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1

A Comparison of Psoas Compartment Block and Spinal and General Anesthesia for Outpatient Knee Arthroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal anesthetic technique for outpatient knee arthroscopy remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated surgical operating conditions, patient satis- faction, recovery times, and postoperative analgesic re- quirements associated with psoas compartment block, general anesthetic, or spinal anesthetic techniques. Sixty patients were randomized to receive a propofol\\/ nitrous oxide\\/fentanyl general anesthetic, spinal anes- thesia with 6 mg of bupivacaine and

Christopher J. Jankowski; James R. Hebl; Michael J. Stuart; Michael G. Rock; Mark W. Pagnano; Christopher M. Beighley; Darrell R. Schroeder; Terese T. Horlocker

2003-01-01

2

The psoas compartment block for hip surgery: the past, present, and future.  

PubMed

A posterior lumbar plexus block or psoas compartment block (PCB) is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the entire lower extremity including the hip. Since the first description in the early seventies, this technique has been modified based on advanced knowledge of the anatomical localization of the lumbar plexus and the improvement of technical equipment. This paper provides an overview of the history, clinical efficacy, and risk profile of the PCB focused on hip surgery. Current status and future expectations are discussed. PMID:21716721

de Leeuw, M A; Zuurmond, W W A; Perez, R S G M

2011-05-22

3

Tramadol added to bupivacaine does not prolong analgesia of continuous psoas compartment block.  

PubMed

The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the quality and duration of analgesia when tramadol was added to 0.25% bupivacaine for continuous psoas compartment block (CPCB) using visual analog pain scores. Thirty patients were prospectively randomized into two equal groups (n = 15). Visual analog scale pain score was not significantly different between the groups during the 48-hour follow-up period. Rescue analgesic consumption, nausea and vomiting, and the satisfaction scores were comparable between the groups (P > 0.05). Success with catheter placement adjacent to the lumbar plexus was 100%, and none of the patients developed any catheter-related complications. In conclusion, tramadol does not provide a clinically significant analgesic action as an adjunct to 0.25% bupivacaine for CPCB. PMID:19019050

Kumar, Mukesh; Batra, Yatindra Kumar; Panda, Nidhi Bidyut; Rajeev, Subramanyam; Nagi, Onkar Nath

2008-09-09

4

Continuous Psoas Compartment Blocks After Major Orthopedic Surgery in Children: A Prospective Computed Tomographic Scan and Clinical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoral shaft or hip surgeries are very painful for chil- dren. We conducted both computed tomographic (CT) and clinical prospective studies to define new land- marks in children and to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous psoas compartment blocks (CPCBs) using disposable elastomeric pumps. In a preliminary CT scan study of 20 patients, the plexus depth was corre- lated to patient

C. Dadure; O. Raux; P. Gaudard; M. Sagintaah; R. Troncin; A. Rochette; X. Capdevila

2004-01-01

5

Psoas compartment block for lower extremity surgery: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Psoas compartment block (PCB) is a potentially useful but controversial technique for lower limb surgery. We have conducted a systematic review of the efficacy and safety of PCB for anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia for hip and knee surgery. Relevant studies were identified within PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The main outcome measure for anaesthesia was anaesthetic efficacy. For postoperative analgesia, the severity of postoperative pain was compared. The data were subjected to meta-analysis using relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for dichotomous variables and weighted mean differences with 95% CI for continuous variables. Thirty publications were included. PCB is an effective intervention for analgesia after hip and knee surgery. It appears superior to opioids for pain relief after hip surgery. This analgesic benefit may be extended beyond 8 h by the use of a catheter technique. Compared with Winnie's 3-in-1 block, PCB is associated with more consistent block of the obturator nerve. PCB may be an alternative to postoperative neuraxial block. Although PCB combined with sciatic nerve block and sedation is an effective technique for minor knee surgery, there is currently insufficient data to recommend the use of this approach for hip and major knee surgery. PCB is a safe and effective alternative for analgesia after hip and knee surgery. More research is required to define its role in the intraoperative setting and confirm potentially beneficial effects on variables such as perioperative haemodynamics and blood loss. PMID:18945717

Touray, S T; de Leeuw, M A; Zuurmond, W W A; Perez, R S G M

2008-10-22

6

Psoas compartment blockade in a laterally herniated disc compressing the psoas muscle -a case report-.  

PubMed

A psoas compartment block has been used to provide anesthesia for orthopedic surgical procedures and analgesia for post-operative pain. Currently, this block is advocated for relieving pain in the lower extremity and pelvic area resulting from various origins. We report a case of a 69-year-old male patient who had gait abnormality with posterior pelvic and hip pain, which were both aggravated by hip extension. From the magnetic resonance image, the patient was found to have a laterally herniated intervertebral disc at the L2/3 level, which compressed the right psoas muscle. This was thought to be the origin of the pain, so a psoas compartment block was performed using 0.25% chirocaine with triamcinolone 5mg, and the pain in both the pelvis and hip were relieved. PMID:22514781

Kim, Hye Young; Park, Jin Woo; Park, Soo Young; Moon, Jee Youn; Shin, Jae Hyuck; Park, Sang Hyun

2012-04-04

7

Role of psoas compartment and caudal epidural steroid injection in spinal stenosis patients associated with low back pain and lower limb radiculopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction of psoas compartment and caudal epidural steroid injection in patients with spinal stenosis and lumbosaccral radiculopathy.METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of spinal stenosis and lumbosaccral radiculopathy having visual analogue score (VAS) less than five were included in the study. Bilateral psoas compartment and caudal epidural injection was given to all patients.

Mueen Ullah Khan; S. Zaki Hussain

2008-01-01

8

Compartment syndrome diagnosed in due time by breakthrough pain despite continuous peripheral nerve block.  

PubMed

We here present a paediatric case with development of acute compartment syndrome in the lower leg secondary to a tibial shaft fracture. The patient was diagnosed in time because of breakthrough pain, despite a well-functioning continuous peripheral nerve block with ropivacaine infusion. Compartment syndrome is a potentially devastating complication to trauma, typically fractures of the tibial shaft and the forearm because of the relatively tight facias and small volume of these compartments. PMID:24020485

Munk-Andersen, H; Laustrup, T K

2013-09-11

9

Psoas abscess in obstetrics.  

PubMed

Psoas abscess is rarely encountered in obstetric practice. This condition may be primary or secondary resulting from extension of an infectious process near the psoas muscle. We report a series of three patients with psoas abscess that were encountered in our obstetric practice. Two of these patients had a primary and one a secondary abscess. Two patients underwent laparotomy and drainage of abscess while one received medical treatment. All patients recovered uneventfully. PMID:18607613

Kumar, Sunesh; Malhotra, Neena; Chanana, Charu; Lal, Suman

2008-07-08

10

Comparison of the Three-in-One and Fascia lliaca Compartment Blocks in Adults: Clinical and Radiographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-in-1 (Group 1) and fascia iliaca compartment (Group 2) blocks, two single-injection, anterior ap- proach procedures used to simultaneously block the femoral, obturator, and lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC) nerves, were compared in 100 adults after lower limb surgery. Pain control, sensory and motor blockades, and radiographically visualized spread of local anes- thetic solution were studied prospectively. Both ap- proaches

X. Capdevila; M. Bouregba; Y. Barthelet; J. Rubenovitch; F. d'Athis

11

Mathematical model of heat transfer in the U-shaped block of the unpressurized device compartment of a geostationary spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new dynamic mathematical distributed-lumped parameter model of heat transfer in the U-shaped block of the service-system module of the unpressurized device compartment of a promising geostationary orbiting spacecraft having a long service life is proposed. A computational algorithm and software for calculating the multidimensional nonstationary temperature fields arising in the process of operation of the airborne-equipment devices and the system of nonregulated heat pipes in the indicated block have been developed. Results of calculation of these fields are presented.

Burakov, V. A.; Korchagin, E. N.; Kozhukhov, V. P.; Tkachenko, A. S.; Shcherbakova, I. V.

2007-11-01

12

[A case of malignant psoas syndrome diagnosed while treating sciatica].  

PubMed

While attempting to treat a 71-year-old male patient who had been diagnosed with sciatica from spinal canal stenosis, we discovered his prior cancer metastasizing to the psoas. We initially administered epidural block to him after confirming his prior rectal cancer had not metastasized to lumbar vertebral bones, but the block did not satisfactorily alleviate his pain, and he had difficulty stretching his lower limbs. CT scan to re-examine the cause revealed a metastasized cancer in the psoas. From this experience, we believe malignant psoas syndrome should be considered in addition to metastasis to lumbar vertebral bones, when evaluating lower back to lower limb pain in patients with previous cancer history. PMID:23905413

Komatsu, Shuji; Iseki, Masako; Morita, Yoshihito; Inada, Eiichi

2013-07-01

13

Psoas abscess complicating endovascular aortic aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

Aortic stent graft infection is a rare but serious complication associated with high mortality. This report emphasizes the need for continued awareness of potential graft-related septic complications in patients undergoing Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR). We report a case in which a post-EVAR patient became unwell about 30 days post operatively and was shown on CT scanning to have a psoas abscess. The abscess was managed with percutaneous drainage and antibiotics. The patient remains well with no evidence of psoas collection or perigraft infection one year on. We review the available literature and discuss the merits of different management strategies.

Moussa, O; Sreedharan, L; Poels, J; Ojimba, T

2012-01-01

14

[Bladder psoas hitch. Report of 11 cases].  

PubMed

Bladder psoas hitch is an surgical technique which, in very complicated cases, like repeated failures of vesico-ureteral re-implants or undiversions, allow us to bridge the shortness of the ureter and obtain a good vesico-ureteral reimplant. The surgical maneuver is described and several of the 11 cases operated by this technique are commented. The results are presented. PMID:8357727

Piro, C; Dargallo, T; Soto, R; Martín, J A; Gosálbez, R

1993-04-01

15

Psoas abscess formation in suboptimally controlled diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Psoas abscess formation is a rare entity for which diabetes mellitus remains a major predisposing factor. Diabetes has long been associated with a predisposition to unusual and more serious infections. Here we present two cases that demonstrate that chronically suboptimally controlled diabetes remains an important marker for the development of primary psoas abscess. It is important to include psoas abscess in the differential in such patients to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21811508

Lansdown, A J; Downing, A; Roberts, A W; Martin, D

2011-07-28

16

Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release  

PubMed Central

Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

Garala, K.; Power, R. A.

2013-01-01

17

The principal artery of the psoas major muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The psoas major m. has a complex arterial supply, derived from the lumbar, iliolumbar, obturator, external iliac and common femoral a. The branches arising from the external iliac a., though quite often multiple and slender, are represented in 75% of cases by a single large-caliber vessel. This principal artery of the psoas m. is probably responsible for the curves

J. Pillet; J. M. Chevalier; D. Rasomanana; B. Enon; Ph. Mercier; F. Lescalie; F. Moreau; P. Cronier

1989-01-01

18

The psoas major muscle: A three-dimensional geometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to use anatomical data obtained from cadavers, and geometrical scaling data obtained from MRI scans of living subjects, to assess the line of action and mechanical function of the psoas major muscle in three dimensions about each lumbar spine level. In addition, the line of action of the psoas major was documented as a

P. L. Santaguida; S. M. McGill

1995-01-01

19

Psoas muscle metastases in non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. and often spreads via lymphatics or through hematogenous metastasis to the brain, bone and adrenal glands. Isolated metastases to skeletal muscle, including the psoas muscles, are very uncommon. The present report is a case series of three patients with psoas metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a review of the relevant literature. Three patients presented with psoas muscle metastases from NSCLC detected on diagnostic imaging. All patients were treated with radiotherapy to the psoas muscle, and two patients were treated with curative intent on an oligometastatic paradigm. Radiotherapy to the psoas muscle was effective and well tolerated.

Strauss, Jonathan B; Shah, Anand P; Chen, Sea S; Gielda, Benjamin T; Kim, Anthony W

2012-01-01

20

Psoas muscle metastases in non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. and often spreads via lymphatics or through hematogenous metastasis to the brain, bone and adrenal glands. Isolated metastases to skeletal muscle, including the psoas muscles, are very uncommon. The present report is a case series of three patients with psoas metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a review of the relevant literature. Three patients presented with psoas muscle metastases from NSCLC detected on diagnostic imaging. All patients were treated with radiotherapy to the psoas muscle, and two patients were treated with curative intent on an oligometastatic paradigm. Radiotherapy to the psoas muscle was effective and well tolerated. PMID:22295171

Strauss, Jonathan B; Shah, Anand P; Chen, Sea S; Gielda, Benjamin T; Kim, Anthony W

2012-02-01

21

Bilateral psoas abscess during pregnancy presenting as an acute abdomen: atypical presentation.  

PubMed

Nearly half of skeletal tuberculosis patients have spinal tuberculosis, but psoas abscess develops in only 5% of spinal tuberculosis cases. However, bilateral psoas abscess is a rarity. Psoas abscess occurring in pregnancy could be a clinical dilemma and is hardly reported. We report an unusual presentation of bilateral psoas abscess in pregnancy presenting as an acute abdomen and adnexal mass. PMID:24148941

Nigam, Aruna; Prakash, Anupam; Pathak, Puja; Abbey, Pooja

2013-10-22

22

[Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].  

PubMed

Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics. PMID:20544129

Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

2010-06-01

23

Infected pseudocyst in tropical pancreatitis presenting as psoas abscess.  

PubMed

Infected pseudocyst as a consequence of tropical pancreatitis presenting as psoas abscess is unusual. We report a 40-year-old man who presented with pain in the right lumbar region. CT and MRI of the abdomen revealed pancreatic pseudocysts with abscess formation in the psoas muscle and evidence of chronic calcific pancreatitis. He was managed by percutaneous drainage of the abscess along with antibiotics and other supportive measures. PMID:17090850

Harish, K; Thomas, Varghese; Kumar, Sunil; Jose, Tony

24

Is the psoas a hip flexor in the active straight leg raise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoas function is a topic of considerable relevance in sports and clinical science. However, the literature on psoas function\\u000a is not sufficiently consistent. Questions are, amongst others, if during hip flexion the psoas always has the same function\\u000a as the iliacus, and if the psoas affects the hip more than the lumbar spine. In the present study, 17 healthy women,

Hai Hu; Onno G. Meijer; Jaap H. van Dieën; Paul W. Hodges; Sjoerd M. Bruijn; Rob L. Strijers; Prabath W. B. Nanayakkara; Barend J. van Royen; Wen Hua Wu; Chun Xia

2011-01-01

25

Routine use of the psoas hitch in ureteral reimplantation.  

PubMed

Previously, the psoas hitch had been advocated only for difficult cases of ureteral implantation, especially when there had been inadequate ureteral length. However, during the last 10 years the paoas hitch in association with a modified Paquin technique has been used routinely at this institution for ureteral reimplantation. The technique has been used in all unilateral cases and in most bilateral reimplants. Results have been excellent. The psoas hitch allows for a long submucosal tunnel, with a fixed relationship between the ureter and posterolateral bladder wall. Intermittent hydronephrosis is not seen with this method of reimplantation and there have been no voiding disturbances. PMID:7359636

Middleton, R G

1980-03-01

26

Common and unusual diseases involving the iliopsoas muscle compartment: spectrum of cross-sectional imaging findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although relatively uncommon, many different infectious, hemorrhagic and neoplastic disease processes may involve the iliac\\u000a and psoas muscles and are increasingly diagnosed especially in referral hospitals. Furthermore, the iliopsoas compartment\\u000a may become injured during trauma, percutaneous instrumentation, laparoscopic or open surgical procedures. State-of-the-art\\u000a cross-sectional imaging including volumetric multidetector CT and multiplanar MRI acquisitions allows prompt detection, comprehensive\\u000a visualization and confident

Massimo Tonolini; Alessandro Campari; Roberto Bianco

27

Intra-articular psoas tendon release alters fluid flow during hip arthroscopy.  

PubMed

While not proven definitively, the hypothesis that intra-articular psoas tendon release allows fluid to track into the retroperitoneal space has been widely accepted. This study attempts to identify the path through which fluid enters the pelvis and retroperitoneal space. Six hemi-pelvis human cadaveric specimens were utilized for this study. 3 specimens underwent a capsulotomy and psoas tendon release, while 3 had only a capsulotomy. Arthroscopy fluid was combined with Barium and Methylene blue, and fluid was run at 50 mmHg for 2 hours. A gross dissection was performed at the end of the arthroscopy and the path of fluid flow into the pelvis and throughout the thigh was identified. All 6 specimens showed extravasation of fluid into the pelvis at the 5 minute mark. Specimens with a psoas tendon release showed an altered pattern of fluid flow. In all three of these specimens, the psoas muscle belly was bright blue, along with the remaining tendon. Two of the 3 specimens showed tracking of fluid along the vasculature in both directions. The volume of fluid tracking into the pelvis was increased following a psoas release. Arthroscopy fluid rapidly enters the pelvis following the initiation of hip arthroscopy, regardless of the status of the psoas tendon. Release of the psoas tendon allows fluid to diffuse into the psoas muscle and anterior medial thigh, tracking both proximally and distally along the neurovascular structures, and the volume of fluid tracking into the pelvis is increased following a psoas release. PMID:23233181

Hanypsiak, Bryan T; Stoll, Marc A; Gerhardt, Michael B; DeLong, Jeffrey M

28

Anterior to psoas fusion of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Lateral interbody cages have proven useful in lumbar fusion surgery. Spanning both lateral cortical rims while sparing the anterior longitudinal ligament, they restore disc height, improve coronal balance and add stability. The standard approach to their insertion is 90 degrees lateral transpsoas which is bloodless compared to other techniques of interbody cage insertion but requires neuro-monitoring and at L4/5 can be difficult because of iliac crest obstruction or an anterior plexus position. The oblique muscle-splitting approach with the patient in a lateral position, remains retroperitoneal, and on the left side enters the disc space through a window between psoas and the common iliac vein. Reports of this approach are few and none previously have described how to use the large lateral-type cages so effective at restoring spinal alignment. In this video we demonstrate our technique of anterior to psoas fusion of the lumbar spine with a retroperitoneal approach and gentle retraction of the psoas muscle. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/OS2vNcX9JMA. PMID:23829843

Gragnaniello, Cristian; Seex, Kevin A

2013-07-01

29

Automated recognition of the psoas major muscles on X-ray CT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to recognize the psoas major muscle on X-ray CT images. For this purpose, we propose a novel recognition method. The recognition process in this method involves three steps: the generation of a shape model for the psoas major muscle, recognition of anatomical points such as the origin and insertion, and the recognition of the

N. Kamiya; X. Zhou; H. Chen; T. Hara; H. Hoshi; R. Yokoyama; M. Kanematsu; H. Fujita

2009-01-01

30

Water compartments in cells.  

PubMed

Human experience in the macrobiological world leads scientists to visualize water compartments in cells analogous to the bladder in the human pelvis or ventricles in the brain. While such water-filled cellular compartments likely exist, the volume contributions are insignificant relative to those of biomolecular hydration compartments. The purpose of this chapter is to identify and categorize the molecular water compartments caused by proteins, the primary macromolecular components of cells. The categorical changes in free energy of water molecules on proteins cause these compartments to play dominant roles in osmoregulation and provide important adjuncts to fundamental understanding of osmosensing and osmosignaling mechanisms. Water compartments possess differences in molecular motion, enthalpy, entropy, freezing point depression, and other properties because of electrostatic interaction of polar water molecules with electric fields generated by covalently bound pairs of opposite charge caused by electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the protein. Macromolecules, including polypeptides, polynucleotides, and polysaccharides, are stiff molecular chains with restricted folding capacities due to inclusion of rigid ring structures or double amide bonds in the backbone sequence. This creates "irreducible spatial charge separation" between positive and negative partial charges, causing elevated electrostatic energy. In the fully hydrated in vivo state of living cells the high dielectric coefficient of water reduces protein electrostatic free energy by providing polar "water bridge networks" between charges, thereby creating four measurably different compartments of bound water with distinct free energy differences. PMID:17875409

Fullerton, Gary D; Cameron, Ivan L

2007-01-01

31

[Schwannoma developing in the psoas major muscle: a case report].  

PubMed

Schwannoma can occur wherever peripheral nerve Schwann cells are found. However, retroperitoneal schwannoma is extremely rare in that only 16 cases have been reported, including that of the present patient. A 51-year-old male complained of chronic lower back pain and paresthesia in the lower left region. Lower back pain increased with leftward bending. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a neoplastic lesion about 6 cm in diameter in the left psoas major muscle, and the lesion was in contact with the L4 and L5 vertebral bodies. The tumor did not continue to the lumbar foramen. The symptom had become disabling, therefore tumor removal was performed using Wiltse's approach. From intraoperative findings, the origin of the tumor was suspected to be the L4 nerve root. The ventral surface of the tumor could not be observed with this posterior approach. Lumbar plexus might adhere closely to the ventral surface of the tumor, therefore the capsule of the tumor was left to avoid neurological deterioration. Schwannoma was diagnosed by pathological analysis, and no malignancy was evident. After the operation, symptoms were completely relieved, and the residual capsule of the tumor diminished in size on MRI after 12 months. The posterior Wiltse's approach can be useful to treat mass lesions in the psoas major muscle. The 16 reported cases of retroperitoneal schwannoma, including that of the present patient, are reviewed. PMID:21270479

Shimoda, Yusuke; Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Hamauchi, Shuji; Matsumoto, Ryouji; Isobe, Masanori; Kim, Kyongsong; Yusa, Toshinori; Takahashi, Tatsuro

2011-01-01

32

A model based method for recognizing psoas major muscles in torso CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In aging societies, it is important to analyze age-related hypokinesia. A psoas major muscle has many important functional capabilities such as capacity of balance and posture control. These functions can be measured by its cross sectional area (CSA), volume, and thickness. However, these values are calculated manually in the clinical situation. The purpose of our study is to propose an automated recognition method of psoas major muscles in X-ray torso CT images. The proposed recognition process involves three steps: 1) determination of anatomical points such as the origin and insertion of the psoas major muscle, 2) generation of a shape model for the psoas major muscle, and 3) recognition of the psoas major muscles by use of the shape model. The model was built using quadratic function, and was fit to the anatomical center line of psoas major muscle. The shape model was generated using 20 CT cases and tested by 20 other CT cases. The applied database consisted of 12 male and 8 female cases from the ages of 40's to 80's. The average value of Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) values employed in the evaluation was 0.7. Our experimental results indicated that the proposed method was effective for a volumetric analysis and could be possible to be used for a quantitative measurement of psoas major muscles in CT images.

Kamiya, Naoki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

2010-03-01

33

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively common, but often overlooked cause of leg pain in athletes. A careful history and physical examination is essential in the diagnosis of CECS. Affected individuals have recurrent, activity-related leg pain that recurs at a consistent duration or intensity and is only relieved by rest. Measurement of baseline and postexercise compartment pressures confirms the diagnosis and helps in the planning of treatment. Surgical treatment with fasciotomy of the involved compartments is successful in allowing patients to return to full activity levels. With surgical treatment, it is critical to address all affected compartments as well as releasing any fascial defects, both of which may cause recurrent symptoms if neglected. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment, excellent outcomes can be achieved and allow athletes to return to full, unrestricted activity levels. PMID:22341019

George, Christopher A; Hutchinson, Mark R

2012-04-01

34

Multiple Psoas Abscess Formation after Pharmacopuncture -A Case Report-  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture has been widely used in alternative medicine for pain relief but may have many complications due to lack of appropriate cares. Pharmacopuncture is a sort of acupuncture that injects a herbal ingredient through a thin tube for the purpose of combining the effects of the herb and acupuncture and it has many pitfalls. The agents used in pharmacopuncture are not refined for a desired effect and not produced by sterile standard processes under strict medical surveillance. We report a case of a 44-yr-old male patient who had multiple abscesses in the psoas region with fever, right low back and hip pain that began after the pharmacopuncture treatment. This case shows that although pharmacopuncture has been practiced widely, it is important that the appropriate aseptic technique should be used to prevent severe infections and other complications.

Koo, Eun Hye; Chung, Dong Hun; Lee, Il Ok; Kim, Nan Sook; Lim, Sang Ho

2010-01-01

35

Effects of physiological and toxic metals on the contraction of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of three physiological metals (Fe, Zn, and Cu) and three toxic metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg) on the contraction of glycerinated psoas muscle of rabbit were examined. Four different dilutions of each metal solution were added to glycerinated psoas muscle fibers of rabbit. A solution containing 0.25 % ATP plus 0.05 M KCl plus 0.001 M M{sub g}Clâ

A. B. Both; H. W. Wofford

1995-01-01

36

Calcium Compartments in Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellent progress has been made toward understanding the physiology and pharmacology of specific calcium-related cellular processes of the brain, but few studies have provided an integrated view of brain calcium kinetics. To further the knowledge of the size and binding properties of brain calcium compartments, the authors have conducted a series of experiments in hippocampal brain slices exposed to high

George C. Newman; Frank E. Hospod; Clifford S. Patlak; Sean D. Trowbridge; Richard J. Wilke; Mark Fuhrmann; Keith W. Jones

2002-01-01

37

Abdominal compartment syndrome  

PubMed Central

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic, musculoskeletal/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention in order to optimize outcome. The history, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this disorder is outlined.

Bailey, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Marc J

2000-01-01

38

[Compartment syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass].  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome of the lower leg is an occasional complication of prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. We present a patient with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral thigh after femoral arterial and venous cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:20685185

Guillen, G; Llorente, A M; Maseda, R; Belda, S; Olmedilla, M

2010-08-03

39

The perinucleolar compartment and transcription.  

PubMed

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a unique nuclear structure localized at the periphery of the nucleolus. Several small RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III and two hnRNP proteins have been localized in the PNC (Ghetti, A., S. Pińol-Roma, W.M. Michael, C. Morandi, and G. Dreyfuss. 1992. Nucleic Acids Res. 20:3671-3678; Matera, A.G., M.R. Frey, K. Margelot, and S.L. Wolin. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 129:1181- 1193; Timchenko, L.T., J.W. Miller, N.A. Timchenko, D.R. DeVore, K.V. Datar, L. Lin, R. Roberts, C.T. Caskey, and M.S. Swanson. 1996. Nucleic Acids Res. 24: 4407-4414; Huang, S., T. Deerinck, M.H. Ellisman, and D.L. Spector. 1997. J. Cell Biol. 137:965-974). In this report, we show that the PNC incorporates Br-UTP and FITC-conjugated CTP within 5 min of pulse labeling. Selective inhibition of RNA polymerase I does not appreciably affect the nucleotide incorporation in the PNC. Inhibition of all RNA polymerases by actinomycin D blocks the incorporation completely, suggesting that Br-UTP incorporation in the PNC is due to transcription by RNA polymerases II and/or III. Treatment of cells with an RNA polymerase II and III inhibitor induces a significant reorganization of the PNC. In addition, double labeling experiments showed that poly(A) RNA and some of the factors required for pre-mRNA processing were localized in the PNC in addition to being distributed in their previously characterized nucleoplasmic domains. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis revealed a rapid turnover of polypyrimidine tract binding protein within the PNC, demonstrating the dynamic nature of the structure. Together, these findings suggest that the PNC is a functional compartment involved in RNA metabolism in the cell nucleus. PMID:9763419

Huang, S; Deerinck, T J; Ellisman, M H; Spector, D L

1998-10-01

40

Acute lower leg compartment syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndromes in the lower leg are well recognized following major trauma. However, although rare, they may occur following seemingly minor sporting injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome, following a football game and affecting the peroneal or lateral compartment, is described, in which prompt diagnosis and treatment led to a satisfactory outcome. The diagnosis and surgical management of acute compartment syndromes are discussed. Early recognition and treatment are important in the prevention of long-term disability. Images Figure 1

Power, R A; Greengross, P

1991-01-01

41

Acute lower leg compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndromes in the lower leg are well recognized following major trauma. However, although rare, they may occur following seemingly minor sporting injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome, following a football game and affecting the peroneal or lateral compartment, is described, in which prompt diagnosis and treatment led to a satisfactory outcome. The diagnosis and surgical management of acute compartment syndromes are discussed. Early recognition and treatment are important in the prevention of long-term disability. PMID:1810617

Power, R A; Greengross, P

1991-12-01

42

Acute lower leg compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute compartment syndromes in the lower leg are well recognized following major trauma. However, although rare, they may occur following seemingly minor sporting injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome, following a football game and affecting the peroneal or lateral compartment, is described, in which prompt diagnosis and treatment led to a satisfactory outcome. The diagnosis and surgical management of

R A Power; P Greengross

1991-01-01

43

Enlarged psoas muscle and iliopsoas bursitis associated with a rapidly destructive hip in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 39-year-old man with rheumatoid arthritis developed femoral neuropathy secondary to iliopsoas bursitis. The adjacent hip\\u000a joint was severely damaged. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enlargement and inflammation of the psoas muscle at the same\\u000a side of iliopsoas bursitis. Iliopsoas bursitis and abnormal findings of the psoas muscle disappeared while the symptoms improved.

Takumi Matsumoto; Takuo Juji; Tosihito Mori

2006-01-01

44

[The abdominal compartment syndrome].  

PubMed

In two patients, a man aged 67 and a woman aged 80, an abdominal compartment syndrome was diagnosed. The man had been treated surgically for an abdominal aortic aneurysm; he recovered after re-operation. The woman had been treated by sigmoidectomy because of ileus. A Bogota bag and a vacuum-assisted wound-closure system were applied to the abdominal wound. Her condition deteriorated, an intestinal perforation became apparent, of which she did not recover and died. An abdominal compartment syndrome should always be kept in mind when a patient at risk presents with increased intra-abdominal pressure and at least one of the following symptoms: oliguria, decreased cardiac output, increased pulmonary-artery pressure, hypotension and acidosis. Measurement of the bladder pressure remains the method of choice to establish the abdominal pressure level. However, there is a lack of correlation between the measured pressure and the clinical condition of the patient. Therefore, the combination of clinical findings and the observed trend in serial measurements of the bladder pressure is preferred to a single pressure measurement. PMID:16008031

Rozeboom, A L; Havekes, B; Steenvoorde, P; Arbous, M S; Elzo Kraemer, C V; van de Velde, C J H

2005-06-11

45

[Psoas major abscess by heroin addictive patients--a case report].  

PubMed

Drug abuse is related to many medical complications, which depend on the drug type, dose injected, the method of delivery and site of injection. We report a case of psoas abscess in young heroin addict, HIV negative, who was admitted in Emergency Center of Clinical Center in Belgrade because of fever, anaemia, prostration and right groin pain. Clinical and radiological examination were performed. CT showed large abscess of the right psoas muscle, 12 x 4 cm large. Treatment included percutaneous drainage and administration of iv antibiotics. There is regression of inflamation. At discharge patient was in good condition without signs of infection. PMID:22369030

Bumbasirevi?, Marko Z; Zagorac, Slavisa G; Lesi?, Aleksandar R; Bumbasirevic, Vesna; Durasi?, Ljubomir M

2011-01-01

46

Perinucleolar compartment and transformation.  

PubMed

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a sub-nuclear structure that preferentially localizes to the nucleolar periphery. The PNC is found predominantly in transformed cells both in vitro and in vivo. PNC prevalence (the percentage of cells containing at least one PNC) positively correlates with the progression of breast cancer and patient survival. PNCs are highly enriched with newly synthesized RNA polymerase III transcripts and RNA-binding proteins. The structural integrity of the PNC is dependent upon the transcription of these RNAs and a critical level of the polypyrimidine tract binding (PTB) protein, as assayed by the localization of other PNC-associated proteins. These observations suggest a model in which the PNC is a dynamic, functional organelle that forms under specific physiological conditions favoring cellular transformation and might be involved in the metabolism of RNA polymerase III transcripts. PMID:15770648

Kopp, K; Huang, S

2005-05-15

47

Abdominal compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are frequently encountered in critically ill patients and carry a high morbidity and mortality risk. Despite these facts, IAH/ACS are still overlooked by many physicians and therefore timely diagnosis is not made and treatment is often inadequate. All clinicians should be aware of the risk factors predicting IAH/ACS, the profound implications and derangements on all organ systems, the clinical presentation, the appropriate measurement of intra-abdominal pressure to detect IAH/ACS and the current treatment options for these detrimental syndromes. This comprehensive review provides knowledge about known facts, unresolved issues and future directions for research to improve patient survival and long-term outcome. PMID:20668421

Mayer, D; Veith, F J; Lachat, M; Pfammatter, T; Hechelhammer, L; Rancic, Z

2010-06-01

48

The Perinucleolar Compartment  

PubMed Central

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a subnuclear body characterized by its location to the periphery of the nucleolus. The PNC is a dynamic structure and is highly enriched in RNA-binding proteins and pol III RNA. The structural stability of the PNC is dependent on continuous pol III transcription and the presence of key proteins. The PNC is associated with malignancy both in vitro and in vivo and its presence positively correlates with metastatic capacity, making it a potential cancer marker. Recent studies also suggest an association between the PNC and a specific DNA locus, and ongoing PNC research continues to focus on determining the structure and function of the PNC to understand its role in cancer. This article summarizes the current understanding of PNC structure and function with an emphasis on the association of PNC and malignancy.

Pollock, Callie; Huang, Sui

2010-01-01

49

A model based method for recognizing psoas major muscles in torso CT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aging societies, it is important to analyze age-related hypokinesia. A psoas major muscle has many important functional capabilities such as capacity of balance and posture control. These functions can be measured by its cross sectional area (CSA), volume, and thickness. However, these values are calculated manually in the clinical situation. The purpose of our study is to propose an

Naoki Kamiya; Xiangrong Zhou; Huayue Chen; Takeshi Hara; Ryujiro Yokoyama; Masayuki Kanematsu; Hiroaki Hoshi; Hiroshi Fujita

2010-01-01

50

Effect of dietary linseed oil and ?-tocopherol on pork tenderloin ( Psoas major) muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of linseed oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate on the fatty acid composition and the susceptibility to oxidation of lipid fraction from pork tenderloin (Psoas major) muscle has been studied. Muscles were obtained from animals fed on diets with the same ingredients excepting the oil source [sunflower (C), linseed (L) and linseed and olive (1\\/1, w\\/w) (LO)] and ?-tocopherol [20

L Hoz; C. J Lopez-Bote; M. I Cambero; M D'Arrigo; C Pin; C Santos; J. A Ordóńez

2003-01-01

51

Consistency in size and asymmetry of the psoas major muscle among elite footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle across multiple vertebral levels, to examine any asymmetry of the PM muscle and investigate the consistency across vertebral levels, and to determine whether a relationship exists between low back pain (LBP) and the size or asymmetry of the PM muscle among elite Australian

S. Stewart; W. Stanton; S. Wilson; J. Hides

2010-01-01

52

LES ABCES DU PSOAS A PYOGENES A PROPOS DE 21 CAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous avons analysé de façon rétr o s p e c t ive 21 obser- vations de malades atteints d'un abcčs du psoas ŕ pyo- gčnes. L' a bcčs était primitif dans 18 cas (85,7 %) et secondaire dans 4 cas (14,3 %). Une fičvre (n = 18), une douleur lombaire (n = 16) et un psoďtis (n = 13)

BENCHEKROUN B. A; CHKOFF M. R

2000-01-01

53

Native acetabular version: 3D CT analysis ?of the psoas valley.  

PubMed

Insufficient version has been demonstrated to be a significant factor in increasing metal-on-metal cup wear. Another implication is the impingement of the psoas tendon at the anatomical depression on the anterior acetabular rim, called the psoas valley. It is not known whether the psoas valley has any anatomical significance when measuring native version. The effect of this landmark on the measurement of acetabular version has not been assessed using 3D CT.?Sixty five high resolution CT scans of non-diseased hips (performed for colonography) were used to measure the anatomical version angles of the bony acetabular rim. Our new method, using the psoas valley, was compared to the reference method, which used the full 320° of the acetabular rim. The measurement of acetabular version was highly reproducible between the methods. Both methods measured the angle of version over a wide range: 5° to 35° for males and 10° to 40° for females. There were no statistically significant differences between genders (p = 0.3670). The Bland-Altman 1.96 SD lower and upper limits of agreement between the two methods were +4.6° and -4.3°, respectively. Intra-observer and inter-observer reliability were high for the new method. This adds to our understanding of native bony anatomy, and specifically provides a landmark that 3D CT has demonstrated to be potentially useful in assessing native version. PMID:23559190

Osmani, Humza Tariq; Henckel, Johann; Cobb, Justin; Hart, Alister J

2013-04-04

54

The Effects of Psoas Major and Lumbar Lordosis on Hip Flexion and Sprint Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were…

Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

2012-01-01

55

Nocardia nova as the Causative Agent in Spondylodiscitis and Psoas Abscess?  

PubMed Central

We describe here the first case of Nocardia nova spondylodiscitis accompanied by a psoas abscess due to spreading from pulmonary nocardiosis. Nocardia was cultured from all affected sites. After 1 year of an appropriate antimicrobial therapy and a surgical drainage of the abscess that was required, the patient's clinical condition had improved.

Hamdad, Farida; Vidal, Barbara; Douadi, Youcef; Laurans, Genevieve; Canarelli, Brigitte; Choukroun, Gabriel; Rodriguez-Nava, Veronica; Boiron, Patrick; Beaman, Blaine; Eb, Francois

2007-01-01

56

Abdominal compartment syndrome in children.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as sustained intra-abdominal pressure greater than 20 mm Hg (with or without abdominal perfusion pressure <60 mm Hg) associated with new organ failure or dysfunction. The syndrome is associated with 90% to 100% mortality if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. Nurses are responsible for accurately measuring intra-abdominal pressure in children with abdominal compartment syndrome and for alerting physicians about important changes. This article provides relevant definitions, outlines risk factors for abdominal compartment syndrome developing in children, and discusses an instructive case involving an adolescent with abdominal compartment syndrome. Techniques for measuring intra-abdominal pressure, normal ranges, and the importance of monitoring in the critical care setting for timely identification of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome also are discussed. PMID:23203955

Newcombe, Jennifer; Mathur, Mudit; Ejike, J Chiaka

2012-12-01

57

An MRI study of psoas major and abdominal large vessels with respect to the X\\/DLIF approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme\\/direct lateral interbody fusion (X\\/DLIF) has been used to treat various lumbar diseases. However, it involves risks\\u000a to injure the lumbar plexus and abdominal large vessels when it gains access to the lumbar spine via lateral approach that\\u000a passes through the retroperitoneal fat and psoas major muscle. This study was aimed to determine the distribution of psoas\\u000a major and abdominal

Wan-Kun Hu; Shi-Sheng He; Shao-Cheng Zhang; Yan-Bin Liu; Ming Li; Tie-Sheng Hou; Xiao-Lu Ma; Jian Wang

2011-01-01

58

Optimized Operator Compartment. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project required the application of modern human engineering technology to effect a reduction of human error and a reduction of accidents associated with underground mining equipment. The specific problem was to develop optimized operator compartment...

F. D. McGuirk G. A. Podgornik

1975-01-01

59

Fasciotomy for Exertional Anterior Compartment Syndrome: Is Lateral Compartment Release Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard surgery for exertional anterior compartment syndrome is fasciotomy of the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg. We prospectively studied the necessity of lateral compartment release, which can add morbidity and extend recovery. We performed 30 anterior compartment releases in 20 patients (10 bilateral operations) with exertional anterior compartment syndrome but no lateral compartment involvement. We alternately performed

Anthony A. Schepsis; Sanjitpal S. Gill; Timothy A. Foster

1999-01-01

60

Huge Psoas Muscle Hematoma due to Lumbar Segmental Vessel Injury Following Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy  

PubMed Central

We present a case of an acute psoas muscle hematoma following percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy. A 60-year-old female who presented with far lateral lumbar disc herniation underwent endoscopic discectomy on the right side at the L4-5 level. On the second postoperative day, the patient complained of severe right flank and leg pain and her blood pressure decreased. A computed tomography scan showed a large acute psoas muscle hematoma at right L4-5 level. The patient was transfused with packed red blood cells and placed at absolute bed rest. After observing the patient in intensive care, the severe flank and leg pain subsided, but the mild back pain persisted. Although percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is an effective minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, this case highlights the inherent risks of acute lumbar segmental vessel injury.

Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Jong Gue

2009-01-01

61

Adenosine Diphosphate Requirement in the Creatine Phosphate-Induced Contraction of the Glycerinated Rabbit Psoas  

PubMed Central

Glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers were tested for their ability to contract under the influence of creatine phosphate and creatine kinase in the absence of free nucleotide. Tension development by the fibers was observed upon addition of creatine phosphate to the medium containing creatine kinase purified to the first lyophilization stage. However, when the enzyme was washed free of nucleotides by treatment with the anion exchange resin Dowex 1, no contraction occurred until free nucleotide was supplied. In all experiments, contractile activity of the psoas fibers was the criterion for determining the enzyme activity concerned. Using this criterion, creatine kinase activity native to the glycerinated fibers was also demonstrated. No evidence for direct transphosphorylation of the bound nucleotide of the fiber was found.

Cohen, William D.; Schneebaum, Jeanne; Hayashi, Teru

1962-01-01

62

Necrotizing fasciitis following psoas muscle abscess caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old Japanese diabetic woman was admitted to a small private hospital with general malaise, fever, and a 1-month history of low back pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed left abdominal necrotizing fasciitis with suspected left psoas muscle abscess. She was transferred to Gunma University Hospital, received antibiotic therapy, and underwent debridement of the infected subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and necrotic left psoas muscle. She was transferred to the intensive care unit to receive mechanical ventilation and inotropic support. Blood culture showed growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae, from which hypermucoviscosity was detected by the string test. She was extubated on day 5 of hospitalization and transferred to a general ward on day 14. Free skin grafting was performed on day 76, and she was discharged on day 134 without any complications. PMID:22065090

Mita, Norikatsu; Narahara, Hajime; Okawa, Makio; Hinohara, Hiroshi; Kunimoto, Fumio; Haque, Anwarul; Saito, Shigeru; Oshima, Kiyohiro

2011-11-09

63

Bilateral psoas and bilateral perinephric abscesses complicating acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Acute pyelonephritis complicates 1-2% of pregnancies and causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of renal tuberculosis (TB) is often delayed and commonly presents with sterile pyuria or along with other pyogenic organisms. We report a case where the diagnosis of renal TB was missed in a pregnant woman when she presented with acute pyelonephritis, septic shock, and acute renal failure. There was clinical recovery with antibiotics, but bilateral psoas and perinephric abscesses (TB, Enterococcus sp., and E. coli) were diagnosed when she presented with loin pain and palpable left renal angle swelling. Bilateral psoas abscess due to TB in the absence of skeletal TB and human immunodeficiency virus infection is rare. The presentation of renal TB in pregnancy, its complications, and its management are discussed.

Veerappan, I.; Shanmugam, A.; Kumar, S.; Velayutham, P.

2013-01-01

64

Bilateral psoas and bilateral perinephric abscesses complicating acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Acute pyelonephritis complicates 1-2% of pregnancies and causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of renal tuberculosis (TB) is often delayed and commonly presents with sterile pyuria or along with other pyogenic organisms. We report a case where the diagnosis of renal TB was missed in a pregnant woman when she presented with acute pyelonephritis, septic shock, and acute renal failure. There was clinical recovery with antibiotics, but bilateral psoas and perinephric abscesses (TB, Enterococcus sp., and E. coli) were diagnosed when she presented with loin pain and palpable left renal angle swelling. Bilateral psoas abscess due to TB in the absence of skeletal TB and human immunodeficiency virus infection is rare. The presentation of renal TB in pregnancy, its complications, and its management are discussed. PMID:23580809

Veerappan, I; Shanmugam, A; Kumar, S; Velayutham, P

2013-01-01

65

The function of the psoas major muscle: passive kinetics and morphological studies using donated cadavers  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This study was carried out to analyze the phasic heterogeneity in the function of the psoas major muscle (PMM) depending\\u000a on the flexion angle at the hip joint. The study design was a passive kinetic experiment using 25 osteoligamentous specimens\\u000a with the PMM tendon. We measured the flexion angle of the hip joint where the PMM tendon loses contact

Masaharu Yoshio; Gen Murakami; Toshio Sato; Shuichi Sato; Seiji Noriyasu

2002-01-01

66

Purification and characterization of myosin-tripolyphosphatase from rabbit Psoas major muscle: Research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the tripolyphosphatase (TPPase) activity responsible for the hydrolysis of tripolyphosphates (TPP) in rabbit Psoas major muscle tissue. After a series of extraction and purification steps, myosin was identified to be a TPPase. Optimum pH and temperature for myosin-TPPase activity were 6.0 and 35°C, respectively. We also found that myosin-TPPase activity was significantly influenced by Mg2+

Hongguo Jin; Youling Xiong; Zengqi Peng; Yan He; Rongrong Wang; Guanghong Zhou

2011-01-01

67

Recurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma isolated to the right masticator and left psoas muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We present the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a patient who, following treatment for pancreatic non-Hodgkin's\\u000a lymphoma (NHL), relapsed with apparently isolated involvement of the right masticator space and left psoas muscles. Non-Hodgkin's\\u000a lymphoma arising from the masticator space muscles is very rare. In addition, simultaneous lymphomatous involvement of multiple\\u000a discrete skeletal muscle sites, in the absence

S. E. J. Connor; S. V. Chavda

2000-01-01

68

Bilateral psoas abscesses and vertebral osteomyelitis in a patient with sickle cell disease  

PubMed Central

The authors present a case of a patient with sickle-? thalassaemia (S?0 Thal) who had bilateral psoas abscesses on a background of splenectomy in early childhood. The patient also turned out to have vertebral osteomyelitis and hydronephrosis on the side of the larger abscess. The only organism recovered from the patient was a Bacteroides species. The patient was managed with percutaneous drainage and intravenous antibiotics and made a full recovery.

Asnani, M; Williams, E W; Cawich, S; Reid, M; Mansingh, A; Shah, S; Williams-Johnson, Jean

2010-01-01

69

Endoscopic compartment release for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

Knight, Justin R; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

2013-05-23

70

[Abdominal compartment syndrome: current view].  

PubMed

In the last few years, physiological changes, symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome interest surgeons, trauma surgeons and anaesthetists. Sudden, dangerous basic vital function deterioration in patients managed in the intensive care unit, may be results of abdominal compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome is secondary to massive intraabdominal haemorrhages, hepatic or retroperitoneal space "packing", fluid collection in tissues, including abdominal organs. Circulatory, respiratory and kidney dysfunction occur, when intraabdominal pressure measured in urinary bladder is 25 H2O or higher. In this condition, rapid surgical decompression is necessary. During decompression abdominal organs reperfusion may produce arterial hypotension and asystole. Abdominal closure must prevent abdominal hypertension. Temporary plastic patch, simple and cheap is the most popular technique. PMID:11603185

Wysocki, A

2001-01-01

71

Activity patterns of phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in microdissected fast and slow fibres from rabbit psoas and soleus muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for standardized determination of phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities in nanogram samples of microdissected single fibres of rabbit psoas and soleus muscle are described. Fast and slow fibres in soleus muscle show lower absolute activities of these enzymes than the respective fibre types in psoas muscle. Slow fibres represent a more

Cornelia Spamer; Dirk Pette

1977-01-01

72

Optimized operator compartment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project required the application of modern human engineering technology to effect a reduction of human error and a reduction of accidents associated with underground mining equipment. The specific problem was to develop optimized operator compartments that could be fitted to the following electric face equipment: Loaders, continuous miners, shuttle cars, roof bolters, face drills, cutters, and scoops. In all,

F. D. McGuirk; G. A. Podgornik

1975-01-01

73

Exploring Water-Tight Compartments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|John Dewey employed the phrase "water-tight compartments" to mark deficiencies of integration within an individual's personality. For Dewey, the self is complex, but a strong personality integrates its various habits so that they reinforce rather than conflict with one another. Dewey's focus on this problem of personality has relevance for…

Fishman, Steve

74

Acute compartment syndrome in haemophilia.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is characterized by an increase in pressure (intramuscular pressure) within a muscle compartment, which reduces capillary perfusion threatening tissue survival. Persistence of this increased pressure for a few hours will result in necrosis of muscle and nerve tissue, with contracture in the affected limb and permanent loss of function. For that reason, early treatment and diagnosis of ACS is fundamental. Diagnosis should be based on physical examination (pain on stretching the involved muscles) and on an objective measurement of the limb perfusion pressure (DBP minus intramuscular pressure) within the affected compartment. To obtain a reliable clinical diagnosis, the patient must be evaluated every 1-2?h. In children and in unconscious patients, where the level of pain cannot be appropriately determined, an accurate clinical diagnosis is unfeasible, hence the importance of measuring compartment pressure. A fasciotomy should be performed when the limb perfusion pressure is less than 30?mmHg when averaged over a 12-h period (monitored every 1-2?h). Only 16 studies have been published on haemophilic patients with ACS, which report on a total of 34 cases. If symptoms or pressure measurements are suggestive of ACS, an extensive fasciotomy will be required. Unfortunately, fasciotomy is not exempt from complications such as the need of subsequent surgery because of a delay in wound healing, the need of a skin graft, pain, cosmetic problems, nerve injury, permanent muscle weakness and chronic venous insufficiency. Overlooked compartment syndrome remains one of most common causes of malpractice lawsuits. In haemophilia, adequate substitution of coagulation factor must be the first step. The main principle of surgical treatment is an extensive fasciotomy. PMID:24064900

Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

2013-10-01

75

Mimicry of physiological urinary FDG excretion: squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus metastasizing to psoas muscle.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle metastases are rare and usually occur with various malignancies at more advanced stages. FDG PET/CT has been known as a useful tool to detect these lesions because of the character of whole-body scanning and superior contrast between malignant and normal tissues, except in areas with abundant physiological FDG radioactivity, such as the urinary system. We present a patient with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and an incidental, rare finding of psoas muscle metastasis that was initially omitted because of the similarity of its distribution to physiological urinary FDG excretion in the ureter. PMID:21157206

Hsieh, Te-Chun; Sun, Shung-Shung; Wu, Yu-Chin; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

2011-01-01

76

The Perinucleolar Compartment and Transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a unique nuclear structure localized at the periphery of the nucleolus. Several small RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III and two hnRNP proteins have been lo- calized in the PNC (Ghetti, A., S. Pińol-Roma, W.M. Michael, C. Morandi, and G. Dreyfuss. 1992. Nucleic Acids Res. 20:3671-3678; Matera, A.G., M.R. Frey, K. Margelot, and S.L. Wolin.

Sui Huang; Thomas J. Deerinck; Mark H. Ellisman; David L. Spector

1998-01-01

77

Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the psoas muscle: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of skeletal muscle is very rare. We report a case of ALCL arising from the left psoas muscle. A 14-year-old girl presented with a large left inguinal tumor. She complained of a 2-month history of left leg pain, which had been exacerbated upon leg extension, and she had become aware of a rapidly growing left inguinal tumor 3 weeks before admission. CT scan and MRI revealed a large tumor arising from the left major psoas muscle and protruding into the inguinal region. In view of the tumor's location and the patient's age, soft tissue tumors such as rhabdomyosarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor were initially considered. However, histopathological examination yielded a diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive ALCL. The serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor was markedly elevated at 50,414 U/ml, and this also strongly suggested ALCL. Although rarely reported, ALCL is an important entity to consider in the differential diagnosis of skeletal muscle tumors in children and young adults. PMID:22353685

Kounami, Shinji; Shibuta, Keiko; Yoshiyama, Megumi; Mitani, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Takifuji, Katsunari; Yoshikawa, Norishige

2012-02-18

78

Ureteral Reimplantation with Psoas Bladder Hitch in Adults: A Contemporary Series with Long-Term Followup  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively evaluated our experience with ureteral reimplantation and psoas bladder hitch to restore urinary tract continuity in patients with lower ureteral defects, since long-term data on the outcomes of this procedure have been relatively scarce in the last two decades. The procedure was performed in 24 patients (7 male, 17 female) with a mean age of 54.6 years. The mean ureteral defect length was 4.8?cm (range 3–10), the ureterovesical anastomosis was performed with simplified split-cuff technique in 18 patients, submucosal tunnel in 2, and direct anastomosis without antireflux technique in 2. Mean followup was 53 months (range 12–125), and there were no reinterventions. Postoperative renal imaging was normal in 22 cases (91.6%) and revealed decreased kidney size in 2, 3 patients presented intermittent flank pain, and 5 had sporadic episodes of lower tract UTI but no one pyelonephritis. Psoas hitch ureteral reimplantation can be successfully used for bridging defects of the lower ureter up to 10?cm in length in difficult clinical situations. It is relatively simple to perform, compared to other procedures of ureteral reconstruction, and it provides adequate protection of the upper urinary tract.

Manassero, Francesca; Mogorovich, Andrea; Fiorini, Girolamo; Di Paola, Giuseppe; De Maria, Maurizio; Selli, Cesare

2012-01-01

79

Turnover of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in bovine longissimus dorsi and psoas major muscles: Implications for isotopic authentication of meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope ratio analysis of light elements (including C, N, and S) is a powerful tool for inferring the production and geographic origins of ani- mals. The objectives of this research were to quantify experimentally the isotopic turnover of C, N, and S in bovine skeletal muscle (LM and psoas major) and to assess the implications of the turnover for

B. Bahar; A. P. Moloney; F. J. Monahan; S. M. Harrison; A. Zazzo; C. M. Scrimgeour; I. S. Begley; O. Schmidt

2008-01-01

80

The Extent of Proteolysis Is Independent of Sarcomere Length in Lamb Longissimus and Psoas Major1,2,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sarcomere length on postmortem proteolysis and meat tenderness. Eight- een Dorset market-weight sheep were slaughtered conventionally. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum and psoas major from each carcass were either left intact on the carcass (control), which was chilled at 0°C, or excised from the carcass and chilled in an

T. L. Wheeler; M. Koohmaraie

81

The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on drip loss of bovine Longissimus lumborum, psoas major and Semitendinosus muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation (2150 IU\\/head\\/day) on drip loss and related quality traits of bovine M. longissimus lumborum M. psoas major and M. semitendinosus was examined. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on drip loss seemed to depend on muscle studied. Drip loss of longissimus muscles was not significantly influenced, whereas supplemented semitendinosus muscles lost significantly less

M. J. A. den Hertog-Meischke; F. J. M. Smulders; J. H. Houben; G. Eikelenboom

1997-01-01

82

Stiffness and Fraction of Myosin Motors Responsible for Active Force in Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Rabbit Psoas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stiffness of the single myosin motor (?) is determined in skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle by both mechanical and thermodynamic approaches. Changes in the elastic strain of the half-sarcomere (hs) are measured by fast mechanics both in rigor, when all myosin heads are attached, and during active contraction, with the isometric force (T0) modulated by changing either [Ca2+

Marco Linari; Marco Caremani; Claudia Piperio; Philip Brandt; Vincenzo Lombardi

2007-01-01

83

One-year psoas training can prevent lumbar bone loss in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary On the premise that bone response to exercise is locally controlled [1], we conducted a randomized trial to evaluate the effects of a 1-year training of psoas muscles (treatment group: TG) versus a 1-year training of deltoid muscles (control group: CG) on the lumbar trabecular bone mineral density (TBMD). TBMD was measured with computed tomography scan. Seventy-eight subjects were

M. Revel; M. A. Mayoux-Benhamou; J. P. Rabourdin; F. Bagheri; C. Roux

1993-01-01

84

Block jam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block Jam is a musical interface controlled by the arrangement of 24 tangible blocks. By positioning the blocks (Figure 1), musical phrases and sequences are created, allowing multiple users to play and collaborate.

Henry Newton-Dunn; Hiroaki Nakano; James Gibson

2002-01-01

85

Ipsilateral atrophy of paraspinal and psoas muscle in unilateral back pain patients with monosegmental degenerative disc disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the cross-sectional area (CSA) of both paraspinal and psoas muscles in patients with unilateral back pain using MRI and to correlate it with outcome measures. Methods 40 patients, all with informed consent, with a minimum of 3 months of unilateral back pain with or without sciatica and one-level disc disease on MRI of the lumbosacral spine were included. Patients were evaluated with self-report measures regarding pain (visual analogue score) and disability (Oswestry disability index). The CSA of multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum and psoas was measured at the disc level of pathology and the two adjacent disc levels, bilaterally. Comparison of CSAs of muscles between the affected vs symptomless side was carried out with Student's t-test and correlations were conducted with Spearman's test. Results The maximum relative muscle atrophy (% decrease in CSA on symptomatic side) independent of the level was 13.1% for multifidus, 21.8% for erector spinae, 24.8% for quadratus lumborum and 17.1% for psoas. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between sides (symptomatic and asymptomatic) in CSA of multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum and psoas. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the duration of symptoms (average 15.5 months), patient's pain (average VAS 5.3) or disability (average ODI 25.2) and the relative muscle atrophy. Conclusion In patients with long-standing unilateral back pain due to monosegmental degenerative disc disease, selective multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum and psoas atrophy develops on the symptomatic side. Radiologists and clinicians should evaluate spinal muscle atrophy of patients with persistent unilateral back pain.

Ploumis, A; Michailidis, N; Christodoulou, P; Kalaitzoglou, I; Gouvas, G; Beris, A

2011-01-01

86

The effects of psoas major and lumbar lordosis on hip flexion and sprint performance.  

PubMed

In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power; sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, and PM CSA, but LL showed no correlation with any parameter The impact of hip flexion power and LL on sprint stride pattern efficiency was considered. Hip flexion might not have a simple role in the passive knee replacement of the stride pattern; instead, it may be an active parameter. Other investigations are needed to determine the influence of pelvic architecture on sprint performance. PMID:22808701

Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

2012-06-01

87

Backdraft Experiments in a Small Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes results of preliminary backdraft experiments in a 0.85 m high, 0.78 m wide, 1.08 m long compartment,\\u000a a roughly one third scale residential room. Each surface of the compartment was made with two layers of insulation board to\\u000a obtain a highly insulated condition. The compartment had a small opening in the middle of the front wall to

Hiroshi Hayasaka; Yuji Kudo; Hideyoshi Kojima; Tsutomu Hashigami; Jun Ito; Takashi Ueda

88

Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative ?-Calculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative ? -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed ? -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

89

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system.

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

90

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-06-04

91

Gluteal compartment syndrome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized syndrome that may manifest as renal failure, sepsis, and death. Delay in diagnosis can result in significant morbidity and possible mortality. We report a case of occult gluteal compartment syndrome causing unresolving rhabdomyolysis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old Caucasian American man with history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted status post

Nadia M Mustafa; Aerin Hyun; James S Kumar; Lalitha Yekkirala

2009-01-01

92

Population Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

Smith, Martin H.

1992-01-01

93

Automated segmentation of psoas major muscle in X-ray CT images by use of a shape model: preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our motivation was to provide an automatic tool for radiologists and orthopedic surgeons for improving the quality of life\\u000a of an aging population. We propose a method for generating a shape model and a fully automated segmenting scheme for the psoas\\u000a major muscle in X-ray CT images by using the shape model. Our approach consists of two steps: (1) The

Naoki Kamiya; Xiangrong Zhou; Huayue Chen; Chisako Muramatsu; Takeshi Hara; Ryujiro Yokoyama; Masayuki Kanematsu; Hiroaki Hoshi; Hiroshi Fujita

94

An MRI study of psoas major and abdominal large vessels with respect to the X/DLIF approach.  

PubMed

Extreme/direct lateral interbody fusion (X/DLIF) has been used to treat various lumbar diseases. However, it involves risks to injure the lumbar plexus and abdominal large vessels when it gains access to the lumbar spine via lateral approach that passes through the retroperitoneal fat and psoas major muscle. This study was aimed to determine the distribution of psoas major and abdominal large vessels at lumbar intervertebral spaces in order to select an appropriate X/DLIF approach to avoid nerve and large vessels injury. Magnetic resonance imaging scanning on lumbar intervertebral spaces was performed in 48 patients (24 males, 24 females, 54.2 years on average). According to Moro's method, lumbar intervertebral space was divided into six zones A, I, II, III, IV and P. Thickness of psoas major was measured and distribution of abdominal large vessels was surveyed at each zone. The results show vena cava migrate from the right of zone A to the right of zone I at L1/2-L4/5; abdominal aorta was located mostly to the left of zone A at L1/2-L3/4 and divided into bilateral iliac arteries at L4/5; Psoas major was tenuous and dorsal at L1/2 and L2/3, large and ventral at L3/4 and L4/5. Combined with the distribution of nerve roots reported by Moro, X/DLIF approach is safe via zones II-III at L1/2 and L2/3, and via zone II at L3/4. At L4/5, it is safe via zones I-II in left and via zone II in right side, respectively. PMID:21053027

Hu, Wan-Kun; He, Shi-Sheng; Zhang, Shao-Cheng; Liu, Yan-Bin; Li, Ming; Hou, Tie-Sheng; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Jian

2010-10-30

95

Phosphofructokinase activity and the binding of enzymes to glycogen particles in the perfused psoas muscle of the rabbit.  

PubMed

The activity of phosphofructokinase in the perfused rabbit psoas muscle was investigated after perfusion in the presence of either propranolol or isoproterenol, and after 48 hr starvation. The phosphofructokinase activities were correlated with the concentrations of glucose 1,6-bisphosphate in the muscles. A considerable fraction of enzymes of the glycogen metabolism and of phosphofructokinase was bound to glycogen particles. The extent of binding was not regulated by the glycogen content. PMID:2935435

Birkel, G; Bauer, H P; Hofer, H W

1986-01-01

96

Effects of intramuscular psoas lengthening on pelvic and hip motion in patients with spastic diparetic cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The effects of intramuscular psoas lengthening on gait in cerebral palsy patients have been the subject of debates, and the indications for such procedure are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intramuscular psoas lengthening on sagittal plane pelvic and hip motion in patients with spastic diparetic cerebral palsy and identify the factors linked to the best possible outcome. A retrospective study was performed in 26 independent ambulatory patients. All of them had undergone an intramuscular psoas lengthening over the pelvic brim. The mean age at the time of surgery was 11.10 years, and most cases went through additional simultaneous procedures. A complete gait analysis was performed before and, on average, at 17.69 months (range, 6-39 months) after surgery. The Thomas test values, maximum hip extension in stance, and pelvic tilt were analyzed before and after surgical intervention, and the results were statistically compared. The most significant postoperative effect was the reduction of pelvic range of motion (P < 0.01). Reduction of anterior pelvic tilt was observed only in those patients with no previous need of an external aid (P < 0.01), and the studied group did not show a significant improvement of hip extension at terminal stance. According to the results, intramuscular psoas lengthening was useful in reducing pelvic range of motion at the sagittal plane, but this study also suggests that pelvic and hip disruptions of the same plane (sagittal) seem to have a multifactorial etiology. The use of external assistive devices in patients with balance problems may lead to increased anterior pelvic tilt as well as reduction of hip extension at terminal stance. PMID:16557146

Morais Filho, Mauro C; de Godoy, Wagner; Santos, Carlos A

97

Metallosis, psoas abscess and infected hip prosthesis in a patient with bilateral metal on metal total hip replacement  

PubMed Central

Metal on metal hip (MoM) resurfacing / replacement has recently been one of the most discussed topics in orthopaedics. Significant revision rates and complications are associated with MoM. We report a patient presenting with infection of a total hip prosthesis in conjunction with a psoas abscess in which the presentation is complicated by radiological evidence of suspected metallic debris in the lower limb tissues and elevated chromium and cobalt levels, suggestive of metallosis secondary to MoM.

Rymaruk, S; Razak, A; McGivney, R

2012-01-01

98

Ca2+ release from isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum of guinea-pig psoas muscle induced by K(+)-channel blockers.  

PubMed Central

A Ca(2+)-sensitive electrode was used to measure the Ca2+ concentration of the medium containing the heavy fraction of the fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) prepared from guinea-pig psoas muscle. Among K(+)-channel blockers tested, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium (TEA) and charybdotoxin elicited Ca2+ release from the SR, but apamin and glibenclamide did not. These results suggest that a reduction of SR K+ conductance leads to Ca2+ release from the SR.

Ishida, Y.; Honda, H.; Watanabe, T. X.

1992-01-01

99

Compartmented flow at the Bátaapáti site in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of hydrogeological and geological data into a conceptual model is critical for site investigation programs, since this model is the basis for hydrogeological modeling and for engineering. In the Hungarian Radioactive Waste Disposal Investigation Program, several methods have been used to characterize the potential host rock (granite) at the Bátaapáti site for a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Hydrogeological data acquisition revealed some characteristic aspects of the site. One of the most important is the presence of extensive rock deformation zones (faults) with low hydraulic conductivity, which strongly reduce the direct hydraulic communication between adjacent blocks of rock (compartmentalization). This characteristic of the rock mass results in a mosaic-like distribution of rock compartments, each with an almost constant hydraulic head. Within the compartments, hydraulic tests have shown that transmissivity is strongly scale dependent: the larger the scale, the higher the measured transmissivity. The extensive highly transmissive zones cause very low hydraulic gradients within each block, thus the transport processes are strongly influenced by the low or average transmissivity zones and the rock matrix.

Benedek, Kálmán; B?thi, Zoltán; Mez?, Gyula; Molnár, Péter

2009-07-01

100

Temperature dependence of active tension in mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres: effect of inorganic phosphate  

PubMed Central

The effect of added inorganic phosphate (Pi, range 3–25 mm) on active tension was examined at a range of temperatures (5–30 °C) in chemically skinned (0.5 % Brij) rabbit psoas muscle fibres. Three types of experiments were carried out. In one type of experiment, a muscle fibre was maximally activated at low temperature (5 °C) and its tension change was recorded during stepwise heating to high temperature in ?60 s. As found in previous studies, the tension increased with temperature and the normalised tension-(reciprocal) temperature relation was sigmoidal, with a half-maximal tension at 8 °C. In the presence of 25 mm added Pi, the temperature for half-maximal tension of the normalised curve was ?5 °C higher than in the control. The difference in the slope was small. In a second type of experiment, the tension increment during a large temperature jump (from 5 to 30 °C) was examined during an active contraction. The relative increase of active tension on heating was significantly higher in the presence of 25 mm added Pi (30/5 °C tension ratio of 6–7) than in the control with no added Pi (tension ratio of ?3). In a third type of experiment, the effect on the maximal Ca2+-activated tension of different levels of added Pi (3–25 mm) (and Pi mop adequate to reduce contaminating Pi to micromolar levels) was examined at 5, 10, 20 and 30 °C. The tension was depressed with increased [Pi] in a concentration-dependent manner at all temperatures, and the data could be fitted with a hyperbolic relation. The calculated maximal tension depression in excess [Pi] was ?65 % of the control at 5–10 °C, in contrast to a maximal depression of 40 % at 20 °C and 30 % at 30 °C. These experiments indicate that the active tension depression induced by Pi in psoas fibres is temperature sensitive, the depression becoming less marked at high temperatures. A reduced Pi-induced tension depression is qualitatively predicted by a simplified actomyosin ATPase cycle where a pre-phosphate release, force-generation step is enhanced by temperature.

Coupland, Moira E; Puchert, Emma; Ranatunga, K W

2001-01-01

101

Racing Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet displays the motion of two blocks. One of them is moving on a level surface and the other one along a curved surface, the curve of which can be changed. The initial velocity of the blocks, equal for the two blocks, can also be changed. This is part of a large collection of physics and math applets by the author, B. Surendranath Reddy.

Reddy, B. S.

2008-08-05

102

Drupal Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter I focus on using blocks to assign content and what are called “widgets” (which include the user login form,\\u000a latest blog posts, a list of who is currently logged into your site, the current weather conditions, and the like) to specific\\u000a positions on a page. I will cover standard blocks that ship with Drupal 7, blocks that

Todd Tomlinson

103

Differential activity of regions of the psoas major and quadratus lumborum during submaximal isometric trunk efforts.  

PubMed

Controversy exists regarding the function of psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL) at the lumbar spine. The functions of discrete regions of PM and QL were studied during trunk loading tasks. Twelve healthy participants performed isometric trunk loading tasks in various directions in upright sitting. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrodes were inserted under ultrasound guidance into PM fascicles arising from the transverse process (PM-t) and vertebral body (PM-v) and the anterior (QL-a) and posterior (QL-p) layers of QL on the right side. Although right PM-t and PM-v were both active during right lateral-flexion trunk efforts, their activity was opposite in the sagittal plane, with greater PM-t towards extension and PM-v towards flexion. QL-a and QL-p were similarly active, though QL-p was active to a greater percentage of MVC during right trunk lateral-flexion efforts. Activity of QL-p was modulated with respiratory phase during the loading tasks with trunk efforts towards the right lateral-flexion/flexion and right lateral-flexion directions. These findings provide novel understanding of the unique activation of discrete regions of PM and QL. These differences must be considered in future EMG studies to better understand the function of these deeply situated trunk muscles in the control of the lumbar spine. PMID:21800359

Park, Rachel J; Tsao, Henry; Cresswell, Andrew G; Hodges, Paul W

2011-07-28

104

Microscale and nanoscale compartments for biotechnology.  

PubMed

Compartmentalization is essential in the organization of biological systems, playing a fundamental role in modulating biochemical activity. An appreciation of the impact that biological compartments have on chemical reactions and an understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena that affect their assembly and function have inspired the development of synthetic compartments. Organic compartments assembled from amphiphilic molecules or derived from biological materials, have formed the basis of initial work in the field. However, inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic compartments that capitalize on the optical and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor materials are emerging. Methods for arraying these microcompartment and nanocompartment materials in higher order systems promise to enable the scaling and integration of these technologies for industrial and commercial applications. PMID:22321942

Retterer, Scott T; Simpson, Michael L

2012-02-08

105

49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compartment. (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less than 15 inches, above the floor and...

2012-10-01

106

36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compartment. (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less than 15 inches, above the floor and...

2011-07-01

107

49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compartment. (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less than 15 inches, above the floor and...

2011-10-01

108

36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compartment. (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less than 15 inches, above the floor and...

2012-07-01

109

14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded maximum weight of contents and for the critical load distribution at the appropriate maximum load factors corresponding to the specified flight and...

2013-01-01

110

Hamstring and psoas length of crouch gait in cerebral palsy: a comparison with induced crouch gait in age- and sex-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait. Methods Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait. Results No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.456) lengths of patients and controls mimicking crouch gait. However, patients showed significantly shorter excursions of hamstring (p=0.022) and psoas (p=0.036) muscles than controls, whereas no significant excursion differences were observed between controls during normal gait and mimicking crouch gait. Conclusions Normal controls mimicking crouch gait and cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait demonstrate similar muscle length patterns. However, mimicked crouch gait did not reproduce the excursion pattern shown by patients with crouch gait, which suggests that reduced hamstring and psoas excursion is an innate characteristic of pathologic crouch gait.

2013-01-01

111

INTRACELLULAR POTASSIUM COMPARTMENTS IN NITELLA AXILLARIS  

PubMed Central

Three intracellular compartments for potassium exchange have been observed in intact cells of the giant-celled alga, Nitella axillaris. These compartments have been compared with the exchange properties of isolated subcellular structures. The smallest and fastest compartment (apparent half-time, 23 seconds) appears to involve passive absorption on the cell wall. The next largest (apparent half-time, 5 hours) may represent exchange with the cytoplasmic layer through the plasma membrane, the chloroplasts being in rapid equilibrium with the surrounding cytoplasm. The largest and slowest compartment (apparent half-time, 40 days) has been identified with the central vacuole. The vacuolar membrane and the plasma membrane have similar properties with respect to K permeability. Thus, the experimental data from the whole cell can be accounted for by a structural model of the compartments. Cyanide in concentrations up to 10-3 M causes no net loss of K. The fastest compartment in Nitella and in higher plants is compared, and the ecological significance of the slow rate of potassium transport in Nitella is discussed.

Diamond, Jared M.; Solomon, A. K.

1959-01-01

112

Ionic Blocks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

113

Ultrasound catheter placement for deep posterior compartment pressure measurements in chronic compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Medial shin pain, often referred to as shin splints, is a common but difficult to diagnose entity in many athletes. Chronic deep posterior compartment syndrome as a cause of medial leg pain is still controversial. The problems of deep posterior compartment pressure measurement contribute to this controversy. These problems include safety of catheter insertion and the possibility that the patient has more than one deep posterior compartment. In this paper, we present a new technique for catheter placement in which continuous ultrasound guidance is used. This technique allows for the safe placement of the catheter into the deep posterior compartment and for documentation of catheter tip location. PMID:2405723

Wiley, J P; Short, W B; Wiseman, D A; Miller, S D

114

Thinking Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thinking Blocks is an interactive Flash tool for modeling and solving math problems visually. Students represent quantities and relationships by placing blocks and braces on a work space and using the tools to resize and label them accordingly. Users can change the color of blocks, move them, copy them, divide them into equal parts, and separate them. A pencil tool and keyboard are also available. The site includes video tutorials demonstrating how to use the tool and how to model a wide variety of problem types. It also contains a bank of hundreds of word problems.

2011-01-01

115

Automated segmentation of psoas major muscle in X-ray CT images by use of a shape model: preliminary study.  

PubMed

Our motivation was to provide an automatic tool for radiologists and orthopedic surgeons for improving the quality of life of an aging population. We propose a method for generating a shape model and a fully automated segmenting scheme for the psoas major muscle in X-ray CT images by using the shape model. Our approach consists of two steps: (1) The generation of a shape model and its application to muscle segmentation. The shape model describes the muscle's outer shape and has two parameters, an outer shape parameter and a fitting parameter. The former was determined by approximating of the outer shape of the muscle region in training cases. The latter was determined for each test case in the recognition process. (2) Finally, the psoas major muscle was segmented by use of the shape model. To evaluate the performance of the method, we applied it to CT images for constructing the shape models by using 20 cases as training samples; 80 cases were used for testing. The accuracy of this method was measured by comparison of the extracted muscle regions with regions that were identified manually by an expert radiologist. The experimental results of the segmentation of the psoas major muscle gave a mean Jaccard similarity coefficient of 72.3%. The mean true segmentation coefficient was 76.2%. The proposed method can be used for the analysis of cross-sectional area and muscular thickness in a transverse section, offering radiologists an alternative to manual measurement for saving their time and improving the reproducibility of segmentation. PMID:21755416

Kamiya, Naoki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

2011-07-14

116

Anatomy of the psoas muscle and lumbar plexus with respect to the surgical approach for lateral transpsoas interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is a minimally invasive technique that permits interbody fusion utilizing cages placed via a direct lateral retroperitoneal approach. We sought to describe the locations of relevant neurovascular structures based on MRI with respect to this novel surgical approach. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive lumbosacral spine MRI scans in 43 skeletally mature adults. MRI scans were independently reviewed by two readers to identify the location of the psoas muscle, lumbar plexus, femoral nerve, inferior vena cava and right iliac vein. Structures potentially at risk for injury were identified by: a distance from the anterior aspect of the adjacent vertebral bodies of <20 mm, representing the minimum retraction necessary for cage placement, and extension of vascular structures posterior to the anterior vertebral body, requiring anterior retraction. The percentage of patients with neurovascular structures at risk for left-sided approaches was 2.3% at L1-2, 7.0% at L2-3, 4.7% at L3-4 and 20.9% at L4-5. For right-sided approaches, this rose to 7.0% at L1-2, 7.0% at L2-3, 9.3% at L3-4 and 44.2% at L4-5, largely because of the relatively posterior right-sided vasculature. A relationship between the position of psoas muscle and lumbar plexus is described which allows use of the psoas position as a proxy for lumbar plexus position to identify patients who may be at risk, particularly at the L4-5 level. Further study will establish the clinical relevance of these measurements and the ability of neurovascular structures to be retracted without significant injury. PMID:20938787

Kepler, Christopher K; Bogner, Eric A; Herzog, Richard J; Huang, Russel C

2010-10-13

117

Attribute Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet gives students practice in sorting attribute blocks by color, shape, or size. In each problem students are presented with a set of objects that share a common attribute, and they must identify objects from another set that have the same attribute. Students can check their solution, and have another try or request a new problem. Teacher information about the blocks and their classroom implementation is included.

2011-01-01

118

Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treated by TAE.

Basile, Antonio [Ospedale Barone I, Department of Radiology (Italy); Medina, Jose Garcia [Hospital Universitario Virgen de Arrixaca, Department of Radiology (Spain); Mundo, Elena [Ospedale Barone I, Department of Radiology (Italy); Medina, Vicente Garcia [Hospital General Universitario, Department of Radiology (Spain); Leal, Rafael [Hospital Universitario Virgen de Arrixaca, Department of Radiology (Spain)

2004-11-15

119

Improved Arthroscopic Visualization of Peripheral Compartment  

PubMed Central

Femoroacetabular impingement is a recognized cause of hip pain and motion restrictions. Advancements in hip arthroscopy have allowed surgeons the ability to treat this condition more effectively. However, the learning curve is steep for osteochondroplasty of the femoral head-neck junction in the peripheral compartment. Therefore we present a reproducible technique that allows improved visualization of the peripheral compartment and treatment of the cam lesion with hip arthroscopy. Our technique uses the anterior portal as a viewing portal, a distal anterolateral accessory portal as a working portal, and the anterolateral portal for soft-tissue retraction.

Suslak, Adam G.; Mather, Richard C.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Nho, Shane J.

2012-01-01

120

Gluteal compartment syndrome with severe rhabdomyolysis.  

PubMed

Gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare entity but a recognised complication of prolonged immobilisation. It can present as renal failure as a result of severe rhabdomyolysis and can lead to sepsis and death. We report a case of gluteal compartment syndrome in a 25-year-old man who was found unconscious following intoxication with alcohol and cocaine of an unknown duration. He presented with tense tight left buttock swelling, right thigh swelling, cold immobile extremeties and acute renal failure. Immediate left gluteal, thigh and calf fasciotomy resulting in an improvement of lower limb and renal function. PMID:23933861

Narayan, Nitisha; Griffiths, Martin; Patel, Hasu D L

2013-08-09

121

Posterior-compartment repair: a urology perspective.  

PubMed

The prevalence of posterior-compartment prolapse (rectocele) is not known. The authors have found that operative repair symptomatically improved a majority of patients with impaired defecation associated with a large rectocele, but this improvement was likely related at least in part to factors other than the size of the rectocele. Multiple surgical techniques are available for rectocele repair, and the literature is not clear regarding indications for each type of surgical intervention. This article reviews the literature regarding various types of posterior-compartment repair, and draws conclusions regarding their absolute efficacy and relative efficacy in comparison with one another. PMID:22877720

Gomelsky, Alex; Dmochowski, Roger R

2012-08-01

122

Applications of the Compartmented Reservoir in Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a one year study to apply the compartmented reservoir concept to water storage problems in Arizona. The range of selected projects was from a ten thousand cubic meter reservoir for a water harvesting agrisystem at Black...

C. B. Cluff F. Putman

1981-01-01

123

Pattern Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative offers pattern blocks of different shapes and in different colors which can be used for a range of activities. In addition, the resource offers descriptions of six example activities in the 'Activities' section, and a sample lesson plan in the section 'Parent/Teacher'.

Manipulatives, National L.

2008-12-10

124

Base Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This flexible interactive Java applet helps users develop place value concepts with whole numbers or up to 3 decimal places. Users can use the virtual blocks to freely explore place value grouping rules or to represent a target number provided by the applet. Users may change the default of base 10 to any of the bases 2, 3, 4, or 5.

2010-01-01

125

A comprehensive characterisation of the fibre composition and properties of a limb (Flexor digitorum superficialis, membri thoraci) and a trunk (Psoas major) muscle in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The fibre type attributes and the relationships among their properties play an important role in the differences in muscle capabilities and features. Comprehensive characterisation of the skeletal muscles should study the degree of association between them and their involvement in muscle functionality. The purposes of the present study were to characterise the fibre type composition of a trunk (Psoas

Natalia Moreno-Sánchez; Clara Díaz; María J Carabańo; Julia Rueda; José-Luis L Rivero

2008-01-01

126

Changes in structure of psoas major and minor and semitendinosus muscles of calves, heifers and cows during post-mortem ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes occurring during post-mortem ageing in structure of psoas major and minor (PM) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles of calves, heifers and cows were observed. Samples from muscles taken 3 h after slaughter and after 6 and 12 days of storage at the temperature of 4 °C were analysed using light and transmission electron microscopy. Three hours after slaughter muscle fibres were

Tadeusz Ko?czak; Edward Pospiech; Krystyna Palka; Jerzy ?

2003-01-01

127

The influence of seasonal temperatures on meat quality characteristics of hot-boned, m. psoas major and minor, from goats and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of psoas major and minor muscles were randomly collected weekly from 203 (99 hot and 104 cool seasons) Omani goats, 215 (106 hot and 109 cool seasons) Omani sheep, 212 (104 hot and 108 cool seasons) Somali goats, 242 (127 hot and 115 cool seasons) Somali sheep and 211 (110 hot and 101 cool seasons) Australian Merino sheep slaughtered

I. T. Kadim; O. Mahgoub; W. Al-Marzooqi; D. S. Al-Ajmi; R. S. Al-Maqbali; S. M. Al-Lawati

2008-01-01

128

Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

2013-01-01

129

Lawrence Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollywood films owe much of their sparkle to atmospheric effects, including the lighting, shading, and color lent by character-actors. Their counterparts in the genre of literary gumshoes may be found in a certain breed of character-detectives. Among them, Lawrence Block, a versatile exemplar of the hard-boiled school of detective fiction, has given readers two notable repeat offenders from New York:

Steven Alan Samson

1994-01-01

130

Sarcomeric domain organization within single skinned rabbit psoas fibers and its effects on laser light diffraction patterns.  

PubMed Central

Total intensity and fine structure of first-order laser light diffraction maxima from single skinned rabbit psoas fibers were studied. Total intensity of the diffraction maxima was measured as a function of the incidence angle (omega-scan). In the most homogeneous fibers, most of the intensity in the diffraction maxima is confined to a rather narrow range of incidence angles. Fibers with less homogeneous striation patterns, apparently composed of several regions of distinct sarcomere length and tilt of striation (domains), give rise to several narrow intensity peaks in their omega-scans. Left and right first-order diffraction lines produce omega-scans of almost identical shape, composed of one or more intensity peaks, with each pair of corresponding peaks separated by about the same angle. The data indicated that in single skinned rabbit psoas fibers, light diffraction is dominated by Bragg diffraction and that the peaks within omega-scans can be directly correlated with domains within the illuminated fiber segment. In the most homogeneous fiber segments the diameter of domains, estimated from the width of the corresponding maxima in the omega-scans, could almost be as large as the fiber diameter. On average, from the number of peaks in the omega-scans two to three domains with an average length of approximately 250-350 microns can be identified in a fiber cross-section. Therefore, on average only a small number of domains (8 per mm) are found within skinned rabbit psoas fiber segments. In contrast, the number of substructural lines within the diffraction maxima is large even for microscopically homogeneous fibers. Substructural lines appear to be present only when several domains are illuminated simultaneously. Separation and width of these substructural lines are approximately inversely proportional to the length of the illuminated region of the fiber. These data suggest that the substructural lines are due to interference between domains, illuminated simultaneously by a light source with a high degree of spatial coherence (laser). The relevance of these findings for measurements of sarcomere length by laser light diffraction is discussed. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8

Brenner, B

1985-01-01

131

Engineering nanoscale protein compartments for synthetic organelles.  

PubMed

Advances in metabolic engineering have given rise to the biological production of novel fuels and chemicals, but yields are often low without significant optimization. One generalizable solution is to create a specialized organelle for the sequestration of engineered metabolic pathways. Bacterial microcompartments are an excellent scaffold for such an organelle. These compartments consist of a porous protein shell that encapsulates enzymes. To repurpose these structures, researchers have begun to determine how the protein shell is assembled, how pores may be used to control small molecule transport across the protein shell, and how to target heterologous enzymes to the compartment interior. With these advances, it will soon be possible to use engineered forms of these protein shells to create designer organelles. PMID:23273660

Kim, Edward Y; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

2012-12-27

132

View aft of compartment D 111, Chief Petty Officer's quarters. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View aft of compartment D -111, Chief Petty Officer's quarters. Compartment was remodeled and used as a meeting hall for the american legion. (p63) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

133

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2013-01-01

134

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2013-01-01

135

Leak Test of X-20A Pressurized Compartments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compartments in production for the Environmental Test Model were completed to a test configuration which eliminated all nonstructural items such as equipment support structure, foot well, ducts, internal equipment, wiring, and plumbing. Compartment pe...

1964-01-01

136

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section...agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be...places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use of the...

2009-01-01

137

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section...agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be...places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use of the...

2010-01-01

138

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section...agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be...places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use of the...

2009-01-01

139

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section...agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be...places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use of the...

2010-01-01

140

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

2012-10-04

141

Exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.  

PubMed

Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. Exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described. PMID:15039267

Cetinus, E; Uzel, M; Bilgiç, E; Karaoguz, A; Herdem, M

2004-04-01

142

Multi-compartment linear noise approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to quantify the stochastic fluctuations present in biochemical and other systems is becoming increasing important. Analytical descriptions of these fluctuations are attractive, as stochastic simulations are computationally expensive. Building on previous work, a linear noise approximation is developed for biochemical models with many compartments, for example cells. The procedure is then implemented in the software package COPASI. This technique is illustrated with two simple examples and is then applied to a more realistic biochemical model. Expressions for the noise, given in the form of covariance matrices, are presented.

Challenger, Joseph D.; McKane, Alan J.; Pahle, Jürgen

2012-11-01

143

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus compartment syndrome following scapular fracture  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a confined fascial space rises to a level impairing microvascular perfusion to surrounding tissues.[1234567] The majority of the reported literature is based on lower extremity compartment syndrome, but any muscle group within an osteofascial compartment has the potential to develop compartment syndrome. We report a case of a 64-year-old male who developed an acute compartment syndrome of both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus after sustaining a severely comminuted scapula fracture. Diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made after intracompartmental pressure measurements of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus revealed pressures within 30 mmHg of the diastolic blood pressure, prompting emergency decompressive fasciotomy. At final follow-up, the examination revealed full shoulder strength with near-full range of motion. There were no signs of sequelae from compartment syndrome at any point. Few case reports describe compartment syndrome of the periscapular fascial compartments. However, these cases were either retrospectively diagnosed[89] or diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and lab values.[910] Surgical management of acute compartment syndrome of the supraspinatus has been reported in only one other case.[10] To our knowledge, we report the only case of a patient with acute compartment syndrome of both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus compartments treated with emergent decompressive fasciotomy. Due to the devastating complications and functional loss of a missed diagnosis of compartment syndrome, a high index of clinical suspicion for developing compartment syndrome must be maintained in every fracture setting, regardless of anatomic location or rarity of reported cases.

Kenny, Ryan M.; Beiser, Christopher W.; Patel, Arun

2013-01-01

144

Gluteal compartment syndrome after prolonged immobilisation.  

PubMed

Muscles in the gluteal region are confined by distinct fascial attachments which can potentially result in compartment syndrome. A 74-year-old chronic drinker was admitted to the medical ward after being found drunk on the street. He noticed acute painful swelling of the right side of his buttock the following morning and recalled a slip and fall prior to his blackout. The whole right half of the buttock was tense with erythematous overlying skin. Examination revealed sciatic nerve palsy and myoglobinuria. Emergency fasciotomy and debridement were performed. Intra-operative pressure measurement confirmed a grossly elevated intra-compartmental pressure. Gluteal compartment syndrome is an extremely rare condition and has only been scantily documented previously in case reports. Early diagnosis is crucial but delay recognition is common from lack of knowledge of the condition and readily results in permanent sciatic nerve injury and acute renal shutdown from myoglobinuria. Awareness of the condition, early diagnosis and prompt exploration provide the only chance of avoiding these devastating consequences. Acute swelling diffusely affecting the whole or one side of the buttock, a history of trauma and prolonged local pressure impingement associated with pain out of proportion to the clinical signs should raise a suspicion of this rare condition. PMID:19423461

Liu, H L; Wong, David S Y

2009-04-01

145

Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

1996-02-01

146

Nonsteady-State Three Compartment Tracer Kinetics  

PubMed Central

The theoretical approach presented in the previous paper provides an analytical method for determining the unidirectional, nonsteady-state fluxes in a three compartment system. Based on this a study was made of the sodium flux transients in the toad urinary bladder. A transient time-dependent state was generated by suddenly short-circuiting a bladder previously maintained in an open-circuited steady state. The sequence of experiments suggested by the theory provided the data required for the analysis. The results of these tracer experiments were consistent with the complex non-three compartmental structure of this tissue. As a result both of the inadequacy of the three compartment model in representing the tissue and of certain experimental difficulties, attempts at a quantitative solution were not entirely successful. Useful information was nevertheless obtained through a careful use of this model, and a qualitative analysis implied that the sodium influxes into the tissue at both of its surfaces are sensitive to changes in electrical potential while both effluxes are insensitive to this change. This suggests that both of the effluxes result from active processes while both influxes are associated with passive processes. The net transepithelial transport of sodium would then necessarily result from a more complex polarization than that proposed by Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing. ImagesFigure 2aFigure 5

Schwartz, Tobias L.; Snell, Fred M.

1968-01-01

147

Changes of myofibrillar and centrifugal drip proteins and shear force of psoas major and minor and semitendinosus muscles from calves, heifers and cows during post-mortem ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in myofibrillar protein content and centrifugal drip proteins of psoas major and minor (PM) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles of calves, heifers and cows taken from carcasses on the 1st, 6th and 12th day of post-mortem cold storage were estimated. Washed myofibrils and centrifugal drip from muscles were analysed using SDS-PAGE 10 and 12% polyacrylamide gels. No significant changes were

Tadeusz Ko?czak; Edward Pospiech; Krystyna Palka; Jerzy ?

2003-01-01

148

Myoglobin layer depth, surface myoglobin and visual colour-life of beef Longissimus and Psoas major steaks from various postmortem times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative changes of oxymyoglobin layer depth (OLD) and metmyoglobin layer depth (MLD) of muscle (M) cubes as related to surface pigment and visual colour-life of beef Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from various postmortem times (PT; 3, 5, 10, or 14 d at 0 or 4.4°C in vacuum) were investigated during 120 h of display (0 or

R. Limsupavanich; D. H. Kropf; M. C. Hunt; E. A. E. Boyle; D. L. Boyle; T. M. Loughin

149

Quantitative studies on the polarization optical properties of striated muscle. I. Birefringence changes of rabbit psoas muscle in the transition from rigor to relaxed state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in birefringence in the rigor to relax transition of single triton- extracted rabbit psoas muscle fibers have been investigated with quantitative polarized light techniques. The total birefringence of rest length fibers in rigor was (1.46 -4- 0.08) x 10 -s and increased to (1.67  0.05) Ť 10 -s after Mg-ATP relaxation. Pyrophosphate relaxation increased the total birefringence

D. LANSING TAYLOR

1976-01-01

150

Effect of Inorganic Phosphate on the Force and Number of Myosin Cross-Bridges During the Isometric Contraction of Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Rabbit Psoas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between the chemical and mechanical steps of the myosin-actin ATPase reaction that leads to generation of isometric force in fast skeletal muscle was investigated in demembranated fibers of rabbit psoas muscle by determining the effect of the concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) on the stiffness of the half-sarcomere (hs) during transient and steady-state conditions of the isometric contraction

Marco Caremani; Jody Dantzig; Yale E. Goldman; Vincenzo Lombardi; Marco Linari

2008-01-01

151

The concentrations of glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and other regulatory metabolites, and the activities of enzymes of the glycogen metabolism in the perfused rabbit psoas muscle.  

PubMed

The following parameters were determined in the rabbit psoas muscle after perfusion in the presence of either insulin, propranolol, or isoproterenol: Concentrations of cyclic AMP, glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Maximum and "regulatory" activities of the enzymes glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, phosphofructokinase, and histone-phosphorylating protein kinase. PMID:3002883

Bauer, H P; Birkel, G; Hofer, H W

1986-01-01

152

Back extensor and psoas muscle cross-sectional area, prior physical training, and trunk muscle strength – a longitudinal study in adolescent girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between physical training, low back extensor (erector spinae plus multifidus muscles) and psoas muscle cross-sectional\\u000a areas (CSA) and strength characteristics of trunk extension and flexion were studied in adolescent girls. A group of athletes\\u000a (n=49) (age range 13.7–16.3 years) consisting of gymnasts, figure skaters and ballet dancers was age-matched with non-athletes\\u000a (n=17) who acted as a sedentary control

Juha E. Peltonen; Simo Taimela; Minna Erkintalo; Jouko J. Salminen; Airi Oksanen; Urho M. Kujala

1997-01-01

153

Non-compartment model to compartment model pharmacokinetics transformation meta-analysis - a multivariate nonlinear mixed model  

PubMed Central

Background To fulfill the model based drug development, the very first step is usually a model establishment from published literatures. Pharmacokinetics model is the central piece of model based drug development. This paper proposed an important approach to transform published non-compartment model pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters into compartment model PK parameters. This meta-analysis was performed with a multivariate nonlinear mixed model. A conditional first-order linearization approach was developed for statistical estimation and inference. Results Using MDZ as an example, we showed that this approach successfully transformed 6 non-compartment model PK parameters from 10 publications into 5 compartment model PK parameters. In simulation studies, we showed that this multivariate nonlinear mixed model had little relative bias (<1%) in estimating compartment model PK parameters if all non-compartment PK parameters were reported in every study. If there missing non-compartment PK parameters existed in some published literatures, the relative bias of compartment model PK parameter was still small (<3%). The 95% coverage probabilities of these PK parameter estimates were above 85%. Conclusions This non-compartment model PK parameter transformation into compartment model meta-analysis approach possesses valid statistical inference. It can be routinely used for model based drug development.

2010-01-01

154

Compartmented Neuron Cultures for Directional Infection by Alpha Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Compartmented neuronal cultures allow experimenters to establish separate fluid environments for neuronal axons and the soma from which they emanate. Physical isolation of cell bodies and axons is achieved by culturing neurons in tri-chambered Teflon rings. Dissociated ganglia are plated in one end compartment of the trichamber, and axonal growth is guided underneath watertight silicone grease barriers into a separate compartment. Since the axons and cell bodies are located in different compartments, they can be infected and assayed separately. We describe the assembly and use of compartmented neuronal cultures for in vitro study of directional infection of neurons by alpha herpesviruses. Selective application of viral inoculum to only one compartment ensures that the remainder of the neuron is not contaminated by input inoculum. This allows for quantification of viral spread, and unambiguous interpretation of immunofluorescence and electron microscopy images.

Curanovic, Dusica; Ch'ng, Toh Hean; Szpara, Moriah; Enquist, Lynn

2009-01-01

155

The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such a channel must be less than 0.06 x 10(-3) mohs/cm2 of fibre membrane. 7. The conductance between compartment B and the extracellular space can be calculated from the efflux rate constants for Na, K and Cl. The value obtained was 5 x 10(-3) mhos/cm2 of fibre membrane or 100 times the limiting value for the conductance of the T-SR junction. 8. The finding that there is a B component in the efflux curves for large molecular weight substances like inulin and dextran and the small size of the B component in efflux curves from single muscle fibres indicate that the 'speical region' of the extra-cellular space of frog muscle is not the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This conclusion is confirmed by a calculation of the conductance between the B compartment and the extracellular space. The value obtained is incompatible with predicted electrical properteis of the SR-T-tubule junction...

Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

1979-01-01

156

Compartment Syndrome of the Arm After Cable-Wakeboard Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   A compartment syndrome is an increased tissue pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment. This compromises blood flow\\u000a to the muscles and nerves within that compartment, which –if not treated adequately in an early stage-results in permanent\\u000a tissue and nerve damage. It most frequently occurs in the lower leg, but can also occur elsewhere when muscles are enclosed\\u000a in tight

Minke G. Barendse-Hofmann; Pascal Steenvoorde; Louk van Doorn; Anneke Zeillemaker

2009-01-01

157

Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment  

DOEpatents

A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01

158

Hydrogen mixing in compartments with a high-velocity source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen mixing test results are analyzed for two simulated high-velocity hydrogen-steam releases from postulated small coolant-line breaks into the lower compartment of an ice-condenser plant. The tests, which in most cases used helium as a simulant for hydrogen, demonstrated that the lower compartment gas was well mixed for both hydrogen release conditions used. The annular test compartment had a helium-steam

G. R. Bloom; A. K. Postma

1983-01-01

159

Delayed onset thigh compartment syndrome secondary to contusion.  

PubMed

While thigh compartment syndrome is relatively uncommon, it can occur in various situations. Multiple reports document thigh contusions as a cause of acute compartment syndrome; however, compartment syndrome of the thigh presenting primarily in a delayed fashion secondary to a contusion has not been described. This article reports a case of thigh compartment syndrome. A 39-year-old man sustained a left thigh contusion while playing basketball. He continued to play and also worked at the office over the next 2 days. Fifty-two hours postinjury, he developed severe pain in the thigh after a long walk. Increased swelling of the thigh followed, with numbness in the anterolateral thigh and pain with knee motion. He presented 60 hours postinjury with a compartment syndrome, and a lateral decompressive fasciotomy of the thigh was performed 62 hours postinjury. The wound was closed after 5 days. Three months postoperatively, the patient returned to playing basketball with no deficits. Treatment of established compartment syndrome in such cases is controversial, with some reports recommending nonoperative management. Contusion-related compartment syndromes are frequently associated with intramuscular bleeding in the involved compartment, which may accumulate slowly or worsen with further activity. Guidelines regarding return to sports need to be established in individuals sustaining severe contusions during sports-related activities to prevent compartment syndrome. Any individual sustaining such an injury should be under surveillance for delayed onset symptoms or signs of this potentially devastating syndrome. PMID:19708619

Joglekar, Siddharth B; Rehman, Saqib

2009-08-01

160

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Compartments in Human and Mouse B Lymphoblasts Represent Conventional Endocytic Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most human and mouse antigen-present- ing cells, the majority of intracellular major histocom- patibility complex (MHC) class II molecules resides in late endocytic MHC class II compartments (MIICs), thought to function in antigen processing and peptide loading. However, in mouse A20 B cells, early en- docytic class II-containing vesicles (CIIVs) have been reported to contain most of the intracellular

Monique J. Kleijmeer; Stanislaw Morkowski; Janice M. Griffith; Alexander Y. Rudensky; Hans J. Geuze

2010-01-01

161

Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

2001-01-01

162

What is the clinical relevance of different lung compartments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lung consists of at least seven compartments with relevance to immune reactions. Compartment 1 - the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which represents the cells of the bronchoalveolar space: From a diagnostic point of view the bronchoalveolar space is the most important because it is easily accessible in laboratory animals, as well as in patients, using BAL. Although this technique has

Thomas Tschernig; Reinhard Pabst

2009-01-01

163

Revisiting the effect compartment through timing errors in drug administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the pharmacological effects induced by timing errors in drug intake are compared for two drugs, one acting by way of an effect compartment and the other directly from the central compartment. A simulation was performed for two drugs having the same concentration– effect relationship at the receptor site, the same mean effect at equilibrium and identical concentrations

P. Nony; M. Cucherat; J. P. Boissel

1998-01-01

164

14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1193 ...discharge where it might cause a fire hazard. (d) Each cowling...compartment covering must be at least fire resistant. (e) Each part...compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to...

2013-01-01

165

White pulp compartments in the spleen of rats and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spleen of rats and mice was studied with the light and electron microscope. Special attention was paid to the delineation and composition of the white pulp compartments: periarteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS), follicles and marginal zone. These three compartments each have their specific lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells.

A. J. P. Veerman; W. Ewijk

1975-01-01

166

[Abdominal compartment syndrome - review of current knowledge, diagnosis and management].  

PubMed

This overview of the historical development in the definition of terms intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome focuses on the wide range of compartment syndromes and presents the issue of surgical or conservative management in the care for patients affected by the above-mentioned pathological abdominal conditions. PMID:23965002

Práznovec, I; Salavec, V; Kaska, M

2013-04-01

167

Two-compartment basophil cell trafficking model for methylprednisolone pharmacodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-compartment closed model was used to characterize the movement of basophils between blood and extravascular sites resulting from methylprednisolone (MP) exposure. This model is consistent with the view that corticosteroids cause a decrease in the recirculation of these cells from peripheral compartments. Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) was given to healthy males at doses of 10, 25, and 40 mg. Blood samples

Jeffrey A. Wald; Daniel E. Salazar; Haiyung Cheng; William J. Jusko

1991-01-01

168

Compartments and their boundaries in vertebrate brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen years ago, cell lineage restriction boundaries were discovered in the embryonic vertebrate hindbrain, subdividing it into a series of cell-tight compartments (known as rhombomeres). Compartition, together with segmentally reiterative neuronal architecture and the nested expression of Hox genes, indicates that the hindbrain has a truly metameric organization. This finding initiated a search for compartments in other regions of the

Clemens Kiecker; Andrew Lumsden

2005-01-01

169

Generation and migration of petroleum from abnormally pressured fluid compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the world's oil and gas has been generated from source rocks inside deep (> 3000 m) pressure compartments. The quantity and composition of the kerogen and the burial history of the rocks in the compartments determine the volumes of petroleum generated. But migration in an oil and gas phase is a pressure-driven process in which flow direction is

Hunt

1989-01-01

170

[Compartment syndrome in popliteal artery injury].  

PubMed

Between 1973 and 1988 50 patients with injuries of the popliteal artery were treated at the Medical School of Hannover University. While 26 patients with dislocations of the knee joint had mild soft tissue injuries, most of the 24 patients with periarticular fractures of the tibia and/or femur showed excessive soft tissue damage. In both groups 11 patients who were admitted with prolonged ischemia had to undergo amputations. Primary amputations were performed according to the recommendations of. The mean duration of ischemia was 5.5 h (range 2.2-9 h) in patients with knee dislocations (n = 21); fasciotomy was performed in 14 patients (67%). In patients with popliteal artery injuries combined with fractures (n = 18) the average duration of ischemia was 6.5 h (3-13.5 h); in 16 cases in this group (89%) fasciotomy had to be performed. Fasciotomy was always necessary in patients with combined injuries of the popliteal vein and artery. Moreover, all patients with ischemia of more than 6 h duration required fasciotomy. It can be concluded that fasciotomy will probably be necessary in patients with injuries of the popliteal artery and (a) severe soft tissue damage of the thigh and/or lower leg with compartment pressure of more than 30 mmHg; (b) ischemia of more than 6 h duration; (c) combined injuries of the popliteal vein and artery; (d) reconstruction of severely injured extremities. In general, fasciotomy should always be considered after reconstruction of the popliteal artery. PMID:1866641

Scola, E; Zwipp, H

1991-05-01

171

Surgery of the bovine forestomach compartments.  

PubMed

Surgery of the forestomach compartments is performed in bovine practices for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, including traumatic reticuloperitonitis, perireticular abscess, vagal indigestion, and grain overload. Through a left flank laparotomy, the cranial abdomen is first explored by palpation for adhesions or masses. A rumenotomy allows thorough examination of the lumen of the rumen and reticulum. Surgical correction of disease may require emptying of the rumen, removal of a foreign body, or drainage of an abscess into the reticulum. With some abscesses, single aspiration and lavage of the abscess capsule or drainage of the abscess through the body wall, following a ventral celiotomy, is required. If adhesions associated with disease do not affect the innervation of the forestomach, the prognosis for return to functional status within the herd is good. Adhesions involving the medial wall of the reticulum or pericardial and myocardial disease due to extensions of traumatic reticuloperitonitis have a very poor prognosis, and thus slaughter should be considered in affected cases. PMID:2200573

Ducharme, N G

1990-07-01

172

[Abdominal compartment syndrome: significance, diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

A pathological increase of intraabdominal pressure (IAP) is frequently observed in severely ill patients suffering from surgical diseases. This may lead to the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) which is characterized by an IAP >20 mmHg (>2.67 kPa) and failure of one or more organ systems. The mortality of ACS exceeds 60%. Knowledge concerning the sequelae of ACS is abundant, however, measurement of IAP is not routinely performed even if patients present with corresponding risk factors. This is probably due to a variable incidence of ACS and scepticism regarding the results of bladder pressure measurement. However, measurement of IAP can now be performed semi-automatically, continuously and in a standardized fashion. The therapy of ACS, i.e. decompression laparotomy and laparostomy, is undisputed. Since a heterogeneous group of patients can be affected, monitoring of IAP is indicated in patients needing intensive care. A consistent registration of IAP will improve knowledge and guidelines regarding the therapy of a pathologically increased IAP. Nevertheless, patients in whom ACS is suspected should be decompressed as soon as possible. PMID:16775730

Schachtrupp, A; Jansen, M; Bertram, P; Kuhlen, R; Schumpelick, V

2006-06-01

173

Glucose transporter 4: cycling, compartments and controversies  

PubMed Central

Insulin promotes glucose uptake into muscle and adipose tissues through glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). In unstimulated cells, rapid endocytosis, slow exocytosis and dynamic or static retention cause GLUT4 to concentrate in early recycling endosomes, the trans-Golgi network and vesicle-associated protein 2-containing vesicles. The coordinated action of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase effectors, protein kinase Akt, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and Akt substrate of 160-kDa (AS160), regulates the GLUT4 cycle by affecting its translocation, fusion with the plasma membrane, internalization and sorting. We review the evidence that supports such cycling, evaluate current models proposing static or dynamic retention, and highlight how distinct steps of GLUT4 transport are regulated by insulin signals. In particular, fusion seems to be regulated by aPKC (via munc18) and Akt (via syntaxin4-interacting protein (synip)). AS160 participates in GLUT4 intracellular retention, and possibly fusion, through candidate ras-related GTP-binding protein (Rab)2, Rab8, Rab10 and/or Rab14. The localization of the insulin-sensitive GLUT4 compartment and the precise target of insulin-derived signals remain open for future investigation.

Dugani, Chandrasagar B; Klip, Amira

2005-01-01

174

EGF Receptor Sorting in Endosomal Compartments  

SciTech Connect

Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates various cellular mechanisms, such as cell growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation. EGF receptors have an important role in mammalian development and have also been implicated in tumor formation. Although it has been studied for decades, the mechanism by which the EGFR signaling is switched off is poorly understood. Due to limitations in current experimental protocols, identifying the cellular location where the signal is attenuated has proved to be difficult. Computer modeling of the EGFR signaling pathway can complement experimental studies and can potentially help to fill the gaps in our understanding. In the current study, using kinetic simulations, we have investigated how receptor degradation rates in multivesicular endosome compartments affect the spatial distribution and the trafficking dynamics of the EGF receptors. Our results indicate that the variations in the mean lifetime of the late endosomes can have a significant impact on the pool size of the internalized receptors. This could be an important cell type specific regulation mechanism in the EGFR signaling.

Resat, Haluk

2004-06-22

175

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not.

Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

2011-01-01

176

Abdominal compartment syndrome secondary to chronic constipation.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not. PMID:22606517

Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

2011-08-23

177

Selective pharmacological manipulation of cortical-thalamic co-cultures in a dual-compartment device.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrate capabilities to selectively manipulate dissociated co-cultures of neurons plated in dual-compartment devices. Synaptic receptor antagonists and tetrodotoxin solutions were used to selectively control and study the network-wide burst propagation and cell firing in cortical-cortical and cortical-thalamic co-culture systems. The results show that in cortical-thalamic dissociated co-cultures, burst events initiate in the cortical region and propagate to the thalamic region and the burst events in thalamic region can be controlled by blocking the synaptic receptors in the cortical region. Whereas, in cortical-cortical co-culture system, one of the region acts as a site of burst initiation and facilitate propagation of bursts in the entire network. Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, when applied to either of the regions blocks the firing of neurons in that particular region with significant influence on the firing of neurons in the other region. The results demonstrate selective pharmacological manipulation capabilities of co-cultures in a dual compartment device and helps understand the effects of neuroactive compounds on networks derived from specific CNS tissues and the dynamic interaction between them. PMID:23305774

Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T; Franco, Maria; Barone, Rocco Andrea; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J; Decré, Michel M J

2013-01-07

178

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC): detection by immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a dynamic, irregularly shaped, and electron-dense nuclear structure that is physically associated with the nucleolus (1). It is found predominantly in transformed cells and various cancer tissues, and rarely in normal cells (1). The components of the PNC described to date include several small RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase (pol) III, and several RNA binding proteins of which some are primarily implicated in pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) processing (2). The current working model suggests that the PNC is a dynamic functional organelle involved in the metabolism and trafficking of a subset of newly synthesized pol III RNAs in transformed cells. The PNC can be localized and visualized in tissue sections by a immunohistochemical technique using the mouse monoclonal antibody SH54 (3), which specifically recognizes the RNA binding protein PTB (polypyrimidine tract binding protein), which is highly concentrated in the PNC and is used as a marker for PNC detection.The prevalence of PNCs has been found to be correlated with disease progression in breast cancer (3) and in tumors from other tissues, including prostate, colon, ovary, and endometrium (our unpublished studies). PNC prevalence increases with the degree of malignancy and reaches nearly 100% in distant metastases. A high PNC prevalence is associated with poor prognosis (our unpublished studies) (3). In this chapter, we describe methods, which are still under development, for PNC detection and PNC prevalence scoring. Due to the intrinsic limitations of immunocytochemistry using peroxidase assays, the signal intensity can vary from experiment to experiment. Studies are underway to optimize an automated protocol to increase its reproducibility and accuracy. PMID:18951167

Slusarczyk, Alicja; Huang, Sui

2008-01-01

179

Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells.

Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2011-01-01

180

Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.

Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O'Brien, Peter J.

2010-01-01

181

Lumbar paraspinal compartment pressure in back muscle exercise.  

PubMed

A paraspinal compartment pressure measurement was taken in 20 volunteers (a) to establish the normal compartment pressure in a series of body postures at rest and (b) to determine the difference in paraspinal compartment pressure during weight-lifting (40 pounds) exercise between straight back lifting and straight knee lifting. The measurement at rest showed a significant elevation of pressure in the sitting position compared with lying, standing, and bending positions. No significant difference in pressure was found between the two kinds of lifting exercises. PMID:8186589

Songcharoen, P; Chotigavanich, C; Thanapipatsiri, S

1994-02-01

182

Compartment Syndrome Following Lower Limb Arthroplasty: A Review  

PubMed Central

Compartment syndrome is an urgent clinical entity characterised by an increase in the interstitial pressure within a closed osseofascial compartment. Although well recognised as a potential complication after orthopaedic trauma, it is very rarely presented after elective orthopaedic surgery and especially joint arthroplasty. In these rare cases a number of variables are associated with it (positioning, coagulopathy, extensive soft tissue dissection, previous scarring, and epidural analgesia). In this study we present the current evidence with regard to incidence and causation of compartment syndrome after lower limb joint arthroplasty and make recommendations on how to avoid the development of this devastating complication.

Lasanianos, Nikolaos G; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Roberts, Craig S; Giannoudis, Peter V

2011-01-01

183

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. 58.16-20 Section...Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located...

2010-10-01

184

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. 58.16-20 Section...Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located...

2009-10-01

185

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2010-10-01

186

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2009-10-01

187

Refrigerating Equipment for Storage Compartments: Heat Load Calculation and Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The refrigeration heat load for each refrigerated compartment shall be calculated for a pull-down condition, and also for a normal operating condition, and shall include the sum of the estimated transmission, infiltration, ventilation, and product heat lo...

1964-01-01

188

3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

189

Fire spread and percolation in polydisperse compartment structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we employ a cellular automata and percolation analysis to model fire spread in polydisperse amorphous massively multi-compartmented structures (e.g. naval vessels, high-rise buildings, warehouses, or nuclear plants). Various shapes and sizes of compartments are considered. Each compartment is composed of nc equal-size cells. It is found that increasing nc increases fingering and lacunarities of fire patterns, and subsequently front roughness. However, this also increases the probability of fire propagation throughout the system as the percolation threshold presents a power-law decrease with nc -1 for small values of nc. For large polydisperse compartments, the propagation/non propagation transition seems to be size-independent. A special emphasis is put on the dynamics of fire propagation. Further study is needed to evaluate network properties that should help in developing better strategies to reduce fire consequences.

Zekri, N.; Zekri, L.; Lallemand, C.; Pizzo, Y.; Kaiss, A.; Clerc, J.-P.; Porterie, B.

2012-11-01

190

Dynamics, Transport and Chemical Kinetics of Compartment Fire Exhaust Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation focuses on the transport of carbon monoxide (CO) away from a burning compartment and the conditions necessary for the existence of fatally high concentrations of CO at remote locations. During the past year, the research has concentrated...

R. J. Roby U. Vandsburger

1996-01-01

191

14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...whichâ (1) The presence of a fire would be easily discovered by a...compartment with the contents of a hand fire extinguisher; (2) When the access provisions...separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to give...

2013-01-01

192

46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the...

2012-10-01

193

46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the...

2011-10-01

194

A Pressing Diagnosis - A Compromised Testicle Secondary to Compartment Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hydrocoeles are a common cause of scrotal swelling and discomfort in a significant proportion of men. We report a case of compartment syndrome within the tunica vaginalis. This is an unusual and previously unreported complication of a hydrocoele.

Douglas, JW; Hicks, JA; Manners, J; Hayes, MC

2008-01-01

195

Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of misfolded proteins in intracellular amyloid inclusions, typical of many neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's and prion disease, is thought to occur after failure of the cellular protein quality control mechanisms. Here we examine the formation of misfolded protein inclusions in the eukaryotic cytosol of yeast and mammalian cell culture models. We identify two intracellular compartments for the sequestration of misfolded cytosolic proteins. Partition of quality control substrates to either compartment seems to depend on their ubiquitination status and aggregation state. Soluble ubiquitinated misfolded proteins accumulate in a juxtanuclear compartment where proteasomes are concentrated. In contrast, terminally aggregated proteins are sequestered in a perivacuolar inclusion. Notably, disease-associated Huntingtin and prion proteins are preferentially directed to the perivacuolar compartment. Enhancing ubiquitination of a prion protein suffices to promote its delivery to the juxtanuclear inclusion. Our findings provide a framework for understanding the preferential accumulation of amyloidogenic proteins in inclusions linked to human disease.

Kaganovich, Daniel; Kopito, Ron; Frydman, Judith

2009-01-01

196

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Current Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome's manifestations are difficult to definitively detect on physical examination alone. Therefore, objective criteria have been articulated that aid the bedside clinician in detecting intra-abdominal hypertension as well as the abdominal compartment syndrome to initiate prompt and potentially life-saving intervention. At-risk patient populations should be routinely monitored and tiered interventions should be undertaken as a team approach to management.

Luckianow, Gina M.; Ellis, Matthew; Governale, Deborah; Kaplan, Lewis J.

2012-01-01

197

Plant Cells Contain Two Functionally Distinct Vacuolar Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant cell vacuole has multiple functions, including storage of proteins and maintenance of an acidic pH where proteases will have maximal activity. It has been assumed that these diverse functions occur in the same compartment. Here, we demonstrate that antibodies to two different tonoplast intrinsic proteins, ?-TIP and TIP-Ma27, label vacuole membranes of two different compartments within the same

Nadine Paris; C. Michael Stanley; Russell L Jones; John C Rogers

1996-01-01

198

Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is seen with increasing frequency in the critically-ill. Elevated intraabdominal pressures interfere with vital organ function and contribute to mortality. Prevention, when possible and early recognition of occurrence with timely therapy will improve survival. Measurement of bladder pressures plays a critical role in diagnosis and guiding therapy. Treatment includes non-invasive and invasive methodologies designed to decrease the volume of abdominal contents and invasive methods to increase the compartment dimensions. PMID:23097942

Early, Gerald L; Wesp, Julie; Augustin, Stanley M

199

Imperfect pitchfork bifurcation in asymmetric two-compartment granular gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clustering behavior of a mono-disperse granular gas is experimentally studied in an asymmetric two-compartment setup. Unlike the random clustering in either compartment in the case of symmetric configuration when lowering the shaking strength to below a critical value, the directed clustering is observed, which corresponds to an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation. Numerical solutions of the flux equation using a modified simple flux function show qualitative agreements with the experimental results. The potential application of this asymmetric structure is discussed.

Zhang, Yin; Li, Yin-Chang; Liu, Rui; Cui, Fei-Fei; Pierre, Evesque; Hou, Mei-Ying

2013-05-01

200

Dynamical Systems Analysis of a Protocell Lipid Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper develops phase portraits explaining the dynamic behaviour of the lipid compartment in a recently proposed stochastic\\u000a protocell model. The protocell model is being used to investigate - in a bottom-up way - the possible roots of cellular autonomy,\\u000a and the lipid compartment sub-system plays an integral part in determining the cellular dynamic. Whilst motivation is to ground\\u000a the

Ben Shirt-Ediss

201

Hepatitis B surface antigen assembles in a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment  

PubMed Central

Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the major envelope protein of the virus, in the absence of other viral proteins leads to its secretion as oligomers in the form of disk-like or tubular lipoprotein particles. The observation that these lipoprotein particles are heavily disulphide crosslinked is paradoxical since HBsAg assembly is classically believed to occur in the ER, and hence in the presence of high levels of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) which should resolve these higher intermolecular crosslinks. Indeed, incubation of mature, highly disulphide crosslinked HBsAg with recombinant PDI causes the disassembly of HBsAg to dimers. We have used antibodies against resident ER proteins in double immunofluorescence studies to study the stages of the conversion of the HBsAg from individual protein subunits to the secreted, crosslinked, oligomer. We show that HBsAg is rapidly sorted to a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment which excludes PDI and other major soluble resident ER proteins although it overlaps with the distribution of rab2, an established marker of an intermediate compartment. Kinetic studies showed that disulphide-linked HBsAg dimers began to form during a short (2 min) pulse, increased in concentration to peak at 60 min, and then decreased as the dimers were crosslinked to form higher oligomers. These higher oligomers are the latest identifiable intracellular form of HBsAg before its secretion (t 1/2 = 2 h). Brefeldin A treatment does not alter the localization of HBsAg in this PDI excluding compartment, however, it blocks the formation of new oligomers causing the accumulation of dimeric HBsAg. Hence this oligomerization must occur in a pre-Golgi compartment. These data support a model in which rapid dimer formation, catalyzed by PDI, occurs in the ER, and is followed by transport of dimers to a pre-Golgi compartment where the absence of PDI and a different lumenal environment allow the assembly process to be completed.

1992-01-01

202

Immunocytochemical analysis of Uukuniemi virus budding compartments: role of the intermediate compartment and the Golgi stack in virus maturation.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that Uukuniemi virus, a bunyavirus, matures at the membranes of the Golgi complex. In this study we have employed immunocytochemical techniques to analyze in detail the budding compartment(s) of the virus. Electron microscopy of infected BHK-21 cells showed that virus particles are found in the cisternae throughout the Golgi stack. Within the cisternae, the virus particles were located preferentially in the dilated rims. This would suggest that virus budding may begin at or before the cis Golgi membranes. The virus budding compartment was studied further by immunoelectron microscopy with a pre-Golgi intermediate compartment marker, p58, and a Golgi stack marker protein, mannosidase II (ManII). Virus particles and budding virus were detected in ManII-positive Golgi stack membranes and, interestingly, in both juxtanuclear and peripheral p58-positive elements of the intermediate compartment. In cells incubated at 15 degrees C the nucleocapsid and virus envelope proteins were seen to accumulate in the intermediate compartment. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that at 15 degrees C the nucleocapsid is associated with membranes that show a characteristic distribution and tubulo-vesicular morphology of the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment. These membranes contained virus particles in the lumen. The results indicate that the first site of formation of Uukuniemi virus particles is the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment and that virus budding continues in the Golgi stack. The results raise questions about the intracellular transport pathway of the virus particles, which are 100 to 120 nm in diameter and are therefore too large to be transported in the 60-nm-diameter vesicles postulated to function in the intra-Golgi transport. The distribution of the virus in the Golgi stack may imply that the cisternae themselves have a role in the vectorial transport of virus particles.

Jantti, J; Hilden, P; Ronka, H; Makiranta, V; Keranen, S; Kuismanen, E

1997-01-01

203

Effects of dietary ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on ?-tocopherol deposition in porcine m. psoas major and m. longissimus dorsi and on drip loss, colour stability and oxidative stability of pork meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding supra-nutritional levels of ?-tocopheryl acetate on its deposition in two porcine muscles of different metabolic rates (m. longissimus dorsi and m. psoas major) and the effect on meat quality (lipid oxidation, colour stability and drip loss) was studied. Pigs were fed a standard diet supplemented with three levels: 100, 200 and 700 mg\\/kg of ?-tocopheryl acetate

C. Jensen; J. Guider; I. M. Skovgaar; H. Staun; L. H. Skibsted; S. K. Jensen; A. J. Mřller; J. Buckley; G. Bertelsen

1997-01-01

204

Stiffness and fraction of Myosin motors responsible for active force in permeabilized muscle fibers from rabbit psoas.  

PubMed

The stiffness of the single myosin motor (epsilon) is determined in skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle by both mechanical and thermodynamic approaches. Changes in the elastic strain of the half-sarcomere (hs) are measured by fast mechanics both in rigor, when all myosin heads are attached, and during active contraction, with the isometric force (T0) modulated by changing either [Ca2+] or temperature. The hs compliance is 43.0+/-0.8 nm MPa-1 in isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+], whereas in rigor it is 28.2+/-1.1 nm MPa-1. The equivalent compliance of myofilaments is 21.0+/-3.3 nm MPa-1. Accordingly, the stiffness of the ensemble of myosin heads attached in the hs is 45.5+/-1.7 kPa nm-1 in isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+] (e0), and in rigor (er) it rises to 138.9+/-21.2 kPa nm-1. Epsilon, calculated from er and the lattice molecular dimensions, is 1.21+/-0.18 pN nm-1. epsilon estimated, using a thermodynamic approach, from the relation of T0 at saturating [Ca2+] versus the reciprocal of absolute temperature is 1.25+/-0.14 pN nm-1, similar to that estimated for fibers in rigor. Consequently, the ratio e0/er (0.33+/-0.05) can be used to estimate the fraction of attached heads during isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+]. If the osmotic agent dextran T-500 (4 g/100 ml) is used to reduce the lateral filament spacing of the relaxed fiber to the value before skinning, both e0 and er increase by approximately 40%. Epsilon becomes approximately 1.7 pN nm-1 and the fraction and the force of myosin heads attached in the isometric contraction remain the same as before dextran application. The finding that the fraction of myosin heads attached to actin in an isometric contraction is 0.33 rules out the hypothesis of multiple mechanical cycles per ATP hydrolyzed. PMID:17237201

Linari, Marco; Caremani, Marco; Piperio, Claudia; Brandt, Philip; Lombardi, Vincenzo

2007-01-19

205

Enhancement of Force Generated by Individual Myosin Heads in Skinned Rabbit Psoas Muscle Fibers at Low Ionic Strength  

PubMed Central

Although evidence has been presented that, at low ionic strength, myosin heads in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers form linkages with actin filaments, the effect of low ionic strength on contraction characteristics of Ca2+-activated muscle fibers has not yet been studied in detail. To give information about the mechanism of muscle contraction, we have examined the effect of low ionic strength on the mechanical properties and the contraction characteristics of skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in both relaxed and maximally Ca2+-activated states. By progressively decreasing KCl concentration from 125 mM to 0 mM (corresponding to a decrease in ionic strength ? from 170 mM to 50 mM), relaxed fibers showed changes in mechanical response to sinusoidal length changes and ramp stretches, which are consistent with the idea of actin-myosin linkage formation at low ionic strength. In maximally Ca2+-activated fibers, on the other hand, the maximum isometric force increased about twofold by reducing KCl concentration from 125 to 0 mM. Unexpectedly, determination of the force-velocity curves indicated that, the maximum unloaded shortening velocity Vmax, remained unchanged at low ionic strength. This finding indicates that the actin-myosin linkages, which has been detected in relaxed fibers at low ionic strength, are broken quickly on Ca2+ activation, so that the linkages in relaxed fibers no longer provide any internal resistance against fiber shortening. The force-velocity curves, obtained at various levels of steady Ca2+-activated isometric force, were found to be identical if they are normalized with respect to the maximum isometric force. The MgATPase activity of muscle fibers during isometric force generation was found not to change appreciably at low ionic strength despite the two-fold increase in Ca2+-activated isometric force. These results can be explained in terms of enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads, but not by any changes in kinetic properties of cyclic actin-myosin interaction.

Sugi, Haruo; Abe, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Sugiura, Seiryo

2013-01-01

206

Enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers at low ionic strength.  

PubMed

Although evidence has been presented that, at low ionic strength, myosin heads in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers form linkages with actin filaments, the effect of low ionic strength on contraction characteristics of Ca(2+)-activated muscle fibers has not yet been studied in detail. To give information about the mechanism of muscle contraction, we have examined the effect of low ionic strength on the mechanical properties and the contraction characteristics of skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in both relaxed and maximally Ca(2+)-activated states. By progressively decreasing KCl concentration from 125 mM to 0 mM (corresponding to a decrease in ionic strength ? from 170 mM to 50 mM), relaxed fibers showed changes in mechanical response to sinusoidal length changes and ramp stretches, which are consistent with the idea of actin-myosin linkage formation at low ionic strength. In maximally Ca(2+)-activated fibers, on the other hand, the maximum isometric force increased about twofold by reducing KCl concentration from 125 to 0 mM. Unexpectedly, determination of the force-velocity curves indicated that, the maximum unloaded shortening velocity Vmax, remained unchanged at low ionic strength. This finding indicates that the actin-myosin linkages, which has been detected in relaxed fibers at low ionic strength, are broken quickly on Ca(2+) activation, so that the linkages in relaxed fibers no longer provide any internal resistance against fiber shortening. The force-velocity curves, obtained at various levels of steady Ca(2+)-activated isometric force, were found to be identical if they are normalized with respect to the maximum isometric force. The MgATPase activity of muscle fibers during isometric force generation was found not to change appreciably at low ionic strength despite the two-fold increase in Ca(2+)-activated isometric force. These results can be explained in terms of enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads, but not by any changes in kinetic properties of cyclic actin-myosin interaction. PMID:23691080

Sugi, Haruo; Abe, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Sugiura, Seiryo

2013-05-15

207

Stiffness and Fraction of Myosin Motors Responsible for Active Force in Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Rabbit Psoas  

PubMed Central

The stiffness of the single myosin motor (?) is determined in skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle by both mechanical and thermodynamic approaches. Changes in the elastic strain of the half-sarcomere (hs) are measured by fast mechanics both in rigor, when all myosin heads are attached, and during active contraction, with the isometric force (T0) modulated by changing either [Ca2+] or temperature. The hs compliance is 43.0 ± 0.8 nm MPa?1 in isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+], whereas in rigor it is 28.2 ± 1.1 nm MPa?1. The equivalent compliance of myofilaments is 21.0 ± 3.3 nm MPa?1. Accordingly, the stiffness of the ensemble of myosin heads attached in the hs is 45.5 ± 1.7 kPa nm?1 in isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+] (e0), and in rigor (er) it rises to 138.9 ± 21.2 kPa nm?1. ?, calculated from er and the lattice molecular dimensions, is 1.21 ± 0.18 pN nm?1. ? estimated, using a thermodynamic approach, from the relation of T0 at saturating [Ca2+] versus the reciprocal of absolute temperature is 1.25 ± 0.14 pN nm?1, similar to that estimated for fibers in rigor. Consequently, the ratio e0/er (0.33 ± 0.05) can be used to estimate the fraction of attached heads during isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+]. If the osmotic agent dextran T-500 (4 g/100 ml) is used to reduce the lateral filament spacing of the relaxed fiber to the value before skinning, both e0 and er increase by ?40%. ? becomes ?1.7 pN nm?1 and the fraction and the force of myosin heads attached in the isometric contraction remain the same as before dextran application. The finding that the fraction of myosin heads attached to actin in an isometric contraction is 0.33 rules out the hypothesis of multiple mechanical cycles per ATP hydrolyzed.

Linari, Marco; Caremani, Marco; Piperio, Claudia; Brandt, Philip; Lombardi, Vincenzo

2007-01-01

208

Block That Pain!  

MedlinePLUS

... combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, ... surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can cause numbness, paralysis, and other nervous ...

209

Base Blocks Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

Manipulatives, National L.

2008-12-10

210

Acquired Atrioventricular Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many causes of atrioventricular (AV) block but progressive idiopathic fibrosis of the conduction system related\\u000a to an aging process of the cardiac skeleton is the most common cause of chronic acquired AV block. Barring congenital AV block,\\u000a Lyme disease is the most common cause of reversible third-degree AV block in young individuals and it is usually AV nodal.

S. Serge Barold; Bengt Herweg

211

Hypoxia following interscalene block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Interscalene brachial plexus block is often used for surgeries involving the shoulder and upper arm. Known complications include phrenic nerve paralysis, intravascular injection, and cervical epidural block. We report a patient who developed acute hypoxia immediately following this block, presumably secondary to an acute pulmonary thromboembolus (PTE) coupled with phrenic nerve paralysis. Case Report: A 43-year-old man

Melissa Rose; Timothy J. Ness

2002-01-01

212

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

213

1990 CENSUS BLOCK CENTROIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The block_cen layer in the EPA New England database provides the centroids of block boundaries coverage based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census Public Law (PL) 94-171 data. The block_cen layer is an ARC/INFO point coverage....

214

Micellization of block copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with recent progress including the author's work in the field of block copolymer self-assembly in solution and on solid surfaces. The synthesis methods for producing block copolymers with well-defined structures, molecular weights and composition are outlined with emphasis on ionic and controlled free radical polymerization techniques. A general overview of the preparation, characterization and theories of block

Gérard Riess

2003-01-01

215

Blocking Delaunay triangulations  

PubMed Central

Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay triangulation of B?W there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest set W blocking B: (i) 3n/2 white points are always sufficient to block a set of n black points, (ii) if B is in convex position, 5n/4 white points are always sufficient to block it, and (iii) at least n?1 white points are always necessary to block a set of n black points.

Aichholzer, Oswin; Fabila-Monroy, Ruy; Hackl, Thomas; van Kreveld, Marc; Pilz, Alexander; Ramos, Pedro; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

2013-01-01

216

Nested bacterial boxes: nuclear and other intracellular compartments in planctomycetes.  

PubMed

Bacteria in the phylum Planctomycetes and some related phyla challenge our concept of the typical bacterium as consisting of cells without internal compartments or membrane-bounded organelles. Cells of all species of planctomycetes examined consist of at least two major compartments, and there are two other types of compartmentation in which a third compartment is formed either by a double-membrane envelope around the nucleoid in the case of the aerobic Gemmata obscuriglobus or by a single but potentially energized membrane in the case of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing anammox planctomycetes. We examine here the nature of these planctomycete compartments in relation to function and their relationship to the endomembranes defining them, and discuss the implications of the remarkable compartment-confined process of protein uptake in Gemmata, which resembles receptor- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis of eukaryotes. Planctomycetes have implications for our understanding of the evolution of membrane-bounded organelles, of endomembranes, transport across endomembranes and membrane trafficking, and for how the complexity of a eukaryote style of cell organization could have originated. PMID:23615198

Fuerst, John A; Sagulenko, Evgeny

2013-04-18

217

Requirement for Golgi-localized PI(4)P in fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi compartments  

PubMed Central

The role of specific membrane lipids in transport between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi compartments is poorly understood. Using cell-free assays that measure stages in ER-to-Golgi transport, we screened a variety of enzyme inhibitors, lipid-modifying enzymes, and lipid ligands to investigate requirements in yeast. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of human Fapp1, which binds phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4)P) specifically, was a strong and specific inhibitor of anterograde transport. Analysis of wild type and mutant PH domain proteins in addition to recombinant versions of the Sac1p phosphoinositide-phosphatase indicated that PI(4)P was required on Golgi membranes for fusion with coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles. PI(4)P inhibition did not prevent vesicle tethering but significantly reduced formation of soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between vesicle and Golgi SNARE proteins. Moreover, semi-intact cell membranes containing elevated levels of the ER-Golgi SNARE proteins and Sly1p were less sensitive to PI(4)P inhibitors. Finally, in vivo analyses of a pik1 mutant strain showed that inhibition of PI(4)P synthesis blocked anterograde transport from the ER to early Golgi compartments. Together, the data presented here indicate that PI(4)P is required for the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of COPII vesicles with the Golgi complex.

Lorente-Rodriguez, Andres; Barlowe, Charles

2011-01-01

218

Compartment A101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary compartment. Door at left leads to ship's brig. Ladder leads to compartment A-123. Compartment aft of ladder is bread room, A-102. (07) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

219

Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome.

Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

2012-01-01

220

Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as positioning of the legs during operation (lithotomy and Lloyd-Davies positions), a prolonged operation, external compression and vascular insults, both pre- and intra-operatively. To prevent well-leg compartment syndrome it is important to improve knowledge of the condition among surgeons and nursing staff. Potential risk factors and preventive initiatives are listed to reduce the risk in future patients. We describe two patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively developed well-leg compartment syndrome. PMID:23488737

Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jřrgen

2013-03-12

221

Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.  

PubMed

Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

Artmann, A; Henninger, W

2001-12-01

222

A total and biosafe liquefaction compartment for MELiSSA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Envisaging long-duration space missions and settlements on the Moon or even on more distant planets means considering the production of food and the recycling of scarce, valuable chemical species from waste. ESA's MELiSSA project (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is studying, in which five different compartments degrade waste into basic chemicals and then assimilate them into food, clean water and a breathable atmosphere. Crucial to the success of such a closed system is the absolute efficiency of the first compartment, in which all waste is biologically degraded into easily assimilable basic compounds. In order to ease this strenuous task and to ensure total and biosafe liquefaction of the waste, this MAP project is studying additional technologies that complement MELiSSA's waste degrading compartment.

Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Kübe, J.; Dussap, G.; Creuly, C.

2005-10-01

223

Diffusion effects on longitudinal relaxation in poorly mixed compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of spins between physical or virtual, communicating compartments having different states of longitudinal magnetization leads to diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation. Herein, in two model systems, the effects of diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation are explored experimentally and analyzed quantitatively. In the first case, longitudinal relaxation in a single slice of a water phantom is monitored spectroscopically as a function of slice thickness. In the second case, mimicking vascular flow/diffusion effects, longitudinal relaxation is monitored in a two-compartment, semi-permeable fiber phantom. In both cases, apparent longitudinal relaxation, though clearly multi-exponential, is well-modeled as bi-exponential.

Anderson, J. R.; Ye, Q.; Neil, J. J.; Ackerman, J. J. H.; Garbow, J. R.

2011-07-01

224

Epidemic Spreading in a Multi-compartment System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the variant rate and white noise into the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemics, discuss the epidemic dynamics of a multiple-compartment system, and describe this system by using master equations. For both the local epidemic spreading system and the whole multiple-compartment system, we find that a threshold could be useful in forecasting when the epidemic vanishes. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that a model with the variant infection rate and white noise can improve fitting with real SARS data.

Gao, Zong-Mao; Gu, Jiao; Li, Wei

2012-02-01

225

Acute exertional medial compartment syndrome of the foot after playing basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome of the foot is an uncommon event. The most common cause of compartment syndrome of the foot is a crush\\u000a injury. Exceedingly rare is acute compartment syndrome of the foot occurring in the absence of trauma. We describe the clinical\\u000a scenario involving a 23-year-old healthy male who developed acute exertional compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment\\u000a of

Lauchlan Chambers; Sharon L. Hame; Benjamin Levine

2011-01-01

226

Reversal of the cross-bridge force-generating transition by photogeneration of phosphate in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. Orthophosphate (P(i), 0.1-2.0 mM) was photogenerated within the filament lattice of isometrically contracting glycerinated fibres of rabbit psoas muscle at 10 and 20 degrees C. The P(i) was produced by laser flash photolysis of the photolabile compound 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethylphosphate (caged P(i)). Caged P(i) caused a depression of tension that was much smaller than that caused by P(i). 2. Photolysis of caged P(i) produced a decline in isometric force composed of four phases: phase I, a lag phase (e.g. 1-4 ms at 10 degrees C) during which force did not change; phase II, an exponential decline by as much as 20% of the pre-pulse force; phase III, a partial force recovery (0-3% of the pre-pulse force); and phase IV, a further slow (0.5-3 s) decline to the steady value. Phases I, III and IV were largely independent of [P(i)] and are likely to be indirect effects caused by the caged P(i) photolysis. 3. Both the rate and amplitude of phase II depended markedly on [P(i)]. The amplitude of phase II was similar to the reduction of steady-state force by P(i). The rate of phase II increased with increasing temperature and [P(i)]. At high [P(i)] the rate began to saturate, and approached limits of 123 s-1 at 10 degrees C and 194 s-1 at 20 degrees C. 4. The rate of phase II was independent of sarcomere overlap, while the amplitude was proportional to tension at partial filament overlap. A control experiment using caged ATP showed that phase II was not produced by the photolytic by-products or the light pulse. The results suggest that phase II is associated with the force-generating transition of the cross-bridge cycle. 5. Sinusoidal length oscillations at 0.5 and 2 kHz were used to measure muscle stiffness during phase II. Stiffness declined in a single exponential phase, with the same time course as phase II of the tension transient. The change in stiffness was 83 +/- 6% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10, 0.5 kHz) of the change in tension when both signals were normalized to their pre-flash values. 6. Analysis of the data shows that two steps are involved in force generation and P(i) release. The non-force exerting AM-ADP-P(i) cross-bridge state first isomerizes to form a force-exerting cross-bridge state (AM'-ADP-P(i)). P(i) is then released to form a second force-generating state, AM'-ADP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Dantzig, J A; Goldman, Y E; Millar, N C; Lacktis, J; Homsher, E

1992-01-01

227

Structural Characterization of the Binding of Myosin*ADP*Pi to Actin in Permeabilized Rabbit Psoas Muscle  

SciTech Connect

When myosin is attached to actin in a muscle cell, various structures in the filaments are formed. The two strongly bound states (A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP and A{center_dot}M) and the weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP states are reasonably well understood. The orientation of the strongly bound myosin heads is uniform ('stereospecific' attachment), and the attached heads exhibit little spatial fluctuation. In the prehydrolysis weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state, the orientations of the attached myosin heads assume a wide range of azimuthal and axial angles, indicating considerable flexibility in the myosin head. The structure of the other weakly bound state, A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}, however, is poorly understood. This state is thought to be the critical pre-power-stroke state, poised to make the transition to the strongly binding, force-generating states, and hence it is of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of contraction. However, because of the low affinity between myosin and actin in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state, the structure of this state has eluded determination both in isolated form and in muscle cells. With the knowledge recently gained in the structures of the weakly binding M{center_dot}ATP, M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} states and the weakly attached A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state in muscle fibers, it is now feasible to delineate the in vivo structure of the attached state of A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}. The series of experiments presented in this article were carried out under relaxing conditions at 25{sup o}C, where {approx}95% of the myosin heads in the skinned rabbit psoas muscle contain the hydrolysis products. The affinity for actin is enhanced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or by lowering the ionic strength in the bathing solution. Solution kinetics and binding constants were determined in the presence and in the absence of PEG. When the binding between actin and myosin was increased, both the myosin layer lines and the actin layer lines increased in intensity, but the intensity profiles did not change. The configuration (mode) of attachment in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state is thus unique among the intermediate attached states of the cross-bridge ATP hydrolysis cycle. One of the simplest explanations is that both myosin filaments and actin filaments are stabilized (e.g., undergo reduced spatial fluctuations) by the attachment. The alignment of the myosin heads in the thick filaments and the alignment of the actin monomers in the thin filaments are improved as a result. The compact atomic structure of M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} with strongly coupled domains may contribute to the unique attachment configuration: the 'primed' myosin heads may function as 'transient struts' when attached to the thin filaments.

Xu,S.; Gu, J.; Belknap, B.; White, H.; Yu, L.

2006-01-01

228

The effect of lattice spacing change on cross-bridge kinetics in chemically skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. I. Proportionality between the lattice spacing and the fiber width.  

PubMed Central

Chemically skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers/bundles were osmotically compressed with a macromolecule dextran T-500 (0-16%, g/100 ml) at 20 degrees C, 200 mM ionic strength, and pH 7.0. The lattice spacing of psoas bundles was measured by equatorial x-ray diffraction studies during relaxation and after rigor induction, and the results were compared with the fiber width measurements by optical microscopy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether fiber width is a reliable measure of the lattice spacing, and to determine the available spacing for myosin cross-bridges between the thick and thin filaments. We observed that both the lattice spacing and the fiber width decreased with an increase in the dextran concentration during relaxation or after rigor induction, and that the spacing and the fiber width were proportionately related. We further observed that, in the absence of dextran, the lattice spacing (and the fiber width) shrank on a relax-to-rigor transition, whereas in the presence of 16% dextran, the spacing expanded on a relax-to-rigor transition. The cross-over of these plots occurred at the 4-7% dextran concentration. During Ca activation, the fiber width shrank in the absence of dextran, and it slightly expanded in the presence of 14.4% dextran. The degree of expansion was not as large as in the relax-to-rigor transition, and the cross-over occurred at about 11% dextran concentration. We also carried out experiments with dextran T-40 and T-10 to determine the upper limit of the molecular weight that enters the lattice space. We found that the upper limit is about 20 kD.

Kawai, M; Wray, J S; Zhao, Y

1993-01-01

229

Mapping the distributions and quantifying the labelling intensities of cell compartments by immunoelectron microscopy: progress towards a coherent set of methods.  

PubMed

An important tool in cell biology is the combination of immunogold labelling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by which target molecules (e.g. antigens) are bound specifically to affinity markers (primary antibodies) and then detected and localised with visualisation probes (e.g. colloidal gold particles bound to protein A). Gold particles are electron-dense, punctate and available in different sizes whilst TEM provides high-resolution images of particles and cell compartments. By virtue of these properties, the combination can be used also to quantify one or more defined targets in cell compartments. During the past decade, new ways of quantifying gold labelling within cells have been devised. Their efficiency and validity rely on sound principles of specimen sampling, event counting and inferential statistics. These include random selection of items at each sampling stage (e.g. specimen blocks, thin sections, microscopical fields), stereological analysis of cell ultrastructure, unbiased particle counting and statistical evaluation of a suitable null hypothesis (no difference in the intensity or pattern of labelling between compartments or groups of cells). The following approaches are possible: (i) A target molecule can be tested for preferential labelling by mapping the localisation of gold particles across a set of compartments. (ii) Data from wild-type and knockdown/knockout control cells can be used to correct raw gold particle counts, estimate specific labelling densities and then test for preferential labeling. (iii) The same antigen can be mapped in two or more groups of cells to test whether there are experimental shifts in compartment labelling patterns. (iv) A variant of this approach uses more than one size of gold particle to test whether or not different antigens colocalise in one or more compartments. (v) In studies involving antigen translocation, absolute numbers of gold particles can be mapped over compartments at specific positions within polarised, oriented or dividing cells. Here, the current state of the art is reviewed and approaches are illustrated with virtual datasets. PMID:21999926

Mayhew, Terry M

2011-10-17

230

Block Ciphers - A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give a short overview of the state of the art of secret key block ciphers. We focus on the main application\\u000a of block ciphers, namely for encryption. The most important known attacks on block ciphers are linear cryptanalysis and differential\\u000a cryptanalysis. Linear cryptanalysis makes use of so-called linear hulls i.e., the parity of a subset of

Lars R. Knudsen

1997-01-01

231

Working with Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Blocks are snippets of text or functionality that usually live outside the main content area of a web site, such as in the left\\u000a or right sidebars, in the header, in the footer, and so on. If you’ve ever logged in to a Drupal site or navigated to a Drupal\\u000a administrative interface, then you’ve used a block. Block permissions and

John K. VanDyk

232

Two Compartments for Insulin-Stimulated Exocytosis in 3t3-L1 Adipocytes Defined by Endogenous Acrp30 and Glut4  

PubMed Central

Insulin stimulates adipose cells both to secrete proteins and to translocate the GLUT4 glucose transporter from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that whereas insulin stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes has no effect on secretion of the ?3 chain of type VI collagen, secretion of the protein hormone adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kD (ACRP30) is markedly enhanced. Like GLUT4, regulated exocytosis of ACRP30 appears to require phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity, since insulin-stimulated ACRP30 secretion is blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of this enzyme. Thus, 3T3-L1 adipocytes possess a regulated secretory compartment containing ACRP30. Whether GLUT4 recycles to such a compartment has been controversial. We present deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy data demonstrating that the subcellular distributions of ACRP30 and GLUT4 are distinct and nonoverlapping; in contrast, those of GLUT4 and the transferrin receptor overlap. Together with supporting evidence that GLUT4 does not recycle to a secretory compartment via the trans-Golgi network, we conclude that there are at least two compartments that undergo insulin-stimulated exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: one for ACRP30 secretion and one for GLUT4 translocation.

Bogan, Jonathan S.; Lodish, Harvey F.

1999-01-01

233

Protein based Block Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers.

Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

234

Lean manufacturing optimization of automotive motor compartment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oshawa's Plant #2 Motor Compartment Automated Monorail System (i.e., AMS) process is currently running at only 75% of its original scheduled production capacity. This AMS process was the first one implemented in the Corporation. Since it is the bottleneck, plant personnel feel that effort must be put forth to put in place a system to increase the current uptime to

Kenneth R. Morrison

1996-01-01

235

An Experimental Investigation of Glass Breakage in Compartment Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation has been completed which examined the breaking of window glass by fire. The experiments were carried out in a compartment designed to achieve a two-layer fire environment characteristic of normal building fires. The experi mental data was collected from two test groups: the first for windows with their edges insulated from the fire (edge-protected) as occurs in

Michael J. Skelly; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

1991-01-01

236

Effort-related chronic compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.  

PubMed

Effort-related chronic compartment syndrome (ERCCS) of the lower extremity is often misdiagnosed, requiring repeated visits to the physician and subsequent delay in definitive treatment. The most significant causes of chronic leg pain in physically active individuals are stress fractures, shin splints, and "exercise-induced" or effort-related chronic compartment syndrome. In patients susceptible to ERCCS, the fascial compartments are too small to accommodate the associated 20% increase in muscle mass that typically occurs with heavy exercise. The increased pressure within a small unyielding compartment limits circulation and subsequent muscle function. The only appropriate conservative treatment is cessation of the offending activity. Early suspicion of the condition is paramount, because the definitive treatment is fasciotomy. ERCCS has only recently been recognized, and therefore it may be underdiagnosed. Family physicians and general medical officers caring for otherwise healthy soldiers and athletes should be aware of ERCCS so that prompt orthopedic referral for evaluation and definitive treatment will not be delayed. PMID:10578599

Schissel, D J; Godwin, J

1999-11-01

237

Urothelial Plaque Formation in Post-Golgi Compartments  

PubMed Central

Urothelial plaques are specialized membrane domains in urothelial superficial (umbrella) cells, composed of highly ordered uroplakin particles. We investigated membrane compartments involved in the formation of urothelial plaques in mouse umbrella cells. The Golgi apparatus did not contain uroplakins organized into plaques. In the post-Golgi region, three distinct membrane compartments containing uroplakins were characterized: i) Small rounded vesicles, located close to the Golgi apparatus, were labelled weakly with anti-uroplakin antibodies and they possessed no plaques; we termed them “uroplakin-positive transporting vesicles” (UPTVs). ii) Spherical-to-flattened vesicles, termed “immature fusiform vesicles” (iFVs), were uroplakin-positive in their central regions and contained small urothelial plaques. iii) Flattened “mature fusiform vesicles” (mFVs) contained large plaques, which were densely labelled with anti-uroplakin antibodies. Endoytotic marker horseradish peroxidase was not found in these post-Golgi compartments. We propose a detailed model of de novo urothelial plaque formation in post-Golgi compartments: UPTVs carrying individual 16-nm particles detach from the Golgi apparatus and subsequently fuse into iFV. Concentration of 16-nm particles into plaques and removal of uroplakin-negative membranes takes place in iFVs. With additional fusions and buddings, iFVs mature into mFVs, each carrying two urothelial plaques toward the apical surface of the umbrella cell.

Hudoklin, Samo; Jezernik, Kristijan; Neumuller, Josef; Pavelka, Margit; Romih, Rok

2011-01-01

238

Miniature galvanic cell construction providing gas channels between electrode compartments  

SciTech Connect

An improved miniature galvanic cell construction having a sealing gasket with channels defined through the base of the gasket. The channels provide means for the exchange of gaseous products around the cell separator and between the electrode compartments so as to reduce the overall internal pressure of the cell.

Urry, L. F.

1985-03-26

239

Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD) is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS), tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS) on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P < 0.002). Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI) analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments' variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

Rogojanu, Radu; Croitoru, Camelia; Jitaru, Daniela; Tarniceriu, Cristina; Carasevici, Eugen

2013-01-01

240

Bilateral anterior tibial compartment syndrome in association with hypothyroidism.  

PubMed Central

Local vascular and traumatic involvement are well-recognized causes of anterior tibial compartment syndrome (ATCS) terminating as myoneural ischaemia. However, in a large number of patients the cause of ATCS remains unidentified. We document the occurrence of bilateral ATCS in a patient of hypothyroidism, to our knowledge a previously unrecorded association.

Thacker, A. K.; Agrawal, D.; Sarkari, N. B.

1993-01-01

241

The anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single ladderane lipid-containing membrane. The anammox bacteria, first found in a wastewater treatment plant in The Netherlands, have the potential

Laura A. van Niftrik; John A. Fuerst; J. Gijs Kuenen; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

2004-01-01

242

Intraabdominal Compartment Syndrome Complicating Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options.

Narain, Sachin; Giquel, Jadelis; Ariza, Armando; Martinez-Ruiz, Ricardo; Kava, Bruce R.; Matadial, Christina

2012-01-01

243

Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome – a critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is increasingly recognized in critically ill patients, and the deleterious effects of increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) are well documented. Surgical decompression through a midline laparotomy or decompressive laparotomy remains the sole definite therapy for ACS, but the effect of decompressive laparotomy has not been studied in large patient series. METHODS: We reviewed English literature from

Jan J De Waele; Eric AJ Hoste; Manu LNG Malbrain

2006-01-01

244

Molecular Characterization of Human Impacted Third Molars: Diversification of Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain more insight into the development of human teeth, we characterized different compartments of impacted third molars at two developmental stages by assessing expression levels of a set of genes. We considered genes known to be essential for the development of teeth and ectomesenchyme as well as genes covering characteristic features of stemness. Molars were divided into the operculum,

B. Schoenebeck; H. J. Hartschen; M. Schindel; O. Degistirici; J. Siemonsmeier; W. Goetz; M. Thie

2009-01-01

245

Abdominal compartment syndrome in children: Experience with three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as cardiopulmonary or renal dysfunction caused by an acute increase in intraabdominal pressure. Although the condition is well described in adults, particularly trauma patients, little is known about ACS in children. Methods: Three girls, ages 4, 5, and 5 years, were treated for ACS by silo decompression. Each child presented in profound shock,

James M DeCou; Randel S Abrams; Richard S Miller; Michael W. L Gauderer

2000-01-01

246

14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1193 ...subject to flame in case of fire in the engine power section of...compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust...designated and constructed so that no fire originating in any fire...

2013-01-01

247

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes present laminin peptides in endocytic compartments.  

PubMed

Rat and Human neutrophils presented cytoplasmic vacuoles immunoreactive for laminin at the electron microscopy level. Colocalization of the anti-laminin labeling with albumin-gold complexes and alkaline phosphatase activity in rat PMN suggest an endocytic nature for this compartment. Immunoblot analysis of human normal peripheral blood neutrophils revealed the presence of two laminin peptides around 100 kDa. PMID:8630048

Vannier-Santos, M A; de Souza, S J; Brentani, R R; de Souza, W

1996-04-25

248

Digital microscopy assessment of angiogenesis in different breast cancer compartments.  

PubMed

Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD) is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS), tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS) on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P < 0.002). Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI) analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments' variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy. PMID:24073397

Haisan, Anca; Rogojanu, Radu; Croitoru, Camelia; Jitaru, Daniela; Tarniceriu, Cristina; Danciu, Mihai; Carasevici, Eugen

2013-09-01

249

Contribution of the Posterior Compartment to the Urinary Continence Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the contribution of the posterior pelvic compartment to the urethral closure mechanism.Methods: Urethral profilometry at rest and during stress was performed in 32 continent women before and after inserting a weighted (1 kg) posterior speculum to displace the posterior vaginal wall and levator ani muscles away from the bladder neck and the urethra.Results: Insertion of the speculum

Franjo Zivkovic; Karl Tamussino; Josef Haas

1998-01-01

250

Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (CS) remains problematic due to difficulty in diagnosis. Continuous measurement of intramuscular tissue oxygenation (PmO2) of the leg has been shown to be feasible in humans and highly responsive to induced comp...

H. Kim

2012-01-01

251

Intraabdominal compartment syndrome complicating transurethral resection of bladder tumor.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options. PMID:22957294

Narain, Sachin; Giquel, Jadelis; Ariza, Armando; Martinez-Ruiz, Ricardo; Kava, Bruce R; Matadial, Christina

2012-08-21

252

Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of 131I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Methods Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[CIAR]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[CIA], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC [CIAR]/AUC[CIA]). Results Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R=0.95±0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R=0.92±0.11 versus 0.77±0.21, p=0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of 131I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[CIAR]) and therapeutic ratio ([AUC[CIAR]/AUC[CIA

He, Ping; Kramer, Kim; Smith-Jones, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John; Larson, Steven M.

2011-01-01

253

14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in the passenger cabin under all probable...be seen from the cabin side of each lavatory...occupied by the crew or passengers must meet the following...1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018...etc., used in passenger or crew compartments...materials located on the cabin side of...

2009-01-01

254

14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in the passenger cabin under all probable...be seen from the cabin side of each lavatory...occupied by the crew or passengers must meet the following...1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018...etc., used in passenger or crew compartments...materials located on the cabin side of...

2010-01-01

255

Organization within the body: from molecules to body compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volumes of different compartments of body water are first considered in this article, with a description of how these can be measured by the ‘dye-dilution’ method. Then the physicochemical properties of water, inorganic ions and organic molecules are discussed in terms of the biological roles that they perform. Particular emphasis is placed on amphipathic molecules and their three-dimensional structure

Jim Waterhouse

2009-01-01

256

Organization within the body: from molecules to body compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volumes of different compartments of body water are first considered in this article, with a description of how these can be measured by the ‘dye-dilution’ method. Then the physicochemical properties of water, inorganic ions and organic molecules are discussed in terms of the biological roles that they perform. Particular emphasis is placed on amphipathic molecules and their three-dimensional structure

Jim Waterhouse

2006-01-01

257

Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

2011-01-01

258

Endocytic Recycling Compartments Altered in Cisplatin-Resistant Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utility of cisplatin to treat human malignancies is often limited by the development of drug resistance. We have previously shown that cisplatin-resistant human KB adeno- carcinoma cells that are cross-resistant to methotrexate and heavy metals have altered endocytic recycling. In this work, we tracked lipids in the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) and found that the distribution of the

Xing-Jie Liang; Sushmita Mukherjee; Ding-Wu Shen; Frederick R. Maxfield; Michael M. Gottesman

2006-01-01

259

Thermally actuated wedge block  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature. 4

Queen; C. C. Jr

1980-01-01

260

Thermally actuated wedge block  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

Queen, Jr., Charles C. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

261

Block copolymer investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time

Nataliya A. Yufa

2008-01-01

262

Gyro Sensor Block Suspension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provides a suspension mount for a gyro sensor block suspension eliminates dither cross-talk in a gyro triad having a set of common gyros with the same dither tuned suspension. A sensor block has three gyro mount locations situated such that, when attached...

A. Cangialosi

1983-01-01

263

Empirical likelihood block bootstrapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo evidence has made it clear that asymptotic tests based on generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation have disappointing size. The problem is exacerbated when the moment conditions are serially correlated. Several block bootstrap techniques have been proposed to correct the problem, including Hall and Horowitz (1996) and Inoue and Shintani (2006). We propose an empirical likelihood block bootstrap

Jason Allen; Allan W. Gregory; Katsumi Shimotsu

2011-01-01

264

Synchronized Retrovirus Fusion in Cells Expressing Alternative Receptor Isoforms Releases the Viral Core into Distinct Sub-cellular Compartments  

PubMed Central

Disparate enveloped viruses initiate infection by fusing with endosomes. However, the highly diverse and dynamic nature of endosomes impairs mechanistic studies of fusion and identification of sub-cellular sites supporting the nucleocapsid release. We took advantage of the extreme stability of avian retrovirus-receptor complexes at neutral pH and of acid-dependence of virus-endosome fusion to isolate the latter step from preceding asynchronous internalization/trafficking steps. Viruses were trapped within endosomes in the presence of NH4Cl. Removal of NH4Cl resulted in a quick and uniform acidification of all subcellular compartments, thereby initiating synchronous viral fusion. Single virus imaging demonstrated that fusion was initiated within seconds after acidification and often culminated in the release of the viral core from an endosome. Comparative studies of cells expressing either the transmembrane or GPI-anchored receptor isoform revealed that the transmembrane receptor delivered the virus to more fusion-permissive compartments. Thus the identity of endosomal compartments, in addition to their acidity, appears to modulate viral fusion. A more striking manifestation of the virus delivery to distinct compartments in the presence of NH4Cl was the viral core release into the cytosol of cells expressing the transmembrane receptor and into endosomes of cells expressing the GPI-anchored isoform. In the latter cells, the newly released cores exhibited restricted mobility and were exposed to a more acidic environment than the cytoplasm. These cores appear to enter into the cytosol after an additional slow temperature-dependent step. We conclude that the NH4Cl block traps the virus within intralumenal vesicles of late endosomes in cells expressing the GPI-anchored receptor. Viruses surrounded by more than one endosomal membrane release their core into the cytoplasm in two steps – fusion with an intralumenal vesicle followed by a yet unknown temperature-dependent step that liberates the core from late endosomes.

Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Marin, Mariana; Kondo, Naoyuki; Melikyan, Gregory B.

2012-01-01

265

Cross-Bridge Attachment during High-Speed Active Shortening of Skinned Fibers of the Rabbit Psoas Muscle: Implications for Cross-Bridge Action during Maximum Velocity of Filament Sliding  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the kinetics of cross-bridge attachment to actin during unloaded contraction (maximum velocity of filament sliding), ramp-shaped stretches with different stretch-velocities (2–40,000nm per half-sarcomere per s) were applied to actively contracting skinned fibers of the rabbit psoas muscle. Apparent fiber stiffness observed during such stretches was plotted versus the speed of the imposed stretch (stiffness-speed relation) to derive the

R. Stehle; B. Brenner

2000-01-01

266

Diffraction Between Wax Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners explore diffraction by adding wax blocks to a ripple tank. The wedge-shaped blocks act as obstacles that the wave must bend around. Learners will observe this phenomenon as well as the semicircular waves that emerge from the narrow opening between the blocks. Learners experiment by changing the size of the opening and seeing what effect it has on the emerging waves. This activity is recommended as a follow-up to "The Ripple Tank" activity and can be supplemented by the "Interference in a Ripple Tank" activity (see related resources).

Cobb, Vicki; Cobb, Josh

2008-01-01

267

Experimental study on elevated fires in a ceiling vented compartment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of elevation on fires in a ceiling vented compartment were investigated experimentally. The flame behavior of elevated fires was recorded. Various parameters including the fuel mass loss rate, the light extinction coefficient, the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature were measured. Results indicated that the variations of the flame behavior were consistent with that of the fuel mass loss rate. The fire location significantly impacted the light extinction coefficient, the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature, which all showed distinct stratification phenomena. For a higher elevated fire, the average fuel loss rate and the overall light extinction coefficient were smaller, the oxygen concentration was higher and the gas temperature was lower. In addition, the smoke descending was slower. From the perspective of those parameters the fire was less hazardous if the fire was elevated higher, which was totally different from the elevated fires in closed compartments.

Zhang, Jiaqing; Lu, Shouxiang; Li, Qiang; Li, Changhai; Yuan, Man; Yuen, Richard

2013-08-01

268

[Abdominal compartment syndrome and acute intestinal distress syndrome].  

PubMed

Seriously ill patients frequently present intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) as complications, and the associated mortality is very high. This review offers an update on the most controversial aspects of these entities: factors favoring their appearance, the most common causes, prognosis, and methods of measuring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), physiopathological consequences in relation to the different organs and systems, and the currently accepted treatment measures (medical and/or surgical). Simultaneously to the strictly physical mechanisms of injury, such as direct compression of intra-abdominal organs and vessels, the transmission of IAP to other compartments, and the drop in cardiac output, a series of immune-inflammatory mediators generated in the intestine itself may also intervene. Hypoperfusion, sustained ischemia and the ischemia-reperfusion phenomenon, would act upon the microbiota, intestinal epithelium and intestinal immune system, triggering a systemic inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction that appears in the final stages of ACS. PMID:22244213

Sánchez-Miralles, A; Castellanos, G; Badenes, R; Conejero, R

2012-01-11

269

p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation  

SciTech Connect

The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

Dobbelstein, Matthias [Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 25, 5000 Odense C (Denmark); Strano, Sabrina [Department of Experimental Oncology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Via delle Messi d'oro, 156, 00158 Rome (Italy); Roth, Judith [Abteilung Gastroenterologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Blandino, Giovanni [Department of Experimental Oncology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Via delle Messi d'oro, 156, 00158 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

2005-06-10

270

Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb. This study compared foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) using a range of clinical foot measures. The reliability of the foot measures was also assessed. Methods The foot posture of 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA predominantly in the medial compartment of the knee and 28 asymptomatic age-matched healthy controls was investigated using the foot posture index (FPI), vertical navicular height and drop, and the arch index. Independent t tests and effect size (Cohen's d) were used to investigate the differences between the groups in the foot posture measurements. Results Significant differences were found between the control and the knee OA groups in relation to the FPI (1.35 ± 1.43 vs. 2.46 ± 2.18, p = 0.02; d = 0.61, medium effect size), navicular drop (0.02 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.01; d = 1.02, large effect size) and the arch index (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04, p = 0.04; d = 1.02, large effect size). No significant difference was found for vertical navicular height (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03, p = 0.54; d = 0.04, negligible effect size). Conclusion People with medial compartment knee OA exhibit a more pronated foot type compared to controls. It is therefore recommended that the assessment of patients with knee OA in clinical practice should include simple foot measures, and that the potential influence of foot structure and function on the efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of medial compartment knee OA be further investigated.

2010-01-01

271

Selecting a method for sealing riveted joints in fuel compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of obtaining sealed riveted joints while reducing the use of sealing compounds is discussed. In particular, attention is given to the method of increasing the radial interference during the installation of the rivets. It is shown that, in aluminum alloy structures, sealed joints can be obtained by producing residual compressive stresses that are a factor of 1.8-2 higher than those typically present in conventional riveted joints. Several different geometries of sealed riveted joints for fuel compartments are examined.

Kondrashov, V. Z.

272

Acute anterior compartment syndrome associated with psychogenic polydipsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the association of psychogenic polydipsia with anterior compartment syndrome.Method: Case report.Results: A 31-year-old man with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency had a history of paranoid schizophrenia from age 16 complicated by the use of drugs. Four years after the initial diagnosis of schizophrenia, he developed psychogenic polydipsia. This was complicated by episodic severe

Licia Maiocchi; Elsa Bernardi

2012-01-01

273

Compartment A19, paint & oils locker from bulkhead #9 aft ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-19, paint & oils locker from bulkhead #9 aft to forward; wood storage shelves at center of photograph are for storing containers. Sea valve at lower right is on the starboard side. This would be opened if it was necessary to scuttle the vessel. Heavy frame marked "A-2" supports armored protective deck. (03) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

274

Nonoperative Management of Intraabdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have detrimental effects on all organ systems and\\u000a are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In recent years, the diagnosis and management of these syndromes\\u000a has evolved tremendously, and the importance of comprehensive strategies to reduce intraabdominal pressure (IAP) has been\\u000a recognized. All clinicians should be aware of the risk factors that

Michael L. Cheatham

2009-01-01

275

Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2011-03-01

276

A reduced model of pulsatile flow in an arterial compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we propose a reduced model of the input-output behaviour of an arterial compartment, including the short systolic phase where wave phenomena are predominant. The objective is to provide basis for model-based signal processing methods for the estimation from non-invasive measurements and the interpretation of the characteristics of these waves. Due to phenomena such that peaking and steepening,

Emmanuelle Crepeau; Michel Sorine

2006-01-01

277

Blocked tear duct  

MedlinePLUS

... is blocked, the tears will build up and overflow onto the cheek, even when you are not ... The symptom is increased tearing , which overflows onto the face or ... during the first 2 - 3 weeks after birth. Sometimes, the tears ...

278

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. 58.16-20...AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a)...

2012-10-01

279

Oevertrycksventilation i Medelstora Lokaler: Foersoek med Mobila Flaektar (Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) in Medium Sized Compartments).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were carried out in a large compartment using Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV). The PPV is used by the fire brigade as a supplementary equipment when fighting ordinary compartment fires. The increased use of PPV has opened the possibility t...

H. Ingason R. Fallberg

1998-01-01

280

Non-Evacuation in Compartmented Fire Resistive Buildings Can Save Lives and It Makes Sense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compartmented fire resistive buildings are used for hotels, motels, apartments, condominiums, dormitories, hospitals, and other health care facilities. Several fires in compartmented fire resistive buildings were reviewed. Not all of those that were revie...

J. N. Macdonald

1985-01-01

281

Engine cylinder block reinforcing structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engine cylinder block structure is described comprising: a cylinder block integrally formed to include skirts projecting downwardly from both sides of a lower surface of the cylinder block; an oil pan attached to lower surfaces of both skirts of the cylinder block for receiving engine oil used inside the cylinder block, the oil pan having a deep first portion

F. Ishimura; H. Kagaya; K. Nishimura; T. Teramoto

1988-01-01

282

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2010-07-01

283

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2013-07-01

284

31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2013-07-01

285

31 CFR 546.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2013-07-01

286

Wound Complications Following Resection of Adductor Compartment Tumours  

PubMed Central

Purpose Limb salvage surgery of soft tissue sarcomas is associated with both a risk of local recurrence and wound complications. Although the lower limb appears to be at greater risk of wound-related morbidity, few studies separate anatomical compartments. We believe that the adductor compartment of the thigh has a particularly high rate of complications and so performed a retrospective analysis of all soft tissue sarcomas arising in this region undergoing limb salvage. Patients Patients with intermediate and high grade adductor compartment tumours were identified from our database and the case notes were reviewed for patient, tumour, surgical and wound variables, identifying those with wound complications both before and after discharge. Results Of 49 patients who underwent limb salvage surgery, 22 (42.9%) developed complications. Twelve patients (24.5%) required further surgery prior to wound healing and 10 patients had delays in post-operative radiotherapy. There were significant differences in the rates of preceding surgery, open biopsy performed at other centres and previous radiotherapy to this region between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Discussion The management of these difficult tumours carries a high rate of wound complications and requires careful planning prior to tissue biopsy. Open biopsies should be performed by the tumour surgeon to allow easy inclusion of this site in the definitive procedure. In previously irradiated or operated limbs, alternative strategies for wound management may need to be considered.

Grimer, Robert J.; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.

2001-01-01

287

Engineered Protein Nano-Compartments for Targeted Enzyme Localization  

PubMed Central

Compartmentalized co-localization of enzymes and their substrates represents an attractive approach for multi-enzymatic synthesis in engineered cells and biocatalysis. Sequestration of enzymes and substrates would greatly increase reaction efficiency while also protecting engineered host cells from potentially toxic reaction intermediates. Several bacteria form protein-based polyhedral microcompartments which sequester functionally related enzymes and regulate their access to substrates and other small metabolites. Such bacterial microcompartments may be engineered into protein-based nano-bioreactors, provided that they can be assembled in a non-native host cell, and that heterologous enzymes and substrates can be targeted into the engineered compartments. Here, we report that recombinant expression of Salmonella enterica ethanolamine utilization (eut) bacterial microcompartment shell proteins in E. coli results in the formation of polyhedral protein shells. Purified recombinant shells are morphologically similar to the native Eut microcompartments purified from S. enterica. Surprisingly, recombinant expression of only one of the shell proteins (EutS) is sufficient and necessary for creating properly delimited compartments. Co-expression with EutS also facilitates the encapsulation of EGFP fused with a putative Eut shell-targeting signal sequence. We also demonstrate the functional localization of a heterologous enzyme (?-galactosidase) targeted to the recombinant shells. Together our results provide proof-of-concept for the engineering of protein nano-compartments for biosynthesis and biocatalysis.

Choudhary, Swati; Quin, Maureen B.; Sanders, Mark A.; Johnson, Ethan T.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

2012-01-01

288

Shapes of Discoid Intracellular Compartments with Small Relative Volumes  

PubMed Central

A prominent feature of many intracellular compartments is a large membrane surface area relative to their luminal volume, i.e., the small relative volume. In this study we present a theoretical analysis of discoid membrane compartments with a small relative volume and then compare the theoretical results to quantitative morphological assessment of fusiform vesicles in urinary bladder umbrella cells. Specifically, we employ three established extensions of the standard approach to lipid membrane shape calculation and determine the shapes that could be expected according to three scenarios of membrane shaping: membrane adhesion in the central discoid part, curvature driven lateral segregation of membrane constituents, and existence of stiffer membrane regions, e.g., support by protein scaffolds. The main characteristics of each scenario are analyzed. The results indicate that even though all three scenarios can lead to similar shapes, there are values of model parameters that yield qualitatively distinctive shapes. Consequently, a distinctive shape of an intracellular compartment may reveal its membrane shaping mechanism and the membrane structure. The observed shapes of fusiform vesicles fall into two qualitatively different classes, yet they are all consistent with the theoretical results and the current understanding of their structure and function.

Derganc, Jure; Bozic, Bojan; Romih, Rok

2011-01-01

289

Dynamics of Block Copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Block copolymers are a scientifically fascinating and technologically promising class of macromolecular surfactants. Thermodynamic\\u000a interactions between the normally immiscible blocks induce microphase separation into a variety of ordered phases (lamellae,\\u000a hexagonal cylinders, cubic arrays of spheres, etc.), depending on temperature and composition. The resulting materials thus\\u000a combine properties of both components, with predictable microstructures on the 10–100 nm lengthscale. In

Tim Lodge

290

A Traceable Block Cipher  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper1 we propose a new symmetric block cipher with the following paradoxical traceability properties: it is computationally easy to derive many equivalent secret keys providing distinct descrip- tions of the same instance of the block cipher. But it is computationally di-cult, given one or even up to k equivalent keys, to recover the so called meta-key from which

Olivier Billet; Henri Gilbert

2003-01-01

291

Related Drupal Nodes Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Related Drupal Nodes Block\\u000aThis module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks.\\u000a1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Indexing is performaned each Cron job and uses the text found

Wim Van der Vegt

2010-01-01

292

[Obturator nerve block].  

PubMed

Obturator nerve block is commonly used for transurethral resections of the bladder in order to inhibit reflectory adductor muscle reaction during electrocoagulation and to reduce the risk of bladder wall perforation during transurethral surgery. Furthermore, obturator block is used to complete regional blocks for major knee surgery in addition to femoral and sciatic nerve blocks. Continuous techniques are sometimes used to treat chronic pain problems such as adductor spasm. During a so called "3 in 1" block (femoral nerve block) the obturator nerve will only be anaesthetized in 0-62% of the patients. Therefore, a specific approach to the obturator nerve is deemed appropriate. In addition, an accessory branch of the obturator nerve will accompany the femoral nerve in 10-30% of the patients. The classical approach uses the tuberculum pubicum as an anatomical landmark, inserting the needle approximately 1.5cm lateral and caudal until bone contact is established. After laterocaudal redirection the canalis obturatorius is reached and the local anaesthetic is injected. The alternative approach is more often used: At the proximal tendon insertion of the adductor longus muscle the needle is introduced and advanced towards the anterior superior iliac spine. For both approaches a nerve stimulator is used and 15-20ml of local anaesthetic solution are injected. PMID:20455186

Freisburger, Christian; Nachtigall, Bernd; Wulf, Hinnerk

2010-05-07

293

Murine Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation Induces Type I Interferon Responses from Endolysosomal Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are among the first-line sentinels for immune detection and responsiveness to pathogens. The TLR2 subfamily of TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR6) form heterodimers with each other and are thus able to recognize a broad range of components from several microbes such as yeast, Gram-positive bacteria and protozoa. Until now, TLR2 activation by bacterial ligands has long been associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines but not type I interferon responses. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a variety of transgenic mice, here we provide in vivo and in vitro data showing that TLR2 activation does in fact induce interferon-beta and that this occurs via MyD88-IRF1 and -IRF7 pathways. Interestingly, by microscopy we demonstrate that although a cell surface receptor, TLR2 dependent induction of type I interferons occurs in endolysosomal compartments where it is translocated to upon ligand engagement. Furthermore, we could show that blocking receptor internalization or endolysosomal acidification inhibits the ability of TLR2 to trigger the induction type I interferon but not pro-inflammatory responses. Conclusion/Significance The results indicate that TLR2 activation induces pro-inflammatory and type I interferon responses from distinct subcellular sites: the plasma membrane and endolysosomal compartments respectively. Apart from identifying and characterizing a novel pathway for induction of type I interferons, the present study offers new insights into how TLR signaling discriminates and regulates the nature of responses to be elicited against extracellular and endocytosed microbes. These findings may also have clinical implication. Excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs following activation of TLRs is a central pathologic event in several hyper-inflammatory conditions. The discovery that the induction of pro-inflammatory and type I IFN responses can be uncoupled through pharmacological manipulation of endolysosomal acidification suggests new avenues for potential therapeutic intervention against inflammations and sepsis.

Dietrich, Nicole; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Gekara, Nelson O.

2010-01-01

294

The osmotically sensitive potassium and sodium compartments of synaptosomes  

PubMed Central

1. Synaptosomes are pinched-off nerve terminals whose components can be liberated by osmotic `shock'. A synaptosome preparation run through a Sephadex column that was eluted with an iso-osmotic solution retained its small ions, whereas when the column was eluted hypo-osmotically the small ions were lost. In this way the osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ of synaptosomes were measured. Measurements of the lactate dehydrogenase occluded within the synaptosome were also made. The release of osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase had similar characteristics with respect to the degree of osmotic `shock' necessary and the action of lytic agents. 2. The distribution of osmotically sensitive Na+, K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase in the subfractions of a crude mitochondrial preparation was examined. The synaptosome fraction was the richest source of these constituents. 3. On standing at 5° in iso-osmotic solution Na+ and K+ were lost from synaptosomes, whereas the amount of occluded lactate dehydrogenase remained stable, suggesting that the synaptosome membrane retained its integrity but that Na+ and K+ diffused through it out of the osmotically sensitive compartment. 4. The uptake of Na+ and K+ into the osmotically sensitive compartment was examined. At 5° the rates of uptake of Na+ and K+ were found to be equal to the rates of loss of these ions when correction to a uniform concentration gradient had been made. K+ travelled across the membrane slightly faster than Na+, the rate of K+ movement being about 1·0??equiv.cm.?2sec.?1 under a concentration gradient of 0·1m. Active transport is not thought to contribute to the ion movements under the conditions used. 5. The amount of K+ taken up into the osmotically sensitive compartment as a function of the external concentration was examined. Since the uncharged molecule d-[14C]galactose distributes across the synaptosome membrane similarly to K+ there is not thought to be a synaptosomal trans-membrane potential. The volume of the osmotically sensitive compartment was measured by this method and found to agree with estimates of the synaptosomal volume made from morphological studies. In media of low ionic strength synaptosomes exhibit a Donnan effect. 6. It is concluded from these studies that the osmotically sensitive compartment represents the inner volume of the synaptosome, which is completely separated from the outside environment by a diffusion barrier having many of the general properties of a biological membrane.

Marchbanks, R. M.

1967-01-01

295

Compartment model structure identification with qualitative methods for a stirred vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving process design, process optimization, safety analysis and other problems widely relies on mathematical models of the process. To solve problems related to mixing, detailed models such as compartment models or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are required. Compartment modelling generally uses four basic compartments: the mixer (M), the distributor (D), the perfectly mixed reactor and the ideal plug flow

Attila Egedy; Tamás Varga; Tibor Chován

2012-01-01

296

Do cows prefer a barn compartment with a grooved or slotted floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cow preferences for one of two compartments with different floors were tested in a barn with two symmetrical, connected compartments, each intended for 16 cows. Compartments were identical except for the floor. One floor was grooved longitudinally to the feeding barrier and the other was slotted perpendicular to that barrier. Sixteen pregnant, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were used. After 14 d

J. Stefanowska; D. Swierstra; J. V. van den Berg; J. H. M. Metz

2002-01-01

297

Growing Up with Their Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes one teacher's use of traditional wooden blocks in fifth-grade curriculum. Notes that use of blocks can teach communication, teamwork, precision, and arithmetic concepts. Also describes four easy classroom block projects. (TM)|

Winarski, Diana L.

1995-01-01

298

Multigeometry nanoparticles and higher-order assemblies from block copolymer blends via kinetic control and chemical modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multigeometry micellar structures, due to segregation of unlike hydrophobic domains trapped within the same micelle core, have been produced via self-assembly of block copolymer mixtures in tetrahydrofuran/water solution. The mixture is composed of two block copolymers with distinctive hydrophobic blocks but the same poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrophilic block. By taking advantage of the complexation in the hydrophilic corona between the acid side chains of the PAA block and added organoamine molecules, unlike hydrophobic blocks can be trapped in the same micelle core. Locally, the unlike hydrophobic blocks can segregate into compartments and even express different interfacial curvatures, or geometries, within the same nanoparticle. Through controlled kinetic pathways, block copolymer design and mixing ratios, both micelle compartment size and shape can be controlled to generate sphere-sphere, sphere-cylinder, cylinder-cylinder, cylinder-bilayer, and bilayer-bilayer blended multigeometry nanoparticles. Furthermore, higher order assembly behavior of the micelles has been investigated by taking advantage of chemical modification on the hydrophilic PAA shells. New mixtures using functionalized-PAA-containing block copolymers produce nanoparticles with a compartmentalized surface. These patchy surfaces can be used as templates for asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles, but also as building blocks for hierarchical assembly of the nanoparticles to produce one-dimensional arrays or three dimensional networks.

Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Shiyi; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

2012-02-01

299

Block copolymer nanocontainers.  

PubMed

Using cell dynamics computer simulation, we perform a systematic study of thin block copolymer films around a nanoparticle. Lamellar-, cylinder-, and sphere-forming block copolymers are investigated with respect to different film thicknesses, particle radii, and boundary conditions at the film interfaces. The obtained structures include standing lamellae and cylinders, "onions", cylinder "knitting balls", "golf ball", layered spherical, "virus"-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects. The kinetics of the structure formation and difference with planar thin films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nanocontainers can be formed by the coating of a sacrificial nanobead by a block copolymer layer with a well-controlled nanostructure. In addition, first scanning force microscopy experiments on a model system reveal surface structures similar to those predicted by our simulations. PMID:20496954

Pinna, Marco; Hiltl, Stephanie; Guo, Xiaohu; Böker, Alexander; Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

2010-05-25

300

compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual computer model has been constructed to simulate the compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. The model accounts for flow and transport in the variably saturated porous medium as well as biogeochemical change reactions. The most concentrated contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons and dissolved as well as mineral phase electron acceptors are considered. Also of major interest are reduced species with high oxygen demand such as ammonium. The influence of marsh plants on microbial activity, gas transport, water balance and contaminant fate in general is matter of current investigation. The constructed wetlands consist of a coarse sand or fine gravel porous medium. Marsh plants were introduced after installation, however, a number of control basins are operated unplanted. Water levels and through flow rates are adjusted to optimize the remediation efficiency. The system is likely to be neither reaction nor mixing limited, thus both, values of dispersivity and degradation kinetics may be crucial for remediation efficiency. Biogeochemical modelling is able to delineate in detail (i) the zonation of processes, (ii) temporal variation (breakthrough curves) and (iii) mass balance information. The contributions of biodegradation and volatilisation and the influence of plants (compartment transfer) can generally best be evaluated by the component's mass balance. More efficient mixing is expected in the wetlands with open water body which leads to both, more biodegradation and volatilisation. An important task is to quantify the role of plants and root systems for contaminant attenuation in constructed wetlands. The long term goal of investigation is to allow for predictions for the design of large scale compartment transfer wetlands that may be applied to remediate the site as a whole.

Maier, Uli; Oswald, Sascha; Thullner, Martin; Grathwohl, Peter

2010-05-01

301

Molecular Targeting of Intracellular Compartments Specifically in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

We have implemented a strategy in which a genetically engineered, single-chain protein specifically recognizes cancer cells and is trafficked to a targeted subcellular compartment, such as the nucleus. The recombinant protein termed IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS has a triple functional property: (1) it binds a cancer-associated receptor, interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13R?2), using modified IL-13 ligand, IL-13.E13K; (2) it exports its C-terminal portion out of the endosomal compartment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) translocation domain (D2); and (3) it travels to and accumulates in the nucleus guided by the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Here, we have demonstrated that this protein is transported into the brain tumor cells’ nucleus, using 3 different methods of protein conjugation to dyes for the purpose of direct visualization of the protein’s intracellular trafficking. IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS, and not the controls such as IL-13.E13K-D2, IL-13.E13K-NLS, or IL-13.E13K, accumulated in nuclei very efficiently, which increased with the time the cells were exposed to the protein. Also, IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS did not exhibit nuclear transport in cells with low expression levels of IL-13R?2. Thus, it is possible to recognize cancer cells through their specific receptors and deliver a conjugated protein that travels specifically to the nucleus. Hence, our molecular targeting strategy succeeded in generating a single-chain proteinaceous agent capable of delivering drugs/labels needed to be localized to the cells’ nuclei or potentially any other subcellular compartment, for their optimal efficacy or ability to exert their specific action.

Pandya, Hetal; Gibo, Denise M.; Debinski, Waldemar

2010-01-01

302

Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.  

PubMed

Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30?wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

2011-01-27

303

Blocks and Screws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, each student is given a block of wood and a screw (or nail), and is asked to put the screw into the block, without any tool (like a screwdriver or hammer). Their efforts, with varying success, lead to a discussion of contrivances, using various items and strategies as make-do (contrived) tools for which they were not intended, and an exploration of many examples of contrivances or adaptive compromises and other imperfections in the living world, especially in humans. This situation may be better explained by evolution rather than the result of intelligent design.

Patterson, Tim

304

Surgical management of abdominal compartment syndrome; indications and techniques  

PubMed Central

The indications for surgical decompression of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are not clearly defined, but undoubtedly some patients benefit from it. In patients without recent abdominal incisions, it can be achieved with full-thickness laparostomy (either midline, or transverse subcostal) or through a subcutaneous linea alba fasciotomy. In spite of the improvement in physiological variables and significant decrease in IAP, however, the effects of surgical decompression on organ function and outcome are less clear. Because of the significant morbidity associated with surgical decompression and the management of the ensuing open abdomen, more research is needed to better define the appropriate indications and techniques for surgical intervention.

Leppaniemi, Ari

2009-01-01

305

[Case of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) associated with perforating appendicitis].  

PubMed

A 4-year-old girl with perforating appendicitis developed abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Appendicitis in children of preschool age is highly likely to rupture, resulting in serious condition. Although we gave priority to systemic management in this ACS case since the child showed disturbed consciousness due to intracranial hypertension as well as hypercytokinemic encephalopathy. However, we should have performed abdominal decompression by laparotomy early. ACS causes progressive multiple organ failure through compromising the respiratory and circulatory systems and injuring multiple organs, leading to generalized inflammatory reactions. We should, therefore, manage ACS patients systemically sharing a notion that they must be treated early with abdominal decompression by laparotomy. PMID:22991820

Ando, Yumi; Sakamoto, Miki; Yokozuka, Makito; Takabayashi, Reina; Tateda, Takeshi

2012-08-01

306

The Golgi apparatus: roles for distinct 'cis' and 'trans' compartments.  

PubMed

The Golgi apparatus seems to consist of distinct cis and trans compartments that are proposed to act sequentially to refine the protein export of the endoplasmic reticulum by removing escaped endoplasmic reticulum proteins. Refinement may be a multi-stage process that employs a principle akin to fractional distillation; the stack of cisternae comprising the cis Golgi may be the plates in this distillation tower. The trans Golgi, consisting of the last one or two cisternae, may be the receiver that collects from the cis Golgi only its most refined fraction for later distribution to specific locations throughout the cell. PMID:6295718

Rothman, J E

1982-01-01

307

Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01

308

Abdominal compartment syndrome following opioid-induced postoperative ileus.  

PubMed

A 35 year old woman, 6 days after ileal neobladder construction, reported uncontrolled pain despite 33 mg hydromorphone via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected based on worsening tachypnea, oxygen desaturation, and severe, prolonged ileus. Following emergent intubation, peak airway and bladder pressures were elevated. After nasogastric decompression, they returned to normal. Continuous ketamine infusion was used for opioid resensitization and the patient was extubated following return of bowel function. Opioid use contributed to the ileus, caused gastric distension, and displaced the diaphragm cephalad. The patient interpreted the subsequent dyspnea as pain and increased PCA opioid use, thereby worsening the ileus. PMID:23333788

Van Noord, Brandon A; Roffey, Peter; Thangathurai, Durai

2013-01-17

309

[Compartment syndrome in parenteral drug addicts: report of 2 cases].  

PubMed

Two cases of multiple compartment syndrome in two male patients with history of drug and alcohol abuse are here reported. The clinical picture, course, therapy and sequelae are described and a special emphasis is placed on triggering causes. Given the increasing number of patients presenting to the Emergency Departments with history of overdose and in comatose status, an early clinical suspicion of these pictures is worth noting to avoid severe sequelae which, if not treated early, are irreversible and lead to permanent disability. PMID:10230294

Lión Vázquez, S; Castiella Muruzábal, S

1999-03-01

310

Lysosome-related organelles: unusual compartments become mainstream.  

PubMed

Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) comprise a group of cell type-specific subcellular compartments with unique composition, morphology and structure that share some features with endosomes and lysosomes and that function in varied processes such as pigmentation, hemostasis, lung plasticity and immunity. In recent years, studies of genetic diseases in which LRO functions are compromised have provided new insights into the mechanisms of LRO biogenesis and the regulated secretion of LRO contents. These insights have revealed previously unappreciated specialized endosomal sorting processes in all cell types, and are expanding our views of the plasticity of the endosomal and secretory systems in adapting to cell type-specific needs. PMID:23726022

Marks, Michael S; Heijnen, Harry F G; Raposo, Graça

2013-05-29

311

The transition zone: an essential functional compartment of cilia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of the primary cilium have begun to provide further insights into ciliary ultrastructure, with an emerging picture of complex compartmentalization and molecular components that combine in functional modules. Many proteins that are mutated in ciliopathies are localized to the transition zone, a compartment of the proximal region of the cilium. The loss of these components can disrupt ciliary functions such as the control of protein entry and exit from the cilium, the possible trafficking of essential ciliary components, and the regulation of signaling cascades and control of the cell cycle. The discovery of functional modules within the primary cilium may help in understanding the variable phenotypes and pleiotropy in ciliopathies.

2012-01-01

312

A Place for Block Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

Moore, Gary T.

1997-01-01

313

Flattening basic blocks.  

SciTech Connect

The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

2006-01-01

314

Unitizing with Pattern Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students develop fraction sense by arranging pattern blocks to explore unitizing. Then they can see their correct answer tessellate. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

315

block copolymer - lamellae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A system of 800 building blocks of composition A5B5 at a concentration of 0.85, was run starting at a temperature of infinity then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of chiN = =52.7. The system was then run for ~10^6 time steps forming a sheet (lamella) phase.

Horsch, Mark

2004-11-22

316

Hierarchical Hybrid Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagram languages are now commonly used to design and even implement embedded systems. In the design phase, they are used to model both plant and controller, typically with continuous and discrete modeling respectively. The semantics of these lan- guages are often vague and\\/or complex, which is fine for some users but leaves others puzzled by the behav- iors they

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

317

Transmission blocking malaria vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission blocking vaccines (TBVs) against malaria are intended to induce immunity against the stages of the parasites which infect mosquitoes so that TBV-immunised individuals cannot transmit malaria. As malarial infections are transmitted mainly within a few hundreds of meters from an infectious human source, TBVs used within in a community would protect the immediate neighbourhood of the vaccinated individuals. TBVs

Richard Carter

2001-01-01

318

Blocked Tear Duct  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer treatment. If you've had radiation or chemotherapy to treat cancer, particularly if the radiation was focused on your face or head, you're at higher risk of developing a blocked tear duct. Complications Because your tears aren't draining the way ...

319

Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

320

Characterization of an apical ceramide-enriched compartment regulating ciliogenesis  

PubMed Central

We show that in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, an apical ceramide-enriched compartment (ACEC) at the base of primary cilia is colocalized with Rab11a. Ceramide and Rab11a vesicles isolated by magnetic sorting contain a highly similar profile of proteins (atypical protein kinase C [aPKC], Cdc42, Sec8, Rab11a, and Rab8) and ceramide species, suggesting the presence of a ciliogenic protein complex associated with ceramide at the ACEC. It is intriguing that C16 and C18 ceramide, although less abundant ceramide species in MDCK cells, are highly enriched in ceramide and Rab11a vesicles. Expression of a ceramide-binding but dominant-negative mutant of aPKC suppresses ciliogenesis, indicating that the association of ceramide with aPKC is critical for the formation of this complex. Our results indicate that ciliogenic ceramide is derived from apical sphingomyelin (SM) that is endocytosed and then converted to the ACEC. Consistently, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase with imipramine disrupts ACEC formation, association of ciliogenic proteins with Rab11a vesicles, and cilium formation. Ciliogenesis is rescued by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating that ceramide promotes tubulin acetylation in cilia. Taken together, our results suggest that the ACEC is a novel compartment in which SM-derived ceramide induces formation of a ciliogenic lipid–protein complex that sustains primary cilia by preventing deacetylation of microtubules.

He, Qian; Wang, Guanghu; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Dinkins, Michael; Zhu, Gu; Bieberich, Erhard

2012-01-01

321

Cortical alveoli of Paramecium: a vast submembranous calcium storage compartment  

PubMed Central

The plasma membrane of Paramecium is underlain by a continuous layer of membrane vesicles known as cortical alveoli, whose function was unknown but whose organization had suggested some resemblance with muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The occurrence of antimonate precipitates within the alveoli first indicated to us that they may indeed correspond to a vast calcium storage site. To analyze the possible involvement of this compartment in calcium sequestration more directly, we have developed a new fractionation method, involving a Percoll gradient, that allows rapid purification of the surface layer (cortex) of Paramecium in good yield and purity and in which the alveoli retain their in vivo topological orientation. This fraction pumped calcium very actively in a closed membrane compartment, with strict dependence on ATP and Mg2+. The pumping activity was affected by anti-calmodulin drugs but no Triton-soluble calmodulin binding protein could be identified, using gel overlay procedures. The high affinity of the pump for calcium (Km = 0.5 microM) suggests that it plays an important role in the normal physiological environment of the cytosol. This may be related to at least three calcium-regulated processes that take place in the immediate vicinity of alveoli: trichocyst exocytosis, ciliary beating and cytoskeletal elements dynamics during division.

1991-01-01

322

Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells. PMID:22100646

Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E; Santorelli, Filippo M; Simonati, Alessandro

2011-11-11

323

Micro-compartment specific T2* relaxation in the brain.  

PubMed

MRI at high field can be sensitized to the magnetic properties of tissues, which introduces a signal dependence on the orientation of white matter (WM) fiber bundles relative to the magnetic field. In addition, study of the NMR relaxation properties of this signal has indicated contributions from compartmentalized water environments inside and outside the myelin sheath that may be separable. Here we further investigated the effects of water compartmentalization on the MRI signal with the goal of extracting compartment-specific information. By comparing MRI measurements of human and marmoset brain at 7T with magnetic field modeling, we show that: (1) water between the myelin lipid bilayers, in the axonal, and in the interstitial space each experience characteristic magnetic field effects that depend on fiber orientation (2) these field effects result in characteristic relaxation properties and frequency shifts for these compartments; and (3) compartmental contributions may be separated by multi-component fitting of the MRI signal relaxation (i.e. decay) curve. We further show the potential application of these findings to the direct mapping of myelin content and assessment of WM fiber integrity with high field MRI. PMID:23528924

Sati, Pascal; van Gelderen, Peter; Silva, Afonso C; Reich, Daniel S; Merkle, Hellmut; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

2013-03-22

324

Human striatal dopamine receptors are organized in compartments  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine (D2) receptors visualized in postmortem human striatum by quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding are organized into circumscribed zones of low receptor density separated from other such zones by regions of higher D2 density. The D2-rich zones of the caudate nucleus and putamen contain twice the binding of D2-poor zones. The Hill coefficient, obtained from saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding to thin sections of human striatum, gave a value near unity, indicating the binding was occurring to a single type of site. The patchiness of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding was unaltered by postincubation removal of lipid from the tissue sections, indicating that a differential absorption of tritium in white and grey matter does not account for the heterogeneous distribution. The D2-rich and D2-poor regions appear to form labyrinths oriented in the anterior-posterior axis and are typically aligned with, respectively, acetylcholinesterase-rich and -poor compartments as visualized on stained adjacent sections. Thus, the distribution of dopamine D2 receptors conforms to the striosomal organization of the human caudate-putamen, a finding that suggests that this receptor subtype may mediate the influence of dopamine on distinct neurochemical compartments within the structure.

Joyce, J.N.; Sapp, D.W.; Marshall, J.F.

1986-10-01

325

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment  

SciTech Connect

The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams (1). The scope of this phase I'' analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering (2), is to carry out a scoping analysis'' of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the phase I'' calculations.

Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

1990-09-24

326

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment  

SciTech Connect

The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams [1]. The scope of this ``phase I`` analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering [2], is to carry out a ``scoping analysis`` of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the ``phase I`` calculations.

Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

1990-09-24

327

Localization of HCN1 channels to presynaptic compartments: novel plasticity that may contribute to hippocampal maturation.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence supports roles for the current mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, I(h), in hippocampal maturation and specifically in the evolving changes of intrinsic properties as well as network responses of hippocampal neurons. Here, we describe a novel developmental plasticity of HCN channel expression in axonal and presynaptic compartments: HCN1 channels were localized to axon terminals of the perforant path (the major hippocampal afferent pathway) of immature rats, where they modulated synaptic efficacy. However, presynaptic expression and functions of the channels disappeared with maturation. This was a result of altered channel transport to the axons, because HCN1 mRNA and protein levels in entorhinal cortex neurons, where the perforant path axons originate, were stable through adulthood. Blocking action potential firing in vitro increased presynaptic expression of HCN1 channels in the perforant path, suggesting that network activity contributed to regulating this expression. These findings support a novel developmentally regulated axonal transport of functional ion channels and suggest a role for HCN1 channel-mediated presynaptic I(h) in hippocampal maturation. PMID:17460082

Bender, Roland A; Kirschstein, Timo; Kretz, Oliver; Brewster, Amy L; Richichi, Cristina; Rüschenschmidt, Christiane; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Beck, Heinz; Frotscher, Michael; Baram, Tallie Z

2007-04-25

328

Plasma Membrane Area Increases with Spread Area by Exocytosis of a GPI-anchored Protein Compartment  

PubMed Central

The role of plasma membrane (PM) area as a critical factor during cell motility is poorly understood, mainly due to an inability to precisely follow PM area dynamics. To address this fundamental question, we developed static and dynamic assays to follow exocytosis, endocytosis, and PM area changes during fibroblast spreading. Because the PM area cannot increase by stretch, spreading proceeds by the flattening of membrane folds and/or by the addition of new membrane. Using laser tweezers, we found that PM tension progressively decreases during spreading, suggesting the addition of new membrane. Next, we found that exocytosis increases the PM area by 40–60% during spreading. Reducing PM area reduced spread area, and, in a reciprocal manner, reducing spreadable area reduced PM area, indicating the interconnection between these two parameters. We observed that Golgi, lysosomes, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein vesicles are exocytosed during spreading, but endoplasmic reticulum and transferrin receptor-containing vesicles are not. Microtubule depolymerization blocks lysosome and Golgi exocytosis but not the exocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein vesicles or PM area increase. Therefore, we suggest that fibroblasts are able to regulate about half of their original PM area by the addition of membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein compartment.

Gauthier, Nils C.; Rossier, Olivier M.; Mathur, Anurag; Hone, James C.

2009-01-01

329

Visualization of the Peroxisomal Compartment in Living Mammalian Cells: Dynamic Behavior and Association with Microtubules  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes in living CV1 cells were visualized by targeting the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to this subcellular compartment through the addition of a COOH-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (GFP–PTS1). The organelle dynamics were examined and analyzed using time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy. Two types of movement could be distinguished: a relatively slow, random, vibration-like movement displayed by the majority (?95%) of the peroxisomes, and a saltatory, fast directional movement displayed by a small subset (?5%) of the peroxisomes. In the latter instance, peak velocities up to 0.75 ?m/s and sustained directional velocities up to 0.45 ?m/s over 11.5 ?m were recorded. Only the directional type of motion appeared to be energy dependent, whereas the vibrational movement continued even after the cells were depleted of energy. Treatment of cells, transiently expressing GFP–PTS1, with microtubule-destabilizing agents such as nocodazole, vinblastine, and demecolcine clearly altered peroxisome morphology and subcellular distribution and blocked the directional movement. In contrast, the microtubule-stabilizing compound paclitaxel, or the microfilament-destabilizing drugs cytochalasin B or D, did not exert these effects. High resolution confocal analysis of cells expressing GFP–PTS1 and stained with anti-tubulin antibodies revealed that many peroxisomes were associated with microtubules. The GFP–PTS1–labeled peroxisomes were found to distribute themselves in a stochastic, rather than ordered, manner to daughter cells at the time of mitosis.

Wiemer, Erik A.C.; Wenzel, Thibaut; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Subramani, Suresh

1997-01-01

330

Localization of HCN1 Channels to Presynaptic Compartments: Novel Plasticity That May Contribute to Hippocampal Maturation  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence supports roles for the current mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, Ih, in hippocampal maturation and specifically in the evolving changes of intrinsic properties as well as network responses of hippocampal neurons. Here, we describe a novel developmental plasticity of HCN channel expression in axonal and presynaptic compartments: HCN1 channels were localized to axon terminals of the perforant path (the major hippocampal afferent pathway) of immature rats, where they modulated synaptic efficacy. However, presynaptic expression and functions of the channels disappeared with maturation. This was a result of altered channel transport to the axons, because HCN1 mRNA and protein levels in entorhinal cortex neurons, where the perforant path axons originate, were stable through adulthood. Blocking action potential firing in vitro increased presynaptic expression of HCN1 channels in the perforant path, suggesting that network activity contributed to regulating this expression. These findings support a novel developmentally regulated axonal transport of functional ion channels and suggest a role for HCN1 channel-mediated presynaptic Ih in hippocampal maturation.

Bender, Roland A.; Kirschstein, Timo; Kretz, Oliver; Brewster, Amy L.; Richichi, Cristina; Ruschenschmidt, Christiane; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Beck, Heinz; Frotscher, Michael; Baram, Tallie Z.

2011-01-01

331

Some, but not all, retromer components promote morphogenesis of C. elegans sensory compartments.  

PubMed

The endings of sensory receptor cells often lie within specialized compartments formed by glial cells. The main sensory organ of Caenorhabditis elegans, the amphid, provides a powerful setting for studying glial compartment morphogenesis. Our previous studies showed that amphid compartment size is controlled by opposing activities of the Nemo-like kinase LIT-1, which promotes compartment expansion, and the Patched-related protein DAF-6, which restricts compartment growth. From a genetic screen for mutations able to suppress the bloated sensory compartments of daf-6 mutants, we identified an allele of the sorting nexin gene snx-1. SNX-1 protein is a component of the retromer, a protein complex that facilitates recycling of transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi network. We find that snx-1 functions cell autonomously within glia to promote sensory compartment growth, and that SNX-1 protein is enriched near the surface of the sensory compartment. snx-1 interacts genetically with lit-1 and another regulator of compartment size, the Dispatched-related gene che-14. Mutations in snx-3 and vps-29, also retromer genes, can suppress daf-6 defects. Surprisingly, however, remaining retromer components seem not to be involved. Our results suggest that a novel assembly of retromer components is important for determining sensory compartment dimensions. PMID:22138055

Oikonomou, Grigorios; Perens, Elliot A; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

2011-11-23

332

Inhibition of kinin breakdown prolongs retention and action of bradykinin in a myocardial B2 receptor compartment  

PubMed Central

The high efficacy of ACE inhibitors to potentiate the actions of kinins might be explained by a hypothetical compartment in which B2-receptors are colocalized with kinin degrading enzymes. To demonstrate the functional consequence of such a compartment we compared the myocardial uptake and the persistence of action of bradykinin under the influence of kininase inhibitors. Bradykinin-induced vasodilation and uptake of tritiated bradykinin were studied in perfused rat hearts during inhibition of ACE and aminopeptidase P. B2-receptors were localized by immuno-gold labelling and electron-microscopy. The EC50 of bradykinin-induced vasodilation (5.1±0.8 nM) was shifted to 14 fold lower concentrations during inhibition of both kininases. The maximum persistence of vasodilation after termination of bradykinin application (half-life 112±20 s) was increased by kininase inhibitors to 398±130 s. This prolongation was reversed when B2-receptors were blocked simultaneously with the termination of bradykinin infusion. Tritiated bradykinin (perfused for 1 min) was partially (1.7±0.24%) retained by the myocardium and consecutively released with a half-life of 70±9 s. Kinin uptake was increased during kininase inhibition (7.7±2.6%), and was normalized by HOE 140 (2.0±0.34%), or when a tritiated B2-receptor antagonist (NPC 17731) was used as label. B2-receptors were localized in plasmalemmal and cytosolic vesicles of capillary endothelium. Bradykinin is locally incorporated and can associate with B2-receptors repeatedly when kinin breakdown is inhibited. This is the kinetic and functional consequence of a colocalization of kininases and B2-receptors in a compartment constituted by endothelial membrane vesicles.

Dendorfer, Andreas; Folkers, Verena; Klinger, Matthias; Wolfrum, Sebastian; Dominiak, Peter

2003-01-01

333

A three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model can explain variable toxicities of cobra venoms and their alpha toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetic profiles of labelled Naja melanoleuca, Naja nivea, Naja nigricollis and Naja haje venoms and their alpha neurotoxins were determined following rapid i.v. injection into rabbits. The data obtained fitted a triexponential equation characteristic of a three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model comprising a central compartment ‘blood’, a rapidly equilibrating ‘shallow’ tissue compartment and a slowly equilibrating ‘deep’ tissue compartment. The

M. Ismail; M. H. M. Aly; M. A. Abd-Elsalam; A. M. Morad

1996-01-01

334

Breech block hanger support  

SciTech Connect

A breech block hanger support member for a subsea wellhead assembly for wells having a working pressure up to approximately 15,000 psi. The assembly includes a wellhead, the support member, a packoff for sealing the support member, and one or more other casing hangers supported by the support member. The support member is connected to the wellhead for itself suspending casing, for supporting at least one other casing hanger and casing, and for containing the working pressure. Breech block teeth are provided on the wellhead and support member to permit the support member to be stabbed into the wellhead and rotated less than 360/sup 0/ for completing the connection therebetween. The teeth include groupings of spaced-apart no-lead teeth having slots therebetween. The slots provide a flow way for passing well fluids. The support member further includes an upper annular flange for arresting its downward movement within the wellhead. This flange includes flutes aligned with the slots for passing well fluids. The support member includes threads for connecting to the top of a casing string. The upper surface of the flange provides a bearing surface for supporting another casing hanger. The bearing surface of the support member will support all of the casing and tubing load and contain the working pressure. The bearing surface between the breech block teeth is greater than that provided by the support member for the other casing hangers. The packoff seals the support member with the wellhead and other casing hangers.

Baugh, B. F.; Ahlstone, A.; Fowler, J. H.; Henderson, H. O. Jr.

1984-12-18

335

Herbert L. Block Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herb Block (also known as "Herblock") was one of the most influential political commentators and editorial cartoonists in American history. His work began to appear in 1929, and he continued creating social commentary for 72 years. The Library of Congress website digitized some of the 14,000 images that the Herb Block Foundation donated in 2002. Visitors interested in seeing the wide range of topics Block covered in his cartoons can click on the "Search This Collection" link that appears below the introductory paragraphs on the homepage. Once visitors have arrived to the search area they can click on "Subject and Format Headings" underneath the heading "Other Ways to Search" to see the A to Z subject index. Some of the topics include "Escalators--1960-1970","Government Officials--1970-1980","Mao, Zedong--1893-1976", "Overcrowding--1940-1950", and "Discrimination--1950-1960". Back on the homepage, visitors shouldn't miss the link to the "Image Sampler" which contains the "Herblock Collection Image Sampler" featuring 24 images.

336

31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2013-07-01

337

Delayed compartment syndrome following brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula formation in a hemodialysis patient.  

PubMed

Delayed compartment syndrome following the surgical creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for vascular access is rare. A 71-year-old male patient experienced left anterior forearm compartment syndrome caused by a brachiocephalic AVF. The fistula failed after five days. Immediate radiological de-clotting failed and the thrombosed ?stula was de-clotted with the help of a Fogarty balloon. On Day 11, the patient developed symptoms and signs of acute anterior forearm compartment syndrome and underwent immediate surgical decompression of the superficial and deep flexor compartments, which resulted in an excellent outcome. Iatrogenic forearm compartment syndrome is a rare but potential complication after creation of AVF. The critical errors regarding compartment syndrome are failure to recognize or failure to act. This case report illustrates that swift diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention results in an excellent outcome and avoids the morbidity associated with this potentially devastating and debilitating process. PMID:23538359

Al-Benna, Sammy; Elenin, Haussam

2013-03-01

338

Overuse injuries: tendinopathies, stress fractures, compartment syndrome, and shin splints.  

PubMed

Approximately 50% of all sports injuries are secondary to overuse and result from repetitive microtrauma that causes local tissue damage. Injuries are most likely with changes in mode, intensity, or duration of training and can accumulate before symptoms appear. Intrinsic factors contributing to injuries are individual bio-mechanical abnormalities such as malalignments, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, weakness, and instability. Contributing extrinsic (avoidable) factors include poor technique, improper equipment, and improper changes in duration or frequency of activity. Injuries are often related to biomechanical abnormalities removed from the specific injury site, requiring evaluation of the entire kinetic chain. This article discusses common overuse injuries of the lower leg, ankle, and foot: tendinopathies, stress fractures, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and shin splints. PMID:15062584

Wilder, Robert P; Sethi, Shikha

2004-01-01

339

Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation  

SciTech Connect

SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

Tolliver, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dillow, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-08-01

340

Consecutive intravenous infusions: simulation of two compartment pharmacokinetic drugs.  

PubMed

A program is presented to simulate the blood concentrations which result from multiple, consecutive, constant rate intravenous infusions of drugs displaying two compartment kinetics. The program utilizes the principle of superposition and was developed for a Hewlett-Packard model 97 programmable calculator. The program can handle form 1-8 consecutive infusions, each with its own infusion rate and duration. Post-infusion blood concentrations can also be readily obtained A modification of the main program is also presented which enables the stimulation of blood concentration--time data pairs without operator assistance. A desired increment of time specified, and the program will provide concentration--time data pairs between specified starting and ending times. PMID:7249608

Hieb, B R; Shrewsbury, B

1980-12-01

341

Dynamic continuity of cytoplasmic and membrane compartments between plant cells  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence photobleaching was employed to examine the intercellular movement of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein between contiguous soybean root cells (SB-1 cell line) growing in tissue culture. Results of these experiments demonstrated movement of these fluorescent probes between cytoplasmic (symplastic) compartments. This symplastic transport was inhibited with Ca2+ in the presence of ionophore A23187, and also with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Both of these agents have previously been demonstrated to inhibit gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication in animal cells. In a companion experiment, a fluorescent phospholipid analogue, N-4- nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC), was incorporated into soybean cell membranes to examine whether dynamic membrane continuity existed between contacting cells, a transport route not existing between animal cells. Photobleaching single soybean cells growing in a filamentous strand demonstrated that phospholipid did exchange between contiguous cells.

1988-01-01

342

Harnessing yeast subcellular compartments for the production of plant terpenoids.  

PubMed

The biologically and commercially important terpenoids are a large and diverse class of natural products that are targets of metabolic engineering. However, in the context of metabolic engineering, the otherwise well-documented spatial subcellular arrangement of metabolic enzyme complexes has been largely overlooked. To boost production of plant sesquiterpenes in yeast, we enhanced flux in the mevalonic acid pathway toward farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) accumulation, and evaluated the possibility of harnessing the mitochondria as an alternative to the cytosol for metabolic engineering. Overall, we achieved 8- and 20-fold improvement in the production of valencene and amorphadiene, respectively, in yeast co-engineered with a truncated and deregulated HMG1, mitochondrion-targeted heterologous FDP synthase and a mitochondrion-targeted sesquiterpene synthase, i.e. valencene or amorphadiene synthase. The prospect of harnessing different subcellular compartments opens new and intriguing possibilities for the metabolic engineering of pathways leading to valuable natural compounds. PMID:21601648

Farhi, Moran; Marhevka, Elena; Masci, Tania; Marcos, Evgeniya; Eyal, Yoram; Ovadis, Mariana; Abeliovich, Hagai; Vainstein, Alexander

2011-05-18

343

Screening tools in the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency requiring urgent fasciotomy to save the limb. However, time is of the essence and diagnostic uncertainty can lead to unnecessary surgery. Measurement of intracompartmental pressure (ICP) to aid decision making is becoming commonplace, particularly in unconscious or confused patients. However, inaccurate readings can result from misplacement of the probe, subjecting patients to a needless fasciotomy in the event of an overreading. Similarly, underestimated readings create a false sense of security. Screening tools, criteria-led systems of clinical decision making, are used by some to assist in diagnosis and management planning, but do they work? Here, we review current diagnostic strategies and question whether screening tools can make rapid diagnosis more accurate. Furthermore, in the absence of a standardized tool, we analyze the practice of a sample of vascular surgeons with the aim of moving toward a management consensus useful to junior doctors. PMID:20462891

Garner, Amy J; Handa, Ashok

2010-05-12

344

[Blindness caused by retrobulbar hemorrhage (orbital compartment syndrome)].  

PubMed

In the author's department, 5 patients developed retrobulbar hemorrhage from the 199 patients with midface fractures, between August 2007 and March 2010 (2.5%). 4 of these patients became irreversibly blind on the affected eye. With timely treatment, one patient avoided blindness. The author presents a retrospective analysis of the patients from different departments with midface/orbital fractures and blindness. Bleeding and oedema behind the eyeball due to midface/orbital fractures in the relatively non-expandable orbit results a quick elevation of orbital pressure and consequently diminished circulation, ischemia, and later necrosis of the optic nerve (orbital compartment syndrome) with irreversible blindness. Immediate medical (high dose of intravenous steroids, mannitol, acetazolamide) and surgical intervention (lateral canthotomy, cantholysis, orbitotomy) on noticing the signs (proptosis, ecchymosis, ophthalmoplegia, mydriasis) and symptoms (pain, diplopia, decreased visual acuity, blindness), of a retrobulbar hemorrhage could theoretically give a chance to save the affected eye. Treatment started beyond 20 minutes of onset of blindness, might not revert the vision. Unfortunately, the description and treatment of the retrobulbar hemorrhage and the orbital compartment syndrome is not within the curriculum of the medical university, thus young colleagues could have vague idea about the diagnosis, the urgency and the treatment - as shown in these cases. With the introduction of these cases the author would like to highlight the signs, symptoms and necessary treatment. Knowledge of the disease could also increase the detected number of retrobulbar hemorrhages, which might be less rare than we think. Including the disease into the medical curriculum and postgraduate trainings could help to reduce the number of sad cases in the future. PMID:20826378

Klenk, Gusztáv

2010-09-19

345

Three prevacuolar compartment Rab GTPases impact Candida albicans hyphal growth.  

PubMed

Disruption of vacuolar biogenesis in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans causes profound defects in polarized hyphal growth. However, the precise vacuolar pathways involved in yeast-hypha differentiation have not been determined. Previously we focused on Vps21p, a Rab GTPase involved in directing vacuolar trafficking through the late endosomal prevacuolar compartment (PVC). Herein, we identify two additional Vps21p-related GTPases, Ypt52p and Ypt53p, that colocalize with Vps21p and can suppress the hyphal defects of the vps21?/? mutant. Phenotypic analysis of gene deletion strains revealed that loss of both VPS21 and YPT52 causes synthetic defects in endocytic trafficking to the vacuole, as well as delivery of the virulence-associated vacuolar membrane protein Mlt1p from the Golgi compartment. Transcription of all three GTPase-encoding genes is increased under hyphal growth conditions, and overexpression of the transcription factor Ume6p is sufficient to increase the transcription of these genes. While only the vps21?/? single mutant has hyphal growth defects, these were greatly exacerbated in a vps21?/? ypt52?/? double mutant. On the basis of relative expression levels and phenotypic analysis of gene deletion strains, Vps21p is the most important of the three GTPases, followed by Ypt52p, while Ypt53p has an only marginal impact on C. albicans physiology. Finally, disruption of a nonendosomal AP-3-dependent vacuolar trafficking pathway in the vps21?/? ypt52?/? mutant, further exacerbated the stress and hyphal growth defects. These findings underscore the importance of membrane trafficking through the PVC in sustaining the invasive hyphal growth form of C. albicans. PMID:23709183

Johnston, Douglas A; Tapia, Arturo Luna; Eberle, Karen E; Palmer, Glen E

2013-05-24

346

Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh: A Rare Diagnosis and Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is an uncommon entity. We present a rare case of bilateral exercise-induced three-compartment syndrome of the thighs that required fasciotomies. The objective of this study was to understand the history, physical examination, signs, symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. A 42-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) complaining

Timothy W. King; Oren Z. Lerman; Joseph J. Carter; Stephen M. Warren

2010-01-01

347

Characterizing exposure to chemicals from soil vapor intrusion using a two-compartment model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though several different models have been developed for sub-surface migration, little attention has been given to the effect of subsurface transport on the indoor environment. Existing methods generally assume that a house is one well-mixed compartment. A two-compartment model was developed to better characterize this exposure pathway; the model treats the house as two well-mixed compartments, one for the basement

David A Olson; Richard L Corsi

2001-01-01

348

Traffic of Dynamin within Individual Drosophila Synaptic Boutons Relative to Compartment-Specific Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presynaptic terminals contain several specialized compart- ments, which have been described by electron microscopy. We show in an identified Drosophila neuromuscular synapse that several of these compartments—synaptic vesicle clusters, pre- synaptic plasma membrane, presynaptic cytosol, and axonal cytoskeleton—labeled by specific reagents may be resolved from one another by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Us- ing a panel of compartment-specific markers and

Patricia S. Estes; Jack Roos; Alexander van der Bliek; Regis B. Kelly; K. S. Krishnan; Mani Ramaswami

1996-01-01

349

The characteristics of the thermal energy storage in a two-compartment water tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water storage tank consisting of two equal compartments of 35.56 cm i.d. and 50.8 cm height, used in a solar water-heating system, was designed and manufactured. The lower compartment, which contained the cold water inlet, was in a loop with a solar energy collector. The upper compartment, from which hot water could be drawn, was connected to the top

Sui Lin; C. C. K. Kwok; J. C. Y. Wang

1984-01-01

350

Spot the Block Campaign for Parents: Around the Block  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

You've been around the block (the Nutrition Facts Label block, that is). Now it's time to help your kids Spot The Block and get their food facts first! Take ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

351

Lithosphere Compartments and Their Dynamics on the Romanian Territory. Seismotectonic Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various models for plate tectonics on the Romanian territory were constructed mainly based on geological arguments. The paper attempts to outline plate boundaries based on their geophysical behavior. Complex geophysical investigations were used to document a three-plate tectonic model for the Romanian territory. East European Plate (EEP), Moesian micro-plate (MoP), and the Intra-alpine micro-plate (IaP) are separated by major contacts: Tornquist-Teisseyre (TTZ) compresional zone, Peceneaga-Camena, and the Trans-Getica transform faults. Past to recent dynamics is discussed with emphasize on the consequences of the Black Sea opening. It seems that crust extension related to the W Black Sea basin opening split the MoP into several crustal slivers, which relatively move each to another. After the end of Black Sea evolution, active rifts in SW Arabian Plate could offer present driving forces acting on those compartments and generating normal earthquakes along their wedges. Crust shortening took place in various environments. East Carpathians, crust expelled met the inclined boundary of TTZ and came into an oblique subduction to which peculiarities of volcanism in the southernmost Harghita Mts. seem to be related. South Carpathians, crustal slivers faced the vertical margin of the IaP and provoked a lithosphere buckling, well reflected in the lowest gravity low on the Romanian territory, located in front and not beneath the highest mountains in the country. Within Vrancea active seismic zone, the confined hypocenters location seems to be due to the presence of a continental unstable transform-transform-compression triple junction. The block squeezed between MoP, EEP and IaP wedges was pushed down by tectonic forces driving the three plates. The penetration of a colder lithosphere compartment into the hotter upper mantle led to a thermodynamic disequilibrium. During the temperature accommodation various phenomena such as convective cells, phase transform, and devolatilization add new sources to the intermediate seismicity in the area. Some considerations on the migration of the triple junction are also made. Acknowledgements. Research made subject to the project 177/2003, supported by CERES Program of the Romanian Ministry of Education, Research and Youth.

Besutiu, L.; Zugravescu, D.

2004-05-01

352

Health Block Grants and Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Block grants are broad purpose allocations of Federal funds to state and local governments. Block grants give the grant recipient wide latitude in the use of funds within a broadly designated area and place the responsibility for planning, administering, ...

H. Austin M. Walker

1981-01-01

353

Ear - blocked at high altitudes  

MedlinePLUS

High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction -high altitude ... opens the Eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear to the nose. These movements allow the pressure ...

354

Properties of blocked linear systems?  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature.

Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D.O.; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander

2012-01-01

355

High insulating solar block structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A light-transmissive solar insulating block assembly comprising: light-transmissive insulating block means defining at least one internal cavity for insulating the interior of a structure to be heated; a housing having a light-transmissive cover providing an exterior surface and a plurality of support walls extending between and separating said cover and said block means, said housing cooperating with said block means

R. A. Wolf; A. G. Zech

1985-01-01

356

Building With Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive site allows students to build with virtual blocks to discover geometry, three-dimensional space, and area. There are a number of different problems here, including Copy the Building, Building in the Night, Making Height Numbers, and Rotation Game. There are also Additional Problems for students to solve, such as repairing a broken table, putting arm rests on a chair, and making a tunnel through a mountain. Each asks students to reason with different, often non-standard, shapes and think about 3D form.

Van Den Brink, Jan; Boon, Peter

2004-01-01

357

Atomic Basic Blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

358

Combinable memory-block transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper formalizes and studies combinable memory-block transactions (MBTs). The idea is to encode short programs that operate on a single cache\\/memory block and then to specify such a program with a memory request. The code is then executed at the cache or memory controller, atomically with respect to other accesses to that block by this or other processors. The

Guy E. Blelloch; Phillip B. Gibbons; S. Harsha Vardhan

2008-01-01

359

Snell's Law with Large Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introductory physics lab curriculum usually has one experiment devoted to the study of the refraction of light. The most obvious way to study the refraction of light is to lay a transparent block down on the lab bench and aim a laser beam horizontally at the block so that it refracts twice-inward upon entering the block and outward upon

John J. Lynch

2007-01-01

360

Products of Block Toeplitz operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we characterize when the product of two block Toeplitz operators is a compact perturbation of a block Toeplitz operator on the Hardy space of the open unit disk. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the commutator of two block Toeplitz operators to be compact.

Caixing Gu; Dechao Zheng

1996-01-01

361

Modeling Building-Block Interdependency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Building-Block Hypothesis appeals to the notion of problem decomposition and the assembly of solutions from sub-solutions. Accordingly, there have been many varieties of GA test problems with a structure based on building- blocks. Many of these problems use deceptive fitness functions to model interdependency between the bits within a block. However, very few have any model of interdependency between

Richard A. Watson; Gregory S. Hornby; Jordan B. Pollack

1998-01-01

362

Body fat measurement among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians: a comparative study using a four-compartment model and different two-compartment models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study compared body fat percentage (BF€obtained from a four-compartment (4C) model with BF?rom hydrometry (using 2H2O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and densitometry among the three main ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in Singapore, and determined the suitability of two-compartment (2C) models as surrogate methods for assessing BFmong different ethnic groups. A total of 291 subjects (108 Chinese,

Mabel Deurenberg-Yap; Gordon Schmidt; Staveren van W. A; Joseph G. A. J. Hautvast; Paul Deurenberg

2001-01-01

363

Complete atrioventricular block during anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe a case of asymptomatic first degree atrioventricular block with a bifascicular block that progressed to complete\\u000a atrioventricular block during anesthesia. This potentially fatal block was successfully treated with transesophageal ventricular\\u000a pacing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  A 67-yr-old man was scheduled for microvascular decompression of the right trigeminal nerve under general anesthesia. His\\u000a preoperative ECG showed first degree atrioventricular block with complete

Kikyo Mamiya; Jun Aono; Masanobu Manabe

1999-01-01

364

Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

2007-12-01

365

Antagonism of sigma-1 receptors blocks compulsive-like eating.  

PubMed

Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain a sugary, highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1?h a day under fixed ratio 1 operant conditioning. Following intake stabilization, we evaluated the effects of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on food responding. Using a light/dark conflict test, we also tested whether BD-1063 could block the time spent and the food eaten in an aversive, open compartment, where the palatable diet was offered. Furthermore, we measured Sig-1R mRNA and protein expression in several brain areas of the two groups, 24?h after the last binge session. Palatable rats rapidly developed binge-like eating, escalating the 1?h intake by four times, and doubling the eating rate and the regularity of food responding, compared to Chow rats. BD-1063 dose-dependently reduced binge-like eating and the regularity of food responding, and blocked the increased eating rate in Palatable rats. In the light/dark conflict test, BD-1063 antagonized the increased time spent in the aversive compartment and the increased intake of the palatable diet, without affecting motor activity. Finally, Palatable rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and a two-fold increase in Sig-1R protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex compared to control Chow rats. These findings suggest that the Sig-1R system may contribute to the neurobiological adaptations driving compulsive-like eating, opening new avenues of investigation towards pharmacologically treating binge eating disorder. PMID:22713906

Cottone, Pietro; Wang, Xiaofan; Park, Jin Won; Valenza, Marta; Blasio, Angelo; Kwak, Jina; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Hayashi, Teruo; Sabino, Valentina

2012-06-20

366

Effect of beta adrenergic blocking agents on erythropoiesis in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of two different beta blocking agents, metipranolol (Trimepranol) and dl-propranolol (Inderal), upon erythropoietin production, erythropoietin responsive cell compartment and erythrocyte production. The effect on erythropoietin production: in rats metipranolol or dl-propranolol was injected daily in a single dose of 10 mg/kg b.wt. On the 5th day, the rats were exposed to an atmospheric pressure of 353.7 torr (47.1 kPa, 6000 m) to stimulate erythropoietin production. The onset of hypoxic exposure was started 1, 4, 12 or 24 hr after the last injection of beta blocking drugs. After the termination of hypoxia, erythropoietin plasma levels were determined in polycythemic mice. The rats treated with metipranolol 1 and 4 hr before hypoxia produced significantly less erythropoietin in response to hypoxia than saline-treated control animals. The effect on erythropoietin responsive cell compartment: polycythemic mice were treated with metipranolol or dl-propranolol in doses of 10 to 40 mg/kg b.wt. and with an erythropoietin standard. Radioiron incorporation into red blood cells in control mice and in mice pretreated with beta blocking agents was not significantly different. The effect on erythrocyte production: in rats treated daily with metipranolol in a single dose of 10 mg/kg b.wt., for a period of 10 days, the rate of erythropoiesis measured by the incorporation of 59Fe into red blood cells was decreased, dl-propranolol (10 mg/kg b.wt.) did not reduce the rate of erythropoiesis. Our results demonstrate that the changes in erythropoiesis after administration of metipranolol may be caused by reduction of erythropoietin production with a consequent reduction of the erythrocyte production rate. PMID:6134822

Zivný, J; Ostádal, B; Neuwirt, J; Procházka, J; Pelouch, V

1983-07-01

367

Isolated Anterior Compartment Syndrome After a Bimalleolar-Equivalent Ankle Fracture in a Collegiate Football Player  

PubMed Central

Compartment syndrome after an ankle fracture is an extremely rare and potentially devastating event. The authors report a case of an isolated anterior compartment syndrome in a college student athlete who suffered a bimalle olar ankle fracture dislocation. A review of the literature highlights the importance of vigilance when the sports medicine physician and the community orthopaedist are treating these seemingly basic orthopaedic injuries.

Starr, Adam M.; Swan, Kenneth G.; Swan, Kenneth G.

2011-01-01

368

Applied ergonomics for operator compartment design in an EJC 88 XLP loader  

Microsoft Academic Search

In engineering design of operators' compartments, in underground mining equipment, ergonomics principles are often neglected or not given the full recognition they deserve. This paper defines ergonomics, applies it to machinery in an underground mining environment, and describes the ergonomics analysis undertaken during the design phase of an EJC extra low-profile mining loader. Encompassing the design of the operator's compartment

S. THORLEY; N. D. L. BURGER; M. Eng

2006-01-01

369

An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model

David A. Lockner; James D. Byerlee

1995-01-01

370

Numerical modeling for compartment fire environment under a solid-cone water spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model was developed for simulating the fire environment of a compartment under the action of a solid-cone water spray such as those discharged from a water mist fire suppression system. A smoke layer was induced by a fire in the compartment. The solid-cone water spray was discharged to act on the smoke layer, but not on the burning

B. Yao; W. K. Chow

2006-01-01

371

Isoforms of the invariant chain regulate transport of MHC class II molecules to antigen processing compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly synthesized class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex must be transported to endosomal compartments where antigens are pro- cessed for presentation to class II-restricted T cells. The invariant chain (Ii), which assembles with newly synthesized class II et- and (3-chains in the endoplasmic reticulum, carries one or more targeting signals for transport to endosomal compartments where Ii dissoci-

Petra A. M. Warmerdam; Eric O. Long; Paul A. Roche

1996-01-01

372

Succinate dehydrogenase activity within synaptic and extrasynaptic compartments of functionally-overloaded rat skeletal muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) was assessed using quantitative microphotometric techniques within postsynaptic, subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar compartments of overloaded soleus muscle fibers. Six weeks of overload, induced via synergist tenotomy, significantly increased soleus muscle mass (23%) and mean fiber cross-sectional area (17%). Despite these increases in cell size, SDH activity within. all three intracellular compartments of overloaded

Robert J. Campbell; Bernard J. Jasmin; Robin N. Michel

1996-01-01

373

Atrial Compartment Operation for Atrial Fibrillation: To Isolate the Left Atrium or Not?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The atrial compartment operation was designed to convert atrial fibrillation (AF) to sinus rhythm with intentional preservation of the electrical connection between adjacent atrial compartments. How- ever, incidental left atrial isolation was observed in some patients. This study compared the long-term clinical outcomes of left atrial isolation for AF with those with right and left atrial connection. Methods. Twenty

Huey-Ming Lo; Fang-Yue Lin; Yung Zu Tseng

2010-01-01

374

14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...each lower deck service compartment, that indicates when seat belts should be fastened. (e) If a public address system...service compartment, there must be a forward or aft facing seat which meets the requirements of § 25.785(d),...

2013-01-01

375

The effects on Schild regressions of antagonist removal from the receptor compartment by a saturable process  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A theoretical model of the effects of a saturable removal mechanism for an antagonist diffusing into the receptor compartment of a tissue is used to calculate expected deviations in Schild regressions.2.At concentrations of antagonist which do not saturate the removal mechanism, there can be a deficit of antagonist in the receptor compartment as compared to the concentration of antagonist bathing

Terry P. Kenakin; Deborah Beek

1987-01-01

376

19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind...FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... [Can. Transit] for use on railroad cars, and âUnited States-Canada...

2013-04-01

377

A two-zone fire growth and smoke movement model for multi-compartment buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire growth and smoke movement model for a multi-compartment building has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada. This development is primarily intended to help evaluate the risk from fires in buildings. This paper presents the related physical models, numerical methods, and some verification examples. The 2-zone ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are derived for the compartments with

Zhuman Fu; George Hadjisophocleous

2000-01-01

378

Modeling of temperature and humidity ratio in an automobile passenger compartment for automobile air conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates thermal dynamic modeling of a passenger compartment in an air conditioned automobile equipped with HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). In particular, dynamics of temperature and humidity ratio, both critical to passenger comfort, in the passenger compartment are examined. By analyzing enthalpy change during an automobile air conditioning circulation cycle on a psychrometric chart, heat exchange between

Sheng-Luen Chung; Chung-Lun Li

2011-01-01

379

46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20...November 10, 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartmentâTB/ALL. No cofferdam...tank and a compartment containing pumping engines and their auxiliaries which are...

2011-10-01

380

14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

2013-01-01

381

Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure.  

PubMed

A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments, and none has quantified the suite of mechanisms generating such a structure. Here, we combine computational tools from the physics of complex networks with phylogenetic statistical methods to show that a large marine food web is organized in compartments, and that body size, phylogeny, and spatial structure are jointly associated with such a compartmentalized structure. Sharks account for the majority of predatory interactions within their compartments. Phylogenetically closely related shark species tend to occupy different compartments and have divergent trophic levels, suggesting that competition may play an important role structuring some of these compartments. Current overfishing of sharks has the potential to change the structural properties, which might eventually affect the stability of the food web. PMID:19490028

Rezende, Enrico L; Albert, Eva M; Fortuna, Miguel A; Bascompte, Jordi

2009-05-21

382

Bird communities in logged and unlogged compartments in Budongo Forest, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

We made 2200 point counts of birds in five compartments of the Budongo Forest Reserve in western Uganda. Two compartments had not been logged and the others had been selectively logged in 1947–52, 1965, and 1982–86. We recorded 104 forest bird species out of a total count for the forest of 197. Species overlap of the bird communities was about

I Owiunji; A. J Plumptre

1998-01-01

383

Baroplastic Block copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

Hewlett, Sheldon A.

2005-03-01

384

Modular building block  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a modular building block comprising an enclosure defined by end walls, side walls, a top wall and a bottom wall in an assembled relationship. The top wall includes a pattern of fastener slots and the bottom wall includes fastener tabs selectively slidable into a cooperable locking relationship in both vertical and horizontal directions with fastener slots in the top wall of another enclosure therebelow. Certain of the fastener slots in the top wall are disposed parallel to the longitudinal axis and along opposite edges thereof adjacent each of the side walls of the enclosure and other of the fastener slots are normal to the longitudinal axis at the midregion of the enclosure and along an edge thereof adjacent each of the end walls of the enclosure. The fastener tabs each include a cut-out portion overlaid by the top wall of another enclosure at an assembled condition.

Mc Guire, D.S.

1987-08-25

385

The Perinucleolar Compartment Is Directly Associated with DNA*  

PubMed Central

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a nuclear subdomain that is unique to tumor cells, and the percentage of cells in a population containing PNCs (PNC prevalence) indicates the level of malignancy of that population. Here, we utilize anti-cancer drugs and other exogenous stimuli to investigate the structure and function of the PNC. Screening of clinically used anti-cancer drugs revealed two types of drugs disassemble PNCs and do so through their specific molecular actions. Transcription inhibitors reduce PNC prevalence in parallel with RNA polymerase III transcription reduction, and a subset of DNA-damaging drugs and stimuli (UV radiation) disassemble the PNC. Inhibition of cellular DNA damage response demonstrated that the DNA damage itself, not the response or polymerase III inhibition, is responsible for PNC disassembly, suggesting that the maintenance of the PNC is dependent upon DNA integrity. Analyses of the types of DNA damage that cause PNC disassembly show that interstrand DNA base pairing, not strand continuity, is important for PNC integrity, indicating that the PNC components are directly interacting with the DNA. Complementary cell biology experiments demonstrated that the number of PNCs per cell increases with the rounds of endoreplication and that PNCs split into doublets during mid S phase, both of which are phenotypes that are typical of a replicating DNA loci. Together, these studies validate PNC disassembly as a screening marker to identify chemical probes and revealed that the PNC is directly nucleated on a DNA locus, suggesting a potential role for the PNC in gene expression regulation.

Norton, John T.; Wang, Chen; Gjidoda, Alison; Henry, R. William; Huang, Sui

2009-01-01

386

Independent activation in adjacent lumbar extensor muscle compartments.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine compartmentalization in human lumbar spine extensors. Structure and innervation of these muscles would suggest the possibility of more segmentally specific biomechanical functions than have been found in previous studies examining muscle activation patterns during simple spine bending and twisting tasks. We selected specialized tasks to more effectively investigate the degree of independent control possible within lumbar spine extensors. We recorded surface electromyograms (SEMG) from the right posterior lumbar region during performance of two segmentally specific bellydance skills by seven novice and five trained subjects. These movements were performed at two frequencies (0.5 and 1Hz). Cross-correlations were performed between pairs of rectified, low-pass filtered (6Hz) SEMG signals to determine temporal lags between rhythmic bursts. Results showed a difference in the timing of muscle activation above and below the third lumbar vertebra. Temporal asynchrony was independent of either skill level or tempo, suggesting a hard-wired capacity for independent control of adjacent muscle compartments. The results have implications for understanding trunk control in the context of postural stability and postural adaptation during locomotion, as well as for lower back functional assessment and rehabilitation. PMID:22554499

Nugent, Marilee M; Stapley, Paul J; Milner, Theodore E

2012-05-01

387

Place cells of aged rats in two visually identical compartments.  

PubMed

Aged rats perform poorly on spatial learning tasks, a cognitive impairment which has been linked to the failure of hippocampal networks to fully encode changes in the external environment [Barnes CA, Suster MS, Shen J, McNaughton BL. Multistability of cognitive maps in the hippocampus of old rats. Nature 1997;388(6639):272-5; Wilson IA, Ikonen S, Gureviciene I, McMahan RW, Gallagher M, Eichenbaum H, et al. Cognitive aging and the hippocampus: how old rats represent new environments. J Neurosci 2004;24(15):3870-8]. To examine whether the impairment in hippocampal processing extends to conditions in which self-motion provides the cues for environmental change, we have analyzed spatial firing patterns of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in young and aged rats, as well as in young rats with selective cholinergic lesions, another model of cognitive aging. The rats walked between two visually identical environments, pitting self-motion cues that indicated environmental change against visual inputs that indicated no differences between environments. Our results indicated that place cells in both aged and cholinergic-lesioned rats were equally likely as those of young rats to create new spatial representations in the second compartment. These findings suggest that the hippocampal network of aged rats is able to process changes in internally generated cues without rigidity, but that incomplete processing of external landmark cues may lead to impaired spatial learning. PMID:15748790

Wilson, Iain A; Ikonen, Sami; Gurevicius, Kestutis; McMahan, Robert W; Gallagher, Michela; Eichenbaum, Howard; Tanila, Heikki

2004-11-21

388

Predictive Factors of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Neonatal Age.  

PubMed

In the pediatric population, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of abdominal wall defect repair. However, there are only few reports on ACS in newborns and only a proposal of critical intra-abdominal pressure value (IAP) in term newborns, absent in preterm newborns. Although the prevalent clinical sign is tense abdominal distension, it may be difficult to distinguish ACS from pathologies that will not require decompression. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors for ACS and therefore morbidity or mortality indicators. We reviewed newborns presenting with tense abdominal distension and end organ failure. Anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, and instrumental investigations were analyzed to extrapolate predictors. Outcomes were compared with a control group. The incidence of ACS in our neonatal intensive care unit was 5% in the overall population of babies, 16% in tracheal-ventilated newborns, and 57% in infants with abdominal wall defects. We found that, with onset of acidosis or high gastric residuals, the lactate values will be predictive for mortality. We can also suggest paying particular attention to high lactate values just at the onset of distension, in infants with more advanced gestational age, with previously surgical repair, to determine early surgical intervention independently of a specific IAP measurement. PMID:23456905

Schierz, Ingrid Anne Mandy; Giuffrč, Mario; Piro, Ettore; Ortolano, Rita; Siracusa, Fortunato; Pinello, Giuseppa; La Placa, Simona; Corsello, Giovanni

2013-03-01

389

Delayed retroperitoneal bleeding causing acute abdominal compartment syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

Delayed acute abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) due to retroperitoneal bleeding is rare. Herein, we report the clinical management of such a rare case. A 46-year-old male who fell from a height of 12 meters was admitted to Al-Ain Hospital. He was hemodynamically stable. His abdomen was soft and not distended. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was normal on admission. On day 7, the patient tolerated enteral feeding. On day 15, he became suddenly hypotensive. CT of the abdomen showed a large retroperitoneal hematoma compressing the inferior vena cava (IVC) associated with contrast blush indicating active bleeding. The abdomen became distended and tense. The patient developed respiratory failure and severe acidosis, increased airway pressure and reduced urine output. A clinical diagnosis of ACS was made. There was dramatic improvement in the hemodynamic and respiratory function directly after laparotomy. Exploration of the retroperitoneal hematoma showed an actively bleeding ligated ileocolic vessel. The abdomen was temporarily closed using saline IV bags sandwiched between two layers of Steri-Drape. The abdomen was closed primarily on day 6. The patient was discharged home on day 50. Life-threatening delayed retroperitoneal bleeding may occur suddenly two weeks after trauma causing ACS. PMID:21644100

Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Jawas, Ali; Boraie, Mustafa; Ahmed, Misbah U

2011-03-01

390

Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments. Annual technical report  

SciTech Connect

This DOE research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field. Field selection consumed nearly the first four months of the project. The choice was the Hambert Field area which is the field area being studied. During the remainder of the year, a significant portion of the data was gathered and entered into a data base. Cores have been described, log analysis performed on over 100 wells, and regional mapping and correlation of sedimentary packages completed. Compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocity data was measured on 8 core plugs at various conditions and lithologies. The analysis of the 3D seismic data has been started and supports the interpretation that the structural component will be a significant factor for reservoir compartmentalization in this reservoir. The experimental permeability work completed includes the pressure decay profile permeability measurements on the cores. Relationships of porosity and permeability with net confining stress were developed. Core relative permeability measurements were also completed during the year. Additional experimental measurements completed include Young`s Modulus, Shear Modulus, Poisson`s ratio, and the bulk compressibility as a function of the effective stress. Preliminary engineering analysis of the pressure build-up data from two wells supports the conclusion that sealing faults may act as barriers to flow.

Van Kirk, C.W.

1994-10-28

391

Acute lower limb compartment syndrome after Cesarean section: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb is a rare but severe intra- and post-partum complication. Prompt diagnosis is essential to avoid permanent functional restriction or even the loss of the affected limb. Clinical signs and symptoms might be nonspecific, especially in the early stages; therefore, knowledge of predisposing risk factors can be helpful. Case presentation We present the case of a 32-year-old Caucasian woman with acute post-partum compartment syndrome. Conclusion Acute compartment syndrome is an important differential diagnosis for the sudden onset of intra- or post-partum lower-limb pain. Predisposing factors for the manifestation of acute compartment syndrome in an obstetric environment are augmented intra-partum blood loss, prolonged hypotensive episodes and the use of oxytocin to support or induce labor because of its vasoconstrictive properties. Treatment is prompt surgical decompression by performing fasciotomy in any affected muscular compartments.

2011-01-01

392

Fused late endocytic compartments and immunostimulatory capacity of dendritic-tumor cell hybridomas.  

PubMed

Late endocytic compartments, containing MHC class II molecules in antigen presenting cells, fuse to each other in order to deliver antigens to these molecules. We have shown previously that fusion of late endocytic compartments takes place also in hybridomas. Therefore, we investigate here whether the level of fused late endocytic compartments affects the immunostimulatory capacity of hybridomas obtained by the electrofusion of dendritic and tumor cells. The level of fused late endocytic compartments in a single hybridoma cell was assessed and samples of electrofused cells were then cocultured with autologous T cells, resulting in the priming of naďve T cells. To test the immunostimulatory capacity of hybridoma cells, T-cell-induced cytotoxicity of tumor cells was assayed. The results demonstrate that in vitro cytotoxic T cell responses are enhanced if a higher percentage of fused late endocytic compartments is present in the cell population of electrofused hybridoma cells. PMID:19418087

Gabrijel, Mateja; Bergant, Martina; Kreft, Marko; Jeras, Matjaz; Zorec, Robert

2009-05-06

393

Correlation between cross-bridge kinetics obtained from Trp fluorescence of myofibril suspensions and mechanical studies of single muscle fibers in rabbit psoas.  

PubMed

Our goal is to correlate kinetic constants obtained from fluorescence studies of myofibril suspension with those from mechanical studies of skinned muscle fibers from rabbit psoas. In myofibril studies, the stopped-flow technique with tryptophan fluorescence was used; in muscle fiber studies, tension transients with small amplitude sinusoidal length perturbations were used. All experiments were performed using the equivalent solution conditions (200 mM ionic strength, pH 7.00) at 10°C. The concentration of MgATP was varied to characterize kinetic constants of the ATP binding step 1 (K (1): dissociation constant), the binding induced cross-bridge detachment step 2 (k (2), k (-2): rate constants), and the ATP cleavage step 3 (k (3), k (-3)). In myofibrils we found that K (1) = 0.52 ± 0.08 mM (±95% confidence limits), k (2) = 242 ± 24 s(-1), and k (-2) ? 0; in muscle fibers, K (1) = 0.46 ± 0.06 mM, k (2) = 286 ± 32 s(-1), and k (-2) = 57 ± 21 s(-1). From these results, we conclude that myofibrils and muscle fibers exhibit nearly equal ATP binding step, and nearly equal ATP binding induced cross-bridge detachment step. Consequently, there is a good correlation between process C (phase 2 of step analysis) and the cross-bridge detachment step. The reverse detachment step is finite in fibers, but almost absent in myofibrils. We further studied partially cross-linked myofibrils and found little change in steps 2 and 3, indicating that cross-linking does not affect these steps. However, we found that K (1) is 2.5× of native myofibrils, indicating that MgATP binding is weakened by the presence of the extra load. We further studied the phosphate (Pi) effect in myofibrils, and found that Pi is a competitive inhibitor of MgATP, with the inhibitory dissociation constant of ~9 mM. Similar results were also deduced from fiber studies. To characterize the ATP cleavage step in myofibrils, we measured the slow rate constant in fluorescence, and found that k (3) + k (-3) = 16 ± 1 s(-1). PMID:22006015

Candau, Robin; Kawai, Masataka

2011-10-18

394

Effect of Inorganic Phosphate on the Force and Number of Myosin Cross-Bridges During the Isometric Contraction of Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Rabbit Psoas  

PubMed Central

The relation between the chemical and mechanical steps of the myosin-actin ATPase reaction that leads to generation of isometric force in fast skeletal muscle was investigated in demembranated fibers of rabbit psoas muscle by determining the effect of the concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) on the stiffness of the half-sarcomere (hs) during transient and steady-state conditions of the isometric contraction (temperature 12°C, sarcomere length 2.5 ?m). Changes in the hs strain were measured by imposing length steps or small 4 kHz oscillations on the fibers in control solution (without added Pi) and in solution with 3–20 mM added Pi. At the plateau of the isometric contraction in control solution, the hs stiffness is 22.8 ± 1.1 kPa nm?1. Taking the filament compliance into account, the total stiffness of the array of myosin cross-bridges in the hs (e) is 40.7 ± 3.7 kPa nm?1. An increase in [Pi] decreases the stiffness of the cross-bridge array in proportion to the isometric force, indicating that the force of the cross-bridge remains constant independently of [Pi]. The rate constant of isometric force development after a period of unloaded shortening (rF) is 23.5 ± 1.0 s?1 in control solution and increases monotonically with [Pi], attaining a maximum value of 48.6 ± 0.9 s?1 at 20 mM [Pi], in agreement with the idea that Pi release is a relatively fast step after force generation by the myosin cross-bridge. During isometric force development at any [Pi], e and thus the number of attached cross-bridges increase in proportion to the force, indicating that, independently of the speed of the process that leads to myosin attachment to actin, there is no significant (>1 ms) delay between generation of stiffness and generation of force by the cross-bridges.

Caremani, Marco; Dantzig, Jody; Goldman, Yale E.; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Linari, Marco

2008-01-01

395

Human Integrin ?3?1 Regulates TLR2 Recognition of Lipopeptides from Endosomal Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/TLR1 heterodimers recognize bacterial lipopeptides and initiate the production of inflammatory mediators. Adaptors and co-receptors that mediate this process, as well as the mechanisms by which these adaptors and co-receptors function, are still being discovered. Methodology/Principal Findings Using shRNA, blocking antibodies, and fluorescent microscopy, we show that U937 macrophage responses to the TLR2/1 ligand, Pam3CSK4, are dependent upon an integrin, ?3?1. The mechanism for integrin ?3?1 involvement in TLR2/1 signaling is through its role in endocytosis of lipopeptides. Using inhibitors of endosomal acidification/maturation and physical tethering of the ligand, we show that the endocytosis of Pam3CSK4 is necessary for the complete TLR2/1-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine response. We also show that TLR2/1 signaling from the endosome results in the induction of different inflammatory mediators than TLR2/1 signaling from the plasma membrane. Conclusion/Significance Here we identify integrin ?3?1 as a novel regulator for the recognition of bacterial lipopeptides. We demonstrate that induction of a specific subset of cytokines is dependent upon integrin ?3?1-mediated endocytosis of the ligand. In addition, we address an ongoing controversy regarding endosomal recognition of bacterial lipopeptides by demonstrating that TLR2/1 signals from within endosomal compartments as well as the plasma membrane, and that downstream responses may differ depending upon receptor localization. We propose that the regulation of endosomal TLR2/1 signaling by integrin ?3?1 serves as a mechanism for modulating inflammatory responses.

DeFrancesco, Alicia S.; Darcy, Courtney T.; Hu, Linden T.

2010-01-01

396

Regulation of the Development of the Hepatic B Cell Compartment during Schistosoma mansoni Infection.  

PubMed

During infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, Ab regulates hepatic inflammation, and local production of Ig in the liver appears to play a role in this process. Exploring the development of the B cell response during infection, we found that parasite-specific IgG1-secreting plasma cells appeared first in the hepatic and mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs) and then at later times in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The LN B cell population peaked between weeks 10 and 12 of infection, and then contracted at a time that coincided with the expansion of the hepatic IgG1(+) B cell compartment, suggesting that B cells migrate from LNs to liver. CXCL9 and -16 expression in the liver increased during the time frame of B cell recruitment. Expression of the CXCL16 receptor CXCR6 was increased on B cells within the hepatic LNs, but not the mesenteric LNs. CXCR3, the receptor for CXCL9, was broadly expressed on IgG1(+) B cells in LNs and liver during infection. Increased hepatic expression of CXCL9 and -16 failed to occur if the IL-10R was blocked in vivo, an intervention associated with decreased liver B cell infiltration and the development of severe disease. Hepatic LN IgG1(+) cells migrated toward CXCL9 and -16 in vitro and to the liver in a pertussis toxin-sensitive fashion. Our data suggest that the coordinated expression of CXCL9 and -16 in the liver and of CXCR6 and CXCR3 on responding B cells within the hepatic LNs underpins establishment of the hepatic B cell infiltrate during chronic schistosomiasis. PMID:24038090

Fairfax, Keke C; Everts, Bart; Smith, Amber M; Pearce, Edward J

2013-09-13

397

Fixed block configuration group divisible designs with block size six  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present constructions and results about GDDs with two groups and block size 6. We study those GDDs in which each block has configuration (s,t), that is in which each block has exactly s points from one of the two groups and t points from the other. We show the necessary conditions are sufficient for the existence of GDD(n,2,6;{\\\\lambda}1,{\\\\lambda}2)s with

Melissa Keranen; Melanie Laffin

2011-01-01

398

Concurrent Periostalgia and Chronic Proximal Deep Posterior Compartment Syndrome in a Collegiate Track and Field Athlete: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective: Exercise-induced leg pain may be triggered by abnormally high compartment pressure. In addition to the more widely publicized anterior compartment syndrome, the deep posterior compartment syndrome can just as frequently occur, resulting in severe pain and disability due to muscle and nerve ischemia. Background: Obtaining a thorough history and compartmental pressure measurements are the usual components in the accurate diagnosis of compartment syndromes. While few other disorders mimic compartment syndromes, differential diagnoses must be considered. Surgical management of deep compartment syndrome, consisting of fasciotomy or fasciectomy, or both, is successful for most patients. Differential Diagnosis: Tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, tibial periostalgia, distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome, proximal deep chronic compartment syndrome, superficial lateral compartment syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, popliteal artery entrapment, or chronic compartment syndrome. Uniqueness: Chronic deep compartment syndrome is one of the most common causes of exercise-induced leg pain in aerobic athletes. Therefore, the athletic trainer must be able to recognize the condition. Signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and surgical management of chronic deep compartment syndrome, chronic periostalgia, and superficial lateral compartment syndrame in a 21-year-old Division IA track and field athlete are presented. Conclusions: With the correct diagnosis, persistent and methodical reevaluation, and appropriate management, the athlete can expect a successful treatment outcome.

Heinrichs, Kristinn I.; Lachowicz, Wendy M.; Detmer, Don E.

2000-01-01

399

The Building Blocks of Consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus is an important building block for building replicated systems, and many con- sensus protocols have been proposed. In this paper, we investigate the building blocks of consensus protocols and use these building blocks to assemble a skeleton that can be congured to produce, among others, three well-known consensus protocols: Paxos, Chandra-Toueg, and Ben-Or. Although each of these protocols species

Yee Jiun Song; Robbert Van Renesse; Fred B. Schneider; Danny Dolev

2008-01-01

400

The perinucleolar compartment is directly associated with DNA.  

PubMed

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a nuclear subdomain that is unique to tumor cells, and the percentage of cells in a population containing PNCs (PNC prevalence) indicates the level of malignancy of that population. Here, we utilize anti-cancer drugs and other exogenous stimuli to investigate the structure and function of the PNC. Screening of clinically used anti-cancer drugs revealed two types of drugs disassemble PNCs and do so through their specific molecular actions. Transcription inhibitors reduce PNC prevalence in parallel with RNA polymerase III transcription reduction, and a subset of DNA-damaging drugs and stimuli (UV radiation) disassemble the PNC. Inhibition of cellular DNA damage response demonstrated that the DNA damage itself, not the response or polymerase III inhibition, is responsible for PNC disassembly, suggesting that the maintenance of the PNC is dependent upon DNA integrity. Analyses of the types of DNA damage that cause PNC disassembly show that interstrand DNA base pairing, not strand continuity, is important for PNC integrity, indicating that the PNC components are directly interacting with the DNA. Complementary cell biology experiments demonstrated that the number of PNCs per cell increases with the rounds of endoreplication and that PNCs split into doublets during mid S phase, both of which are phenotypes that are typical of a replicating DNA loci. Together, these studies validate PNC disassembly as a screening marker to identify chemical probes and revealed that the PNC is directly nucleated on a DNA locus, suggesting a potential role for the PNC in gene expression regulation. PMID:19015260

Norton, John T; Wang, Chen; Gjidoda, Alison; Henry, R William; Huang, Sui

2008-11-17

401

Reformulated tenofovir gel for use as a dual compartment microbicide  

PubMed Central

Objectives Coital use of 1% tenofovir gel was shown to be modestly effective at preventing HIV transmission when applied vaginally in the CAPRISA 004 trial. Because the gel is hyperosmolar, which would reduce the integrity of the epithelium and induce fluid movement into the lumen, rectal use may not be acceptable. This study evaluated the pre-clinical safety and efficacy of a reformulated (reduced osmolality) tenofovir gel product. Methods Reduced glycerine (RG)-tenofovir gel was compared with the original tenofovir gel for physiochemical characteristics, product safety and anti-HIV-1 activity. Results The formulations were similar in all characteristics except for osmolality and spreadability/firmness. The RG-tenofovir gel had a 73% lower osmolality, a 29.6% increase in spreadability and a 27% decrease in firmness as compared with the original tenofovir gel. When applied to epithelial cell monolayers, tenofovir gel showed a transient reduction in the transepithelial resistance while the RG-tenofovir gel did not. Both gels retained ectocervical and colorectal explant viability. However, tenofovir gel treatment resulted in epithelial stripping that was absent after RG-tenofovir gel treatment of the polarized explants. Anti-HIV-1 activity was confirmed by lack of HIV-1 infection in polarized explants treated with either gel as compared with the control explants. Conclusions Reducing the osmolality of the tenofovir gel resulted in improved epithelial integrity, which suggests better safety upon rectal use. The improved gel safety did not compromise drug release or anti-HIV-1 activity. These data support the use of this gel as a dual compartment microbicide.

Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Rohan, Lisa C.; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Shetler, Cory; Cost, Marilyn; Lynam, J. D.; Friend, David

2012-01-01

402

To Block or Not To Block: That's Not the Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed secondary school teachers in schools with block and traditional scheduling regarding their preparation for using various instructional practices, their use of those practices, and the appropriateness of employing them as part of block and traditional scheduling. Overall, few differences were evident in opinions about level of use,…

Jenkins, Elaine; Queen, Allen; Algozzine, Bob

2002-01-01

403

The AK Block, a Sized-Block Snow Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AK Block is a snow test developed and used by the Southeast Alaska Avalanche Center staff over a 20-year period. It is a block sized to the tester's weight and their ski or snowboard contact length, dug out on three sides. It is loaded in the same manner as the Rutschblock, but tests slab properties as well as shear

Bill Glude

404

Osteochondral flap avulsion fracture in a child with forearm compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Traumatic elbow dislocations account for approximately 3% to 6% of childhood upper extremity injuries, and 41% of these dislocations are concomitant injuries around the elbow. Most of these injuries are associated with a fall on an outstretched hand. Compartment syndrome is one recognized complication after elbow dislocation and distal humeral and radial neck fracture. Compartment syndrome in the forearm is a devastating complication in children with forearm, elbow, and supracondylar fractures. Compartment syndrome occurs as the result of hypoxic damage caused by interruption of the circulation to the muscles. Any evidence of compartment syndrome requires compartment pressure measurements and possibly fasciotomy. Fasciotomy is recommended in the presence of clinical signs of compartment syndrome, such as undue pain (out of proportion to severity of injury), pallor, paresthesia, absent or deficient pulse, and paralysis of the limb. Osteochondral flap avulsion fracture is a rare clinical presentation in pediatric elbow injuries. To our knowledge only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. Our case is different from others in terms of delayed presentation, and is associated with olecranon fracture and forearm compartment syndrome. This case reemphasizes the anatomy of the semilunar notch of the proximal ulna and the importance of careful clinical and radiological examination in the treatment of childhood elbow injuries. PMID:19292414

Kowtharapu, Durga Nagaraju; Thabet, Ahmed M; Holmes, Larry; Kruse, Richard

2008-08-01

405

19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards...TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings;...

2013-04-01

406

31 CFR 548.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...204 Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...expenses incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

407

31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

408

31 CFR 588.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

409

31 CFR 543.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

410

31 CFR 560.214 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

411

31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

412

31 CFR 576.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

413

31 CFR 593.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

414

31 CFR 549.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

415

In vivo behavior of radioiodinated rabbit antithrombin III. Demonstration of a noncirculating vascular compartment  

SciTech Connect

Rabbit antithrombin III (AT), was labeled with iodine-131 by either the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase or iodine monochloride techniques. When intravenously injected, the disappearance of the /sup 131/I-AT from plasma was characterized by rapid initial decreases, and three-exponential equations were required for best fit of the plasma disappearance curves. This rapid /sup 131/I-AT removal was not caused by denaturation, as shown by comparison with results obtained when /sup 131/I-AT was biologically screened (injected into a first rabbit, and then transferred 16 h later in whole plasma to a second for kinetic evaluation) before injection. Thus, the same rapid initial loss of plasma /sup 131/I-AT was observed with screened preparations, and the plasma fractional catabolic rates of 0.716 +/- 0.048 and 0.673 +/- 0.051 day-1 for unscreened and screened /sup 131/I-AT were not significantly different. These results support the hypothesis that a vascular-endothelial AT compartment is present in rabbit. The fractions of the total-body AT in the plasma, the vascular-endothelial and the extravascular compartments were 0.337 +/- 0.031, 0.178 +/- 0.056, and 0.485 +/- 0.069, respectively. Two three-compartment kinetic models are discussed. The first pictures AT as distributing independently between plasma and two other compartments, and the second sees AT as first passing to the vascular-endothelial compartment, and then directly into the extravascular compartment. The plasma /sup 131/I-AT kinetic data was consistent with both models, but the sizes of the vascular-endothelial compartments were best predicted by the second. If AT catabolism was assigned to the plasma, both models generally underpredicted the whole-body radioactivities, while assignment of breakdown to the extravascular compartment generally resulted in overpredictions. This suggests that AT catabolism occurs from both plasma and extravascular compartments.

Carlson, T.H.; Atencio, A.C.; Simon, T.L.

1984-07-01

416

Retargeting of the mitochondrial protein p32/gC1Qr to a cytoplasmic compartment and the cell surface.  

PubMed

p32/gC1qR is a small acidic protein that has been reported to have a broad range of distinct functions and to associate with a wide array of cellular, viral and bacterial proteins. It has been found in each of the main cellular compartments including mitochondria, nucleus and cytoplasm and is also thought to be located at the plasma membrane and secreted into the extracellular matrix. The true physiological role(s) of p32 remains controversial because it has been difficult to reconcile all of the findings on protein interactions and the seemingly disparate observations on compartmentalisation. However, it has been proposed that p32 is somehow involved in transport processes connecting diverse cellular compartments and the cell surface. Here we show that native p32 appears to be localised mainly in the mitochondria and is not detectable on the cell surface. However, addition of a short tag to the N-terminus of p32 appears to block its mitochondrial targeting, resulting in redirection into a cytoplasmic vesicular pattern, overlapping with the endoplasmic reticulum. The redirection of p32 results in an alteration in and co-localisation with ER markers including calreticulin, a lumenal ER chaperone. Furthermore, we show both by immunofluorescence and cross-linking studies that this also results in cell-surface expression of p32. These results indicate that, at least under certain circumstances, p32 can be retargeted and may help to provide an explanation for the diverse observations on its localization. PMID:11493647

van Leeuwen, H C; O'Hare, P

2001-06-01

417

Two-compartment tumor metabolism: autophagy in the tumor microenvironment and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Previously, we proposed a new paradigm to explain the compartment-specific role of autophagy in tumor metabolism. In this model, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the tumor stroma promotes cellular catabolism, which results in the production of recycled nutrients. These chemical building blocks and high-energy "fuels" would then drive the anabolic growth of tumors, via autophagy resistance and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. We have termed this new form of stromal-epithelial metabolic coupling: "two-compartment tumor metabolism." Here, we stringently tested this energy-transfer hypothesis, by genetically creating (1) constitutively autophagic fibroblasts, with mitochondrial dysfunction or (2) autophagy-resistant cancer cells, with increased mitochondrial function. Autophagic fibroblasts were generated by stably overexpressing key target genes that lead to AMP-kinase activation, such as DRAM and LKB1. Autophagy-resistant cancer cells were derived by overexpressing GOLPH3, which functionally promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. As predicted, DRAM and LKB1 overexpressing fibroblasts were constitutively autophagic and effectively promoted tumor growth. We validated that autophagic fibroblasts showed mitochondrial dysfunction, with increased production of mitochondrial fuels (L-lactate and ketone body accumulation). Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpressing breast cancer cells were autophagy-resistant, and showed signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which resulted in increased tumor growth. Thus, autophagy in the tumor stroma and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in cancer cells can both dramatically promote tumor growth, independently of tumor angiogenesis. For the first time, our current studies also link the DNA damage response in the tumor microenvironment with "Warburg-like" cancer metabolism, as DRAM is a DNA damage/repair target gene. PMID:22722266

Salem, Ahmed F; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Lin, Zhao; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

2012-07-01

418

Complications of peripheral nerve blocks.  

PubMed

Complications of peripheral nerve blocks are fortunately rare, but can be devastating for both the patient and the anaesthesiologist. This review will concentrate on current knowledge about peripheral nerve injury secondary to nerve blocks, complications from continuous peripheral nerve catheter techniques, and local anaesthetic systemic toxicity. PMID:21148659

Jeng, C L; Torrillo, T M; Rosenblatt, M A

2010-12-01

419

The Block-Design Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops an interesting point scale of intelligence on the basis of a performance test consisting of block designs built up from the colored blocks manufactured by the Embossing Company. Seventeen designs of increasing complexity were used with a time limit on each varying from 1 ˝ to 4 minutes. The actual working time of the test is 30

S. C. Kohs

1920-01-01

420

Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

Bastedo, Helena

2010-01-01

421

eXtended Block Cache  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new instruction-supply mechanism, called the eXtended Block Cache (XBC). The goal of the XBC is to improve on the Trace Cache (TC) hit rate, while providing the same bandwidth. The improved hit rate is achieved by having the XBC a nearly redundant free structure. The basic unit recorded in the XBC is the extended block (XB),

Stéphan Jourdan; Lihu Rappoport; Yoav Almog; Mattan Erez; Adi Yoaz; Ronny Ronen

2000-01-01

422

Microbial diversity and dynamics in multi- and single-compartment anaerobic bioreactors processing sulfate-rich waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We investigated bacterial and archaeal community structures and population dynamics in two anaerobic bioreactors processing a carbohydrate- and sulfate- rich synthetic wastewater. A five-compartment anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was designed to promote biomass and substrate staging, which partially separates the processes of methano- genesis and sulfidogenesis in the middle and outer compartment(s) respectively. The second reactor was a

Aurelio M. Briones; Becky J. Daugherty; Largus T. Angenent; Kent D. Rausch; Mike E. Tumbleson; Lutgarde Raskin

2007-01-01

423

Compartment syndrome of the thigh. A case report with delayed onset after stable pelvic ring fracture and chronic anticoagulation therapie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare occurrence potentially leading to devastating functional restrictions. There is a wide spectrum of reported conditions leading to increased tissue pressure in the thigh possibly resulting in a compartment syndrome, ranging from deep venous thrombosis to blunt injuries and femoral fractures. We report a case of a delayed development of a compartment syndrome

Rolf D Burghardt; Sebastian Siebenlist; Stefan Döbele; Martin Lucke; Ulrich Stöckle

2010-01-01

424

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

425

Stimuli-responsive block copolypeptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimuli-responsive polypeptide block copolymers are appealing systems due to the morphological polymorphic states they can exhibit in selective solvents, including micelles, vesicles, fibrils, and more complex supramolecular aggregates. Their morphologies can be engineered a-priori by the relative block lengths, the solvent composition, and their concentration. However controlling the morphology upon external stimuli offers clear benefits, since changes in structure and morphology can be induced on demand. In this talk, we present two examples of stimuli-responsive block copolypeptides: in a first case, a photoresponsive PLGA-PEO diblock is discussed capable to reversibly undergo micellization-dissolution-micellization upon visible or Uv light exposure, due to spiropyrans units decorating the PLGA block; in the second case a PBLG-PDMS-PBLG triblock copolymer undergoing reversible thermal-induced organogelation is also presented. The changes in morphology are correlated, in both cases to the variations in molecular conformations of the polypeptide blocks.

Krishna Kotharangannagari, Venkata; Sanchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Ruokolainen, Janne; Mezzenga, Raffaele

2012-02-01

426

Pediatric critical care nurses' experience with abdominal compartment syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome associated with multi-system effects of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in critically ill children. It has a 90-100% mortality rate if not recognized and treated promptly. Measuring IAP helps identify patients developing intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which allows for timely intervention before progression to ACS. IAP helps identify ACS and guides its medical and surgical management. IAP is often measured by the bedside nurse in the intensive care unit. Pediatric critical care nurses (PCCN) play a key role in managing critically ill patients and recognizing potential causes for clinical deterioration such as ACS therefore should be knowledgeable about this entity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the awareness and current knowledge of ACS among PCCN. Methods A ten-item written questionnaire was distributed at a National Critical Care Conference in 2006 and again in 2010. Participants of the conference voluntarily completed and immediately returned the survey. Results from the two questionnaires were compared. Results Sixty-two percent of 691 questionnaires were completed. The awareness of ACS improved from 69.3% in 2006 to 87.8% in 2010 (p < 0.001) among PCCN. "Years in practice" influenced awareness of ACS. Nurses working for 5-10 and > 10 years were, respectively, 2.34 and 1.89 times more likely to be aware of ACS than those working for < 5 years. Hands-on experience managing a child with ACS by PCCN also improved from 49.1% to 67.9% (p < 0.001) but remains low. The number of participants who never measured IAP fell from 27.3% to 19.1% (p = 0.101). The most common method being used to measure IAP is the bladder method. Knowledge of the definition of ACS remains poor with only 13.2% associating the definition of ACS with organ dysfunction in 2010 which was even lower than in 2006. Conclusions There is increasing awareness of ACS and experience in its management among PCCN. However, few PCCN correctly understand the definition of ACS. Since recognition of IAH and early intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, further educational efforts should be directed toward improving the knowledge and recognition of ACS by PCCN.

2012-01-01

427

Low-impact trauma causing acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremities.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome usually occurs in the muscles of an extremity as a consequence of trauma or reperfusion. However, it can also occur from minor injuries with resulting hematoma.We reviewed the charts of 5 individuals who presented to the emergency department after minimal or no known trauma and were ultimately diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome. None sustained fractures, and 2 had documented muscle tears. All patients were found to have hematomas in the affected compartment at the time of surgery. Low-impact trauma can cause acute compartment syndrome in the lower extremities. These cases could be the result of muscle hemorrhage and subsequent hematoma formation, rather than muscle swelling itself. Anticoagulation therapy can increase the risk of hemorrhage. PMID:23481157

Aliano, Kristen; Gulati, Salil; Stavrides, Steve; Davenport, Thomas; Hines, George

2013-03-06

428

Overuse injuries of the lower extremity: shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes.  

PubMed

The authors' discussion of overuse injuries of the lower extremity encompasses shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are considered for each disorder. PMID:3319204

Jones, D C; James, S L

1987-04-01

429

Minimum Performance Standard for Aircraft Cargo Compartment Halon Replacement Fire Suppression Systems (2012 Update).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note presents the 2012 update to the minimum performance standards that a Halon 1301 replacement or alternate system for aircraft cargo compartment must meet as part of the aircraft certification procedures. This document replaces report nu...

J. W. Reinhardt

2012-01-01

430

Rna-seq analysis of the functional compartments within the rat placentation site  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rat placentation site is distinctly organized into interacting zones, the so-called labyrinth, junctional, and metrial gland compartments. These zones house unique cell populations equipped to undertake myriad prescribed functions including transport, hormonal responses, and immune interactions....

431

Compartment-resolved imaging of cortical functional hyperemia with OCT angiography  

PubMed Central

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) angiography was applied to image functional hyperemia in different vascular compartments in the rat somatosensory cortex. Dynamic backscattering changes, indicative of changes in dynamic red blood cell (dRBC) content, were used to monitor the hemodynamic response. Three-dimensional movies depicting the microvascular response to neuronal activation were created for the first time. An increase in the attenuation coefficient during activation was identified, and a simple normalization procedure was proposed to correct for it. This procedure was applied to determine compartment-resolved backscattering changes caused by dRBC content changes during functional activation. Increases in dRBC content were observed in all vascular compartments (arterial, arteriolar, capillary, and venular), with the largest responses found in the arterial and arteriolar compartments. dRBC content increased with dilation in arteries but with barely detectable dilation in veins. dRBC content increased in capillaries without significant “all or none” capillary recruitment.

Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

2013-01-01

432

Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome of the legs: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Bilateral acute compartment syndrome of the legs is a rare presentation requiring emergent surgical intervention. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of 41-year-old woman who presented with acute bilateral compartment syndrome of the legs, complicated by rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. DISCUSSION There are very few previously reported cases of bilateral compartment syndrome of the legs. In the present case, despite any clear causative factor, we suggest that the aetiology is related to inadvertent posture during sleep. CONCLUSION The diagnosis of acute bilateral compartment syndrome of the legs requires a high index of suspicion, particularly in the absence of obvious aetiology. A successful outcome can be achieved with early diagnosis, prompt surgical intervention and a multidisciplinary approach.

Khan, T.; Lee, G.H.; Alvand, A.; Mahaluxmivala, J.S.

2012-01-01

433

Compartment A125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for supporting and protecting the forward 8" gun turret above. Anchor windlass is in left background. (033) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

434

Bilateral medial foot compartment syndrome after an aerobics class: a case report.  

PubMed

The authors present an unusual case of bilateral medial foot compartment syndrome in a healthy woman after a low-intensity aerobics exercise class. The majority of compartment syndrome cases have occurred after trauma, such as combat crush injuries and motor vehicle accidents. We wish to call attention to a rare situation in which compartment syndrome occurs in a healthy young adult after low-intensity exercise and highlight the necessity of a high clinical suspicion and a low threshold for fasciotomies to prevent irreversible muscle damage as a result of extremely high pressures. There is a paucity of cases on the clinical management and follow-up of this rare occurrence of compartment syndrome. PMID:22621857

Lam, Suet Kam; McAlister, Jeffrey; Oliver, Noah; Pontell, David

2012-05-22

435

Cultural Resources Inventory of the Axford Timber Compartment, Plumas County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on an approximately 5071 acre archaeological inventory of the Axford Timber Compartment, Plumas National Forest, located near Bucks Lake, California. The survey resulted in the recordation of six aboriginal and nine historic sites, tw...

S. Baker L. H. Shoup

1983-01-01

436

46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...readily accessible and, as far as practicable, separated from any machinery space; (2) Ensure working access to machinery and controls in the compartment; and (3) Include handrails and either gratings or other non-slip surfaces to...

2011-10-01

437

Something silent this way forms: the functional organization of the repressive nuclear compartment.  

PubMed

The repressive compartment of the nucleus is comprised primarily of telomeric and centromeric regions, the silent portion of ribosomal RNA genes, the majority of transposable element repeats, and facultatively repressed genes specific to different cell types. This compartment localizes into three main regions: the peripheral heterochromatin, perinucleolar heterochromatin, and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Both chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription of noncoding RNAs are involved in maintenance of repression in these compartments. Global reorganization of the repressive compartment occurs at each cell division, during early development, and during terminal differentiation. Differential action of chromatin remodeling complexes and boundary element looping activities are involved in mediating these organizational changes. We discuss the evidence that heterochromatin formation and compartmentalization may drive nuclear organization. PMID:23834025

Politz, Joan C Ritland; Scalzo, David; Groudine, Mark

2013-07-05

438

Three New Exploration and Development Concepts for Compartmented Basins. Final Report, July 1992-January 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of the compartment concept culminated with the development of exploration guidelines, improved interpretation and data gathering techniques, and quantitative modeling tools to aid in basin or field analysis. Patterns of cementation associate...

Z. Al-Shaieb P. Ortoleva D. Powley

1997-01-01

439

Anatomy of the posterior approach to the lumbar plexus block  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the relation of the lumbar plexus with the psoas major and with the superficial\\u000a and deep landmarks close to it. Four cadavers were dissected and 22 computed tomography files of the lumbosacral region studied.\\u000a Cadaver dissections demonstrated that the lumbar plexus, at the level of L5, is within the substance of the

Juliana Farny; Pierre Drolet; Michel Girard

1994-01-01

440

Experimental Study on the Mitigation of Backdraft in Compartment Fires with Water Mist  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the results of a reduced-scale experimental test series using water mist to mitigate backdraft in compartment fires are presented. This reduced-scale compartment (1.2 m 0.6 m 0.6 m)was fitted with a variety of end opening geometries: middle-slot, upside-slot, downside-slot, door, window and vertical middle-slot, and ceiling opening geometries: slot and window. Water mist was generated by a

W. G. Weng; W. C. Fan

2002-01-01

441

Comparison of a two-compartment model and distributed models for indicator dilution studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nonstationary flow the estimation of the mean flow with an indicator dilution technique can be described by applying a\\u000a two-compartment model for the system between the injection site and detection site. The aim of this study was to investigate\\u000a whether the two-compartment approach could be used in experimental situations as encountered in nonsteady blood flow during\\u000a artificial ventilation. For

E. A. von Reth; J. M. Bogaard

1983-01-01

442

Spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm in association with nephrotic syndrome and transient bacteremia  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with spontaneous compartment syndrome of the upper extremity in association with nephrotic syndrome and transient bacteremia, of which the exact cause of compartment syndrome was unclear. This is an extremely rare occurrence, and index of suspicion should be maintained even in the absence of trauma when a patient presents with acute swelling of the upper or lower extremity together with nephrotic syndrome.

Chim, H; Soltanian, HT

2012-01-01

443

CS-US temporal relations in blocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four trace-conditioning experiments with rats, the influence on the blocking of differences between the blocking cue-unconditioned\\u000a stimulus (US) and the blocked cue-US trace intervals was explored. Experiment 1 demonstrated blocking despite the blocked\\u000a cue’s having a shorter trace interval than the blocking cue in both elemental (Phase 1) and compound (Phase 2) training. In\\u000a Experiment 2, blocking was attenuated

Jeffrey C. Amundson; Ralph R. Miller

2008-01-01

444

Snell's Law with Large Blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introductory physics lab curriculum usually has one experiment devoted to the study of the refraction of light. The most obvious way to study the refraction of light is to lay a transparent block down on the lab bench and aim a laser beam horizontally at the block so that it refracts twice-inward upon entering the block and outward upon exiting. The vendors that provide us with lab equipment (Sargent-Welch, PASCO, Fisher Scientific, and Frey Scientific to name a few) sell acrylic blocks for this very purpose, but these are either too small or they are too expensive. If students are going to measure angles of incidence and refraction, the blocks should be larger than the typical student protractor, which has a radius of 3 in (~ 7˝ cm). These blocks are just not large enough. They are generally not thick enough either so that the beam from a typical laser passes over them and not through them. The vendors mentioned above do sell blackboard optics kits that contain, among other parts, three blocks that are large enough-on the order of 10 to 20 cm. Unfortunately, these kits cost more than $1000.

Lynch, John J.

2007-03-01

445

Biocompatible polylactide-block-polypeptide-block-polylactide nanocarrier.  

PubMed

Polypeptides are successfully incorporated into poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) chains in a ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l-lactide by using them as initiators. The resulting ABA triblock copolymers possess molecular weights up to 11000 g·mol(-1) and polydispersities as low as 1.13, indicating the living character of the polymerization process. In a nonaqueous emulsion, peptide-initiated polymerization of l-lactide leads to well-defined nanoparticles, consisting of PLLA-block-peptide-block-PLLA copolymer. These nanoparticles are easily loaded by dye-encapsulation and transferred into aqueous media without aggregation (average diameter of 100 nm) or significant dye leakage. Finally, internalization of PLLA-block-peptide-block-PLLA nanoparticles by HeLa cells is demonstrated by a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and fluorescence microscopy. This demonstrates the promise of their utilization as cargo delivery vehicles. PMID:23540754

Dorresteijn, Robert; Ragg, Ruben; Rago, Gianluca; Billecke, Nils; Bonn, Mischa; Parekh, Sapun H; Battagliarin, Glauco; Peneva, Kalina; Wagner, Manfred; Klapper, Markus; Müllen, Klaus

2013-04-15

446

About Spot the Block Understanding “The Block” To Learn ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... In response to the increasing problem of childhood obesity, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created Spot the Block — a campaign to ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

447

Self-assembly of biological membranes into 200-400 nm aqueous compartments.  

PubMed

Membrane formation by amphipathic mixtures in aqueous environments is central to eukaryotic biology. Formation of aqueous compartments enclosed by membranes is of immense importance in designing liposomal systems for pharmaceutical applications. It is also continuously controlled within the dynamic environment of a living cell and, during cell division. In spite of over four decades of research on protein-free lipid bilayers, membrane compartment formation is still an art rather than science. This is because the experimental efforts to date have been aimed at making aqueous compartments from different lipid mixtures in different buffers and solutions of different ionic strengths. Thus, even similar methodologies produce varying results in different laboratories. In this work, we provide for the first time, experimental parameters of minimum hydration volume and maximum possible volumes for aqueous entrapments formed by DOPE:DOPC:Chol stoichiometries similar to intracellular environments and those used in pharmaceutical research for liposomal systems. We define a new experimental parameter of "Critical Compartmentalization Concentration" for formation of membrane-bound 200-400 nm aqueous compartments by these amphipathic mixtures in the simplest possible controlled environment of pure water. We report the first experimental insights into "equations" governing self-assembly leading to formation of membrane compartments encapsulating aqueous volumes. Our work opens a completely new avenue for engineering of aqueous compartment and liposomal preparations using known biological lipids in different aqueous environments. PMID:20358903

Mittal, Aditya; Grover, Rahul

2010-05-01

448

Activation of individual extrinsic thumb muscles and compartments of extrinsic finger muscles.  

PubMed

Mechanical and neurological couplings exist between musculotendon units of the human hand and digits. Studies have begun to understand how these muscles interact when accomplishing everyday tasks, but there are still unanswered questions regarding the control limitations of individual muscles. Using intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, this study examined subjects' ability to individually initiate and sustain three levels of normalized muscular activity in the index and middle finger muscle compartments of extensor digitorum communis (EDC), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), as well as the extrinsic thumb muscles abductor pollicis longus (APL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), and flexor pollicis longus (FPL). The index and middle finger compartments each sustained activations with significantly different levels of coactivity from the other finger muscle compartments. The middle finger compartment of EDC was the exception. Only two extrinsic thumb muscles, EPL and FPL, were capable of sustaining individual activations from the other thumb muscles, at all tested activity levels. Activation of APL was achieved at 20 and 30% MVC activity levels with significantly different levels of coactivity. Activation of EPB elicited coactivity levels from EPL and APL that were not significantly different. These results suggest that most finger muscle compartments receive unique motor commands, but of the four thumb muscles, only EPL and FPL were capable of individually activating. This work is encouraging for the neural control of prosthetic limbs because these muscles and compartments may potentially serve as additional user inputs to command prostheses. PMID:23803329

Birdwell, J Alexander; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A; Weir, Richard F Ff

2013-06-26

449

A snake in the clinical grass: late compartment syndrome in a child bitten by an adder.  

PubMed

Snakebite envenomation is an uncommon condition in the UK, but requires vigilance with regard to both the systemic effects of the venom and the locoregional impact on the soft tissues. We describe a case requiring delayed fasciotomies for closed compartment syndrome of the leg and thigh, and discuss in detail the controversies surrounding decompression in such a case. Adder bites are uncommon in the UK, but can result in envenomation of varying severity. Apart from the numerous possible systemic effects that require attention, there are local effects that, very rarely, can be limb threatening. Of these, elevated limb compartment pressures are of paramount importance, and recognition of closed compartment ischaemia is vital if the limb is to be saved by surgical decompression. Guidelines on threshold compartment pressures and fasciotomies are indistinct regarding snakebite, with diagnostic emphasis still placed on clinical signs and symptoms. In the paediatric setting, measurement of compartment pressures is a valuable adjunct to clinical suspicion in the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome secondary to snakebite. PMID:12372375

Cawrse, N H; Inglefield, C J; Hayes, C; Palmer, J H

2002-07-01

450

ATP-coupled transport of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein: functional boundaries of secretory compartments  

SciTech Connect

The oligosaccharide processing intermediates of the vesicular stomatitis virus strain ts045 G protein were used to identify ATP-and temperature-sensitive steps in the constitutive pathway of protein transfer of the cell surface. In addition to the initial ATP-sensitive step required for export from the endoplasmic reticulum, two distinct ATP-sensitive steps functionally dissect the Golgi into at least 3 compartments: a cis compartment containing the trimming enzyme mannosidase I, a medial compartment conferring resistance to endoglycosidase H, and a trans compartment containing terminal glycosyl transferases. A fourth ATP-sensitive step is required for export of G protein from the trans Golgi to the cell surface. A high threshold of cellular ATP (70% of the control) was required for maximal rates of transport between Golgi compartments. Transport between compartments is inhibited at 40% of the normal cellular ATP pool. Only a single temperature-sensitive step localized to the endoplasmic reticulum inhibited transport of ts045 G protein to the cell surface. The data suggest that ATP-sensitive steps punctuate transport of protein between compartmental boundaries of the secretory pathway.

Balch, W.E.; Keller, D.S.

1986-11-05

451

Relative Building-Block Fitness and the Building Block Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building-block hypothesis states that the GA works well when short, low-order, highly-flt schemas recombine to form even more highly flt higher-order schemas. The ability to produce fltter and fltter partial solu- tions by combining building blocks is believed to be a primary source of the GA's search power, but the GA research community currently lacks pre- cise and quantitative

Stephanie Forrest; Melanie Mitchell

1992-01-01

452

Fascia iliaca block prophylaxis for hip fracture patients at risk for delirium: a randomized placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent studies have indicated that unmanaged pain, both acute and chronic, can affect mental status and might precipitate\\u000a delirium, especially in elderly patients with hip fractures. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of fascia\\u000a iliaca compartment block (FICB) for prevention of perioperative delirium in hip surgery patients who were at intermediate\\u000a or high risk for this

George Mouzopoulos; George Vasiliadis; Nikolaos Lasanianos; George Nikolaras; Emanouil Morakis; Michalis Kaminaris

2009-01-01

453

The Building Blocks of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about atoms and their structure (protons, electrons, neutrons) â the building blocks of matter. They see how scientific discoveries about atoms and molecules influence new technologies developed by engineers.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

454

The Building Blocks of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)|

Gibson, Betty O.

2001-01-01

455

Endplate blocking actions of lophotoxin.  

PubMed Central

Effects of lophotoxin (LTX), a neurotoxin isolated from Pacific sea whips Lophogorgia rigida and Lophogorgia chelensis, on neuromuscular transmission were assessed in the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation using conventional microelectrode recording techniques, and in the frog cutaneous pectoris preparation using two microelectrode voltage clamp techniques. LTX (2-25 microM) produced a progressive, irreversible block of miniature endplate potential (m.e.p.p.) and endplate potential (e.p.p.) amplitude. M.e.p.p. amplitude histograms were shifted markedly in the direction of lower amplitude by LTX. These effects occurred following a latency of 25-40 min. The latency to onset of block was decreased with increasing LTX concentrations. In some preparations, LTX produced a transient increase in m.e.p.p. frequency during the first 5 min of application; however, m.e.p.p. frequency then declined to complete block. The depressant effect of LTX on m.e.p.p. and e.p.p. amplitude progressed to complete block irrespective of the LTX concentration. LTX also blocked the endplate depolarization produced by iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh). The resting membrane potential of skeletal muscle fibres was unaffected by LTX. In voltage clamp experiments, LTX (15 microM) depressed the peak amplitude of the endplate current (e.p.c.) nearly uniformly at potentials between -120 and +60 mV. LTX did not affect the e.p.c. reversal potential or the kinetics of e.p.c. decay suggesting that LTX does not block open ACh channels. E.p.c. block by LTX was also progressive and irreversible. The results indicate that LTX blocks neuromuscular transmission by a postjunctional action. The binding site of LTX may be different from that of ACh.

Atchison, W. D.; Narahashi, T.; Vogel, S. M.

1984-01-01

456

Partial blocking and associative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are going to explain partial blocking as the result of diachronic processes based on what we will call associative learning. Especially, we argue that the task posed by partial blocking phenomena is to explain their emergence from unambiguous and\\u000a fully expressive languages. This contrasts with approaches that presuppose underspecified semantic meanings or ineffability\\u000a like Bidirectional Optimality Theory (Bi–OT) and

Anton Benz

2006-01-01

457

Benzodiazepine-associated atrioventricular block.  

PubMed

Dysrhythmias, although common in overdose situations, are not often seen after benzodiazepine exposures. We report two cases of transient atrioventricular block after benzodiazepine misuse. Case 1 is a 4-year-old boy who was found unresponsive after an ingestion of clonazepam. An electrocardiogram (EKG) performed on emergency department presentation demonstrated first-degree atrioventricular block (PR 206 ms). After flumazenil administration, he developed second-degree atrioventricular block (Mobitz Type 1). EKG abnormalities resolved by morning. Serum clonazepam was 478 ng/mL (laboratory clonazepam reference range, 10-75 ng/mL with a dose of up to 6 mg/day) 5 hours after being found unresponsive. Case 2 is a 23-year-old man who presented to the emergency department after ingesting risperidone, combination hydrocodone/acetaminophen, and alprazolam. On arrival, his EKG demonstrated sinus bradycardia with a PR interval of 182 msec. He subsequently developed second-degree atrioventricular block (Mobitz Type I). Sinus bradycardia with resolution of his atrioventricular block (PR 200 ms) was seen on a third EKG performed 5 hours after presentation. These two patients demonstrated transient first- and second-degree atrioventricular block after benzodiazepine exposure. Benzodiazepines have been shown to alter L-type Ca2+ channel function. This alteration in function may account for the dysrhythmias seen in our patients. Together, these cases serve to remind clinicians of this rare but potentially serious complication associated with benzodiazepine exposure. PMID:20535011

Arroyo Plasencia, Anna M; Ballentine, Lynn M; Mowry, James B; Kao, Louise W

2012-01-01

458

RNA polymerase III transcripts and the PTB protein are essential for the integrity of the perinucleolar compartment.  

PubMed

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a nuclear substructure present in transformed cells. The PNC is defined by high concentrations of certain RNA binding proteins and a subset of small RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III), including the signal recognition particle RNA and an Alu RNA as reported here. To determine if the PNC is dependent on pol III transcription, HeLa cells were microinjected with the selective pol III inhibitor, Tagetin. This resulted in disassembly of the PNC, whereas inhibition of pol I by cycloheximide or pol II by alpha-amanitin did not significantly affect the PNC. However, overexpression of one of the PNC-associated RNAs from a pol II promoter followed by injection of Tagetin blocked the Tagetin-induced PNC disassembly, demonstrating that it is the RNA rather than pol III activity that is important for the PNC integrity. To elucidate the role of the PNC-associated protein PTB, its synthesis was inhibited by siRNA. This resulted in a reduction of the number of PNC-containing cells and the PNC size. Together, these findings suggest, as a working model, that PNCs may be involved in the metabolism of specific pol III transcripts in the transformed state and that PTB is one of the key elements mediating this process. PMID:12808040

Wang, Chen; Politz, Joan C; Pederson, Thoru; Huang, Sui

2003-06-01

459

Leukocyte transmigration requires kinesin-mediated microtubule-dependent membrane trafficking from the lateral border recycling compartment.  

PubMed

Diapedesis of leukocytes across endothelial cells is a crucial step in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Surface molecules on leukocytes and endothelial cells critical for diapedesis have been identified, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not understood. Homophilic interaction between platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) on leukocytes and PECAM at the endothelial border triggers targeted recycling of membrane from a reticulum localized close to the endothelial cell lateral border. This membrane surrounds the transmigrating leukocyte (Mamdouh, Z., X. Chen, L.M. Pierini, F.R. Maxfield, and W.A. Muller. 2003. Nature. 421:748-753). How this process occurs and whether it is required for diapedesis independent of PECAM are not known. We now report that targeted recycling from this lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) is required for diapedesis, is mediated by kinesin family molecular motors, and requires normally functioning endothelial microtubules. Selective disruption of microtubules or inhibition of kinesin motor domain blocked targeted recycling and diapedesis of monocytes. Furthermore, targeted recycling of membrane from the LBRC was required for transmigration of lymphocytes, which migrate independently of PECAM. Thus, trafficking of membrane from the LBRC to surround leukocytes may be a general requirement for migration of leukocytes across the endothelial cell border. Furthermore, these data provide the first demonstration of a role for endothelial microtubules and kinesins in promoting diapedesis, and a mechanism to explain targeted recycling. PMID:18378793

Mamdouh, Zahra; Kreitzer, Geri E; Muller, William A

2008-03-31

460

NADPH Oxidase Is Internalized by Clathrin-coated Pits and Localizes to a Rab27A/B GTPase-regulated Secretory Compartment in Activated Macrophages*  

PubMed Central

Here, we report that activation of different types of tissue macrophages, including microglia, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or GM-CSF stimulation correlates with the quantitative redistribution of NADPH oxidase (cyt b558) from the plasma membrane to an intracellular stimulus-responsive storage compartment. Cryo-immunogold labeling of gp91phox and CeCl3 cytochemistry showed the presence of gp91phox and oxidant production in numerous small (<100 nm) vesicles. Cell homogenization and sucrose gradient centrifugation in combination with transferrin-HRP/DAB ablation showed that more than half of cyt b558 is present in fractions devoid of endosomal markers, which is supported by morphological evidence to show that the cyt b558-containing compartment is distinct from endosomes or biosynthetic organelles. Streptolysin-O-mediated guanosine 5?-3-O-(thio)triphosphate loading of Ra2 microglia caused exocytosis of a major complement of cyt b558 under conditions where lysosomes or endosomes were not mobilized. We establish phagocytic particles and soluble mediators ATP, TNF?, and CD40L as physiological inducers of cyt b558 exocytosis to the cell surface, and by shRNA knockdown, we identify Rab27A/B as positive or negative regulators of vesicular mobilization to the phagosome or the cell surface, respectively. Exocytosis was followed by clathrin-dependent internalization of cyt b558, which could be blocked by a dominant negative mutant of the clathrin-coated pit-associated protein Eps15. Re-internalized cyt b558 did not reach lysosomes but associated with recycling endosomes and undefined vesicular elements. In conclusion, cyt b558 depends on clathrin for internalization, and in activated macrophages NADPH oxidase occupies a Rab27A/B-regulated secretory compartment, which allows rapid agonist-induced redistribution of superoxide production in the cell.

Ejlerskov, Patrick; Christensen, Dan Ploug; Beyaie, David; Burritt, James B.; Paclet, Marie-Helene; Gorlach, Agnes; van Deurs, Bo; Vilhardt, Frederik

2012-01-01

461

Morphologies of block copolymers composed of charged and neutral blocks  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews current experimental observations and theoretical calculations devoted towards understanding micro-phase separation in charged block copolymer systems. We discuss bulk morphologies in melt and in solution, as well as some of the new emerging research directions. Overall, a comprehensive picture is beginning to emerge on the fundamental role of electrostatics in the microphase separation of charged block copolymers. This understanding provides exciting new insight that may be used to direct targeted structures that endow the materials with desired properties that can have tremendous potential in technological applications.

Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL

2012-01-01

462

Anatomical variations within the deep posterior compartment of the leg and important clinical consequences.  

PubMed

The management of musculoskeletal conditions makes up a large part of a sports medicine practitioner's practice. A thorough knowledge of anatomy is an essential component of the armament necessary to decipher the large number of potential conditions that may confront these practitioners. To cloud the issue further, anatomical variations may be present, such as supernumerary muscles, thickened fascial bands or variant courses of nerves and blood vessels, which can themselves manifest as acute or chronic conditions that lead to significant morbidity or limitation of activity. There are a number of contentious areas within the literature surrounding the anatomy of the leg, particularly involving the deep posterior compartment. Conditions such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial periostitis (shin splints), peripheral nerve entrapment and tarsal tunnel syndrome may all be affected by subtle anatomical variations. This paper primarily focuses on the deep posterior compartment of the leg and uses the gross dissection of cadaveric specimens to describe definitively the anatomy of the deep posterior compartment. Variant fascial attachments of flexor digitorum longus are documented and potential clinical sequelae such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome and tarsal tunnel syndrome are discussed. PMID:15518304

Hislop, M; Tierney, P

2004-09-01

463

Exertional compartment syndrome of the thigh: a rare diagnosis and literature review.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is an uncommon entity. We present a rare case of bilateral exercise-induced three-compartment syndrome of the thighs that required fasciotomies. The objective of this study was to understand the history, physical examination, signs, symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. A 42-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) complaining of worsening pain and swelling in both thighs 45 h after performing a lower extremity exercise regimen. The patient's thighs were tender and swollen, but there was no ecchymosis or evidence of trauma. Admitting serum creatinine kinase (CK) was 106,289 U/L. Treatment for rhabdomyolysis was initiated. The next day, he complained of escalating bilateral thigh pain. Repeat serum CK was 346,580 U/L. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral thigh compartment syndrome and immediately taken to the operating room for fasciotomies. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly and his serum CK quickly returned to normal. His incisions were closed and he returned to normal activities of daily living. Because exercise-induced compartment syndrome is an extremely rare diagnosis with a high risk of poor outcome, this article serves to emphasize the importance of considering this diagnosis during the work-up of patients presenting to the ED with rhabdomyolysis. PMID:18597970

King, Timothy W; Lerman, Oren Z; Carter, Joseph J; Warren, Stephen M

2008-07-02

464

Abdominal compartment syndrome is an early, lethal complication of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Data defining the optimal management of abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from acute pancreatitis are lacking. We investigated the outcomes of patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent surgery for treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome at a tertiary referral center. An electronic database was searched to identify patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent laparotomy between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2009, for treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome. Twelve patients underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The median interval between onset of pancreatitis and laparotomy was 4.5 days. Nine patients underwent a laparotomy within seven days of onset of pancreatitis. As a result of cardiopulmonary instability, four decompressive laparotomies were performed in the intensive care unit. In 11 patients, cardiopulmonary improvement was observed. Statistically significant improvements were seen across multiple physiologic parameters. Despite this initial improvement, six patients (50%) died from multisystem organ failure. Two patients survived without need for pancreatic débridement. Abdominal compartment syndrome is an uncommon but likely underrecognized and highly lethal complication of acute pancreatitis that should be considered in patients who become critically ill early in the course of their pancreatitis. Prompt recognition and decompressive laparotomy may rescue some of these patients and does not mandate future débridement. PMID:23711270

Boone, Brian; Zureikat, Amer; Hughes, Steven J; Moser, A James; Yadav, Dhiraj; Zeh, Herbert J; Lee, Kenneth K W

2013-06-01

465

Partitioning a regional groundwater flow system into shallow local and deep regional flow compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of groundwater fluxes in aquifers is strongly influenced by topography, and organized between hillslope and regional scales. The objective of this study is to provide new insights regarding the compartmentalization of aquifers at the regional scale and the partitioning of recharge between shallow/local and deep/regional groundwater transfers. A finite-difference flow model was implemented, and the flow structure was analyzed as a function of recharge (from 20 to 500 mm/yr), at the regional-scale (1400 km2), in three dimensions, and accounting for variable groundwater discharge zones; aspects which are usually not considered simultaneously in previous studies. The model allows visualizing 3-D circulations, as those provided by Tothian models in 2-D, and shows local and regional transfers, with 3-D effects. The probability density function of transit times clearly shows two different parts, interpreted using a two-compartment model, and related to regional groundwater transfers and local groundwater transfers. The role of recharge on the size and nature of the flow regimes, including groundwater pathways, transit time distributions, and volumes associated to the two compartments, have been investigated. Results show that topography control on the water table and groundwater compartmentalization varies with the recharge rate applied. When recharge decreases, the absolute value of flow associated to the regional compartment decreases, whereas its relative value increases. The volume associated to the regional compartment is calculated from the exponential part of the two-compartment model, and is nearly insensitive to the total recharge fluctuations.

Goderniaux, Pascal; Davy, Philippe; Bresciani, Etienne; Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Borgne, Tanguy

2013-04-01

466

Effects of UV-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  

PubMed

The parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) has been used successfully for the control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The development of UV-blocking plastic films has added a new component to future integrated pest management systems by disrupting insect pest infestation when UV light is excluded. Because both T. vaporariorum and E. formosa are reported to have similar spectral efficiency, there was a need to identify the impact of UV-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of both the pest and the natural enemy. In field studies, using choice-chamber experiments, E. formosa showed some preference to disperse into compartments where less UV light was blocked. However, further studies indicated that the effect was primarily attributable to the different light diffusion properties of the films tested. Thus, unlike its whitefly host, when the UV-absorbing properties of the films were similar, but the light diffusion properties differed, E. formosa adults preferred to disperse into compartments clad with films that had high light diffusion properties. When the plastic films differed most in their UV-absorbing capacity and had no light-diffusion capability, the initial dispersal of E. formosa between treatments was similar, although a small preference toward the environment with UV light was observed over time. When parasitoid dispersal was measured 3 h after release, more parasitoids were found on plants, suggesting that the parasitoids would search plants for whitefly hosts, even in a UV-blocked light environment. The potential for the integration of UV-blocking films with E. formosa in an advanced whitefly management system is discussed. PMID:17370817

Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C

2007-02-01

467

Crystallization in Block Copolymer Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy has been used to examine the surface morphology of thin films of semicrystalline block copolymers, containing a crystallizable polycaprolactone block. In an asymmetric diblock copolymer of poly(styrene)-poly(caprolactone), confinement of poly(caprolactone) crystals within microphase-separated cylinders is observed. For a range of poly(styrene)-poly(butadiene)- poly(caprolactone) triblock copolymers, surface island and hole structures are observed, as for melt block copolymer films. This is rationalised based on the incommensurability between the lamellar domain spacing and the film thickness, measured by AFM or x-ray reflectivity. For films containing holes at the air-polymer interface, the AFM images reveal lamellae stacked perpendicular to the substrate. Models for the crystal structure in such confined ABC triblock copolymer films are discussed.

Hamley, Ian; Collins, Stephen; Balsamo, Vittoria

2001-03-01

468

Polyorganosiloxane-polyamide block copolymers  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A class of catalysts for the anionic copolymerization of cyclic lactams in the presence of .omega.-(N-acyllactam)polyorganosiloxanes, .alpha.,.omega.-di-(N-acyllactam)polyorganosiloxanes or star-shaped .omega.-(N-acyllactam)polyorganosiloxanes is disclosed. The catalysts successfully protect the siloxane prepolymer from harmful depolymerization reactions at elevated temperatures while anionically polymerizing the cyclic lactams via ringopening. Diblock, triblock, multiblock and star-block copolymers, e.g., of a polyorganosiloxane and a polyamide, with advantageously high polyorganosiloxane and polyamide block molecular weights and superior heat resistance can be synthesized with the catalysts. The composition of these block copolymers, with the structure AB, ABA, and star-(BA).sub.r, r .gtoreq.3, where A=polyamide and B=polyorganosiloxane, and the process for producing them are also described.

1993-02-02

469

Radial coordinates for conformal blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the theory of conformal blocks in CFTd expressing them as power series with Gegenbauer polynomial coefficients. Such series have a clear physical meaning when the conformal block is analyzed in radial quantization: individual terms describe contributions of descendants of a given spin. Convergence of these series can be optimized by a judicious choice of the radial quantization origin. We argue that the best choice is to insert the operators symmetrically. We analyze in detail the resulting “?-series” and show that it converges much more rapidly than for the commonly used variable z. We discuss how these conformal block representations can be used in the conformal bootstrap. In particular, we use them to derive analytically some bootstrap bounds whose existence was previously found numerically.

Hogervorst, Matthijs; Rychkov, Slava

2013-05-01

470

Contrasting Reduced Overshadowing and Blocking  

PubMed Central

Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ?O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X?O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X?O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

Wheeler, Daniel S.; Miller, Ralph R.

2008-01-01

471

Access block and ED overcrowding.  

PubMed

Prospective and retrospective access block hospital intervention studies from 1998 to 2008 were reviewed to assess the evidence for interventions around access block and ED overcrowding, including over 220 documents reported in Medline and data extracted from The State of our Public Hospitals Reports. There is an estimated 20-30% increased mortality rate due to access block and ED overcrowding. The main causes are major increases in hospital admissions and ED presentations, with almost no increase in the capacity of hospitals to meet this demand. The rate of available beds in Australia reduced from 2.6 beds per 1000 (1998-1999) to 2.4 beds per 1000 (2002-2007) in 2002, and has remained steady at between 2.5-2.6 beds per 1000. In the same period, the number of ED visits increased over 77% from 3.8 million to 6.74 million. Similarly, the number of public hospital admissions increased at an average rate of 3.4% per year from 3.7 to 4.7 million. Compared with 1998-1999 rates, the number of available beds in 2006-2007 is thus similar (2.65 vs 2.6 beds per 1000), but the number of ED presentations has almost doubled. All patient groups are affected by access block. Access block interventions may temporarily reduce some of the symptoms of access block, but many measures are not sustainable. The root cause of the problem will remain unless hospital capacity is addressed in an integrated approach at both na