as the dimers were crosslinked to form higher oligomers. These higher oligomers are the latest identifiable intracellular form of HBsAg before its secretion (t 1/2 = 2 h). Brefeldin A treatment does not alter the localization of HBsAg in this PDI excluding compartment, however, it blocks the formation of new oligomers causing the accumulation of dimeric HBsAg. Hence this oligomerization must occur in a pre-Golgi compartment. These data support a model in which rapid dimer formation, catalyzed by PDI, occurs in the ER, and is followed by transport of dimers to a pre-Golgi compartment where the absence of PDI and a different lumenal environment allow the assembly process to be completed. PMID:1522109

1992-01-01

159

The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.  

PubMed

A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. PMID:24929991

Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

2014-10-01

160

Lumbar Plexus Block for Management of Hip Surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbar plexus block (LPB) is one of the anesthetic options in the elderly patients undergoing hip surgeries. LPB could be safe because it targets somatic nerve in psoas region. Effectiveness of LPB is attributed to the sufficient analgesia provided intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. Adequate muscle relaxation and immobility during surgery refers to its acceptability. Objectives: In this study, LPB was used as the anesthetic method to manage the elderly patients subjected to hip surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients aged 51 to 100 years were enrolled in this study. LPB was accomplished after a mild sedation and with a modified method using patient's fingertip width (FTW) as the distance unit to determine needle entry point under electrical nerve stimulation assistance. After targeted injection, procedure time, establishment time, block duration, surgery time, hemodynamic variables, and surgeon satisfaction score were documented and analyzed. Propofol in trivial doses was infused intraoperatively to provide clinical sedation. Results: Mean patient's age was 73 ± 12 years with ASA II/III. Procedure time was 5.65 ± 1.24 minutes, establishment time was 130 ± 36 seconds, block duration was 13.1 ± 8 hours, surgery time was 149.7 ± 32.2 minutes, and surgeon satisfaction score was 9.8 ± 0.1. There was no complication and no failure. Hemodynamic stability was pleasantly achieved. Conclusions: By preserving hemodynamic stability, LPB in conjunction with a light sedation could be considered as a reliable prudent satisfying anesthetic option in management of hip fractures in the elderly patients with three beneficial characteristics of safety, effectiveness, and acceptability. PMID:25289374

Amiri, Hamid Reza; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Safari, Saeid

2014-01-01

161

Requirement for Golgi-localized PI(4)P in fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi compartments  

PubMed Central

The role of specific membrane lipids in transport between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi compartments is poorly understood. Using cell-free assays that measure stages in ER-to-Golgi transport, we screened a variety of enzyme inhibitors, lipid-modifying enzymes, and lipid ligands to investigate requirements in yeast. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of human Fapp1, which binds phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4)P) specifically, was a strong and specific inhibitor of anterograde transport. Analysis of wild type and mutant PH domain proteins in addition to recombinant versions of the Sac1p phosphoinositide-phosphatase indicated that PI(4)P was required on Golgi membranes for fusion with coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles. PI(4)P inhibition did not prevent vesicle tethering but significantly reduced formation of soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between vesicle and Golgi SNARE proteins. Moreover, semi-intact cell membranes containing elevated levels of the ER-Golgi SNARE proteins and Sly1p were less sensitive to PI(4)P inhibitors. Finally, in vivo analyses of a pik1 mutant strain showed that inhibition of PI(4)P synthesis blocked anterograde transport from the ER to early Golgi compartments. Together, the data presented here indicate that PI(4)P is required for the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of COPII vesicles with the Golgi complex. PMID:21119004

Lorente-Rodríguez, Andrés; Barlowe, Charles

2011-01-01

162

Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

1975-01-01

163

Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.  

PubMed

Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

Artmann, A; Henninger, W

2001-12-01

164

Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007). We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission. PMID:25105034

Bhalla, Mary Colleen; Dick-Perez, Ryan

2014-01-01

165

Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

2012-01-01

166

Pattern Blocks with Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a class we will be exploring fractions with pattern blocks. Each student will have a selection of pattern blocks. The students will manipulate their blocks to match mine as we discover patterns. pattern blocks explained Two work stations to choose from 1. pattern block work station 2. pattern work station pattern assignment pattern block assignment 2 Paper copies of assignments will be handed out. Students ...

Mrs. Brown

2010-03-20

167

The use of graft materials in anterior compartment pelvic reconstruction.  

PubMed

Since 1996, the number of reports in the urologic and gynecologic literature using synthetic and allograph prosthetics to enhance the durability of anterior compartment repairs have increased significantly. Central to the use of these prosthetics is long-term follow-up to demonstrate that their use actually confers a benefit to patients and surgeons alike. This review attempts to catalog those reports and the outcomes, with an emphasis on the cadaveric prolapse repair with sling, which is used by the authors for repair of anterior compartment prolapse with overt or occult genuine stress urinary incontinence. PMID:15461919

Begley, J Sean; Kobashi, Kathleen C

2004-10-01

168

Primary Cilia and Dendritic Spines: Different but Similar Signaling Compartments  

PubMed Central

Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures. PMID:24048681

Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Doroquez, David B.; Sengupta, Piali

2013-01-01

169

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...normal flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view...

2011-01-01

170

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...normal flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view...

2010-01-01

171

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

172

Generation and migration of petroleum from abnormally pressured fluid compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sedimentary basins contain layers of two or more superimposed hydrogeological systems. The shallow systems are usually basin wide in extent and exhibit normal hydrostatic pressures. The deeper systems, where the oil is generated, are not basin wide and are abnormally overpressured. They usually consist of a series of individual fluid compartments that are not in hydraulic pressure communication with

J. Hunt

1990-01-01

173

Test strips detect different CO2 concentrations in closed compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four different test strips, using crystal violet for one pair of strips and basic fuchsin as a dye for the second pair, give unambiguous colorimetric indications of four different concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of a closed compartment. Tetraethylene pentamine is used as a dye decoloring agent.

1965-01-01

174

Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of 131I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Methods Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[CIAR]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[CIA], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC [CIAR]/AUC[CIA]). Results Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R=0.95±0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R=0.92±0.11 versus 0.77±0.21, p=0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of 131I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[CIAR]) and therapeutic ratio ([AUC[CIAR]/AUC[CIA

He, Ping; Kramer, Kim; Smith-Jones, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John; Larson, Steven M.

2011-01-01

175

Running head: Transcriptional Dynamics in Two Seed Compartments Corresponding author  

E-print Network

Dynamics of Two Seed Compartments with Opposing Roles in Arabidopsis Seed Germination Authors: Bas J seed germination which are separated by testa rupture. #12;3 Footnotes: Financial sources: This work Dekkers, bas.dekkers@wur.nl #12;4 ABSTRACT Seed germination is a critical stage in the plant life cycle

Leubner, Gerhard

176

MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are assessed redundantly showing excellent agreement for mass balance purposes with more than 95 % for carbon recovery. The experimental determination of nitrogen conversion yields has shown that more than 95 % for NH4+ is converted to NO2- in the first step and that more than 0.975 NO2- is transformed to NO3- in the second step. The biomass production yields are 0.4 and 0.3 g DM mol N-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi respectively. The maximum nitrogen oxidation rates are 0.9 and 3.5 mM day-1 respectively, indicating a limitation by oxygen transfer. Keywords: autotrophy, Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, ionic chromatography, flow cytometry

Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

2012-07-01

177

Understanding tumor heterogeneity as functional compartments - superorganisms revisited  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence broadens our understanding of tumors as highly heterogeneous populations derived from one common progenitor. In this review we portray various stages of tumorigenesis, tumor progression, self-seeding and metastasis in analogy to the superorganisms of insect societies to exemplify the highly complex architecture of a neoplasm as a system of functional "castes." Accordingly, we propose a model in which clonal expansion and cumulative acquisition of genetic alterations produce tumor compartments each equipped with distinct traits and thus distinct functions that cooperate to establish clinically apparent tumors. This functional compartment model also suggests mechanisms for the self-construction of tumor stem cell niches. Thus, thinking of a tumor as a superorganism will provide systemic insight into its functional compartmentalization and may even have clinical implications. PMID:21619636

2011-01-01

178

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2011-01-01

179

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

...2014-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2014-01-01

180

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2010-01-01

181

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2012-01-01

182

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2013-01-01

183

Compartment fabrication of magneto-responsive Janus microrod particles.  

PubMed

Monodispersed magneto-responsive microrod particles of variable magnetic/non-magnetic ratios and chemical compositions are created by compartment fabrication in a single poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold with periodic hole arrays. By labeling the two ends with green and red fluorescent dyes separately, we show that the particles can flip freely and reversibly in a confined geometry under the magnetic field, thereby displaying different patterned colors at the air-water interface. PMID:25503848

Lee, Su Yeon; Yang, Shu

2015-01-15

184

Multifocal streptococcal pyomyositis complicated by acute compartment syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old girl sought treatment for pyrexia of unknown origin. Despite prompt surgical drainage of a streptococcal septic arthritis of the ankle joint, her condition deteriorated. Multifocal pyomyositis was subsequently diagnosed. This was complicated by acute compartment syndrome in three extremities. With aggressive surgical and medical management, the child made a complete recovery. Orthopaedic clinicians in nontropical areas must familiarize themselves with this rare, potentially life-threatening, but eminently curable disease. PMID:11360777

Harrington, P; Scott, B; Chetcuti, P

2001-04-01

185

Gluteal compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis after heroin abuse.  

PubMed

We report a 30-year-old man who developed painful swelling of his right leg and complete sciatic nerve palsy after an i.v. injection of heroin. Excessive elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase indicated the presence of rhabdomyolysis. Fasciotomy of the gluteus maximus led to rapid and complete recovery from sciatic nerve palsy. Nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis may cause a gluteal compartment syndrome that requires immediate fasciotomy. PMID:9008535

Klockgether, T; Weller, M; Haarmeier, T; Kaskas, B; Maier, G; Dichgans, J

1997-01-01

186

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

2008-12-10

187

Orbital compartment: effects of emergent canthotomy and cantholysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of orbital decompression procedures on the intraocular pressure (IOP). The orbital compartment syndrome represents an emergency situation. Due to the elevated IOP vision loss may ensue. Several maneuvers including lateral canthotomy are discussed to reduce the IOP. Eight orbits were studied in a fresh frozen cadaveric model (4 specimens). Intraorbital volume was determined by CT volumetry. An orbital compartment syndrome was simulated by injecting viscous material into the orbit. Injected volumes were documented and lateral canthotomy, cantholysis, inferior and superior septolysis were performed. IOP and exophthalmometric measurements were obtained after each intervention. Controlled elevation of IOP was achieved in all specimens. IOP was partially reduced after performing a lateral canthotomy in eight orbits. IOP was significantly and sufficiently decreased under 20 mmHg by inferior cantholysis in seven orbits. An additional superior cantholysis was necessary in two orbits to achieve a complete decompression. Inferior or superior septolysis were not needed to further reduce the IOP. Lateral canthotomy must be followed by an inferior cantholysis to successfully decompress an orbital compartment syndrome in the majority of cases. Occasionally, superior cantholysis may generate additional benefit. Additional inferior and superior septolysis were not shown to provide a beneficial effect when performed after canthotomy and cantholysis. PMID:25115315

Haubner, Frank; Jägle, Herbert; Nunes, Diogo Pereira; Schleder, Stephan; Cvetkova, Nadezha; Kühnel, Thomas; Gassner, Holger G

2015-02-01

188

[Pathogenesis of inner environment changes in acute muscular compartment syndrome].  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome results from a pressure increase within an anatomically defined space delineated by a non-elastic surrounding. Every muscle group, encased by fascia/bone, presents a compartment with a potential to develop increased pressure under certain conditions. Increase in pressure within the compartment causes a decrease in perfusion pressure, leading to ischemia and pathological utilisation of energy substrates on the cellular level. Initially, the malfunction of cellular metabolism is functional and reversible. Later progress of these changes leads into irreversible myonecrosis. Restitution of blood supply reverses the local ischemia, however, the following reperfusion syndrome associated with oxidative stress, leads to further pathological sequelae. Re-established blood circulation carries the end-products of myonecrosis and activated immunocompetent cells from the site of lesion into the whole body. Furthermore, locally activated endothelium becomes a significant source of systemic inflammatory mediators. Pro-inflammatory conditions induce the response of anti-inflammatory regulatory mechanisms and their mutual interaction determines both local and systemic outcome of the disease. PMID:24981697

Mol?ányiová, Angela; Mol?ányi, Theodoz

2014-03-01

189

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

190

1990 CENSUS BLOCK CENTROIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The block_cen layer in the EPA New England database provides the centroids of block boundaries coverage based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census Public Law (PL) 94-171 data. The block_cen layer is an ARC/INFO point coverage....

191

The osmotically sensitive potassium and sodium compartments of synaptosomes  

PubMed Central

1. Synaptosomes are pinched-off nerve terminals whose components can be liberated by osmotic `shock'. A synaptosome preparation run through a Sephadex column that was eluted with an iso-osmotic solution retained its small ions, whereas when the column was eluted hypo-osmotically the small ions were lost. In this way the osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ of synaptosomes were measured. Measurements of the lactate dehydrogenase occluded within the synaptosome were also made. The release of osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase had similar characteristics with respect to the degree of osmotic `shock' necessary and the action of lytic agents. 2. The distribution of osmotically sensitive Na+, K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase in the subfractions of a crude mitochondrial preparation was examined. The synaptosome fraction was the richest source of these constituents. 3. On standing at 5° in iso-osmotic solution Na+ and K+ were lost from synaptosomes, whereas the amount of occluded lactate dehydrogenase remained stable, suggesting that the synaptosome membrane retained its integrity but that Na+ and K+ diffused through it out of the osmotically sensitive compartment. 4. The uptake of Na+ and K+ into the osmotically sensitive compartment was examined. At 5° the rates of uptake of Na+ and K+ were found to be equal to the rates of loss of these ions when correction to a uniform concentration gradient had been made. K+ travelled across the membrane slightly faster than Na+, the rate of K+ movement being about 1·0??equiv.cm.?2sec.?1 under a concentration gradient of 0·1m. Active transport is not thought to contribute to the ion movements under the conditions used. 5. The amount of K+ taken up into the osmotically sensitive compartment as a function of the external concentration was examined. Since the uncharged molecule d-[14C]galactose distributes across the synaptosome membrane similarly to K+ there is not thought to be a synaptosomal trans-membrane potential. The volume of the osmotically sensitive compartment was measured by this method and found to agree with estimates of the synaptosomal volume made from morphological studies. In media of low ionic strength synaptosomes exhibit a Donnan effect. 6. It is concluded from these studies that the osmotically sensitive compartment represents the inner volume of the synaptosome, which is completely separated from the outside environment by a diffusion barrier having many of the general properties of a biological membrane. PMID:6035507

Marchbanks, R. M.

1967-01-01

192

Building, block, street : residential block design  

E-print Network

Late twentieth-century housing, formed by economic and internally generated functional problems rather than by limitations imposed by traditional street pattern and block size, is fundamentally anti-urban. Modern American ...

Kamell, Elizabeth N. (Elizabeth Natanya)

1996-01-01

193

Bap31 is an itinerant protein that moves between the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a juxtanuclear compartment related to ER-associated Degradation.  

PubMed

Certain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates with transmembrane domains are segregated from other ER proteins and sorted into a juxtanuclear subcompartment, known as the ER quality control compartment. Bap31 is an ER protein with three transmembrane domains, and it is assumed to be a cargo receptor for ER export of some transmembrane proteins, especially those prone to ERAD. Here, we show that Bap31 is a component of the ER quality control compartment and that it moves between the peripheral ER and a juxtanuclear ER or ER-related compartment distinct from the conventional ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. The third and second transmembrane domains of Bap31 are principally responsible for the movement to and recycling from the juxtanuclear region, respectively. This cycling was blocked by depolymerization of microtubules and disruption of dynein-dynactin function. Overexpression of Sar1p and Arf1 mutants affected Bap31 cycling, suggesting that this cycling pathway is related to the conventional vesicular transport pathways. PMID:18287538

Wakana, Yuichi; Takai, Sawako; Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Katsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Tagaya, Mitsuo

2008-05-01

194

Bap31 Is an Itinerant Protein That Moves between the Peripheral Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and a Juxtanuclear Compartment Related to ER-associated Degradation  

PubMed Central

Certain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates with transmembrane domains are segregated from other ER proteins and sorted into a juxtanuclear subcompartment, known as the ER quality control compartment. Bap31 is an ER protein with three transmembrane domains, and it is assumed to be a cargo receptor for ER export of some transmembrane proteins, especially those prone to ERAD. Here, we show that Bap31 is a component of the ER quality control compartment and that it moves between the peripheral ER and a juxtanuclear ER or ER-related compartment distinct from the conventional ER–Golgi intermediate compartment. The third and second transmembrane domains of Bap31 are principally responsible for the movement to and recycling from the juxtanuclear region, respectively. This cycling was blocked by depolymerization of microtubules and disruption of dynein–dynactin function. Overexpression of Sar1p and Arf1 mutants affected Bap31 cycling, suggesting that this cycling pathway is related to the conventional vesicular transport pathways. PMID:18287538

Wakana, Yuichi; Takai, Sawako; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tani, Katsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J.; Hauri, Hans-Peter

2008-01-01

195

Dynein-dependent transport of the hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein to the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment.  

PubMed

In contrast to most negative-stranded RNA viruses, hantaviruses and other viruses in the family Bunyaviridae mature intracellularly, deriving the virion envelope from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi compartment. While it is generally accepted that Old World hantaviruses assemble and bud into the Golgi compartment, some studies with New World hantaviruses have raised the possibility of maturation at the plasma membrane as well. Overall, the steps leading to virion assembly remain largely undetermined for hantaviruses. Because hantaviruses do not have matrix proteins, the nucleocapsid protein (N) has been proposed to play a key role in assembly. Herein, we examine the intracellular trafficking and morphogenesis of the prototype Old World hantavirus, Hantaan virus (HTNV). Using confocal microscopy, we show that N colocalized with the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) in HTNV-infected Vero E6 cells, not with the ER, Golgi compartment, or early endosomes. Brefeldin A, which effectively disperses the ER, the ERGIC, and Golgi membranes, redistributed N with the ERGIC, implicating membrane association; however, subcellular fractionation experiments showed the majority of N in particulate fractions. Confocal microscopy revealed that N was juxtaposed to and distributed along microtubules and, over time, became surrounded by vimentin cages. To probe cytoskeletal association further, we probed trafficking of N in cells treated with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, which depolymerize microtubules and actin, respectively. We show that nocodazole, but not cytochalasin D, affected the distribution of N and reduced levels of intracellular viral RNA. These results suggested the involvement of microtubules in trafficking of N, whose movement could occur via molecular motors such as dynein. Overexpression of dynamitin, which is associated with dynein-mediated transport, creates a dominant-negative phenotype blocking transport on microtubules. Overexpression of dynamitin reduced N accumulation in the perinuclear region, which further supports microtubule components in N trafficking. The combined results of these experiments support targeting of N to the ERGIC prior to its movement to the Golgi compartment and the requirement of an intact ERGIC for viral replication and, thus, the possibility of virus factories in this region. PMID:17537852

Ramanathan, Harish N; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Plane, Steven J; Sztul, Elizabeth; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Guttieri, Mary C; McDowell, Michael; Ali, Georgia; Jonsson, Colleen B

2007-08-01

196

Cross-bridge kinetics in the presence of MgADP investigated by photolysis of caged ATP in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. The interaction between MgADP and rigor cross-bridges in glycerol-extracted single fibres from rabbit psoas muscle has been investigated using laser pulse photolysis of caged ATP (P3-1(2-nitrophenyl)ethyladenosine 5'-triphosphate) in the presence of MgADP and following small length changes applied to the rigor fibre. 2. Addition of 465 microM-MgADP to a rigor fibre caused rigor tension to decrease by 15.3 +/- 0.7% (S.E.M., n = 24 trials in thirteen fibres). The half-saturation value for this tension reduction was 18 +/- 4 microM (n = 23, thirteen fibres). 3. Relaxation from rigor by photolysis of caged ATP in the absence of Ca2+ was markedly slowed by inclusion of 20 microM-2 mM-MgADP in the photolysis medium. 4. Four phases of tension relaxation occurred with MgADP in the medium: at, a quick partial relaxation (in pre-stretch fibres); bt, a slowing of relaxation or a rise in tension for 50-100 ms; ct, a sudden acceleration of relaxation; and dt, a final, nearly exponential relaxation. 5. Experiments at varied MgATP and MgADP concentrations suggested that phase at is due to MgATP binding to nucleotide-free cross-bridges. 6. Phase bt was abbreviated by including 1-20 mM-orthophosphate (Pi) in the photolysis medium, or by applying quick stretches before photolysis or during phase bt. These results suggest that phases bt and ct are complex processes involving ADP dissociation, cross-bridge reattachment and co-operative detachment involving filament sliding and the Ca(2+)-regulatory system. 7. Stretching relaxed muscle fibres to 3.2-3.4 microns striation spacing followed by ATP removal and release of the rigor fibre until tension fell below the relaxed level allowed investigation of the strain dependence of relaxation in the regions of negative cross-bridge strain. In the presence of 50 microM-2 mM-MgADP and either 10 mM-Pi or 20 mM-2,3-butanedione monoxime, relaxation following photolysis of caged ATP was 6- to 8-fold faster for negatively strained cross-bridges than for positively strained ones. This marked strain dependence of cross-bridge detachment is predicted from the model of A. F. Huxley (1957). 8. In the presence of Ca2+, activation of contraction following photolysis of caged ATP was slowed by inclusion of 20-500 microM-MgADP in the medium. An initial decrease in tension related to cross-bridge detachment by MgATP was markedly suppressed in the presence of MgADP. 9. Ten millimolar Pi partly suppressed active tension generation in the presence of MgADP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1886072

Dantzig, J A; Hibberd, M G; Trentham, D R; Goldman, Y E

1991-01-01

197

Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition.

Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

2015-01-01

198

Trafficking and function of GPCRs in the endosomal compartment.  

PubMed

New methods based on fluorescently labeled agonists, genetically encoded fluorescent sensors, and advanced microscopy techniques, such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and highly inclined thin illumination (HILO), allow direct monitoring of signaling, internalization, and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands in living cells with high temporal and spatial resolution. These methods have been essential in revealing that GPCRs can continue signaling via production of the soluble second messenger cyclic AMP after internalization into the endosomal compartment. PMID:25304358

Calebiro, Davide; Godbole, Amod; Lyga, Sandra; Lohse, Martin J

2015-01-01

199

Lysosome-related organelles: Unusual compartments become mainstream  

PubMed Central

Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) comprise a group of cell type-specific subcellular compartments with unique composition, morphology and structure that share some features with endosomes and lysosomes and that function in varied processes such as pigmentation, hemostasis, lung plasticity and immunity. In recent years, studies of genetic diseases in which LRO functions are compromised have provided new insights into the mechanisms of LRO biogenesis and the regulated secretion of LRO contents. These insights have revealed previously unappreciated specialized endosomal sorting processes in all cell types, and are expanding our views of the plasticity of the endosomal and secretory systems in adapting to cell type-specific needs. PMID:23726022

Marks, Michael S.; Heijnen, Harry F. G.; Raposo, Graça

2013-01-01

200

Protein based Block Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

201

Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

1976-01-01

202

Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Tessa, Alessandra [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy)] [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Tonin, Paola [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Carrozzo, Rosalba [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Hospital-Molecular Medicine Unit, Roma (Italy)] [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Hospital-Molecular Medicine Unit, Roma (Italy); Mole, Sara E. [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Molecular Medicines Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London (United Kingdom)] [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Molecular Medicines Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London (United Kingdom); Santorelli, Filippo M. [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy)] [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Simonati, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.simonati@univr.it [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)

2011-12-09

203

Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology. PMID:25689980

Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

2015-03-01

204

Incision Planning in Thyroid Compartment Surgery: Getting it Perfect.  

PubMed

Objective: This study evaluates changes in thyroid compartment incision site locations with patient positioning to define a reliable method for placing the scar in the optimal vertical location.Methods: The optimal incision location was marked with the patient sitting upright before surgery. The distance from the sternal notch to this mark was measured with the patient in the upright, supine and final surgical positions.Results: Complete data were available for 104 procedures. The mean distances from the sternal notch to the incision site were 4.8, 21.5 and 31.9 mm in the sitting, supine and surgical positions, respectively. Each of these distances were significantly different from one another (p<0.0001), and were independent of patient age, gender, body mass index or height.Conclusions: Cutaneous cervical landmarks migrate significantly during patient positioning. Marking the thyroid compartment incision site while the patient is in an upright position produces a more predictable final scar location. PMID:25148816

Duke, William S; Bush, Carrie M; Singer, Michael C; Haskins, Angela D; Waller, Jennifer L; Terris, David J

2014-08-22

205

Identification of a clonally expanding haematopoietic compartment in bone marrow  

PubMed Central

In mammals, postnatal haematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM) and involves specialized microenvironments controlling haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) behaviour and, in particular, stem cell dormancy and self-renewal. While these processes have been linked to a number of different stromal cell types and signalling pathways, it is currently unclear whether BM has a homogenous architecture devoid of structural and functional partitions. Here, we show with genetic labelling techniques, high-resolution imaging and functional experiments in mice that the periphery of the adult BM cavity harbours previously unrecognized compartments with distinct properties. These units, which we have termed hemospheres, were composed of endothelial, haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, were enriched in CD150+ CD48? putative HSCs, and enabled rapid haematopoietic cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Inducible gene targeting of the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 in endothelial cells disrupted hemospheres and, concomitantly, reduced the number of CD150+ CD48? cells. Our results identify a previously unrecognized, vessel-associated BM compartment with a specific localization and properties distinct from the marrow cavity. PMID:23188081

Wang, Lin; Benedito, Rui; Bixel, M Gabriele; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Stehling, Martin; Sävendahl, Lars; Haigh, Jody J; Snippert, Hugo; Clevers, Hans; Breier, Georg; Kiefer, Friedemann; Adams, Ralf H

2013-01-01

206

COMPARTMENTS: unification and visualization of protein subcellular localization evidence  

PubMed Central

Information on protein subcellular localization is important to understand the cellular functions of proteins. Currently, such information is manually curated from the literature, obtained from high-throughput microscopy-based screens and predicted from primary sequence. To get a comprehensive view of the localization of a protein, it is thus necessary to consult multiple databases and prediction tools. To address this, we present the COMPARTMENTS resource, which integrates all sources listed above as well as the results of automatic text mining. The resource is automatically kept up to date with source databases, and all localization evidence is mapped onto common protein identifiers and Gene Ontology terms. We further assign confidence scores to the localization evidence to facilitate comparison of different types and sources of evidence. To further improve the comparability, we assign confidence scores based on the type and source of the localization evidence. Finally, we visualize the unified localization evidence for a protein on a schematic cell to provide a simple overview. Database URL: http://compartments.jensenlab.org PMID:24573882

Binder, Janos X.; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Stolte, Christian; O’Donoghue, Seán I.; Schneider, Reinhard; Jensen, Lars Juhl

2014-01-01

207

Targeting enzymes to the right compartment: metabolic engineering for itaconic acid production by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block. It can be microbially produced from some Aspergillus species, such as Aspergillus itaconicus and Aspergillus terreus. However, the achieved titers are significantly lower as compared to the citric acid production by A. niger. Heterologous expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase in A. niger leads to the accumulation of small amounts of itaconic acid. Additional expression of aconitase, the second enzyme metabolically linking citric acid and itaconic acid improves productivity. However, proper organelle targeting of the enzymes appears to be an important point to consider. Here we compare the mitochondrial expression with the cytosolic expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase or aconitase in A. niger. Heterologous expression of both enzymes in the mitochondria doubles the productivity compared to strains which express the enzymes in the cytosol. It is essential to target enzymes to the correct compartment in order to establish a proper flux through a compartmentalized pathway. PMID:23727192

Blumhoff, Marzena L; Steiger, Matthias G; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

2013-09-01

208

A three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model can explain variable toxicities of cobra venoms and their alpha toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetic profiles of labelled Naja melanoleuca, Naja nivea, Naja nigricollis and Naja haje venoms and their alpha neurotoxins were determined following rapid i.v. injection into rabbits. The data obtained fitted a triexponential equation characteristic of a three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model comprising a central compartment ‘blood’, a rapidly equilibrating ‘shallow’ tissue compartment and a slowly equilibrating ‘deep’ tissue compartment. The

M. Ismail; M. H. M. Aly; M. A. Abd-Elsalam; A. M. Morad

1996-01-01

209

High Relief Block Printing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

Foster, Michael

1989-01-01

210

Block and psychoticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that J. P. Block's (1977) criticisms of the Eysenck and Eysenck Adult Psychoticism Scale are one-sided and do not take into account all the evidence. It is also suggested that Block's criticisms center on a function not at all envisaged for the scale, that is, the discrimination of psychotics from normals and other nonpsychotic groups. The scale was constructed

Hans J. Eysenck; Sybil B. Eysenck

1977-01-01

211

Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the osteons and similar to the "fully mineralized" stage of primary bone. The results of this study demonstrated that unremodeled compartments of bone grow older through maturation and growth of mineral crystals in a protracted fashion. However, the secondary osteonal remodeling impedes this aging process and maintains the mean tissue age fairly constant over decades. Therefore, slowing of remodeling may lead to brittle bone tissue through accumulation of fully mineralized tissue fragments.

Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

2003-01-01

212

Anomalous muscles within the first dorsal extensor compartment of the wrist.  

PubMed

A 73-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of a tender first dorsal extensor compartment of her right wrist along with swelling which extended proximally. Caring for her grandchildren exacerbated her pain, and rest relieved it. Over a 2-month period, two injections and splint immobilization failed to provide pain relief and swelling reduction. An ultrasound showed anomalous muscles within the first dorsal extensor compartment. Surgical release of the first compartment showed the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons flanked by muscles within an inflamed sheath. Releasing the compartment resulted in complete pain relief. Anatomic variations within the first dorsal extensor compartment have been reported, but there has been no report on double anomalous muscles within the compartment. The details of the case, utility of ultrasound, and a brief review of the literature are described. PMID:25414621

Zaino, Christian J; Mitgang, Joshua T; Rawat, Mohini; Patel, Mukund R

2014-12-01

213

Rapid generation of a functional NK-cell compartment  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplants are an important therapeutic tool for treating certain types of cancer as well as genetic diseases affecting the hematopoietic system. Until the transferred stem cells differentiate and reconstitute the immune system, recipients are at increased risk from opportunistic infections. We report the rapid generation of a functional natural killer (NK) compartment in lethally irradiated mice that received bone marrow cells from a syngeneic donor by treatment with IL-2/anti–IL-2 antibody complexes. We demonstrate that IL-2 complexes specifically expand the donor but not the host NK population and discuss the implications of this finding in the context of graft-versus-host disease and tumor relapse. Finally, we show that NK cells rapidly generated by IL-2 complexes kill MHC class I–deficient cells effectively in vivo. These data underline the unique therapeutic potential of IL-2 complexes. PMID:17554057

Prlic, Martin; Kamimura, Daisuke

2007-01-01

214

Plasticity compartments in basal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons.  

PubMed

Synaptic plasticity rules widely determine how cortical networks develop and store information. Using confocal imaging and dual site focal synaptic stimulation, we show that basal dendrites, which receive the majority of synapses innervating neocortical pyramidal neurons, contain two compartments with respect to plasticity rules. Synapses innervating the proximal basal tree are easily modified when paired with the global activity of the neuron. In contrast, synapses innervating the distal basal tree fail to change in response to global suprathreshold activity or local dendritic spikes. These synapses can undergo long-term potentiation under unusual conditions when local NMDA spikes, which evoke large calcium transients, are paired with a "gating molecule," BDNF. Moreover, these synapses use a new temporal plasticity rule, which is an order of magnitude longer than spike timing dependent plasticity and prefers reversed presynaptic/postsynaptic activation order. The newly described plasticity compartmentalization of basal dendrites expands the networks plasticity rules and may support different learning and developmental functions. PMID:17151275

Gordon, Urit; Polsky, Alon; Schiller, Jackie

2006-12-01

215

The electrophysiological mapping of compartments within a mammalian cell  

PubMed Central

The electrical properties of structures within an intact cell were examined by impalement with micropipette electrodes. Mean potential differences (PDs) measured from interphase HeLa cells showed that internal membrane-bounded compartments such as the nucleus, Golgi region, and the mitochondria were more negative than the cytoplasm with respect to an external grounding electrode. The nuclear PDs, unlike Golgi and cytoplasmic PDs, shifted during interphase and reached a peak value shortly before mitosis. The positioning of micropipettes was confirmed by electron microscope examination of marker solutions that were microinjected into specific intracellular regions. The combination of methods described here offers a new approach for the study of physiological events within intact, living cells. PMID:63464

1977-01-01

216

The volume of vascular compartment in rat hind limb muscles  

PubMed Central

1. A non-recirculatory perfusion system has been developed suitable for the perfusion of the hind limbs of small experimental animals. 2. By means of it a solution of T. 1824-labelled serum albumin has been introduced into the vascular compartment of the hind limbs of female rats under isogravimetric conditions. Excision and analysis of certain muscles has been used to provide information concerning the percentage distribution of the labelled albumin within these muscles. 3. Experiments have been carried out in vivo employing [131I]labelled serum albumin and [51Cr]labelled erythrocytes in order to compare the vascular volumes determined under in vivo conditions and in perfusions, and to estimate the capillary haematocrit in vivo. 4. The physiological validity of the methods used and the results obtained has been discussed. PMID:5972152

Law, R. O.; Phelps, C. F.

1966-01-01

217

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg in the military.  

PubMed

CECS is a common source of lower extremity disability among young athletic cohorts and military personnel. The five cardinal symptoms are pain, tightness, cramps, weakness, and diminished sensation. History and clinical examination remain the hallmarks for identifying CECS, although ICP measurements during exercise stress testing may be used to confirm diagnosis. Nonsurgical management is generally unsuccessful, although gait retraining may have benefits in selected individuals. When conservative measures have failed, operative management may be considered with fascial release of all affected compartments. Although clinical success has been documented in civilian cohorts, the results of surgical treatment in military service members have been far less reliable. Only approximately half of the military service members experience complete resolution of symptoms and at least 25% are unable to return to full duty. PMID:25280617

Dunn, John C; Waterman, Brian R

2014-10-01

218

An iatrogenic popliteal pseudoaneurysm masked under compartment syndrome of leg  

PubMed Central

This case describes a 60-year-old gentleman who presented with a pulsating mass behind his knee. Before this, he had a fasciotomy for suspected compartment syndrome of leg following knee arthroscopy, but this failed to resolve his leg symptoms. He was hemodynamically stable on presentation. His left calf was swollen with a circumference of 3 cm greater than right. There was a large pulsating mass palpable in his left popliteal fossa. Distal neurovascular status of the leg was intact. He had a normal cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal and neurological examination. Ultrasound showed a cystic mass in the popliteal fossa suggestive of aneurysm. CT angiogram demonstrated a 6 × 5 × 4 cm pseudoaneurysm compressing and displacing the left popliteal artery with satisfactory three-vessel run-off. An emergency repair was performed. An arteriotomy was identified at the proximal end of pseudoaneurysm and it was closed with a patch of small saphenous vein. It led to a good clinical outcome. PMID:25362730

Sajjad, Jahangir; Coveney, Andrew; Ahmed, Abubakr; Fulton, Gregory

2014-01-01

219

Axon initial segments: diverse and dynamic neuronal compartments.  

PubMed

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a structurally and molecularly unique neuronal compartment of the proximal axon that functions as both a physiological and physical bridge between the somatodendritic and axonal domains. The AIS has two main functions: to initiate action potentials and to maintain neuronal polarity. The cytoskeletal scaffold ankyrinG is responsible for these functions and clusters ion channels at the AIS. Recent studies reveal how the AIS forms and remarkable diversity in its structure, function, and composition that may be modulated by neuronal activity and posttranslational modifications of AIS proteins. Furthermore, AIS proteins have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Here, we discuss these findings and what they teach us about the dynamic AIS. PMID:24705243

Yoshimura, Takeshi; Rasband, Matthew N

2014-08-01

220

Three Prevacuolar Compartment Rab GTPases Impact Candida albicans Hyphal Growth  

PubMed Central

Disruption of vacuolar biogenesis in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans causes profound defects in polarized hyphal growth. However, the precise vacuolar pathways involved in yeast-hypha differentiation have not been determined. Previously we focused on Vps21p, a Rab GTPase involved in directing vacuolar trafficking through the late endosomal prevacuolar compartment (PVC). Herein, we identify two additional Vps21p-related GTPases, Ypt52p and Ypt53p, that colocalize with Vps21p and can suppress the hyphal defects of the vps21?/? mutant. Phenotypic analysis of gene deletion strains revealed that loss of both VPS21 and YPT52 causes synthetic defects in endocytic trafficking to the vacuole, as well as delivery of the virulence-associated vacuolar membrane protein Mlt1p from the Golgi compartment. Transcription of all three GTPase-encoding genes is increased under hyphal growth conditions, and overexpression of the transcription factor Ume6p is sufficient to increase the transcription of these genes. While only the vps21?/? single mutant has hyphal growth defects, these were greatly exacerbated in a vps21?/? ypt52?/? double mutant. On the basis of relative expression levels and phenotypic analysis of gene deletion strains, Vps21p is the most important of the three GTPases, followed by Ypt52p, while Ypt53p has an only marginal impact on C. albicans physiology. Finally, disruption of a nonendosomal AP-3-dependent vacuolar trafficking pathway in the vps21?/? ypt52?/? mutant, further exacerbated the stress and hyphal growth defects. These findings underscore the importance of membrane trafficking through the PVC in sustaining the invasive hyphal growth form of C. albicans. PMID:23709183

Johnston, Douglas A.; Tapia, Arturo Luna; Eberle, Karen E.

2013-01-01

221

Compartment calcium model of frog skeletal muscle during activation.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle contraction is triggered by a rise in calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration in the myofibrillar space. The objective of this study was to develop a voltage dependent compartment model of Ca(2+) dynamics in frog skeletal muscle fibers. The compartment model corresponds to the myofibrillar space (MS) and a calcium store, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Ca(2+) is released from the SR to the MS based on the voltage and is able to bind to several proteins in the MS. We use a detailed model to account for voltage dependent Ca(2+) release and inactivation. With this model, we are able to match previous experimental data for Ca(2+) release and binding to proteins for an applied (fixed) voltage. We explore the sensitivity of parameters in the model and illustrate the importance of inactivation of the SR; during a long depolarization, the SR must be inactivated in order to achieve realistic Ca(2+) concentrations in the MS. A Hodgkin Huxley type model was also developed to describe voltage at the surface membrane using electrophysiological data from previous experiments. This voltage model was then used as the time dependent voltage to determine Ca(2+) release from the SR. With this fully coupled model, we were able to match previous experimental results for Ca(2+) concentrations for a given applied current. Additionally, we examined simulated Ca(2+) concentrations in the case of twitch and tetanus, corresponding to different applied currents. The developed model is robust and reproduces many aspects of voltage dependent calcium signaling in frog skeletal muscle fibers. This modeling framework provides a platform for future studies of excitation contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:25234233

Liu, Weifan; Olson, Sarah D

2015-01-01

222

Dynamo room (compartment A21) with view of port side electrical ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dynamo room (compartment A-21) with view of port side electrical generator and ventilation ducting. (013) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

223

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2010-07-01

224

31 CFR 558.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 558.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2014-07-01

225

Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

226

View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

227

31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2012-07-01

228

Optoelectronics using block copolymers.  

SciTech Connect

Block copolymers, either as semiconductors themselves or as structure directors, are emerging as a promising class of materials for understanding and controlling processes associated with both photovoltaic energy conversion and light emitting devices.

Botiz, I.; Darling, S. B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

2010-05-01

229

Types of Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

230

Superalloy Lattice Block Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

2003-01-01

231

First compartment cannulation of the dromedary camel JW Manefield1 GA Alhadrami AM Al-Dehneh  

E-print Network

Short note First compartment cannulation of the dromedary camel JW Manefield1 GA Alhadrami AM Al-Dehneh I Scientific Ceiiter.1i)t- Racing Camels, PO Box /7292. Al Ain: 2 Def'artment otAiiiin4il Production simple, successful method for the long term cannulation of the first compartment of the dromedary camel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Rab15 Effector Protein: A Novel Protein for Receptor Recycling from the Endocytic Recycling Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorting endosomes and the endocytic recycling compartment are critical intracellular stores for the rapid recycling of internalized membrane receptors to the cell surface in multiple cell types. However, the molecular mechanisms distin- guishing fast receptor recycling from sorting endosomes and slow receptor recycling from the endocytic recycling compartment remain poorly understood. We previously reported that Rab15 differentially regulates transferrin receptor

David J. Strick; Lisa A. Elferink

2005-01-01

233

Structural-acoustic finite element analysis of the automobile passenger compartment: A review of current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a brief review of the formulation of the finite element method for structural-acoustic analysis of an enclosed cavity, and illustrations are given of the application of this analytical method at General Motors Corporation to investigate the acoustics of the automobile passenger compartment. Low frequency noise in the passenger compartment (in approximately the 20-200 Hz frequency range) is

D. J. Nefske; J. A. Wolf; L. J. Howell

1982-01-01

234

A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics  

E-print Network

exogenous NO delivered by inhalation as a therapy in such diseases as pulmonary hypertension, acuteA two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics NIKOLAOS M. TSOUKIAS AND STEVEN- compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics. J. Appl. Physiol. 85(2):653­666, 1998.--The

George, Steven C.

235

Seasonal fluctuation of cholesterol in ovarian compartments R. K. CHALANA S. S. GURAYA  

E-print Network

Seasonal fluctuation of cholesterol in ovarian compartments of birds R. K. CHALANA S. S. GURAYA of seasonal fluctuation in the cholesterol content of ovarian compartments in three species of birds (crow. The pattern of seasonal fluctuation in the cholesterol content of the three bird species is similar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

2011-01-01

237

14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

2010-01-01

238

Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

1998-01-01

239

Elevation in compartment pressure following hypovolemic shock and fluid resuscitation: a canine model.  

PubMed

We induced hemorrhagic shock in seven dogs and then resuscitated them with intravenous (IV) lactated ringers. We then monitored anterior leg compartment pressures via a slit catheter during both bleeding and reperfusion. These values were compared with controls that received IV fluids without being bled. Compartment pressures in resuscitated dogs rose well above control values. These values were statistically significant when compared to controls via the paired student t test (P < .01). This model demonstrates that sufficient swelling occurs to significantly elevate compartment pressures, even in the absence of local trauma. While this elevation may not be sufficient enough to cause a compartment syndrome, it reinforces the notion that extremities that have experienced ischemia and reperfusion are at an increased risk for developing compartment syndrome. PMID:16729746

Ablove, Robert H; Babikian, George; Moy, Owen J; Stegemann, Philip M

2006-05-01

240

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs.

Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

1991-01-01

241

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs.

Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

1991-12-31

242

Chlamydial Effector Proteins Localized to the Host Cell Cytoplasmic Compartment?  

PubMed Central

Disease-causing microbes utilize various strategies to modify their environment in order to create a favorable location for growth and survival. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens often use specialized secretion systems to translocate effector proteins directly into the cytosol of the eukaryotic cells they infect. These bacterial proteins are responsible for modulating eukaryotic cell functions. Identification of the bacterial effectors has been a critical step toward understanding the molecular basis for the pathogenesis of the bacteria that use them. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that have a type III secretion system believed to translocate virulence effector proteins into the cytosol of their host cells. Selective permeabilization of the eukaryotic cell membrane was used in conjunction with metabolic labeling of bacterial proteins to identify chlamydial proteins that localize within the cytosol of infected cells. More than 20 Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae proteins were detected within the cytoplasmic compartment of infected cells. While a number of cytosolic proteins were shared, others were unique to each species, suggesting that variation among cytosolic chlamydial proteins contributes to the differences in the pathogenesis of the chlamydial species. The spectrum of chlamydial proteins exported differed concomitant with the progress of the developmental cycle. These data confirm that a dynamic relationship exists between Chlamydia and its host and that translocation of bacterial proteins into the cytosol is developmentally dependent. PMID:18710866

Kleba, Betsy; Stephens, Richard S.

2008-01-01

243

Compartment Venting Analyses of Ares I First Stage Systems Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compartment venting analyses have been performed for the Ares I first stage systems tunnel using both the lumped parameter method and the three-dimensional (31)) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The main objective of venting analyses is to predict the magnitudes of differential pressures across the skin so the integrity of solid walls can be evaluated and properly designed. The lumped parameter method assumes the gas pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel are spatially uniform, which is questionable since the tunnel is about 1,700 in. long and 4 in. wide. Therefore, 31) transient CFD simulations using the commercial CFD code FLUENT are performed in order to examine the gas pressure and temperature variations inside the tunnel. It was found that the uniform pressure and temperature assumptions inside the systems tunnel are valid during ascent. During reentry, the uniform pressure assumption is also reasonable but the uniform temperature assumption is not valid. Predicted pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel using CFD are also compared with those from the lumped parameter method using the NASA code CHCHVENT. In general, the average pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel from CFD are between the burst and crush results from CHCHVENT during both ascent and reentry. The skin differential pressure and pressure inside the systems tunnel relative to freestream pressure from CHCHVENT as well as velocity vectors and streamlines are also discussed in detail.

Wang, Qunzhen; Arner, Stephen

2009-01-01

244

Simultaneous characterization of progenitor cell compartments in adult human liver.  

PubMed

The human liver is a complex tissue consisting of epithelial, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal elements that probably derive from multiple lineage-committed progenitors, but no comprehensive study aimed at identifying and characterizing intrahepatic precursors has yet been published. Cell suspensions for this study were obtained by enzymatic digestion of liver specimens taken from 20 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 multiorgan donors. Stem and progenitor cells were first isolated, amplified, and characterized ex vivo according to previously validated methods, and then optimized flow cytometry was used to assess their relative frequencies and characterize their immunophenotypes in the clinical specimens. Stem and progenitor cells committed to hematopoietic, endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages were clearly identifiable in livers from both healthy and diseased subjects. Within the mononuclear liver cell compartment, epithelial progenitors [epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+)/CD49f(+)/CD29(+)/CD45(-)] accounted for 2.7-3.5% whereas hematopoietic (CD34(+)/CD45(+)), endothelial [vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (KDR)(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-)], and mesenchymal [CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD90 (Thy-1)(+)/CD45 (-)] stem cells and progenitors accounted for smaller fractions (0.02-0.6%). The patients' livers had higher percentages of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors than those of the donors. In conclusion, we identified and characterized precursors committed to four different lineages in adult human liver. We also optimized a flow cytometry approach that will be useful in exploring the contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of liver disease. PMID:19960544

Porretti, Laura; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Colombo, Federico; Lopa, Raffaella; Rossi, Giorgio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Bertolini, Francesco; Rebulla, Paolo; Prati, Daniele

2010-01-01

245

International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

2007-01-01

246

Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

2010-01-01

247

Numerical analysis of air-flow and temperature field in a passenger car compartment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a numerical study on the temperature field inside a passenger's compartment of a Proton Wira saloon car using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The main goal is to investigate the effects of different glazing types applied onto the front and rear windscreens of the car on the distribution of air-temperature inside the passenger compartment in the steady-state conditions. The air-flow condition in the passenger's compartment is also investigated. Fluent CFD software was used to develop a three-dimensional symmetrical model of the passenger's compartment. Simplified representations of the driver and one rear passenger were incorporated into the CFD model of the passenger's compartment. Two types of glazing were considered namely clear insulated laminated tint (CIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.78 and green insulated laminate tint (GIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.5. Results of the CFD analysis were compared with those obtained when the windscreens are made up of clear glass having a shading coefficient of 0.86. Results of the CFD analysis show that for a given glazing material, the temperature of the air around the driver is slightly lower than the air around the rear passenger. Also, the use of GIL glazing material on both the front and rear windscreens significantly reduces the air temperature inside the passenger's compartment of the car. This contributes to a better thermal comfort condition to the occupants. Swirling air flow condition occurs in the passenger compartment. The air-flow intensity and velocity are higher along the side wall of the passenger's compartment compared to that along the middle section of the compartment. It was also found that the use of glazing materials on both the front and rear windscreen has no significant effects on the air-flow condition inside the passenger's compartment of the car.

Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed; Kamsah, Nazri; Mohammad Nor, Ahmad Miski

2012-06-01

248

(block mode classification ) Wyner-Ziv intra  

E-print Network

(Block Mode Information, BMI) Mode decision block WZ Intra Intra H.264 FMO skip block SDSP block Wyner-Ziv blocks BMI Wyner-Ziv blocks BMI Wyner-Ziv blocks WZ Slice CRC code Turbo code Intra Decoded Key block Wyner-Ziv Side Information BMI Turbo code Decoded key block (Reconstruction Frame

Yang, Shih-Hsuan

249

Block copolymer nanocontainers.  

PubMed

Using cell dynamics computer simulation, we perform a systematic study of thin block copolymer films around a nanoparticle. Lamellar-, cylinder-, and sphere-forming block copolymers are investigated with respect to different film thicknesses, particle radii, and boundary conditions at the film interfaces. The obtained structures include standing lamellae and cylinders, "onions", cylinder "knitting balls", "golf ball", layered spherical, "virus"-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects. The kinetics of the structure formation and difference with planar thin films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nanocontainers can be formed by the coating of a sacrificial nanobead by a block copolymer layer with a well-controlled nanostructure. In addition, first scanning force microscopy experiments on a model system reveal surface structures similar to those predicted by our simulations. PMID:20496954

Pinna, Marco; Hiltl, Stephanie; Guo, Xiaohu; Böker, Alexander; Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

2010-05-25

250

Blocks and Screws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, each student is given a block of wood and a screw (or nail), and is asked to put the screw into the block, without any tool (like a screwdriver or hammer). Their efforts, with varying success, lead to a discussion of contrivances, using various items and strategies as make-do (contrived) tools for which they were not intended, and an exploration of many examples of contrivances or adaptive compromises and other imperfections in the living world, especially in humans. This situation may be better explained by evolution rather than the result of intelligent design.

Patterson, Tim

251

1.OA Measuring Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Unifix cubes * Large blocks in different sizes or varying lengths of sentence strips Note: The large blocks or the cut-up lengths of senten...

252

Isoporous Block Copolymer Membranes.  

PubMed

The developments in membranes based on tailored block copolymers are reported with an emphasis on isoporous membranes. These membranes can be prepared in different geometries, namely flat sheets and hollow fibers. They display narrow pore size distributions due to their formation by self-assembly. The preparation of these membranes and possibilities to further functionalize such membranes will be discussed. Different ways to control the pore size will be addressed, and the potential of block copolymer blends to fabricate membranes with tailored pore sizes will be shown. PMID:25451792

Abetz, Volker

2014-11-29

253

Preynaptic induction and expression of t-LTD demonstrated by compartment-specific photorelease of a use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are important for synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In order to help investigate the precise location of the NMDA receptors that are required for different types of synaptic plasticity, we synthesized a caged form of the use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801, which we loaded into individual neurons in vitro, followed by compartment-specific uncaging. To demonstrate the potential of this new method, we investigated timing-dependent plasticity at layer 4-layer 2/3 synapses of mouse barrel cortex. Somatodendritic photorelease of MK801 in the postsynaptic neuron produced a use-dependent block of synaptic NMDA receptor-mediated currents and prevented the induction of LTP. Compartment-specific photorelease of MK801 in the presynaptic neuron showed that axonal, but not somatodendritic, presynaptic NMDA receptors are required for induction of LTD. The rate of use-dependent block of postsynaptic NMDA receptor current was slower following induction of LTD, consistent with a presynaptic locus of expression. Thus, this new caged compound has demonstrated the axonal location of NMDA receptors required for induction and the presynaptic locus of expression of LTD at layer 4-layer 2/3 synapses. PMID:21653860

Reeve, James E.; Eaton, Thomas R.; Collins, Hazel A.; Anderson, Harry L.; Paulsen, Ole

2015-01-01

254

Role of an acidic compartment in tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-induced production of ceramide, activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) apoptosis by recruiting a complex of cytosolic proteins at its plasma membrane receptor. Among them is caspase-8, an interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE)-like protease that initiates an amplified protease cascade to activate the cell-death machinery. The latter comprises at least caspase-3 and caspase-7, which execute cell death by cleaving numerous protein substrates, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, TNF-alpha stimulates the production of ceramide, which also activates the death machinery. Whether the signaling pathways elicited by caspase-8 and ceramide proceed independently or intersect at a specific subcellular site is unknown. Using the lysosomotropic agent NH4Cl and the vesicularization inhibitor brefeldin A, we show here the convergence of TNF-alpha-induced death signaling on an acidic, subcellular compartment reminiscent of lysosomes. This compartment generates at least two signaling pathways that account for the caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induced by TNF-alpha, one involving ceramide and caspase-unrelated adapter molecules and another involving yet unknown lysosomal mediators. The apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-2 specifically acts on the ceramide-activated pathway to block caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. The latter result explains why Bcl-2 only partially blocks TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. PMID:9492297

Monney, L; Olivier, R; Otter, I; Jansen, B; Poirier, G G; Borner, C

1998-01-15

255

Expansion of hepatic stem cell compartment boosts liver regeneration.  

PubMed

The hepatic stem cells reside periportally forming the canals of Hering in normal liver. They can be identified by their unique immunophenotype in rat. The oval cells, the progenies of stem cells invade deep the liver parenchyma after activation and differentiate into focally arranged small-and eventually trabecularly ordered regular hepatocytes. We have observed that upon the completion of intense oval cell reactions narrow ductular structures are present in the parenchyma, we propose to call them parenchymal ductules. These parenchymal ductules have the same immunophenotype [cytokeratin (CK)7-/CK19+/alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-/delta-like protein (DLK)-] as the resting stem cells of the canals of Hering, but different from them reside scattered in the parenchyma. In our present experiments, we have investigated in an in vivo functional assay if the presence of these parenchymal ductules has any impact on a progenitor cell driven regeneration process. Parenchymal ductules were induced either by an established model of oval cell induction consisting of the administration of necrogenic dose of carbontetrachloride to 2-acetaminofluorene pretreated rats (AAF/CCl4) or a large necrogenic dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The oval cells expanded faster and the foci evolved earlier after repeated injury in the livers with preexistent parenchymal ductules. When the animals were left to survive for one more year increased liver tumor formation was observed exclusively in the DEN treated rats. Thus, repeated oval cell reactions are not necessarily carcinogenic. We conclude that the expansion of hepatic stem cell compartment conceptually can be used to facilitate liver regeneration without an increased risk of tumorigenesis. PMID:23952741

Papp, Veronika; Rókusz, András; Dezs?, Katalin; Bugyik, Edina; Szabó, Vanessza; Pávai, Zoltán; Paku, Sándor; Nagy, Péter

2014-01-01

256

19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.  

...Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards...TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings;...

2014-04-01

257

Solar Compartment Design Methods, Performance Analysis and Thermal Data for Solar Composting Latrines: A Full Scale Experimental Study  

E-print Network

. Pathogen resistance to disinfection or inactivation in latrines is multifaceted. The full-scale solar composting compartment studies at the University of Kansas have advanced the knowledge about feces composting in solar compartments based on climate...

Rendall, Joseph D.

2012-12-31

258

Ischemic Nerve Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

Williams, Ian D.

259

2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

260

block copolymer - lamellae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A system of 800 building blocks of composition A5B5 at a concentration of 0.85, was run starting at a temperature of infinity then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of chiN = =52.7. The system was then run for ~10^6 time steps forming a sheet (lamella) phase.

Horsch, Mark

2004-11-22

261

Block-coded communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theory for block-coded telemetry systems is useful in testing performance of one- and two-way, phase-coherent telemetry systems when double-conversion, superheterodyne, phase-locked receiver, preceded by bandpass limiter is used to track carrier.

Lindsey, W. C.

1970-01-01

262

Neonatal congenital heart block.  

PubMed

Congenital Heart Block (CHB) is the most serious complication of neonatal lupus erythematosus. Transplasental transfer of maternal anti SSA/Ro or antiSSB/La antibodies around 12th week of gestation is associated with development of CHB. This may lead to inflammation, fibrosis and scarring of fetal conduction system in the early second trimester. Different degrees of atrioventricular (AV) block may be seen in the affected fetus. First and second-degree AV blocks may change in severity; however, third degree AV block is irreversible. CHB is mostly diagnosed between 18 - 24th weeks of gestation. Even if most of the mothers carrying autoantibodies of several rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjogrens syndrome are not aware of their diseases until their children are born with CHB, it is recommended that antibody-positive mothers or the mothers having babies with neonatal lupus erythematosus should be referred for close fetal echocardiographic surveillance beginning from the early second trimester. Although their utility is still controversial, various therapeutic regimes such as sympathomimetic, plasmapheresis, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, digoxin, diuretic and in utero pacing have been used for intrauterine treatment of CHB. Aggressive medical treatment is coupled with pacing in infants who do not respond to medical therapy alone. PMID:23778728

Yildirim, Ayse; Tunaoolu, F Sedef; Karaaoac, Aysu Turkmen

2013-05-01

263

In vivo behavior of radioiodinated rabbit antithrombin III. Demonstration of a noncirculating vascular compartment.  

PubMed Central

Rabbit antithrombin III (AT), purified by heparin-agarose, was labeled with iodine-131 by either the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase or iodine monochloride techniques. When intravenously injected, the disappearance of the 131I-AT from plasma was characterized by rapid initial decreases, and three-exponential equations were required for best fit of the plasma disappearance curves. This rapid 131I-AT removal was not caused by denaturation, as shown by comparison with results obtained when 131I-AT was biologically screened (injected into a first rabbit, and then transferred 16 h later in whole plasma to a second for kinetic evaluation) before injection. Thus, the same rapid initial loss of plasma 131I-AT was observed with screened preparations, and the plasma fractional catabolic rates of 0.716 +/- 0.048 and 0.673 +/- 0.051 day-1 for unscreened and screened 131I-AT were not significantly different. These results support the hypothesis that a vascular-endothelial AT compartment is present in rabbit. The fractions of the total-body AT in the plasma, the vascular-endothelial and the extravascular compartments were 0.337 +/- 0.031, 0.178 +/- 0.056, and 0.485 +/- 0.069, respectively. Two three-compartment kinetic models are discussed. The first pictures AT as distributing independently between plasma and two other compartments, and the second sees AT as first passing to the vascular-endothelial compartment, and then directly into the extravascular compartment. The plasma 131I-AT kinetic data was consistent with both models, but the sizes of the vascular-endothelial compartments were best predicted by the second. If AT catabolism was assigned to the plasma, both models generally underpredicted the whole-body radioactivities, while assignment of breakdown to the extravascular compartment generally resulted in overpredictions. This suggests that AT catabolism occurs from both plasma and extravascular compartments. PMID:6376543

Carlson, T H; Atencio, A C; Simon, T L

1984-01-01

264

Compartment Syndrome following Open Femoral Fracture with an Isolated Femoral Vein Injury Treated with Acute Repair  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency and its diagnosis is more difficult in obtunded or insensate patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Gustilo-Anderson grade III open midshaft femur fracture with an isolated femoral vein injury treated with direct repair. She developed lower leg compartment syndrome at 48 hours postoperatively, necessitating fasciotomies. She was subsequently found to have a DVT in her femoral vein at the level of the repair and was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the importance of recognition of isolated venous injuries in a trauma setting as a risk factor for developing compartment syndrome. PMID:25587476

Walmsley, David; Axelrod, Terry; Rodriguez-Elizalde, Sebastian

2014-01-01

265

Sonic hedgehog and androgen signaling in tumor and stromal compartments drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, androgens and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are related to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. The aim of this study was to investigate how Shh and androgen [dihydrotestosterone (DHT)] signaling act in prostate epithelial and stromal compartments and whether this signaling pathway drives EMT and promotes PCa progression. Material and methods. LNCaP, normal prostate fibroblast (NPF) and cancer-associated prostate fibroblast (CPF) cells were studied with DHT and/or the Shh signaling inhibitor cyclopamine. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the expressions of a potential Shh target gene, osteonectin (ON) and EMT-associated markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin). Immunohistochemical studies using PCa prostatectomy samples were performed to assess the expression levels of ON, Gli-1, androgen receptor, Shh, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin. Results. While DHT enhanced cell proliferation in CPF more than LNCaP or NPF, cyclopamine inhibited cell proliferation enhanced by DHT in CPF. Real-time RT-PCR showed whereas both Shh and DHT induced N-cadherin and vimentin, DHT also induced the expression of osteonectin in LNCaP and cyclopamine blocked these expressions in osteonectin, N-cadherin and vimentin (p = 0.0084, 0.0002 and 0.0373, respectively). Immunohistochemistry showed that high expression of stromal, but, not epithelial, ON was significantly correlated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (p = 0.031), and high expression of Gli-1 and low expression of stromal ON with PSA recurrence (p = 0.0114 and p = 0.0005, respectively). Conclusions. Shh and androgen signaling in prostate tumor and stromal compartments drives EMT, and thus may play some role in PCa progression. Cyclopamine may be one therapeutic strategy for PCa. PMID:25356787

Yamamichi, Fukashi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Behnsawy, Hosny M; Meligy, Fatma Y; Huang, Wen-Chin; Li, Xiangyan; Yamanaka, Kunito; Hanioka, Keisuke; Miyake, Hideaki; Tanaka, Kazushi; Kawabata, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Fujisawa, Masato

2014-12-01

266

31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2010-07-01

267

31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2010-07-01

268

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2012-07-01

269

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2011-07-01

270

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2014-07-01

271

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2013-07-01

272

Compartment C1 engine room upper level; view aft to forward; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment C-1 engine room upper level; view aft to forward; note auxiliary condenser at lower center and main steam stop valve at upper left. (077) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

273

DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND METHYLMERCURY IN DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEM COMPARTMENTS IN THE EVERGLADES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury (Hg) species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades were analyzed at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation, and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to t...

274

Something Silent This Way Forms: The Functional Organization of the Repressive Nuclear Compartment  

PubMed Central

The repressive compartment of the nucleus is comprised primarily of telomeric and centromeric regions, the silent portion of ribosomal RNA genes, the majority of transposable element repeats, and facultatively repressed genes specific to different cell types. This compartment localizes into three main regions: the peripheral heterochromatin, perinucleolar heterochromatin, and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Both chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription of noncoding RNAs are involved in maintenance of repression in these compartments. Global reorganization of the repressive compartment occurs at each cell division, during early development, and during terminal differentiation. Differential action of chromatin remodeling complexes and boundary element looping activities are involved in mediating these organizational changes. We discuss the evidence that heterochromatin formation and compartmentalization may drive nuclear organization. PMID:23834025

Ritland Politz, Joan C.; Scalzo, David; Groudine, Mark

2014-01-01

275

View starboard to port of crew's galley, compartment A127; note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View starboard to port of crew's galley, compartment A-127; note showing steam kettles. Coal stove at left, sink and coffee urn at right. (p53) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

276

76 FR 30294 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane Pilot Compartment View...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice No. 25-11-14-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane Pilot Compartment View...This action proposes special conditions for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 airplane. This airplane will...

2011-05-25

277

Compartment B3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment B-3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 aft to forward from passing room B-25. (030A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

278

Compartment A14m cork lined powder magazine looking port to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-14m - cork lined powder magazine looking port to starboard; note temperature sensor in the overhead. (022) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

279

[A pathomechanism for the genesis of dystonia: striatal compartments and hypothesized model of basal ganglia circuits].  

PubMed

X-linked recessive dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP; DYT3; Lubag) is an adult-onset disorder that manifests severe and progressive dystonia with a high frequency of generalization. In search for the anatomical basis for dystonia, we performed postmortem analyses of the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia based on the striatal compartments (i.e., the striosomes and matrix compartment) in XDP. Our study showed that in the XDP neostriatum, the matrix compartment is relatively spared in a mosaic pattern, whereas the striosomes are severely depleted. In view of the three-pathway basal ganglia model, we postulate that the disproportionate involvement of neostriatal compartments and their efferent projections may underlie the manifestation of dystonia in patients with XDP. This study is the first to show specific basal ganglia pathology that could explain the genesis of dystonia in human heredodegenerative movement disorders, suggesting that dystonia may result from an imbalance in the activity between the striosomal and matrix pathways. PMID:17432234

Goto, Satoshi

2006-11-01

280

View of compartment B126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of compartment B-126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock hooks, ash hoist rails at top left and coal chute left of center. (047) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

281

Intraocular radiation blocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo

P. T. Finger; T. K. Ho; D. M. Fastenberg; R. A. Hyman; E. M. Stroh; S. Packer; H. D. Perry

1990-01-01

282

Base Blocks Subtraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps users develop place value concepts involving subtraction of numbers with 1, 2, 3, or 4 digits. The virtual blocks are manipulated to model regrouping in order to solve whole number subtraction problems posed by the applet. Users also may create and solve their own problems with whole numbers or with up to 3 decimal places. When creating problems a user may change the default of base 10 to any of the bases 2, 3, 4, or 5.

2010-01-01

283

Herbert L. Block Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herb Block (also known as "Herblock") was one of the most influential political commentators and editorial cartoonists in American history. His work began to appear in 1929, and he continued creating social commentary for 72 years. The Library of Congress website digitized some of the 14,000 images that the Herb Block Foundation donated in 2002. Visitors interested in seeing the wide range of topics Block covered in his cartoons can click on the "Search This Collection" link that appears below the introductory paragraphs on the homepage. Once visitors have arrived to the search area they can click on "Subject and Format Headings" underneath the heading "Other Ways to Search" to see the A to Z subject index. Some of the topics include "Escalators--1960-1970","Government Officials--1970-1980","Mao, Zedong--1893-1976", "Overcrowding--1940-1950", and "Discrimination--1950-1960". Back on the homepage, visitors shouldn't miss the link to the "Image Sampler" which contains the "Herblock Collection Image Sampler" featuring 24 images.

284

Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.  

PubMed

The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2)), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2)). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their functional capability. In addition to improving our understanding of muscle anatomy and function, elucidation of forearm neuromuscular compartments architecture may ultimately provide information useful for selection of muscle subdivisions used in tendon transfer. PMID:24836406

Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

2014-07-01

285

Heavy Metal Transfers Between Trophic Compartments in Different Ecosystems in Galicia (Northwest Spain): Essential Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we determined the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in soil and several trophic compartments at a\\u000a total of 16 sampling stations. The trophic compartments studied were primary producers, represented by two species of terrestrial\\u000a mosses (Pseudoescleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) and oak trees (Quercus robur or Q. pyrenaica); primary consumers, represented by the wood

X. I. González; J. R. Aboal; J. A. Fernández; A. Carballeira

2008-01-01

286

Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

1997-01-01

287

Compartment A4 hold at midplatform level, view from starboard to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-4 hold at mid-platform level, view from starboard to port shows protective deck framing and underside of armor plate. Open wood ceiling aids in circulating air. Note ventilation duct for fresh air at center of photograph. Open hatch penetrates protective deck and leads to bread room, compartment A-102. (012) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

288

[Compartment syndrome caused by rhabdomyolysis in the context of pychogenic polydipsia.  

PubMed

Psychogenic polydipsia leading to severe hyponatremia is well documented in the literature. This electrolyte disorder can result in encephalopathy, cerebral edema and epileptic seizures. Another rare effect is rhabdomyolysis with all its well known complications (e.g. renal failure, hyperkalemia and cardiac arrhythmia) and even resulting in compartment syndrome due to severe muscle edema.We present the case of a patient with severe hyponatremia caused by psychogenic polydipsia leading to rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome. PMID:25277729

Sauer, F; Lenz, A; Popp, D; Strecker, W

2014-10-01

289

Antagonism of Sigma-1 Receptors Blocks Compulsive-Like Eating  

PubMed Central

Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain a sugary, highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1?h a day under fixed ratio 1 operant conditioning. Following intake stabilization, we evaluated the effects of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on food responding. Using a light/dark conflict test, we also tested whether BD-1063 could block the time spent and the food eaten in an aversive, open compartment, where the palatable diet was offered. Furthermore, we measured Sig-1R mRNA and protein expression in several brain areas of the two groups, 24?h after the last binge session. Palatable rats rapidly developed binge-like eating, escalating the 1?h intake by four times, and doubling the eating rate and the regularity of food responding, compared to Chow rats. BD-1063 dose-dependently reduced binge-like eating and the regularity of food responding, and blocked the increased eating rate in Palatable rats. In the light/dark conflict test, BD-1063 antagonized the increased time spent in the aversive compartment and the increased intake of the palatable diet, without affecting motor activity. Finally, Palatable rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and a two-fold increase in Sig-1R protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex compared to control Chow rats. These findings suggest that the Sig-1R system may contribute to the neurobiological adaptations driving compulsive-like eating, opening new avenues of investigation towards pharmacologically treating binge eating disorder. PMID:22713906

Cottone, Pietro; Wang, Xiaofan; Park, Jin Won; Valenza, Marta; Blasio, Angelo; Kwak, Jina; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Hayashi, Teruo; Sabino, Valentina

2012-01-01

290

Sensitivity, block sensitivity, and `block sensitivity of boolean functions  

E-print Network

Sensitivity, block sensitivity, and `­block sensitivity of boolean functions Claire Kenyon LRI, bat for Communications Research, 805 Bunn Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540. E­mail: kutin@idaccr.org Sensitivity is one of the simplest, and block sensitivity one of the most useful, invariants of a boolean function. Nisan [8

Kenyon, Claire

291

Rabx-5 Regulates RAB-5 Early Endosomal Compartments and Synaptic Vesicles in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Early endosomal membrane compartments are required for the formation and recycling of synaptic vesicles, but how these compartments are regulated is incompletely understood. We performed a forward genetic screen in C. elegans for mutations that affect RAB-5 labeled early endosomal compartments in GABAergic motoneurons. Here we report the isolation and characterization of one mutation, rabx-5. The rabx-5 mutation leads to decreased intensity of YFP::RAB-5 in the cell soma but increased intensity in the synaptic and intersynaptic regions of the axon. This effect is due to the bias of the cycling state of RAB-5, and results from a change in the organization of the early endosomal compartment as well as the membrane binding state of RAB-5. Synaptic vesicle accumulation is altered in rabx-5 mutants, and synaptic transmission from cholinergic neurons is decreased. Early endosomal membrane compartments show disorganization with ageing and rabx-5 mutant animals age faster. These results suggest that rabx-5 regulation of RAB-5 compartments is important for maintaining proper synaptic function throughout the lifetime. PMID:22675499

Sann, Sharon B.; Crane, Matthew M.; Lu, Hang; Jin, Yishi

2012-01-01

292

RADIATION-RESISTANT BUILDING BLOCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation-resistant building-block design is presented. The block can ; be used for constructing walls, rooms, or chambers to prevent radiation from ; penetrating. The block is rectangular with a 120 deg notch on one end and a 120 ; deg point on the other end, making it especially suitable for constructing ; hexagonal containers. The material used is barite

Alberti

1960-01-01

293

Arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target to a unique subcellular compartment that may function in unconventional secretion in plants.  

PubMed

We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31 (At1g32930)] was found in the small compartments, of which, 45 and 40% of AtGALT29A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 29 (At1g08280)] and AtGlcAT14A [Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase from family 14 (At5g39990)] colocalized with AtGALT31A, respectively; in contrast, N-glycosylation enzymes rarely colocalized (3-18%), implicating a role of the small compartments in a part of arabinogalactan (O-glycan) biosynthesis rather than N-glycan processing. The dual localization of AtGALT31A was also observed for fluorescently tagged AtGALT31A stably expressed in an Arabidopsis atgalt31a mutant background. Further, site-directed mutagenesis of a phosphorylation site of AtGALT29A (Y144) increased the frequency of the protein being targeted to the AtGALT31A-localized small compartments, suggesting a role of Y144 in subcellular targeting. The AtGALT31A localized to the small compartments were colocalized with neither SYP61 (syntaxin of plants 61), a marker for trans-Golgi network (TGN), nor FM4-64-stained endosomes. However, 41% colocalized with EXO70E2 (Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst protein Exo70 homolog 2), a marker for exocyst-positive organelles, and least affected by Brefeldin A and Wortmannin. Taken together, AtGALT31A localized to small compartments that are distinct from the Golgi apparatus, the SYP61-localized TGN, FM4-64-stained endosomes and Wortmannin-vacuolated prevacuolar compartments, but may be part of an unconventional protein secretory pathway represented by EXO70E2 in plants. PMID:25074762

Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory; Burow, Meike; Geshi, Naomi

2014-11-01

294

Arabinogalactan Glycosyltransferases Target to a Unique Subcellular Compartment That May Function in Unconventional Secretion in Plants  

PubMed Central

We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31 (At1g32930)] was found in the small compartments, of which, 45 and 40% of AtGALT29A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 29 (At1g08280)] and AtGlcAT14A [Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase from family 14 (At5g39990)] colocalized with AtGALT31A, respectively; in contrast, N-glycosylation enzymes rarely colocalized (3–18%), implicating a role of the small compartments in a part of arabinogalactan (O-glycan) biosynthesis rather than N-glycan processing. The dual localization of AtGALT31A was also observed for fluorescently tagged AtGALT31A stably expressed in an Arabidopsis atgalt31a mutant background. Further, site-directed mutagenesis of a phosphorylation site of AtGALT29A (Y144) increased the frequency of the protein being targeted to the AtGALT31A-localized small compartments, suggesting a role of Y144 in subcellular targeting. The AtGALT31A localized to the small compartments were colocalized with neither SYP61 (syntaxin of plants 61), a marker for trans-Golgi network (TGN), nor FM4-64-stained endosomes. However, 41% colocalized with EXO70E2 (Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst protein Exo70 homolog 2), a marker for exocyst-positive organelles, and least affected by Brefeldin A and Wortmannin. Taken together, AtGALT31A localized to small compartments that are distinct from the Golgi apparatus, the SYP61-localized TGN, FM4-64-stained endosomes and Wortmannin-vacuolated prevacuolar compartments, but may be part of an unconventional protein secretory pathway represented by EXO70E2 in plants. PMID:25074762

Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory; Burow, Meike; Geshi, Naomi

2014-01-01

295

Building Blocks for Youth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Building Blocks for Youth is an alliance of children's advocates, researchers, law enforcement professionals and community organizers that seeks to protect minority youth in the justice system and promote rational and effective justice policies." The organization's Website provides reports, data, and news releases concerning the issue of the treatment of minorities in the American criminal justice system. Issued this month, their latest report Off Balance: Youth Race and Crime in the News examines the media treatment of crime victims and perpetrators who are people of color. Building Blocks also offers three previous reports that analyze data concerning the discrepancies between sentencing for black and white juveniles accused of similar crimes, both nationally and specifically in California, and data on the growing practice of charging juveniles as adults. The site also features a number of fact sheets on related issues, a newsroom featuring press releases and links to related articles in the online press, and a monthly newsletter presenting the latest fact sheet. The reports are offered in HTML as well as .pdf formats for easy downloading.

296

Holomorphic blocks in three dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We decompose sphere partition functions and indices of three-dimensional = 2 gauge theories into a sum of products involving a universal set of "holomorphic blocks". The blocks count BPS states and are in one-to-one correspondence with the theory's massive vacua. We also propose a new, effective technique for calculating the holomorphic blocks, inspired by a reduction to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The blocks turn out to possess a wealth of surprising properties, such as a Stokes phenomenon that integrates nicely with actions of three-dimensional mirror symmetry. The blocks also have interesting dual interpretations. For theories arising from the compactification of the six-dimensional (2, 0) theory on a three-manifold M, the blocks belong to a basis of wave-functions in analytically continued Chern-Simons theory on M. For theories engineered on branes in Calabi-Yau geometries, the blocks offer a non-perturbative perspective on open topological string partition functions.

Beem, Christopher; Dimofte, Tudor; Pasquetti, Sara

2014-12-01

297

Compartment-specific, differential regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 and its kinase within Aplysia sensory neurons.  

PubMed

Long-term facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia is a leading model for elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning. LTF requires translational control downstream of target of rapamycin complex 1. Our lab has previously shown that treatment with the facilitating neurotransmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), causes a target of rapamycin complex 1-mediated decrease in phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) within the neurites of sensory neurons involved in LTF. Here, we characterize the Aplysia orthologue of eEF2 kinase (eEF2K). We show that the Aplysia eEF2K orthologue contains an S6 kinase phosphorylation site and that a serine-to-alanine mutation at this site blocks the ability of 5-HT to decrease eEF2 phosphorylation in neurites. We also show that within the soma, 5-HT has the opposite effect, decreasing eEF2K phosphorylation at the S6 kinase site and, concomitantly, increasing eEF2 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, while eEF2K over-expression inhibits translation of a marker for internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation, it stimulates the translation of a marker for cap-dependent translation. This study demonstrates that eEF2 is differentially regulated in separate compartments and contributes to a growing body of evidence that inhibition of elongation can stimulate the translation of certain transcripts. PMID:21426346

Weatherill, Daniel B; McCamphill, Patrick K; Pethoukov, Eugenia; Dunn, Tyler W; Fan, Xiaotang; Sossin, Wayne S

2011-06-01

298

Partitioning a regional groundwater flow system into shallow local and deep regional flow compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of groundwater fluxes in aquifers is strongly influenced by topography, and organized between hillslope and regional scales. The objective of this study is to provide new insights regarding the compartmentalization of aquifers at the regional scale and the partitioning of recharge between shallow/local and deep/regional groundwater transfers. A finite-difference flow model was implemented, and the flow structure was analyzed as a function of recharge (from 20 to 500 mm/yr), at the regional-scale (1400 km2), in three dimensions, and accounting for variable groundwater discharge zones; aspects which are usually not considered simultaneously in previous studies. The model allows visualizing 3-D circulations, as those provided by Tothian models in 2-D, and shows local and regional transfers, with 3-D effects. The probability density function of transit times clearly shows two different parts, interpreted using a two-compartment model, and related to regional groundwater transfers and local groundwater transfers. The role of recharge on the size and nature of the flow regimes, including groundwater pathways, transit time distributions, and volumes associated to the two compartments, have been investigated. Results show that topography control on the water table and groundwater compartmentalization varies with the recharge rate applied. When recharge decreases, the absolute value of flow associated to the regional compartment decreases, whereas its relative value increases. The volume associated to the regional compartment is calculated from the exponential part of the two-compartment model, and is nearly insensitive to the total recharge fluctuations.

Goderniaux, Pascal; Davy, Philippe; Bresciani, Etienne; Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Borgne, Tanguy

2013-04-01

299

Structural-acoustic finite element analysis of the automobile passenger compartment: A review of current practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper contains a brief review of the formulation of the finite element method for structural-acoustic analysis of an enclosed cavity, and illustrations are given of the application of this analytical method at General Motors Corporation to investigate the acoustics of the automobile passenger compartment. Low frequency noise in the passenger compartment (in approximately the 20-200 Hz frequency range) is of primary interest, and particularly that noise which is generated by the structural vibration of the wall panels of the compartment. The topics which are covered in the paper include the computation of acoustic modes and resonant frequencies of the passenger compartment, the effect of flexible wall panels on the cavity acoustics, the methods of direct and modal coupling of the structural and acoustic vehicle systems, and forced vibration analysis illustrating the techniques for computing panel-excited noise and for identifying critical panels around the passenger compartment. The capabilities of the finite element method are illustrated by applications to the production automobile, and experimental verifications of the various techniques are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the method.

Nefske, D. J.; Wolf, J. A.; Howell, L. J.

1982-01-01

300

A ranking of diffusion MRI compartment models with in vivo human brain data  

PubMed Central

Purpose Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microstructure imaging provides a unique noninvasive probe into tissue microstructure. The technique relies on biophysically motivated mathematical models, relating microscopic tissue features to the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. This work aims to determine which compartment models of diffusion MRI are best at describing measurements from in vivo human brain white matter. Methods Recent work shows that three compartment models, designed to capture intra-axonal, extracellular, and isotropically restricted diffusion, best explain multi-b-value data sets from fixed rat corpus callosum. We extend this investigation to in vivo by using a live human subject on a clinical scanner. The analysis compares models of one, two, and three compartments and ranks their ability to explain the measured data. We enhance the original methodology to further evaluate the stability of the ranking. Results As with fixed tissue, three compartment models explain the data best. However, a clearer hierarchical structure and simpler models emerge. We also find that splitting the scanning into shorter sessions has little effect on the ranking of models, and that the results are broadly reproducible across sessions. Conclusion Three compartments are required to explain diffusion MR measurements from in vivo corpus callosum, which informs the choice of model for microstructure imaging applications in the brain. Magn Reson Med 72:1785–1792, 2014. © 2013 The authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance. PMID:24347370

Ferizi, Uran; Schneider, Torben; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria; Nedjati-Gilani, Gemma; Zhang, Hui; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Alexander, Daniel C

2014-01-01

301

Blocking the Hawking Radiation  

E-print Network

Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of WIMPs can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics i.e. accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star.

Autzen, Martin

2014-01-01

302

Blocking the Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of weakly interacting massive particles can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star.

Autzen, Martin; Kouvaris, Chris

2014-06-01

303

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

304

Competition within the early B-cell compartment conditions B-cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in nonirradiated recipients.  

PubMed

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by a complete block in T-lymphocyte differentiation. Most SCID also affects B-cell development or function, although a normal pool of pro-B cells is detectable. Treatment of SCID consists of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but in the absence of a myeloablative conditioning regimen, only T cells, and in some cases, natural killer (NK) cells, are of donor origin, while all other leukocytes subsets are of host origin. We hypothesized that donor B-cell development success could be conditioned by the competitive ability of recipient B-cell precursors in the bone marrow. We therefore compared the outcome of unconditioned HSCT in mice that differed with respect to their pro-B-cell compartments. B-cell reconstitution was limited in recipient mice containing a normal pro-B-cell pool, whereas immature and mature B-cell numbers reached wild-type levels in mice with compromised early B-cell precursors. Interestingly, host NK cells did not modify the outcome of unconditioned HSCT as long as the early B-cell compartment was compromised. These observations suggest that recipient B-cell precursors condition the reconstitution of the donor B-cell pool and, if extrapolative to humans, suggest that conditioning regimens targeting host pro-B cells may help improve B-cell reconstitution after allogeneic HSCT. PMID:16614244

Liu, Allen; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; Malassis-Seris, Michele; Hue, Christophe; Fischer, Alain; Di Santo, James P; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina

2006-08-15

305

Signal-dependent export of GABA transporter 1 from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment is specified by a C-terminal motif.  

PubMed

The C-terminus of GABA transporter 1 (GAT1, SLC6A1) is required for trafficking of the protein through the secretory pathway to reach its final destination, i.e. the rim of the synaptic specialization. We identified a motif of three hydrophobic residues (569VMI571) that was required for export of GAT1 from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). This conclusion was based on the following observations: (i) GAT1-SSS, the mutant in which 569VMI571 was replaced by serine residues, was exported from the ER in a COPII-dependent manner but accumulated in punctate structures and failed to reach the Golgi; (ii) under appropriate conditions (imposing a block at 15 degrees C, disruption of COPI), these structures also contained ERGIC53; (iii) the punctae were part of a dynamic compartment, because it was accessible to a second anterograde cargo [the temperature-sensitive variant of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G)] and because GAT1-SSS could be retrieved from the punctate structures by addition of a KKxx-based retrieval motif, which supported retrograde transport to the ER. To the best of our knowledge, the VMI-motif of GAT1 provides the first example of a cargo-based motif that specifies export from the ERGIC. PMID:18285449

Farhan, Hesso; Reiterer, Veronika; Kriz, Alexander; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Pavelka, Margit; Sitte, Harald H; Freissmuth, Michael

2008-03-15

306

The Loss of Gnai2 and Gnai3 in B Cells Eliminates B Lymphocyte Compartments and Leads to a Hyper-IgM Like Syndrome  

PubMed Central

B lymphocytes are compartmentalized within lymphoid organs. The organization of these compartments depends upon signaling initiated by G-protein linked chemoattractant receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins G?i2 and G?i3 in chemoattractant signaling we created mice lacking both proteins in their B lymphocytes. While bone marrow B cell development and egress is grossly intact; mucosal sites, splenic marginal zones, and lymph nodes essentially lack B cells. There is a partial block in splenic follicular B cell development and a 50-60% reduction in splenic B cells, yet normal numbers of splenic T cells. The absence of G?i2 and G?i3 in B cells profoundly disturbs the architecture of lymphoid organs with loss of B cell compartments in the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. This results in a severe disruption of B cell function and a hyper-IgM like syndrome. Beyond the pro-B cell stage, B cells are refractory to chemokine stimulation, and splenic B cells are poorly responsive to antigen receptor engagement. G?i2 and G?i3 are therefore critical for B cell chemoattractant receptor signaling and for normal B cell function. These mice provide a worst case scenario of the consequences of losing chemoattractant receptor signaling in B cells. PMID:23977324

Hwang, Il-Young; Park, Chung; Luong, Thuyvi; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Kehrl, John H.

2013-01-01

307

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

1976-01-01

308

Recurrent Compartment Syndrome in a Patient with Clinical Features of a Connective Tissue Disorder  

PubMed Central

Arterial complications are common in vascular type Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), accounting for 66% of first complications. Several cases in the literature have documented acute compartment syndrome (ACS) following vascular rupture in vascular type EDS. Other disorders of connective tissue have also demonstrated vascular fragility, leading to arterial aneurysm and rupture, but there have been no documented cases of ACS. Here, we report on a female patient with a history of recurrent compartment syndrome who exhibits some clinical findings seen in hypermobile and vascular EDS; however she does not meet clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria for either of them. We further review the literature on ACS in heritable connective tissue disorders and suggest that compartment syndrome may rarely complicate other heritable disorders of connective tissue. PMID:23633393

Barajas, Brenda D; Sun, Angela; Rimoin, David L; Reinstein, Eyal

2013-01-01

309

Recurrent compartment syndrome in a patient with clinical features of a connective tissue disorder.  

PubMed

Arterial complications are common in vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), accounting for 66% of first complications. Several cases in the literature have documented acute compartment syndrome (ACS) following vascular rupture in vascular type EDS. Other disorders of connective tissue have also demonstrated vascular fragility, leading to arterial aneurysm and rupture, but there have been no documented cases of ACS. Here, we report on a female patient with a history of recurrent compartment syndrome who exhibits some clinical findings seen in hypermobile and vascular EDS; however she does not meet clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria for either of them. We further review the literature on ACS in heritable connective tissue disorders and suggest that compartment syndrome may rarely complicate other heritable disorders of connective tissue. PMID:23633393

Barajas, Brenda D; Sun, Angela; Rimoin, David L; Reinstein, Eyal

2013-06-01

310

Two nested developmental waves demarcate a compartment boundary in the mouse lung.  

PubMed

The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments--the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region--separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three-dimensions (3D) and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signalling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signalling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a new mechanism of boundary formation in complex, 3D organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth. PMID:24879355

Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A; Chen, Jichao

2014-01-01

311

Double jeopardy: two episodes of forearm compartment syndrome in the same patient.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old woman taking warfarin for previous deep venous thrombosis (DVT), presented with an acutely swollen and painful forearm after forcefully contracting her forearm flexor compartment while using a car hand brake and later, an axe. Compartment syndrome was diagnosed and emergency fasciotomy performed, with a haematoma discovered between the flexor compartments of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). After evacuation and resolution of symptoms, the wounds were closed 4?days later. Following discharge on the fifth day, symptoms recurred without warning, prompting re-exploration and discovery of further haematoma. Symptoms again resolved and in due course a skin graft was applied to close the wound without tension. PMID:25564596

Seth, Rohit; Vijayan, Roshan; Khandwala, Asit

2015-01-01

312

Effects of long-duration bed rest on structural compartments of m. soleus in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histomorphometry and electron microscopy of muscle demonstrate that long-term exposure to actual or simulated weightlessness (including head down bed rest) leads to decreased volume of antigravity muscles in mammals. In muscles interbundle space is occupied by the connective tissue. Rat studies show that hindlimb unloading induces muscle fiber atrophy along with increase in muscle non-fiber connective tissue compartment. Beside that, usually 20% of the muscle fiber volume is comprised by non-contractile (non-myofibrillar) compartment. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in muscle volume, and in muscle fiber size with alterations in myofibrillar apparatus, and in connective tissue compartment in human m. soleus under conditions of 120 day long head down bed rest (HDBR).

Belozerova, I.; Shenkman, B.; Mazin, M.; Leblanc, A.; LeBlanc, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

2001-01-01

313

Four-limb compartment syndrome associated with the systemic capillary leak syndrome.  

PubMed

Systemic capillary leak syndrome, or the Clarkson syndrome, is an extremely rare condition in which increased capillary permeability results in a massive shift of fluid into the extravascular space. This is followed rapidly by hypotensive shock, haemoconcentration, and, potentially, substantial oedema of the limbs resulting in an acute compartment syndrome. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to be aware of this syndrome as our medical colleagues, who initially care for these patients, are less familiar with the diagnosis and the need for emergency management of the associated compartment syndrome should it develop. There have been fewer than 100 cases of this entity reported. This case report is the first to describe the subsequent development of a compartment syndrome in all four limbs. Clinical vigilance and continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure is necessary in these patients in order to help reduce limb-threatening complications. PMID:21119178

Simon, D A; Taylor, T-L; Bayley, G; Lalonde, K-A

2010-12-01

314

Two nested developmental waves demarcate a compartment boundary in the mouse lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments—the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region—separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three-dimensions (3D) and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signalling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signalling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a new mechanism of boundary formation in complex, 3D organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth.

Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A.; Chen, Jichao

2014-05-01

315

Two Nested Developmental Waves Demarcate a Compartment Boundary in the Mouse Lung  

PubMed Central

The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments — the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region — separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three dimensions and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signaling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signaling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a novel mechanism of boundary formation in complex, three-dimensional organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth. PMID:24879355

Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A.; Chen, Jichao

2014-01-01

316

CASE REPORT Spontaneous Forearm Compartment Syndrome in a Boy With Hemophilia A: A Therapeutic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Objective: We present the case of a 14-year-old Factor VIII-deficient patient with no history of trauma, who developed acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the volar forearm. We also suggest a treatment strategy. Methods: Fasciotomy with hematoma evacuation and ipsilateral carpal tunnel release was performed, and the wound was closed with vascular loops in “Jacob's ladder” fashion. Factor infusions were continued overnight. Results: The volar forearm compartment was successfully decompressed, and the patient's coagulopathy was managed with appropriate clotting factors. Conclusions: Hemophilic patients warrant special consideration and multispecialty care; with replenished coagulation factors and timely surgical decompression, they can expect satisfactory recovery of muscular and neurological function. PMID:23573336

Kim, Jennifer; Zelken, Jonathan; Sacks, Justin Michael

2013-01-01

317

Pharmacokinetic calculator program for generation of initial parameter estimates from a three-compartment infusion model.  

PubMed

A polyexponential curve-stripping program, KIN, is described for use on the HP-41CV programmable calculator. The program may be used in the analysis of plasma-concentration-time curves for a three-compartment intravenous bolus or infusion model with linear elimination processes. The coefficients and hybrid rate constants of the exponential function are then used to compute pharmacokinetic parameters (volume of the central compartment, intercompartmental rate transfer constants), which may be used as initial estimates of model parameters in non-linear regression curve-fitting procedures. PMID:3839870

Henderson, J D; Olson, R D; Ravis, W R

1985-08-01

318

Compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and risk of acute renal failure as complications of the lithotomy position.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and the risk of acute renal failure are potential complications of the lithotomy position. A six-year-old girl is described who developed a compartment syndrome with rhabdomyolysis after prolonged surgery in the lithotomy position. This complication occurred three times over ten years in our hospital. Rhabdomyolysis may induce acute renal failure. The pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis--induced renal failure has not yet been elucidated. However, forced diuresis by intravenous administration of mannitol and furosemide can prevent acute renal failure. PMID:12018636

Bocca, Gianlorenzo; van Moorselaar, Jeroen A; Feitz, Wout F J; van der Staak, Frans H J M; Monnens, Leo A H

2002-01-01

319

Adder bite: an uncommon cause of compartment syndrome in northern hemisphere  

PubMed Central

Snakebite envenomation is an uncommon condition in the northern hemisphere, but requires high vigilance with regard to both the systemic effects of the venom and the locoregional impact on the soft tissues. Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, may have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. A case of a 44-year-old man is reported. The patient was bitten in the right hand. He developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the upper limb. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgical decompression. PMID:20854675

2010-01-01

320

Adder bite: an uncommon cause of compartment syndrome in northern hemisphere.  

PubMed

Snakebite envenomation is an uncommon condition in the northern hemisphere, but requires high vigilance with regard to both the systemic effects of the venom and the locoregional impact on the soft tissues. Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, may have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. A case of a 44-year-old man is reported. The patient was bitten in the right hand. He developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the upper limb. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgical decompression. PMID:20854675

Evers, Lars H; Bartscher, Tanja; Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter

2010-01-01

321

A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

1990-01-01

322

Characterizing the inverses of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the inversion of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices and comment on the behaviour of these inverses as one moves away from the diagonal. Using matrix Möbius transformations, we first present an O(1) representation (with respect to the number of block rows and block columns) for the inverse matrix and subsequently use this representation to characterize the inverse matrix. There are four symmetry-distinct cases where the blocks of the inverse matrix (i) decay to zero on both sides of the diagonal, (ii) oscillate on both sides, (iii) decay on one side and oscillate on the other and (iv) decay on one side and grow on the other. This characterization exposes the necessary conditions for the inverse matrix to be numerically banded and may also aid in the design of preconditioners and fast algorithms. Finally, we present numerical examples of these matrix types.

Boffi, Nicholas M.; Hill, Judith C.; Reuter, Matthew G.

2015-01-01

323

MISR Center Block Time Tool  

  MISR Center Block Time Tool The misr_time tool calculates the block center times for MISR Level 1B2 files. This is ... version of the IDL package or by using the IDL Virtual Machine application. The IDL Virtual Machine is bundled with IDL and is ...

2013-04-01

324

Pattern Blocks (Lesson - Grade 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces pattern blocks and an awareness of geometric shapes to young learners. Students identify and label the shapes and solve puzzles with the blocks. Links to templates, vocabulary and activity cards are provided (pdf). Extensions, an assessment plan and suggestions for parent involvement are also provided.

Lessonplans, Uen

2007-06-28

325

Tharsis block tectonics on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of block tectonics provides a framework for understanding many aspects of Tharsis and adjoining structures. This Tharsis block tectonics on Mars is manifested partly by mantle-related doming and partly by response to loading by subsequent volcanic construction. Although the origin of the volcanism from beneath Tharsis is a subject of controversy explanations have to include inhomogenities in Martian

Jouko T. Raitala

1988-01-01

326

Tharsis block tectonics on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of block tectonics provides a framework for understanding many aspects of Tharsis and adjoining structures. This Tharsis block tectonics on Mars is manifested partly by mantle-related doming and partly by response to loading by subsequent volcanic construction. Although the origin of the volcanism from beneath Tharsis is a subject of controversy explanations have to include inhomogeneities in Martian

Jouko T. Raitala

1988-01-01

327

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

Eitzen, D. G.

1975-01-01

328

Compartment C1, engine room upper level; view to starboard showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment C-1, engine room upper level; view to starboard showing main condenser, lighting control panel is at center right. Air compressor is in background at top right. (075) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

329

MRI-based volumetry of head compartments: Normative values of healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of head compartments (head and brain volume, intracranial volume, gray and white matter volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume) and their ratios were determined on the basis of magnetic resonance images of the head acquired in a reference population of 502 healthy subjects. Age-matched subgroups were selected to reveal gender-related differences and changes with age. Normative data are provided in

F. Kruggel

2006-01-01

330

Calculation of the relative metastabilities of proteins in subcellular compartments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

[abridged] Background: The distribution of chemical species in an open system at metastable equilibrium can be expressed as a function of environmental variables which can include temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and others. Calculations of metastable equilibrium for various model systems were used to characterize chemical transformations among proteins and groups of proteins found in different compartments of yeast cells. Results: With

Jeffrey M. Dick

2008-01-01

331

Role of Physical Chemical Properties in Drug Relay into Skin Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a drug to reach the interstitial fluid is an important aspect of drug efficacy – as a possible indicator of skin and cell compartment concentration. This overview addresses the relationship of the physical properties of several antibiotics to their ability to enter the interstitial fluid utilizing a cantharidin blister model. By collecting pharmacokinetic data for 12 antibiotics

C. R. Fortenbach; B. S. Modjtahedi; H. I. Maibach

2008-01-01

332

Compartment syndrome resulting from undetected ulnar artery injury in the absence of a forearm fracture.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old boy presented following a transient crush injury to his forearm. He displayed mild abrasions but no laceration or associated fractures. The injury resulted in traumatic rupture of the ulnar artery, which caused a large forearm haematoma and an acute forearm compartment syndrome. Prompt clinical diagnosis and operative intervention were required to prevent disastrous consequences. PMID:25538213

Chadha, Priyanka; Lloyd-Hughes, Hawys; Halsey, Timothy

2014-01-01

333

View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A21) showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A-21) showing port ventilation fan; electrical generator is at left center of photograph. Platform for generator is at bottom center of photograph. Hatch for passing powder up from magazine is located just above the generator base. Frames support armored protective deck. (018) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

334

View port to starboard of a portion of compartment A126 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View port to starboard of a portion of compartment A-126 fitted out to represent a WW I canteen. This may have been location for ship's store where crew could buy tobacco and sundries. Note wood conduit on overhead which served as a chase for wiring. (036) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

335

Modeling maglev passenger compartment static magnetic fields from linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger compartment magnetic field levels in a low-speed magnetic levitation (maglev) vehicle that uses linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays for both levitation and propulsion are computed through superposition of fields due to patches of magnetization charge at surfaces where the magnetization is discontinuous. End effects due to the finite lengths of the arrays lead to fields that decay much less rapidly

James F. Hoburg

2004-01-01

336

Effacing of the T Cell Compartment by Cardiac Transplantation in Infancy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

For cardiac transplantation in infants, T cells are depleted and the thymus is removed. These manipulations should cause profound defects in the T cell compartment. To test this concept, 20 subjects who underwent cardiac transplantation in infancy and healthy age-matched subjects were studied. The number of T cells in the blood was nearly normal in all subjects 1-10 years after

Brenda M. Ogle; Lori J. West; David J. Driscoll; Scott E. Strome; Raymund R. Razonable; Carlos V. Paya; Marilia Cascalho; Jeffrey L. Platt

337

The Value of Intercondylar Notch Visualization of the Posteromedial and Posterolateral Compartments During Knee Arthroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The intercondylar notch views allow for visualization of the posteromedial and posterolateral compartments of the knee without the use of accessory portals. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether these views are useful either diagnostically or therapeutically in the performance of knee arthroscopy. Two surgeons at one institution performed 150 consecutive knee arthroscopies. After arthroscopic examination

Kumar B. Amin; Andrew J. Cosgarea; Christopher C. Kaeding

1999-01-01

338

Silver contamination on abiotic and biotic compartments of Nahuel Huapi National Park lakes, Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ag contents of abiotic and biotic compartments of different lakes of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina were analyzed. The water bodies studied were lakes Nahuel Huapi, Moreno, Escondido, Espejo Chico and Traful, the latter chosen as a reference lake. The Ag concentration profiles of short sediment cores, dated by 210Pb and 137Cs techniques, were analyzed, as well as

Sergio Ribeiro Guevara; Mar??a Arribére; Débora Bubach; Pablo Vigliano; Andrea Rizzo; Marcelo Alonso; Ricardo Sánchez

2005-01-01

339

Protein sub-cellular localization prediction for special compartments via optimized time series distances.  

PubMed

Predicting the sub-cellular localization of proteins is an important task in bioinformatics, for which many standard prediction tools are available. While these tools are powerful in general and capable of predicting protein localization for the most common compartments, their performance strongly depends on the organism of interest. More importantly, there are special compartments, such as the apicoplast of apicomplexan parasites, for which these tools cannot provide a prediction at all. In the absence of a highly conserved targeting signal, even motif searches may not be able to provide a lead for the accurate prediction of protein localization for a compartment of interest. In order to approach difficult cases of that kind, we propose an alternative method that complements existing approaches by using a more targeted protein sequence model. Moreover, our method makes use of (weighted) measures for time series comparison. To demonstrate its performance, we use this method for predicting localization in special compartments of three different species, for which existing methods yield only sub-optimal results. As shown experimentally, our method is indeed capable of producing reliable predictions of sub-cellular localization for difficult cases, i.e. if training data is scarce and a potential protein targeting signal may not be well conserved. PMID:24467755

Mernberger, Marco; Moog, Daniel; Stork, Simone; Zauner, Stefan; Maier, Uwe G; Hüllermeier, Eyke

2014-02-01

340

The extracellular matrix of Volvox carteri: molecular structure of the cellular compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular matrix (ECM) of Volvox contains insoluble fibrous layers that surround in- dividual cells at a distance to form contiguous cellular compartments. Using immunological techniques, we identified a sulfated surface glycoprotein (SSG 185) as the monomeric precursor of this substructure within the ECM. The primary structure of the SSG 185 poly- peptide chain has been derivod from eDNA and

Hans Ertl; Reiner Mengele; Stephan Wenzl; Jfirgen Engel; Mantled Sumper

1989-01-01

341

A Positive Association Between Foot Posture Index and Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis in Moroccan People  

PubMed Central

Objectives : To compare foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA), and to assess association between its abnormalities and medial compartment knee OA. Methods : We compared the foot posture of patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed medial compartment knee OA and asymptomatic healthy controls using the foot posture index (FPI), navicular height, and the medial arch. Results : We included 100 patients and 80 asymptomatic controls. The mean age of patients was 59 ± 7 (44-76) years and 48 ± 9 (28-60) years in the control (p=0.06). Patients group have more pronated foot for FPI (1.50 ± 2.68 vs 0.72 ± 2.63; p=0.05), more flat foot (42% vs 22%; p=0.03), and less pes cavus than the control group (58% vs 77%; p=0.004). However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the navicular height (3.90 ± 0.85 cm vs 4.00 ± 0.76 cm; p=0.41). In multivariate statistical analysis, after adjusting for age and body mass index, pronated foot in FPI (OR=1.22, 95%IC= [1.06-1.40], p=0.005), and pes cavus (OR=0.32, 95%IC= [0.11-0.93], p=0.03) had a significant correlation with the knee osteoarthritis. Conclusion : Pronated foot posture and flat foot are significantly associated with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25553141

F.E, Abourazzak; N, Kadi; H, Azzouzi; F, Lazrak; A, Najdi; C, Nejjari; T, Harzy

2014-01-01

342

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts led from the atmosphere with one extending to the floor level and the other extending to the overhead of the...

2010-10-01

343

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts led from the atmosphere with one extending to the floor level and the other extending to the overhead of the...

2013-10-01

344

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts led from the atmosphere with one extending to the floor level and the other extending to the overhead of the...

2011-10-01

345

Wavelet-Based Multiscale Texture Segmentation: Application to Stromal Compartment Characterization on Virtual Slides.  

E-print Network

at partitioning cancer cells and intra-tumoral connective tissue, and then at differentiating the various stromal compartments (fibrous tissue, loose mesenchymatous connective tissue, inflammatory cell ac- cumulation- tomatically this measurement in an objective way, an im- age of the whole tissue preparation must be recorded

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder-associated biomarker.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders. PMID:24487591

te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O; Wallom, Kerri L; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A; Hendriksz, Christian J; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie; Jacklin, Elizabeth; Riddick, Kate; Yanjanin, Nicole M; Wassif, Christopher A; Rolfs, Arndt; Rimmele, Florian; Wright, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Ramaswami, Uma; Cox, Timothy M; Hastings, Caroline; Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Ory, Daniel S; Arias, Begona; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Sillence, Daniel J; Wraith, James E; Porter, Forbes D; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Platt, Frances M

2014-03-01

347

1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells  

E-print Network

1 1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells epithelial cell-ECM interactions mediated by 1 integrins in the maintenance of the functional stem cell mammary epithelium harbours a population of cells with a high regenerative potential -- mammary stem cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

Integrating Mitochondrial Energetics, Redox and ROS Metabolic Networks: A Two-Compartment Model  

PubMed Central

To understand the mechanisms involved in the control and regulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, a two-compartment computational mitochondrial energetic-redox (ME-R) model accounting for energetic, redox, and ROS metabolisms is presented. The ME-R model incorporates four main redox couples (NADH/NAD+, NADPH/NADP+, GSH/GSSG, Trx(SH)2/TrxSS). Scavenging systems—glutathione, thioredoxin, superoxide dismutase, catalase—are distributed in mitochondrial matrix and extra-matrix compartments, and transport between compartments of ROS species (superoxide: O2??, hydrogen peroxide: H2O2), and GSH is also taken into account. Model simulations are compared with experimental data obtained from isolated heart mitochondria. The ME-R model is able to simulate: i), the shape and order of magnitude of H2O2 emission and dose-response kinetics observed after treatment with inhibitors of the GSH or Trx scavenging systems and ii), steady and transient behavior of ??m and NADH after single or repetitive pulses of substrate- or uncoupler-elicited energetic-redox transitions. The dynamics of the redox environment in both compartments is analyzed with the model following substrate addition. The ME-R model represents a useful computational tool for exploring ROS dynamics, the role of compartmentation in the modulation of the redox environment, and how redox regulation participates in the control of mitochondrial function. PMID:23442855

Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Aon, Miguel A.; Winslow, Raimond L.; O’Rourke, Brian; Cortassa, Sonia

2013-01-01

349

Cycling of mercury between water, air, and soil compartments of the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propensity to resist chemical, photo-chemical or biological degradation processes, coupled with a high degree of mobility — due to favorable physical-chemical properties such as relatively high vapor pressure and low solubility in water - bestows upon some chemical substances the necessary pre-requisites for extensive cycling among environmental compartments. Certain inorganic and organometallic species of Hg exhibit the aforementioned characteristics.

W. H. Schroeder; J. Munthe; O. Lindqvist

1989-01-01

350

View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C1; note RPM indicator ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; note RPM indicator at top right of photograph, bilge drain manifold at lower right; worm gear at left is probably part of a hydraulic reversing gear. (057) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

351

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Due to Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage in a Patient Undergoing Anticoagulation  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage is one of the most serious and often lethal complications of anticoagulation therapy. The clinical symptoms vary from femoral neuropathy to abdominal compartment syndrome or fatal hypovolemic shock. Of these symptoms, abdominal compartment syndrome is the most serious of all, because it leads to anuria, worsening of renal failure, a decrease in cardiac output, respiratory failure, and intestinal ischemia. We report a case of a spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage in a 48-year-old female who had been receiving warfarin and aspirin for her artificial aortic valve. She presented with a sudden onset of lower abdominal pain, dizziness and a palpable abdominal mass after prolonged straining to defecate. Computed tomography demonstrated a huge retroperitoneal hematoma and active bleeding from the right internal iliac artery. After achieving successful bleeding control with transcatheter arterial embolization, surgical decompression of the hematoma was performed for management of the femoral neuropathy and the abdominal compartment syndrome. She recovered without any complications. We suggest that initial hemostasis by transcatheter arterial embolization followed by surgical decompression of hematoma is a safe, effective treatment method for a spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage complicated with intractable pain, femoral neuropathy, or abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:21319359

Won, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Sang-Dong; Park, Sun-Chul; Moon, In-Sung

2011-01-01

352

Analysis of signaling networks distributed over intracellular compartments based on protein-protein interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Biological processes are usually distributed over various intracellular compartments. Proteins from diverse cellular compartments are often involved in similar signaling networks. However, the difference in the reaction rates between similar proteins among different compartments is usually quite high. We suggest that the estimation of frequency of intracompartmental as well as intercompartmental protein-protein interactions is an appropriate approach to predict the efficiency of a pathway. Results Using data from the databases STRING, ANDSystem, IntAct and UniProt, a PPI frequency matrix of intra/inter-compartmental interactions efficiencies was constructed. This matrix included 15 human-specific cellular compartments. An approach for estimating pathway efficiency using the matrix of intra/inter-compartmental PPI frequency, based on analysis of reactions efficiencies distribution was suggested. An investigation of KEGG pathway efficiencies was conducted using the developed method. The clusterization and the ranking of KEGG pathways based on their efficiency were performed. "Amino acid metabolism" and "Genetic information processing" revealed the highest efficiencies among other functional classes of KEGG pathways. "Nervous system" and "Signaling molecules interaction" contained the most inefficient pathways. Statistically significant differences were found between efficiencies of KEGG and randomly-generated pathways. Based on these observations, the validity of this approach was discussed. Conclusion The estimation of efficiency of signaling networks is a complicated task because of the need for the data on the kinetic reactions. However, the proposed method does not require such data and can be used for preliminary analysis of different protein networks. PMID:25564293

2014-01-01

353

Compartment model for long-term contamination prediction in deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiocesium contamination from the Chernobyl accident of different parts (fruits, leaves, and shoots) of selected apricot trees in North Greece was systematically measured in 1987 and 1988. The results are presented and discussed in the framework of a simple compartment model describing the long-term contamination uptake mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident.

M. Antonopoulos-Domis; A. Clouvas; A. Gagianas

1990-01-01

354

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts led from the atmosphere with one extending to the floor level and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment....

2012-10-01

355

Circulation of copper in the biotic compartments of a freshwater dammed reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns a chronic copper release in an aquatic ecosystem: Mirgenbach reservoir; which is characterized by high salinity, conductivity and hardness, a eutrophic state and a high temperature. To study the bioavailability of copper in the biotic compartments, the sampling covered the entire food chain (phyto- and zooplankton, macroalgae, aquatic plants, crustaceans, mollusks, and fish). Of the organisms present,

I. Vinot; J. C. Pihan

2005-01-01

356

Proteomics of the rice cell: systematic identification of the protein populations in subcellular compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent progress in sequencing the complete genome of rice (Oryza sativa), the proteome of this species remains poorly understood. To extend our knowledge of the rice proteome, the subcellular compartments, which include plasma membranes (PM), vacuolar membranes (VM), Golgi membranes (GM), mitochondria (MT), and chloroplasts (CP), were purified from rice seedlings and cultured suspension cells. The proteins of each

N. Tanaka; M. Fujita; H. Handa; S. Murayama; M. Uemura; Y. Kawamura; T. Mitsui; S. Mikami; Y. Tozawa; T. Yoshinaga; S. Komatsu

2004-01-01

357

Beta1 integrin deletion from the basal compartment of the mammary epithelium affects stem cells  

E-print Network

; Gene Deletion ; Mammary Glands, Animal ; metabolism ; Mice ; Models, Biological ; Mutation ; Pregnancy of the mammary epithelium to reconstitute the gland in serial transplants, strongly suggests that the adultBeta1 integrin deletion from the basal compartment of the mammary epithelium affects stem cells

358

?2 integrin adhesion complexes maintain the integrity of HIV-1 assembly compartments in primary macrophages.  

PubMed

In human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly takes place primarily on complex intracellular plasma membrane domains connected to the cell surface by closely apposed membrane sheets or narrow channels. Some of the membranes associated with these compartments are decorated by thick (?30 nm), electron-dense, cytoplasmic coats. Here we show by immunolabelling of ultrathin cryosections that the ?2 integrin CD18, together with the ?M and ?X integrins (CD11b and CD11c), is clustered at these coated domains, and that the coats themselves contain the cytoskeletal linker proteins talin, vinculin and paxillin that connect the integrin complexes to the actin cytoskeleton. Intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMC) with CD18-containing focal adhesion-like coats are also present in uninfected MDM. These compartments become more prominent as the cells mature in tissue culture and their appearance correlates with increased expression of CD18, CD11b/c and paxillin. Depletion of CD18 by RNA interference leads to parallel down-regulation of CD11b and CD11c, as well as of paxillin, and the disappearance of the adhesion-like coats. In addition, CD18 knockdown alters the appearance of virus-containing IPMC in HIV-infected MDM, indicating that the ?2 integrin/focal adhesion-like coat structures are involved in the organization of these compartments. PMID:22017400

Pelchen-Matthews, Annegret; Giese, Sebastian; Ml?ochová, Petra; Turner, Jane; Marsh, Mark

2012-02-01

359

Compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress  

PubMed Central

The tripeptide thiol glutathione (?-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression, and the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment-specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment-specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, tobacco mosaic virus). The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol). Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. PMID:25368627

Zechmann, Bernd

2014-01-01

360

A fluorescent nucleic acid nanodevice quantitatively images elevated cyclic adenosine monophosphate in membrane-bound compartments.  

PubMed

cAMPhor: In the presence of cAMP, cAMPhor folds into a structure that binds DFHBI (green), increasing its fluorescence, while Alexa 647 (red) functions as a normalizing dye. It can thus be used to spatially image cAMP quantitatively in membrane-bound compartments. PMID:25044725

Sharma, Suruchi; Zaveri, Anisha; Visweswariah, Sandhya S; Krishnan, Yamuna

2014-11-12

361

14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 5-Flightcrew Compartment Access and Door Designs  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...detailed description of the changes to the airplane that have been...date to enhance the intrusion resistance of the flightcrew compartment...may issue an order requiring changes to such modifications. ...provide a schedule for the changes necessary to restore...

2010-01-01

362

Hyperbaric oxygen reduces edema and necrosis of skeletal muscle in compartment syndromes associated with hemorrhagic hypotension  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effect of exposures to hyperbaric oxygen on the development of the edema and necrosis of muscle that are associated with compartment syndromes that are complicated by hemorrhagic hypotension. A compartment syndrome (twenty millimeters of mercury for six hours) was induced by infusion of autologous plasma in the anterolateral compartment of the left hind limb of seven anesthetized dogs while the mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at sixty-five millimeters of mercury after 30 per cent loss of blood volume. These dogs were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (two atmospheres of pure oxygen) and were compared with six dogs that had an identical compartment syndrome and hypotensive condition but were not exposed to hyperbaric oxygen. Forty-eight hours later, edema was quantified by measuring the weights of the muscles (the pressurized muscle compared with the contralateral muscle), and necrosis of muscle was evaluated by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate. The ratio for edema was significantly (p = 0.01) greater in dogs that had not been exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (1.15 +/- 0.01) than in the dogs that had been treated with hyperbaric oxygen (1.01 +/- 0.03), and the ratio for necrosis of muscle was also significantly (p = 0.04) greater in dogs that had not had hyperbaric oxygen (1.96 +/- 0.41) than in those that had been treated with hyperbaric oxygen (1.05 +/- 0.11). Comparisons were also made with the muscles of four normal control dogs and separately with the muscles of six normotensive dogs that had an identical compartment syndrome and normal blood pressure and were not treated with hyperbaric oxygen.

Skyhar, M.J.; Hargens, A.R.; Strauss, M.B.; Gershuni, D.H.; Hart, G.B.; Akeson, W.H.

1986-10-01

363

Bone loss patterns in cortical, subcortical, and trabecular compartments during simulated microgravity.  

PubMed

Disuse studies provide a useful model for bone adaptation. A direct comparison of these studies is, however, complicated by the different settings used for bone analysis. Through pooling and reanalysis of bone data from previous disuse studies, we determined bone loss and recovery in cortical, subcortical, and trabecular compartments and evaluated whether the study design modulated skeletal adaptation. Peripheral quantitative tomographic (pQCT) images from control groups of four disuse studies with a duration of 24, 35, 56, and 90 days were reanalyzed using a robust threshold-free segmentation algorithm. The pQCT data were available from 27 young healthy men at baseline, and at specified intervals over disuse and reambulation phases. The mean maximum absolute bone loss (mean ± 95% CI) was 6.1 ± 4.5 mg/mm in cortical, 2.4 ± 1.6 mg/mm in subcortical, and 9.8 ± 9.1 mg/mm in trabecular compartments, after 90 days of bed rest. The percentage changes in all bone compartments were, however, similar. During the first few weeks after onset of reambulation, the bone loss rate was systematically greater in the cortical than in the trabecular compartment (P < 0.002), and this was observed in all studies except for the longest study. We conclude that disuse-induced bone losses follow similar patterns irrespective of study design, and the largest mean absolute bone loss occurs in the cortical compartment, but apparently only during the first 60 days. With longer study duration, trabecular loss may become more prominent. PMID:24812642

Cervinka, Tomas; Sievänen, Harri; Hyttinen, Jari; Rittweger, Jörn

2014-07-01

364

Calculation of the relative metastabilities of proteins in subcellular compartments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Protein subcellular localization and differences in oxidation state between subcellular compartments are two well-studied features of the the cellular organization of S. cerevisiae (yeast). Theories about the origin of subcellular organization are assisted by computational models that can integrate data from observations of compositional and chemical properties of the system. Presentation and implications of the hypothesis I adopt the hypothesis that the state of yeast subcellular organization is in a local energy minimum. This hypothesis implies that equilibrium thermodynamic models can yield predictions about the interdependence between populations of proteins and their subcellular chemical environments. Testing the hypothesis Three types of tests are proposed. First, there should be correlations between modeled and observed oxidation states for different compartments. Second, there should be a correspondence between the energy requirements of protein formation and the order the appearance of organelles during cellular development. Third, there should be correlations between the predicted and observed relative abundances of interacting proteins within compartments. Results The relative metastability fields of subcellular homologs of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin indicate a trend from less to more oxidizing as mitochondrion – cytoplasm – nucleus. Representing the overall amino acid compositions of proteins in 23 different compartments each with a single reference model protein suggests that the formation reactions for proteins in the vacuole (in relatively oxidizing conditions), ER and early Golgi (in relatively reducing conditions) are relatively highly favored, while that for the microtubule is the most costly. The relative abundances of model proteins for each compartment inferred from experimental data were found in some cases to correlate with the predicted abundances, and both positive and negative correlations were found for some assemblages of proteins in known complexes. Conclusion The results of these calculations and tests suggest that a tendency toward a metastable energy minimum could underlie some organizational links between the the chemical thermodynamic properties of proteins and subcellular chemical environments. Future models of this kind will benefit from consideration of additional thermodynamic variables together with more detailed subcellular observations. PMID:19615086

Dick, Jeffrey M

2009-01-01

365

Engrailed expression in the anterior lineage compartment of the developing wing blade of Drosophila.  

PubMed

The developing wing of Drosophila melanogaster was examined at larval and pupal stages of development to determine whether the anterior-posterior lineage boundary, as identified by lineage restrictions, was congruent with the boundaries defined by the expression of posterior-specific (engrailed, invected), and anterior-specific (cubitus interruptus-D) genes. The lineage boundary was identified by marking mitotic recombinant clones, using an enhancer trap line with ubiquitous beta-gal expression in imaginal tissues; clones of +/+ cells were identified by their lack of beta-gal expression. Domains of gene expression were localized using antibodies and gene specific lacZ constructs. Surprisingly, it was found that engrailed expression extended a small distance into the anterior lineage compartment of the wing blade, as identified with anti-en/inv mAb, anti-en polyclonal antiserum, or an en-promoter-lacZ insert, ryxho25. This anterior expression was not present in early third instar discs, but appeared during subsequent larval and pupal development. In contrast, the expression of cubitus interruptus-D, as identified using the ci-Dplac insert, appeared to be limited to the anterior lineage compartment. Thus, en expression is not limited to cells from the posterior lineage compartment, and en and ci-D activities can overlap in a region just anterior to the lineage compartment boundary in the developing wing. The lineage boundary could also be identified by a line of aligned cells in the prospective wing blade region of wandering third instar discs. A decapentaplegic-lacZ construct was expressed in a stripe several cells anterior to the lineage boundary, and did not define or overlap into the posterior lineage compartment. PMID:1353439

Blair, S S

1992-05-01

366

Allothermal steam gasification of biomass in cyclic multi-compartment bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier\\/combustor – New reactor concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new reactor concept of allothermal cyclic multi-compartment fluidized bed steam biomass gasification is proposed and analyzed numerically. The concept combines space and time delocalization to approach an ideal allothermal gasifier. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in periodic time and space sequences of steam biomass gasification and char\\/biomass combustion is simulated in which the exothermic combustion compartments provide heat into an

Ion Iliuta; Arnaud Leclerc; Faďçal Larachi

2010-01-01

367

Dynein-Dependent Transport of the Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein to the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Intermediate Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to most negative-stranded RNA viruses, hantaviruses and other viruses in the family Bunyaviri- dae mature intracellularly, deriving the virion envelope from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi compartment. While it is generally accepted that Old World hantaviruses assemble and bud into the Golgi compartment, some studies with New World hantaviruses have raised the possibility of maturation at the

Harish N. Ramanathan; Dong-Hoon Chung; Steven J. Plane; Elizabeth Sztul; Yong-kyu Chu; Mary C. Guttieri; Michael McDowell; Georgia Ali; Colleen B. Jonsson

2007-01-01

368

Epiphyton as a niche for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: detailed comparison with benthic and pelagic compartments in shallow freshwater lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next to the benthic and pelagic compartments, the epiphyton of submerged macrophytes may offer an additional niche for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in shallow freshwater lakes. In this study, we explored the potential activities and community compositions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the epiphytic, benthic, and pelagic compartments of seven shallow freshwater lakes which differed in their trophic status, distribution of submerged macrophytes,

M. Coci; P. L. E. Bodelier; H. J. Laanbroek

2008-01-01

369

F-Actin-Dependent Endocytosis of Cell Wall Pectins in Meristematic Root Cells. Insights from Brefeldin A-Induced Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brefeldin A (BFA) inhibits exocytosis but allows endocytosis, making it a valuable agent to identify molecules that recycle at cell peripheries. In plants, formation of large intracellular compartments in response to BFA treatment is a unique feature of some, but not all, cells. Here, we have analyzed assembly and distribution of BFA compartments in development- and tissue-specific contexts of growing

Frantisek Baluska; Andrej Hlavacka; Jozef Samaj; Klaus Palme; David G. Robinson; Toru Matoh; David W. McCurdy; Diedrik Menzel; Dieter Volkmann

2002-01-01

370

14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...Accommodations § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane...

2011-01-01

371

14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...Accommodations § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane...

2010-01-01

372

Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

373

Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

374

BLOCK AND QUADTREE BASED SIMPLIFICATION IN TILED BLOCKS TERRAIN ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

, especially by the game industry, are the Geomipmapping (Boer, 2000) and the Chunked LOD (Ulrich, 2002 in the simplification process is described. In Section 6 are discussed methods to correct cracks between adjacent blocks

Carmo, Maria Beatriz

375

Coin Blocks: Counting Money with Value-Sized Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson develops number skills, understanding of coin values, and the concept of equivalence. Students use coin blocks, concrete representations of the value of coins (pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters), to compose and decompose values up to a dollar. The resource includes a 3-minute video for teachers on how to build the coin blocks prior to the lesson. An interactive game, Coin Box, provides additional practice for students and is cataloged separately.

Jennifer Rising

2011-01-01

376

Growth of Francisella tularensis LVS in macrophages: the acidic intracellular compartment provides essential iron required for growth.  

PubMed

Murine macrophages supported exponential intracellular growth of Francisella tularensis LVS in vitro with a doubling time of 4 to 6 h. LVS was internalized and remained in a vacuolar compartment throughout its growth cycle. The importance of endosome acidification to intracellular growth of this bacterium was assessed by treatment of LVS-infected macrophages with several different lysosomotropic agents (chloroquine, NH4Cl, and ouabain). Regardless of the agent used or its mechanism of action, macrophages treated with agents that blocked endosome acidification no longer supported replication of LVS. Over several experiments for each lysosomotropic agent, the number of CFU of LVS recovered from treated macrophage cultures was equivalent to the input inoculum (approximately 10(4) CFU) at 72 h. In contrast, over 10(8) CFU was consistently recovered from untreated cultures. Pretreatment of macrophages with these endosome acidification inhibitors did not alter their ingestion of bacteria. Further, the effects of the inhibitors were completely reversible: inhibitor-pretreated LVS-infected macrophages washed free of the agent and cultured in medium fully supported LVS growth over 72 h. Endosome acidification is an important cellular event essential for release of iron from transferrin. The growth-inhibitory effects of both chloroquine and NH4Cl were completely reversed by addition of ferric PPi, a transferrin-independent iron source, at a neutral pH but not by addition of excess holotransferrin. Thus, intracellular localization in an acidic vesicle which facilitates the availability of iron essential for Francisella growth is a survival tactic of this bacterium, and iron depletion is one mechanism that macrophages use to inhibit its growth. PMID:7890413

Fortier, A H; Leiby, D A; Narayanan, R B; Asafoadjei, E; Crawford, R M; Nacy, C A; Meltzer, M S

1995-04-01

377

Safety and Efficacy of tenofovir / IQP-0528 combination gels – a dual compartment microbicide for HIV-1 prevention  

PubMed Central

Tenofovir (TFV) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor and IQP-0528 is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that also blocks virus entry. TFV and IQP-0528 alone have shown antiviral activity as microbicide gels. Because combination therapy will likely be more potent than mono-therapy, these drugs have been chosen to make a combination microbicide gel containing 2.5% TFV/1% IQP-0528. Safety and efficacy testing was done to evaluate five prototype combination gels. The gels retained TZM-bl cell and ectocervical and colorectal tissue viability. Further, the epithelium of the ectocervical and colorectal tissue remained intact after a 24 hour exposure. The ED50 calculated from the formulations for IQP-0528 was ~32 nM and for TFV was ~59 nM and their inhibitory activity was not affected by semen. The ED50 of TFV in the combination gels was ~100-fold lower than when calculated for the drug substance alone reflecting the activity of the more potent IQP-0528. When ectocervical and colorectal tissue were treated with the combination gels, HIV-1 p24 release was reduced by ?1 log10 and ?2 log10, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for the ectocervical tissues treated with combination gels showed no HIV-1 infected cells at study end. With the increased realization of receptive anal intercourse among heterosexual couples often in conjunction with vaginal intercourse, having a safe and effective microbicide for both mucosal sites is critical. The safety and efficacy profiles of the gels were similar for ectocervical and colorectal tissues suggesting these gels have the potential for dual compartment use. PMID:22940075

Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Shetler, Cory; Mahalingam, Alamelu; Ugaonkar, Shweta R.; Gwozdz, Garry; Buckheit, Karen W.; Buckheit, Robert W.

2012-01-01

378

Safety and efficacy of tenofovir/IQP-0528 combination gels - a dual compartment microbicide for HIV-1 prevention.  

PubMed

Tenofovir (TFV) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor and IQP-0528 is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that also blocks virus entry. TFV and IQP-0528 alone have shown antiviral activity as microbicide gels. Because combination therapy will likely be more potent than mono-therapy, these drugs have been chosen to make a combination microbicide gel containing 2.5% TFV/1% IQP-0528. Safety and efficacy testing was done to evaluate five prototype combination gels. The gels retained TZM-bl cell and ectocervical and colorectal tissue viability. Further, the epithelium of the ectocervical and colorectal tissue remained intact after a 24h exposure. The ED(50) calculated from the formulations for IQP-0528 was ~32nM and for TFV was ~59nM and their inhibitory activity was not affected by semen. The ED(50) of TFV in the combination gels was ~100-fold lower than when calculated for the drug substance alone reflecting the activity of the more potent IQP-0528. When ectocervical and colorectal tissue were treated with the combination gels, HIV-1 p24 release was reduced by ?1log(10) and ?2log(10), respectively. Immunohistochemistry for the ectocervical tissues treated with combination gels showed no HIV-1 infected cells at study end. With the increased realization of receptive anal intercourse among heterosexual couples often in conjunction with vaginal intercourse, having a safe and effective microbicide for both mucosal sites is critical. The safety and efficacy profiles of the gels were similar for ectocervical and colorectal tissues suggesting these gels have the potential for dual compartment use. PMID:22940075

Dezzutti, Charlene S; Shetler, Cory; Mahalingam, Alamelu; Ugaonkar, Shweta R; Gwozdz, Garry; Buckheit, Karen W; Buckheit, Robert W

2012-11-01

379

Carbon-carbon cylinder block  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

380

The Building Blocks of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about atoms and their structure (protons, electrons, neutrons) — the building blocks of matter. They see how scientific discoveries about atoms and molecules influence new technologies developed by engineers.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

381

Ca exchange under non-perfusion-limited conditions in rat ventricular cells: Identification of subcellular compartments  

SciTech Connect

Freshly prepared ventricular myocytes from rat hearts, aliquots of which were tested for sarcolemmal integrity by La exposure, were labeled at high 45Ca specific activity. Isotope was subsequently washed out at a perfusion rate of 2.8 ml/s with washout solution sampled each 1 s. No initial unrecorded period of washout was imposed. Four compartments were distinguishable: (1) a rapid compartment (RC) containing 2.6 mmol Ca/kg dry wt of La-displaceable Ca, half time (t1/2) less than 1 s; (2) an intermediate compartment(s) (IC) containing 2.1 mmol, t1/2 = 3 and 19 s; (3) a slow compartment (SC) containing 1.6 mmol, t1/2 = 3.6 min; (4) an inexchangeable compartment that demonstrated no 45Ca uptake after 60-min labeling containing 1.2 mmol. Introduction of 10 mM caffeine as a probe for sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) content at various times during the washouts caused an increased release of 45Ca. The net increased 45Ca release plotted as a function of time at which caffeine was introduced produced a biexponential curve with t1/2s of 2 and 22 s, very similar to the t1/2s of the IC. Ryanodine (1 microM) significantly reduced the caffeine-induced 45Ca release, confirming the SR locus of the IC. Cells were perfused with 10 mM NaH2PO4 to specifically increase mitochondrial 45Ca labeling. Subsequent removal of PO4 at various times during washouts produced large increases in effluent 45Ca. A plot of the net peak release of 45Ca vs. time of PO4 removal was monoexponential with t1/2 = 3.3 min, very similar to the SC t1/2. The large La-accessible RC remains unlocalized, but the rapidity of its exchange places it in the sarcolemma and/or at sites in rapid equilibrium with the sarcolemma.

Langer, G.A.; Rich, T.L.; Orner, F.B. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1990-08-01

382

MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the bacteria will be used to calibrate the nitrification model which will be the basis of the control model for managing the nitrification process in the MELiSSA loop. The experimental results highlighted the use of online measurement of base addition and oxygen consumption as possible parameters for the control of the nitrification process. Keywords: Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, MELiSSA, bioreactor

Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

383

Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, affects the early to late phagosome transition and survives in a Rab5- and Rab7-positive compartment.  

PubMed

Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, inhibits phago-lysosome biogenesis to create a suitable niche for its survival and replication in macrophages. To understand the mechanism by which it subverts phagosome maturation, we used biochemical and cell biological approaches to purify and characterise the intracellular compartment where Tropheryma whipplei resides using mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages. We showed that in addition to Lamp-1, the Tropheryma whipplei phagosome is positive for Rab5 and Rab7, two GTPases required for the early to late phagosome transition. Unlike other pathogens, inhibition of PI(3)P production was not the mechanism for Rab5 stabilisation at the phagosome. Overexpression of the inactive, GDP-bound form of Rab5 bypassed the pathogen-induced blockade of phago-lysosome biogenesis. This suggests that Tropheryma whipplei blocks the switch from Rab5 to Rab7 by acting on the Rab5 GTPase cycle. A bio-informatic analysis of the Tropheryma whipplei genome revealed a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) homologous with the GAPDH of Listeria monocytogenes, and this may be the bacterial protein responsible for blocking Rab5 activity. To our knowledge, Tropheryma whipplei is the first pathogen described to induce a "chimeric" phagosome stably expressing both Rab5 and Rab7, suggesting a novel and specific mechanism for subverting phagosome maturation. PMID:24586722

Mottola, Giovanna; Boucherit, Nicolas; Trouplin, Virginie; Oury Barry, Abdoulaye; Soubeyran, Philippe; Mege, Jean-Louis; Ghigo, Eric

2014-01-01

384

Tropheryma whipplei, the Agent of Whipple's Disease, Affects the Early to Late Phagosome Transition and Survives in a Rab5- and Rab7-Positive Compartment  

PubMed Central

Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, inhibits phago-lysosome biogenesis to create a suitable niche for its survival and replication in macrophages. To understand the mechanism by which it subverts phagosome maturation, we used biochemical and cell biological approaches to purify and characterise the intracellular compartment where Tropheryma whipplei resides using mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages. We showed that in addition to Lamp-1, the Tropheryma whipplei phagosome is positive for Rab5 and Rab7, two GTPases required for the early to late phagosome transition. Unlike other pathogens, inhibition of PI(3)P production was not the mechanism for Rab5 stabilisation at the phagosome. Overexpression of the inactive, GDP-bound form of Rab5 bypassed the pathogen-induced blockade of phago-lysosome biogenesis. This suggests that Tropheryma whipplei blocks the switch from Rab5 to Rab7 by acting on the Rab5 GTPase cycle. A bio-informatic analysis of the Tropheryma whipplei genome revealed a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) homologous with the GAPDH of Listeria monocytogenes, and this may be the bacterial protein responsible for blocking Rab5 activity. To our knowledge, Tropheryma whipplei is the first pathogen described to induce a “chimeric” phagosome stably expressing both Rab5 and Rab7, suggesting a novel and specific mechanism for subverting phagosome maturation. PMID:24586722

Mottola, Giovanna; Boucherit, Nicolas; Trouplin, Virginie; Oury Barry, Abdoulaye; Soubeyran, Philippe; Mege, Jean-Louis; Ghigo, Eric

2014-01-01

385

Psoas cross sectional area measurement for sarcopenia.  

PubMed

Jones et al highlighted effectiveness of preoperative lean muscle mass determination, referred as sarcopenia, to identify those at higher risk of major complications after colorectal resection (1). We find current results particularly important beside some limitations of current methodology to test the hypothesis of the article. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25402431

Kadan, Murat; Haymana, Cem; Safer, Umut

2014-11-17

386

ComPPI: a cellular compartment-specific database for protein-protein interaction network analysis  

E-print Network

Here we present ComPPI, a cellular compartment-specific database of proteins and their interactions enabling an extensive, compartmentalized protein-protein interaction network analysis (URL: http://ComPPI.LinkGroup.hu). ComPPI enables the user to filter biologically unlikely interactions, where the two interacting proteins have no common subcellular localizations and to predict novel properties, such as compartment-specific biological functions. ComPPI is an integrated database covering four species (S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster and H. sapiens). The compilation of 9 protein-protein interaction and 8 subcellular localization datasets had 4 curation steps including a manually built, comprehensive hierarchical structure of more than 1,600 subcellular localizations. ComPPI provides confidence scores for protein subcellular localizations and protein-protein interactions. ComPPI has user-friendly search options for individual proteins giving their subcellular localization, their interactions and the ...

Veres, Daniel V; Thaler, Benedek; Szalay, Kristof Z; Fazekas, David; Korcsmaros, Tamas; Csermely, Peter

2014-01-01

387

Outcome of compartment syndrome following intramedullary nailing of tibial diaphyseal fractures.  

PubMed

Seventeen cases of compartment syndrome were treated in a group of 626 consecutive patients with tibial diaphyseal fractures. Clinical and radiological follow-up was performed at an average of 24 months (range 8-54 months). Functional outcome was assessed using Edward's classification. All patients who developed compartment syndrome had fracture stabilisation with a reamed intramedullary nail using skeletal traction. The average interval between the nailing procedure and fasciotomy was 11 h. Results were good in 10 cases, fair in four cases and poor in the remaining three cases. Patients who had decompression within 12 h had a good functional outcome. Patients with poor results were all treated at an interval greater than 24 h. PMID:11382428

Mullett, H; Al-Abed, K; Prasad, C V; O'Sullivan, M

2001-06-01

388

Novel Compartment Implicated in Calcium Signaling--Is It an "Induced Coupling Domain"?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is not simply a uniform continuous organelle, but is spatially and functionally heterogeneous with nonuniform distribution of endoplasmic Ca2+-handling proteins, such as Ca2+-binding proteins, Ca2+ pumps, and Ca2+-release channels. Such nonuniform distribution of Ca2+-handling proteins is thought to create a spatially divided calcium store and to contribute to the generation of complex intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. In addition to the particular distribution of these Ca2+-handling proteins within ER, extracellular stimuli may also stimulate the formation of dynamic new ER compartments containing Ca2+-handling proteins. These compartments containing Ca2+-handling proteins have potential roles in Ca2+ signaling; specifically, they may function as "induced coupling domains" between the ER and plasma membrane, thereby allowing Ca2+ entry into the ER.

Chihiro Hisatsune (RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI); Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology REV)

2005-12-06

389

Compartment syndrome following total knee arthroplasty: a report of seven cases.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty that requires early recognition and prompt decompression in order to prevent long-term disability. We have found only one previous case report in the literature. We present a series of seven cases from four hospitals and five surgeons. Six of the cases resulted in the loss of at least one compartment, and one resulted in amputation. Four of the cases resulted in legal action. We suggest that important risk factors contributing to the development of this condition include complex surgery, soft-tissue compromise, previous surgery, and possibly vascular disease. Delay in the diagnosis and hence delay in decompression was common in our series, and in five cases appeared to be related to the use of a postoperative epidural infusion for pain relief. The presence of associated neurological compromise may have also been a significant factor in the delay to diagnosis in two cases. PMID:16498006

Haggis, P; Yates, P; Blakeway, C; Fick, D; Morgan, D A F; Holt, M; Wood, D

2006-03-01

390

Pressurization of a compartment due to the rupture of coolant piping  

SciTech Connect

The pressurization and venting of enclosed compartments due to the accidental rupture of coolant piping is a safety problem common to many nuclear facilities. The processes associated with such an accident are very complex, involving, in general, transient multiphase flows, interactions and mixing between the incoming flows and the gases in the compartment, and heat transfer with the surroundings. Since pipe rupture is associated with many phenomenological uncertainties, elaborate 3-D thermal-hydraulic modeling and extensive calculational efforts are not warranted for many design applications. It is then more appropriate to rely. on simplified, global analysis approaches which can provide reasonably conservative estimates of the structural loads and flow processes, and which can readily be used in parameter/design studies. The objective of this paper is to present such an approach.

Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.

1993-01-01

391

The Epidermis Comprises Autonomous Compartments Maintained by Distinct Stem Cell Populations  

PubMed Central

Summary The complex anatomy of the epidermis contains multiple adult stem cell populations, but the extent to which they functionally overlap during homeostasis, wound healing, and tumor initiation remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Lrig1+ve cells are highly proliferative epidermal stem cells. Long-term clonal analysis reveals that Lrig1+ve cells maintain the upper pilosebaceous unit, containing the infundibulum and sebaceous gland as independent compartments, but contribute to neither the hair follicle nor the interfollicular epidermis, which are maintained by distinct stem cell populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1+ve cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation. In summary, our data demonstrate that epidermal stem cells are lineage restricted during homeostasis and suggest that compartmentalization may constitute a conserved mechanism underlying epithelial tissue maintenance. PMID:23954751

Page, Mahalia E.; Lombard, Patrick; Ng, Felicia; Göttgens, Berthold; Jensen, Kim B.

2013-01-01

392

Compartment-Specific Control of Signaling from a DNA-Sensing Immune Receptor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many cell signaling events are spatially organized, enabling control of specificity, amplitude, and duration. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) binds to nucleic acid sequences present in bacteria or DNA viruses and initiates a signaling pathway that culminates in the transcriptional induction of genes important for host defense, such as those encoding proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferon. A specialized membrane trafficking pathway has been described that is required for a specific branch of TLR9 signaling: the production of type I interferon. Cells deficient for the clathrin adaptor complex AP-3 failed to traffic TLR9 to a specific endosomal compartment and were unable to produce type I interferon despite normal increases in the abundance of interleukin-12p40, a proinflammatory cytokine. These findings support a model in which the targets of TLR9 engagement are controlled by the compartment in which TLR9 is activated.

Alex Engel (Berkeley; University of California REV)

2010-11-30

393

The cell-mediated immunity of Drosophila melanogaster: hemocyte lineages, immune compartments, microanatomy and regulation.  

PubMed

In the animal kingdom, innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The dangers of microbial and parasitic attacks are countered by similar mechanisms, involving the prototypes of the cell-mediated immune responses, the phagocytosis and encapsulation. Work on Drosophila has played an important role in promoting an understanding of the basic mechanisms of phylogenetically conserved modules of innate immunity. The aim of this review is to survey the developments in the identification and functional definition of immune cell types and the immunological compartments of Drosophila melanogaster. We focus on the molecular and developmental aspects of the blood cell types and compartments, as well as the dynamics of blood cell development and the immune response. Further advances in the characterization of the innate immune mechanisms in Drosophila will provide basic clues to the understanding of the importance of the evolutionary conserved mechanisms of innate immune defenses in the animal kingdom. PMID:23800719

Honti, Viktor; Csordás, Gábor; Kurucz, Éva; Márkus, Róbert; Andó, István

2014-01-01

394

Compartment syndromes of the optic nerve and open-angle glaucoma.  

PubMed

A compartment is a space or volume that is separated from its environment. The cause for separation can be manifold. It can be expressed as a difference [INCREMENT] in parameters, such as size, area, volume, color or pressure. The border of a compartment can be rigid or flexible (compliance). The optic nerve is located within the subarachnoid space and is covered by the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater that cover the brain as well. As is the brain, the optic nerve is bathed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Optic nerve compartmentalization has been demonstrated in papilledema, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and normal tension glaucoma. Anatomically the optic nerve can be described as located in a cul de sac with a steady inflow of CSF from the pituitary cistern via the optic canal. This specific anatomy raises questions concerning the mechanism of CSF recycling from the confined perioptic space. PMID:23733118

Killer, Hanspeter Esriel

2013-01-01

395

An RNA Interference Screen for Genes Required to Shape the Anteroposterior Compartment Boundary in Drosophila Identifies the Eph Receptor  

PubMed Central

The formation of straight compartment boundaries separating groups of cells with distinct fates and functions is an evolutionarily conserved strategy during animal development. The physical mechanisms that shape compartment boundaries have recently been further elucidated, however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie compartment boundary formation and maintenance remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the outcome of an RNA interference screen aimed at identifying novel genes involved in maintaining the straight shape of the anteroposterior compartment boundary in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Out of screening 3114 transgenic RNA interference lines targeting a total of 2863 genes, we identified a single novel candidate that interfered with the formation of a straight anteroposterior compartment boundary. Interestingly, the targeted gene encodes for the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase, an evolutionarily conserved family of signal transducers that has previously been shown to be important for maintaining straight compartment boundaries in vertebrate embryos. Our results identify a hitherto unknown role of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase in Drosophila and suggest that Eph receptors have important functions in shaping compartment boundaries in both vertebrate and insect development. PMID:25473846

Umetsu, Daiki; Dunst, Sebastian; Dahmann, Christian

2014-01-01

396

Dynamo room (compartment A21) with view of port side, art ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dynamo room (compartment A-21) with view of port side, art electrical generator in background. Note cables, speaking tubes and steering crank arm at top center of photograph. These rise through an armored tube to the Conning Tower. The electrical distribution board at left is a reproduction of the board as it may have looked in the 1920's. Reproduction was done in the 1970's and the 1980's. (015) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

397

Acute Exertional Rhabdomyolysis and Triceps Compartment Syndrome During a High School Football Camp  

PubMed Central

Background: Acute exertional rhabdomyolysis has been infrequently reported among adolescents. In August 2010, several high school football players from one team developed rhabdomyolysis and triceps compartment syndrome following an upper arm exercise held in a non-air-conditioned wrestling room. Purpose: To confirm the diagnoses, characterize the spectrum of illnesses, and determine the factors contributing to rhabdomyolysis and triceps compartment syndromes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The authors reviewed hospital medical records and interviewed players, coaches, school administrators, and hospital staff, using a standardized questionnaire that assessed symptoms, exposures, and activities. Results: Among 43 players, 22 (51%) experienced rhabdomyolysis (peak creatine kinase range, 2434-42 000 U/L): 22 patients had upper arm myalgia; 12 were hospitalized; 3 experienced triceps compartment syndrome; none experienced renal failure. Illnesses started 1 to 3 days after the triceps exercise. Forty players (93%) completed questionnaires. Among 19 players receiving at least 1 vote from a teammate as 1 of the 3 hardest working players, 13 (68%) experienced rhabdomyolysis versus 7 (33%) of 21 not considered hardest working (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.0). Of 40 players, 10 (25%) reported creatine supplement use, which was not associated with rhabdomyolysis. No player acknowledged use of alcohol, illicit drugs, or performance-enhancing drugs; results of performance-enhancing drug tests on the 4 players tested were negative. Environmental investigation did not identify additional factors contributing to illness. Conclusions: The upper arm exercise, possibly exacerbated by heat, led to rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome. Greater awareness of specific exercise hazards and prevention strategies can minimize risk for clinically significant muscle injury. PMID:23016070

Oh, John Y.; Laidler, Matthew; Fiala, Steven C.; Hedberg, Katrina

2012-01-01

398

View forward from bulkhead no. 38 of compartment B126 crew ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward from bulkhead no. 38 of compartment B-126 crew space. Note stop valves on bulkhead at right side of photograph; these steam control valves allowed remote activation of the main, auxiliary and safety valves for the port engine in the event that the engine room valves were disabled or unreachable. (044) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

399

A Case of Upper Limb Compartment Syndrome following Snake Envenomation: Measure Twice, Cut Once.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 16-year old male patient who sustained a poisonous bite from a Mapepire balsain snake on the dorsum of his left hand. The subject presented within one hour of envenomation and subsequently developed clinical features of acute compartment syndrome in the involved upper limb. Early diagnosis and emergency fasciotomy effectively treated his condition. Aggressive physiotherapy coupled with this ensured best functional outcome. PMID:25429488

Thomas, D K; Budhoo, E J; Mencia, M M; Ali, T F

2014-05-19

400

Near-Infrared Monitoring of Model Chronic Compartment Syndrome In Exercising Skeletal Muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is characterized by muscle ischemia, usually in the anterior oompartment of the leg, caused by high intramuscular pressure during exercise. Dual-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an optical technique that allows noninvasive tracking of variations in muscle tissue oxygenation (Chance et al., 1988). We hypothesized that with a model CCS, muscle tissue oxygenation will show a greater decline during exercise and a slower recovery post-exercise than under normal conditions.

Hargens, Alan R.; Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.

1995-01-01

401

Compartment A123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial at left center appears to be a timer for controlling washing machine at lower right. Low, round machine to the left of the washer is a centrifuge used for spin drying laundry. Laundry was not part of original equipment but was added in the refurbishment of 1899. (024) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

402

Chromatin domains and the interchromatin compartment form structurally defined and functionally interacting nuclear networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of strong evidence that the nucleus is a highly organized organelle, a consensus on basic principles of the global\\u000a nuclear architecture has not so far been achieved. The chromosome territory–interchromatin compartment (CT-IC) model postulates\\u000a an IC which expands between chromatin domains both in the interior and the periphery of CT. Other models, however, dispute\\u000a the existence of the

Heiner Albiez; Marion Cremer; Cinzia Tiberi; Lorella Vecchio; Lothar Schermelleh; Sandra Dittrich; Katrin Küpper; Boris Joffe; Tobias Thormeyer; Johann von Hase; Siwei Yang; Karl Rohr; Heinrich Leonhardt; Irina Solovei; Christoph Cremer; Stanislav Fakan; Thomas Cremer

2006-01-01

403

Dynamic ordering of early generated striatal cells destined to form the striosomal compartment of the striatum.  

PubMed

The mature striatum is divided into a labyrinthine system of striosomes embedded in a surrounding matrix compartment. We pulse-labeled striosomal cells (S cells) and matrix cells (M cells) in cats with (3) H-thymidine and followed their distributions during fetal and postnatal development. We identified three maturational phases in S-cell distributions. The early phase (sampled at embryonic day [E]27-E35 following E24-E28 (3) H-thymidine) was characterized by a transient medial accumulation of synchronously generated S cells within the caudate nucleus adjoining the ganglionic eminence, potentially a waiting compartment. Band-like arrangements of synchronously generated S cells then formed beyond this medial band. During the second phase (sampled at E38-E45), the loosely banded S-cell distributions were transformed into clustered arrangements typical of developing striosomes. In the third phase (sampled from E52 into the postnatal period), these developed into the typical mature striosomal architecture. At adulthood, gentle mediolateral birthdate-gradients in S cells were still evident, but M cells, produced over mid to late prenatal ages, became broadly distributed, without apparent gradients or banding arrangements. These findings suggest that the maturational histories of the striosomal and matrix neurons are influenced by their generation times and local environments, and that future S cells have transient, nonstriosomal distributions prior to their aggregation into striosomal clusters, including a putative waiting compartment. Further, the eventual patterning of the striosomal compartment reflects outside-in, band-like gradient patterns of settling of synchronously generated S cells, patterns that could be related both to neural processing in the mature striatum and to patterns of vulnerability of striatal neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:943-962, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25521072

Newman, Helen; Liu, Fu-Chin; Graybiel, Ann M

2015-04-15

404

Pharmacokinetics of digoxin: Comparison of a two- and a three-compartment model in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment has been carried out in man designed to compare the fit of a two- and a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model to experimentally determined serum digoxin concentration-time data following rapid intravenous injection of 1.0 mg of the drug. Digoxin was administered to five healthy male volunteers, blood samples were withdrawn repetitively over a period of 72 hr, and samples were

William G. Kramer; Richard P. Lewis; Tyson C. Cobb; Wilbur F. Forester; James A. Visconti; Lee A. Wanke; Harold G. Boxenbaum; Richard H. Reuning

1974-01-01

405

Oxidative Stress and Compartment of Gene Expression Determine Proatherosclerotic Effects of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase  

PubMed Central

Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) decreases atherosclerosis development. Potential proatherogenic effects of iNOS include iNOS mediated oxidative stress and iNOS expression in different cellular compartments. Lesional iNOS can potentially produce nitric oxide radicals (NO), superoxide radicals (O2?), or both; these radicals may then react to form peroxynitrite. Alternatively, O2? radicals from oxidases co-expressed with iNOS could react with NO to produce peroxynitrite. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that modulate the redox system in different iNOS-expressing cell compartments may determine the role of iNOS in atherosclerosis. We used apoE (apoE?/?) and apoE/iNOS double knockout (apoE?/?/ iNOS?/?) mice to assess vascular NO, O2?, and peroxynitrite formation by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and 3-nitrotyrosine staining. The relevance of the iNOS expressing cell compartment was tested by bone marrow transplantation. We show that iNOS significantly contributes to vascular NO production and itself produces O2?, leading to peroxynitrite formation in atherosclerotic lesions. Our bone marrow transplantation experiments show that bone marrow derived cells exclusively mediate the proatherosclerotic effects of iNOS in males, while both parenchymal and bone marrow derived iNOS equally contribute to atherosclerosis in females. Moreover, iNOS expression affects vascular remodeling. These findings establish for the first time that the proatherosclerotic effects of iNOS vary with sex in addition to the compartment of its expression. PMID:19465644

Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Ostermeier, Eva; Schröttle, Angelika; Chen, Jiqiu; Huang, Paul L.; Ertl, Georg; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kuhlencordt, Peter J.

2009-01-01

406

Factors Affecting the Outcome of Arthroscopy in Medial-Compartment Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was designed to obtain information on factors affecting the medium-term efficacy of arthroscopy (debridement or microfracturing of chondral defects) in patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods: A total of 156 patients (71 men and 85 women; mean age, 51.6 8.7 years (range, 37 to 69 years)) with isolated Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 medial-compartment knee OA

Gunter Spahn; Thomas Mückley; Enrico Kahl; Gunther O. Hofmann

2006-01-01

407

Hematopoietic stem cell compartment: Acute and late effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow is an important dose-limiting cell renewal tissue for chemotherapy, wide-field irradiation, and autologous bone marrow transplantion. Over the past 5–10 years a great deal has been discovered about the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Although the toxicity associated with prolonged myelosuppression continues to limit the wider use of chemotherapy and irradiation, ways are being discovered to circumvent this

Peter Mauch; Louis Constine; Joel Greenberger; William Knospe; Jessie Sullivan; Jane L. Liesveld; H. Joachim Deeg

1995-01-01

408

Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

409

Organization and regulation of intracellular plasma membrane-connected HIV-1 assembly compartments in macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background In HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), virus particles assemble primarily on intracellularly sequestered plasma membrane domains termed intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMCs). Despite their clear role in virus formation, little is known of the organization, composition, dynamics or function of these compartments. Results We have used amphipathic membrane dyes to reveal the complex three-dimensional structure of IPMCs in whole MDMs and to visualize connections between IPMCs and the cell surface. The observation of similar IPMC structures in both infected and uninfected cells indicates that these compartments are not induced by virus infection, but are present constitutively in MDMs. By expressing a phospholipase C? pleckstrin homology domain linked to green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate that IPMCs contain phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Live cell imaging of cells expressing this probe shows that IPMCs are dynamic, but relatively stable, sub-domains of the plasma membrane. As recent electron microscopy studies indicated that portions of IPMCs are coated with ?2 integrin-containing focal adhesion-like complexes linked to actin, we investigated whether the actin cytoskeleton is required for the organization of IPMCs. In MDMs treated with the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin, the normally compact IPMCs dispersed into smaller structures that remained connected to the plasma membrane. Moreover, latrunculin enhanced the release of preformed, mature HIV-1 particles from infected MDMs. Conclusions IPMCs are constitutive features of MDMs that are continuous with the plasma membrane and are used as unique sites for the assembly of new virions following infection by HIV-1. A functionally intact actin cytoskeleton is required to maintain the organization of the IPMCs and, in HIV-1-infected cells, perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton influences both the organization of the compartment and the release of sequestered virus. PMID:23915020

2013-01-01

410

Accurate Monte Carlo modelling of the back compartments of SPECT cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, new single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction techniques rely on accurate Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to optimize reconstructed images. However, existing MC scintillation camera models which usually include an accurate description of the collimator and crystal, lack correct implementation of the gamma camera's back compartments. In the case of dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA), where backscattered photons from the highest energy isotope are detected in the imaging energy window of the second isotope, this approximation may induce simulation errors. Here, we investigate the influence of backscatter compartment modelling on the simulation accuracy of high-energy isotopes. Three models of a scintillation camera were simulated: a simple model (SM), composed only of a collimator and a NaI(Tl) crystal; an intermediate model (IM), adding a simplified description of the backscatter compartments to the previous model and a complete model (CM), accurately simulating the materials and geometries of the camera. The camera models were evaluated with point sources (67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 123I, 131I and 18F) in air without a collimator, in air with a collimator and in water with a collimator. In the latter case, sensitivities and point-spread functions (PSFs) simulated in the photopeak window with the IM and CM are close to the measured values (error below 10.5%). In the backscatter energy window, however, the IM and CM overestimate the FWHM of the detected PSF by 52% and 23%, respectively, while the SM underestimates it by 34%. The backscatter peak fluence is also overestimated by 20% and 10% with the IM and CM, respectively, whereas it is underestimated by 60% with the SM. The results show that an accurate description of the backscatter compartments is required for SPECT simulations of high-energy isotopes (above 300 keV) when the backscatter energy window is of interest.

Rault, E.; Staelens, S.; Van Holen, R.; De Beenhouwer, J.; Vandenberghe, S.

2011-01-01

411

Expression of Period Genes: Rhythmic and Nonrhythmic Compartments of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Pacemaker  

PubMed Central

The mammalian circadian clock lying in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls daily rhythms and synchronizes the organism to its environment. In all organisms studied, circadian timekeeping is cell-autonomous, and rhythmicity is thought to be generated by a feedback loop involving clock proteins that inhibit transcription of their own genes. In the present study, we examined how these cellular properties are organized within the SCN tissue to produce rhythmicity and photic entrainment. The results show that the SCN has two compartments regulating Period genes Per1, Per2, and Per3 mRNA expression differentially. One compartment shows endogenous rhythmicity in Per1, Per2, and Per3 mRNA expression. The other compartment does not have rhythmic mRNA expression but has gated light-induced Per1 and Per2 and high levels of endogenous nonrhythmic Per3 mRNA expression. These results reveal the occurrence of differential regulation of clock genes in two distinct SCN regions and suggest a potential mechanism for producing functional differences in distinct SCN subregions. PMID:11567064

Hamada, Toshiyuki; LeSauter, Joseph; Venuti, Judith M.; Silver, Rae

2012-01-01

412

The organization of the endoplasmic reticulum and the intermediate compartment in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.  

PubMed Central

The boundaries of the organelles of the biosynthetic endomembrane system are still controversial. In this paper we take advantage of the unique architectural organization of neurons to investigate the localization of a spectrum of compartment-specific markers with the goal of defining the location of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), smooth ER, intermediate compartment, and the Golgi complex. Markers of the rough ER (signal sequence receptor), Golgi complex (mannosidase II), and the trans Golgi network (TGN38) were essentially restricted to the cell body and the initial segment of one of the cell's dendrites. In contrast the cytochemical reaction product for glucose 6 phosphate, a classical ER marker, in addition to staining ER structures in the cell body also reacted with smooth ER elements that extended into both axons and dendrites. These peripheral smooth ER elements also reacted at the immunofluorescence level for ER marker 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, as well as for calnexin and protein disulfide isomerase. We also analyzed the location of rab1, rab2, p58, the KDEL receptor, and beta-subunit of coatomer. These intermediate compartment markers were found predominantly in the cell body but also extended to the proximal parts of the dendrites. Collectively, our data argue that the ER of hippocampal neurons consists of functionally and spatially distinct and separated domains, and they stress the power of the hippocampal neuron system for investigations of the organization of the ER by light microscopy. Images PMID:8573789

Krijnse-Locker, J; Parton, R G; Fuller, S D; Griffiths, G; Dotti, C G

1995-01-01

413

Transgressions of compartment boundaries and cell reprogramming during regeneration in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Animals have developed mechanisms to reconstruct lost or damaged tissues. To regenerate those tissues the cells implicated have to undergo developmental reprogramming. The imaginal discs of Drosophila are subdivided into distinct compartments, which derive from different genetic programs. This feature makes them a convenient system to study reprogramming during regeneration. We find that massive damage inflicted to the posterior or the dorsal compartment of the wing disc causes a transient breakdown of compartment boundaries, which are quickly reconstructed. The cells involved in the reconstruction often modify their original identity, visualized by changes in the expression of developmental genes like engrailed or cubitus interruptus. This reprogramming is mediated by up regulation of the JNK pathway and transient debilitation of the epigenetic control mechanism. Our results also show that the local developmental context plays a role in the acquisition of new cell identities: cells expressing engrailed induce engrailed expression in neighbor cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01831.001. PMID:24755288

Herrera, Salvador C; Morata, Ginés

2014-01-01

414

Multi-Compartment T2 Relaxometry Using a Spatially Constrained Multi-Gaussian Model  

PubMed Central

The brain’s myelin content can be mapped by T2-relaxometry, which resolves multiple differentially relaxing T2 pools from multi-echo MRI. Unfortunately, the conventional fitting procedure is a hard and numerically ill-posed problem. Consequently, the T2 distributions and myelin maps become very sensitive to noise and are frequently difficult to interpret diagnostically. Although regularization can improve stability, it is generally not adequate, particularly at relatively low signal to noise ratio (SNR) of around 100–200. The purpose of this study was to obtain a fitting algorithm which is able to overcome these difficulties and generate usable myelin maps from noisy acquisitions in a realistic scan time. To this end, we restrict the T2 distribution to only 3 distinct resolvable tissue compartments, modeled as Gaussians: myelin water, intra/extra-cellular water and a slow relaxing cerebrospinal fluid compartment. We also impose spatial smoothness expectation that volume fractions and T2 relaxation times of tissue compartments change smoothly within coherent brain regions. The method greatly improves robustness to noise, reduces spatial variations, improves definition of white matter fibers, and enhances detection of demyelinating lesions. Due to efficient design, the additional spatial aspect does not cause an increase in processing time. The proposed method was applied to fast spiral acquisitions on which conventional fitting gives uninterpretable results. While these fast acquisitions suffer from noise and inhomogeneity artifacts, our preliminary results indicate the potential of spatially constrained 3-pool T2 relaxometry. PMID:24896833

Raj, Ashish; Pandya, Sneha; Shen, Xiaobo; LoCastro, Eve; Nguyen, Thanh D.; Gauthier, Susan A.

2014-01-01

415

Telomere-surrounding regions are transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments in human cells  

SciTech Connect

Positioning of genes relative to nuclear heterochromatic compartments is thought to help regulate their transcriptional activity. Given that human subtelomeric regions are rich in highly expressed genes, we asked whether human telomeres are related to transcription-permissive nuclear compartments. To address this question, we investigated in the nuclei of normal human lymphocytes the spatial relations of two constitutively expressed genes (ACTB and RARA) and three nuclear transcripts (ACTB, IL2RA and TCRB) to telomeres and centromeres, as a function of gene activity and transcription levels. We observed that genes and gene transcripts locate close to telomere clusters and away from chromocenters upon activation of transcription. These findings, together with the observation that SC35 domains, which are enriched in pre-mRNA processing factors, are in close proximity to telomeres, indicate that telomere-neighboring regions are permissive to gene expression in human cells. Therefore, the associations of telomeres observed in the interphase nucleus might contribute, as opposed to chromocenters, for the establishment of transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments.

Quina, Ana Sofia [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Av. Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Parreira, Leonor [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Av. Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisbon (Portugal) and Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal)]. E-mail: lparreir@igc.gulbenkian.pt

2005-07-01

416

Value of ultrasound in detecting central compartment lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

The value of ultrasound in detecting central compartment lymph node metastasis in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) is unclear. Prospective patients with WDTC attending a university-affiliated tertiary medical center between July 2010 and June 2011 underwent neck ultrasound for detection of central compartment lymph node metastases prior to surgery. Central lymph node dissection was performed during the initial surgery regardless of ultrasound findings. The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ultrasound in detecting central lymph node metastases were calculated according to the final histopathological results. Sixty-four patients met the study criteria. Twenty-four had pathologic central compartment lymph nodes according to preoperative ultrasound, 20 of which were confirmed by histological examination. One patient was found to have pathological central lymph nodes by histology which was not detected by US. Sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound was 95%, specificity 90%, and negative and positive predictive values 97 and 83%, respectively. Preoperative ultrasound may serve as an accurate and important tool for deciding the extent of surgery in WDTC. PMID:23880920

Mizrachi, Aviram; Feinmesser, Raphael; Bachar, Gideon; Hilly, Ohad; Cohen, Maya

2014-05-01

417

Simulation of Hydrogen Distribution in Ignalina NPP ALS Compartments During BDBA  

SciTech Connect

Accident Localisation System (ALS) of Ignalina NPP is a 'pressure suppression' type confinement, which protects the population, employees and environment from the radiation hazards. According to the Safety Analysis Report for Ignalina NPP {approx}110 m{sup 3} of hydrogen is released to ALS compartments during the Maximum Design Basis Accident. However in case of beyond design basis accident, when the oxidation of zirconium starts, the amount of generated hydrogen could be significantly higher. If the volume concentration of hydrogen in the compartment reaches 4%, there is a possibility for a combustible mixture to appear. To prevent the possible hydrogen accumulation in the ALS of the Ignalina NPP during an accident the H{sub 2} control system is installed. The results of the performed analysis derived the places of the possible H{sub 2} accumulation in the ALS compartments during the transient processes and assessed the mixture combustibility in these places for a beyond design basis accident scenario. Such analysis of H{sub 2} distribution in the ALS of Ignalina NPP in case of BDBA was not performed before. (authors)

Babilas, Egidijus; Urbonavicius, Egidijus; Rimkevicius, Sigitas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

2006-07-01

418

Quantification of different classical swine fever virus transmission routes within a single compartment.  

PubMed

During outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF), CSF virus (CSFV) can be transmitted via different routes. Understanding these transmission routes is crucial in preventing the unlimited spread of the virus in a naďve population, and the subsequent eradication of the virus from that population. The objectives of the present study were to quantify virus transmission within a compartment, differentiating between transmission within a pen, transmission between pens via contact through (open) pen partitions, and transmission via the air. Furthermore, the possible contribution of each of these routes to infection of individual pigs was quantified. A CSFV outbreak was mimicked in a compartment housing 24 pigs in six different pens. Two pigs in one pen were inoculated with the moderately virulent Paderborn strain, and virus transmission to other pigs was followed in time. Virus transmission rates for transmission via the air (? of 0.33 (0.14-0.64) per day) and transmission between adjacent pens (? of 0.30 (0-0.88) per day) were comparable, but significantly lower than for virus transmission within a pen (? of 6.1 (0.86-18) per day). The route via the air created new focal points of infection, from which virus transmission continued through other routes. This shows that, at least within a compartment, transmission via the air is expected to play a relevant role in the fast spread of the virus after an initial slow start. This will have consequences for efficacy of intervention measures, including vaccination during an outbreak. PMID:25465177

Weesendorp, Eefke; Backer, Jantien; Loeffen, Willie

2014-12-01

419

Stability and mixing conditions for HIV/AIDS models with regional compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compartmental models have been adapted to derive temporal epidemic forecasting systems for imitating the transfer of HIV infection between those with different behaviours or rates of risk activity. Alternatively, models with regional compartments, which forecast disease incidence in both space and time, have emerged as a response to the challenge of anticipating the pandemic pathways of this infection. This paper combines these frameworks to obtain properties for a multiregion model that also contains demographic compartments. Section 2 begins by showing how the stability conditions (starting thresholds) for a purely regional model are a special case of the existing conditions that have been derived for the general compartmental framework. Then, these results are extended to encompass a regions with compartments design. Section 3 presents an analysis of the population mixing relationships that are embedded in all these specifications. Here, the topics include the maintenance of contact symmetry, the representation of alternative partner selection behaviours, and the identification of core populations for the diffusion of HIV infection. The discussion considers how these theoretical findings might be applied to disease prevention.

Thomas, Richard

420

Lateral sellar compartment O.T. (cavernous sinus): history, anatomy, terminology.  

PubMed

Claudios Galen (119-199 a.d.) dissected lower animals with parasellar carotid retia bathed in venous blood and transposed his findings to human anatomy. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) corrected most of Galen's errors but apparently never looked into this small, extradural compartment, nor, apparently, did Winslow (Exposition Anatomique de la Structure du Corps Humain. London: N. Prevast, 1734), who christened it the "cavernous sinus," (CS) presumably thinking that it would resemble the corpora cavernosa of the penis. Multiple surgical explorations, gross dissections, microscopic views, and vascular casts from early fetuses to an 81 year old have been examined and reviewed. The CS is not a dural sinus nor is it cavernous. The compartment is extradural, and the venous structures contained within consist of a greatly variable plexus of extremely thin-walled veins. The name, CS, is a barrier to the understanding of the structure and function of this extradural anatomical jewel box, which contains fat, myelinated and nonmyelinated nerves, arteries, and a plexus of veins. It is proposed that this name be changed, because it is inaccurate and misleading. The replacement should leave no doubt about its meaning. The lateral sellar compartment is descriptive and accurate. The veins within are a parasellar plexus. PMID:9713986

Parkinson, D

1998-08-01

421

The Formation of Immunogenic Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II–Peptide Ligands in Lysosomal Compartments of Dendritic Cells Is Regulated by Inflammatory Stimuli  

PubMed Central

During their final differentiation or maturation, dendritic cells (DCs) redistribute their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II products from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. Using cells arrested in the immature state, we now find that DCs also regulate the initial intracellular formation of immunogenic MHC class II–peptide complexes. Immature DCs internalize the protein antigen, hen egg lysozyme (HEL), into late endosomes and lysosomes rich in MHC class II molecules. There, despite extensive colocalization of HEL protein and MHC class II products, MHC class II–peptide complexes do not form unless the DCs are exposed to inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor ?, CD40 ligand, or lipoplolysaccharide. The control of T cell receptor (TCR) ligand formation was observed using the C4H3 monoclonal antibody to detect MHC class II–HEL peptide complexes by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, and with HEL-specific 3A9 transgenic T cells to detect downregulation of the TCR upon MHC–peptide encounter. Even the binding of preprocessed HEL peptide to MHC class II is blocked in immature DCs, including the formation of C4H3 epitope in MHC class II compartments, suggesting an arrest to antigen presentation at the peptide-loading step, rather than an enhanced degradation of MHC class II–peptide complexes at the cell surface, as described in previous work. Therefore, the capacity of late endosomes and lysosomes to produce MHC class II–peptide complexes can be strictly controlled during DC differentiation, helping to coordinate antigen acquisition and inflammatory stimuli with formation of TCR ligands. The increased ability of maturing DCs to load MHC class II molecules with antigenic cargo contributes to the >100-fold enhancement of the subsequent primary immune response observed when immature and mature DCs are compared as immune adjuvants in culture and in mice. PMID:10727455

Inaba, Kayo; Turley, Shannon; Iyoda, Tomonori; Yamaide, Fumiya; Shimoyama, Susumu; e Sousa, Caetano Reis; Germain, Ronald N.; Mellman, Ira; Steinman, Ralph M.

2000-01-01

422

Measurement of brain compartment volumes from MRI data using region growing and mixed-volume methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI data were collected from normal control subjects and from patients having AIDS or closed head injury (CHI). Both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were collected; in some cases transverse images were made, while in others coronal images were collected. The images were analyzed in three ways, each of which determined white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and CSF volume, and the results were compared. Segmentation by interactive threshold selection or manual outlining is still the most commonly used method for compartment volume analysis. This method was applied to the control and AIDS brains, with repetition by two trained observers. These results were compared with those from a second method in which each voxel is viewed statistically as a mixture of whichever two compartments are closest at that anatomical location. Automatic thresholding, followed by regional skeletonization, is used to identify a small set of pixels in each slice that represent the central portion of each of the three regions of interest. All pixels in the slice are then subjected to an interpolation procedure in which their fractional composition is determined from these three intensity values. The intensities from the T1-weighted images show contrast between GM, WM, and CSF, and these are used for the volume computation. Geometric information from the T2-weighted image is used for the location of the authentic compartment locations, as these images show strong contrast between the CSF and the skull. The third method studied is based on a three-dimensional region-growing algorithm that estimates each volume compartment by growing a volume from a seed point, limiting the growth based on spatial and feature criteria. The feature bounds are set restrictively so that GM, WM, and CSF regions are not contiguous, leaving a volume of mixed voxels between the regions. The distributions of intensities in each region are then used to interpolate the most likely composition of the unassigned voxels, so that volume mixing is assumed only in the spaces between the assigned regions. This method is quite robust, requiring little operator judgement. The volumes obtained by these methods are not substantially different, and the methods differ primarily with respect to interoperator variability and convenience of use. The third method also differs from the others in that it treats the set of slices as a single 3-dimensional data set, making better use of regional information. All methods reveal significant changes in brain compartment volume in cases of CNS pathology.

Hillman, Gilbert R.; Kent, T. A.; Agris, Jacob M.

1992-02-01

423

Block rotation: implementation and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual media processing is becoming increasingly important because of the wide variety of image and video based applications. Block rotation is an important operation in different image/video processing tasks such as graphics, fractal processing, pattern matching and image registration. Remote sensing, medical imaging, computer vision, computer graphics, and video coding are typical applications of digital image rotation. However, a hardware implementation of the block rotation algorithm has not been realized and software implementation is slow. Hence, they are not suitable for real- time execution. In this paper, we propose a novel method for block rotation, which is fast and suitable for hardware implementation. The algorithm employs area based interpolation. Experimental results have shown the performance enhancement compared to classical interpolation algorithms at a similar level of complexity.

Fatemi, Omid; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

1997-09-01

424

Projectors, shadows, and conformal blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d-dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the "embedding space" d+1,1. Taking care with their analytic structure, these integrals can be evaluated in great generality, reducing the computation of conformal blocks to a bookkeeping exercise. To facilitate calculations in four-dimensional CFTs, we introduce techniques for writing down conformally-invariant correlators using auxiliary twistor variables, and demonstrate their use in some simple examples.

Simmons-Duffin, David

2014-04-01

425

Tharsis block tectonics on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of block tectonics provides a framework for understanding many aspects of Tharsis and adjoining structures. This Tharsis block tectonics on Mars is manifested partly by mantle-related doming and partly by response to loading by subsequent volcanic construction. Although the origin of the volcanism from beneath Tharsis is a subject of controversy explanations have to include inhomogeneities in Martian internal structure, energy distribution, magma accumulation and motion below the lithosphere. Thermal convection can be seen as a necessary consequence for transient initial phase of Martian cooling. This produced part of the elevated topography with tensional stresses and graben systems radial to the main bulge. The linear grabens, radial to the Tharsis center, can be interpreted to indicate rift zones that define the crustal block boundaries. The load-induced stresses may then have contributed on further graben and ridge formation over an extended period of time.

Raitala, Jouko T.

1988-01-01

426

Automatic blocking of nested loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

1990-01-01

427

Unit Blocks: A Curriculum for Early Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers can use unit blocks as tools for directed learning activities, or blocks can be reserved for children's discovery learning experiences. To use unit blocks for discovery learning, children need adequate, protected space and sufficient, uninterrupted time. Given opportunities for free play with unit blocks, children progress through seven…

Banta, Mary Ann

428

State estimation using augmented blocked matrices  

SciTech Connect

Blocked structures of the augmented matrix of power system sate estimation are studied and it is shown that there are advantages in blocking according to a nodal formulation. The topological and computational properties of three blocking alternatives are studied and their numerical condition numbers compared. Recommendations are given for developing software for the proposed nodal blocking formulation.

Alvarado, F.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (US)); Tinney, W.F.

1990-08-01

429

76 FR 63823 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane Pilot-Compartment View...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice No. 25-449-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane Pilot-Compartment View...SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 airplane. This airplane will...

2011-10-14

430

77 FR 5990 - Special Conditions: Learjet Inc., Model LJ-200-1A10 Airplane, Pilot-Compartment View Through...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...incorporates a hydrophobic windshield coating to provide, during precipitation...compartment. Sole reliance on such a coating, without windshield wipers... . Hydrophobic windshield coatings may depend to some degree on...low-speed flight or during surface operations....

2012-02-07

431

76 FR 63851 - Special Conditions: Learjet Inc., Model LJ-200-1A10 Airplane, Pilot-Compartment View Through...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...incorporates a hydrophobic windshield coating to provide, during precipitation...compartment. Sole reliance on such a coating, without windshield wipers... . Hydrophobic windshield coatings may depend to some degree on...low-speed flight or during surface operations....

2011-10-14

432

Epiphyton as a Niche for Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria: Detailed Comparison with Benthic and Pelagic Compartments in Shallow Freshwater Lakes?  

PubMed Central

Next to the benthic and pelagic compartments, the epiphyton of submerged macrophytes may offer an additional niche for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in shallow freshwater lakes. In this study, we explored the potential activities and community compositions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the epiphytic, benthic, and pelagic compartments of seven shallow freshwater lakes which differed in their trophic status, distribution of submerged macrophytes, and restoration history. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses demonstrated that the epiphytic compartment was inhabited by species belonging to cluster 3 of the Nitrosospira lineage and to the Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage. Both the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community compositions and the potential activities differed significantly between compartments. Interestingly, both the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community composition and potential activity were influenced by the restoration status of the different lakes investigated. PMID:18263748

Coci, M.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Laanbroek, H. J.

2008-01-01

433

Analyzing the influence exerted by individual components of wetness losses on the efficiency of steam turbine stage and compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence exerted by dispersed moisture on the economic efficiency of steam turbine stages and compartments operating in the wet steam region is analyzed. A procedure for generalizing experimental data is proposed that was used for analyzing the previously published results of experiments on determining the influence of different loss components on the efficiency of steam turbine stages and compartments. The influence of coarsely dispersed moisture on the turbine efficiency indicators is shown.

Filippov, G. A.; Gribin, V. G.; Avetisyan, A. R.; Lisyanskii, A. S.

2015-01-01

434

Two-compartment model of inner medullary vasculature supports dual modes of vasopressin-regulated inner medullary blood flow  

PubMed Central

The outer zone of the renal inner medulla (IM) is spatially partitioned into two distinct interstitial compartments in the transverse dimension. In one compartment (the intercluster region), collecting ducts (CDs) are absent and vascular bundles are present. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) that lie within and ascend through the intercluster region (intercluster AVR are designated AVR2) participate with descending vasa recta (DVR) in classic countercurrent exchange. Direct evidence from former studies suggests that vasopressin binds to V1 receptors on smooth muscle-like pericytes that regulate vessel diameter and blood flow rate in DVR in this compartment. In a second transverse compartment (the intracluster region), DVR are absent and CDs and AVR are present. Many AVR of the intracluster compartment exhibit multiple branching, with formation of many short interconnecting segments (intracluster AVR are designated AVR1). AVR1 are linked together and connect intercluster DVR to AVR2 by way of sparse networks. Vasopressin V2 receptors regulate multiple fluid and solute transport pathways in CDs in the intracluster compartment. Reabsorbate from IMCDs, ascending thin limbs, and prebend segments passes into AVR1 and is conveyed either upward toward DVR and AVR2 of the intercluster region, or is retained within the intracluster region and is conveyed toward higher levels of the intracluster region. Thus variable rates of fluid reabsorption by CDs potentially lead to variable blood flow rates in either compartment. Net flow between the two transverse compartments would be dependent on the degree of structural and functional coupling between intracluster vessels and intercluster vessels. In the outermost IM, AVR1 pass directly from the IM to the outer medulla, bypassing vascular bundles, the primary blood outflow route. Therefore, two defined vascular pathways exist for fluid outflow from the IM. Compartmental partitioning of V1 and V2 receptors may underlie vasopressin-regulated functional compartmentation of IM blood flow. PMID:20392799

Kim, Julie

2010-01-01

435

Two-compartment model of inner medullary vasculature supports dual modes of vasopressin-regulated inner medullary blood flow.  

PubMed

The outer zone of the renal inner medulla (IM) is spatially partitioned into two distinct interstitial compartments in the transverse dimension. In one compartment (the intercluster region), collecting ducts (CDs) are absent and vascular bundles are present. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) that lie within and ascend through the intercluster region (intercluster AVR are designated AVR(2)) participate with descending vasa recta (DVR) in classic countercurrent exchange. Direct evidence from former studies suggests that vasopressin binds to V1 receptors on smooth muscle-like pericytes that regulate vessel diameter and blood flow rate in DVR in this compartment. In a second transverse compartment (the intracluster region), DVR are absent and CDs and AVR are present. Many AVR of the intracluster compartment exhibit multiple branching, with formation of many short interconnecting segments (intracluster AVR are designated AVR(1)). AVR(1) are linked together and connect intercluster DVR to AVR(2) by way of sparse networks. Vasopressin V2 receptors regulate multiple fluid and solute transport pathways in CDs in the intracluster compartment. Reabsorbate from IMCDs, ascending thin limbs, and prebend segments passes into AVR(1) and is conveyed either upward toward DVR and AVR(2) of the intercluster region, or is retained within the intracluster region and is conveyed toward higher levels of the intracluster region. Thus variable rates of fluid reabsorption by CDs potentially lead to variable blood flow rates in either compartment. Net flow between the two transverse compartments would be dependent on the degree of structural and functional coupling between intracluster vessels and intercluster vessels. In the outermost IM, AVR(1) pass directly from the IM to the outer medulla, bypassing vascular bundles, the primary blood outflow route. Therefore, two defined vascular pathways exist for fluid outflow from the IM. Compartmental partitioning of V1 and V2 receptors may underlie vasopressin-regulated functional compartmentation of IM blood flow. PMID:20392799

Kim, Julie; Pannabecker, Thomas L

2010-07-01

436

Results from the International Conference of Experts on Intra-abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. I. Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have been increasingly recognized in the critically ill over the past decade. The variety of definitions proposed has led to confusion and difficulty in comparing one study to another.Design  An international consensus group of critical care specialists convened at the second World Congress on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome to standardize definitions for IAH and

Manu L. N. G. Malbrain; Michael L. Cheatham; Andrew Kirkpatrick; Michael Sugrue; Michael Parr; Jan De Waele; Zsolt Balogh; Ari Leppäniemi; Claudia Olvera; Rao Ivatury; Scott D’Amours; Julia Wendon; Ken Hillman; Kenth Johansson; Karel Kolkman; Alexander Wilmer

2006-01-01

437

Percent body fat estimations in college women using field and laboratory methods: a three-compartment model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Methods used to estimate percent body fat can be classified as a laboratory or field technique. However, the validity of these methods compared to multiple-compartment models has not been fully established. This investigation sought to determine the validity of field and laboratory methods for estimating percent fat (%fat) in healthy college-age women compared to the Siri three-compartment model (3C).

Jordan R Moon; Holly R Hull; Sarah E Tobkin; Masaru Teramoto; Murat Karabulut; Michael D Roberts; Eric D Ryan; So Jung Kim; Vincent J Dalbo; Ashley A Walter; Abbie T Smith; Joel T Cramer; Jeffrey R Stout

2007-01-01

438

Block Scheduling: Three Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a followup study of teacher perceptions regarding block scheduling. The original study was done in 1996 at a small city high school in a predominantly rural county in Ohio. At that time, lack of communication was found to be the central theme in the resistance that emerged. This paper is based on data from written responses to open-ended…

Corley, Edward L.

439

GCC BSC Set Block Net  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Setting block net across an intertidal rivulet draining a hurricane-derived mudflat.  Net is retrieved at low tide to obtain an estimate of fish catch.  Fish density was found to be greater in waters draining natural tidal forests than in waters from mudflats formed as a result of landfall of a Cate...

440

Block Scheduling: Pathways to Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Block scheduling and intensive or extended-time scheduling have been appearing in high schools across the United States. This guidebook is designed to help each school find the best route to achieve this organizational change. The book's premise is that structural change in schools is not sufficient to create meaningful educational improvement.…

Adams, Don C.; Salvaterra, Mary E.

441

Block cache for embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

On chip memories provide fast and energy efficient storage for code and data in comparison to caches or external memories. We present techniques and algorithms that allow for an automated use of on chip memory for code blocks of instruc- tions which are dynamically scheduled at runtime to increase per- formance and reduce power consumption. I INTRODUCTION AND RELATED WORK

Dominic Hillenbrand; Jörg Henkel

2008-01-01

442

Building Blocks for Personal Brands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

2011-01-01

443

Blocking in Human Electrodermal Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associative blocking in human conditioning was investigated using electrodermal and self-reported US expectancy measures. Previous null results using a design reported by Lovibond, Siddle, and Bond (1988) suggested that a clearly demarcated phase structure and visual cues with semantic content may have distracted attention from the experimental contingencies. Therefore the current experiment intermixed pre-training and compound training trials and masked

John Hinchy; Peter F. Lovibond; Kim M. Ter-Horst

1995-01-01

444

Block copolymers in tomorrow's plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this era of portability and rapid technological advances, polymers are more than ever under pressure to be cheap and offer tailored property profiles. Often, the key lies in designing blends and alloys carefully structured at the appropriate scale (preferably less than a micrometre) from existing polymers. Block copolymers - two or more different polymer chains linked together - have

Anne-Valérie Ruzette; Ludwik Leibler

2005-01-01

445

Accurate noninvasive measurement of cell size and compartment shape anisotropy in yeast cells using double-PFG MR  

PubMed Central

Accurately characterizing pore morphology is of great interest in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Conventional single-Pulsed-Field-Gradient (s-PFG) diffusion MR can yield compartmental size and shape only when compartments are coherently ordered using the q-space approaches that necessitate strong gradients. However, the double-PFG (d-PFG) methodology can provide novel microstructural information even when specimens are characterized by polydispersity in size and in shape, and even when anisotropic compartments are randomly oriented. In this study, for the first time, we show that angular d-PFG experiments can be used to accurately measure cellular size and shape anisotropy of fixed yeast cells using relatively weak gradients. The cell size, as measured by light microscopy was found to be 5.32±0.83 ?m, while the results from the non-invasive angular d-PFG experiments yielded a cell size of 5.46±0.45 ?m. Moreover, the low shape anisotropy of the cells could be inferred from experiments conducted at long mixing times. Finally, similar experiments were conducted in a phantom comprised of anisotropic compartments that were randomly oriented, showing that angular d-PFG MR provides novel information on compartment eccentricity that could not be accessed using conventional methods. The angular d-PFG methodology seems promising for accurate estimation of compartment size and compartment shape anisotropy in heterogeneous systems in general and biological cells and tissues in particular. PMID:21786354

Shemesh, Noam; Özarslan, Evren; Basser, Peter J; Cohen, Yoram

2011-01-01

446

Developmental Dynamics of Radial Vulnerability in the Cerebral Compartments in Preterm Infants and Neonates  

PubMed Central

The developmental vulnerability of different classes of axonal pathways in preterm white matter is not known. We propose that laminar compartments of the developing cerebral wall serve as spatial framework for axonal growth and evaluate potential of anatomical landmarks for understanding reorganization of the cerebral wall after perinatal lesions. The 3-T MRI (in vivo) and histological analysis were performed in a series of cases ranging from 22 postconceptional weeks to 3?years. For the follow-up scans, three groups of children (control, normotypic, and preterms with lesions) were examined at the term equivalent age and after the first year of life. MRI and histological abnormalities were analyzed in the following compartments: (a) periventricular, with periventricular fiber system; (b) intermediate, with periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata, and centrum semiovale; (c) superficial, composed of gyral white matter, subplate, and cortical plate. Vulnerability of thalamocortical pathways within the crossroads and sagittal strata seems to be characteristic for early preterms, while vulnerability of long association pathways in the centrum semiovale seems to be predominant feature of late preterms. The structural indicator of the lesion of the long association pathways is the loss of delineation between centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, which is possible substrate of the diffuse periventricular leukomalacia. The enhanced difference in MR signal intensity of centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, observed in damaged children after first year, we interpret as structural plasticity of intact short cortico-cortical fibers, which grow postnatally through U-zones and enter the cortex through the subplate remnant. Our findings indicate that radial distribution of MRI signal abnormalities in the cerebral compartments may be related to lesion of different classes of axonal pathways and have prognostic value for predicting the likely outcome of prenatal and perinatal lesions. PMID:25120530

Kostovi?, Ivica; Kostovi?-Srzenti?, Mirna; Benjak, Vesna; Jovanov-Miloševi?, Nataša; Radoš, Milan

2014-01-01

447

Lower extremity compartment syndrome in the acute care surgery paradigm: safety lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Background Prompt diagnosis and decompression of acute lower extremity compartment syndrome (LECS) in the multisystem injured patient is essential to avoid the devastating complications of progressive tissue necrosis and amputation. Despite collaborative trauma and orthopedic management of these difficult cases, significant delays in diagnosis and treatment occur. Periodic system review of our trauma and orthopedic data for complications of LECS led us to hypothesize that delayed diagnosis and limb loss were potentially preventable events in our trauma center. Setting Academic level 1 trauma center. Methods We performed a prospective review of our trauma registry for all cases of LECS over a 7 year period (2/98–10/2005). Variables reviewed included demographics, injury patterns, tissue necrosis, amputation and mortality. Results Eighty-three (10 female, 73 male) cases were reviewed. Mean age = 33.3 years (range 1–78). Mean ISS = 19.4, GCS = 12.5. Five (6.0%) had amputations; 7 (8.4%) died. Fractures occurred in 68.7% (n = 57), and vascular injuries were present in 38.6% (n = 32). In 7 patients (8.4%), a delayed compartment release resulted in muscle necrosis requiring multiple debridements, subsequent wound closure problems, and long term disability. Of note, none of these patients had prior compartment pressure measurements. Furthermore, 6 patients (7%) had superficial peroneal nerve transections as complications of their fasciotomy. Conclusion In the multisystem injured patient, LECS remains a major diagnostic and treatment challenge with significant risks of limb loss as well as complications from decompressive fasciotomy. These data underscore the importance of routine surveillance for LECS. In addition, a thorough knowledge of regional anatomy is essential to avoid technical morbidity. PMID:19527510

Kashuk, Jeffry L; Moore, Ernest E; Pinski, Sarah; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Moore, John B; Morgan, Steven; Cothren, Clay C; Smith, Wade

2009-01-01

448

Developmental dynamics of radial vulnerability in the cerebral compartments in preterm infants and neonates.  

PubMed

The developmental vulnerability of different classes of axonal pathways in preterm white matter is not known. We propose that laminar compartments of the developing cerebral wall serve as spatial framework for axonal growth and evaluate potential of anatomical landmarks for understanding reorganization of the cerebral wall after perinatal lesions. The 3-T MRI (in vivo) and histological analysis were performed in a series of cases ranging from 22 postconceptional weeks to 3?years. For the follow-up scans, three groups of children (control, normotypic, and preterms with lesions) were examined at the term equivalent age and after the first year of life. MRI and histological abnormalities were analyzed in the following compartments: (a) periventricular, with periventricular fiber system; (b) intermediate, with periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata, and centrum semiovale; (c) superficial, composed of gyral white matter, subplate, and cortical plate. Vulnerability of thalamocortical pathways within the crossroads and sagittal strata seems to be characteristic for early preterms, while vulnerability of long association pathways in the centrum semiovale seems to be predominant feature of late preterms. The structural indicator of the lesion of the long association pathways is the loss of delineation between centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, which is possible substrate of the diffuse periventricular leukomalacia. The enhanced difference in MR signal intensity of centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, observed in damaged children after first year, we interpret as structural plasticity of intact short cortico-cortical fibers, which grow postnatally through U-zones and enter the cortex through the subplate remnant. Our findings indicate that radial distribution of MRI signal abnormalities in the cerebral compartments may be related to lesion of different classes of axonal pathways and have prognostic value for predicting the likely outcome of prenatal and perinatal lesions. PMID:25120530

Kostovi?, Ivica; Kostovi?-Srzenti?, Mirna; Benjak, Vesna; Jovanov-Miloševi?, Nataša; Radoš, Milan

2014-01-01

449

Basal Ganglia Disorders Associated with Imbalances in the Striatal Striosome and Matrix Compartments  

PubMed Central

The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny striatal projection neurons (MSNs) that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles, and input–output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include (1) those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, (2) those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and (3) those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input–output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia, and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in these disorders. PMID:21941467

Crittenden, Jill R.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2011-01-01

450

Blood volume and body fluid compartments in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts.  

PubMed Central

A left-to-right shunt is accompanied by an increased plasma and blood volume. Since this is likely realized through renin/aldosterone-mediated salt and water retention, other body fluid compartments may be changed too. Therefore, we studied blood volume and body fluid compartments by a single-injection, triple-indicator dilution technique in nine 8-wk-old lambs with an aortopulmonary left-to-right shunt (55 +/- 3% of left ventricular output; mean +/- SEM) and in 11 control lambs, 2.5 wk after surgery. Systemic blood flow was maintained at the same level as in control lambs, but the aortic pressure of the shunt lambs was lower. Blood volume in shunt lambs was larger than in control lambs (110 +/- 6 vs. 84 +/- 7 ml/kg, P < 0.001) through an increase in plasma volume, which correlated significantly with the magnitude of the left-to-right shunt (r = 0.81, P < 0.01). Red blood cell volume was equal to that of control lambs. Evidence was obtained that the increase in plasma volume was induced by a transient increase in renin (8.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol.l-1.h-1; P < 0.02) and aldosterone (0.51 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.09 nmol/liter) concentrations. Interstitial water volume, however, was not significantly different from that in control lambs. The amount of intravascular protein was significantly higher than in control lambs (5.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.2 g/kg body mass, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in intracellular and total body water volumes between the two groups. We conclude that the increased amount of intravascular protein confines the fluid retained by the kidneys to the vascular compartment. PMID:1430202

Gratama, J W; Dalinghaus, M; Meuzelaar, J J; Gerding, A M; Koers, J H; Zijlstra, W G; Kuipers, J R

1992-01-01

451

Successful interventional management of abdominal compartment syndrome caused by blunt liver injury with hemorrhagic diathesis  

PubMed Central

We report that a case of primary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), caused by blunt liver injury under the oral anticoagulation therapy, was successfully treated. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was initially selected, and the bleeding point of hepatic artery was embolized with N-Butyl Cyanoacylate (NBCA). Secondary, percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) was performed for massive hemoperitoneum. There are some reports of ACS treated with TAE. However, combination treatment of TAE with NBCA and PCD for ACS has not been reported. Even low invasive interventional procedures may improve primary ACS if the patient has hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy discouraging surgeon from laparotomy. PMID:24656215

2014-01-01

452

A hybrid multi-compartment model of granuloma formation and T cell priming in Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a worldwide health problem with 2 billion people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the bacteria causing TB). The hallmark of infection is the emergence of organized structures of immune cells forming primarily in the lung in response to infection. Granulomas physically contain and immunologically restrain bacteria that cannot be cleared. We have developed several models that spatially characterize the dynamics of the host–mycobacterial interaction, and identified mechanisms that control granuloma formation and development. In particular, we published several agent-based models (ABMs) of granuloma formation in TB that include many subtypes of T cell populations, macrophages as well as key cytokine and chemokine effector molecules. These ABM studies emphasize the important role of T-cell related mechanisms in infection progression, such as magnitude and timing of T cell recruitment, and macrophage activation. In these models, the priming and recruitment of T cells from the lung draining lymph node (LN) was captured phenomenologically. In addition to these ABM studies, we have also developed several multi-organ models using ODEs to examine trafficking of cells between, for example, the lung and LN. While we can predict temporal dynamic behaviors, those models are not coupled to the spatial aspects of granuloma. To this end, we have developed a multi-organ model that is hybrid: an ABM for the lung compartment and a non-linear system of ODE representing the lymph node compartment. This hybrid multi-organ approach to study TB granuloma formation in the lung and immune priming in the LN allows us to dissect protective mechanisms that cannot be achieved using the single compartment or multi-compartment ODE system. The main finding of this work is that trafficking of important cells known as antigen presenting cells from the lung to the lymph node is a key control mechanism for protective immunity: the entire spectrum of infection outcomes can be regulated by key immune cell migration rates. Our hybrid multiorgan implementation suggests that effector CD4+ T cells can rescue the system from a persistent infection and lead to clearance once a granuloma is fully formed. This could be effective as an immunotherapy strategy for latently infected individuals. PMID:21443879

Marino, Simeone; El-Kebir, Mohammed; Kirschner, Denise

2013-01-01

453

Community structure at two compartments of a disturbed mangrove forests at Pulau Langkawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on floristic composition and estimation of above ground biomass of trees was carried out in two areas of disturbed mangroves at Kisap Forest Reserve, Pulau Langkawi. Two compartments that were selected was based on the different types of disturbances, i.e. compartment 5 (C5) was disrupted by human harvesting activities of mangrove trees for charcoal production, while compartment 7 (C7) was naturally disturbed from lightning strikes. In C5, a total of 1,217 trees measuring 1 cm DBH and above were enumerated in the plots of 0.25 ha which included 7 species and 5 genera in 3 families, i.e. Rhizophoraceae, Meliaceae and Avicenniaceae. In C7, a total of 390 individual trees of 8 species, 5 genera and 3 families were recorded. The three families recorded in C7 were also common in C5. Rhizophoraceae was recorded as the family with highest density in both compartments. Ceriops tagal had the highest density in C5, while Rhizophora apiculata was the most prominent species in the C7. Total basal area that represents tree coverage showed C5 had a value of 7.767 m2/ha with C. tagal as the major contributor at 5.022m2/ha. Total coverage in C7 was 18.184 m2/ha that was mostly contributed by R. apiculata at 11.135 m2/ha. Ceriops tagal (22.41 t/ha) and R. apiculata (111.75 t/ha), were the main contributors to the total biomass in C5 (37.34 t/ha) and C7 (162.29 t/ha), respectively. The distribution of individuals of six tree size classes in C7 was homogenous compared to that of C5, which had more saplings. In this study, the total biomass indicated that anthropogenic activities resulted in lower productivity of forest compared to natural disturbance. Therefore, conservation efforts of mangrove forest should be enhance in the management of mangrove forest in Pulau Langkawi.

Norilani, W. I. Wan; Juliana, W. A. Wan; Salam, Muhamad Razali; Latiff, A.

2014-09-01

454

Influence of benzene on the phytoplankton and on Daphnia pulex in compartments of an experimental pond  

SciTech Connect

Benzene, with initial concentrations of 100 and 50 mg per liter, was dosed in duplicates into four compartments of a small pond. The decrease of chemical concentration in the water was exponential with a mean half-life of 4.7 +/- 0.9 days. Following benzene application, the phytoplankton density and diversity slightly increased relative to the controls. Both concentrations were lethal for the daphnids present. During 24-hr in vitro tests with Daphnia pulex (initial benzene concentrations less than 50 mg per liter), a direct correlation between mobility and decreasing chemical concentration was observed.

Lay, J.P.; Schauerte, W.; Peichl, L.; Klein, W.; Korte, F.

1985-10-01

455

A rare reason of abdominal compartment syndrome: non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is characterized by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which affects all body systems. In healthy individuals, normal intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is <5 to 7 mmHg. The upper limit of IAP is generally accepted to be 12 mmHg. ACS has been classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary subtypes. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a rare reason for ACS. We report here one case of NHL as a primary retroperitoneal mass in an 80-year-old male patient who presented with IAH. PMID:23091797

Temizgönül, Kaplan Baha; Köne?, Osman; Al??, Halil

2012-01-01

456

Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

This United States Department of Energy (DOE) research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. A field study integrating the disciplines of geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering will be the mechanism for documenting the integrated approach. This is an area of keen interest to the oil and gas industry. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field.

Kirk, C.W. Van; Thompson, R.S.

1995-10-27

457

Schistosomiasis japonica during pregnancy is associated with elevated endotoxin levels in maternal and placental compartments.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis affects approximately 40 million women of reproductive age and has been linked to elevated levels of circulating endotoxin in nonpregnant individuals. We have evaluated endotoxin levels in maternal, placental, and newborn blood collected from women residing in Leyte, Philippines. Endotoxin levels in both maternal and placental compartments in pregnant women with schistosomiasis were 1.3- and 2.4-fold higher, respectively, than in uninfected women. In addition, higher concentrations of endotoxin in placental blood were associated with premature birth, acute chorioamnionitis, and elevated proinflammatory cytokines. By promoting endotoxemia, schistosomiasis may exert additional, maladaptive influences on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23964108

McDonald, Emily A; Pond-Tor, Sunthorn; Jarilla, Blanca; Sagliba, Marianne J; Gonzal, Annaliza; Amoylen, Amabelle J; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Gundogan, Fusun; Ganley-Leal, Lisa M; Kurtis, Jonathan D; Friedman, Jennifer F

2014-02-01

458

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome and intra-abdominal compartment syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are common, occurring in about 50% of cases. They are usually mild, in the form of mouth ulcers, nausea, heartburn and mild abdominal pain, but they can be severe in cases of gastrointestinal vasculitis. In this report we describe an unusual combination of SLE complications, namely superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) and reversible acute obstructive renal failure. This was attributed to raised intra-abdominal pressure and hence intra-abdominal compartment syndrome (IACS) following weight loss secondary to an acute presentation of SLE with gastrointestinal vasculitis. PMID:24335010

Bedaiwi, M; Alkubeyyer, M A; Al Arfaj, A S

2014-02-01

459

Hip Arthroscopic Portal Bridge Retraction Technique for Improved Peripheral Compartment Visualization  

PubMed Central

Hip arthroscopy has been shown to be an effective technique in managing an increasingly widening set of indications for hip pathology. In any arthroscopic procedure, obtaining good visualization is one of the most critical components to performing a successful operation. Whereas other authors have described various techniques for improving visualization, we describe an additional simple but effective technique in this report. We describe the use of a retracting suture bridge between portal sites that allows for improved visualization of the peripheral compartment in hip arthroscopy, as well as other arthroscopic procedures. PMID:25264511

McGrath, Brian E.; Kuechle, Joseph B.

2014-01-01

460

Water Metabolism and Fluid Compartment Volumes in Humans at Altitude. A Compendium of Research (1914 - 1996)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This compendium includes abstracts and synopses of clinical observations and of more basic studies involving physiological mechanisms concerning interaction of water metabolism and fluid compartment volumes in humans during altitude exposure. If the author's abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In other cases a more detailed synopsis of the paper was prepared under the subheadings Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Author and subject indices are provided, plus an additional selected bibliography of related work of those papers received after the volume was being prepared for publication. This volume includes material published from 1914 through 1995.

Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Gay, E.; West, G. I.; Barnes, P. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1997-01-01

461

Congenital agenesis of the superficial posterior compartment calf muscles in a 13-month-old infant.  

PubMed

Muscle agenesis may induce cosmetic and functional deficits, particularly if the muscle is an axial limb or a large muscle. Limb muscle agenesis is a rare condition. Here, the authors report the case of a 13-mo-old girl with unilateral atrophic calf and gait abnormality. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed agenesis of the posterior superficial compartment of the calf. The patient showed an out-toeing calcaneal gait and fibular length discrepancy secondarily during growth. Normal embryology and the differential diagnostic point of foot deformity as well as the clinical implications of calf agenesis are described. PMID:25133621

Kang, Jin Young; Jang, Dae-Hyun

2014-11-01

462

Surgical Release of the First Extensor Compartment for Refractory de Quervain's Tenosynovitis: Surgical Findings and Functional Evaluation Using DASH Scores  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have evaluated surgical outcomes in patients with refractory de Quervain's disease using validated outcome measures. We assessed the clinical outcomes of dorsal release of the first extensor compartment for the treatment of de Quervain's disease using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score. Methods From October 2003 to May 2009, we retrospectively evaluated 33 patients (3 men and 30 women) who underwent surgical treatment for de Quervain's disease. All patients had a positive Finkelstein test and localized tenderness over the first dorsal compartment. All operations were performed under local anesthesia. A 2-cm-long transverse skin incision was made over the first extensor compartment and the dorsal retinaculum covering the extensor pollicis brevis was incised longitudinally. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation included the use of DASH score, Finkelstein test, and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results In 18 patients (55%), the extensor pollicis brevis tendon compartment was separated from the abductor pollicis longus compartment. Eight patients had intracompartmental ganglia in the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. All patients except one had negative sign on Finkelstein test at the last follow-up. The average VAS score decreased from 7.42 preoperatively to 1.33 postoperatively (p < 0.05), and DASH score was improved from 53.2 to 3.45 (p < 0.05). There were no postoperative complications such as subluxation of the tendon of the first dorsal compartment or injury to the sensory branch of the radial nerve. Conclusions Intracompartment ganglia and the separate septum of extensor pollicis brevis are often related to de Quervain's disease. The release of the first extensor compartment for refractory de Quervain's disease resulted in good clinical outcomes with minimal morbidity. PMID:25436064

Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Aminata, Iman Widya; Hong, Han-Pyo; Yoon, Jong-Pil

2014-01-01

463

block copolymer - hexagonal cylinder phase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A system of 800 building blocks of composition A5B5 at a concentration of 0.85, was run starting at a temperature of infinite then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of chiN = 57.9. The system was then run for ~ 3x10^6 time steps forming a cylindrical phase. Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Model: United Atom Bead Spring with Lennard-Jones and FENE

Horsch, Mark

2004-11-22

464

Solid Rock to Building Block  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students continue their pyramid building journey, acting as engineers to determine the appropriate wedge tool to best extract rock from a quarry and cut into pyramid blocks. Using sample materials (wax, soap, clay, foam) representing rock types that might be found in a quarry, they test a variety of wedges made from different materials and with different degrees of sharpness to determine which is most effective at cutting each type of material.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

465

Liquid-blocking check valve  

DOEpatents

A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

Merrill, J.T.

1982-09-27

466

Compact planar microwave blocking filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

467

Block Copolymers with a Twist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiral block copolymers (BCPs*) comprising chiral entities were designed to fabricate helical architectures (i.e., twisted morphologies) from self-assembly. A new helical phase (H*) with P622 symmetry was discovered in the self-assembly of poly(styrene)-b-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA) BCPs*. Hexagonally packed, interdigitated PLLA helical microdomains in a PS matrix were directly visualized by electron tomography. The phase diagram of the PS-PLLA BCPs* was also

Rong-Ming Ho; Yeo-Wan Chiang; Chun-Ku Chen; Hsin-Wei Wang; Hirokazu Hasegawa; Satoshi Akasaka; Edwin L. Thomas; Christian Burger; Benjamin S. Hsiao

2009-01-01

468

Dynamics of HIV-containing compartments in macrophages reveal sequestration of virions and transient surface connections.  

PubMed

During HIV pathogenesis, infected macrophages behave as "viral reservoirs" that accumulate and retain virions within dedicated internal Virus-Containing Compartments (VCCs). The nature of VCCs remains ill characterized and controversial. Using wild-type HIV-1 and a replication-competent HIV-1 carrying GFP internal to the Gag precursor, we analyzed the biogenesis and evolution of VCCs in primary human macrophages. VCCs appear roughly 14 hours after viral protein synthesis is detected, initially contain few motile viral particles, and then mature to fill up with virions that become packed and immobile. The amount of intracellular Gag, the proportion of dense VCCs, and the density of viral particles in their lumen increased with time post-infection. In contrast, the secretion of virions, their infectivity and their transmission to T cells decreased overtime, suggesting that HIV-infected macrophages tend to pack and retain newly formed virions into dense compartments. A minor proportion of VCCs remains connected to the plasma membrane overtime. Surprisingly, live cell imaging combined with correlative light and electron microscopy revealed that such connections can be transient, highlighting their dynamic nature. Together, our results shed light on the late phases of the HIV-1 cycle and reveal some of its macrophage specific feat