Sample records for psoas compartment block

  1. Continuous Psoas Compartment Blocks After Major Orthopedic Surgery in Children: A Prospective Computed Tomographic Scan and Clinical Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dadure; O. Raux; P. Gaudard; M. Sagintaah; R. Troncin; A. Rochette; X. Capdevila

    2004-01-01

    Femoral shaft or hip surgeries are very painful for chil- dren. We conducted both computed tomographic (CT) and clinical prospective studies to define new land- marks in children and to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous psoas compartment blocks (CPCBs) using disposable elastomeric pumps. In a preliminary CT scan study of 20 patients, the plexus depth was corre- lated to patient

  2. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments.

    PubMed

    Huber, Matthias C; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally 'program' the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials. PMID:25362355

  3. A Continuous Infusion Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block in Hip Fracture Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dulaney-Cripe, Elizabeth; Hadaway, Scott; Bauman, Ryan; Trame, Cathy; Smith, Carole; Sillaman, Becky; Laughlin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background Hip fractures account for 350,000 fractures annually and the projected incidence is expected to exceed 6.3 million by 2050. As the number of hip fractures continues to increase as a result of the aging American population, the importance of limiting and preventing complications is magnified. Methods This study demonstrated the clinical effects of a continuous fascia iliaca compartment block placed pre-operatively when combined with a comprehensive pain protocol. All patients who presented to our institution with a hip fracture were given the option of having a continuous fascia iliaca compartment block for pain control versus usual pain management (non-opioids, opioids, and ice therapy). The block was monitored by the pain service until the day of discharge from the hospital. Data was collected regarding mean pain scores, average length of stay and opioid medication use. Results There were eighteen males and twenty four females. The pain score on post-operative day zero was reduced from a 2010 annual average of 4.1 to 1.7 in the pilot study group on the visual analog score. On post-operative day one, the 2010 annual average was 2.9 compared to 1.4 in the pilot study group. The length of stay was decreased from the 2010 annual average of 5.9 days to 4.8 days in the pilot study group. The patients used an average of 18mg of morphine equivalent medications during the average infusion time of 40.7 hours. There were no falls or infections noted within our pilot study group. Conclusions Overall, it has been noticed that the reduction in opioid usage in this elderly patient population, with an average age of seventy five years, has produced alert and mobile patients often as early as post-operative day one. The length of stay has decreased along with the average pain score in the pilot sample of forty two patients. Keywords Hip fracture; Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block; Pain Score PMID:22383926

  4. COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURE MISSED BECAUSE OF A LOCAL NERVE BLOCK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N HYDER; S. KESSLER; A. G. JENNINGS; P. G. DE BOER

    1996-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious complication of frac- tures of the tibial shaft and its clinical presentation and eval- uation have been well documented (Holden 1975; Kikuchi, Hasue and Watanabe 1978). The most important diagnostic feature is the presence of inappropriate pain even after stabi- lisation of the fracture by a cast or by external or internal fixation. Pain is

  5. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Kamel A.; Yousuf, Tauqeer

    2014-01-01

    Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations. PMID:25309762

  6. Efficacy of fascia iliaca compartment nerve block as part of multimodal analgesia after surgery for femoral bone fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kumie, Fentahun Tarekegn; Gebremedhn, Endale Gebreegziabher; Tawuye, Hailu Yimer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fascia iliaca compartment nerve block (FICNB) has been an established technique for postoperative analgesia after surgery for femoral bone fracture. FICNB is technically easy, effective for postoperative pain control after operation for femoral bone fracture and decreases the complications induced by systemic analgesic drugs. The severity of postoperative pain is affected by genetics, cultural and social factors across the world. In this study we assessed the efficacy of fascia iliaca compartment nerve block when it is used as part of multimodal analgesia after surgery for femoral bone fracture. METHODS: An institution-based case control study was conducted from September, 2013 to May, 2014. All patients who had been operated on under spinal anesthesia for femoral bone fracture were included. The patients divided into a FICNB group (n=20) and a control group (n=20). The FICNB group was given 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine at the end of the operation. Postoperative pain was assessed within the first 24 hours, i.e. at 15 minutes, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours using 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS), total analgesic consumption, and the time for the first analgesic request. RESULTS: VAS pain scores were reduced within the first 24 hours after operation in the FICNB group compared wtih the control group. VAS scores at 2 hours were taken as median values (IQR) 0.00 (0.00) vs.18.00 (30.00), P=0.001; at 6 hours 0.00 (0.00) vs. 34.00 (20.75), P=0.000; at 24 hours 12.50 (10.00) vs. 31.50 (20.75), P=0.004; and at 12 hours (17.80±12.45) vs. (29.95±12.40), P=0.004, respectively. The total analgesic consumption of diclofenac at 12 and 24 hours was reduced in the FICNB group, and the time for the first analgesic request was significantly prolonged (417.50 vs. 139.25 minutes, P=0.000). CONCLUSIONS: A single injection for FICNB could lead to postoperative pain relief, reduction of total analgesic consumption and prolonged time for the first analgesic request in the FICNB group after surgery for femoral bone fracture. We recommend FICNB for analgesia after surgery for femoral bone fracture and for patients with femoral bone fracture at the emergency department.

  7. Bilateral Psoas Abscess in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Tomich, Eric B.; Della-Giustina, David

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presented multiple times to the emergency department with acute low back pain and was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral psoas muscle abscess. Psoas abscess is an uncommon cause of acute low back pain that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The onset of symptoms is frequently insidious and the clinical presentation vague. Proper diagnosis requires vigilance of the physician to recognize signs in the history and physical examination that are suggestive of a potentially serious spinal condition and initiate further workup. While most patients with acute low back pain have a benign etiology, this case report demonstrates the challenge of diagnosing a patient with bilateral psoas abscess who had few known risk factors and symptoms typical of mechanical low back pain. PMID:20046252

  8. Bilateral psoas abscess in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Tomich, Eric B; Della-Giustina, David

    2009-11-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presented multiple times to the emergency department with acute low back pain and was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral psoas muscle abscess. Psoas abscess is an uncommon cause of acute low back pain that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The onset of symptoms is frequently insidious and the clinical presentation vague. Proper diagnosis requires vigilance of the physician to recognize signs in the history and physical examination that are suggestive of a potentially serious spinal condition and initiate further workup. While most patients with acute low back pain have a benign etiology, this case report demonstrates the challenge of diagnosing a patient with bilateral psoas abscess who had few known risk factors and symptoms typical of mechanical low back pain. PMID:20046252

  9. Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia. Aim: To test the hypothesis that, adding dexamethasone would significantly prolong the duration of Bupivacaine in FICB. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 80 years posted for ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) of fracture femur were included to receive FICB. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind study done at tertiary medical college hospital. Thirty patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml saline and another 30 patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml dexamethasone (8mg). Thirty minutes after FICB, patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anesthesia was recorded. In the post-operative period, duration of analgesia and the total doses of rescue analgesics were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients who received Bupivacaine with dexamethasone had significant prolongation of analgesia and required fewer doses of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone for FICB. However, the onset of analgesia, VAS scores and patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study shows that adding Dexamethasone (8mg) to Bupivacaine for FICB significantly prolonged the duration of block and decreased the requirement of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone. FICB is relatively easy and safe to perform. In our study we did not encounter any complication while doing the procedures and also by adding dexamethasone. PMID:25302209

  10. Fascia iliaca compartment block performed by junior registrars as a supplement to pre-operative analgesia for patients with hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Dremstrup, Lene; Jensen, Steffen Skov; Lindholt, Jes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigate the efficacy of pre-operative pain treatment for patients with hip fractures using fascia lliaca compartment block (FIB) technique performed by junior registrars (JR) as a supplement to conventional pain treatment. The FIB technique has routinely been used pre-operatively in the emergency department since 1 January 2004 for all patients with hip fractures. Over an 8-month period, 187 patients were treated. FIB was performed with 40 ml lidocaine and bubivacaine. A simple 5-step verbal pain score and maximal passive hip flexion was used as objective and subjective pain measurements. Effect of FIB was prospectively assessed on 70 patients: 2/3 females, mean age 80.7 (SD = 7.8), 36% in ASA-group III and IV (95% CI, 0.25–0.48). The median pain-free hip flexion pre-block was 15° (SD = 17) this improved to a median of 28° (SD = 21) 15 min post-block (P = 0.014) and 37° (SD = 26) 60 min post-block (P = 0.030). The median simple verbal pain score (0–4) pre-block was 2.2 (SD = 0.92). This decreased to a median of 1.5 (SD = 0.78) 15 min post-block (P < 0.001) and 1.3 (SD = 0.71) 60 min post-block (P = 0.021). No side-effects were observed. There was no correlation between the number of FIB previously performed by the attending registrar and the improved maximal hip flexion (? = 0.090, P = 0.50) or reduction in subjective pain score (? = 0.005, P = 0.971). FIB performed by JR is a feasible, efficient pre-operative supplement to conventional pain-treatment for patients with hip fractures. FIB is easy to perform, requires minimal introduction, no expensive equipment and is connected with a minimal risk approach. PMID:18762870

  11. Outcome of percutaneous continuous drainage of psoas abscess: A clinically guided technique

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bharat R; Kurupati, Ranganatha Babu; Shah, Dipak; Degulamadi, Devanand; Borgohain, Nitu; Krishnan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous aspiration of abscesses under ultrasonography (USG) and computer tomography (CT) scan has been well described. With recurrence rate reported as high as 66%. The open drainage and percutaneous continuous drainage (PCD) has reduced the recurrence rate. The disadvantage of PCD under CT is radiation hazard and problems of asepsis. Hence a technique of clinically guided percutaneous continuous drainage of the psoas abscess without real-time imaging overcomes these problems. We describe clinically guided PCD of psoas abscess and its outcome. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with dorsolumbar spondylodiscitis without gross neural deficit with psoas abscess of size >5 cm were selected for PCD. It was done as a day care procedure under local anesthesia. Sequentially, aspiration followed by guide pin-guided trocar and catheter insertion was done without image guidance. Culture sensitivity was done and chemotherapy initiated and catheter kept till the drainage was <10 ml for 48 hours. Outcome assessment was done with relief of pain, successful abscess drainage and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) score at 2 years. Results: PCD was successful in all cases. Back and radicular pain improved in all cases. Average procedure time was 24.30 minutes, drain output was 234.40 ml, and the drainage duration was 7.90 days. One patient required surgical stabilisation due to progression of the spondylodiscitis resulting in instability inspite of successful drainage of abscess. Problems with the procedure were noticed in six patients. Multiple attempts (n = 2), persistent discharge (n = 1) for 2 weeks, blocked catheter (n = 2) and catheter pull out (n = 1) occurred with no effect on the outcome. The average ODI score improved from 62.47 to 5.51 at 2 years. Conclusions: Clinically guided PCD is an efficient, safe and easy procedure in drainage of psoas abscess. PMID:24600066

  12. An Easily Overlooked Presentation of Malignant Psoas Abscess: Hip Pain

    PubMed Central

    Askin, Ayhan; Bayram, Korhan Baris; Demirdal, Umit Secil; Korkmaz, Merve Bergin; Gurgan, Alev Demirbilek; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Psoas abscess is a rare infectious disease with nonspecific clinical presentation that frequently causes a diagnostic difficulty. Its insidious onset and occult characteristics can cause diagnostic delays. It is classified as primary or secondary. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly causative pathogen in primary psoas abscess. Secondary psoas abscess usually occurs as a result of underlying diseases. A high index of clinical suspicion, the past and recent history of the patient, and imaging studies can be helpful in diagnosing the disease. The delay of the treatment is related with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, 54-year-old patient with severe hip pain having an abscess in the psoas muscle due to metastatic cervical carcinoma is presented. PMID:25685574

  13. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  14. Anterior Compartment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Y. Deng; Matthew P. Rutman; Larissa V. Rodriguez; Shlomo Raz

    The goal of repair is to restore pelvic anatomic support of the anterior vaginal wall. This is rarely an independent surgery.\\u000a Often, surgery entails addressing incontinence as well as prolapse of the uterus and posterior compartment. The end result\\u000a must restore anatomy and function by restoring normal vaginal axis and depth while preserving urinary, bowel, and sexual function.\\u000a Treatment of

  15. Common and unusual diseases involving the iliopsoas muscle compartment: spectrum of cross-sectional imaging findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Tonolini; Alessandro Campari; Roberto Bianco

    Although relatively uncommon, many different infectious, hemorrhagic and neoplastic disease processes may involve the iliac\\u000a and psoas muscles and are increasingly diagnosed especially in referral hospitals. Furthermore, the iliopsoas compartment\\u000a may become injured during trauma, percutaneous instrumentation, laparoscopic or open surgical procedures. State-of-the-art\\u000a cross-sectional imaging including volumetric multidetector CT and multiplanar MRI acquisitions allows prompt detection, comprehensive\\u000a visualization and confident

  16. Laparoscopic resection of ancient schwannoma embedded in the psoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ill Young; Boldbaatr, Yanjmaa; Choi, Keum Ha

    2011-12-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor originating from the Schwann cell of the peripheral nerve sheath. The diagnosis of schwannoma is based on histologic analysis of surgically excised sample. Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma, a variant of schwannoma, is rarely observed in clinical practice. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with a retroperitoneal tumor embedded in the psoas muscle, which was treated by laparoscopic resection. The operative result was good, and pathologic analysis revealed a 5.5 × 4.5 cm ancient schwannoma. PMID:22146187

  17. Psoas abscess and severe fasciitis due to a caecal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Nigel Yong Boon; Twoon, Mark; Thomson, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    A man in his mid-50s presented with a painful and swollen right thigh and buttock. This was accompanied by a month long history of flank pain, back pain, vague abdominal pain, limp, fever and weight loss. On examination, there was extensive erythaema, heat, tenderness, oedema and crepitus over his right buttock and thigh. The patient was referred to plastic surgery to exclude necrotising fasciitis of the gluteal and thigh region. After CT imaging, a psoas abscess (PA) and caecal mass were identified. Subsequent right hemicolectomy, PA drainage and debridement of his right thigh were performed. This case reminds clinicians of the many non-specific ways a PA can present and that a high level of suspicion assists in making a timely diagnosis. PMID:25631760

  18. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteremia without endocarditis associated with psoas abscess: the first case report in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Upapan, Prasit; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2014-03-01

    The authors report a patient with a rare manifestation of invasive septic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection without endocardial involvement. Our patient presented with progressive paraparesis and subacute fever for ten days. He had underlying diabetes mellitus and alcoholic cirrhosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine showed a psoas abscess with vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis at level of L23 of the lumbar spine. His blood culture grew E. rhusiopathiae. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated normal endocardium. Surgical drainage and debridement with concomitant intravenous antibiotics administration resulted in clinical improvement, including neurological status. MRI showed resolution of the psoas abscess and osteomyelitis. Erysipelothrix infection should be considered as a causative pathogen of musculoskeletal infection in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of psoas abscess caused by E. rhusiopathiae in Thailand. PMID:24772603

  19. The extent of proteolysis is independent of sarcomere length in lamb longissimus and psoas major.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sarcomere length on postmortem proteolysis and meat tenderness. Eighteen Dorset market-weight sheep were slaughtered conventionally. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum and psoas major from each carcass were either left intact on the carcass (control), which was chilled at 0 degrees C, or excised from the carcass and chilled in an ice slurry (0 degrees C). At 24 h, control muscles were excised, and all muscles were cut into sections and assigned to 1 or 10 d of postmortem storage at 2 degrees C. Sarcomere length was shorter (P < .01), as intended, in the shortened relative to the control treatment and in longissimus relative to psoas major (1.36 vs 1.69 microm, raw longissimus; 1.45 vs 3.03 microm, raw psoas major). Sarcomere length was not affected (P > .05) by aging time. Western blot analysis of troponin-T and desmin indicated no effect (P > .05) of the shortened treatment compared to the control on the extent of proteolysis. Regardless of aging time or treatment, troponin-T was more degraded (P < .01) in longissimus than in psoas major (38.1 vs 23.5%) and desmin tended to be more degraded (P = .08) in longissimus than in psoas major (50.4 vs 35.1%). Regardless of muscle or treatment, aging 10 d compared to 1 d increased degradation of troponin-T (46.3 vs 15.3%) and desmin (69.3 vs 16.1%). Warner-Bratzler shear force was greater (P < .01) in the shortened treatment than in control (6.9 vs 3.8 kg), greater (P < .01) in longissimus than in the psoas major (6.5 vs 4.2 kg), and greater (P < .01) with 1 d than with 10 d of aging time (6.1 vs 4.6 kg). A muscle x aging time interaction (P < .05) indicated shear force declined more in longissimus than in psoas major during aging. We conclude that sarcomere length did not affect the extent of proteolysis. However, sarcomere length may have an indirect effect on tenderization during aging due to its effect on initial tenderness. PMID:10492451

  20. Tuberculous Abscess of the Psoas Muscle in a Patient with Acute Lumbar Burst Fracture: A Missed Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Jin Sung

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of tuberculous spondylitis and a large abscess in the left psoas muscle that occurred after spinal surgery for an acute traumatic burst fracture of the L2 vertebral body. We retrospectively reviewed the patient's first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we found that some unusual findings, indicative of psoas abscess had been overlooked. As a result, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculous psoas abscess and spondylitis were considerably delayed. Despite the critical condition of patients in a similar emergency, surgeons should always pay close attention to the radiological findings and clinical symptoms of the patient before considering a surgical intervention or biopsy.

  1. Compartment fire combustion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandsburger, U.; Lattimer, B. Y.; Roby, R. J.

    1994-12-01

    The overall scope of this research is to investigate the phenomena that control the generation and oxidation of compartment fire exhaust gases, specifically carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) and soot, which are transported down an adjacent corridor. The first year of the investigation concentrated on the formation of exhaust gases, mainly CO, within the compartment. In the second year, a hallway was attached to the compartment in such a manner that the gases from the compartment entered at the ceiling of the corridor. The oxidation of the exhaust gases down the hallway was studied for a corridor having no soffits at either end. During the past year, three additional hallway soffit combinations were added to see the results of varying the fluid mechanics of the exhaust gases within the hallway.

  2. Acute compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure – ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. Conclusion: acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS. PMID:25878982

  3. An MRI study of psoas major and abdominal large vessels with respect to the X\\/DLIF approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Kun Hu; Shi-Sheng He; Shao-Cheng Zhang; Yan-Bin Liu; Ming Li; Tie-Sheng Hou; Xiao-Lu Ma; Jian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Extreme\\/direct lateral interbody fusion (X\\/DLIF) has been used to treat various lumbar diseases. However, it involves risks\\u000a to injure the lumbar plexus and abdominal large vessels when it gains access to the lumbar spine via lateral approach that\\u000a passes through the retroperitoneal fat and psoas major muscle. This study was aimed to determine the distribution of psoas\\u000a major and abdominal

  4. The function of the psoas major muscle: passive kinetics and morphological studies using donated cadavers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaharu Yoshio; Gen Murakami; Toshio Sato; Shuichi Sato; Seiji Noriyasu

    2002-01-01

    .   This study was carried out to analyze the phasic heterogeneity in the function of the psoas major muscle (PMM) depending\\u000a on the flexion angle at the hip joint. The study design was a passive kinetic experiment using 25 osteoligamentous specimens\\u000a with the PMM tendon. We measured the flexion angle of the hip joint where the PMM tendon loses contact

  5. Contamination control of the space shuttle Orbiter crew compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelson, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Effective contamination control as applied to manned space flight environments is a discipline characterized and controlled by many parameters. An introduction is given to issues involving Orbiter crew compartment contamination control. An effective ground processing contamination control program is an essential building block to a successful shuttle mission. Personnel are required to don cleanroom-grade clothing ensembles before entering the crew compartment and follow cleanroom rules and regulations. Prior to crew compartment entry, materials and equipment must be checked by an orbiter integrity clerk stationed outside the white-room entrance for compliance to program requirements. Analysis and source identification of crew compartment debris studies have been going on for two years. The objective of these studies is to determine and identify particulate generating materials and activities in the crew compartment. Results show a wide spectrum of many different types of materials. When source identification is made, corrective action is implemented to minimize or curtail further contaminate generation.

  6. Compartmented gas injection device

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitz, T.S.; Salter, J.A.; McCusker, J.J.; Scott, A.M.; Dirkse, H.A.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a method for maintaining a uniform mass flow rate of a particulate solids and gas mixture discharged from a holding vessel apparatus to a receiving reactor. It comprises: introducing the mixture into a first containing means having converging walls forming a portion made of porous material having at least one port formed at the apex thereof for discharging the mixture therefrom; isolating areas outside the porous material portion of the first containing means to form at least two substantially closed compartments; selectively injecting gaseous fluid under pressure into each of the compartments; independently controlling the flow rate and direction of the gaseous fluid under pressure at a rate sufficient to aerate the particulate solids in proximity to the portion of porous material but at a rate below that which would fluidize the particulate solids located above the porous material; and discharging the particulate solids and gas mixture from the first containing means through a conduit.

  7. Just another abdominal pain? Psoas abscess-like metastasis in large cell lung cancer with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Vera; Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Lopes Dias, João; Bento, Luís

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 69-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and previous pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented to the emergency department with abdominal and low back pain, anorexia and weight loss, rapidly evolving into shock. An initial CT scan revealed pulmonary condensation with associated cavitation and an iliopsoas mass suggestive of a psoas abscess. He was admitted in an intensive care unit unit; after a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the aetiology was yet undisclosed. MRI showed multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies, bulky nodular adrenal lesions and bilateral iliac lytic lesions. Hypocortisolism was detected and treated with steroids. A CT-guided biopsy to the psoas mass and lytic lesions identified infiltration of non-small lung carcinoma. The patient died within days. Psoas metastases and adrenal insufficiency as initial manifestations of malignancy are rare and can be misdiagnosed, particularly in the absence of a known primary tumour. PMID:26063108

  8. Relationship between psoas muscle dimensions and post operative thigh pain. A possible preoperative evaluation factor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advanced intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is used to attenuate postoperative complications and side effects of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF). Specific factors relate to the presence of postoperative injury are not well understood. This study aims to identify intraoperative variables with correlations to new postoperative anterior thigh/groin sensory changes. Methods Twenty-nine patients with various degenerative lumbar conditions were treated with XLIF at a single institution. Mean age was 59 years, 69% were female, and 21% had undergone previous lumbar surgery. A total of 47 levels (mean 1.6, range 1-3) were treated with XLIF. Supplemental pedicle screw and rod fixation was used in 24 patients (83%). Dynamically-evoked electromyography was used in all cases. Analysis of baseline demographic and treatment variables were performed at a per patient basis (n = 29), whereas analysis of intraoperative variables were performed at a per levels treated basis (n = 47). Results Within 24 hours postoperative, 10 (34%) patients experienced anterior thigh/groin sensory changes (4 reported pain only, 5 reported pain plus other sensory changes, and 1 paresthesia without pain). Symptom resolution occurred at 1 month postoperative for 4 patients, at 3 months postoperative for 2 patients. At 3 months postoperative, 6 patients had complete symptom resolution, 3 patients had symptom improvements, and 1 patient had no change in perioperative symptoms. Psoas dimension in the lateral-latero direction were significantly smaller for patients with postoperative sensory changes (p = 0.025), and similarly, patients with postoperative sensory changes had a significantly higher ratio of psoas muscle in the anterior-posterior to lateral-latero directions (p = 0.026). Conclusions In addition to IONM, MRI evaluation of psoas shape, position, and dimension may be of help in preoperative planning of a safe XLIF access and eventually, predict those cases with higher risk of approach-related post-operative events. PMID:26196034

  9. 14 CFR 27.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 27.853 Section 27...ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.853 Compartment interiors. For each compartment to be used by the crew or...

  10. 14 CFR 27.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 27.853 Section 27...ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.853 Compartment interiors. For each compartment to be used by the crew or...

  11. TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

  12. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can be closed for environmental protection of the suits, suit maintenance, and pressurization.

  13. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the cross-bridge cycle in rabbit psoas muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y; Kawai, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of temperature on elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle was investigated with sinusoidal analysis technique in skinned rabbit psoas fibers. We studied the effect of MgATP on exponential process (C) to characterize the MgATP binding step and cross-bridge detachment step at six different temperatures in the range 5-30 degrees C. Similarly, we studied the effect of MgADP on exponential process (C) to characterize the MgADP binding step. We also studied the effect of phosphate (Pi) on exponential process (B) to characterize the force generation step and Pi-release step. From the results of these studies, we deduced the temperature dependence of the kinetic constants of the elementary steps and their thermodynamic properties. We found that the MgADP association constant (K0) and the MgATP association constant (K1) significantly decreased when the temperature was increased from 5 to 20 degrees C, implying that nucleotide binding became weaker at higher temperatures. K0 and K1 did not change much in the 20-30 degree C range. The association constant of Pi to cross-bridges (K5) did not change much with temperature. We found that Q10 for the cross-bridge detachment step (k2) was 2.6, and for its reversal step (k-2) was 3.0. We found that Q10 for the force generation step (Pi-isomerization step, k4) was 6.8, and its reversal step (k-4) was 1.6. The equilibrium constant of the detachment step (K2) was not affected much by temperature, whereas the equilibrium constant of the force generation step (K4) increased significantly with temperature increase. Thus, the force generation step consists of an endothermic reaction. The rate constant of the rate-limiting step (k6) did not change much with temperature, whereas the ATP hydrolysis rate increased significantly with temperature increase. We found that the force generation step accompanies a large entropy increase and a small free energy change; hence, this step is an entropy-driven reaction. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the hydrophobic interaction between residues of actin and myosin underlies the mechanism of force generation. We conclude that the force generation step is the most temperature-sensitive step among elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle, which explains increased isometric tension at high temperatures in rabbit psoas fibers. PMID:7819497

  14. Effect of viscosity on mechanics of single, skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, P B; Denkinger, T M; Kushmerick, M J

    1998-01-01

    Muscle contraction is highly dynamic and thus may be influenced by viscosity of the medium surrounding the myofilaments. Single, skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were used to test this hypothesis. Viscosity within the myofilament lattice was increased by adding to solutions low molecular weight sugars (disaccharides sucrose or maltose or monosaccharides glucose or fructose). At maximal Ca2+ activation, isometric force (Fi) was inhibited at the highest solute concentrations studied, but this inhibition was not directly related to viscosity. Solutes readily permeated the filament lattice, as fiber diameter was unaffected by added solutes (except for an increased diameter with Fi < 30% of control). In contrast, there was a linear dependence upon 1/viscosity for both unloaded shortening velocity and also the kinetics of isometric tension redevelopment; these effects were unrelated to either variation in solution osmolarity or inhibition of force. All effects of added solute were reversible. Inhibition of both isometric as well as isotonic kinetics demonstrates that viscous resistance to filament sliding was not the predominant factor affected by viscosity. This was corroborated by measurements in relaxed fibers, which showed no significant change in the strain-rate dependence of elastic modulus when viscosity was increased more than twofold. Our results implicate cross-bridge diffusion as a significant limiting factor in cross-bridge kinetics and, more generally, demonstrate that viscosity is a useful probe of actomyosin dynamics. PMID:9512039

  15. Does thin filament compliance diminish the cross-bridge kinetics? A study in rabbit psoas fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, G; Ding, W; Kawai, M

    1999-01-01

    The effect of thin filament compliance on our ability to detect the cross-bridge kinetics was examined. Our experiment is based on the facts that in rabbit psoas the thin filament (1.12 micrometer) is longer than half the thick filament length (0.82 micrometer) and that the thick filament has a central bare zone (0.16 micrometer). Consequently, when sarcomere length is increased from 2.1 to 2.4 micrometer, the same number of cross-bridges is involved in force generation but extra series compliance is introduced in the I-band. Three apparent rate constants (2pia, 2pib, and 2pic) were characterized by sinusoidal analysis at pCa 4.66. Our results demonstrate that 2pia and 2pib increased 13-16% when sarcomere length was increased from 2.0 to 2.5 micrometer, and 2pic decreased slightly (9%). This slight decrease can be explained by compression of the lattice spacing. These observations are at variance with the expectation based on increased series compliance, which predicts that the rate constants will decrease. We also determined compliance of the I-band during rigor. I-band compliance during rigor induction was 35% of sarcomere compliance at sarcomere length 2.4 micrometer, and 24% at sarcomere length 2.1 micrometer. We conclude that the presence of thin filament compliance does not seriously interfere with our ability to detect cross-bridge kinetics using sinusoidal analysis. PMID:9916028

  16. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  17. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  18. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  19. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this photograph, the Orbital Workshop shower compartment was unfolded by technicians for inspection. The shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  20. Understanding HIV compartments and reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Svicher, Valentina; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Antinori, Andrea; Aquaro, Stefano; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2014-06-01

    The spectrum of HIV-1 cellular reservoirs is highly diversified, and their role varies according to the milieu of the anatomical sites in which the virus replicates. In this light, mechanisms underlying HIV-1 persistence in anatomical compartments may be profoundly different from what is observed in peripheral blood. This scenario is further complicated by sub-optimal drug penetration in tissues allowing persistent and cryptic HIV-1 replication in body districts despite undetectable viremia. On this basis, this review aims at providing recent insights regarding the critical role of HIV-1 cellular reservoirs in different anatomical compartments, and their relationship with the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. A comprehensive definition of the complex interplay between the virus and its reservoir is critical in order to set up prophylactic and therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving the maximal virological suppression and hopefully in the near future the cure of HIV-1 infection (either functional or biological). PMID:24729094

  1. Compartments revealed in food-web structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann E. Krause; Kenneth A. Frank; Doran M. Mason; Robert E. Ulanowicz; William W. Taylor

    2003-01-01

    Compartments in food webs are subgroups of taxa in which many strong interactions occur within the subgroups and few weak interactions occur between the subgroups. Theoretically, compartments increase the stability in networks, such as food webs. Compartments have been difficult to detect in empirical food webs because of incompatible approaches or insufficient methodological rigour. Here we show that a method

  2. Large eddy simulation of compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnaud Trouve; Yi Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper is aimed at illustrating the capabilities of contemporary large eddy simulation (LES) solvers for compartment fire applications. Compartment fires refer to fires occurring indoors and feature a variety of complex phenomena associated with smoke accumulation and restricted air ventilation. The article provides a brief presentation of the main features of compartment fire dynamics followed by a review of

  3. Transient tension changes initiated by laser temperature jumps in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Y E; McCray, J A; Ranatunga, K W

    1987-01-01

    1. A technique was developed to generate 2-8 degrees C step temperature perturbations (T-jumps) in single muscle fibres to study the thermodynamics of muscle contraction. A solid-state pulsed holmium laser emitting at 2.065 microns heated the fibre and surrounding solution in approximately 150 mus. The signal from a 100 microns thermocouple fed back to a heating wire maintained the elevated temperature after the laser pulse. 2. Tension of glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from rabbit psoas muscle did not change significantly following T-jumps when the fibre was relaxed. 3. In rigor, tension decreased abruptly on heating indicating normal (not rubber-like) thermoelasticity. The thermoelastic coefficient (negative ratio of relative length change to relative temperature change) of the fibre was estimated to be -0.021 at sarcomere lengths of 2.5-2.8 microns. Rigor tension was constant after the temperature step and returned to the original value on recooling. 4. In maximal Ca2+ activation, tension transients initiated by T-jumps had several phases. An immediate tension decrease suggests that thermoelasticity during contraction is similar to that in rigor. Active tension then recovered to the value before the T-jump with an apparent rate constant of approximately 400 s-1 (at 10-20 degrees C). This rate constant did not have an appreciable dependence on the final temperature. Finally, tension increased exponentially to a new higher level with a rate constant of approximately 20 s-1 at 20 degrees C. This rate constant increased with temperature with a Q10 of 1.4. 5. At submaximal Ca2+ activation the tension rise was followed by a decay to below the value before the T-jump. This decline was expected from the temperature dependence of steady pCa-tension curves. The final tension decline occurred on the 1-5 s time scale. 6. The value and amplitude dependence of the rate constant for the quick recovery following T-jumps were similar to those of the quick recovery following length steps during active contractions. The enthalpy change associated with the quick tension recovery following temperature-step perturbations was estimated to be positive suggesting that the recovery process is an endothermic reaction. Slower reaction steps on the 10-30 ms timescale, as well as reactions corresponding to the quick recovery, may contribute to the cross-bridge power stroke. PMID:3446791

  4. Faster force transient kinetics at submaximal Ca2+ activation of skinned psoas fibers from rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, D. A.; Chase, P. B.

    1995-01-01

    The early, rapid phase of tension recovery (phase 2) after a step change in sarcomere length is thought to reflect the force-generating transition of myosin bound to actin. We have measured the relation between the rate of tension redevelopment during phase 2 (r), estimated from the half-time of tension recovery during phase 2 (r = t0.5(-1)), and steady-state force at varying [Ca2+] in single fibers from rabbit psoas. Sarcomere length was monitored continuously by laser diffraction of fiber segments (length approximately 1.6 mm), and sarcomere homogeneity was maintained using periodic length release/restretch cycles at 13-15 degrees C. At lower [Ca2+] and forces, r was elevated relative to that at pCa 4.0 for both releases and stretches (between +/- 8 nm). For releases of -3.4 +/- 0.7 nm.hs-1 at pCa 6.6 (where force was 10-20% of maximum force at pCa 4.0), r was 3.3 +/- 1.0 ms-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 5), whereas the corresponding value of r at pCa 4.0 was 1.0 +/- 0.2 ms-1 for releases of -3.5 +/- 0.5 nm.hs-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 5). For stretches of 1.9 +/- 0.7 nm.hs-1, r was 1.0 +/- 0.3 ms-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 9) at pCa 6.6, whereas r was 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms-1 at pCa 4.0 for stretches of 1.9 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SD; N = 14). Faster phase 2 transients at submaximal Ca(2+)-activation were not caused by changes in myofilament lattice spacing because 4% Dextran T-500, which minimizes lattice spacing changes, was present in all solutions. The inverse relationship between phase 2 kinetics and force obtained during steady-state activation of skinned fibers appears to be qualitatively similar to observations on intact frog skeletal fibers during the development of tetanic force. The data are consistent with models that incorporate a direct effect of [Ca2+] on phase 2 kinetics of individual cross-bridges or, alternatively, in which phase 2 kinetics depend on cooperative interactions between cross-bridges. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7711246

  5. Compartments revealed in food-web structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Ann E.; Frank, Kenneth A.; Mason, Doran M.; Ulanowicz, Robert E.; Taylor, William W.

    2003-11-01

    Compartments in food webs are subgroups of taxa in which many strong interactions occur within the subgroups and few weak interactions occur between the subgroups. Theoretically, compartments increase the stability in networks, such as food webs. Compartments have been difficult to detect in empirical food webs because of incompatible approaches or insufficient methodological rigour. Here we show that a method for detecting compartments from the social networking science identified significant compartments in three of five complex, empirical food webs. Detection of compartments was influenced by food web resolution, such as interactions with weights. Because the method identifies compartmental boundaries in which interactions are concentrated, it is compatible with the definition of compartments. The method is rigorous because it maximizes an explicit function, identifies the number of non-overlapping compartments, assigns membership to compartments, and tests the statistical significance of the results. A graphical presentation reveals systemic relationships and taxa-specific positions as structured by compartments. From this graphic, we explore two scenarios of disturbance to develop a hypothesis for testing how compartmentalized interactions increase stability in food webs.

  6. Activation dependence and kinetics of force and stiffness inhibition by aluminiofluoride, a slowly dissociating analogue of inorganic phosphate, in chemically skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bryant Chase; Donald A. Martyn; James D. Hannon

    1994-01-01

    To examine the mechanism by which aluminiofluoride, a tightly binding analogue of inorganic phosphate, inhibits force in single, chemically skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle, we measured the Ca2+-dependence of the kinetics of inhibitor dissociation and the kinetics of actomyosin interactions when aluminiofluoride was bound to the crossbridges. The relation between stiffness and the speed of stretch during small amplitude

  7. Lateral approach to central compartment of neck.

    PubMed

    Pathak, K Alok; Al Jabab, Abdulsalam S; Kazi, Rehan; Nason, Richard W

    2011-01-01

    Revision surgery in central compartment of neck is often a challenge for the head and neck surgical oncologists/endocrine surgeons. This is often required for completion thyroidectomies, central compartment lymph node dissections, and re-exploration for persistent hyperparathyroidism. Scarring in midline due to prior surgery makes midline access to central compartment difficult and increases the risk of injury to recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands. This article describes a simple technique of approaching central compartment between sternocleidomastoid and strap muscles. PMID:21031428

  8. A Perspective on Compartment Fire Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Quintiere

    1984-01-01

    A review was made of research related to fire growth in compartments. Mention is made of the zone and field model approaches that have been used to describe many aspects of compart- ment developing fires. Primarily the review is organized by phenomena associated with com- partment fires. These include fluid mechanic, heat transfer and combustion processes. Each phenomenon is discussed

  9. DIVISION 10 SPECIALTIES 10155 TOILET COMPARTMENTS

    E-print Network

    TOILET COMPARTMENTS A. Design Considerations 1. When selecting toilet enclosures screen type and mounting, staining of finish and they easily delaminate in high humidity/ moisture prone areas. Some compartment manual in the appendix of this manual for additional information. 10520 FIRE PROTECTION SPECIALTIES A.

  10. Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative -Calculus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -based encodings are complex, low level, and in- efficient. Consider e.g. the dissolving of a compartment with n of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative nature, so they require modeling languages in which global concurrent control can be expressed [20

  11. Modeling smoke movement through compartmented structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Jones; G. P. Forney

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a model of fire growth and smoke transport for compartmented structures, with emphasis on those aspects which are important to making correct predictions of smoke movement in multicompartment structures. In particular, the authors are interested in the ability to model the movement of toxic gases from the room of origin of a fire to a distant compartment.

  12. Unicompartment compartment syndrome following laparascopic colonic resection

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Hariharan, Vimal; Tudor, Francois

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man who developed anterior compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the lithotomy position. This was initially masked by postoperative epidural usage and ultimately diagnosed 2?days postoperatively. The patient underwent decompression by four compartment fasciotomy and two follow-up re-explorations of the affected lower limb. This case is unique for two reasons: only the anterior compartment of the lower limb was affected—which is rare in itself—and there was a delay in presentation secondary to postoperative epidural usage. PMID:23843407

  13. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  14. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...safely contain a fire. (c) After...2001, each Class D compartment, regardless of...Class C or Class E compartments; (ii) The...which all Class D compartments have been retrofitted to meet the fire detection and...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  18. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (i) The presence of a compartment fire would be easily discovered...must be adequate to contain compartment fires until a landing and safe evacuation...sealed so as to contain cargo compartment fires completely without...

  19. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (i) The presence of a compartment fire would be easily discovered...must be adequate to contain compartment fires until a landing and safe evacuation...sealed so as to contain cargo compartment fires completely without...

  20. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...safely contain a fire. (c) After...2001, each Class D compartment, regardless of...Class C or Class E compartments; (ii) The...which all Class D compartments have been retrofitted to meet the fire detection and...

  1. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (i) The presence of a compartment fire would be easily discovered...must be adequate to contain compartment fires until a landing and safe evacuation...sealed so as to contain cargo compartment fires completely without...

  2. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the functioning of the fire protective features of the compartment. (g) Sources of heat...operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result of fire contained in any other compartment, either during or...

  3. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (i) The presence of a compartment fire would be easily discovered...must be adequate to contain compartment fires until a landing and safe evacuation...sealed so as to contain cargo compartment fires completely without...

  4. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Construction Fire Protection § 25.857 Cargo compartment classification...any part of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire extinguisher...can control any fire that may start within the compartment. (d)...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  6. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the functioning of the fire protective features of the compartment. (g) Sources of heat...operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result of fire contained in any other compartment, either during or...

  7. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...safely contain a fire. (c) After...2001, each Class D compartment, regardless of...Class C or Class E compartments; (ii) The...which all Class D compartments have been retrofitted to meet the fire detection and...

  8. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (i) The presence of a compartment fire would be easily discovered...must be adequate to contain compartment fires until a landing and safe evacuation...sealed so as to contain cargo compartment fires completely without...

  9. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...safely contain a fire. (c) After...2001, each Class D compartment, regardless of...Class C or Class E compartments; (ii) The...which all Class D compartments have been retrofitted to meet the fire detection and...

  10. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Construction Fire Protection § 25.857 Cargo compartment classification...any part of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire extinguisher...can control any fire that may start within the compartment. (d)...

  11. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Construction Fire Protection § 25.857 Cargo compartment classification...any part of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire extinguisher...can control any fire that may start within the compartment. (d)...

  12. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Construction Fire Protection § 25.857 Cargo compartment classification...any part of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire extinguisher...can control any fire that may start within the compartment. (d)...

  13. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the functioning of the fire protective features of the compartment. (g) Sources of heat...operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result of fire contained in any other compartment, either during or...

  14. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the functioning of the fire protective features of the compartment. (g) Sources of heat...operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result of fire contained in any other compartment, either during or...

  15. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the functioning of the fire protective features of the compartment. (g) Sources of heat...operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result of fire contained in any other compartment, either during or...

  16. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...safely contain a fire. (c) After...2001, each Class D compartment, regardless of...Class C or Class E compartments; (ii) The...which all Class D compartments have been retrofitted to meet the fire detection and...

  17. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...structure, including exposed surfaces of stowed carts and standard containers and the cavity walls that are exposed when a full complement of such carts or containers is not carried; and (4) Large cabinets and cabin stowage compartments, other than...

  18. Compartment fire experiments: Comparison with models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Dembsey; P. J. Pagni; R. B. Williamson

    1995-01-01

    Twenty full-scale compartment fire experiments suitable for model comparison were conducted. Ceiling jet temperatures, surface heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients which have not been previously reported are discussed. The ceiling jet temperatures 0·10 m below the ceiling show the effects of compartment ventilation, near-field entrainment conditions and burner location on the ceiling jet. Net and radiant incident heat fluxes

  19. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  20. Compartment fire near-field entrainment measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Dembsey; P. J. Pagni; R. B. Williamson

    1995-01-01

    A widely accepted consensus on entrainment models for large fires in compartments does not yet exist. To obtain further information on such entrainment rates, 20 full-scale, near-field experiments were conducted. Near-field entrainment occurs when hot layer interface heights are beneath the burner mean flame height so that cold layer entrainment occurs only near the burner surface. A durable compartment, similar

  1. Zero-range process with finite compartments: Gentile's statistics and glassiness.

    PubMed

    Ryabov, Artem

    2014-02-01

    We discuss statics and dynamics of condensation in a zero-range process with compartments of limited sizes. For the symmetric dynamics the stationary state has a factorized form. For the asymmetric dynamics the steady state factorizes only for special hopping rules which allow for overjumps of fully occupied compartments. In the limit of large system size the grand canonical analysis is exact also in a condensed phase, and for a broader class of hopping rates as compared to the previously studied systems with infinite compartments. The dynamics of condensation exhibits dynamical self-blocking, which significantly prolongs relaxation times. These general features are illustrated with a concrete example: an inhomogeneous system with hopping rates that result in Bose-Einstein-like condensations. PMID:25353430

  2. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate. PMID:21063498

  3. Intensive exploration on block K6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    Exploration on block K6 started with two minor discoveries in 1969 and 1972, both located on culminating structural Rotliegende targets. After 14 yr of low activity, drilling activity resumed in 1986 and is continuing, after another six positive wells. This long absence (14 yr) of drilling activities was due to two main reasons: (1) risk of drilling compartments lodged deeper

  4. Modeling smoke movement through compartmented structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.W.; Forney, G.P.

    1992-07-08

    The paper describes a model of fire growth and smoke transport for compartmented structures, with emphasis on those aspects which are important to making correct predictions of smoke movement in multicompartment structures. In particular, the authors are interested in the ability to model the movement of toxic gases from the room of origin of a fire to a distant compartment. The newest phenomena in the model are vertical flow and mechanical ventilation. Finally, they have improved the radiation transport scheme which affects energy distribution, and therefore the buoyancy forces. These are very important in actual situations relevant to fire growth and smoke propagation, as is demonstrated.

  5. The Skylab Orbital Workshop Forward Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph, with callouts, depicts the experiment area of the forward compartment at the upper level of the Orbital Workshop. The upper level consisted of a large work area and housed water storage tanks, a food freezer, storage vaults for film, scientific airlocks, mobility and stability experiment equipment, and other experimental equipment.

  6. The Skylab Orbital Workshop Forward Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image, with callouts, depicts the storage area of the forward compartment at the upper level of the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The upper level consisted of a large work area and housed water storage tanks, a food freezer, storage vaults for film, scientific airlocks, mobility and stability experiment equipment, and other experimental equipment.

  7. Experimental comparison with a compartment fire model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Drysdale

    1995-01-01

    A comparison between the predictions from a previously derived non-dimensional fire growth model and experimental data obtained from a series of fire experiments in a scale (0.4 m cube) compartment is made. Both the qualitative and quantitative types of theoretical behaviour appear to be in reasonable agreement with those found experimentally.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Production in Compartment Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel T. Gottuk; Richard J. Roby; Michelle J. Peatross; Craig L. Beyler

    1992-01-01

    The development of empirical correlations for major species yields in compartment fires has become an important priority due to the inability to calculate these quantities from first principles. Studies of simplified upper layer environments have shown that major species production rates can be correlated with the equivalence ratio in what is known as the Global Equivalence Ratio concept (GER). Due

  9. Compartment fire phenomena under limited ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunyong Utiskul; James G. Quintiere; Ali S. Rangwala; Brian A. Ringwelski; Kaoru Wakatsuki; Tomohiro Naruse

    2005-01-01

    Fire behavior of heptane pool fires were investigated in a small-scale 40cm cubic compartment with wall vents at the ceiling (top vent) and the floor (bottom vent). The measurements included pressure, mass loss, temperature, heat flux, and gas mole fraction. Flame oscillations, ghosting, and burning at the air inlet were seen. The regime of limited ventilation was examined to study

  10. What's new in acute compartment syndrome?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Edward J; Sanders, David W; Shuler, Michael S; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Cole, Ashley L; Alqahtani, Saad M; Schmidt, Andrew H

    2012-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) after trauma is often the result of increased size of the damaged tissues after acute crush injury or from reperfusion of ischemic areas. It usually is not solely caused by accumulation of free blood or fluid in the compartment, although that can contribute in some cases. There is no reliable and reproducible test that confirms the diagnosis of ACS. A missed diagnosis or failure to cut the fascia to release pressure within a few hours can result in severe intractable pain, paralysis, and sensory deficits. Reduced blood circulation leads to oxygen and nutrient deprivation, muscle necrosis, and permanent disability. Currently, the diagnosis of ACS is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated needle sticks over a short time frame to measure intracompartmental pressures. Missed compartment syndromes continue to be one of most common causes of malpractice lawsuits. Existing technology for continuous pressure measurements are insensitive, particularly in the deep tissues and compartments, and their use is restricted to highly trained personnel. Newer concepts of the pathophysiology accompanied by new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have recently been advanced. Among these are the concept of inflammatory mediators as markers and anti-inflammatories as medical adjunct therapy. New diagnostic modalities include near-infrared spectroscopy, ultrafiltration catheters, and radio-frequency identification implants. These all address current shortcomings in the diagnostic armamentarium that trauma surgeons can use. The strengths and weaknesses of these new concepts are discussed to allow the trauma surgeon to follow current evolution of the field. PMID:22913965

  11. Exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot compartment--diagnosis and treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19-year-old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a 1-year follow-up. PMID:25076087

  12. Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Medial Foot Compartment: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie Jr, Douglas H

    2014-06-25

    Abstract Exertional compartment syndrome (ECS) in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19 year old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a one year follow up. PMID:24963970

  13. The rubella virus E1 glycoprotein is arrested in a novel post-ER, pre- Golgi compartment

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that a distinct compartment(s) exists in the secretory pathway interposed between the rough ER (RER) and the Golgi stack. In this study we have defined a novel post-RER, pre-Golgi compartment where unassembled subunits of rubella virus (RV) E1 glycoprotein accumulate. When RV E1 is expressed in CHO cells in the absence of E2 glycoprotein, transport of E1 to the Golgi complex is arrested. The compartment in which E1 accumulates consists of a tubular network of smooth membranes which is in continuity with the RER but has distinctive properties from either the RER, Golgi, or previously characterized intermediate compartments. It lacks RER and Golgi membrane proteins and is not disrupted by agents which disrupt either the RER (thapsigargin, ionomycin) or Golgi (nocodazole and brefeldin A). However, luminal ER proteins bearing the KDEL signal have access to this compartment. Kinetically the site of E1 arrest lies distal to or at the site where palmitylation occurs and proximal to the low temperature 15 degrees C block. Taken together the findings suggest that the site of E1 arrest corresponds to, or is located close to the exit site from the ER. This compartment could be identified morphologically because it is highly amplified in cells overexpressing unassembled E1 subunits, but it may have its counterpart among the transitional elements of non-transfected cells. We conclude that the site of E1 arrest may represent a new compartment or a differentiated proximal moiety of the intermediate compartment. PMID:1500424

  14. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...where it might cause a fire hazard. (d) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be at least fire resistant....

  15. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...where it might cause a fire hazard. (d) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be at least fire resistant....

  16. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...where it might cause a fire hazard. (d) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be at least fire resistant....

  17. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...where it might cause a fire hazard. (d) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be at least fire resistant....

  18. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...where it might cause a fire hazard. (d) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be at least fire resistant....

  19. Complications of anterior compartment vaginal surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Rovner

    2007-01-01

    Many complications can be associated with anterior compartment surgery of the vagina. With the integration of synthetic materials\\u000a into the surgical armamentarium for the repair of stress urinary incontinence in the form of midurethral slings, and for the\\u000a repair of vaginal prolapse as a primary procedure or to augment an existing repair, the spectrum of complications related\\u000a to this type

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented. PMID:19254364

  1. Two compartment fusion system designed for physiological state monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Ryoo; Hun H. Sun; Leonid Hrebien

    2001-01-01

    A two-compartment fusion system designed to reduce high rates of false alarm (FAR) in single channel monitoring systems was tested with physiological data from pilots exposed to high +Gz forces on a human centrifuge. The first compartment expands input signals into the time-frequency domain, where transient changes are captured by wavelet coefficients in frequency ranges of interest. The second compartment

  2. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Cowling and engine compartment covering. 29.1193...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...to flame in case of fire in the engine power section...the cowling or engine compartment covering subject...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Cowling and engine compartment covering. 29.1193...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...to flame in case of fire in the engine power section...the cowling or engine compartment covering subject...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cowling and engine compartment covering. 29.1193...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...to flame in case of fire in the engine power section...the cowling or engine compartment covering subject...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cowling and engine compartment covering. 29.1193...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each...to flame in case of fire in the engine power section...the cowling or engine compartment covering subject...

  6. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  7. The Clinical Importance of the Fat Compartments in Midfacial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Dinah; Amirlak, Bardia; Rohrich, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The recent identification of the facial fat compartments has greatly affected our understanding of midfacial aging. This article chronicles the discovery of these fat compartments including the shift of attention from a purely gravitational to a volumetric approach to facial aging and the series of methodologies attempted to ultimately define the anatomy of these compartments. The revived interest in volumetric facial rejuvenation including compartment-guided augmentation techniques is discussed. Lastly, the article discusses interesting distributional patterns noted in these fat compartments likely related to the different mechanical and biologic environments of the deep and superficial facial fat pads. PMID:25289286

  8. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  9. Unloader Braces for Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Dan K.; Russell, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: For persons with unicompartment knee osteoarthritis (OA), off-unloader braces are a mechanical intervention designed to reduce pain, improve physical function, and possibly slow disease progression. Pain relief is thought to be mediated by distracting the involved compartment via external varus or valgus forces applied to the knee. In so doing, tibiofemoral alignment is improved, and load is shifted off the degenerative compartment, where exposure to potentially damaging and provocative mechanical stresses are reduced. Objectives: To provide a synopsis of the evidence documented in the scientific literature concerning the efficacy of off-loader knee braces for improving symptomatology associated with painful disabling medial compartment knee OA. Search Strategy: Relevant peer-reviewed publications were retrieved from a MEDLINE search using the terms with the reference terms osteoarthritis, knee, and braces (per Medical Subject Headings), plus a manual search of bibliographies from original and review articles and appropriate Internet resources. Results: For persons with combined unicompartment knee OA and mild to moderate instability, the strength of recommendation reported by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International in the ability of off-loader knee braces to reduce pain, improve stability, and diminish the risk of falling was 76% (95% confidence interval, 69%-83%). The more evidence the treatment is effective, the higher the percentage. Conclusions: Given the encouraging evidence that off-loader braces are effective in mediating pain relief in conjunction with knee OA and malalignment, bracing should be fully used before joint realignment or replacement surgery is considered. With the number of patients with varus deformities and knee pain predicted to increase as the population ages, a reduction of patient morbidity for this widespread chronic condition in combination with this treatment modality could have a positive impact on health care costs and the economic productivity and quality of life of the affected individuals. PMID:23015902

  10. COMPBRN3. Modeling Compartment Fires Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, V.; Siu, N.; Apostolakis, G.; Flanagan, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1986-07-01

    COMPBRN3 is a deterministic fire hazards program designed for use in probabilistic analysis of fire growth in a particular room. This analysis is required when assessing the risk associated with fires in nuclear power plants. An air entrainment model is included which consists of a plume entrainment model, a wall jet entrainment model, and a model for the doorway mixing effect. Output available includes the total heat release rate of the fire, the temperature and thickness of the hot gas layer formed near the compartment ceiling, the mass burning rate for individual fuel elements, the surface temperature of the elements, and the thermal heat flux at user-specified locations.

  11. Morphometric analysis of somatotropic cells of the adenohypophysis and muscle fibers of the psoas muscle in the process of aging in humans.

    PubMed

    Anti?, Vladimir M; Stefanovi?, Natalija; Jovanovi?, Ivan; Anti?, Milorad; Mili?, Miroslav; Krsti?, Miljan; Kundali?, Braca; Miloševi?, Verica

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify changes of the adenohypophyseal somatotropes and types 1 and 2 muscle fibers with aging, as well as to establish mutual interactions and correlations with age. Material was samples of hypophysis and psoas major muscle of 27 cadavers of both genders, aged from 30 to 90 years. Adenohypophyseal and psoas major tissue sections were immunohistochemically processed and stained by anti-human growth hormone and anti-fast myosin antibodies, respectively. Morphometric analysis was performed by ImageJ. Results of morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the somatotrope area, and significant decrease in somatotrope volume density and nucleocytoplasmic ratio with age. Cross-sectional areas of types 1 and 2, and volume density of type 2 muscle fibers decreased significantly with age. One Way ANOVA showed that the latter cited changes in the somatotropes and types 1 and 2 muscle fibers mostly become significant after the age of 70. Significant positive correlation was observed between the area of the somatotropes and volume density of type 2 muscle fibers. A significant negative correlation was detected between the nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the somatotropes and cross-sectional areas of types 1 and 2 muscle fibers. So, it can be concluded that after the age of 70, there is significant loss of the anterior pituitary's somatotropes associated with hypertrophy and possible functional decline of the remained cells. Age-related changes in the somatotropes are correlated with the simultaneous atrophy of type 1, as well as with the atrophy and loss of type 2 muscle fibers. PMID:25769135

  12. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  13. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  14. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  15. Lipidomics in tissues, cells and subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D

    2012-04-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) advances in recent years have revolutionized the biochemical analysis of lipids in plants, and made possible new theories about the structural diversity and functional complexity of lipids in plant cells. Approaches have been developed to profile the lipidome of plants with increasing chemical and spatial resolution. Here we highlight a variety of methods for lipidomics analysis at the tissue, cellular and subcellular levels. These procedures allow the simultaneous identification and quantification of hundreds of lipids species in tissue extracts by direct-infusion MS, localization of lipids in tissues and cells by laser desorption/ionization MS, and even profiling of lipids in individual subcellular compartments by direct-organelle MS. Applications of these approaches to achieve improved understanding of plant lipid metabolism, compartmentation and function are discussed. PMID:22117762

  16. The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such a channel must be less than 0.06 x 10(-3) mohs/cm2 of fibre membrane. 7. The conductance between compartment B and the extracellular space can be calculated from the efflux rate constants for Na, K and Cl. The value obtained was 5 x 10(-3) mhos/cm2 of fibre membrane or 100 times the limiting value for the conductance of the T-SR junction. 8. The finding that there is a B component in the efflux curves for large molecular weight substances like inulin and dextran and the small size of the B component in efflux curves from single muscle fibres indicate that the 'speical region' of the extra-cellular space of frog muscle is not the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This conclusion is confirmed by a calculation of the conductance between the B compartment and the extracellular space. The value obtained is incompatible with predicted electrical properteis of the SR-T-tubule junction... PMID:313982

  17. Random Walks of Cytoskeletal Motors in Open and Closed Compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Lipowsky; Stefan Klumpp; Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen

    2001-01-01

    Random walks of molecular motors, which bind to and unbind from cytoskeletal filaments, are studied theoretically. The bound and unbound motors undergo directed and nondirected motion, respectively. Motors in open compartments exhibit anomalous drift velocities. Motors in closed compartments generate stationary nonequilibrium states with spatially varying densities of the motor concentrations and currents. ``Traffic jams'' on the filaments lead to

  18. Wind tunnel tests on compartment fires with crossflow ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. X. Chen; N. A. Liu; W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    When a fire occurs in a room at ground level or a compartment located in the higher floors of a very tall building , the strong ambient wind will play an important role in fire spreading and smoke movement behavior. However, wind effect on compartment fire in cross ventilation condition has not been fully studied so far. In the present

  19. Preliminary Studies on Flashover Mechanism in Compartment Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Liang; W. K. Chow; S. D. Liu

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of flashover in a compartment fire is investigated using nonlinear theory through a two-layer zone model. To simplify the illustration of the approach, there is only one variable, i.e. the upper smoke temperature, with the smoke layer interface height being fixed. Effects of different factors, such as the geometry of the compartment, the thermal and chemical properties of

  20. Nonconventional fully developed polyethylene and wood compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bohm; S. Hadvig

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen experimental fires with polyethylene and wood fuel were carried out in a full-scale compartment. The combustion air was supplied by a fan and the special feature of the compartment was the use of a slit which enabled the vertical position of the neutral plane to be well defined for outside observation. Large vertical and horizontal gradients in the gas

  1. Two-compartment stochastic model of a neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lánský, Petr; Rodriguez, Roger

    1999-07-01

    A two-compartment neuronal model is investigated. The model neuron is composed of two interconnected parts - a dendrite and a trigger zone, with a white noise input in the dendritic compartment. The first and the second moments of the stochastic processes describing the membrane depolarization in both compartments are derived and investigated. When a firing threshold is not imposed, the level of neuronal activity is deduced from a generally accepted relationship between the membrane potential and the firing frequency. When a firing threshold is imposed, some approximations and simulations are used to characterize the spiking activity of the model. It is shown that the activity of the two-compartment model is less sensitive to abrupt changes in stimulation than the activity of the single-compartment model. The delayed response of the complex model is a natural consequence of the fact that the input takes place in the compartment different from that at which the output is generated. Further, the model predicts serial correlation of interspike intervals, which is a phenomenon often observed in experimental data but not reproducible in the single-compartment models under steady-state stimulation. Finally, the investigated model neuron shows lower sensitivity to the input intensity and larger coding range than the single-compartment model.

  2. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...conditions should be avoided. Rooms, compartments, coolers...constructed to assure clean and orderly operations...Processing and packaging rooms or compartments shall...movement of air from the room to minimize contamination...Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free...

  3. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...conditions should be avoided. Rooms, compartments, coolers...constructed to assure clean and orderly operations...Processing and packaging rooms or compartments shall...movement of air from the room to minimize contamination...Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free...

  4. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...conditions should be avoided. Rooms, compartments, coolers...constructed to assure clean and orderly operations...Processing and packaging rooms or compartments shall...movement of air from the room to minimize contamination...Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free...

  5. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW...179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The inner container...each compartment as a separate tank without a joining cylinder...tightly for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  6. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW...179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The inner container...each compartment as a separate tank without a joining cylinder...tightly for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  7. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW...179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The inner container...each compartment as a separate tank without a joining cylinder...tightly for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  8. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW...179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The inner container...each compartment as a separate tank without a joining cylinder...tightly for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  9. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW...179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The inner container...each compartment as a separate tank without a joining cylinder...tightly for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  10. Experimental and computational studies of compartment fire behavior training scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mackay; T. Barber; G. H. Yeoh

    2010-01-01

    Because of the substantial risk to fire fighter safety in fighting compartment fires, the New South Wales Fire Brigade (NSWFB) in Australia has implemented Compartment Fire Behavior Training (CFBT). The CFBT scheme equips fire fighters with the knowledge and experience required to effectively, efficiently and safely deal with this type of fire, via the use of a demonstration cell (in

  11. Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments

    E-print Network

    Bedwell, David M.

    ARTICLES Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments Daniel to occur after failure of the cellular protein quality control mechanisms. Here we examine the formation of quality control substrates to either compartment seems to depend on their ubiquitination status

  12. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

    2001-01-01

    Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

  13. Block Copolymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludwik Leibler

    2008-01-01

    In 1969 (Rep. Prog. Phys. 32, 187(1969)) de Gennes proposed a simple way to understand and describe mesophase organization of block copolymers in what we now call the strong segregation limit. The following year he showed how self-consistent methods due to Edwards can be applied to understand subtle correlation effects in polymer melts (J. Physique 31, 235(1970)) and established theoretical

  14. Critical phenomenon in compartment fires with liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, H.; Akita, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze in detail the behavior of liquid-fuel compartment fires and to present precise information on the whole aspect of the fire phenomenon for use in modeling compartment fires. Two hundred experiments were conducted to research the behavior of liquid-fuel compartment fires as a function of the ventilation parameter and compartment size. A critical phenomenon was observed for a pertinent condition of the ratio of compartment size to fuel tray size. This phenomenon, which is closely associated with the enhancement of burning rate and oscillatory combustion, may be substantially controlled by the dynamic equilibrium between the rate of fuel gas supply and the rate of air supplied by ventilation. 18 refs.

  15. Glucose transporter 4: cycling, compartments and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dugani, Chandrasagar B; Klip, Amira

    2005-01-01

    Insulin promotes glucose uptake into muscle and adipose tissues through glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). In unstimulated cells, rapid endocytosis, slow exocytosis and dynamic or static retention cause GLUT4 to concentrate in early recycling endosomes, the trans-Golgi network and vesicle-associated protein 2-containing vesicles. The coordinated action of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase effectors, protein kinase Akt, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and Akt substrate of 160-kDa (AS160), regulates the GLUT4 cycle by affecting its translocation, fusion with the plasma membrane, internalization and sorting. We review the evidence that supports such cycling, evaluate current models proposing static or dynamic retention, and highlight how distinct steps of GLUT4 transport are regulated by insulin signals. In particular, fusion seems to be regulated by aPKC (via munc18) and Akt (via syntaxin4-interacting protein (synip)). AS160 participates in GLUT4 intracellular retention, and possibly fusion, through candidate ras-related GTP-binding protein (Rab)2, Rab8, Rab10 and/or Rab14. The localization of the insulin-sensitive GLUT4 compartment and the precise target of insulin-derived signals remain open for future investigation. PMID:16319959

  16. Intensive exploration on block K6

    SciTech Connect

    Roux, J. (Elf Petroland B.V., Hauge (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    Exploration on block K6 started with two minor discoveries in 1969 and 1972, both located on culminating structural Rotliegende targets. After 14 yr of low activity, drilling activity resumed in 1986 and is continuing, after another six positive wells. This long absence (14 yr) of drilling activities was due to two main reasons: (1) risk of drilling compartments lodged deeper than the first discoveries and in a highly faulted structural context and (2) risk of thinning and disappearance of lower Slochteren sandstones because the area of the K76 block corresponds to the inferred northern limit of the Rotliegende play. Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic technology, coupled with structural and sedimentological studies, has allowed the restart of exploration activity and hence the optimization of this block. One of the key points of exploration in this favorable gas environment is the access to the most precise knowledge of the structure's geometry. Communications between different compartments and possible spill points have been prognosed successfully thanks to the excellent 3-D seismic data quality. A lower Slochteren sand distribution model has been constructed from integrated studies, based principally on well sequential analysis, allowing for a quantitative and qualitative approach of the reservoirs. Combined use of these tools permits the best possible evaluation of gas fields and prospects and the optimization of well location in exploration, appreciation, or development (with successful horizontal wells). The exploration activity on the K6 block needs to continuously integrate these innovation techniques to stay fruitful in its more mature phase of exploration.

  17. Physiologically relevant two-compartment pharmacokinetic models for skin.

    PubMed

    McCarley, K D; Bunge, A L

    2000-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic (compartment) models for skin have been used to predict or analyze absorption of chemical into and through skin. For highly lipophilic chemicals, the stratum corneum (sc) and the viable epidermis (v.e.) both contribute a significant resistance to chemical penetration and thus, both should be included in the model. This paper describes two-compartment models that represent the sc and the ve separately by extending the procedures previously developed for one-compartment models. The two-compartment models described here were developed by matching characteristics of a two-membrane model of skin. These compartment models were compared with membrane representations of the s.c. and v.e. for several different dermal exposure scenarios. When valid, which it is for many chemical exposure scenarios, the two-compartment model developed using characteristic times of the membrane model (model B2) more closely represents the two-membrane model than the model developed with equilibrium conditions of the membrane model (model B1). When model B2 is invalid, then model B1 is recommended. Criteria are provided for choosing from the various one- or two-compartment model options. PMID:10944386

  18. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  19. Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

    2013-09-27

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 ?g/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells. PMID:23603023

  20. Duality of the murine CD8 compartment

    PubMed Central

    Genolet, Raphaël; Leignadier, Julie; Østerås, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Stevenson, Brian J.; Luescher, Immanuel F.

    2014-01-01

    CD8?? plays crucial roles in the thymic selection, differentiation, and activation of some, but not all, CD8+ T cells, whereas CD8?? does not. To investigate these roles, we produced mice that expressed transgene P14 T-cell receptor ? (TCR?) chain and CD8? or did not (WT and KO mice, respectively). The primary CD8+ T-cell response to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was predominantly Db/GP33 specific and CD8 independent in KO mice and was mostly CD8 dependent in WT mice. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from KO mice failed to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ and to kill via perforin/granzyme. Their strong Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-? response were signaled via a Ca2+-independent, PI3K-dependent pathway. This was also true for 15–20% of CD8-independent CTL found in WT mice. Conversely, the perforin/granzyme-mediated killing and IFN-? response of CD8-dependent CTL were signaled via a Ca2+, p56lck, and nuclear factor of activated T cells-dependent pathway. Deep sequencing of millions of TCR? chain transcripts revealed that the TCR repertoires of preimmune CD8+ T cells were highly diverse, but those of LCMV Db/GP33-specific CTL, especially from KO mice, were narrow. The immune repertoires exhibited biased use of V? segments that encoded different complementary-determining region 1? (CDR1?) and CDR2? sequences. We suggest that TCR from WT CD8-independent T cells may engage MHC–peptide complexes in a manner unfavorable for efficient CD8 engagement and Ca2+ signaling but permissive for Ca2+-independent, PI3K-dependent signaling. This duality of the CD8 compartment may provide organisms with broader protective immunity. PMID:24594598

  1. A rare case of acute compartment syndrome after saphenectomy.

    PubMed

    Milone, Marco; Venetucci, Piero; Iervolino, Salvatore; Taffuri, Caterina; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Milone, Francesco

    2013-05-16

    Saphenectomy is one of the most validated criteria to treat varicose veins of the lower legs. Although many complications were well described, little is known about compartment syndrome due to muscle ischemia caused by constrictive bandages applied after stripping of varicose veins. We presented a case of successful conservative treatment of compartment syndrome after saphenectomy. Rehabilitation was found effective in improving fatigue, stiffness and tenderness showing the effectiveness of the combined conservative-rehabilitative treatment. However conservative treatment could not be considered the treatment of choice in daily practice. A severity score assessment of compartment syndrome should be useful to assess to which patients is allowed to not perform fasciotomy. PMID:24303473

  2. Protein Sorting by Directed Maturation of Golgi Compartments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bernard Allan (The Scripps Research Institute; Department of Cell Biology)

    1999-07-02

    How does the Golgi stack mediate transport of cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface? A possibility is that cargo-containing vesicles derived from the ER form early Golgi compartments that then mature by retrieval of processing enzymes from later Golgi compartments. Maturation continues at terminal Golgi compartments by retrieval of transport components from the endocytic pathway to promote sorting of cargo to multiple cellular destinations. Hence, retrograde movement may integrate exocytic and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells and coordinate membrane flow and cargo transport through the Golgi stack.

  3. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur...all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand-held fire...

  4. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur...all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand-held fire...

  5. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur during...reach all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire...

  6. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur during...reach all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire...

  7. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur...all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand-held fire...

  8. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur during...reach all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire...

  9. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur...all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand-held fire...

  10. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur during...reach all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire...

  11. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur during...reach all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire...

  12. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed...to extinguish any fire that may occur...all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand-held fire...

  13. The impact of discrete compartments of a multi-compartment collagen-GAG scaffold on overall construct biophysical properties

    PubMed Central

    Weisgerber, D.W.; Kelkhoff, D.O.; Caliari, S.R.; Harley, B.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthopedic interfaces such as the tendon-bone junction (TBJ) present unique challenges for biomaterials development. Here we describe a multi-compartment collagen–GAG scaffold fabricated via lyophilization that contains discrete mineralized (CGCaP) and non-mineralized (CG) regions joined by a continuous interface. Modifying CGCaP preparation approaches, we demonstrated scaffold variants of increasing mineral content (40 vs. 80 wt% CaP). We report the impact of fabrication parameters on microstructure, composition, elastic modulus, and permeability of the entire multi-compartment scaffold as well as discrete mineralized and non-mineralized compartments. Notably, individual mineralized and non-mineralized compartments differentially impacted the global properties of the multi-compartment composite. Of particular interest for the development of mechanically-loaded multi-compartment composites, the elastic modulus and permeability of the entire construct were governed primarily by the non-mineralized and mineralized compartments, respectively. Based on these results we hypothesize spatial variations in scaffold structural, compositional, and mechanical properties may be an important design parameter in orthopedic interface repair. PMID:23973610

  14. Influence of supranutritional vitamin E and copper on ?-tocopherol deposition and susceptibility to lipid oxidation of porcine membranal fractions of M. Psoas major and M. Longissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, C; Jensen, S K; Skibsted, L H; Bertelsen, G

    2000-04-01

    Addition of 200 ppm all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate to pig feed supplemented with 6% high-oleic rapeseed oil gave mitochondrial membranes, which had a lower rate of formation of free radicals as determined by ESR-spectroscopy using the spin-trapping technique. Addition of 175 mg/kg copper to the feed, with or without all-rac-?-tocopherol acetate addition was not pro-oxidative (or anti-oxidative). While these effects were similar for both the oxidative M. Psoas major (PM), and the glycolytic, M. Longissimus dorsi (LD), differences between muscles were characterised by a higher activity of ?-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A-dehydrogenase (HAD) and citrate synthase (CS), and a lower activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in PM than in LD (p<0.001). The concentration of ?-tocopherol in muscles, liver, and plasma was influenced by the ?-tocopherol level in the feed (p<0.001). The concentration of fatty acids in microsomes was not influenced by dietary treatments, but was higher in PM than in LD. However, the total concentration of fatty acids in the mitochondria of PM was higher in pigs supplemented with all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate. PMID:22060795

  15. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. The Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Current Management of Acute Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, James; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim S

    2014-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency warranting prompt evaluation and treatment. It can occur with any elevation in interstitial pressure in a closed osseo-fascial compartment. Resultant ischaemic damage may be irreversible within six hours and can result in long-term morbidity and even death. The diagnosis is largely clinical with the classical description of ‘pain out of proportion to the injury’. Compartment pressure monitors can be a helpful adjunct where the diagnosis is in doubt. Initial treatment is with the removal of any constricting dressings or casts, avoiding hypotension and optimizing tissue perfusion by keeping the limb at heart level. If symptoms persist, definitive treatment is necessary with timely surgical decompression of all the involved compartments. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of ACS. PMID:25067973

  17. Fire spread and percolation in polydisperse compartment structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekri, N.; Zekri, L.; Lallemand, C.; Pizzo, Y.; Kaiss, A.; Clerc, J.-P.; Porterie, B.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we employ a cellular automata and percolation analysis to model fire spread in polydisperse amorphous massively multi-compartmented structures (e.g. naval vessels, high-rise buildings, warehouses, or nuclear plants). Various shapes and sizes of compartments are considered. Each compartment is composed of nc equal-size cells. It is found that increasing nc increases fingering and lacunarities of fire patterns, and subsequently front roughness. However, this also increases the probability of fire propagation throughout the system as the percolation threshold presents a power-law decrease with nc -1 for small values of nc. For large polydisperse compartments, the propagation/non propagation transition seems to be size-independent. A special emphasis is put on the dynamics of fire propagation. Further study is needed to evaluate network properties that should help in developing better strategies to reduce fire consequences.

  18. 9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  19. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (a) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which it may be subjected in operation. (b) Cowling must meet the drainage and ventilation...

  20. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  1. 14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...resulting from each of the following conditions: (1) The penetration of the compartment by a portion of an engine following an...be considered in determining the probability of failure or penetration and probable size of openings, provided that...

  2. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial loads resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (c) For airplanes that...

  3. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial loads resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (c) For airplanes that...

  4. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial loads resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (c) For airplanes that...

  5. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial loads resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (c) For airplanes that...

  6. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial loads resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (c) For airplanes that...

  7. COMPBRN: a computer code for modeling compartment fires

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.O.

    1983-05-01

    The computer code COMPBRN deterministically models the behavior of fire in a compartment. This manual presents information necessary to run COMPBRN, including descriptions of required input and resulting output. Also included are a sample problem and a listing of the code (written in FORTRAN for an IBM 3033 computer). This manual is to be used in conjunction with NUREG/CR-2269, Probabilistic Models for the Behavior of Compartment Fires, August 1981, which describes the fire models employed by COMPBRN.

  8. Return to activity following fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Irion, Val; Magnussen, Robert A; Miller, Timothy L; Kaeding, Christopher C

    2014-10-01

    Diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is relatively rare but has been well documented in athletes. There are, however, few reports regarding return to athletic activity after surgery among elite-level athletes. We hypothesized that a majority of elite-level athletes would successfully return to their previous level of competition following fasciotomy for CECS. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify elite-level athletes (collegiate or professional sport participation) who underwent fasciotomy for CECS over a 3-year period. Data collected included sport or activity, treatment and surgical details, time away from sport/activity after surgery, and ability to return to prior level of activity. Six males and seven females were included in the analysis. Patient age ranged from 17 to 24 years with a mean of 19.7 years. Six patients underwent unilateral lower extremity compartment release, and seven underwent bilateral lower extremity compartment release. The anterior and lateral compartments alone were released in 11 patients (84.6%). Two patients (15.4%) underwent four-compartment releases. Eleven patients (84.6%) were able to return to their previous elite level of sport participation at a mean of 10.6 weeks following surgical fasciotomy. Patients who had four-compartment release had a more than 3.5 week average longer return to full sporting activities (p = 0.011). Fasciotomy is effective in allowing elite athletes with CECS to return to sport. PMID:24664450

  9. The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.

    PubMed

    Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

    2014-10-01

    A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. PMID:24929991

  10. Assembly of complete, functionally active herpes simplex virus DNA replication compartments and recruitment of associated viral and cellular proteins in transient cotransfection assays.

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L; Hayward, G S

    1997-01-01

    Early during the herpes simplex virus (HSV) lytic cycle or in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors, core viral replication machinery proteins accumulate in intranuclear speckled punctate prereplicative foci, some of which colocalize with numerous sites of host cellular DNA synthesis initiation known as replisomes. At later times, in the absence of inhibitors, several globular or large irregularly shaped replication compartments are formed; these compartments also contain progeny viral DNA and incorporate the IE175(ICP4) transcription factor together with several cellular proteins involved in DNA replication and repair. In this study, we demonstrate that several forms of both prereplication foci and active viral replication compartments that display an appearance similar to that of the compartments in HSV-infected cells can be successfully assembled in transient assays in DNA-transfected cells receiving genes encoding all seven essential HSV replication fork proteins together with oriS target plasmid DNA. Furthermore, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-pulse-labeled DNA synthesis initiation sites colocalized with the HSV single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) in these replication compartments, implying that active viral DNA replication may be occurring. The assembly of complete HSV replication compartments and incorporation of BrdU were both abolished by treatment with phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) and by omission of any one of the seven viral replication proteins, UL5, UL8, UL9, UL42, UL52, SSB, and Pol, that are essential for viral DNA replication. Consistent with the fact that both HSV IE175 and IE63(ICP27) localize within replication compartments in HSV-infected cells, the assembled HSV replication compartments were also able to recruit both of these essential regulatory proteins. Blocking viral DNA synthesis with PAA, but not omission of oriS, prevented the association of IE175 with prereplication structures. The assembled HSV replication compartments also redistributed cotransfected cellular p53 into the viral replication compartments. However, the other two HSV immediate-early nuclear proteins IE110(ICP0) and IE68(ICP22) did not enter the replication compartments in either infected or transfected cells. PMID:9060678

  11. Modified Block Letters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Simonson

    2009-12-05

    Objective: Properly type a modified block style business letter. In your previous assignment, you created block style business letters. The letters, whether business or personal business, had all the content lined up on the left-hand side of the page. This is what made them block style. Today you are going to learn about modified block style letters. Modified block letters ...

  12. Transport and Oxidation of Compartment Fire Exhaust Gases in an Adjacent Corridor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Y. Lattimer; David S. Ewens; Uri Vandsburger; Richard J. Roby

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation of underventilated compartment fire exhaust gases during their transport down a corridor adjacent to the compartment was experimentally investigated. External burning from a compartment has been reported to decrease the toxic exhaust gas levels downstream of the compartment. The focus of the investigation was to identify the phenomena controlling the oxidation of the combustion gases external of the

  13. Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico L. Rezende; Eva M. Albert; Miguel A. Fortuna; Jordi Bascompte

    2009-01-01

    A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments,

  14. A model of cross-bridge attachment to actin in the A*M*ATP state based on x-ray diffraction from permeabilized rabbit psoas muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jin; Xu, Sengen; Yu, Leepo C

    2002-01-01

    A model of cross-bridges binding to actin in the weak binding A*M*ATP state is presented. The modeling was based on the x-ray diffraction patterns from the relaxed skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers where ATP hydrolysis was inhibited by N-phenylmaleimide treatment (S. Xu, J. Gu, G. Melvin, L. C. Yu. 2002. Biophys. J. 82:2111-2122). Calculations included both the myosin filaments and the actin filaments of the muscle cells, and the binding to actin was assumed to be single headed. To achieve a good fit, considerable flexibility in the orientation of the myosin head and the position of the S1-S2 junction is necessary, such that the myosin head can bind to a nearby actin whereas the tail end was kept in the proximity of the helical track of the myosin filament. Hence, the best-fit model shows that the head binds to actin in a wide range of orientations, and the tail end deviates substantially from its lattice position in the radial direction (approximately 60 A). Surprisingly, the best fit model reveals that the detached head, whose location thus far has remained undetected, seems to be located close to the surface of the myosin filament. Another significant requirement of the best-fit model is that the binding site on actin is near the N terminus of the actin subunit, a position distinct from the putative rigor-binding site. The results support the idea that the essential role played by the weak binding states M*ATP <--> A*M*ATP for force generation lies in its flexibility, because the probability of attachment is greatly increased, compared with the weak binding M*ADP*P(i) <--> A*M*ADP*P(i) states. PMID:11916868

  15. Numerical modelling of crural fascia mechanical interaction with muscular compartments.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Piero G; Pachera, Paola; Natali, Arturo N

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of the crural fascia with muscular compartments and surrounding tissues can be at the origin of different pathologies, such as compartment syndrome. This pathology consists in the onset of excessive intracompartmental pressure, which can have serious consequences for the patient, compromising blood circulation. The investigation of compartment syndrome etiology also takes into account the alteration of crural fascia mechanical properties as a cause of the syndrome, where the fascial stiffening would result in the rise of intracompartmental pressure. This work presents a computational approach toward evaluating some biomechanical aspects of the problem, within the context of a more global viewpoint. Finite element analyses of the interaction phenomena of the crural fascia with adjacent regions are reported here. This study includes the effects of a fascial stiffness increase along the proximal-distal direction and their possible clinical implications. Furthermore, the relationship between different pre-strain levels of the crural fascia in the proximal-distal direction and the rise of internal pressure in muscular compartments are considered. The numerical analyses can clarify which aspects could be directly implied in the rise of compartment syndrome, leading to greater insight into muscle-fascia mechanical phenomena, as well as promoting experimental investigation and clinical analysis of the syndrome. PMID:25991717

  16. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... In first-degree heart block, the heart's electrical signals are slowed as they move from the atria ... Block In this type of heart block, electrical signals between the atria and ventricles are slowed to ...

  17. Nonconventional fully developed polyethylene and wood compartment fires

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, B.; Hadvig, S.

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen experimental fires with polyethylene and wood fuel were carried out in a full-scale compartment. The combustion air was supplied by a fan and the special feature of the compartment was the use of a slit which enabled the vertical position of the neutral plane to be well defined for outside observation. Large vertical and horizontal gradients in the gas temperature were found. In the polyethylene fires the highest mean compartment temperature measured was 1200/degree/C. In the fully developed period all fires were ventilation controlled. Simulations of the experiments were carried out by means of a computer program. A general design model for polyethylene fires is proposed. This model is compared with a similar model for wood fires, and the models are applied to structural design. For wood structures and unprotected or lightly protected steel members the polyethylene fire is the more severe. 19 refs.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of general compartment size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özarslan, Evren; Shemesh, Noam; Guan Koay, Cheng; Cohen, Yoram; Basser, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of molecular diffusion on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal can be exploited to estimate compartment size distributions in heterogeneous specimens. Theoretical relationships between the NMR signal intensity at long diffusion times and the moments of a general distribution of isolated pores with characteristic shapes (planar, cylindrical or spherical) are established. A numerical method based on expressing a general diffusion-attenuated NMR signal profile in a series of complete orthogonal basis functions is introduced and subsequently used to estimate the moments of the compartment size distribution. The results on simulated and real data obtained from controlled water-filled microcapillaries demonstrate the power of the approach to create contrast based not only on the mean of the compartment size but also on its variance. The technique can be used to address a variety of problems such as characterizing distributions of droplet sizes in emulsions and of apparent axon diameters in nerve fascicles.

  19. Membrane Traffic and Fusion at Post-Golgi Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Misoon; Jürgens, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Complete sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome a decade ago has facilitated the functional analysis of various biological processes including membrane traffic by which many proteins are delivered to their sites of action and turnover. In particular, membrane traffic between post-Golgi compartments plays an important role in cell signaling, taking care of receptor–ligand interaction and inactivation, which requires secretion, endocytosis, and recycling or targeting to the vacuole for degradation. Here, we discuss recent studies that address the identity of post-Golgi compartments, the machinery involved in traffic and fusion or functionally characterized cargo proteins that are delivered to or pass through post-Golgi compartments. We also provide an outlook on future challenges in this area of research. PMID:22645561

  20. Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Mary Colleen; Dick-Perez, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007). We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission. PMID:25105034

  1. Alpha contamination levels in SMF south cell and compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J.S.

    1998-06-16

    This document describes the detailed contamination survey performed in the Shielded Materials Facility (SMF) South Cell and the four compartments used during the CsCl activities. Smears were obtained at each operating station in South Cell and analyzed at the 325 Building. The smear results indicate that the highest contamination levels are in Compartment 1 and South Cell proper, with significantly lower contamination levels measured in the other three compartments. Although some of the smears indicated the presence of alpha contamination, it will be shown that the source of the alpha contamination was cross-contamination during processing in the 325 Building hot cells and that the SMF is free of alpha contamination. The alpha-free status of South Cell is consistent with process knowledge of previous South Cell activities.

  2. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management

    PubMed Central

    Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

  3. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    PubMed

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

  4. Acute and recurrent effort-related compartment syndrome in sports.

    PubMed

    Martens, M A; Moeyersoons, J P

    1990-01-01

    An effort-related compartmental syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure in a muscle compartment impedes blood flow and compromises metabolic demands of the tissues within that space. One can clinically distinguish acute irreversible and chronic reversible types. The aetiology relates in most instances to a limiting noncompliant fascia surrounding the affected muscle compartment. Sports activity leads to increased muscle volume and if there is a noncompliant fascia this will result in an excessive intracompartmental pressure which interferes with muscle blood flow. As a consequence of a reduced intracompartmental blood flow a reversible (recurrent) or irreversible (acute) exercise ischaemia, a so-called 'compartmental syndrome' occurs. A compartment syndrome is typically encountered in the lower leg, but it can be also observed in the upper leg and even in the forearm. Clinical history plays a key role in the diagnosis. Pain, muscle tightness and cramp-like feeling are the most common complaints. Weakness, paralysis and numbness are seen, especially in the acute syndrome. Symptoms appear at a certain intensity of activity and disappear at rest in the chronic compartment syndrome, but in the acute type pain will persist and will be severe. It is clearly an effort-related pain syndrome. Physical examination is not always useful in diagnosing a recurrent syndrome, but in the acute syndrome one will find high sensitivity to pressure and tenseness over the involved muscle compartment. Decreased or loss of active motion and sensation in the involved compartment are frequently seen. Tissue pressure monitoring can confirm the diagnosis for both types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2408118

  5. A tool to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires—OZone V2. Part 1: pre- and post-flashover compartment fire model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cadorin; J. M. Franssen

    2003-01-01

    The computer code OZone V2 has been developed to help engineers in designing structural elements submitted to compartment fires. The code is based on several recent developments, in compartment fire modelling on one hand and on the effect of localised fires on structures on the other hand. It includes a single compartment fire model that combines a two-zone model and

  6. Mapping the distributions and quantifying the labelling intensities of cell compartments by immunoelectron microscopy: progress towards a coherent set of methods.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Terry M

    2011-12-01

    An important tool in cell biology is the combination of immunogold labelling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by which target molecules (e.g. antigens) are bound specifically to affinity markers (primary antibodies) and then detected and localised with visualisation probes (e.g. colloidal gold particles bound to protein A). Gold particles are electron-dense, punctate and available in different sizes whilst TEM provides high-resolution images of particles and cell compartments. By virtue of these properties, the combination can be used also to quantify one or more defined targets in cell compartments. During the past decade, new ways of quantifying gold labelling within cells have been devised. Their efficiency and validity rely on sound principles of specimen sampling, event counting and inferential statistics. These include random selection of items at each sampling stage (e.g. specimen blocks, thin sections, microscopical fields), stereological analysis of cell ultrastructure, unbiased particle counting and statistical evaluation of a suitable null hypothesis (no difference in the intensity or pattern of labelling between compartments or groups of cells). The following approaches are possible: (i) A target molecule can be tested for preferential labelling by mapping the localisation of gold particles across a set of compartments. (ii) Data from wild-type and knockdown/knockout control cells can be used to correct raw gold particle counts, estimate specific labelling densities and then test for preferential labeling. (iii) The same antigen can be mapped in two or more groups of cells to test whether there are experimental shifts in compartment labelling patterns. (iv) A variant of this approach uses more than one size of gold particle to test whether or not different antigens colocalise in one or more compartments. (v) In studies involving antigen translocation, absolute numbers of gold particles can be mapped over compartments at specific positions within polarised, oriented or dividing cells. Here, the current state of the art is reviewed and approaches are illustrated with virtual datasets. PMID:21999926

  7. Improvements in compartment fire modeling and simulation of experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, G.; Apostolakis, G.; Siu, N.

    1985-04-01

    An integral part of a probabilistic analysis of the risk from fires in nuclear power plants is the estimation of the fire severity in compartments. The computer code COMPBRN implements physical models that predict the thermal hazards, e.g., temperatures and heat fluxes, during a compartment fire, as well as the failure time of objects, such as cables, that are subjected to these hazards. The COMPBRN II code is an improved version of COMPBRN; it includes radiative and convective heat losses from fuel elements and distinguishes between damage and ignition thresholds. Comparison with experimental results shows that the modifications generally lead to improved predictions.

  8. Diffusion Effects on Longitudinal Relaxation in Poorly Mixed Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. R.; Ye, Q.; Neil, J. J.; Ackerman, J. J. H.; Garbow, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion of spins between physical or virtual, communicating compartments having different states of longitudinal magnetization leads to diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation. Herein, in two model systems, the effects of diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation are explored experimentally and analyzed quantitatively. In the first case, longitudinal relaxation in a single slice of a water phantom is monitored spectroscopically as a function of slice thickness. In the second case, mimicking vascular flow/diffusion effects, longitudinal relaxation is monitored in a two-compartment, semi-permeable fiber phantom. In both cases, apparent longitudinal relaxation, though clearly multi-exponential, is well-modeled as bi-exponential. PMID:21524595

  9. Primary Cilia and Dendritic Spines: Different but Similar Signaling Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Doroquez, David B.; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures. PMID:24048681

  10. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. The anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. van Niftrik; John A. Fuerst; J. Gijs Kuenen; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single ladderane lipid-containing membrane. The anammox bacteria, first found in a wastewater treatment plant in The Netherlands, have the potential

  12. An Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter with Application to Compartment Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Levent Ozbek; Murat Efe

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the ingestion and subsequent metabolism of a drug in a given individual, are investigated through the use of compartmental models. An adaptive formulation of the widely used extended Kalman filter (EKF) has been derived in order to solve the resulting nonlinear estimation problem at the output of the compartments. The adaptive EKF employs a forgetting factor to

  13. A new look at compartment fires, part II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Z. Harmathy

    1972-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper in which the author has endeavored to present all available information on compartment\\u000a fires in a consistent theoretical framework. This well-documented review of the state of the art should serve as a valuable\\u000a reference for researchers for some time to come.

  14. An Experimental Investigation of Glass Breakage in Compartment Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Skelly; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been completed which examined the breaking of window glass by fire. The experiments were carried out in a compartment designed to achieve a two-layer fire environment characteristic of normal building fires. The experi mental data was collected from two test groups: the first for windows with their edges insulated from the fire (edge-protected) as occurs in

  15. Mathematical Model of a Ventilation Controlled Compartment Fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Sauer; E. E. Smith

    1983-01-01

    A release rate model for predicting the course of developing fires in a compart ment has been in use for several years. Application of the model was limited to those conditions when oxygen concentrations did not limit the rate of heat generation. This work extends the model to include the post-flashover and ven tilation controlled period of a fire.

  16. A new look at compartment fires, part I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Z. Harmathy

    1972-01-01

    This is the first part of a two-part paper in which the author has endeavored to present all available information on compartment\\u000a fires in a consistent theoretical framework. This well-documented review of the state of the art should serve as a valuable\\u000a reference for researchers for some time to come.

  17. A new approach to modeling heat transfer in compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Ghojel

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer models most often used in fire engineering practice to predict the temperature of structural elements exposed to fires in compartments adopt a radiation component which assumes that the fire is separated from the surrounding surfaces by perfectly transparent media. As a result the predicted temperatures usually differ significantly from the measured values. This paper describes a relatively simple

  18. Cfd Modelling Of Combustion And Heat Transfer In Compartment Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Lewis; J. B. Moss; P. A. Rubini

    1997-01-01

    The field modelling of compartment fires incorporates increasingly complex representations of the physical and chemical processes which may occur and these models, in turn, demand detailed evaluation. The influence of alternative descriptions of combustion in the fire source and the introduction of a ray tracing radiation model (discrete transfer ) are assessed in this paper within the framework of progressively

  19. New temperature correlation for forced-ventilated compartment fires

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, K.L.; Alvares, N.J.; Pagni, P.J.

    1986-05-30

    Forced-ventilated compartments are a common environment for fire growth in sealed or high-rise structures. Currently, no method exists for reliably estimating the fire hazard in these enclosures. Using data from compartment fires in the forced-ventilation facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a simple correlation has been developed following the methods of McCaffrey, Quintiere, and Harkleroad. The upper-layer temperature rise above ambient, ..delta..T = T/sub u/ - T/sub infinity/, is given as a function of the fire heat-release rate, Q, the compartment mass-ventilation rate, m, the gas specific-heat capacity, c/sub p/, the compartment surface area, A/sub W/, and an effective heat-transfer coefficient based on t and h/sub k/. The nondimensional form of the best fit to the data is ..delta..T/T/sub infinity/ = 0.63 (Q/mc/sub p/T/sub infinity/)/sup 0.72/ (h/sub k/A/sub W//mc/sub p/)/sup -0.36/. This confirms the correlation suggested by McCaffrey, et al. For their free-ventilation data, the coefficient increases to 0.77. All data are well fit by a coefficient of 0.7, while the powers remain unchanged. Alternatives for, limits, on, and the usefulness of such correlations are discussed.

  20. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...less than that required for the tank shell and applied to the outside surface of tank head flanges. The cylinder shall...flange portion of the compartment tank head tightly. The cylinder shall...flange for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  1. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...less than that required for the tank shell and applied to the outside surface of tank head flanges. The cylinder shall...flange portion of the compartment tank head tightly. The cylinder shall...flange for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  2. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...less than that required for the tank shell and applied to the outside surface of tank head flanges. The cylinder shall...flange portion of the compartment tank head tightly. The cylinder shall...flange for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  3. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...less than that required for the tank shell and applied to the outside surface of tank head flanges. The cylinder shall...flange portion of the compartment tank head tightly. The cylinder shall...flange for a distance of at least two times the plate...

  4. Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Kramer, Kim; Smith-Jones, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John; Larson, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of 131I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Methods Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[CIAR]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[CIA], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC [CIAR]/AUC[CIA]). Results Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R=0.95±0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R=0.92±0.11 versus 0.77±0.21, p=0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of 131I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[CIAR]) and therapeutic ratio ([AUC[CIAR]/AUC[CIA

  5. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9...MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) §...

  6. 38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, with salon wall panels removed to show engine frame. Main connecting rod from crank to walking beam appears at extreme right of view, top of cylinder and piston rod appear at extreme left. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  7. Test strips detect different CO2 concentrations in closed compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Four different test strips, using crystal violet for one pair of strips and basic fuchsin as a dye for the second pair, give unambiguous colorimetric indications of four different concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of a closed compartment. Tetraethylene pentamine is used as a dye decoloring agent.

  8. Fulminant crural compartment syndrome preceded by psychogenic polydipsia.

    PubMed

    Ulstrup, Anton; Ugleholdt, Randi; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral anterolateral crural compartment syndrome elicited by hyponatraemia and psychogenic polydipsia. The unusual constellation of clinical findings and diminished pain expression made initial diagnostic procedures challenging. The possible pathogenesis and treatment options are discussed. Impairment of lower extremity function at follow-up was serious and permanent. PMID:25976194

  9. PRECONDITIONING BLOCK TOEPLITZ MATRICES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS K. HUCKLE; DIMITRIOS NOUTSOS

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the spectral behavior of preconditioned block Toeplitz matrices with small non- Toeplitz blocks. These matrices have a quite different behavior than scalar or mulitlevel Toeplitz matrices. Based on the connection between Toeplitz and Hankel matrices we derive some negative results on eigenvalue clustering for ill-conditioned block Toeplitz matrices. Furthermore, we identify Block Toeplitz matrices that are easy to

  10. MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

    2012-07-01

    As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are assessed redundantly showing excellent agreement for mass balance purposes with more than 95 % for carbon recovery. The experimental determination of nitrogen conversion yields has shown that more than 95 % for NH4+ is converted to NO2- in the first step and that more than 0.975 NO2- is transformed to NO3- in the second step. The biomass production yields are 0.4 and 0.3 g DM mol N-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi respectively. The maximum nitrogen oxidation rates are 0.9 and 3.5 mM day-1 respectively, indicating a limitation by oxygen transfer. Keywords: autotrophy, Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, ionic chromatography, flow cytometry

  11. Synchronized Retrovirus Fusion in Cells Expressing Alternative Receptor Isoforms Releases the Viral Core into Distinct Sub-cellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Marin, Mariana; Kondo, Naoyuki; Melikyan, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    Disparate enveloped viruses initiate infection by fusing with endosomes. However, the highly diverse and dynamic nature of endosomes impairs mechanistic studies of fusion and identification of sub-cellular sites supporting the nucleocapsid release. We took advantage of the extreme stability of avian retrovirus-receptor complexes at neutral pH and of acid-dependence of virus-endosome fusion to isolate the latter step from preceding asynchronous internalization/trafficking steps. Viruses were trapped within endosomes in the presence of NH4Cl. Removal of NH4Cl resulted in a quick and uniform acidification of all subcellular compartments, thereby initiating synchronous viral fusion. Single virus imaging demonstrated that fusion was initiated within seconds after acidification and often culminated in the release of the viral core from an endosome. Comparative studies of cells expressing either the transmembrane or GPI-anchored receptor isoform revealed that the transmembrane receptor delivered the virus to more fusion-permissive compartments. Thus the identity of endosomal compartments, in addition to their acidity, appears to modulate viral fusion. A more striking manifestation of the virus delivery to distinct compartments in the presence of NH4Cl was the viral core release into the cytosol of cells expressing the transmembrane receptor and into endosomes of cells expressing the GPI-anchored isoform. In the latter cells, the newly released cores exhibited restricted mobility and were exposed to a more acidic environment than the cytoplasm. These cores appear to enter into the cytosol after an additional slow temperature-dependent step. We conclude that the NH4Cl block traps the virus within intralumenal vesicles of late endosomes in cells expressing the GPI-anchored receptor. Viruses surrounded by more than one endosomal membrane release their core into the cytoplasm in two steps – fusion with an intralumenal vesicle followed by a yet unknown temperature-dependent step that liberates the core from late endosomes. PMID:22589725

  12. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

  13. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  14. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  15. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  16. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  17. View of compartment D16, passing room; shaft and universal joints ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment D-16, passing room; shaft and universal joints at top of photograph transmit control forces to steering unit in compartment d-23. (p62) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. 25.858 Section...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification...functioning of each fire detector circuit...effectiveness of the detection system must be shown...

  19. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. 25.858 Section...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification...functioning of each fire detector circuit...effectiveness of the detection system must be shown...

  20. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. 25.858 Section...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification...functioning of each fire detector circuit...effectiveness of the detection system must be shown...

  1. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. 25.858 Section...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification...functioning of each fire detector circuit...effectiveness of the detection system must be shown...

  2. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. 25.858 Section...compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification...functioning of each fire detector circuit...effectiveness of the detection system must be shown...

  3. Characterization of a Compartment Syndrome-like Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Oyster, Nick; Witt, Michelle; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Poddar, Minakshi; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is caused by an elevation of pressure within a muscular compartment which can be caused by numerous factors, including blunt trauma. In this study, we characterized a rodent model of CS-like injury. METHODS Forty male athymic rats received a standardized injury of ischemia and compression to their hindlimbs, while the intracompartmental pressure (ICP) was measured using an implantable transmitter. Tetanic muscle function was evaluated, and histology was performed on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. RESULTS ICPs were held at 260.70±2.70mmHg during injury. Injured muscles recovered 59% of their total function 4 weeks after injury, and histology showed high levels of edema, inflammation (CD68+), angiogenesis (CD31+), and fibrosis within 72 hours following injury. DISCUSSION We describe a novel CS-like injury model and a novel method to measure ICP which could potentially be used to develop innovative therapies to manage CS injury in humans. PMID:25242666

  4. Experimental study on elevated fires in a ceiling vented compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaqing; Lu, Shouxiang; Li, Qiang; Li, Changhai; Yuan, Man; Yuen, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The impacts of elevation on fires in a ceiling vented compartment were investigated experimentally. The flame behavior of elevated fires was recorded. Various parameters including the fuel mass loss rate, the light extinction coefficient, the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature were measured. Results indicated that the variations of the flame behavior were consistent with that of the fuel mass loss rate. The fire location significantly impacted the light extinction coefficient, the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature, which all showed distinct stratification phenomena. For a higher elevated fire, the average fuel loss rate and the overall light extinction coefficient were smaller, the oxygen concentration was higher and the gas temperature was lower. In addition, the smoke descending was slower. From the perspective of those parameters the fire was less hazardous if the fire was elevated higher, which was totally different from the elevated fires in closed compartments.

  5. Understanding tumor heterogeneity as functional compartments - superorganisms revisited

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence broadens our understanding of tumors as highly heterogeneous populations derived from one common progenitor. In this review we portray various stages of tumorigenesis, tumor progression, self-seeding and metastasis in analogy to the superorganisms of insect societies to exemplify the highly complex architecture of a neoplasm as a system of functional "castes." Accordingly, we propose a model in which clonal expansion and cumulative acquisition of genetic alterations produce tumor compartments each equipped with distinct traits and thus distinct functions that cooperate to establish clinically apparent tumors. This functional compartment model also suggests mechanisms for the self-construction of tumor stem cell niches. Thus, thinking of a tumor as a superorganism will provide systemic insight into its functional compartmentalization and may even have clinical implications. PMID:21619636

  6. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias [Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 25, 5000 Odense C (Denmark); Strano, Sabrina [Department of Experimental Oncology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Via delle Messi d'oro, 156, 00158 Rome (Italy); Roth, Judith [Abteilung Gastroenterologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Blandino, Giovanni [Department of Experimental Oncology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Via delle Messi d'oro, 156, 00158 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  7. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  8. Ceiling Jet-Driven Wall Flows in Compartment Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEONARD Y. COOPER

    1988-01-01

    Analytic estimates are developed for depth of penetration and lateral entrainment of negatively buoyant, ceiling jet-driven wall flows during early times of compartment fire scenarios. When walls are not too far from the fire source of the order of the fire-to-ceiling distance, it is found that the penetration of these downward wall flows is a large fraction of the fire-to-ceiling

  9. Light Timber-Framed Walls Exposed to Compartment Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Thomas; A. H. Buchanan; A. J. Carr; C. M. Fleischmann; P. J. Moss

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the equivalent time of exposure (to the ISO-834 standard fire), for a number of light timber-framed wall assemblies exposed to a range of time temperature curves characteristic of compartment fires.This analysis considered only the thermal behavior of the walls. Load bearing performance will be the subject of the next phase of the

  10. On modelling combustion, radiation and soot processes in compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Yeoh; R. K. K. Yuen; S. C. P. Chueng; W. K. Kwok

    2003-01-01

    A Reynolds-Averaging-Navier–Stokes Computational-Fluid-Dynamics-based fire model is developed to solve a turbulent buoyant fire in a single-, two- and multi-compartment structure. The model is evaluated as part of a complete prediction procedure involving the modelling of the simultaneously occurring flow, convection, combustion, soot generation and burnout and radiation phenomena. Computational results are compared against available experimental data. Proper handling of the

  11. Ceiling jet-driven wall flows in compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Y. Cooper

    1987-01-01

    Analytic estimates are developed for the early depth of penetration of and the lateral entrainment into negatively buoyant, ceiling jet-driven wall flows which are generic to compartment fire scenarios. When walls are not too far from the fire source, of the order of the fire-to-ceiling distance, it is found that the penetration of the downward flow near such walls is

  12. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following Vascular and Neurological Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Mahmoud A.; Radwan, Moustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is a serious but rare condition that has recently been increasingly reported in literature. This report presents two cases that followed neurological and vascular injuries (first case: an injury of the superior gluteal artery; second case: neurological injury bilaterally). A high index of suspicion and attention is needed to early diagnose this condition due to the possibility of developing serious and potentially fatal complications and difficulty in management. PMID:24711822

  14. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  15. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  16. Stochastic Simulation of Biological Systems with Dynamical Compartment Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Versari; Nadia Busi

    2007-01-01

    The Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm represents one of the main physical abstractions exploited for the simulation of biological systems modeled by means of concurrent calculi. While the faithful modelling of bio-systems often requires multi-compartment semantics, the original Gillespie algorithm considers only one fixed-size volume. In this paper we introduce an extended formalisation of the above algorithm which preserves the original

  17. Compartment A19, paint & oils locker from bulkhead #9 aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-19, paint & oils locker from bulkhead #9 aft to forward; wood storage shelves at center of photograph are for storing containers. Sea valve at lower right is on the starboard side. This would be opened if it was necessary to scuttle the vessel. Heavy frame marked "A-2" supports armored protective deck. (03) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  19. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  20. Opioid overdose with gluteal compartment syndrome and acute peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adrish, Muhammad; Duncalf, Richard; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda; Venkatram, Sindhaghatta

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Gluteal compartment syndrome • acute peripheral nauropathy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Heroin addiction is common, with an estimated 3.7 million Americans reporting to have used it at some point in their lives. Complications of opiate overdose include infection, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory depression and central or peripheral nervous system neurological complications. Conclusions: We present a 42-year-old male admitted after heroin use with heroin-related peripheral nervous system complication preceded by an acute gluteal compartment syndrome and severe rhabdomyolysis. Case Report: Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of the compartment syndrome can lead to full recovery while any delay in management can be devastating and can lead to permanent disability. The presence of peripheral nervous system injuries may portend a poor prognosis and can also lead to long term disability. Careful neurological evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral nervous system injuries is of paramount importance, as these may be absent at presentation in patients with opioid overdose. There is a potential risk of delaying a necessary treatment like fasciotomy in these patients by falsely attributing clinical symptoms to a preexisting neuropathy. Early EMG and nerve conduction studies should be considered when the etiology of underlying neurological weakness is unclear. PMID:24459539

  1. The subapical compartment: a traffic center in membrane polarity development.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Dick; Tyteca, Donatienne; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D

    2004-05-01

    Spatially separated apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains that have distinct functions and molecular compositions are a characteristic feature of epithelial cell polarity. The subapical compartment (SAC), also known as the common endosome (CE), where endocytic pathways from both surfaces merge, plays a crucial role in the maintenance and probably the biogenesis of these distinct membrane domains. Although differences in morphology are apparent, the same principal features of a SAC can be distinguished in different types of epithelial cells. As polarity develops, the compartment acquires several distinct machineries that, in conjunction with the cytoskeleton, are necessary for polarized trafficking. Disrupting trafficking via the SAC and hence bypassing its sorting machinery, as occurs upon actin depolymerization, leads to mis-sorting of apical and basolateral molecules, thereby compromising the development of polarity. The structural and functional integrity of the compartment in part depends on microtubules. Moreover, the acquisition of a particular set of Rab proteins, including Rab11 and Rab3, appears to be crucial in regulating molecular sorting and vesicular transport relevant both to recycling to either plasma membrane domain and to de novo assembly of the apical domain. Furthermore, subcompartmentalization of the SAC appears to be key to its various functions. PMID:15126620

  2. Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

    2008-12-10

    This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

  3. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072 Section 56...Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072 Section 57...Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072 Section 57...Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072 Section 57...Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072 Section 57...Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072 Section 56...Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072 Section 56...Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072 Section 56...Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072 Section 57...Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072 Section 56...Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

  13. Smoke production, radiation heat transfer and fire growth in a liquid-fuelled compartment fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. M. Pierce; J. B. Moss

    2007-01-01

    A detailed investigation is described of the interaction between fire development, smoke production and radiative exchange in a half-scale ASTM compartment in which the source is a heptane pool fire. Measurements of heat flux, fuel mass loss rate, ventilation flow rates, temperature and soot volume fraction are reported for the compartment for varying door widths. Data from the compartment are

  14. The role of thermal radiation on the initiation of flashover in a compartment fire

    E-print Network

    Yuen, Walter W.

    The role of thermal radiation on the initiation of flashover in a compartment fire W.W. Yuen a,*, W in a compartment fire will be demonstrated. A one zone model is developed with the objective of capturing the key rights reserved. 1. Introduction The importance of the phenomenon of flashover in compartment fire

  15. Component structure of event-related fMRI responses in the different neurovascular compartments

    E-print Network

    Component structure of event-related fMRI responses in the different neurovascular compartments, capillary, and draining venous neurovascular compartments, respectively. We then examined the event-related fMRI BOLD responses in each of these delineated neurovascular compartments, hypothesizing

  16. 9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...50 Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...tag thereto. No equipment, alleyway, pen or compartment so tagged shall be...

  17. Loose block independence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Rahe; Laif Swanson

    1981-01-01

    A finite state stationary process is defined to be loosely block independent if long blocks are almost independent in the\\u000a $$\\\\overline f $$\\u000a sense. We show that loose block independence is preserved under Kakutani equivalence and\\u000a $$\\\\overline f $$\\u000a limits. We show directly that any loosely block independent process is the\\u000a $$\\\\overline f $$\\u000a limit of Bernoulli processes and is

  18. The osmotically sensitive potassium and sodium compartments of synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Marchbanks, R. M.

    1967-01-01

    1. Synaptosomes are pinched-off nerve terminals whose components can be liberated by osmotic `shock'. A synaptosome preparation run through a Sephadex column that was eluted with an iso-osmotic solution retained its small ions, whereas when the column was eluted hypo-osmotically the small ions were lost. In this way the osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ of synaptosomes were measured. Measurements of the lactate dehydrogenase occluded within the synaptosome were also made. The release of osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase had similar characteristics with respect to the degree of osmotic `shock' necessary and the action of lytic agents. 2. The distribution of osmotically sensitive Na+, K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase in the subfractions of a crude mitochondrial preparation was examined. The synaptosome fraction was the richest source of these constituents. 3. On standing at 5° in iso-osmotic solution Na+ and K+ were lost from synaptosomes, whereas the amount of occluded lactate dehydrogenase remained stable, suggesting that the synaptosome membrane retained its integrity but that Na+ and K+ diffused through it out of the osmotically sensitive compartment. 4. The uptake of Na+ and K+ into the osmotically sensitive compartment was examined. At 5° the rates of uptake of Na+ and K+ were found to be equal to the rates of loss of these ions when correction to a uniform concentration gradient had been made. K+ travelled across the membrane slightly faster than Na+, the rate of K+ movement being about 1·0??equiv.cm.?2sec.?1 under a concentration gradient of 0·1m. Active transport is not thought to contribute to the ion movements under the conditions used. 5. The amount of K+ taken up into the osmotically sensitive compartment as a function of the external concentration was examined. Since the uncharged molecule d-[14C]galactose distributes across the synaptosome membrane similarly to K+ there is not thought to be a synaptosomal trans-membrane potential. The volume of the osmotically sensitive compartment was measured by this method and found to agree with estimates of the synaptosomal volume made from morphological studies. In media of low ionic strength synaptosomes exhibit a Donnan effect. 6. It is concluded from these studies that the osmotically sensitive compartment represents the inner volume of the synaptosome, which is completely separated from the outside environment by a diffusion barrier having many of the general properties of a biological membrane. PMID:6035507

  19. 76 FR 44246 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ...Model 747 overhead crew rest compartments. These special conditions establish seating, communication, lighting, personal safety, and evacuation requirements for the OFAR compartment. In addition, passenger information signs,...

  20. Block LU factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU factorization, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU factorization is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU factorization can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth factor for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU factorization is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.

  1. compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Uli; Oswald, Sascha; Thullner, Martin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A conceptual computer model has been constructed to simulate the compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. The model accounts for flow and transport in the variably saturated porous medium as well as biogeochemical change reactions. The most concentrated contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons and dissolved as well as mineral phase electron acceptors are considered. Also of major interest are reduced species with high oxygen demand such as ammonium. The influence of marsh plants on microbial activity, gas transport, water balance and contaminant fate in general is matter of current investigation. The constructed wetlands consist of a coarse sand or fine gravel porous medium. Marsh plants were introduced after installation, however, a number of control basins are operated unplanted. Water levels and through flow rates are adjusted to optimize the remediation efficiency. The system is likely to be neither reaction nor mixing limited, thus both, values of dispersivity and degradation kinetics may be crucial for remediation efficiency. Biogeochemical modelling is able to delineate in detail (i) the zonation of processes, (ii) temporal variation (breakthrough curves) and (iii) mass balance information. The contributions of biodegradation and volatilisation and the influence of plants (compartment transfer) can generally best be evaluated by the component's mass balance. More efficient mixing is expected in the wetlands with open water body which leads to both, more biodegradation and volatilisation. An important task is to quantify the role of plants and root systems for contaminant attenuation in constructed wetlands. The long term goal of investigation is to allow for predictions for the design of large scale compartment transfer wetlands that may be applied to remediate the site as a whole.

  2. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  3. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  4. Catalog of compartment fire model algorithms and associated computer subroutines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroup, D. W.

    1987-08-01

    A catalog of available fire model algorithms was assembled to aid in the development of a benchmark compartment fire model. The catalog contains algorithms which calculate various chemical/physical fire phenomena. The description of each algorithm includes the input(s), output(s), and calculations performed. In addition, each algorithm has a computer subroutine written for it in FORTRAN 77. The variables used as input and output throughout the catalog are cross-referenced. This enables the catalog user to determine which routines would be required to calculate a particular fire phenomena.

  5. Satellite Feature Identification: Blocking Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2009-06-26

    Satellite Feature Identification: Blocking Patterns examines how water vapor imagery can be used to help diagnose blocking patterns and their dissipation. Four major blocking patterns are covered in this module: Blocking highs, Cut-off lows, Rex blocks and Omega blocks. This module is part of the series: "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".

  6. Micro-compartment specific T2? relaxation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Pascal; van Gelderen, Peter; Silva, Afonso C.; Reich, Daniel S.; Merkle, Hellmut; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2013-01-01

    MRI at high field can be sensitized to the magnetic properties of tissues, which introduces a signal dependence on the orientation of white matter (WM) fiber bundles relative to the magnetic field. In addition, study of the NMR relaxation properties of this signal has indicated contributions from compartmentalized water environments inside and outside the myelin sheath that may be separable. Here we further investigated the effects of water compartmentalization on the MRI signal with the goal of extracting compartment-specific information. By comparing MRI measurements of human and marmoset brain at 7 T with magnetic field modeling, we show that: (1) water between the myelin lipid bilayers, in the axonal, and in the interstitial space each experience characteristic magnetic field effects that depend on fiber orientation (2) these field effects result in characteristic relaxation properties and frequency shifts for these compartments; and (3) compartmental contributions may be separated by multi-component fitting of the MRI signal relaxation (i.e. decay) curve. We further show the potential application of these findings to the direct mapping of myelin content and assessment of WM fiber integrity with high field MRI. PMID:23528924

  7. An experimental study of water deluge on compartment fires

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, G.A. [Shell Research Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom). Thornton Research Centre

    1995-12-31

    A standard water deluge of the type in use on offshore platforms for general area coverage, nominal rate 10 liters/m{sup 2}/min, has been applied to 13MW propane jet fires and diesel pool fires in a 135 m{sup 3} steel compartment. In all cases the jet fires were fully extinguished within seconds of the deluge being activated, whereas pool fires continued to burn albeit at a reduced rate. An explanation is sought for the flame extinction that occurred with jet fires. The favored mechanism involves inerting the fuel/air mixture in the diffusion flame by entrainment of water vapor generated by evaporation at the compartment boundaries or within the flame. In less confined geometries there may be insufficient evaporation of water droplets and/or reduced entrainment and the jet fire would continue to burn. The results should be treated with caution as it remains unknown to what extent the observations are generally applicable, and definitive engineering guidance cannot be given at present. However, the results do warn of an additional explosion hazard if a jet flame is extinguished by deluge and the released gas is not isolated quickly. Further research will be aimed at improved understanding of the extinction mechanism and the development of safety guidance.

  8. Flow through horizontal vents as related to compartment fire environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qing; Jaluria, Yogesh

    1992-06-01

    A detailed investigation has been carried out on the flow exchange through a hoizontal vent in a compartment containing a fire. A plexiglass tank with a vented horizontal partition in the middle was constructed to simulate the warmer interior environment due to a fire and the cooler ambient environment by filling the upper and lower compartment with brine and pure water, respectively. Experiments have been carried out on the combined natural and forced convection flow by imposing a pressure difference across the vent. The flow rates through the vent were determined over wide ranges of the governing variables, such as the pressure difference across the opening, density difference across the opening and the opening length to diameter ratio. The basic characteristics of the flow, particularly whether it is unidirectional or bidirectional, was also studied. Volume flow rates were obtained as functions of the governing parameters in terms of correlating equations, from which quantitative information of the effect of parameters on the flow exchange through the vent can be determined. These results can thus be applied to the modeling of fire growth in vented rooms.

  9. Assessment of cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments.

    PubMed

    Marceau, François; Roy, Caroline; Bouthillier, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    All nucleated cells, from yeast to animal cells, concentrate cationic chemicals (weak bases with a pKa~8-10) into acidic cell compartments (low retro-diffusion under a protonated form at low pH=ion trapping). The proton pump vacuolar (V)-ATPase is the driving force of this pseudotransport that concerns acidic organelles (mainly late endosomes and lysosomes). The latter rapidly become swollen (osmotic vacuolization) and macroautophagic. Cation concentration in cells is not proved to involve membrane transporters, but is prevented or reversed by inhibitors of V-ATPase, such as bafilomycin A1. Lipophilicity is a major determinant of the apparent affinity of this pseudotransport because simple diffusion of the uncharged form supports it. Quinacrine is a formerly used antiparasitic drug that is intensely fluorescent, lipophilic, and a tertiary amine. The drug, at micromolar concentrations, is proposed as a superior probe for assessing cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments, being readily quantified using fluorometry in cell extracts and analyzed using microscopy and cytofluorometry (fluorescence settings for fluorescein being applicable). Further, cells respond to micromolar levels of quinacrine by autophagic accumulation (e.g., accumulation of the activated macroautophagic effector LC3 II, immunoblots), an objective and universal response to sequestered amines. PMID:24359951

  10. Organochlorine pesticide residues in biological compartments of healthy mothers.

    PubMed

    Elserougy, Safaa; Beshir, Safia; Saad-Hussein, Amal; Abouarab, Assem

    2013-06-01

    The present study was conducted to detect placental and breast milk (BM) transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between biological compartments in healthy lactating mothers. The study explores the effect of parity, breast-feeding and urban/rural residence on body burden of OCP residues. The study included 38 healthy participants submitted to cesarean delivery. Sociodemographic data and specimens of maternal and umbilical sera, adipose tissue (Adp T) and BM were collected. Specimens were analyzed to detect OCP residues. The lindane in BM, o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in maternal serum (MS) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in umbilical serum were the only detected residues in significantly higher frequencies and/or means in the primigravidae than multigravidae. There was a high risk of detecting o,p'-DDD (odds ratio = 8.3) in umbilical serum of the mothers with o,p'-DDD detected in the MS. Total DDT was detected in about 65% of specimens of BM, MS and Adp T and in about 40% of the umbilical serum specimens. There was only a significant positive correlation between total DDT residues in the BM and Adp T. Total DDT residues in umbilical serum and Adp T were significantly higher in the urban than in the rural mothers. The detection of some OCPs in maternal biological compartments suggests their potential placental and BM transfer to her child during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. Furthermore, it might reflect the persistence or recent use of these pesticides in the environment. PMID:22368179

  11. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

    1990-09-24

    The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams (1). The scope of this phase I'' analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering (2), is to carry out a scoping analysis'' of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the phase I'' calculations.

  12. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

    1990-09-24

    The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams [1]. The scope of this ``phase I`` analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering [2], is to carry out a ``scoping analysis`` of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the ``phase I`` calculations.

  13. Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Müller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

  14. Block and psychoticism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans J. Eysenck; Sybil B. Eysenck

    1977-01-01

    Argues that J. P. Block's (1977) criticisms of the Eysenck and Eysenck Adult Psychoticism Scale are one-sided and do not take into account all the evidence. It is also suggested that Block's criticisms center on a function not at all envisaged for the scale, that is, the discrimination of psychotics from normals and other nonpsychotic groups. The scale was constructed

  15. Solar collector block

    SciTech Connect

    Pitha, J.R.

    1982-07-06

    This invention relates to the collection of solar energy by use of a novel concrete block construction and to the construction of buildings from such blocks for supplying the hot water requirements for a structure and/or the total heat for the building as well as the hot water supply.

  16. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  17. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Foot due to Infection After Local Hydrocortisone Injection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dumbre Patil, Sampat; Dumbre Patil, Vaishali; Abane, Sachin; Luthra, Rohit; Ranaware, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    High-energy trauma associated with calcaneal fracture or Lisfranc fracture dislocation and midfoot crushing injuries are known causes of compartment syndrome in the foot. Suppurative infection in the deep osseofascial compartments can also cause compartment syndrome. We describe the case of a 29-year-old female who had developed a suppurative local infection that resulted in acute compartment syndrome after receiving a local hydrocortisone injection for plantar fasciitis. We diagnosed the compartment syndrome, and fasciotomy was promptly undertaken. After more than 2 years of follow-up, she had a satisfactory functional outcome without substantial morbidity. To our knowledge, no other report in the English-language studies has described compartment syndrome due to abscess formation after a local injection of hydrocortisone. The aim of our report was to highlight this rare, but serious, complication of a routine outpatient clinical procedure. PMID:24838218

  18. Methylated and unmethylated DNA compartments in the sea urchin genome.

    PubMed

    Bird, A P; Taggart, M H; Smith, B A

    1979-08-01

    Sea urchin (Echinus esculentus) DNA has been separated into high and low molecular weight fractions by digestion with the mCpG-sensitive restriction endonucleases Hpa II, Hha I and Ava I. The separation was due to differences in methylation at the recognition sequences for these enzymes because an mCpG-insensitive isoschizomer of Hpa II (Msp I) digested Hpa II-resistant DNA to low molecular weight, showing that many Hpa II sites were in fact present in this fraction; and because 3H-methyl methionine administered to embryos was incorporated into the high molecular weight Hpa II-, Hha I- and Ava I-resistant fraction, but not significantly into the low molecular weight fraction. The fraction resistant to Hpa II, Hha I and Ava I amounted to about 40% of the total DNA. It consisted of long sequence tracts between 15 and well over 50 kg in length, in which many sites for each of these enzymes were methylated consecutively. The remaining 60% of the genome, (m-), was not significantly methylated. Methylated and unmethylated fractions were considered to be subfractions of the genome because enriched unique sequences from one fraction cross-reassociated poorly with the other fraction and specific sequences were found in either (m+) or (m-) but not in both (see below). Similar (m+) and (m-) compartments were found in embryos, germ cells and adult somatic tissues. Furthermor, we found no evidence for changes in the sequence composition of (m+) or (m-) between sperm, embryo or intestine DNAs, although low levels of exchange would not have been detected. Using cloned Echinus histone DNA, heterologous 5S DNA and ribosomal DNA probes, we have found that each of these gene families belongs to the unmethylated DNA compartment in all the tissues examined. In particular, there was no detectable methylation of histone DNA either in early embryos, which are thought to be actively transcribing the bulk of histone genes, or in sperm and gastrulae, in which most histone genes are not being transcribed. In contrast to these gene families, sequences complementary to an internally repetitious Echinus DNA clone were found primarily in the methylated DNA compartment. PMID:487434

  19. Spontaneous compartment syndrome in a patient with diabetes and statin administration: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Flamini, Stefano; Persi, Emanuele; Calvisi, Vittorio

    2008-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by pressure increasing in the inextensible muscular compartments that leads to a decrease of capillary perfusion with consequent ischemic lesions of the logia elements. The authors report a case of an unusual compartment syndrome with spontaneous onset in a patient with type II diabetes and chronic therapy with statins (Atorvastatin). The condition was successfully treated by a fasciotomy and medical support. The importance of a correct anamnesis and a high level of suspicion is emphasized. PMID:19384624

  20. The characteristics of the thermal energy storage in a two-compartment water tank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sui Lin; C. C. K. Kwok; J. C. Y. Wang

    1984-01-01

    A water storage tank consisting of two equal compartments of 35.56 cm i.d. and 50.8 cm height, used in a solar water-heating system, was designed and manufactured. The lower compartment, which contained the cold water inlet, was in a loop with a solar energy collector. The upper compartment, from which hot water could be drawn, was connected to the top

  1. Physiologically relevant one-compartment pharmacokinetic models for skin. 1. Development of models.

    PubMed

    McCarley, K D; Bunge, A L

    1998-04-01

    Many studies have used pharmacokinetic (compartment) models for skin to predict or analyze absorption of chemicals through skin. In these studies, several different definitions of the rate constants were used. The purpose of this study was to develop a general procedure for relating compartment model rate constants to dermal absorption parameters, such as permeability and partition coefficients, and to assess whether different definitions of the rate constants produce different results. Rate constant expressions were developed by requiring a one-compartment model to match a one-membrane model at specific conditions. Because a membrane model contains more information than a compartment model, a compartment model cannot match the membrane model in all respects. Consequently, many compartment models (i.e., different definitions of the rate constants) can be developed which match the membrane model for different conditions. Using this procedure, 11 different compartment models were developed and compared to the membrane model for four different dermal absorption scenarios. The compartment model that most closely matches the membrane model depends on the specific exposure scenario and what is to be predicted. One of the new compartment models agrees reasonably well with the membrane model, for the cases considered. PMID:9548901

  2. A swollen hand with blisters: a case of compartment syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Rios-Alba, Tonatiuh; Ahn, James

    2015-06-01

    The accurate identification of compartment syndrome in the emergency department is essential to timely treatment and prevention of long-term sequela. Recognizing compartment syndrome is not straightforward, especially in the pediatric population. In addition to communication barriers that exist with children, the classic signs of pain, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis, and pulselessness are not always present, making its diagnosis a challenge. We report a case of a child with compartment syndrome to the left hand due to compression from an ACE wrap. The existing literature on compartment syndrome in children is reviewed. PMID:26035497

  3. Dynamic continuity of cytoplasmic and membrane compartments between plant cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence photobleaching was employed to examine the intercellular movement of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein between contiguous soybean root cells (SB-1 cell line) growing in tissue culture. Results of these experiments demonstrated movement of these fluorescent probes between cytoplasmic (symplastic) compartments. This symplastic transport was inhibited with Ca2+ in the presence of ionophore A23187, and also with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Both of these agents have previously been demonstrated to inhibit gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication in animal cells. In a companion experiment, a fluorescent phospholipid analogue, N-4- nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC), was incorporated into soybean cell membranes to examine whether dynamic membrane continuity existed between contacting cells, a transport route not existing between animal cells. Photobleaching single soybean cells growing in a filamentous strand demonstrated that phospholipid did exchange between contiguous cells. PMID:3346323

  4. Ceiling jet-driven wall flows in compartment fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. Y.

    1987-04-01

    Analytic estimates are developed for the early depth of penetration of and the lateral entrainment into negatively buoyant, ceiling jet-driven wall flows which are generic to compartment fire scenarios. When walls are not too far from the fire source, of the order of the fire-to-ceiling distance, it is found that the penetration of the downward flow near such walls is a large fraction of the fire-to-ceiling distance itself, and that this fraction is relatively independent of the details of fire size and spacings. Also, net rate of entrainment into the wall flow as it is buoyed back upward to the ceiling elevation is found to be several times larger than the flow rate of the driving ceiling jet flow immediately upstream of ceiling jet-wall impingement.

  5. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dillow, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  6. Compartment model of neuropeptide synaptic transport with impulse control.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Andrzej; Kalita, Piotr; Lewandowski, Marian; Skomorowski, Marek

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a mathematical description of a presynaptic episode of slow synaptic neuropeptide transport is proposed. Two interrelated mathematical models, one based on a system of reaction diffusion partial differential equations and another one, a compartment type, based on a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) are formulated. Processes of inflow, calcium triggered activation, diffusion and release of neuropeptide from large dense core vesicles (LDCV) as well as inflow and diffusion of ionic calcium are represented. The models assume the space constraints on the motion of inactive LDCVs and free diffusion of activated ones and ions of calcium. Numerical simulations for the ODE model are presented as well. Additionally, an electronic circuit, reflecting the functional properties of the mathematically modelled presynaptic slow transport processes, is introduced. PMID:18807067

  7. The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chiang, Hsin-I; Jiang, Shangi B.; Nagarajan, Harish; Zengler, Karsten; Gallo, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Commensal microbes on the skin surface influence the behavior of cells below the epidermis. We hypothesized that bacteria or their products exist below the surface epithelium and thus permit physical interaction between microbes and dermal cells. Here, to test this hypothesis, we employed multiple independent detection techniques for bacteria including qPCR, Gram-staining, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization. Bacteria were consistently detectable within the dermis and dermal adipose of normal human skin. Sequencing of DNA from dermis and dermal adipose tissue identified bacterial 16S rRNA reflective of a diverse and partially distinct microbial community in each skin compartment. These results show the microbiota extends within the dermis, therefore enabling physical contact between bacteria and various cells below the basement membrane. These observations show that normal commensal bacterial communities directly communicate with the host in a tissue previously thought to be sterile. PMID:23385576

  8. [Blindness caused by retrobulbar hemorrhage (orbital compartment syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Klenk, Gusztáv

    2010-09-19

    In the author's department, 5 patients developed retrobulbar hemorrhage from the 199 patients with midface fractures, between August 2007 and March 2010 (2.5%). 4 of these patients became irreversibly blind on the affected eye. With timely treatment, one patient avoided blindness. The author presents a retrospective analysis of the patients from different departments with midface/orbital fractures and blindness. Bleeding and oedema behind the eyeball due to midface/orbital fractures in the relatively non-expandable orbit results a quick elevation of orbital pressure and consequently diminished circulation, ischemia, and later necrosis of the optic nerve (orbital compartment syndrome) with irreversible blindness. Immediate medical (high dose of intravenous steroids, mannitol, acetazolamide) and surgical intervention (lateral canthotomy, cantholysis, orbitotomy) on noticing the signs (proptosis, ecchymosis, ophthalmoplegia, mydriasis) and symptoms (pain, diplopia, decreased visual acuity, blindness), of a retrobulbar hemorrhage could theoretically give a chance to save the affected eye. Treatment started beyond 20 minutes of onset of blindness, might not revert the vision. Unfortunately, the description and treatment of the retrobulbar hemorrhage and the orbital compartment syndrome is not within the curriculum of the medical university, thus young colleagues could have vague idea about the diagnosis, the urgency and the treatment - as shown in these cases. With the introduction of these cases the author would like to highlight the signs, symptoms and necessary treatment. Knowledge of the disease could also increase the detected number of retrobulbar hemorrhages, which might be less rare than we think. Including the disease into the medical curriculum and postgraduate trainings could help to reduce the number of sad cases in the future. PMID:20826378

  9. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-01

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of silica coating without a polymer layer, experiments for removal of the polymer by solvent extraction, TEM images of spherical ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an asymmetric PSGD coating, and additional FESEM, TEM/EDX images of ?-Fe2O3@PSGD-2@SiO2 nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00924c

  10. Superior laryngeal nerve block: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, M; Lozanoff, S; Lang, S A; Nyssen, J

    1995-01-01

    Superior laryngeal nerve anaesthesia is frequently used to facilitate endotracheal intubation in the awake patient. We have modified the transcutaneous approach to this nerve block to employ a short bevel needle. This improves tactile perception in performing the procedure thus simplifying identification of the correct depth of injection. This study was designed to determine the anatomical basis of superior laryngeal nerve anaesthesia and to estimate the success rate using our modified technique. At autopsy, 20 cadavers had nerve block performed substituting 0.02% methylene blue for local anaesthetic. Dissection was then performed to identify the anatomical structures stained by the simulated local anaesthetic. Additional dissections were performed in formalin-fixed cadavers. We found that the dye was injected into the paraglottic space bounded laterally by the thyrohyoid membrane and thyroid cartilage, medially by the laryngeal submucosa, caudad by the conus elasticus, cephalad by the hyoid bone, and anteriorly and posteriorly by the anterior and posterior thyrohyoid ligaments, respectively. The internal laryngeal nerve, the sensory branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, passed through this compartment and was heavily stained with simulated local anaesthetic. Resistance to the passage of the short bevel needle was provided by the lateral glossoepiglottic fold, not the thyrohyoid membrane as we had expected. Of 40 injections, 39 were deemed successful for a success rate of 97.5%. We conclude that this is a simple and highly successful technique for performing superior laryngeal nerve anaesthesia. PMID:7712327

  11. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  12. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  13. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  14. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  15. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  16. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  17. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  18. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  19. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  20. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  1. Using the Stern Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    Extracts from "Experimenting with Numbers" by Margaret Stern demonstrate the use of Stern Blocks to develop the conceptual base on which learning disabled students can build further mathematical skills. (DB)

  2. Precursors to atmospheric blocking events

    E-print Network

    Marino, Garrett P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking events disturb synoptic-scale features from their normal eastward progression, causing anomalous weather conditions for the duration of the blocking event. The essence of blocking can be captured by ...

  3. Reversal of neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Hunter, J M

    2009-07-01

    The use of anticholinesterases to reverse residual neuromuscular block is efficacious only if recovery is already established. It was originally advised that at least the second twitch (T2) of the train-of-four response should be detectable before neostigmine is administered. Even in these circumstances, the full effect of anticholinesterases takes up to 10 min to achieve. Anticholinesterases also have muscarinic side-effects that require an antimuscarinic to be administered concomitantly. An ideal reversal agent could be given at any time after the administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA), and should have no muscarinic side-effects. The gamma cyclodextrin, sugammadex, has been demonstrated to effectively antagonize even profound block produced by the aminosteroid NMBAs, rocuronium and vecuronium, by chelating them. The complex is then excreted in the urine. Sugammadex is ineffective in antagonizing the benzylisoquinolinium NMBAs. The dose should be adjusted according to the degree of residual block: sugammadex 16 mg kg(-1) for immediate reversal; 4-8 mg kg(-1) for antagonizing profound block (post-tetanic count 1-2); and 2 mg kg(-1) to antagonize moderate block (when T2 is detectable). As yet, the extent of any side-effects that may occur with this new antagonist is not fully known, although rarely adverse cardiovascular effects (hypotension, hypertension, prolonged QT interval) have already been reported. PMID:19468024

  4. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  5. Intracellular plant microbe associations: secretory pathways and the formation of perimicrobial compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Ivanov; Elena Fedorova; Ton Bisseling

    2010-01-01

    Plants can establish intracellular interactions with symbiotic as well as pathogenic microbes. Such intracellular accommodation of microbes always involves the formation of a host membrane compartment - the interface between the cytoplasm of the host and the microbe. These are the so-called perimicrobial compartments. In this review we will focus on the rhizobial legume symbiosis in which the microbes are

  6. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

  7. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

  8. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

  9. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

  10. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

  11. Contribution of soot particles on global radiative heat transfer in a two-compartment fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherman C. P Cheung; Richard K. K Yuen; G. H Yeoh; Grace W. Y Cheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the application of three widely adopted soot models and their effects on the global radiative heat transfer characteristic in a two-compartment fire. The study attempts to completely model the simultaneously occurring flow, convection, combustion, soot generation and radiation phenomena in the compartment fire. Computational results with or without soot consideration are validated against

  12. The role of temperature on carbon monoxide production in compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel T. Gottuk; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on carbon monoxide production in compartment fires in order to resolve the difference between global equivalence ratio-yield correlations obtained in simplified upper layer environments and more realistic compartment fires. The chemical reactivity of upper layer gases was studied using a detailed chemical kinetics model. An analysis of the

  13. On Radiant Network Models of Thermocouple Error in Pre and Post Flashover Compartment Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Francis; T. M. Yau

    2004-01-01

    Thermocouples are often used to obtain gas temperature measurements in compartment fires. Such measurements are subject to a thermal lag during fire growth, but the main problem is a steady-state error induced by radiant heat transfer at the thermocouple surface. This error is sensitive to thermal parameters of the flame, compartment structure, thermocouple surface and combustion products; and is also

  14. Modeling of temperature and humidity ratio in an automobile passenger compartment for automobile air conditioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Luen Chung; Chung-Lun Li

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates thermal dynamic modeling of a passenger compartment in an air conditioned automobile equipped with HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). In particular, dynamics of temperature and humidity ratio, both critical to passenger comfort, in the passenger compartment are examined. By analyzing enthalpy change during an automobile air conditioning circulation cycle on a psychrometric chart, heat exchange between

  15. A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics NIKOLAOS M. TSOUKIAS AND STEVEN- compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics. J. Appl. Physiol. 85(2):653­666, 1998.--The rela- tively recent detection of nitric oxide (NO) in the exhaled breath has prompted a great deal

  16. 9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...that any equipment, utensil, room, or compartment at an official establishment is insanitary or that its use could cause the adulteration of product, he will attach to it a “U.S. Rejected” tag. Equipment, utensils, rooms, or compartments so tagged...

  17. 19 CFR 148.21 - Opening of baggage, compartments, or vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opening of baggage, compartments, or vehicles...Collection of Duties and Taxes § 148.21 Opening of baggage, compartments, or vehicles...or any prohibited article is found upon opening by the Customs officer, the whole...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  8. Bayesian inference in a hidden stochastic two-compartment model for feline hematopoiesis

    E-print Network

    Minin, Vladimir

    Bayesian inference in a hidden stochastic two-compartment model for feline hematopoiesis D-compartment stochastic process used to model the kinetics of feline hematopoietic stem cells in continuous time. Because of the rates of the fates of feline hematopoietic stem cells. The obtained estimates are in agreement

  9. First compartment cannulation of the dromedary camel JW Manefield1 GA Alhadrami AM Al-Dehneh

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short note First compartment cannulation of the dromedary camel JW Manefield1 GA Alhadrami AM Al-Dehneh I Scientific Ceiiter.1i)t- Racing Camels, PO Box /7292. Al Ain: 2 Def'artment otAiiiin4il Production simple, successful method for the long term cannulation of the first compartment of the dromedary camel

  10. Structural-Acoustic Modal Coupling Analysis and Application to Noise Reduction in a Vehicle Passenger Compartment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Kim; J. M. Lee; M. H. Sung

    1999-01-01

    A practical method for noise reduction is proposed and is applied to the interior noise problem of a vehicle passenger compartment. The proposed method is based upon the structural-acoustic response model, in which the interior pressure is explicitly described in terms of the modal parameters and structural-acoustic modal coupling coefficients of the car body and compartment system. Considering only a

  11. A two-zone fire growth and smoke movement model for multi-compartment buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuman Fu; George Hadjisophocleous

    2000-01-01

    A fire growth and smoke movement model for a multi-compartment building has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada. This development is primarily intended to help evaluate the risk from fires in buildings. This paper presents the related physical models, numerical methods, and some verification examples. The 2-zone ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are derived for the compartments with

  12. STRUCTURAL-ACOUSTIC MODAL COUPLING ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TO NOISE REDUCTION IN A VEHICLE PASSENGER COMPARTMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. KIM; J. M. LEE; M. H. SUNG

    1999-01-01

    A practical method for noise reduction is proposed and is applied to the interior noise problem of a vehicle passenger compartment. The proposed method is based upon the structural–acoustic response model, in which the interior pressure is explicitly described in terms of the modal parameters and structural-acoustic modal coupling coefficients of the car body and compartment system. Considering only a

  13. Computation of decompression tables using continuous compartment half-lives.

    PubMed

    Egi, S M; Gürmen, N M

    2000-01-01

    There is no consensus on the number of compartments and the half-lives (T1/2) used in the calculation of inert gas exchange and decompression sickness (DCS) boundary in existing dive tables and decompression computers. We propose the use of a continuous variable for the tissue half-lives, allowing the simulation of an infinite number of compartments and reducing the discrepancy between different algorithms to a single DCS boundary expression. Our computational method is based on the premise that M-values can be expressed in terms of T1/2 and ambient pressure (D). We combined the surfaces defined by M(D,T1/2) and tissue tension H(t,T1/2) to plan decompression. The efficiency and applicability of the method is investigated with four different DCS boundaries. The first two utilize the M-value relations proposed by Bühlmann and Wienke to derive no-D limits for sea level. The third boundary is defined by a surface fitted to the empirical M-values of US Navy, Bühlmann tables, US Air Force, and our altitude diving data. This expression was used to design the decompression procedure for a multilevel dive at 11,429-ft altitude and was used in six man dives in the Kaçkar Mountains, Turkey. Although precordial bubbles were observed in two dives, there were no cases of DCS. The fourth DCS boundary is constructed with the addition of a constraint that forces calculated M-values to stay below the available M-values. This constraint aims the highest degree of "conservatism". As an application of the new boundary, the method is used to derive decompression stop diving schedules for 11,429-ft altitude. The concept of continuous tissue half-lives is applicable to different types of gas exchange and DCS boundary functions or to a combination of different models with a desired level of conservatism. It has proved to be a useful tool in planning decompression for undocumented modes of diving such as decompression stop diving or multilevel diving at altitude. The algorithm can easily be incorporated into dive computers. PMID:11191160

  14. Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

  15. Regulation of the development of the hepatic B cell compartment during Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Keke C; Everts, Bart; Smith, Amber M; Pearce, Edward J

    2013-10-15

    During infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, Ab regulates hepatic inflammation, and local production of Ig in the liver appears to play a role in this process. Exploring the development of the B cell response during infection, we found that parasite-specific IgG1-secreting plasma cells appeared first in the hepatic and mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs) and then at later times in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The LN B cell population peaked between weeks 10 and 12 of infection, and then contracted at a time that coincided with the expansion of the hepatic IgG1(+) B cell compartment, suggesting that B cells migrate from LNs to liver. CXCL9 and -16 expression in the liver increased during the time frame of B cell recruitment. Expression of the CXCL16 receptor CXCR6 was increased on B cells within the hepatic LNs, but not the mesenteric LNs. CXCR3, the receptor for CXCL9, was broadly expressed on IgG1(+) B cells in LNs and liver during infection. Increased hepatic expression of CXCL9 and -16 failed to occur if the IL-10R was blocked in vivo, an intervention associated with decreased liver B cell infiltration and the development of severe disease. Hepatic LN IgG1(+) cells migrated toward CXCL9 and -16 in vitro and to the liver in a pertussis toxin-sensitive fashion. Our data suggest that the coordinated expression of CXCL9 and -16 in the liver and of CXCR6 and CXCR3 on responding B cells within the hepatic LNs underpins establishment of the hepatic B cell infiltrate during chronic schistosomiasis. PMID:24038090

  16. Radioactive source term models in a compartment fire code

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1985-04-01

    Models for the release of airborne radioactivity in fires have been developed. These radioactive source term models are used as subroutines in a compartment fire code called FIRIN. Each model is based on release factors developed using information from experiments. Models are developed for the following release mechanisms: burning of contaminated combustible solids; burning of contaminated combustible liquids; heating of noncombustible contaminated surfaces; heating of unpressurized radioactive liquids; pressurized releases of radioactive powders; and pressurized releases of radioactive liquids. The potential for release from these mechanisms was examined in an analysis of three types of fuel cycle facility fires. The types of fires considered were mixed oxide ( MOX) general facility fires, MOX stored combustible waste fires, and solvent extraction fires in fuel reprocessing plants. Input parameters were varied to determine relative importance of release mechanisms and sensitivity of predicted releases to changes in initial conditions. Total radioactive material released ranged from 8 X 10/sup -4/ g of plutonium (0.002% of material at risk) given off in a combustible waste fire to 75 g of mixed isotopes (0.3% of material at risk) given off in a solvent extraction fire. Fuel loading and burn area were the parameters that caused the greatest change in total release of radioactive material. Changes in ventilation rate also made a significant difference in release for overventilated fires, but not for underventilated fires. Work is under way at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory to improve the models for burning of contaminated combustible solids and liquids.

  17. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs.

  18. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs.

  19. Concurrent Periostalgia and Chronic Proximal Deep Posterior Compartment Syndrome in a Collegiate Track and Field Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Kristinn I.; Lachowicz, Wendy M.; Detmer, Don E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Exercise-induced leg pain may be triggered by abnormally high compartment pressure. In addition to the more widely publicized anterior compartment syndrome, the deep posterior compartment syndrome can just as frequently occur, resulting in severe pain and disability due to muscle and nerve ischemia. Background: Obtaining a thorough history and compartmental pressure measurements are the usual components in the accurate diagnosis of compartment syndromes. While few other disorders mimic compartment syndromes, differential diagnoses must be considered. Surgical management of deep compartment syndrome, consisting of fasciotomy or fasciectomy, or both, is successful for most patients. Differential Diagnosis: Tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, tibial periostalgia, distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome, proximal deep chronic compartment syndrome, superficial lateral compartment syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, popliteal artery entrapment, or chronic compartment syndrome. Uniqueness: Chronic deep compartment syndrome is one of the most common causes of exercise-induced leg pain in aerobic athletes. Therefore, the athletic trainer must be able to recognize the condition. Signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and surgical management of chronic deep compartment syndrome, chronic periostalgia, and superficial lateral compartment syndrame in a 21-year-old Division IA track and field athlete are presented. Conclusions: With the correct diagnosis, persistent and methodical reevaluation, and appropriate management, the athlete can expect a successful treatment outcome. PMID:16558661

  20. Sampling versus Blocking

    E-print Network

    Yannick Meurice; Yuzhi Liu; Judah Unmuth-Yockey; Li-Ping Yang; Haiyuan Zou

    2014-11-12

    The idea of blocking in configuration space has played an important role in the development of the RG ideas. However, despite being half a century old and having had a huge intellectual impact, generic numerical methods to perform blocking for lattice models have progressed more slowly than sampling methods. Blocking may be essential to deal with near conformal situations. Typically, blocking methods have smaller statistical errors but larger systematic errors than sampling methods. This situation is evolving with recent developments based on the Tensor RG (TRG) method. We report recent results for spin and gauge lattice models obtained with this new method regarding searches for fixed points, calculations of critical exponents and resolutions of sign problems. An interesting model for comparison is the 2-dimensional O(2) model with a chemical potential which has a sign problem with conventional Monte Carlo but allows sampling with the worm algorithm and blocking with various TRG formulations. We compare the efficiency and accuracy of these two methods.

  1. Micromechanical analysis of lattice blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Aboudi; Rivka Gilat

    2005-01-01

    Multiphase lattice blocks with periodic structure are analyzed by a continuum-based micromechanical approach. As a result, effective stiffness tensors, global initial yield surfaces, global damage thresholds, effective inelastic stress–strain responses and critical yielding temperatures of lattice blocks are established. Applications are given for various types of elastic and inelastic lattice blocks made of an aluminum alloy. Furthermore, a lattice block

  2. Morphology of ABA Block Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Lewis; C. Price

    1969-01-01

    MICROPHASE separation is believed to occur in many block copolymers. In interpreting the mechanical properties of block copolymers of the type Ax By Ax, where Ax and By are blocks having x repeat units of type A and y repeat units of type B respectively, it has been suggested that when y is much greater than x the Ax blocks

  3. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30?wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  4. 1.OA Measuring Blocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Have two or more blocks of different lengths on hand and paper clips to use to measure them. The blocks need to measure a whole number of paper clips w...

  5. 1.OA Measuring Blocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-03-18

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Unifix cubes * Large blocks in different sizes or varying lengths of sentence strips Note: The large blocks or the cut-up lengths of senten...

  6. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  7. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  8. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  9. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  10. Characterization and comparison of the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract compartments in horses.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Silva, G; Ramos, R V; Staempfli, H R; Arroyo, L G; Kim, P; Weese, J S

    2015-07-01

    The advance of new sequencing technologies has allowed more comprehensive characterization of complex microbial communities, including the ones inhabiting the intestinal tract. The presence of extreme environmental filters, such as low pH, digestive enzymes and anaerobic conditions along the tract, acts on the selection of unique bacteria in each compartment. The intestinal microbiota has an enormous impact on the maintenance of health. However, data about the bacteria present in the different intestinal compartments of horses are sparse. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to characterize and compare bacterial profiles from different intestinal compartments of 11 horses scheduled for euthanasia for reasons other than gastrointestinal problems. Marked differences among compartments even at high taxonomic levels were found, with Firmicutes comprising the main bacterial phylum in all compartments. Lactobacillus spp. and Sarcina spp. predominated in the stomach and a marked increase of Streptococcus spp. occurred in the duodenum. Actinobacillus and Clostridium sensu stricto were the most abundant genera in the ileum and '5 genus incertae sedis', a genus from the Subdivision 5 class of the Verrucomicrobia, was the most abundant from the large colon through feces. There was a significant increase in diversity towards the distal gut with similar profiles observed from the cecum through feces at the class level. The bacterial population comprising the equine intestinal tract varies greatly among compartments and fecal samples may be useful as representative of changes occurring in the distal compartments. PMID:25975855

  11. Differential patterns of altered bone formation in different bone compartments in established osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, R J; Denton, J; Hoyland, J A; Freemont, A J

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the level of bone formation in the different bone compartments in cases of established osteoporosis, as previous work has concentrated on trabecular bone alone. METHODS: Bone formation rates were measured histomorphometrically, in the periosteal (P), cortical (C), subcortical (SC), and trabecular (T) compartments in iliac crest biopsies from 159 patients with established osteoporosis. The values were standardised using age and sex matched control data and patterns of differential change determined by analysis of parametric status (increased, normal, reduced). RESULTS: Mean bone formation was reduced in all four compartments. This was more marked (4.4/4.1 standard deviations below the mean in C/T, v 2.3/0.9 in P/SC) and more frequent (reduced in 81.5%/78.3% in T/C, v 43.3%/44% in P/SC) in the trabecular and cortical compartments than in the periosteal or subcortical bone. Parametric status was equal in trabecular and cortical bone in 85.4% of cases, and in periosteal and subcortical bone in 65.7%, but in all four compartments in only 35.1%, indicating differential alteration of bone formation in the two sets of compartments (T/C v P/SC). CONCLUSIONS: Altered trabecular bone formation is important in osteoporosis, but there are differential patterns of alteration in the other three compartments, emphasising the presence of different microenvironments in bone; thus the effect on the cortical compartment was similar to that on the trabecular, while the subcortical and periosteal compartments also showed linkage. The linkage between the two pairs was divergent, indicating different control of bone formation, with resultant different patterns of perturbation in osteoporosis. Images PMID:10343608

  12. Kinetics of iron passage through subcellular compartments of rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J A; Nunez, M T; Gaete, V; Alvarez, O; Glass, J

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the separate processes of Fe2(III)-transferrin binding to the transferrin receptor, transferrin-receptor internalization, iron dissociation from transferrin, iron passage through the membrane, and iron mobilization into the cytoplasm were studied by pulse-chase experiments using rabbit reticulocytes and 59Fe, 125I-labeled rabbit transferrin. The binding of 59Fe-transferrin to transferrin receptors was rapid with an apparent rate constant of 2 x 10(5) M-1 sec-1. The rate of internalization of 59Fe-transferrin was directly measured at 520 +/- 100 molecules of Fe2(III)-transferrin internalized/sec/cell with 250 +/- 43 sec needed to internalize the entire complement of reticulocyte transferrin receptors. Subsequent to Fe2(III)-transferrin internalization the flux of 59Fe was followed through three compartments: internalized transferrin, membrane, and cytosol. A process preceding iron dissociation from transferrin and a reaction involving membrane-associated iron required 17 +/- 2 sec and 34 +/- 5 sec, respectively. Apparent rate constants of 0.0075 +/- 0.002 sec-1 and 0.0343 +/- 0.0118 sec-1 were obtained for iron dissociation from transferrin and iron mobilization into the cytosol, respectively. Iron dissociation from transferrin is the rate-limiting step. An apparent rate constant of 0.0112 +/- 0.0025 sec-1 was obtained for processes involving iron transport through the membrane although at least two reactions are likely to be involved. Based on mechanistic considerations, iron transport through the membrane may be attributed to an iron reduction step followed by a translocation step. These data indicate that the uptake of iron in reticulocytes is a sequential process, with steps after the internalization of Fe2(III)-transferrin that are distinct from the handling of transferrin. PMID:2046086

  13. Regulation of body fluid compartments during short-term spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Leach, C S; Alfrey, C P; Suki, W N; Leonard, J I; Rambaut, P C; Inners, L D; Smith, S M; Lane, H W; Krauhs, J M

    1996-07-01

    The fluid and electrolyte regulation experiment with seven subjects was designed to describe body fluid, renal, and fluid regulatory hormone responses during the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (9 days) and -2 (14 days) missions. Total body water did not change significantly. Plasma volume (PV; P < 0.05) and extracellular fluid volume (ECFV; P < 0.10) decreased 21 h after launch, remaining below preflight levels until after landing. Fluid intake decreased during weightlessness, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased in the first 2 days and on day 8 (P < 0.05). Urinary antidiuretic hormone (ADH) excretion increased (P < 0.05) and fluid excretion decreased early in flight (P < 0.10). Plasma renin activity (PRA; P < 0.10) and aldosterone (P < 0.05) decreased in the first few hours after launch; PRA increased 1 wk later (P < 0.05). During flight, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations were consistently lower than preflight means, and urinary cortisol excretion was usually greater than preflight levels. Acceleration at launch and landing probably caused increases in ADH and cortisol excretion, and a shift of fluid from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment would account for reductions in ECFV. Increased permeability of capillary membranes may be the most important mechanism causing spaceflight-induced PV reduction, which is probably maintained by increased GFR and other mechanisms. If the Gauer-Henry reflex operates during spaceflight, it must be completed within the first 21 h of flight and be succeeded by establishment of a reduced PV set point. PMID:8828652

  14. Compartment Syndrome following Open Femoral Fracture with an Isolated Femoral Vein Injury Treated with Acute Repair

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, David; Axelrod, Terry; Rodriguez-Elizalde, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency and its diagnosis is more difficult in obtunded or insensate patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Gustilo-Anderson grade III open midshaft femur fracture with an isolated femoral vein injury treated with direct repair. She developed lower leg compartment syndrome at 48 hours postoperatively, necessitating fasciotomies. She was subsequently found to have a DVT in her femoral vein at the level of the repair and was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the importance of recognition of isolated venous injuries in a trauma setting as a risk factor for developing compartment syndrome. PMID:25587476

  15. Optic nerve: Separating compartments based on 23Na TQF spectra and TQF-diffusion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliav, Uzi; Xu, Xiang; Jerschow, Alexej; Navon, Gil

    2013-06-01

    We present a triple quantum filtered (TQF) sodium spectroscopy study of an excised bovine optic nerve. By choosing proper experimental parameters, this technique allowed us to independently observe the satellite transitions originating from the various compartments in the tissue. TQF-based diffusion experiments provided further characterization of the compartments in terms of their geometry. As a result, the peak that exhibited the smallest residual quadrupolar splitting, and the largest diffusion anisotropy was assigned to axons. Two other pairs of satellite peaks were assigned to extra-cellular compartments on the basis of either the size of their quadrupolar splitting or the diffusion properties.

  16. The Block Cipher Square

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Daemen; Lars R. Knudsen; Vincent Rijmen

    1997-01-01

    be Abstract. In this paper we present a new 128-bit block cipher called Square. The original design of Square concentrates on the resistance against dierential and linear cryptanalysis. However, after the initial design a dedicated attack was mounted that forced us to augment the numberofrounds.Thegoal ofthispaperisthepublicationoftheresult- ingcipherforpublicscrutiny.ACimplementationof

  17. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  18. 2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

  19. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePLUS

    A blocked tear duct is a partial or complete blockage in the pathway that carries tears from the surface of the eye into the ... Tears are constantly being made to help protect the surface of your eye. They drain into a ...

  20. Chronic exercise-induced compartment pressure elevation measured with a miniaturized fluid pressure monitorA laboratory and clinical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. Awbrey; Paul S. Sienkiewicz; Henry J. Mankin

    1988-01-01

    Increased pressure within an osteofascial compartment may produce a compartment syndrome, one of the principal causes of circulatory compromise in acute traumatic and chronic exercise-induced elevated com partment pressure. Acute and chronic diagnostic quan titation of compartment pressures are a valuable ad junct to clinical diagnosis, particularly when used to evaluate the athlete with exercise-induced pain. This study evaluated a

  1. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrz?bski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V? and V?). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V? and V?. PMID:24469750

  2. Block Diagonal and Schur Complement Preconditioners for Block-Toeplitz Systems with Small Size Blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai-Ki Ching; Michael K. Ng; You-Wei Wen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider the solution of Hermitian positive definite block-Toeplitz systems with small size blocks. We propose and study block diagonal and Schur complement pre- conditioners for such block-Toeplitz matrices. We show that for some block-Toeplitz matrices, the spectra of the preconditioned matrices are uniformly bounded except for a fixed number of outliers and this fixed number depends

  3. Exercise-induced anterior tibial compartment compression syndrome in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, R. C.; Chadwick, C. J.; Bagnall, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise-induced anterior tibial compartment compression syndrome occurs predominantly in young males. The authors report a case in a 79-year-old female as a complication of rehabilitation. PMID:7301708

  4. Aft section of starboard engine room, compartment C1. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aft section of starboard engine room, compartment C-1. View to port showing bilge and fire pumps. (063) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. View of admiral dewey's stateroom, compartment A127 looking aft to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of admiral dewey's stateroom, compartment A-127 looking aft to forward; note five inch rapid fire gun at left doors lead to admiral dewey's cabin. (p42) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Experimental Review of the Homogeneous Temperature Assumption in Post-Flashover Compartment Fires 

    E-print Network

    Stern-Gottfried, Jamie; Rein, Guillermo; Bisby, Luke; Torero, Jose L

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods for quantifying and modelling compartment fires for structural engineering analysis assume spatially homogeneous temperature conditions. The accuracy and range of validity of this assumption is examined here using the previously...

  7. View of compartment B126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment B-126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock hooks, ash hoist rails at top left and coal chute left of center. (047) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Compartment A123 crews WC (head) looking aft; to forward; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-123 crews WC (head) looking aft; to forward; note wire lockers for transient stowage of clothing while showering. (026) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Serosurvey of Leptospira agglutinins among railway employees in the national railway compartments of Bologna and Venice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Banfi; L. Castagnari; M. Cinco

    1989-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-leptospiral agglutinins within a selected population: the railway workers of the Italian Railway Compartments of Bologna and Venice.

  10. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Additional Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-5 Compartments or...

  11. Compartment A14m cork lined powder magazine looking port to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-14m - cork lined powder magazine looking port to starboard; note temperature sensor in the overhead. (022) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. STS-35 Pilot Gardner in sleep station compartment on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner demonstrates the bunk-style sleep compartments onboard Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Gardner uses bunk #2 of the sleep station located against the middeck starboard wall.

  13. Compartment A125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for supporting and protecting the forward 8" gun turret above. Anchor windlass is in left background. (033) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 ...internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water jacketed or insulated and that gasoline engine intakes are...

  15. 31 CFR 589.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UKRAINE RELATED SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 589.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

  16. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The...

  17. 31 CFR 540.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.301 Blocked account; blocked property....

  18. 31 CFR 540.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.301 Blocked account; blocked property....

  19. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The...

  20. Classification of brain compartments and head injury lesions by neural networks applied to magnetic resonance images 

    E-print Network

    Kischell, Eric Robert

    1993-01-01

    ' (Member) A. D. Patton ( ead of epartment) August 1993 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT Classification of Brain Compartments and Head Injury Lesions by Neural Networks Applied to Magnetic Resonance Images. (August 1993) Eric Robert... Kischell, B. S. , Northeastern University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Nasser Kehtarnavaz An automatic neural network-based approach was ap- plied to segment brain compartments and closed-head-injury lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images Two...

  1. Experimental Study on the Mitigation of Backdraft in Compartment Fires with Water Mist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Weng; W. C. Fan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the results of a reduced-scale experimental test series using water mist to mitigate backdraft in compartment fires are presented. This reduced-scale compartment (1.2 m 0.6 m 0.6 m)was fitted with a variety of end opening geometries: middle-slot, upside-slot, downside-slot, door, window and vertical middle-slot, and ceiling opening geometries: slot and window. Water mist was generated by a

  2. Comments on the role of leakages in field modelling of under-ventilated compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L Sinai

    1999-01-01

    The CFX general-purpose Computational Fluid Dynamics software has been tested against a compartment fire experiment performed by the Home Office. The experiment involved heptane pool fires, of about 10MW unconfined output, in a leaky compartment having a volume of about 600m3. The building was nominally sealed for the first 5min of the fire, at which point various combinations of doors

  3. Parametric temperature–time curves of medium compartment fires for structural design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongcheng Ma; Pentti Mäkeläinen

    2000-01-01

    A parametric temperature–time curve for structural fire design purposes is developed for small and medium compartment fires. This method may be used, with reasonable precision, to estimate the temperature history of a fully developed compartment fire. It concerns mainly cellulosic (wood-based) fires. This method has three main characteristics: (1)the temperature–time curves are determined by two key parameters of fire severity:

  4. Copperhead Envenomation Resulting in a Rare Case of Hand Compartment Syndrome and Subsequent Fasciotomy

    PubMed Central

    Brys, Adam K.; Gandolfi, Brad M.; Gerardo, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Copperhead bites account for nearly 40% of all snakebites in the United States. Although common, these bites are rarely severe, and most are treated with supportive care and antivenom. We describe the first reported case of a copperhead envenomation resulting in a hand compartment syndrome with measured elevated compartment pressures that necessitated fasciotomy of the hand. Our case underscores the importance of vigilance in the diagnosis and management of copperhead envenomation. PMID:26090286

  5. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  6. On balanced incomplete-block designs with repeated blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Soicherc

    Balanced incomplete-block designs (BIBDs) with repeated blocks are studied and constructed. We continue work initiated by van Lint and Ryser in 1972 and pursued by van Lint in 1973. We concentrate on constructing (v,b,r,k, )-BIBDs with repeated blocks, especially those with gcd(b,r, ) = 1 and r 20. We obtain new bounds for the multiplicity of a block in terms

  7. Base Blocks Decimal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Java applet allows students to practice adding and subtracting whole numbers, decimals, or integers. Students use base blocks in blue to represent positive numbers, and red to represent either negative numbers or subtraction. The applet offers up to three decimal places, 2 to 4 columns, and bases from 2 through 5 and 10. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are available through the links at the top of the page.

  8. Analysis of lymphatic drainage in various forms of leg edema using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, P; Földi, E; Schaiper, I; Krause, T; Vanscheidt, W; Moser, E

    1998-06-01

    The anatomical and functional status of the epifascial and subfascial lymphatic compartments was analyzed using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy in five groups of patients (total 55) with various forms of edema of the lower extremities. Digital whole body scintigraphy enabled semiquantitative estimation of radiotracer transport with comparison of lymphatic drainage between those individuals without (normal) and those with leg edema by calculating the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical transported to regional lymph nodes. A visual assessment of the lymphatic drainage pathways of the legs was also performed. In patients with cyclic idiopathic edema, an accelerated rate of lymphatic transport was detected (high lymph volume overload or dynamic insufficiency). In those with venous (phlebo) edemas, high volume lymphatic overload (dynamic insufficiency) of the epifascial compartment was scintigraphically detected by increased tracer uptake in regional nodes. In patients with deep femoral venous occlusion (post-thrombotic syndrome). subfascial lymphatic transport was uniformly markedly reduced (safety valve lymphatic insufficiency). On the other hand, in the epifascial compartment, lymph transport was accelerated. In those patients with recurrent or extensive skin ulceration, lymph transport was reduced. Patients with lipedema (obesity) scintigraphically showed no alteration in lymphatic transport. This study demonstrates that lymphatic drainage is notably affected (except in obesity termed lipedema) in various edemas of the leg. Lymphatic drainage varied depending on the specific compartment and the pathophysiologic mechanism accounting for the edema. Two compartment lymphoscintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of leg edema of known and unknown origin. PMID:9664268

  9. Uptake of heavy metals to the extracellular and intracellular compartments in three species of aquatic bryophyte.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M D; López, J; Carballeira, A

    1999-09-01

    Shoot tips of Fontinalis antipyretica, Scapania undulata, and Fissidens polyphyllus were maintained for 60 min with solutions containing 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn. A sequential extraction procedure was then used to estimate the amounts of the corresponding metal, and of K and Mg, in the extracellular compartment (extraction with NiCl(2) or EDTA), the intracellular compartment (subsequent extraction with cold dilute HNO(3)), and the particulate fraction (subsequent extraction with hot concentrated HNO(3)). In most cases more metal was taken up to the extracellular compartment than to the intracellular compartment, while particulate-fraction content was negligible. The relationship between metal concentration in the water and metal content in the extracellular compartment was well modeled with a Michaelis-Menten-type equation. Results suggest that in S. undulata extracellular cation-binding sites have a high metal affinity, while in F. polyphyllus it is relatively low. However, postincubation intracellular contents were highest in the latter species. The ranking of the six metals by amounts taken up into the intracellular compartment was the same for all three bryophyte species. Uptake of heavy metals led to considerable losses of intracellular K (probably due to effects on plasma membrane properties), and of extracellular Mg (probably due to displacement from cation-binding sites). Losses of intracellular K were most marked in S. undulata, followed by F. antipyretica. By contrast, S. undulata was the species from which losses of extracellular Mg were lowest. PMID:10499985

  10. Dynamic load at baseline can predict radiographic disease progression in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, T; Wada, M; Kawahara, H; Sato, M; Baba, H; Shimada, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that dynamic load at baseline can predict radiographic disease progression in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: During 1991–93 baseline data were collected by assessment of pain, radiography, and gait analysis in 106 patients referred to hospital with medial compartment knee OA. At the six year follow up, 74 patients were again examined to assess radiographic changes. Radiographic disease progression was defined as more than one grade narrowing of minimum joint space of the medial compartment. Results: In the 32 patients showing disease progression, pain was more severe and adduction moment was higher at baseline than in those without disease progression (n=42). Joint space narrowing of the medial compartment during the six year period correlated significantly with the adduction moment at entry. Adduction moment correlated significantly with mechanical axis (varus alignment) and negatively with joint space width and pain score. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of progression of knee OA increased 6.46 times with a 1% increase in adduction moment. Conclusions: The results suggest that the baseline adduction moment of the knee, which reflects the dynamic load on the medial compartment, can predict radiographic OA progression at the six year follow up in patients with medial compartment knee OA. PMID:12079903

  11. Sensitivity, block sensitivity, and `block sensitivity of boolean functions

    E-print Network

    Kenyon, Claire

    Sensitivity, block sensitivity, and `­block sensitivity of boolean functions Claire Kenyon LRI, bat for Communications Research, 805 Bunn Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540. E­mail: kutin@idaccr.org Sensitivity is one of the simplest, and block sensitivity one of the most useful, invariants of a boolean function. Nisan [8

  12. Blocking and anti-blocking pairs of polyhedra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Fulkerson

    1971-01-01

    Some of the main notions and theorems about blocking pairs of polyhedra and antiblocking pairs of polyhedra are described. The two geometric duality theories conform in many respects, but there are certain important differences. Applications to various combinatorial extremum problems are discussed, and some classes of blocking and anti-blocking pairs that have been explicitly determined are mentioned.

  13. Intraocular radiation blocking.

    PubMed

    Finger, P T; Ho, T K; Fastenberg, D M; Hyman, R A; Stroh, E M; Packer, S; Perry, H D

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application. PMID:2211021

  14. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  15. Modeling Building-Block Interdependency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Watson; Gregory S. Hornby; Jordan B. Pollack

    1998-01-01

    The Building-Block Hypothesis appeals to the notion of problem decomposition and the assembly of solutions from sub-solutions. Accordingly, there have been many varieties of GA test problems with a structure based on building- blocks. Many of these problems use deceptive fitness functions to model interdependency between the bits within a block. However, very few have any model of interdependency between

  16. California Energy Commission BLOCK GRANT

    E-print Network

    California Energy Commission REVISED BLOCK GRANT GUIDELINES (FORMULA-BASED GRANTS) ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM FOR CONSIDERATION FOR ADOPTION BY THE CALIF. ENERGY COMMISSION and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program Guidelines 1. Background The California Energy Commission1 (Energy

  17. Differential Cue Salience, Blocking and Learned Inattention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew F. Heckler; Jennifer A. Kaminski; Vladimir M. Sloutsky

    A classic blocking design is modified by varying the relative salience of the blocked and the blocking cue. It is found that, in accordance with the learned inattention theory of blocking, the amount of blocking is diminished when the blocked cue is more salient than the blocking cue. In addition, when studying the patterns of answers about the control cues,

  18. Bilateral Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Following Right Total Knee Revision: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Osteen, Kristie D.; Haque, Shireen H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare occurrence traditionally found in settings of extended immobilization. Thrombolytics and medications with myositis as a potential side effect have also been implicated in a few isolated cases of spontaneous compartment syndrome. Early signs are pain on passive stretching and pain out of proportion to physical examination findings. Failure to recognize and definitively treat compartment syndrome within the first 24 to 36 hours can lead to permanent limb loss and morbidity from a host of systemic complications such as hyperkalemia, renal failure, and sepsis. Case Report We report a case of bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome in a 52-year-old patient following a right total knee revision. On postoperative day 2, physical examination after the patient became agitated and in severe distress from bilateral buttock pain showed that the right and left gluteal regions were tense, hard, and erythematous. Creatinine phosphokinase and liver function tests were significantly elevated. Following emergency fasciotomy, physicians thoroughly reviewed the operative course, medication history, and imaging studies. We withdrew simvastatin, a medication associated with spontaneous compartment syndrome, from our patient's daily medications. By day of discharge, both creatinine phosphokinase and liver function problems were decreasing, and the gluteal pain had significantly resolved. The etiology of bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome in our patient could have been a combination of intraoperative length and positioning with simvastatin-induced myositis. Obesity presented an additional risk factor. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of identifying patients at increased risk of compartment syndrome in the preoperative assessment and following them with more intensive intraoperative and postoperative monitoring. PMID:22778678

  19. Arabinogalactan Glycosyltransferases Target to a Unique Subcellular Compartment That May Function in Unconventional Secretion in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory; Burow, Meike; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31 (At1g32930)] was found in the small compartments, of which, 45 and 40% of AtGALT29A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 29 (At1g08280)] and AtGlcAT14A [Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase from family 14 (At5g39990)] colocalized with AtGALT31A, respectively; in contrast, N-glycosylation enzymes rarely colocalized (3–18%), implicating a role of the small compartments in a part of arabinogalactan (O-glycan) biosynthesis rather than N-glycan processing. The dual localization of AtGALT31A was also observed for fluorescently tagged AtGALT31A stably expressed in an Arabidopsis atgalt31a mutant background. Further, site-directed mutagenesis of a phosphorylation site of AtGALT29A (Y144) increased the frequency of the protein being targeted to the AtGALT31A-localized small compartments, suggesting a role of Y144 in subcellular targeting. The AtGALT31A localized to the small compartments were colocalized with neither SYP61 (syntaxin of plants 61), a marker for trans-Golgi network (TGN), nor FM4-64-stained endosomes. However, 41% colocalized with EXO70E2 (Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst protein Exo70 homolog 2), a marker for exocyst-positive organelles, and least affected by Brefeldin A and Wortmannin. Taken together, AtGALT31A localized to small compartments that are distinct from the Golgi apparatus, the SYP61-localized TGN, FM4-64-stained endosomes and Wortmannin-vacuolated prevacuolar compartments, but may be part of an unconventional protein secretory pathway represented by EXO70E2 in plants. PMID:25074762

  20. Building With Blocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-09-21

    This interactive site allows students to build with virtual blocks to discover geometry, three-dimensional space, and area. There are a number of different problems here, including Copy the Building, Building in the Night, Making Height Numbers, and Rotation Game. There are also Additional Problems for students to solve, such as repairing a broken table, putting arm rests on a chair, and making a tunnel through a mountain. Each asks students to reason with different, often non-standard, shapes and think about 3D form.

  1. Synaptic-like Microvesicles of Neuroendocrine Cells Originate from a Novel Compartment That Is Continuous with the Plasma Membrane and Devoid of Transferrin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anne; Hannah, Matthew J.; Huttner, Wieland B.

    1997-01-01

    We have characterized the compartment from which synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs), the neuroendocrine counterpart of neuronal synaptic vesicles, originate. For this purpose we have exploited the previous observation that newly synthesized synaptophysin, a membrane marker of synaptic vesicles and SLMVs, is delivered to the latter organelles via the plasma membrane and an internal compartment. Specifically, synaptophysin was labeled by cell surface biotinylation of unstimulated PC12 cells at 18°C, a condition which blocked the appearance of biotinylated synaptophysin in SLMVs and in which there appeared to be no significant exocytosis of SLMVs. The majority of synaptophysin labeled at 18°C with the membraneimpermeant, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS–biotin was still accessible to extracellularly added MesNa, a 150-D membrane-impermeant thiol-reducing agent, but not to the 68,000-D protein avidin. The SLMVs generated upon reversal of the temperature to 37°C originated exclusively from the membranes containing the MesNaaccessible rather than the MesNa-protected population of synaptophysin molecules. Biogenesis of SLMVs from MesNa-accessible membranes was also observed after a short (2 min) biotinylation of synaptophysin at 37°C followed by chase. In contrast to synaptophysin, transferrin receptor biotinylated at 18° or 37°C became rapidly inaccessible to MesNa. Immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy of PC12 cells revealed, in addition to the previously described perinuclear endosome in which synaptophysin and transferrin receptor are colocalized, a sub-plasmalemmal tubulocisternal membrane system distinct from caveolin-positive caveolae that contained synaptophysin but little, if any, transferrin receptor. The latter synaptophysin was selectively visualized upon digitonin permeabilization and quantitatively extracted, despite paraformaldehyde fixation, by Triton X-100. Synaptophysin biotinylated at 18°C was present in these subplasmalemmal membranes. We conclude that SLMVs originate from a novel compartment that is connected to the plasma membrane via a narrow membrane continuity and lacks transferrin receptor. PMID:9128254

  2. Pre-embedding immunogold labeling to optimize protein localization at subcellular compartments and membrane microdomains of leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Rossana C N; Morgan, Ellen; Monahan-Earley, Rita; Dvorak, Ann M; Weller, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Precise immunolocalization of proteins within a cell is central to understanding cell processes and functions such as intracellular trafficking and secretion of molecules during immune responses. Here we describe a protocol for ultrastructural detection of proteins in leukocytes. The method uses a pre-embedding approach (immunolabeling before standard processing for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)). This protocol combines several strategies for ultrastructure and antigen preservation, robust blocking of nonspecific binding sites, as well as superior antibody penetration for detecting molecules at subcellular compartments and membrane microdomains. A further advantage of this technique is that electron microscopy (EM) processing is quick. This method has been used to study leukocyte biology, and it has helped demonstrate how activated leukocytes deliver specific cargos. It may also potentially be applied to a variety of different cell types. Excluding the initial time required for sample preparation (15 h) and the final resin polymerization step (16 h), the protocol (immunolabeling and EM procedures) can be completed in 8 h. PMID:25211515

  3. Compartment-specific, differential regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 and its kinase within Aplysia sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Weatherill, Daniel B; McCamphill, Patrick K; Pethoukov, Eugenia; Dunn, Tyler W; Fan, Xiaotang; Sossin, Wayne S

    2011-06-01

    Long-term facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia is a leading model for elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning. LTF requires translational control downstream of target of rapamycin complex 1. Our lab has previously shown that treatment with the facilitating neurotransmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), causes a target of rapamycin complex 1-mediated decrease in phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) within the neurites of sensory neurons involved in LTF. Here, we characterize the Aplysia orthologue of eEF2 kinase (eEF2K). We show that the Aplysia eEF2K orthologue contains an S6 kinase phosphorylation site and that a serine-to-alanine mutation at this site blocks the ability of 5-HT to decrease eEF2 phosphorylation in neurites. We also show that within the soma, 5-HT has the opposite effect, decreasing eEF2K phosphorylation at the S6 kinase site and, concomitantly, increasing eEF2 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, while eEF2K over-expression inhibits translation of a marker for internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation, it stimulates the translation of a marker for cap-dependent translation. This study demonstrates that eEF2 is differentially regulated in separate compartments and contributes to a growing body of evidence that inhibition of elongation can stimulate the translation of certain transcripts. PMID:21426346

  4. ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.T.

    1981-05-01

    An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems.

  5. CASE REPORT An Unusual Case of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Resection of Extensive Posttraumatic Mesenteric Ossification

    PubMed Central

    Nabulyato, William M.; Alsahiem, Hebah; Hall, Nigel R.; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition, which often follows trauma and is frequently symptomatic. To date, there are no reports in the literature of abdominal compartment syndrome occurring after surgical resection of mesenteric calcification. The present report documents an unusual case of compartment syndrome complicating resection of extensive mesenteric calcification despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique. Method: A 48-year-old man undergoing components-separation technique for posttraumatic laparostomy hernia repair (ileostomy reversal and sigmoid stricture correction) was found to have extensive heterotopic mesenteric calcification, which needed resection. Results: Resection of the mesenteric calcification was complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage and unplanned small bowel resection. Later the patient developed secondary hemorrhage leading to an abdominal compartment syndrome, which was successfully treated by decompression, hemostasis, and Permacol-assisted laparotomy wound closure. The patient remains symptom-free more than 2 years after surgery. Discussion: The case herein reported gives an account of the rare occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome following resection of posttraumatic ectopic mesenteric ossifications. It is highly unusual in that it occurred because of “secondary hemorrhage” and despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique, which had been undertaken precisely to prevent compartment syndrome with direct closure. It therefore highlights the need for continued clinical vigilance in complex posttraumatic cases. PMID:23573333

  6. Receptor Salvage from the Prevacuolar Compartment Is Essential for Efficient Vacuolar Protein Targeting

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Luis L.P.; Taylor, J. Philip; Hadlington, Jane L.; Hanton, Sally L.; Snowden, Christopher J.; Fox, Sarah J.; Foresti, Ombretta; Brandizzi, Federica; Denecke, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized the requirements to inhibit the function of the plant vacuolar sorting receptor BP80 in vivo and gained insight into the crucial role of receptor recycling between the prevacuolar compartment and the Golgi apparatus. The drug wortmannin interferes with the BP80-mediated route to the vacuole and induces hypersecretion of a soluble BP80-ligand. Wortmannin does not prevent receptor-ligand binding itself but causes BP80 levels to be limiting. Consequently, overexpression of BP80 partially restores vacuolar cargo transport. To simulate receptor traffic, we tested a truncated BP80 derivative in which the entire lumenal domain of BP80 has been replaced by the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The resulting chimeric protein (GFP-BP80) accumulates in the prevacuolar compartment as expected, but a soluble GFP fragment can also be detected in purified vacuoles. Interestingly, GFP-BP80 coexpression interferes with the correct sorting of a BP80-ligand and causes hypersecretion that is reversible by expressing a 10-fold excess of full-length BP80. This suggests that GFP-BP80 competes with endogenous BP80 mainly at the retrograde transport route that rescues receptors from the prevacuolar compartment. Treatment with wortmannin causes further leakage of GFP-BP80 from the prevacuolar compartment to the vacuoles, whereas BP80-ligands are secreted. We propose that recycling of the vacuolar sorting receptor from the prevacuolar compartment to the Golgi apparatus is an essential process that is saturable and wortmannin sensitive. PMID:15632053

  7. Signal-dependent export of GABA transporter 1 from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment is specified by a C-terminal motif

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Hesso; Reiterer, Veronika; Kriz, Alexander; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Pavelka, Margit; Sitte, Harald H.; Freissmuth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary The C-terminus of GABA transporter 1 (GAT1, SLC6A1) is required for trafficking of the protein through the secretory pathway to reach its final destination, i.e. the rim of the synaptic specialization. We identified a motif of three hydrophobic residues (569VMI571) that was required for export of GAT1 from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). This conclusion was based on the following observations: (i) GAT1-SSS, the mutant in which 569VMI571 was replaced by serine residues, was exported from the ER in a COPII-dependent manner but accumulated in punctate structures and failed to reach the Golgi; (ii) under appropriate conditions (imposing a block at 15°C, disruption of COPI), these structures also contained ERGIC53; (iii) the punctae were part of a dynamic compartment, because it was accessible to a second anterograde cargo [the temperature-sensitive variant of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G)] and because GAT1-SSS could be retrieved from the punctate structures by addition of a KKxx-based retrieval motif, which supported retrograde transport to the ER. To the best of our knowledge, the VMI-motif of GAT1 provides the first example of a cargo-based motif that specifies export from the ERGIC. PMID:18285449

  8. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  9. Fascia iliaca block prophylaxis for hip fracture patients at risk for delirium: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Mouzopoulos; George Vasiliadis; Nikolaos Lasanianos; George Nikolaras; Emanouil Morakis; Michalis Kaminaris

    2009-01-01

    Background  Recent studies have indicated that unmanaged pain, both acute and chronic, can affect mental status and might precipitate\\u000a delirium, especially in elderly patients with hip fractures. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of fascia\\u000a iliaca compartment block (FICB) for prevention of perioperative delirium in hip surgery patients who were at intermediate\\u000a or high risk for this

  10. Effects of long-duration bed rest on structural compartments of m. soleus in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belozerova, I.; Shenkman, B.; Mazin, M.; Leblanc, A.; LeBlanc, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histomorphometry and electron microscopy of muscle demonstrate that long-term exposure to actual or simulated weightlessness (including head down bed rest) leads to decreased volume of antigravity muscles in mammals. In muscles interbundle space is occupied by the connective tissue. Rat studies show that hindlimb unloading induces muscle fiber atrophy along with increase in muscle non-fiber connective tissue compartment. Beside that, usually 20% of the muscle fiber volume is comprised by non-contractile (non-myofibrillar) compartment. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in muscle volume, and in muscle fiber size with alterations in myofibrillar apparatus, and in connective tissue compartment in human m. soleus under conditions of 120 day long head down bed rest (HDBR).

  11. Two Nested Developmental Waves Demarcate a Compartment Boundary in the Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A.; Chen, Jichao

    2014-01-01

    The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments — the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region — separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three dimensions and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signaling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signaling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a novel mechanism of boundary formation in complex, three-dimensional organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth. PMID:24879355

  12. Two nested developmental waves demarcate a compartment boundary in the mouse lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A.; Chen, Jichao

    2014-05-01

    The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments—the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region—separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three-dimensions (3D) and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signalling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signalling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a new mechanism of boundary formation in complex, 3D organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth.

  13. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding.

    PubMed

    Kadzielski, John; Bae, Donald S

    2013-01-01

    Changes in aircraft cabin pressure and its interplay with a fixed diameter fiberglass cylindrical cast and the closed air cells in waterproof cast padding may cause a transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome. In this case series, 2 patients reported transient compartment syndromes that resolved with aircraft decent. As proof of concept, this work displays photographic and video evidence showing the difference in air cell volume from experimental data in a vacuum chamber as well as real-world volume changes at cruise altitude in a commercial airliner. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndromes associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding are real and surgeons and patients should be advised of this potentially devastating complication. PMID:23431541

  14. Two-compartment behavior during transport of folate compounds in L1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.H.; Dembo, M.; Sirotnak, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of (/sup 3/H) 1,L 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, (/sup 3/H) folic acid, and (/sup 3/H)methotrexate by L1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles exhibited multicompartmental behavior. Two separate vesicular compartments (parallel relationship) of approximately equal volume were revealed during measurements of influx and efflux. Flux in one compartment was rapid, saturable, highly temperature-sensitive, and inhibited by pCMBS. Flux in the other compartment exhibited all of the characteristics of passive diffusion. These results imply that our plasma membrane vesicle preparations consist of a mixture of two functional species. Transport of folate into one of these species occurs by passive diffusion alone, whereas transport into the other kind of vesicle occurs by both passive diffusion and carrier-facilitated transport.

  15. Radiation Blocking Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

  16. Interwoven Four-Compartment Capillary Membrane Technology for Three-Dimensional Perfusion with Decentralized Mass Exchange to Scale Up Embryonic Stem Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg C. Gerlach; Marc Lübberstedt; Josefina Edsbagge; Alexander Ring; Mariah Hout; Matt Baun; Ingrid Rossberg; Fanny Knöspel; Grant Peters; Klaus Eckert; Annika Wulf-Goldenberg; Petter Björquist; Harald Stachelscheid; Thomas Urbaniak; Gerald Schatten; Toshio Miki; Eva Schmelzer; Katrin Zeilinger

    2010-01-01

    We describe hollow fiber-based three-dimensional (3D) dynamic perfusion bioreactor technology for embryonic stem cells (ESC) which is scalable for laboratory and potentially clinical translation applications. We added 2 more compartments to the typical 2-compartment devices, namely an additional media capillary compartment for countercurrent ‘arteriovenous’ flow and an oxygenation capillary compartment. Each capillary membrane compartment can be perfused independently. Interweaving the

  17. A Bullet in the Supraspinatus Compartment Successfully Removed by Arthroscopy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Galland, Alexandre; Lunebourg, Alexandre; Airaudi, Stéphane; Gravier, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic removal of bullet from intra-articular compartment has been described for several joints. Only few reports dealing with this condition in the shoulder have been reported especially for the glenohumeral and the subacromial compartments. We report the story of a fifty-seven-year-old man presenting a bullet in the supraspinatus compartment of his left shoulder successfully removed by arthroscopy. PMID:25699194

  18. Endoscopically Assisted FasciotomyDescription of Technique and In Vitro Assessment of Lower-Leg Compartment Decompression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fraser J. Leversedge; Patrick J. Casey; John G. Seiler; John W. Xerogeanes

    2002-01-01

    We describe a reliable method of endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for treating chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the lower leg and for assessing compartment decompression in an in vitro model. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy was performed in the anterior and lateral compartments of 14 matched, fresh-frozen, through-the-knee amputation specimens using a 30° endoscope. A one-incision technique used in 4 specimens failed to

  19. Nerve blocks in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Chambers, W A

    2008-07-01

    Although between 85% and 90% of patients with advanced cancer can have their pain well controlled with the use of analgesic drugs and adjuvants, there are some patients who will benefit from an interventional procedure. This includes a variety of nerve blocks and also some neurosurgical procedures. Approximately 8-10% of patients may benefit from a peripheral nerve block and around 2% from a central neuraxial block. The most common indication is because opioid dose escalation is limited by signs of opioid toxicity but some patients will benefit from one component of their pain being relieved by a simple peripheral block. Most patients about to undergo these procedures are already taking high doses of opiods and obtaining valid consent may pose problems. The use of peripheral nerve blocks, epidural and intrathecal infusions, and plexus blocks is discussed. PMID:18495677

  20. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  1. Three-compartment modeling of C-11 N-Methyl spiperone kinetics in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.A.; Wong, D.F.; Di Chiro, G.; Wayner, R.T.; Douglass, K.H.; Frost, J.J.; Larson, S.M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    N-Methyl spiperone, as well as spiperone, has been used to study the dopamine receptor system in the brain. The authors have applied a 3-compartment model consisting of vascular, extravascular unbound, and receptor-bound activity to two normal volunteers and one patient with Parkinson's disease. The model differs from that proposed by another study, in that, as in the Sokoloff model for deoxyglucose, there is no explicit term for blood flow. Furthermore, the authors used a 3-compartment model for the cerebellum as well as the caudate/putamen. Serial scans were obtained by PET for up to 2 hrs after injection of the tracer. Time-activity curves were generated over the caudate, putamen and cerebellum. The results indicate a close fit of the observed data to the 3-compatment model. In the model, K1 represents the rate constant of delivery of the tracer in the tissue from the vascular compartment. K2 is the reverse rate constant. K1 was approximately equal to K2 for the cerebellum. In the basal ganglia, K2 was less than K1 due to nonspecific binding in compartment 2. K3 represents the rate constant of binding of the tracer to the receptor binding sites in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia and to nonspecific binding sites in the cerebellum which contains essentially no dopamine receptors. K4 represents the rate constant for dissociation of the tracer from the receptors. For N-methyl spiperone K4 is very low in the caudate/putamen. The 3-compartment model seemed to fit the data better than the 2-compartment model for both the caudate/putamen and cerebellar activity.

  2. Molecular genetics of pattern formation in the inner ear: do compartment boundaries play a role?

    PubMed

    Brigande, J V; Kiernan, A E; Gao, X; Iten, L E; Fekete, D M

    2000-10-24

    The membranous labyrinth of the inner ear establishes a precise geometrical topology so that it may subserve the functions of hearing and balance. How this geometry arises from a simple ectodermal placode is under active investigation. The placode invaginates to form the otic cup, which deepens before pinching off to form the otic vesicle. By the vesicle stage many genes expressed in the developing ear have assumed broad, asymmetrical expression domains. We have been exploring the possibility that these domains may reflect developmental compartments that are instrumental in specifying the location and identity of different parts of the ear. The boundaries between compartments are proposed to be the site of inductive interactions required for this specification. Our work has shown that sensory organs and the endolymphatic duct each arise near the boundaries of broader gene expression domains, lending support to this idea. A further prediction of the model, that the compartment boundaries will also represent lineage-restriction compartments, is supported in part by fate mapping the otic cup. Our data suggest that two lineage-restriction boundaries intersect at the dorsal pole of the otocyst, a convergence that may be critical for the specification of endolymphatic duct outgrowth. We speculate that the patterning information necessary to establish these two orthogonal boundaries may emanate, in part, from the hindbrain. The compartment boundary model of ear development now needs to be tested through a variety of experimental perturbations, such as the removal of boundaries, the generation of ectopic boundaries, and/or changes in compartment identity. PMID:11050198

  3. Compartment syndrome on a patient's forearm related to carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Al, Behçet; Subas?, Mehmet; Karsli, Burçin; Yarbil, P?nar; Zengin, Suat

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating, toxic gas produced by the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. Common sources of CO include motor vehicles, house fires, furnaces/heaters, and wood-burning stoves. It is a serious health problem resulting in approximately 50,000 visits to the emergency department and is responsible for 3500 deaths annually in the United States. Besides accidental exposure, CO is also one of the leading causes of death by suicide. In the present study, we discuss compartment syndrome caused by CO poisoning in a 15-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the first CO poisoning case causing compartment syndrome. PMID:22657397

  4. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  5. California Energy Commission BLOCK GRANT

    E-print Network

    California Energy Commission BLOCK GRANT GUIDELINES (FORMULA-BASED GRANTS) ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM ADOPTED BY THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION OCTOBER 7, 2009 CEC-150 Grant (EECBG) Program Guidelines 1. Background The California Energy Commission1 (Energy Commission) has

  6. The Effects of Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Michael D.; Canady, Robert Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Research reveals important generalizations about block scheduling. A/B schedules are easier to implement than 4/4 schedules, which must be adapted to allow some year-long courses. Merely changing the school bell schedule will not guarantee better student performance. However, block scheduling typically improves climate, attendance, and…

  7. Ring laser gyro block stiffener

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.T.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a laser motion sensing device, comprising in combination: a block with a passage formed therein defining a lasing path; a cavity in the block with its longitudinal axis oriented generally perpendicular to the lasing path; and a radially expandable ring shaped member in the cavity engaging the walls with ring member including means for rigidly expanding with substantially zero axial deflection.

  8. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  9. Circulation of copper in the biotic compartments of a freshwater dammed reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Vinot; J. C. Pihan

    2005-01-01

    This study concerns a chronic copper release in an aquatic ecosystem: Mirgenbach reservoir; which is characterized by high salinity, conductivity and hardness, a eutrophic state and a high temperature. To study the bioavailability of copper in the biotic compartments, the sampling covered the entire food chain (phyto- and zooplankton, macroalgae, aquatic plants, crustaceans, mollusks, and fish). Of the organisms present,

  10. Intracranial Hypertension Secondary to Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Girl with Giant Ovarian Cystic Mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Zavras; E. Christianakis; K. Ereikat; D. Mpourikas; K. Velaoras; J. Alexandrou

    The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a potentially fatal entity that occurs as a result of an acute increase in intra-abdominal\\u000a pressure (IAP). The authors report on a girl with a giant ovarian cystic mass, and clinical signs of ACS and intracranial\\u000a hypertension (??). The possible mechanism of IH secondary to ACS is discussed

  11. Application of effect-compartment model to bumetanide-indomethacin interaction in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Smith; Henry S. H. Lau; Jeffrey L. Fox

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of bumetanide's dose-response relationship have been complicated by the hysteresis observed between the drug's urinary excretion rate and its sodium excretion. This apparent time lag reflects the disequilibrium between the urine concentration and effect compartment (biophase) which occurs during the early distribution phase. In the present article, an expanded pharmaco-dynamic model has been introduced in which the hypothetical effect

  12. SERS nanosensors that report pH of endocytic compartments during Fc?RI transit

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Lovato, K.L.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Rector, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the development of an IgE receptor (Fc?RI)-targeted, pH sensitive, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) nanosensor has been demonstrated [1]. The targeted nanosensor enables spatial and temporal pH measurements as internalized receptors progress through endosomal compartments in live cells. Trafficking of receptor-bound nanosensors was compared at physiological temperature (37°C) versus room temperature (25°C). As expected, we observed markedly slower progression of receptors through low pH endocytic compartments at the lower temperature. We also demonstrate the utility of the nanosensors to measure directly changes in the pH of intracellular compartments after treatment with bafilomycin or amiloride. We report an increase in endosome compartment pH after treatment with bafilomycin, an H+ ATPase pump inhibitor. Decreased endosomal luminal pH was measured in cells treated with amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange. The decrease in amiloride-treated cells was transient, followed by a recovery period of approximately 15–20 minutes to restore endosomal pH. These experiments demonstrate the novel application of Raman spectroscopy to monitor local pH environment in live cells with the use of targeted SERS nanosensors. PMID:20842349

  13. Compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The tripeptide thiol glutathione (?-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression, and the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment-specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment-specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, tobacco mosaic virus). The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol). Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. PMID:25368627

  14. Control of local actin assembly by membrane fusion-dependent compartment mixing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hoi-Ying E.; Bement, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Local actin assembly is associated with sites of exocytosis in processes ranging from phagocytosis to compensatory endocytosis. Here, we examine whether the trigger for actin-coat assembly around exocytosing Xenopus egg cortical granules is ‘compartment mixing’ — the union of the contents of the plasma membrane with that of the secretory granule membrane. Consistent with this model, compartment mixing occurs on cortical granule–plasma membrane fusion and is required for actin assembly. Compartment mixing triggers actin assembly, at least in part, through diacylglycerol (DAG), which incorporates into the cortical granule membranes from the plasma membrane after cortical granule–plasma membrane fusion. DAG, in turn, directs long-term recruitment protein kinase C? (PKC?) to exocytosing cortical granules, where it is required for activation of Cdc42 localized on the cortical granules. The results demonstrate that mixing of two membrane compartments can direct local actin assembly and indicate that this process is harnessed during Xenopus egg cortical granule exocytosis to drive compensatory endocytosis. PMID:17237773

  15. A Critical Comparison of a Phoenics Based Fire Field Model with Experimental Compartment Fire Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Mawhinney; E. R. Galea; N. Hoffmann; M. K. Patel

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a fire field model based on the PHOENCIS CFD software to the simulation of fire induced flows in domestic-sized rooms. Several scenarios are examined consisting of various fire sizes, fire locations, and door sizes. Comparisons are based on upper- layer room temperatures, mass fluxes in and out of the fire compartment, and door-way vertical

  16. A two-thermocouples probe for radiation corrections of measured temperatures in compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Brohez; C Delvosalle; G Marlair

    2004-01-01

    Bare-bead thermocouples are widely used for measuring temperature fields in compartment fires. It is well-known that temperature readings using such a device can be significantly affected by radiation errors, the apparent thermocouple junction temperature being thus different from the true gas temperature. However, a probe consisting of two thermocouples of unequal diameters, but made of the same material can be

  17. Heat transfer model for unprotected steel members in a standard compartment fire with participating medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Ghojel; M. B. Wong

    2005-01-01

    A heat transfer model accounting for the radiative properties of combustion products in a compartment standard fire is presented. The model used is based on a conceptual scheme of a grey gas mixture exchanging radiative energy with a black enclosure. The proposed model, with a radiation heat transfer that accounts for the effect of combustion products on the rate of

  18. The effect of microscopic and global radiative heat exchange on the field predictions of compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. X. Wen; L. Y. Huang; J. Roberts

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on some further results of the CFD simulations of large-scale compartment fires previously reported in Wen et al. (Proceedings of the Combustion Institute , vol. 27, 1998) and Wen and Huang (Fire Safety J 2000;34(1)). It focuses on the use of the laminar flamelet approach and highlights the effect of microscopic radiation on the field predictions of

  19. Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder–associated biomarker

    PubMed Central

    te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O.; Wallom, Kerri L.; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A.; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H.; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie; Jacklin, Elizabeth; Riddick, Kate; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Rolfs, Arndt; Rimmele, Florian; Wright, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Ramaswami, Uma; Cox, Timothy M.; Hastings, Caroline; Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Ory, Daniel S.; Arias, Begona; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Sillence, Daniel J.; Wraith, James E.; Porter, Forbes D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Platt, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders. PMID:24487591

  20. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  1. View port to starboard of a portion of compartment A126 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View port to starboard of a portion of compartment A-126 fitted out to represent a WW I canteen. This may have been location for ship's store where crew could buy tobacco and sundries. Note wood conduit on overhead which served as a chase for wiring. (036) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Colonization of heavy metal polluted soils by Collembola: preliminary1 experiments in compartmented boxes2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Colonization of heavy metal polluted soils by Collembola: preliminary1 experiments faunas. Migration of Collembola from one compartment to the other was13 allowed through a perforated wall;2 Keywords: Collembola, Acidophily, Heavy metals, Migration, Sensitivity.1 2 1. Introduction3 4

  3. Compartment C1, engine room. View down compionway of top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment C-1, engine room. View down compionway of top of engine cylinder heads; note slots in frame at left of photograph, slots hold steel bars which form a protective grating above the engines during battle. (081) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...The basic A350-900 series configuration will accommodate...proposes the A350-900 series to be certified for extended...420-minute maximum diversion time. Crew rest compartments...experience gained over time from prior special conditions...case of the A350-900 series, these proposed...

  5. View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C1; note RPM indicator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; note RPM indicator at top right of photograph, bilge drain manifold at lower right; worm gear at left is probably part of a hydraulic reversing gear. (057) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Wavelet-Based Multiscale Texture Segmentation: Application to Stromal Compartment Characterization on Virtual Slides.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at partitioning cancer cells and intra-tumoral connective tissue, and then at differentiating the various stromal compartments (fibrous tissue, loose mesenchymatous connective tissue, inflammatory cell ac- cumulation- tomatically this measurement in an objective way, an im- age of the whole tissue preparation must be recorded

  7. An experimental study of the coupling between roll motion and sloshing in a compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Francescutto, A.; Contento, G. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper an experimental investigation on the coupling between the roll motion of a ship in a regular beam sea and the sloshing of a free surface liquid in a compartment is presented. A large scale ship model equipped with a floodable compartment has been tested. The amount of the shipped water in the compartment has been kept constant during any single test but four different degrees of filling have been considered. To emphasize the effect of the free surface of the liquid in the container, the frozen liquid condition has been tested as well. The roll history has been recorded by the use of an inclinometer, while four level transducers inside the compartment and a video recording setup have provided the sloshing history. The obtained results are meaningful and confirm the importance of an improvement in the modeling of sloshing loads for both hydrodynamic and structural safety. A good forecasting of the roll amplitude of the ship has been obtained by the use of a traditional non-linear roll motion equation accounting for the induced sloshing moment in the RHS: a nonlinear free surface/fully moving panels routine provides the required moment. The dangerous frequencies are well captured and the predicted roll amplitudes and the free surface behavior compare well with experiments. An improvement of the code to take into account both the large amplitude viscous sloshing and the coupled roll-sway-heave motion is in progress.

  8. Compartment A7M cork lined powder magazine looking from forward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-7M - cork lined powder magazine looking from forward to aft; valve at right center is a remotely controlled valve for flooding the magazine in an emergency. (020) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Orbital compartment syndrome caused by intraorbital bacitracin ointment after endoscopic sinus surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Everardo Castro; Michelle Seeley; Greg Kosmorsky; Jill A Foster

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To present an unusual case of orbital compartment syndrome after endoscopic sinus surgery.METHODS: Case report.RESULTS: Acute proptosis, chemosis, decreased vision, and ophthalmoplegia were found immediately after endoscopic sinus surgery. Ophthalmologic evaluation showed a tense orbit, and intraocular pressure increased to 54 mm Hg. Treatment was initiated and the intraocular pressure dropped. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of bacitracin

  10. 1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells epithelial cell-ECM interactions mediated by 1 integrins in the maintenance of the functional stem cell mammary epithelium harbours a population of cells with a high regenerative potential -- mammary stem cells

  11. Assessing the performance of various restraints on ambulance patient compartment workers during crash events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Green; J. R. Yannaccone; L. A. Sicher; P. H. Moore; G. R. Whitman

    2010-01-01

    The inability of emergency medical service (EMS) workers to remain safely restrained while treating patients in the patient compartment of a moving ambulance has been identified as a key impediment to EMS worker safety in North America. It has been hypothesised that restraint systems designed to provide mobility while offering the ability to lock during an impact or sudden manoeuvre,

  12. White pulp compartments in the spleen of the turtle Mauremys caspica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Leceta; A. G. Zapata

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the nature of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cellular components occurring in distinct histological compartments of the splenic white pulp of the turtle, Mauremys caspica, in order to define their possible correlations with those of the spleen of higher vertebrates, principally mammals. The white pulp of M.caspica consisted of 3 clearly distinguishable regions:

  13. What is the effect of compartment syndrome and fasciotomies on fracture healing in tibial fractures?

    PubMed

    Reverte, Maria Mercedes; Dimitriou, Rozalia; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2011-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in tibial diaphyseal fractures has been associated with such complications as infection, delayed fracture healing or non-union, sensory and motor deficits, deformities, and poor functional outcome. Essential condition of an uncomplicated recovery is early diagnosis with prompt decompression. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to evaluate the impact of compartment syndrome and leg fasciotomies on the time to fracture union and the incidence of delayed union and non-union in tibial diaphyseal fractures. A total of 16 articles, which included 245 tibial fractures complicated with compartment syndrome were analysed. There were statistically significant differences in the time to healing, being longer by 4.90 weeks (p<0.001), and in the rates of delayed union or non-union (55% versus 17.8%) (p<0.001) when these fractures were compared to tibial fractures without compartment syndrome. Patients with ACS of the tibia undergoing leg fasciotomies should be informed about the increased risk of impaired fracture healing and longer time to union. PMID:21993369

  14. Clinical relevance of the severe abnormalities of the T cell compartment in septic shock patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Monserrat; Raul de Pablo; Eduardo Reyes; David Díaz; Hugo Barcenilla; Manuel R Zapata; Antonio De la Hera; Alfredo Prieto; Melchor Álvarez-Mon

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Given the pivotal role of T lymphocytes in the immune system, patients with septic shock may show T cell abnormalities. We have characterised the T cell compartment in septic shock and assess its clinical implications. METHODS: T lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of 52 patients with septic shock and 36 healthy control subjects were analysed on admission to the

  15. Uptake of Heavy Metals to the Extracellular and Intracellular Compartments in Three Species of Aquatic Bryophyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Vázquez; J. López; A. Carballeira

    1999-01-01

    Shoot tips of Fontinalis antipyretica, Scapania undulata, and Fissidens polyphyllus were maintained for 60 min with solutions containing 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn. A sequential extraction procedure was then used to estimate the amounts of the corresponding metal, and of K and Mg, in the extracellular compartment (extraction with

  16. Compartment D115, typical officer's stateroom, starboard side, note electrical conduct ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment D-115, typical officer's stateroom, starboard side, note electrical conduct on ceiling, corrugated dividing wall, wood furnishings and cabinetry. Ceiling hook may have been used for hanging wet clothing or oilskins. (089) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder-associated biomarker.

    PubMed

    te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O; Wallom, Kerri L; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A; Hendriksz, Christian J; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie; Jacklin, Elizabeth; Riddick, Kate; Yanjanin, Nicole M; Wassif, Christopher A; Rolfs, Arndt; Rimmele, Florian; Wright, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Ramaswami, Uma; Cox, Timothy M; Hastings, Caroline; Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Ory, Daniel S; Arias, Begona; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Sillence, Daniel J; Wraith, James E; Porter, Forbes D; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Platt, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders. PMID:24487591

  18. Leg cramps in pregnancy caused by chronic compartment syndrome and relieved by fasciotomy after childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Orlin, Jan Roar; Øen, Jarle; Andersen, John Roger; Tjugum, Ivar Jostein; Westbye, Hans Jacob; Roska, Jomar; Aasved, Helene; Hjelmeland, Kjersti

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A case of intolerable leg pain in pregnancy, caused by Chronic Compartment Syndrome (CCS), is presented. Increasing amounts of opioids were given throughout the pregnancy. Anesthetical dilemmas and surgery are discussed. In conclusion, early surgery rather than opioids is recommended. PMID:25356260

  19. Analysis of mRNA Partitioning Between the Cytosol and Endoplasmic Reticulum Compartments

    E-print Network

    Nicchitta, Chris

    14 Analysis of mRNA Partitioning Between the Cytosol and Endoplasmic Reticulum CompartmentsRNAs that are non-canonically partitioned to the ER--although lacking an encoded signal sequence;198 Stephens et al. 1. Introduction In eukaryotic cells, protein synthesis is compartmentalized; mRNAs encoding

  20. Subnuclear cyclin D3 compartments and the coordinated regulation of proliferation and immunoglobulin variable gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Sarah E.; Mandal, Malay; Matsuda, Satoshi; Miletic, Ana V.; Cato, Matthew H.; Tanaka, Azusa; Rickert, Robert C.; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitously expressed D-type cyclins are required for hematopoiesis but are dispensable in other cell lineages. Furthermore, within different hematopoietic progenitor populations the D-type cyclins play nonredundant roles. The basis of this lineage and developmental specificity is unknown. In pro–B cells we demonstrate four distinct nuclear D-type cyclin compartments, including one cyclin D3 fraction associated with CDK4 and another phosphoinositide 3-kinase–regulated fraction not required for proliferation. A third fraction of cyclin D3 was associated with the nuclear matrix and repression of >200 genes including the variable (V) gene segments Igkv1-117, Iglv1, and Igh-VJ558. Consistent with different subnuclear compartments and functions, distinct domains of cyclin D3 mediated proliferation and Igk V gene segment repression. None of the cyclin D3 nuclear compartments overlapped with cyclin D2, which was distributed, unbound to CDK4, throughout the nucleus. Furthermore, compartmentalization of the cyclins appeared to be lineage restricted because in fibroblasts, cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 occupied a single nuclear compartment and neither bound CDK4 efficiently. These data suggest that subnuclear compartmentalization enables cyclin D3 to drive cell cycle progression and repress V gene accessibility, thereby ensuring coordination of proliferation with immunoglobulin recombination. PMID:23109711

  1. Cohesin-based chromatin interactions enable regulated gene expression within preexisting architectural compartments

    PubMed Central

    Seitan, Vlad C.; Faure, Andre J.; Zhan, Ye; McCord, Rachel Patton; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Ing-Simmons, Elizabeth; Lenhard, Boris; Giorgetti, Luca; Heard, Edith; Fisher, Amanda G.; Flicek, Paul; Dekker, Job; Merkenschlager, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture approaches have shown that interphase chromatin is partitioned into spatially segregated Mb-sized compartments and sub-Mb-sized topological domains. This compartmentalization is thought to facilitate the matching of genes and regulatory elements, but its precise function and mechanistic basis remain unknown. Cohesin controls chromosome topology to enable DNA repair and chromosome segregation in cycling cells. In addition, cohesin associates with active enhancers and promoters and with CTCF to form long-range interactions important for gene regulation. Although these findings suggest an important role for cohesin in genome organization, this role has not been assessed on a global scale. Unexpectedly, we find that architectural compartments are maintained in noncycling mouse thymocytes after genetic depletion of cohesin in vivo. Cohesin was, however, required for specific long-range interactions within compartments where cohesin-regulated genes reside. Cohesin depletion diminished interactions between cohesin-bound sites, whereas alternative interactions between chromatin features associated with transcriptional activation and repression became more prominent, with corresponding changes in gene expression. Our findings indicate that cohesin-mediated long-range interactions facilitate discrete gene expression states within preexisting chromosomal compartments. PMID:24002784

  2. Compartment A20 construction stories locker looking from forward to aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-20 construction stories locker looking from forward to aft showing wooden ladder and storage bins. Heavy frame supports armored protective deck. Armor plate hatch at top left penetrates protective deck. (05) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A21) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A-21) showing port ventilation fan; electrical generator is at left center of photograph. Platform for generator is at bottom center of photograph. Hatch for passing powder up from magazine is located just above the generator base. Frames support armored protective deck. (018) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. View aft of compartment D23, aft steering station; note steering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View aft of compartment D-23, aft steering station; note steering unit with crosshead and shaft bearing supports. Note framing supports for armored protective deck at top of photo. (p60) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. The longest telomeres: a general signature of adult stem cell compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio Flores; Andres Canela; Elsa Vera; Agueda Tejera; George Cotsarelis; María A. Blasco

    2009-01-01

    Identification of adult stem cells and their location (niches) is of great relevance for regenerative medicine. However, stem cell niches are still poorly defined in most adult tissues. Here, we show that the longest telomeres are a general feature of adult stem cell compartments. Using confocal telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomapping), we find gradients of telomere length within

  6. Studies on smoke movement in stairwell induced by an adjacent compartment fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Q. Sun; L. H. Hu; Y. Z. Li; R. Huo; W. K. Chow; N. K. Fong; Gigi C. H. Lui; K. Y. Li

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the smoke movement in a full-scale six-storey stairwell induced by a fire in an adjacent compartment. The smoke flow pattern in the stairwell was observed with vertical temperature and velocity field distribution measured. Corresponding Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and compared with the measured data. It was

  7. Arthroscopic Evaluation of the Lateral Compartment of Knees With Grade 3 Posterolateral Knee Complex Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. LaPrade

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospec tively the arthroscopic findings in the lateral compart ment of knees with posterolateral knee complex inju ries, to help identify individual injured anatomic structures, and to assist in the clinical identification of these injuries. Thirty of 33 consecutive knees noted to have grade 3 posterolateral knee complex injuries on preoperative evaluations

  8. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  9. CS-US temporal relations in blocking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Amundson; Ralph R. Miller

    2008-01-01

    In four trace-conditioning experiments with rats, the influence on the blocking of differences between the blocking cue-unconditioned\\u000a stimulus (US) and the blocked cue-US trace intervals was explored. Experiment 1 demonstrated blocking despite the blocked\\u000a cue’s having a shorter trace interval than the blocking cue in both elemental (Phase 1) and compound (Phase 2) training. In\\u000a Experiment 2, blocking was attenuated

  10. 14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...Accommodations § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane...

  11. 14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...Accommodations § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane...

  12. 14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...Accommodations § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane...

  13. 14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...Accommodations § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane...

  14. 14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...Accommodations § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane...

  15. 78 FR 25846 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A340-600 Series Airplanes; Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...issued for the Airbus Model A340 series airplanes. These airplanes...compartment of Airbus Model A340-200 series airplanes. The applicable airworthiness...regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions...compartment in Airbus Model A340-600 series airplanes. The LDCR is...

  16. Dynein-Dependent Transport of the Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein to the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Intermediate Compartment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harish N. Ramanathan; Dong-Hoon Chung; Steven J. Plane; Elizabeth Sztul; Yong-kyu Chu; Mary C. Guttieri; Michael McDowell; Georgia Ali; Colleen B. Jonsson

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to most negative-stranded RNA viruses, hantaviruses and other viruses in the family Bunyaviri- dae mature intracellularly, deriving the virion envelope from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi compartment. While it is generally accepted that Old World hantaviruses assemble and bud into the Golgi compartment, some studies with New World hantaviruses have raised the possibility of maturation at the

  17. Experimental evidence for bone marrow as a source of nonhematopoietic endometrial stromal and epithelial compartment cells in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sara S; Rameshwar, Pranela; Goldsmith, Laura T

    2013-07-01

    Human endometrium has the remarkable ability to regenerate all cellular compartments with every menstrual cycle; the cellular source remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the bone marrow (BM) is a source of multiple endometrial cell types using a murine BM transplant model. BM cells were harvested from transgenic donor mice that ubiquitously express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and were injected into lethally irradiated, syngeneic female recipient mice. Recipients with successful hematopoietic reconstitution were sacrificed at 3, 5, 9, and 12 mo posttransplant, after which hysterectomy was performed. Numbers of GFP-positive, CD45-positive, and CD45-negative cells in the endometrial stromal and epithelial compartments were determined. In the stromal compartment, BM-derived cells (BMDCs) were detectable as early as 3 mo posttransplant, and the BM remained a long-term contributor of nonhematopoietic endometrial cells. Nonhematopoietic endometrial cells comprised 47.3%-72.2% of total BMDCs in the stromal compartment at 12 mo posttransplant. In contrast, BMDCs were not detected in the glandular or luminal epithelial compartments until 12 mo posttransplant. These data demonstrate that the BM is a significant source of nonhematopoietic endometrial stromal compartment cells and contributes to a much lesser extent to the epithelial compartments. That BM is a source of nonhematopoietic cells in the endometrial stromal and epithelial compartments provides a potential mechanism by which monthly regeneration of the endometrium may occur. PMID:23699390

  18. Snell's Law with Large Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, John J.

    2007-03-01

    The introductory physics lab curriculum usually has one experiment devoted to the study of the refraction of light. The most obvious way to study the refraction of light is to lay a transparent block down on the lab bench and aim a laser beam horizontally at the block so that it refracts twice—inward upon entering the block and outward upon exiting. The vendors that provide us with lab equipment (Sargent-Welch, PASCO, Fisher Scientific, and Frey Scientific to name a few) sell acrylic blocks for this very purpose, but these are either too small or they are too expensive. If students are going to measure angles of incidence and refraction, the blocks should be larger than the typical student protractor, which has a radius of 3 in (? 7½ cm). These blocks are just not large enough. They are generally not thick enough either so that the beam from a typical laser passes over them and not through them. The vendors mentioned above do sell blackboard optics kits that contain, among other parts, three blocks that are large enough—on the order of 10 to 20 cm. Unfortunately, these kits cost more than 1000.

  19. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  20. Upper extremity acute compartment syndrome during tissue plasminogen activator therapy for pulmonary embolism in a morbidly obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Serkan; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Mutlu, Serhat; Ketenci, Ismail Emre; Ulusoy, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are more frequently observed in morbidly obese patients. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a thrombolytic agent which dissolves the thrombus more rapidly than conventional heparin therapy and reduces the mortality and morbidity rates associated with PE. Compartment syndrome is a well-known and documented complication of thrombolytic treatment. In awake, oriented and cooperative patients, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made based on clinical findings including swelling, tautness, irrational and continuous pain, altered sensation, and severe pain due to passive stretching. These clinical findings may not be able to be adequately assessed in unconscious patients. Presentation of case In this case report, we present compartment syndrome observed, for which fasciotomy was performed on the upper right extremity of a 46-year old morbidly obese, conscious female patient who was receiving tPA due to a massive pulmonary embolism. Discussion Compartment syndrome had occurred due to the damage caused by the repeated unsuccessful catheterisation attempts to the brachial artery and the accompanying tPA treatment. Thus, the bleeding that occurred in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm led to acute compartment syndrome (ACS). After relaxation was brought about in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm, the circulation in the limb was restored. Conclusion As soon as the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made, an emergency fasciotomy should be performed. Close follow-up is required to avoid wound healing problems after the fasciotomy. PMID:25618841

  1. Fluvial entrainment of low density peat blocks (block carbon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Jeff

    2014-05-01

    In many fluvial environments low density materials are transported in significant quantities and these form an important part of the stream load and /or have a distinct impact on sedimentation in these environments. However, there are significant gaps in understanding of how these materials are entrained and transported by streams and rivers. Eroding upland peatland environments in particular, frequently have fluvial systems in which large eroded peat blocks, often exceeding 1 m in length; form an important component of the stream material flux. Transport of this material is significant in determining rates of erosion but also has important impacts in terms of damage to infrastructure and carbon loss. This paper describes a field experiment designed to establish for the first time the conditions under which large peat blocks (c. > 0.1 m b axis) are initially entrained from a rough gravel bed. The field site is Trout Beck, in the North Pennines, Northern England which is an upland wandering river channel with occasional lateral and mid channel bars. Mean low flow stage is typically 0.2 m but during flood can rapidly rise, in one to two hours, to over 1.5 m. To study peat block entrainment a bespoke data acquisition system consisting of two pressure transducers, four release triggers and time lapse camera was set up. The pressure transducers provided a record of local depth and the release triggers were embedded in peat blocks to record initial motion and arranged on the rough stream bed. The time lapse camera provided verification of timing of block entrainment (during daylight hours) and also provided information on the mechanism of initial movement. Peat blocks were cut from a local source and were equidimensional, ranging in size from 0.1 to 0.7 m. The derived entrainment function is related to a critical depth of entrainment. Results demonstrate that peat blocks are entrained when the local depth approximates the height of the peat block. Blocks frequently shift position prior to entrainment but once entrained are rapidly transported downstream. Because of the rough stream bed local depth, measured on the four sides of the block varies markedly and needs to be considered in developing an appropriate entrainment function and; is useful in explaining initial movement prior to entrainment. In some experiments a small accelerometer (HOBO Pendant G data logger) was used to investigate transport dynamics following entrainment. Further work will seek to improve the entrainment function by extending the size range of tests, developing a shear stress related function and investigating the importance of block shape (rounding) on entrainment.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of tenofovir / IQP-0528 combination gels – a dual compartment microbicide for HIV-1 prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Shetler, Cory; Mahalingam, Alamelu; Ugaonkar, Shweta R.; Gwozdz, Garry; Buckheit, Karen W.; Buckheit, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor and IQP-0528 is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that also blocks virus entry. TFV and IQP-0528 alone have shown antiviral activity as microbicide gels. Because combination therapy will likely be more potent than mono-therapy, these drugs have been chosen to make a combination microbicide gel containing 2.5% TFV/1% IQP-0528. Safety and efficacy testing was done to evaluate five prototype combination gels. The gels retained TZM-bl cell and ectocervical and colorectal tissue viability. Further, the epithelium of the ectocervical and colorectal tissue remained intact after a 24 hour exposure. The ED50 calculated from the formulations for IQP-0528 was ~32 nM and for TFV was ~59 nM and their inhibitory activity was not affected by semen. The ED50 of TFV in the combination gels was ~100-fold lower than when calculated for the drug substance alone reflecting the activity of the more potent IQP-0528. When ectocervical and colorectal tissue were treated with the combination gels, HIV-1 p24 release was reduced by ?1 log10 and ?2 log10, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for the ectocervical tissues treated with combination gels showed no HIV-1 infected cells at study end. With the increased realization of receptive anal intercourse among heterosexual couples often in conjunction with vaginal intercourse, having a safe and effective microbicide for both mucosal sites is critical. The safety and efficacy profiles of the gels were similar for ectocervical and colorectal tissues suggesting these gels have the potential for dual compartment use. PMID:22940075

  3. Trans-infection but Not Infection from within Endosomal Compartments after Cell-to-cell HIV-1 Transfer to CD4+ T Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Permanyer, Marc; Ballana, Ester; Badia, Roger; Pauls, Eduardo; Clotet, Bonaventura; Esté, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular contacts between HIV-1-infected donor cells and uninfected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes lead to virus transfer into endosomes. Recent evidence suggests that HIV particles may fuse with endosomal membranes to initiate a productive infection. To explore the role of endocytosis in the entry and replication of HIV, we evaluated the infectivity of transferred HIV particles in a cell-to-cell culture model of virus transmission. Endocytosed virus led to productive infection of cells, except when cells were cultured in the presence of the anti-gp120 mAb IgGb12, an agent that blocks virus attachment to CD4, suggesting that endocytosed virus was recycled to the outer cell surface. Confocal microscopy confirmed the colocalization of internalized virus antigen and the endosomal marker dynamin. Additionally, virus transfer, fusion, or productive infection was not blocked by dynasore, dynamin-dependent endosome-scission inhibitor, at subtoxic concentrations, suggesting that the early capture of virus into intracellular compartments did not depend on endosomal maturation. Our results suggest that endocytosis is not a mechanism of infection of primary CD4 T cells, but may serve as a reservoir capable of inducing trans-infection of cells after the release of HIV particles to the extracellular environment. PMID:22846998

  4. Ca exchange under non-perfusion-limited conditions in rat ventricular cells: Identification of subcellular compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.A.; Rich, T.L.; Orner, F.B. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Freshly prepared ventricular myocytes from rat hearts, aliquots of which were tested for sarcolemmal integrity by La exposure, were labeled at high 45Ca specific activity. Isotope was subsequently washed out at a perfusion rate of 2.8 ml/s with washout solution sampled each 1 s. No initial unrecorded period of washout was imposed. Four compartments were distinguishable: (1) a rapid compartment (RC) containing 2.6 mmol Ca/kg dry wt of La-displaceable Ca, half time (t1/2) less than 1 s; (2) an intermediate compartment(s) (IC) containing 2.1 mmol, t1/2 = 3 and 19 s; (3) a slow compartment (SC) containing 1.6 mmol, t1/2 = 3.6 min; (4) an inexchangeable compartment that demonstrated no 45Ca uptake after 60-min labeling containing 1.2 mmol. Introduction of 10 mM caffeine as a probe for sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) content at various times during the washouts caused an increased release of 45Ca. The net increased 45Ca release plotted as a function of time at which caffeine was introduced produced a biexponential curve with t1/2s of 2 and 22 s, very similar to the t1/2s of the IC. Ryanodine (1 microM) significantly reduced the caffeine-induced 45Ca release, confirming the SR locus of the IC. Cells were perfused with 10 mM NaH2PO4 to specifically increase mitochondrial 45Ca labeling. Subsequent removal of PO4 at various times during washouts produced large increases in effluent 45Ca. A plot of the net peak release of 45Ca vs. time of PO4 removal was monoexponential with t1/2 = 3.3 min, very similar to the SC t1/2. The large La-accessible RC remains unlocalized, but the rapidity of its exchange places it in the sarcolemma and/or at sites in rapid equilibrium with the sarcolemma.

  5. The Building Blocks of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Betty O.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

  6. Carbon-carbon cylinder block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  7. Atrioventricular block during fetal life

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lindsey E.; Simpson, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital complete atrioventricular (AV) block occurs in approximately 1 in 20,000 live births and is known to result in significant mortality and morbidity both during fetal life and postnatally. Complete AV block can occur as a result of an immune or a non-immune mediated process. Immune mediated AV block is a multifactorial disease, but is associated with the trans-placental passage of maternal autoantibodies (anti-Ro/SSA and/or anti-La/SSB). These autoantibodies attach to and subsequently damage the cardiomyocytes and conduction tissue in susceptible fetuses. In this report, we examine the evidence in reference to means of assessment, pathophysiology, and potential prenatal therapy of atrioventricular block.

  8. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... the middle ear and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Progressive familial heart block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Progressive familial heart block On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed April 2015 What is progressive familial heart block? Progressive familial heart block is a genetic ...

  10. Eliminating the memory blocking effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Andrew Leynes; Olga Rass; Joshua D. Landau

    2008-01-01

    Six experiments investigated the memory blocking effect (MBE) in which exposure to orthographically similar words (e.g., BALLOON) impairs one's ability to complete a similar fragment (e.g., BAL_ON_, solution is BALCONY). Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that blocking is not observed after a 72-hour delay; however, repetition priming was observed after the same delay. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that presenting

  11. New concepts of heart block

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bekheit; J. G. Murtagh; P. Morton; E. Fletcher

    1973-01-01

    Summary  Histo-Pathological studies have demonstrated the essential focal nature of AV conduction disturbances, but current clinical\\u000a concepts of heart block, derived from the scalar electrocardiogram, give little or no information as to the precise site within\\u000a the conducting system where impulses are delayed or blocked. The His bundle electrogram resolves the complex P-R interval\\u000a of scalar tracings into its various components.

  12. Partial blocking and associative learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Benz

    2006-01-01

    We are going to explain partial blocking as the result of diachronic processes based on what we will call associative learning. Especially, we argue that the task posed by partial blocking phenomena is to explain their emergence from unambiguous and\\u000a fully expressive languages. This contrasts with approaches that presuppose underspecified semantic meanings or ineffability\\u000a like Bidirectional Optimality Theory (Bi–OT) and

  13. Variable Block Length and Transmission Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kirlin

    1969-01-01

    This work is concerned with the effect of grouping data into blocks for transmission in an error detect-retransmit system. A formula is presented giving transmission efficiencyEin data bits per binit.Eis a function of the time per bit, block length, nondata bits per block, data bits per word, and average timebar{T}per block transmission.bar{T}takes into consideration block length, block starting bit times,

  14. Compartment syndrome: A quantitative study of high-energy phosphorus compounds using sup 31 P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heppenstall, R.B.; Sapega, A.A.; Izant, T.; Fallon, R.; Shenton, D.; Park, Y.S.; Chance, B. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate the intracellular high-energy phosphate compounds during 6 hours of tissue ischemia in the anterior tibial compartment of beagles subjected to an induced traumatized compartment syndrome. The goal of this work was to provide clinicians with objective criteria to augment clinical judgment regarding surgical intervention in the impending compartment syndrome. A beagle model was utilized in which the Delta pressure (difference between the mean arterial pressure and compartment pressure) could be controlled. The model, in conjunction with {sup 31}P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), allowed a measure of high-energy phosphate compounds and pH in the compartment at various Delta pressures. The extent of ischemic metabolic insult in the compartment was then quantitated. Our data suggest the following: (1) lower Delta pressures result in a proportionally greater drop in the intracellular phosphocreatine ratio and pH; (2) at lower Delta pressures, there is proportionally greater decline in the percentage recovery post-fasciotomy; (3) blood pressure is extremely important and periods of hypotension may result in increased muscle damage at lower compartment pressures.

  15. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    PubMed Central

    How, Moo Ing; Lee, Puah Ken; Wei, Tan See; Chong, Chua Tai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compartment syndrome isolated to the anterior thigh is a rare complication of soccer injury. Previous reports in the English literature on sports trauma-related compartment syndrome of the thigh are vague in their description of the response of thigh musculature to blunt trauma, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of high-risk features of compartment syndrome, vascular injury in quadriceps trauma, and the role of vascular study in blunt thigh injury. Case report We present herein the rare case of a 30-year-old man who developed thigh compartment syndrome 8 days after soccer injury due to severe edema of vastus intermedius and large thigh hematoma secondary to rupture of the profunda femoris vein. MRI revealed “blow-out” rupture of the vastus lateralis. Decompressive fasciotomy and vein repair performed with subsequent split-skin grafting of the wound defect resulted in a good functional outcome at 2-years follow-up. Conclusion A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome. PMID:25931302

  16. Novel Compartment Implicated in Calcium Signaling--Is It an "Induced Coupling Domain"?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chihiro Hisatsune (RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI); Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology REV)

    2005-12-06

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is not simply a uniform continuous organelle, but is spatially and functionally heterogeneous with nonuniform distribution of endoplasmic Ca2+-handling proteins, such as Ca2+-binding proteins, Ca2+ pumps, and Ca2+-release channels. Such nonuniform distribution of Ca2+-handling proteins is thought to create a spatially divided calcium store and to contribute to the generation of complex intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. In addition to the particular distribution of these Ca2+-handling proteins within ER, extracellular stimuli may also stimulate the formation of dynamic new ER compartments containing Ca2+-handling proteins. These compartments containing Ca2+-handling proteins have potential roles in Ca2+ signaling; specifically, they may function as "induced coupling domains" between the ER and plasma membrane, thereby allowing Ca2+ entry into the ER.

  17. Volume elasticity of the ocular avascular compartment in vivo and post mortem.

    PubMed

    Malessa, P; Rockenfeller, K H; Pak, M A; Roth, P P

    1982-01-01

    By considering the frequency dependence of the ocular volume elasticity it is possible to locate the static volume elasticity function of the avascular compartment of the eye in vivo. The procedure used involved measuring the dynamic volume elasticity function E = f(P,v), where E = volume elasticity, P = intraocular pressure, and v = frequency, in vivo and post mortem at a frequency higher than the apparent upper mechanical response frequency of the intraocular vascular bed. In addition, post mortem measurements were made of the volume elasticity function at a frequency which was as low as experimentally possible. For practical purposes the latter volume elasticity function may serve as an estimate of the static elasticity function of the avascular compartment in vivo. This is possible in all cases because at the high frequency level the dynamic volume elasticity functions measured in vivo and post mortem are identical. PMID:7059625

  18. Acute compartment syndrome of the foot in a soccer player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Laframboise, Michelle A.; Muir, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Objective To present the diagnostic and clinical features including management of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the foot and to create a sense of emergency amongst clinicians of this rare and dangerous condition. Clinical Features A 28-year old male soccer player on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and verapamil presented with severe swelling, paresthesia, and pain in the left ankle after an acute grade three-inversion ankle sprain. A diagnosis of foot compartment syndrome was made. Intervention and Outcome A fasciotomy was not performed and subsequent neurological sequelae occurred. We hypothesize that the edema caused by the ankle sprain was excessive due to the use of ASA and verapamil, resulting in increased compartmental pressure and neurological signs in the foot. Summary Although rare, it is extremely important to be aware of the clinical features of ACS of the foot to obtain an appropriate diagnosis and manage this medical emergency promptly. PMID:22131567

  19. Physiology of bone: mineral compartment proteins as candidates for environmental perturbation by lead.

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, J J; Somerman, M J

    1991-01-01

    Termine et al. first demonstrated that sequential dissociative extraction and fractionation procedures with protease inhibitors could provide a convenient approach for the study of mineral compartment constituents. The primary extraction regimen used 4 M guanidine HCl to remove most of the protein from the nonmineralized phase of bone. Subsequently, EDTA-guanidine was used to remove the mineral-phase components. These methods discriminate on the basis of physical-chemical association with a mineral phase rather than on the specific gene products of a particular cell. In the present discussion emphasis is directed at a group of divalent cation binding proteins isolated from the mineral compartment of bone. The localization, synthesis, and chemical characteristics of osteonectin, bone sialoproteins I and II, and bone acidic glycoprotein-75 are discussed and offered as possible sites for perturbation by the environment with lead exposure. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. PMID:2040255

  20. What is the most realistic single-compartment model of spike initiation?

    PubMed

    Brette, Romain

    2015-04-01

    A large variety of neuron models are used in theoretical and computational neuroscience, and among these, single-compartment models are a popular kind. These models do not explicitly include the dendrites or the axon, and range from the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model to various flavors of integrate-and-fire (IF) models. The main classes of models differ in the way spikes are initiated. Which one is the most realistic? Starting with some general epistemological considerations, I show that the notion of realism comes in two dimensions: empirical content (the sort of predictions that a model can produce) and empirical accuracy (whether these predictions are correct). I then examine the realism of the main classes of single-compartment models along these two dimensions, in light of recent experimental evidence. PMID:25856629