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Sample records for psoas compartment block

  1. The Psoas Compartment Block for Hip Surgery: The Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, M. A.; Zuurmond, W. W. A.; Perez, R. S. G. M.

    2011-01-01

    A posterior lumbar plexus block or psoas compartment block (PCB) is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the entire lower extremity including the hip. Since the first description in the early seventies, this technique has been modified based on advanced knowledge of the anatomical localization of the lumbar plexus and the improvement of technical equipment. This paper provides an overview of the history, clinical efficacy, and risk profile of the PCB focused on hip surgery. Current status and future expectations are discussed. PMID:21716721

  2. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments.

    PubMed

    Huber, Matthias C; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balzs R; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Pter; Schiller, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally 'program' the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials. PMID:25362355

  3. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthias C.; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R.; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally ‘program’ the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  4. Effects of continuous fascia iliaca compartment blocks for postoperative analgesia in patients with hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Hongling; Yang, Ya-Xiong; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Bin; Luan, Bo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective analgesia is essential for the postoperative care of orthopedic patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of continuous fascia iliaca compartment block (FIB) as postoperative analgesia after hip fracture surgery, and to compare FIB with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) using fentanyl for 48 h postoperatively. METHODS: Patients with hip fractures who were scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation surgery using the antirotation proximal femoral nail technique were randomly assigned to the FIB or PCIA groups. Postoperative pain was assessed using a numeral rating scale at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after analgesia was started. Delirium, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and pruritus were also monitored. RESULTS: Patients in the FIB group reported less pain than those in the PCIA group (P=0.039, d=?0.3). The change in pain scores over time was similar between the two groups. There were six patients with PONV and five patients with pruritus in the PCIA group, while no PONV or pruritus was noticed in the FIB group (P=0.013). Ten (19.6%) patients in the FIB group and three (5.7%) patients in the PCIA group developed postoperative delirium (P=0.032, d=0.77). CONCLUSION: Continuous FIB is a safe and effective technique for postoperative analgesia after hip fracture surgery, making it an option for pain management in elderly patients with hip fractures. PMID:26125194

  5. Indirubins Decrease Glioma Invasion by Blocking Migratory Phenotypes in Both the Tumor and Stromal Endothelial Cell Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Shant P.; Nowicki, Michal O.; Liu, Fang; Press, Rachael; Godlewski, Jakub; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Kaur, Balveen; Fernandez, Soledad A.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Lawler, Sean E.

    2014-01-01

    Invasion and proliferation in neoplasia require the cooperation of tumor cell and endothelial compartments. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to signaling pathways that modulate invasion and proliferation. Here we show that GSK-3 inhibitors of the indirubin family reduce invasion of glioma cells and glioma-initiating cell-enriched neurospheres both in vitro and in vivo, and we show that ?-catenin signaling plays an important role in mediating these effects. Indirubins improved survival in glioma-bearing mice in which a substantial decrease in blood vessel density was seen in treated animals. In addition, indirubins blocked migration of endothelial cells, suggesting that anti-invasive glioma therapy with GSK-3 inhibitors in vivo not only inhibits invasion of tumor cells, but blocks migration of endothelial cells, which is also required for tumor angiogenesis. Overall, our findings suggest that indirubin inhibition of GSK-3 offers a novel treatment paradigm to target 2 of the most important interacting cellular compartments in heterotypic models of cancer. PMID:21697283

  6. [Psoas abscess after anterior spinal fusion].

    PubMed

    Mckley, T; Schtz, T; Hierholzer, C; Potulski, M; Beisse, R; Bhren, V

    2003-03-01

    We present 3 cases of secondary psoas abscess after anterior spinal fusion. Psoas abscess is still a rare clinical entity. It is often associated with unspecific symptomatology and may present as late infection. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and treatment. Computed tomography is the imaging technology of choice. Treatment includes open abscess drainage and antibiotic therapy. In secondary psoas abscess causative treatment of the primary infection focus is essential. For psoas abscess after anterior spondylodesis this includes treatment of a deep wound infection. Predisposing factors for postoperative infection are large implants, bone grafting, long operating times, previous spinal surgery, immunodeficiency and metabolic disorders. Usually several operations are necessary to eradicate infection. As long as stability is guaranteed, implant materials should be removed. Continuing antibiotic therapy for 2-3 weeks after normalization of infectious parameters is suggested. Delayed therapy results in an increase of the morbidity and mortality of psoas abscess. PMID:12658345

  7. Psoas Abscess Secondary to Urinary Tract Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aldamanhori, Reem; Barakat, Alaa; Al-Madi, Maha; Kamal, Baher

    2015-01-01

    Psoas abscess is a rare condition where infection spreads from a nearby or distant septic focus to the psoas sheath. The causative bacterial organisms at distal sites reach the psoas via lymphatic or hematogenous spread, whereas infection from nearby sites that include the urinary system reaches the psoas directly. There are few reports that account for bacterial infection after endourological procedures as the cause of direct spread of infection to the psoas muscle.2 We report a case of psoas abscess caused by fungal infection that spread from an injured left ureter to the psoas sheath.

  8. Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia. Aim: To test the hypothesis that, adding dexamethasone would significantly prolong the duration of Bupivacaine in FICB. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 80 years posted for ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) of fracture femur were included to receive FICB. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind study done at tertiary medical college hospital. Thirty patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml saline and another 30 patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml dexamethasone (8mg). Thirty minutes after FICB, patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anesthesia was recorded. In the post-operative period, duration of analgesia and the total doses of rescue analgesics were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients who received Bupivacaine with dexamethasone had significant prolongation of analgesia and required fewer doses of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone for FICB. However, the onset of analgesia, VAS scores and patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study shows that adding Dexamethasone (8mg) to Bupivacaine for FICB significantly prolonged the duration of block and decreased the requirement of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone. FICB is relatively easy and safe to perform. In our study we did not encounter any complication while doing the procedures and also by adding dexamethasone. PMID:25302209

  9. Rehabilitating Psoas Tendonitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    This case report describes the examination and physical therapy intervention for a woman with anterior hip pain whose medical diagnosis following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was bilateral labral tears and psoas tendinitis. Her physical therapy evaluation revealed findings consistent with psoas tendonitis. Utilizing theories of neuromuscular patterning and knowledge of normal muscle function, the patient was successfully treated in physical therapy following six physical therapy sessions, once a week for 6weeks. The patient was found to have an overactive psoas muscle, as indicated by hip flexion being the primary mover in her movement patterns, and dysfunctional abdominal and pelvic floor muscles. Functionally based therapeutic exercise and electrical stimulation were used to reeducate the muscles of the abdomen, pelvic floor, and hips in order to create muscular balance and correct muscle dysfunction. PMID:19048347

  10. Single Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block is Safe and Effective for Emergency Pain Relief in Hip-fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Leonieke; Dijksman, Lea M.; Simons, Maarten P.; Zwartsenburg, Mariska M.S.; Rebel, Jasper R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, it is common practice in the emergency department (ED) for pain relief in hip-fracture patients to administer pain medication, commonly systemic opioids. However, with these pain medications come a high risk of side effects, especially in elderly patients. This study investigated the safety profile and success rate of fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) in a busy ED. This ED was staffed with emergency physicians (EPs) and residents of varying levels of experience. This study followed patients pain levels at various hourly intervals up to eight hours post procedure. Methods Between September 2012 and July 2013, we performed a prospective pilot study on hip-fracture patients who were admitted to the ED of a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. These patients were followed and evaluated post FICB for pain relief. Secondary outcome was the use of opioids as rescue medication. Results Of the 43 patients in this study, patients overall experienced less pain after the FICB (p=0.04). This reduction in pain was studied in conjunction with the use and non-use of opioids. A clinically meaningful decrease in pain was achieved after 30 minutes in 62% of patients (54% with the use of opioids, 8% without opioids); after 240 minutes in 82% of patients (18% with opioids, 64% without opioids); after 480 minutes in 88% of patients (16% with opioids, 72% without opioids). No adverse events were reported. Conclusion In a busy Dutch ED with rotating residents of varying levels of experience, FICB seems to be an efficient, safe and practical method for pain reduction in patients with a hip fracture. Even without the use of opioids, pain reduction was achieved in 64% of patients after four hours and in 72% of patients after eight hours. PMID:26759680

  11. Compartments within a compartment

    PubMed Central

    Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna AWM

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease. PMID:24732235

  12. Bilateral Psoas Muscle Abscess Associated with Emphysematous Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Ki; Kwon, Jae-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous urinary tract infection is very rare. There were very few reports about urinary tract infections such as renal abscess, perinephric abscess, and emphysematous pyelonephritis complicated with psoas muscle abscess; however, psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous cystitis has not yet been reported. Here, we report a case of bilateral posas muscle abscess following emphysematous cystitis in an 81-year-old nondiabetic man, who was treated successfully with prolonged antibiotic therapy and supportive care. Early recognition of psoas muscle abscess can prevent aggressive interventional procedure and warrant good prognosis. PMID:25755669

  13. Characterization of early and late endocytic compartments of the transferrin cycle. Transferrin receptor antibody blocks erythroid differentiation by trapping the receptor in the early endosome.

    PubMed

    Killisch, I; Steinlein, P; Rmisch, K; Hollinshead, R; Beug, H; Griffiths, G

    1992-09-01

    We describe a detailed morphological characterization of the endocytic pathway in differentiating chicken erythroblasts transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These cells express high levels of transferrin receptors (TfR) when induced to differentiate at 42 degrees C. Biochemical analysis showed that most (approximately 90%) of the internalized 125I-Tf recycled within approximately 30 min while a smaller fraction of 125I-Tf required up to 2 h for recycling. By immunocytochemistry, the bulk of Tf and TfR was localized at the plasma membrane and in tubuloreticular early endosomes. This structure contained coated buds that labelled with an antibody specific for the clathrin light chain. Decreasing amounts of both Tf and TfR were detected in two distal compartments, spherical endosome vesicles resembling multivesicular bodies and the prelysosomal compartment (PLC) enriched in cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. As shown by fluorescent (FITC-Tf) labelling of living cells, the movement of Tf/TfR complex into these late structures was accompanied by a significant drop in pH from about 6, the value displayed by early endosomes, to values below pH 5.0. Since no detectable 125I-Tf degradation was observed during a 4 h period we believe that the Tf/TfR detected in these late endocytic structures avoids degradation and recycles back to the cell surface. The addition of an anti-TfR monoclonal antibody to the culture medium of these cells blocks their differentiation. Under this condition the antibody-TfR complex was trapped in an early endosome compartment that enlarged to more than twice its normal size. However, this condition did not affect the transport kinetics of horseradish peroxidase from the medium to the PLC. PMID:1429906

  14. Bilateral psoas haematomata complicating renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Jacob A; Rana, Tahawar A; Higgs, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background. The challenge in managing patients undergoing renal transplantation is how to achieve optimum levels of anticoagulation to avoid both clotting and postoperative bleeding. We report a rare case of severe postoperative retroperitoneal bleeding including psoas haematomata complicating renal transplantation. Case Report. SM, a 55-year-old female, had a past history of aortic valve replacement, cerebrovascular event, and thoracic aortic aneurysm and was on long-term warfarin that was switched to enoxaparin 60?mg daily a week prior to her living donor transplantation. Postoperatively, she was started on a heparin infusion, but this was complicated by a large retroperitoneal bleed requiring surgical evacuation on the first postoperative day. Four weeks later, she developed features compatible with acute femoral neuropathy and a CT scan revealed bilateral psoas haematomata. Following conservative management, she made steady progress and was discharged home via a community hospital 94 days after transplantation. At her last visit 18 months after transplantation, she had returned to full fitness with excellent transplant function. Conclusion. Patients in established renal failure who require significant anticoagulation are at increased risk of bleeding that may involve prolonged hospitalisation and more protracted recovery and patients should be carefully counselled about this. PMID:25374958

  15. Outcome of percutaneous continuous drainage of psoas abscess: A clinically guided technique

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bharat R; Kurupati, Ranganatha Babu; Shah, Dipak; Degulamadi, Devanand; Borgohain, Nitu; Krishnan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous aspiration of abscesses under ultrasonography (USG) and computer tomography (CT) scan has been well described. With recurrence rate reported as high as 66%. The open drainage and percutaneous continuous drainage (PCD) has reduced the recurrence rate. The disadvantage of PCD under CT is radiation hazard and problems of asepsis. Hence a technique of clinically guided percutaneous continuous drainage of the psoas abscess without real-time imaging overcomes these problems. We describe clinically guided PCD of psoas abscess and its outcome. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with dorsolumbar spondylodiscitis without gross neural deficit with psoas abscess of size >5 cm were selected for PCD. It was done as a day care procedure under local anesthesia. Sequentially, aspiration followed by guide pin-guided trocar and catheter insertion was done without image guidance. Culture sensitivity was done and chemotherapy initiated and catheter kept till the drainage was <10 ml for 48 hours. Outcome assessment was done with relief of pain, successful abscess drainage and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) score at 2 years. Results: PCD was successful in all cases. Back and radicular pain improved in all cases. Average procedure time was 24.30 minutes, drain output was 234.40 ml, and the drainage duration was 7.90 days. One patient required surgical stabilisation due to progression of the spondylodiscitis resulting in instability inspite of successful drainage of abscess. Problems with the procedure were noticed in six patients. Multiple attempts (n = 2), persistent discharge (n = 1) for 2 weeks, blocked catheter (n = 2) and catheter pull out (n = 1) occurred with no effect on the outcome. The average ODI score improved from 62.47 to 5.51 at 2 years. Conclusions: Clinically guided PCD is an efficient, safe and easy procedure in drainage of psoas abscess. PMID:24600066

  16. [Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].

    PubMed

    Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florin V

    2010-06-01

    Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics. PMID:20544129

  17. An Easily Overlooked Presentation of Malignant Psoas Abscess: Hip Pain

    PubMed Central

    Askin, Ayhan; Bayram, Korhan Baris; Demirdal, Umit Secil; Korkmaz, Merve Bergin; Gurgan, Alev Demirbilek; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Psoas abscess is a rare infectious disease with nonspecific clinical presentation that frequently causes a diagnostic difficulty. Its insidious onset and occult characteristics can cause diagnostic delays. It is classified as primary or secondary. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly causative pathogen in primary psoas abscess. Secondary psoas abscess usually occurs as a result of underlying diseases. A high index of clinical suspicion, the past and recent history of the patient, and imaging studies can be helpful in diagnosing the disease. The delay of the treatment is related with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, 54-year-old patient with severe hip pain having an abscess in the psoas muscle due to metastatic cervical carcinoma is presented. PMID:25685574

  18. Pyogenic psoas abscess: analysis of 27 cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, M F; Lau, Y J; Hu, B S; Shi, Z Y; Lin, Y H

    1999-12-01

    From 1993 to 1998, 29 pyogenic psoas abscesses occurring in 27 patients were seen in Taichung Veterans General Hospital. Their age range was 25 to 85 years. Diabetes mellitus was the leading underlying disease. Fever and pain in the flank area, back and hip were the usual manifestations. The duration of symptoms prior to the diagnosis ranged from 3 days to 6 months. Most abscesses were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) images and proven by abscess cultures, which were divided into primary and secondary types. Eighteen of 29 abscesses were regarded as primary. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen in the primary abscesses, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, viridans streptococci, S. epidermidis, and Salmonella spp.. In the secondary abscess category, E. coli was the leading organism in this series, followed by S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, viridans streptococci and Candida albicans. The associated conditions included epidural abscess, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, perirenal abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis, empyema, hydronephrosis and trauma history. The initial empiric therapy comprised mostly of cefazolin or oxacillin with or without an aminoglycoside. Thirteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage, while six received surgical debridement, including two with a recurrent abscess. One patient had both drainage and debridement. Others received medical treatment only. Two of the patients with primary abscess died in spite of percutaneous drainage. Therefore, open drainage, besides appropriate antibiotic treatment, is still required to control complex abscesses with sepsis. PMID:10650491

  19. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  20. Psoas Abscess Caused by Spontaneous Rupture of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, June-Kyu; Cha, Soo-Min; Joo, Yong-Bum

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of colon cancer, combined with psoas abscess formation, is rare. A 44-year-old male visited for back pain and left buttock mass. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance image revealed a large abscess in the left psoas muscle and in the left lower quadrant area. Ten days after incision and drainage, a skin defect around the left anterior superior iliac spine remained. A local flap was performed using a superficial skin graft. Ten days after the stitches had been removed, fecal discharge was observed around the anterior superior iliac spine at the flap site. An operation was performed by a general surgeon who had diagnosed this as a case of enterocutaneous fistula. Operative findings included a ruptured tumor mass in the descending colon, which was connected to a retroperitoneal abscess. Pathologic report findings determined adenocarcinoma of the resected colon. Herein, we report a case of psoas abscess resulting from perforating colon cancer. PMID:22162799

  1. Solitary Psoas Muscle Metastasis of Gastroesphageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Payam; Yaghobi Joybari, Ali; Sarbaz, Samaneh; Ghiasi, Hosein Ali; Farasatinasab, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of gastroesphageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma in skeletal muscle is rare and primary sites for skeletal muscle metastases are usually lung, renal and colorectal cancer. We have encountered with the first case report of solitary psoas muscle metastasis of GEJ adenocarcinoma. Here we describe a 65 years old man was diagnosed with GEJ adenocarcinoma in Gastroenterology Department, Imam Hussein Hospital, Tehran, Iran in February 2014. We were not able to use PET techniques due to lack of access. Staging CT scans demonstrated a small mass lateral to right psoas muscle. A CT-guided core needle biopsy of right psoas muscle was performed that supported a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma consistent with primary adenocarcinoma of the GEJ. Distant metastasis to skeletal muscle rarely occurs in patients with GEJ adenocarcinoma, but heightened awareness to these soft tissue lesions is warranted. CT or MR imaging could show findings suggestive of metastatic disease, although PET is preferable modality. PMID:26870148

  2. Abdominal compartment syndrome after hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Justin; Owens, Brett D

    2010-01-01

    As hip arthroscopy becomes a more common procedure, more complications may occur. We present a case of abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from fluid extravasation in a 42-year-old man who underwent routine hip arthroscopy for femoral acetabular impingement. He had not had previous surgeries to that hip, and arthroscopy was performed in the supine position. After adequate distraction, arthroscopy was performed with an automated pressure- and flow-controlled pump with the pressure maintained between 40 and 60 mm Hg. We performed debridement of a degenerative tear of the anterosuperior labrum, removal of a pincer lesion, and a psoas tenotomy through a capsular window. A distended abdomen was noted on drape removal, and the patient required decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. Extravasation of arthroscopy fluid is a potentially devastating complication during hip arthroscopy, and there should be careful monitoring by the surgeons, anesthesiologists, and operating room staff. PMID:20117637

  3. The psoas muscle as cause of low back pain in infantile cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Camoriano, R.; Valle, M.; Boero, S.

    2008-01-01

    Psoas muscle spasticity is hypothesised as a rare cause of low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy. The authors describe a new manoeuvre for the study of psoas tenderness and ultrasound (US)-guided transabdominal botulinum toxin injection technique. A possible causal relationship between psoas tension and low back pain was found incidentally in two examined cases. In subsequent patients, botulinum toxin was injected and, in cases of disappearance of symptoms, the psoas tendon was sectioned at the pelvic brim with definitive disappearance of pain. The relationship between psoas tension and low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy seems likely, given the result in the four patients. PMID:19384481

  4. Pyogenic psoas abscess: a rare complication after orthotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Madden, Brendan P; Datta, Subir; Planche, Timothy

    2002-08-01

    We describe a 57-year-old man who developed a primary psoas abscess after treatment for acute allograft rejection, 5 years after orthotopic heart transplantation. The infective organism was methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and the patient underwent successful treatment with computed tomography-guided percutaneous drainage combined with teicoplanin and fusidic acid. PMID:12163097

  5. Lumbar septic arthritis and psoas abscess due to Aggregatibacter aphrophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Fanny; Rossi, Pascal; Lagier, Jean Christophe; Craighero, Fabien; Frances, Yves; Granel, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Invasive infections due to Aggregatibacter aphrophilus mainly include negative blood culture endocarditis and osteoarticular infections. The authors present herein a rare case of posterior septic arthritis related to A aphrophilus involving lumbar spine with contiguous abscesses of psoas and paravertebral muscles. The infection likely originated from oral cavity. A good outcome was observed after a prolonged and targeted antibiotherapy. PMID:22696632

  6. Eggerthella lenta Bacteremia Complicated by Spondylodiscitis, Psoas Abscess, and Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Korman, T. M.; Junckerstorff, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Eggerthella lenta bacteremia is uncommon and generally associated with abdominal sepsis. The organism and its clinical significance have not been well characterized due to historical difficulties with identification. We report a case of severe infection in a paraplegic man complicated by psoas abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis and discuss treatment challenges. PMID:24430458

  7. Eggerthella lenta bacteremia complicated by spondylodiscitis, psoas abscess, and meningitis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, B J; Korman, T M; Junckerstorff, R K

    2014-04-01

    Eggerthella lenta bacteremia is uncommon and generally associated with abdominal sepsis. The organism and its clinical significance have not been well characterized due to historical difficulties with identification. We report a case of severe infection in a paraplegic man complicated by psoas abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis and discuss treatment challenges. PMID:24430458

  8. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affected area (for example, a person with compartment syndrome in the foot or lower leg will have severe pain when moving the toes up and down) Swelling in the area To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor or nurse may need to directly ...

  9. Psoas tunnel perforation—an unreported complication of hip arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Ryan M.; O’Sullivan, Eilish; Sink, Ernest L.; Kelly, Bryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of hip arthroscopy is rapidly increasing due to improved arthroscopic techniques and training, better recognition of pathology responsible for non-arthritic hip pain and an increasing desire for minimally invasive procedures. With increasing rates of arthroscopy, associated complications are also being recognized. We present a series of six patients who experienced psoas tunnel perforation during anchor insertion from the distal anterolateral portal during labral repair. All patients underwent prior hip arthroscopy and labral repair and presented with persistent symptoms at least partly attributable to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented psoas tunnel perforation. Their clinical records, operative notes and intra-operative photographs were reviewed. All patients presented with persistent pain, both with an anterior impingement test and resisted hip flexion. MRI imaging demonstrated medial cortical perforation with anchors visualized in the psoas tunnel, adjacent to the iliopsoas muscle. Four patients have undergone revision hip arthroscopy, whereas two have undergone periacetabular osteotomies. All patients had prominent anchors in the psoas tunnel removed at the time of surgery, with varying degrees of concomitant pathology appropriately treated during the revision procedure. Care must be utilized during medial anchor placement to avoid psoas tunnel perforation. Although this complication alone was not the sole cause for revision in each case, it may have contributed to their poor outcome and should be avoided in future cases. This can be accomplished by using a smaller anchor, inserting the anchor from the mid-anterior portal and checking the drill hole with a nitinol wire prior to anchor insertion. PMID:27011849

  10. The psoas major muscle: a three-dimensional geometric study.

    PubMed

    Santaguida, P L; McGill, S M

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to use anatomical data obtained from cadavers, and geometrical scaling data obtained from MRI scans of living subjects, to assess the line of action and mechanical function of the psoas major muscle in three dimensions about each lumbar spine level. In addition, the line of action of the psoas major was documented as a function of lordosis. A total of seven cadavers were dissected from which fibre/tendon architecture was measured, while MRI scans were performed on 15 males to obtain centroid paths and area scales of the muscle over its length. In this way, the curving path of muscle line of action was accommodated together with force and moment predictions that recognized the presence of a tendon at lower lumbar levels (up to L3 in some subjects) significantly increasing the stress. Results confirm that the mechanics of the psoas cannot be adequately represented with a series of straight line vectors from vertebral origins to insertion. Moreover, the mechanical action of the psoas major does not change as a function of lumbar spine lordosis as the muscle path of action changes in accordance with changes in spine posture. Functionally, contrary to claims, the psoas cannot act as a 'derotator' of the spine, does not impose large shear forces on the spine in any posture except at L5-S1, and cannot have major affects to 'control lordosis'. It has the potential to stabilize the lumbar spine with compressive loading and with bilateral activation, to laterally flex it, and can create large anterior shear forces but only at L5-S1. PMID:7730392

  11. Psoas Abscess Secondary to Renal Tuberculosis in a Middle-aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A psoas muscle abscess is a relatively uncommon condition that can present with vague clinical features. With the decreasing prevalence of tuberculosis, psoas abscesses of tuberculous origin are currently rare in developed countries, but are typically caused by tuberculosis of the spine. Here, an unusual case of a psoas abscess secondary to renal tuberculosis in a middle-aged woman is presented. The abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage followed by nephrectomy and additional antituberculous medications. PMID:24255765

  12. Appendicitis with psoas abscess successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Otowa, Yasunori; Sumi, Yasuo; Kanaji, Shingo; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Although acute appendicitis is a common disease, retroperitoneal abscesses are rarely observed. Here, we report a case consisting of a psoas abscess and cutaneous fistula caused by appendicitis. The patient was a 56-year-old male who was introduced to our institution due to an intractable right psoas abscess. Imaging tests had been performed over the previous 3 years; however, clinicians could not find the origin of the abscess and failed to resolve the problem. A successful operation was performed via a laparoscopic approach, and 17 mo have passed without recurrence. The advantage of laparoscopic surgery is well understood in cases of appendicitis with abscesses. However, the indication for laparoscopic approach is not clear for retroperitoneal abscesses. From our experience, we can conclude that appendicitis with retroperitoneal abscesses can be managed and treated using a laparoscopic approach. PMID:25009411

  13. Conservative management of psoas haematoma following complex lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lakkol, Sandesh; Sarda, Praveen; Karpe, Prasad; Krishna, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    We report psoas hematoma communicating with extradural hematoma and compressing on lumbar nerve roots during the postoperative period in a patient who underwent L3/4 level dynamic stabilization and L4/5 and L5/S1 posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Persistent radicular symptoms occurring soon after posterior lumbar surgery are not an unknown entity. However, psoas hematoma communicating with the extradural hematoma and compressing on L4 and L5 nerve roots soon after surgery, leading to radicular symptoms has not been reported. In addition to the conservative approach in managing such cases, this case report also emphasizes the importance of clinical evaluation and utilization of necessary imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to diagnose the cause of persistent severe radicular pain in the postoperative period. PMID:24600073

  14. Multiple Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis with Bilateral Psoas Abscesses Accompanying Osteomyelitis of Lateral Malleolus - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Park, Woo-Sung; Jin, Jong-Mun; Song, Ha Hun

    2008-01-01

    A psoas abscess is a potentially life-threatening infection. Multiple pyogenic spondylodiscitis with bilateral psoas abscesses accompanying an osteomyelitis of the lateral malleolus is an extremely rare event. We present our experience with needle aspiration for the treatment of osteomyelitis of the lateral malleolus and CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage for a psoas abscess in an elderly patient. Both infections were completely resolved without recurrence. A psoas abscess should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient with low back pain during musculoskeletal infection. Percutaneous needle aspiration or CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage is an effective method for treating certain musculoskeletal infections. PMID:20404964

  15. Differentiation of posterior pararenal space infection from psoas abscess by gallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Mishkin, F.; Delgado, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three of four patients whose cases fit the clinical description of psoas abscess proved on gallium imaging to have infection in the posterior pararenal space sparing the psoas muscle. This space provides a route for spread of infection connecting the spine, the anterior abdominal wall, the scrotum, the anterior thigh, and the gluteal region as demonstrated by the cases presented. Clinical differentiation between posterior pararenal space infection and psoas abscesses is difficult and CT studies may not demonstrate the process when the psoas space is not involved.

  16. Total Psoas Area Predicts Complications following Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Timothy D.; Farber, Nicholas J.; Chen, Leo C.; Fuller, Thomas W.; Davies, Benjamin J.; Gingrich, Jeffrey R.; Hrebinko, Ronald L.; Maranchie, Jodi K.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Tarin, Tatum V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether total psoas area (TPA), a simple estimate of muscle mass, is associated with complications after radical cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical cystectomy at our institution from 2011 to 2012 were retrospectively identified. Total psoas area was measured on preoperative CT scans and normalized for patient height. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether TPA was a predictor of 90-day postoperative complications. Overall survival was compared between TPA quartiles. Results. 135 patients were identified for analysis. Median follow-up was 24 months (IQR: 6–37 months). Overall 90-day complication rate was 56% (75/135). TPA was significantly lower for patients who experienced any complication (7.8 cm2/m2 versus 8.8 cm2/m2, P = 0.023) and an infectious complication (7.0 cm2/m2 versus 8.7 cm2/m2, P = 0.032) than those who did not. On multivariable analysis, TPA (adjusted OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.89), P = 0.003) and Charlson comorbidity index (adjusted OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01–1.79), P = 0.045) were independently associated with 90-day complications. TPA was not a predictor of overall survival. Conclusions. Low TPA is associated with infectious complications and is an independent predictor of experiencing a postoperative complication following radical cystectomy. PMID:26798336

  17. A model based method for recognizing psoas major muscles in torso CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Naoki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    In aging societies, it is important to analyze age-related hypokinesia. A psoas major muscle has many important functional capabilities such as capacity of balance and posture control. These functions can be measured by its cross sectional area (CSA), volume, and thickness. However, these values are calculated manually in the clinical situation. The purpose of our study is to propose an automated recognition method of psoas major muscles in X-ray torso CT images. The proposed recognition process involves three steps: 1) determination of anatomical points such as the origin and insertion of the psoas major muscle, 2) generation of a shape model for the psoas major muscle, and 3) recognition of the psoas major muscles by use of the shape model. The model was built using quadratic function, and was fit to the anatomical center line of psoas major muscle. The shape model was generated using 20 CT cases and tested by 20 other CT cases. The applied database consisted of 12 male and 8 female cases from the ages of 40's to 80's. The average value of Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) values employed in the evaluation was 0.7. Our experimental results indicated that the proposed method was effective for a volumetric analysis and could be possible to be used for a quantitative measurement of psoas major muscles in CT images.

  18. Unusual Presentation of Recurrent Pyogenic Bilateral Psoas Abscess Causing Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism by Iliac Vein Compression

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Mohsin; Sakam, Sailaja; Ashraf, Umair; Marquez, Jose Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Bilateral psoas abscess • acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis • bilateral pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Progressive left leg swelling • productive cough with whitish sputum • right flank pain Medication: Antibiotics and anticoagulation Clinical Procedure: CT-guided percutaneous drain placement Specialty: Internal Medicine/Critical Care Objective: Unusual presentation Background: Psoas abscesses are a known cause of back pain, but they have not been reported as a cause of acute lower extremity thromboses and bilateral pulmonary emboli. We report a patient with bilateral psoas abscesses causing extensive pulmonary emboli through compression of the iliac vein. Case Report: A 47-year-old man presented with bilateral leg swelling over 4 weeks. Physical examination revealed a thin male with bilateral leg swelling, extending to the thigh on his left side. He had hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl, leukocytosis of 16 000/ml, and an elevated D-dimer. A computed tomography (CT) angiogram of his chest showed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli and infarcts. He remained febrile with vague flank pain, prompting a CT of his abdomen and pelvis that showed large, multiloculated, septated, bilateral psoas abscesses with compression of the left femoral vein by the left psoas abscess and a thrombus distal to the occlusion. Two liters of pus was drained from the left psoas abscess by CT-guidance, and although the Gram staining showed Gram-positive cocci in clusters, cultures from the abscess and blood were negative. A repeat CT showed resolution of the abscesses, and the drain was removed. He was discharged to a nursing home to complete a course of intravenous antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusions: Although the infectious complications of psoas abscesses have been described in the literature, the mechanical complications of bilateral psoas abscesses are lacking. It is important to assess for complete resolution of psoas abscesses through follow-up imaging to prevent venous thromboembolic events. PMID:26356406

  19. Limitations of using imaging diagnosis for psoas abscess in its early stage.

    PubMed

    Takada, Toshihiko; Terada, Kazuhiko; Kajiwara, Hideki; Ohira, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients diagnosed with psoas abscess have a high mortality rate. The major cause of its poor prognosis is delayed treatment. Therefore, making a correct diagnosis rapidly is important. Both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered to be the gold standards as imaging modalities that have a high sensitivity for detecting psoas abscess. There have been few reports regarding the limitations of these methods, but psoas abscess in its early stage may go undetected by CT and MRI. Methods Detection of psoas abscess by CT and MRI was investigated in the present study through a retrospective review of 15 patients in whom psoas abscess was diagnosed during a course of ten years at our hospital. Results In all patients, psoas abscess was diagnosed by at least a plain CT, enhanced CT, and/or plain MRI. The interval between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 20.9±17.9 days (mean ± standard deviation). In three patients, repeat imaging identified a psoas abscess, whereas initial imaging failed to detect it. The overall sensitivity of plain CT, enhanced CT, and plain MRI for psoas abscess was 78%, 86%, and 88%, respectively. From six days after the onset of symptoms, the sensitivity of each modality was 100%, while the sensitivity from day one to five days was only 33%, 50%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusion Although CT and MRI are considered to be gold standard modalities for diagnosing psoas abscess, both methods can fail to notice this condition in its early stage. PMID:26466693

  20. Mycotic Abdominal Pseudoaneurysm due to Psoas Abscess after Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Sam Youn; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2015-12-01

    A 36-year-old man, who had undergone thoracoscopic anterior spinal fusion using the plate system and posterior screw fusion three months previously, presented to our hospital with left flank pain and fever. Computed tomography indicated the presence of a psoas muscle abscess. However, after two days of percutaneous catheter drainage, a mycotic abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm was detected via computed tomography. We performed in situ revascularization using a prosthetic graft with omental wrapping. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified on blood and pus culture, and systemic vancomycin was administered for one month. Although the abscess recurred, it was successfully treated with percutaneous catheter drainage and systemic vancomycin administration for three months, without the need for instrumentation removal. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout two years of follow-up. PMID:26665118

  1. Mycotic Abdominal Pseudoaneurysm due to Psoas Abscess after Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Sam Youn; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old man, who had undergone thoracoscopic anterior spinal fusion using the plate system and posterior screw fusion three months previously, presented to our hospital with left flank pain and fever. Computed tomography indicated the presence of a psoas muscle abscess. However, after two days of percutaneous catheter drainage, a mycotic abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm was detected via computed tomography. We performed in situ revascularization using a prosthetic graft with omental wrapping. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified on blood and pus culture, and systemic vancomycin was administered for one month. Although the abscess recurred, it was successfully treated with percutaneous catheter drainage and systemic vancomycin administration for three months, without the need for instrumentation removal. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout two years of follow-up. PMID:26665118

  2. Psoas abscess and severe fasciitis due to a caecal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Nigel Yong Boon; Twoon, Mark; Thomson, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    A man in his mid-50s presented with a painful and swollen right thigh and buttock. This was accompanied by a month long history of flank pain, back pain, vague abdominal pain, limp, fever and weight loss. On examination, there was extensive erythaema, heat, tenderness, oedema and crepitus over his right buttock and thigh. The patient was referred to plastic surgery to exclude necrotising fasciitis of the gluteal and thigh region. After CT imaging, a psoas abscess (PA) and caecal mass were identified. Subsequent right hemicolectomy, PA drainage and debridement of his right thigh were performed. This case reminds clinicians of the many non-specific ways a PA can present and that a high level of suspicion assists in making a timely diagnosis. PMID:25631760

  3. G Protein Beta 5 Is Targeted to D2-Dopamine Receptor-Containing Biochemical Compartments and Blocks Dopamine-Dependent Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Octeau, J. Christopher; Schrader, Joseph M.; Masuho, Ikuo; Sharma, Meenakshi; Aiudi, Christopher; Chen, Ching-Kang; Kovoor, Abraham; Celver, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    G beta 5 (Gbeta5, G?5) is a unique G protein ? subunit that is thought to be expressed as an obligate heterodimer with R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins instead of with G gamma (G?) subunits. We found that D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) coexpression enhances the expression of G?5, but not that of the G beta 1 (G?1) subunit, in HEK293 cells, and that the enhancement of expression occurs through a stabilization of G?5 protein. We had previously demonstrated that the vast majority of D2R either expressed endogenously in the brain or exogenously in cell lines segregates into detergent-resistant biochemical fractions. We report that when expressed alone in HEK293 cells, G?5 is highly soluble, but is retargeted to the detergent-resistant fraction after D2R coexpression. Furthermore, an in-cell biotin transfer proximity assay indicated that D2R and G?5 segregating into the detergent-resistant fraction specifically interacted in intact living cell membranes. Dopamine-induced D2R internalization was blocked by coexpression of G?5, but not G?1. However, the same G?5 coexpression levels had no effect on agonist-induced internalization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), cell surface D2R levels, dopamine-mediated recruitment of ?-arrestin to D2R, the amplitude of D2R-G protein coupling, or the deactivation kinetics of D2R-activated G protein signals. The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and G?5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. PMID:25162404

  4. A proposed novel function of the psoas minor revealed through cadaver dissection.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Donald A; Garceau, Luke R

    2015-03-01

    There is sparse information about the anatomy and function of the psoas minor, specifically the extent and frequency to which the muscle attaches into the iliac fascia that drapes over the iliopsoas. This information may help clarify the function of the psoas minor, especially regarding the possibility of controlling the position and mechanical stability of the underlying iliopsoas. This descriptive, semiquantitative cadaveric study sought to clarify the gross anatomic detail of the psoas minor, particularly the muscle's distal attachments. Thirty-two embalmed cadaver hips were examined. Hips that presented with a psoas minor underwent further anatomic measurements. The psoas minor was present in 65.6% of the 32 hips. All of the psoas minor tendons attached firmly into iliac fascia, while 90.5% also had a firm bony attachment to the pelvis. On average, the muscle belly occupied the proximal 37.5 6.0% of the entire musculotendinous unit, while the muscle belly's average anatomical cross-sectional area was 52.5 34.3 mm(2) . The psoas minor's firm and consistent distal tendinous attachment into the iliac fascia may allow this muscle to partially control the position and mechanical stability of the underlying iliopsoas as it crosses the femoral head and adjacent regions. This hypothesized function may be clinically related to inflammation and pathology involving the iliopsoas tendon and adjacent tissues in the anterior region of the hip. Further study is now warranted to determine the clinical relevancy and biomechanical validity of this proposed function of the psoas minor. PMID:25227908

  5. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteremia without endocarditis associated with psoas abscess: the first case report in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Upapan, Prasit; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2014-03-01

    The authors report a patient with a rare manifestation of invasive septic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection without endocardial involvement. Our patient presented with progressive paraparesis and subacute fever for ten days. He had underlying diabetes mellitus and alcoholic cirrhosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine showed a psoas abscess with vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis at level of L23 of the lumbar spine. His blood culture grew E. rhusiopathiae. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated normal endocardium. Surgical drainage and debridement with concomitant intravenous antibiotics administration resulted in clinical improvement, including neurological status. MRI showed resolution of the psoas abscess and osteomyelitis. Erysipelothrix infection should be considered as a causative pathogen of musculoskeletal infection in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of psoas abscess caused by E. rhusiopathiae in Thailand. PMID:24772603

  6. Acute Retroperitoneal Hematoma After Psoas Catheter Placement in a Patient with Myeloproliferative Thrombocytosis and Aspirin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nafisseh S; Duncan, Christopher M; Kopp, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    Retroperitoneal hematoma is a rare complication of psoas catheter placement, typically occurring several days after placement and in the setting of anticoagulation. We present the case of a patient with a history of myeloproliferative thrombocytosis receiving aspirin therapy who underwent total hip arthroplasty with preoperative psoas catheter placement complicated by immediate development of a large retroperitoneal hematoma. It is likely that the combination of aspirin therapy and thrombocytosis paradoxically placed the patient at increased risk for hemorrhagic complications. Regional techniques should be used cautiously in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, even in the presence of supraphysiologic platelet counts. PMID:26779603

  7. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  8. The Effects of Psoas Major and Lumbar Lordosis on Hip Flexion and Sprint Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were

  9. The Effects of Psoas Major and Lumbar Lordosis on Hip Flexion and Sprint Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were…

  10. Streptobacillus moniliformis as the causative agent in spondylodiscitis and psoas abscess after rooster scratches.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Damien; Robin, Frdric; Bouvier, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Bonnet, Richard; Lesens, Olivier; Hennequin, Claire

    2008-08-01

    We report a case of Streptobacillus moniliformis spondylodiscitis accompanied by a psoas abscess in an 80-year-old man scratched by a rooster. S. moniliformis was identified from abscess fluid by use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. After 18 weeks of antimicrobial therapy, the clinical condition of the patient improved. PMID:18562588

  11. Streptobacillus moniliformis as the Causative Agent in Spondylodiscitis and Psoas Abscess after Rooster Scratches?

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Damien; Robin, Frdric; Bouvier, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Bonnet, Richard; Lesens, Olivier; Hennequin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Streptobacillus moniliformis spondylodiscitis accompanied by a psoas abscess in an 80-year-old man scratched by a rooster. S. moniliformis was identified from abscess fluid by use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. After 18 weeks of antimicrobial therapy, the clinical condition of the patient improved. PMID:18562588

  12. Is there a relationship between psoas impingement and increased trochanteric retroversion?

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Hoyos, Juan; Schröder, Ricardo; Reddy, Manoj; Palmer, Ian J.; Khoury, Anthony; Martin, Hal David

    2015-01-01

    The concept of psoas impingement secondary to a tight or inflamed iliopsoas tendon causing impingement of the anterior labrum during hip extension has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the lesser trochanteric version (LTV) in symptomatic patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips. The femoral neck version (FNV) and LTV were evaluated on axial magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the angle between LTV and FNV. Data from 12 symptomatic patients and 250 asymptomatic patients were analysed. The mean, range and standard deviations were calculated. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups. The lesser trochanteric retroversion was significantly increased in patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips (−31.1° SD ± 6.5 versus −24.2° ± 11.5, P < 0.05). The FNV (9° ± 8.8 versus 14.1° ± 10.7, P > 0.05) and the angle between FNV and LTV (40.2° ± 9.7 versus 38.3° ± 9.6, P > 0.05) were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, the lesser trochanteric retroversion is significantly increased in patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips. PMID:27011834

  13. The extent of proteolysis is independent of sarcomere length in lamb longissimus and psoas major.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sarcomere length on postmortem proteolysis and meat tenderness. Eighteen Dorset market-weight sheep were slaughtered conventionally. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum and psoas major from each carcass were either left intact on the carcass (control), which was chilled at 0 degrees C, or excised from the carcass and chilled in an ice slurry (0 degrees C). At 24 h, control muscles were excised, and all muscles were cut into sections and assigned to 1 or 10 d of postmortem storage at 2 degrees C. Sarcomere length was shorter (P < .01), as intended, in the shortened relative to the control treatment and in longissimus relative to psoas major (1.36 vs 1.69 microm, raw longissimus; 1.45 vs 3.03 microm, raw psoas major). Sarcomere length was not affected (P > .05) by aging time. Western blot analysis of troponin-T and desmin indicated no effect (P > .05) of the shortened treatment compared to the control on the extent of proteolysis. Regardless of aging time or treatment, troponin-T was more degraded (P < .01) in longissimus than in psoas major (38.1 vs 23.5%) and desmin tended to be more degraded (P = .08) in longissimus than in psoas major (50.4 vs 35.1%). Regardless of muscle or treatment, aging 10 d compared to 1 d increased degradation of troponin-T (46.3 vs 15.3%) and desmin (69.3 vs 16.1%). Warner-Bratzler shear force was greater (P < .01) in the shortened treatment than in control (6.9 vs 3.8 kg), greater (P < .01) in longissimus than in the psoas major (6.5 vs 4.2 kg), and greater (P < .01) with 1 d than with 10 d of aging time (6.1 vs 4.6 kg). A muscle x aging time interaction (P < .05) indicated shear force declined more in longissimus than in psoas major during aging. We conclude that sarcomere length did not affect the extent of proteolysis. However, sarcomere length may have an indirect effect on tenderization during aging due to its effect on initial tenderness. PMID:10492451

  14. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. PMID:27013413

  15. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  16. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  17. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Ziga; Savic, Nenad; Regvat, Jaka

    2015-01-01

    Kidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention. PMID:26401876

  18. Patient Psoas Muscle Mass as a Predictor of Complications and Survival After Radical Cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Montie, James E; Weizer, Alon Z; Morgan, Todd; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Lee, Cheryl T

    2015-11-01

    As a treatment for high-risk bladder cancer, radical cystectomy (RC) remains a highly morbid operation with complication rates of 40-60% and mortality rates as high as 9% in the first 90 days after surgery (Aziz et al., Eur Urol 66(1):156-163, 2014; Shabsigh et al., Eur Urol 55(1):164-174, 2009). Many patients suffer from a failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with anorexia, weight loss, dehydration, and immobility. In elderly patients, failure-to-thrive may result in loss of independence and a cascade of events that increases the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality, ultimately resulting in impaired survival. Psoas muscle mass has been used to predict morbidity and mortality after major surgical procedures in vulnerable populations with substantial comorbidities. Increasingly, psoas muscle mass is also being used to predict outcomes after RC. If patients with a high risk of impaired survival are identified preoperatively, prehabilitative interventions can be integrated into their preparation for surgical treatment (Porserud et al., Clin Rehab 28(5):451-459, 2014; Friedman et al., Nutr Clin Pract: Off Publ Am Soc Parenter Enter Nutr 30(2):175-179, 2015). This chapter discusses the role of psoas muscle mass as a predictor of negative surgical outcomes after cystectomy. PMID:26403157

  19. Modified laparoscopic intravesical nonrefluxing ureteral reimplantation with psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hee; Ro, Joo Hwan; Jung, Han

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of the cystoscopy-assisted nonrefluxing ureteral reimplantation technique using submucosal tunneling during laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy (UNC) with a psoas hitch in patients with distal ureter stricture after gynecologic surgery. We reviewed six female patients who underwent gynecological surgeries. All patients showed persistent postoperative distal ureter stricture or obstruction. These patients underwent laparoscopic nonrefluxing UNC with a psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling technique combined with cystoscopy at our institute. They had corrective surgery at an average of 13.3 weeks after ureteral injury. The short-term success was confirmed either by voiding cystourethrography (VCU) or by diuretic isotope renal scan (MAG-3) conducted 3 months after the operation. None of the patients showed evidence of postoperative stricture at the reimplanted site and reflux on either MAG-3 renal scan or VCU. None of the patients showed major or minor complications during follow-up. It is safe and feasible to perform the laparoscopic nonrefluxing UNC with a psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling technique combined with cystoscopy for ureteral stricture. PMID:25610823

  20. Two-compartment tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Ahmed F.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Lin, Zhao; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we proposed a new paradigm to explain the compartment-specific role of autophagy in tumor metabolism. In this model, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the tumor stroma promotes cellular catabolism, which results in the production of recycled nutrients. These chemical building blocks and high-energy fuels would then drive the anabolic growth of tumors, via autophagy resistance and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. We have termed this new form of stromal-epithelial metabolic coupling: two-compartment tumor metabolism. Here, we stringently tested this energy-transfer hypothesis, by genetically creating (1) constitutively autophagic fibroblasts, with mitochondrial dysfunction or (2) autophagy-resistant cancer cells, with increased mitochondrial function. Autophagic fibroblasts were generated by stably overexpressing key target genes that lead to AMP-kinase activation, such as DRAM and LKB1. Autophagy-resistant cancer cells were derived by overexpressing GOLPH3, which functionally promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. As predicted, DRAM and LKB1 overexpressing fibroblasts were constitutively autophagic and effectively promoted tumor growth. We validated that autophagic fibroblasts showed mitochondrial dysfunction, with increased production of mitochondrial fuels (L-lactate and ketone body accumulation). Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpressing breast cancer cells were autophagy-resistant, and showed signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which resulted in increased tumor growth. Thus, autophagy in the tumor stroma and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in cancer cells can both dramatically promote tumor growth, independently of tumor angiogenesis. For the first time, our current studies also link the DNA damage response in the tumor microenvironment with Warburg-like cancer metabolism, as DRAM is a DNA damage/repair target gene. PMID:22722266

  1. Contamination control of the space shuttle Orbiter crew compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelson, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Effective contamination control as applied to manned space flight environments is a discipline characterized and controlled by many parameters. An introduction is given to issues involving Orbiter crew compartment contamination control. An effective ground processing contamination control program is an essential building block to a successful shuttle mission. Personnel are required to don cleanroom-grade clothing ensembles before entering the crew compartment and follow cleanroom rules and regulations. Prior to crew compartment entry, materials and equipment must be checked by an orbiter integrity clerk stationed outside the white-room entrance for compliance to program requirements. Analysis and source identification of crew compartment debris studies have been going on for two years. The objective of these studies is to determine and identify particulate generating materials and activities in the crew compartment. Results show a wide spectrum of many different types of materials. When source identification is made, corrective action is implemented to minimize or curtail further contaminate generation.

  2. Just another abdominal pain? Psoas abscess-like metastasis in large cell lung cancer with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Vera; Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Dias, João Lopes; Bento, Luís

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 69-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and previous pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented to the emergency department with abdominal and low back pain, anorexia and weight loss, rapidly evolving into shock. An initial CT scan revealed pulmonary condensation with associated cavitation and an iliopsoas mass suggestive of a psoas abscess. He was admitted in an intensive care unit unit; after a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the aetiology was yet undisclosed. MRI showed multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies, bulky nodular adrenal lesions and bilateral iliac lytic lesions. Hypocortisolism was detected and treated with steroids. A CT-guided biopsy to the psoas mass and lytic lesions identified infiltration of non-small lung carcinoma. The patient died within days. Psoas metastases and adrenal insufficiency as initial manifestations of malignancy are rare and can be misdiagnosed, particularly in the absence of a known primary tumour. PMID:26063108

  3. Relationship between psoas muscle dimensions and post operative thigh pain. A possible preoperative evaluation factor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advanced intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is used to attenuate postoperative complications and side effects of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF). Specific factors relate to the presence of postoperative injury are not well understood. This study aims to identify intraoperative variables with correlations to new postoperative anterior thigh/groin sensory changes. Methods Twenty-nine patients with various degenerative lumbar conditions were treated with XLIF at a single institution. Mean age was 59 years, 69% were female, and 21% had undergone previous lumbar surgery. A total of 47 levels (mean 1.6, range 1-3) were treated with XLIF. Supplemental pedicle screw and rod fixation was used in 24 patients (83%). Dynamically-evoked electromyography was used in all cases. Analysis of baseline demographic and treatment variables were performed at a per patient basis (n = 29), whereas analysis of intraoperative variables were performed at a per levels treated basis (n = 47). Results Within 24 hours postoperative, 10 (34%) patients experienced anterior thigh/groin sensory changes (4 reported pain only, 5 reported pain plus other sensory changes, and 1 paresthesia without pain). Symptom resolution occurred at 1 month postoperative for 4 patients, at 3 months postoperative for 2 patients. At 3 months postoperative, 6 patients had complete symptom resolution, 3 patients had symptom improvements, and 1 patient had no change in perioperative symptoms. Psoas dimension in the lateral-latero direction were significantly smaller for patients with postoperative sensory changes (p = 0.025), and similarly, patients with postoperative sensory changes had a significantly higher ratio of psoas muscle in the anterior-posterior to lateral-latero directions (p = 0.026). Conclusions In addition to IONM, MRI evaluation of psoas shape, position, and dimension may be of help in preoperative planning of a safe XLIF access and eventually, predict those cases with higher risk of approach-related post-operative events. PMID:26196034

  4. Infectious Spondylodiscitis, Epidural Phlegmon, and Psoas Abscess Complicating Diabetic Foot Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Nicole; Pratt, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Few published case reports have cited vertebral osteomyelitis as a sequela of a diabetic foot infection. The purpose of the present report is to increase awareness of a potentially severe complication of diabetic foot ulceration: vertebral osteomyelitis and associated pathologic features. We present the case of a 63-year-old male with right calcaneal osteomyelitis who developed acute onset lower back pain with concomitant fever and chills. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed L4-L5 vertebral osteomyelitis, a T9-L1 epidural abscess, and a right psoas muscle abscess secondary to hematogenous seeding from the calcaneus. The patient underwent right partial calcanectomy, spinal and right psoas abscess incision and drainage, and direct lumbar interbody fusion of L4-L5 with a right iliac crest allograft. All bone, blood, and abscess cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. After the surgery, the patient's pain resolved in his back and hip and he regained full right lower extremity function. The 1-year follow-up examination revealed that the patient had vertebral arthritis but was able to perform his activities of daily living with a walker and cane. It is important to recognize the potential complications of diabetic foot ulcerations and be aware of the identifying symptoms and treatment options for this condition to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:25128309

  5. Primary extrahepatic alveolar echinococcosis of the lumbar spine and the psoas muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) of human being caused by Echinococcus multilocularis is a rare but important zoonosis especially in tempered zones of middle Europe and Northern America with endemic character in many countries. Due to the long incubation period, various clinical manifestations, critical prognosis, and outcome AE presents a serious and severe disease. The primary focus of infection is usually the liver. Although secondary affection of visceral organs is possible extrahepatic AE is highly uncommon. Moreover, the involvement of bone and muscle presents with an even lower incidence. In the literature numerous cases on hepatic AE have been reported. However, extrahepatic AE involving bones and/or muscles was described very rarely. We report a case of an 80-year-old man with primary extrahepatic alveolar Echinococcosis of the lumbar spine and the psoas muscle. The etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, treatment options and outcome of this rare disease are discussed in context with the current literature. PMID:21496254

  6. The effects of psoas major and lumbar lordosis on hip flexion and sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power; sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, and PM CSA, but LL showed no correlation with any parameter The impact of hip flexion power and LL on sprint stride pattern efficiency was considered. Hip flexion might not have a simple role in the passive knee replacement of the stride pattern; instead, it may be an active parameter. Other investigations are needed to determine the influence of pelvic architecture on sprint performance. PMID:22808701

  7. Osteomyelitis, discitis, epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica in a man with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed ?-thalassaemia trait.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Helen; Abbey, Aoife; Patel, Vinod; Nair, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ?-thalassaemia trait. Investigations for relapsing and remitting fever found vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis and epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica. PMID:25608980

  8. Psoas muscle pyogenic abscess in association with infected hip arthroplasty: a rare case of simultaneous bilateral presentation.

    PubMed

    Volpin, Andrea; Kini, Sunil Gurpur; Berizzi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral presentation of psoas abscess with prosthetic joint involvement is extremely rare. A 68-year-old woman presented to us with bilateral dull aching groin pain of 6?months' duration, which flared up in the past month, associated with pyrexial symptoms. She had undergone bilateral hip replacements in the past with uneventful recovery. MRI showed bilateral psoas muscle collection in communication with the hip joints. Preoperative hip aspirate demonstrated frank pus with positivity on Gram stain and radiographs confirmed prosthetic loosening of bilateral hips. The patient subsequently underwent two-stage revision arthroplasty of both infected hip implants. At 5-year follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic with good functional outcome and no recurrence on serial MRI. PMID:25994433

  9. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can be closed for environmental protection of the suits, suit maintenance, and pressurization.

  10. Understanding HIV compartments and reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Svicher, Valentina; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Antinori, Andrea; Aquaro, Stefano; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2014-06-01

    The spectrum of HIV-1 cellular reservoirs is highly diversified, and their role varies according to the milieu of the anatomical sites in which the virus replicates. In this light, mechanisms underlying HIV-1 persistence in anatomical compartments may be profoundly different from what is observed in peripheral blood. This scenario is further complicated by sub-optimal drug penetration in tissues allowing persistent and cryptic HIV-1 replication in body districts despite undetectable viremia. On this basis, this review aims at providing recent insights regarding the critical role of HIV-1 cellular reservoirs in different anatomical compartments, and their relationship with the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. A comprehensive definition of the complex interplay between the virus and its reservoir is critical in order to set up prophylactic and therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving the maximal virological suppression and hopefully in the near future the cure of HIV-1 infection (either functional or biological). PMID:24729094

  11. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  12. Sex differences in the cross-sectional areas of psoas major and thigh muscles in high school track and field athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Muramatsu, Masataka; Iida, Tomomi; Ii, Nozomi; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the sex differences in the cross-sectional areas of the psoas major, quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, and adductors in high school track and field athletes and nonathletes. The cross-sectional areas of the psoas major at L4-L5 and three thigh muscles at the mid-thigh were determined in the right side of the body using magnetic resonance imaging in 61 sprinters (29 boys and 32 girls), 50 jumpers (28 boys and 22 girls), 33 throwers (18 boys and 15 girls), and 40 nonathletes (20 boys and 20 girls), aged from 16 to 18 yrs. On the whole, the cross-sectional area for every muscle group was greater in the athletes than in the nonathletes and in the boys than in the girls. The average value of the cross-sectional area for the girls as a percentage of that for the boys in every subject group was lower in the psoas major (57.6-64.7%) than in the thigh muscles (67.8-82.9%). Among the thigh muscles, the muscle group which showed significant sex differences in the ratio of cross-sectional area to the two-third power of lean body mass was limited to the quadriceps femoris in the sprinters and nonathletes and hamstrings in the throwers. However, the ratio for the psoas major was significantly higher in the boys than in the girls in all subject groups. The current results indicate that, although regular participation in sports training during adolescence promotes hypertrophy in the psoas major and thigh muscles in not only boys but also girls, a greater sex difference exists in the muscularity of the psoas major than of the thigh muscles, in athletes and nonathletes. PMID:21483176

  13. Appropriately placed surface EMG electrodes reflect deep muscle activity (psoas, quadratus lumborum, abdominal wall) in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    McGill, S; Juker, D; Kropf, P

    1996-11-01

    This study tested the possibility of obtaining the activity of deeper muscles in the torso-specifically psoas, quadratus lumborum, external oblique, internal oblique and transverse abdominis, using surface myoelectric electrodes. It was hypothesized that: (1) surface electrodes adequately represent the amplitude of deep muscles (specifically psoas, quadratus lumborum, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis); (2) a single surface electrode location would best represent the activation profiles of each deep muscle over a broad variety of tasks. We assumed that prediction of activation within 10% of maximum voluntary contraction (RMS difference between the surface and intramuscular channels), over the time history of the signal, was reasonable and acceptable to assist clinical interpretation of muscle activation amplitude, and ultimately for modeled estimates of muscle force. Surface electrodes were applied and intramuscular electrodes were inserted on the left side of the body in five men and three women who then performed a wide variety of flexor tasks (bent knee and straight leg situps and leg raises, curl ups), extensor tasks (including lifting barbells up to 70 kg), lateral bending tasks (standing lateral bend and horizontal lying side support), twisting tasks (standing and sitting), and internal/external hip rotation. Using the criteria of RMS difference and the coefficient of determination (R2) to compare surface with intramuscular myoelectric signals, the results indicated that selected surface electrodes adequately represent the amplitude of deep muscles-always within 15% RMS difference, or less with the exception of psoas where differences up to 20% were observed but only in certain maximum voluntary contraction efforts. It appears reasonable for spine modelers, and particularly clinicians, to assume well selected surface electrode locations provide a representation of these deeper muscles-as long as they recognize the magnitude of error for their particular application. PMID:8894932

  14. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  15. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  16. Cross-sectional area of psoas major muscle and hip flexion strength in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Iida, Tomomi; Ii, Nozomi; Muramatsu, Masataka; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Chumank, Kentaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the differences in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle and hip flexion force (HFF) of the right (dominant) side between adolescent male soccer players and age-matched non-athletes. PM CSA at L4L5 and HFF at 1.05 rad/s were determined in 22 early (12.813.6 years) and 27 late (16.117.9 years) adolescent soccer players and 11 early (12.613.5 years) and 20 late (16.017.7 years) adolescent non-athletes. Fat-free mass (FFM) was greater in late adolescent soccer players than in late adolescent non-athletes, but was similar between the two early adolescent groups. Without the effect of age, PM CSA and HFF were greater in soccer players than in non-athletes. PM CSA and HFF were significantly correlated to FFM (soccer players, r = 0.860, P < 0.0001; non-athletes, r = 0.709, P < 0.0001) and PM CSA (soccer players, r = 0.760, P < 0.0001; non-athletes, r = 0.777, P < 0.0001), respectively. The difference between soccer players and non-athletes in PM CSA was still significant even when PM CSA was covaried for FFM. On the other hand, HFF covaried for PM CSA was similar between the two groups. The current results indicate that, as compared to age-matched non-athletes: (1) not only late, but also early adolescent soccer players have a greater PM CSA even when the difference in FFM was adjusted, and (2) their superiority in hip flexion force can be attributed to the difference in PM CSA. PMID:22297611

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Medina, Jose Garcia; Mundo, Elena; Medina, Vicente Garcia; Leal, Rafael

    2004-11-15

    We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treated by TAE.

  18. Perinephric stranding and bulky psoas mimicking pyelonephritis in a case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of kidney.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Sharma, Aditya Prakash; Mittal, Ankur; Lal, Anupam

    2015-05-01

    A 68-year-old male patient presented with fever and right groin pain. He had leukocytosis with azotemia. Computed tomography revealed enlarged right kidney with thickening and enhancement of walls of pelvicalyceal system and perinephric fat stranding, suggestive of pyelonephritis. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes encased right renal vessels and were present in the retrocaval region. The right psoas muscle was bulky. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and biopsy from the lesions showed features of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma. We emphasize lymphoma in differential diagnosis of atypical renal imaging suggestive of pyelonephritis and perinephritis. PMID:25813655

  19. [Superficial femoral vein thrombosis due to large psoas bursitis secondary to particle disease in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Lax-Prez, R; Salinas-Gilabert, J E; Lajara-Marco, F; Lax-Prez, A; Corraliza-Zamorano, A; Garca-Glvez, A; Izquierdo-Plazas, L

    2012-01-01

    Male, 76 year-old patient with a history of total hip arthroplasty who presents with a mass in the iliac fossa with swelling of the thigh and hip pain upon flexion and extension. Complementary ultrasound and computed tomography scan studies show a giant lobulated cystic mass in the left iliac fossa, 7 cm in diameter, near the prosthesis. Cyst formation caused by polyethylene disease after total hip arthroplasty is infrequent. We present a case of large psoas bursitis secondary to the release of polyethylene particles which caused superficial femoral vein compression and thrombosis. PMID:24712196

  20. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each... a second pilot, the rotorcraft must be controllable with equal safety from either pilot position. Flight and powerplant controls must be designed to prevent confusion or inadvertent operation when...

  1. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ufuk; Matarac?, ?lker

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities' compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy. PMID:25120938

  2. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required...

  3. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required...

  4. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required...

  5. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 25.853 Section 25... Compartment interiors. For each compartment occupied by the crew or passengers, the following apply: (a... capacity of the airplane. (d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the following...

  6. Bilateral peroneal compartment syndrome after horse riding.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Krishant S; Chin, Terence; Harris, Christain; Talbot, Simon

    2009-09-01

    A healthy 20-year-old woman developed acute ischemia of the lateral compartment of both calves shortly after a 30-minute horse ride. On one side, she developed compartment syndrome with resultant complete myonecrosis of the compartment, whereas on the other side, there was spontaneous resolution. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral lateral compartment ischemia after horse riding. Atraumatic compartment syndrome is a rare entity and is often missed at initial presentation. We discuss aspects of her management together with a review of the literature. Late fasciotomy and exploration may be beneficial in decompressing the deep peroneal nerve in peroneal compartment syndrome. Awareness of atraumatic compartment syndrome is important in any case of limb pain and swelling. PMID:19683135

  7. Selective autophagy against membranous compartments

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Muiños, Felipe X; Boada-Romero, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Selective autophagic degradation of cellular components underlies many of the important physiological and pathological implications that autophagy has for mammalian cells. Cytoplasmic vesicles, just like other intracellular items, can be subjected to conventional autophagic events where double-membrane autophagosomes specifically isolate and deliver them for lysosomal destruction. However, intracellular membranes appear to constitute common platforms for unconventional versions of the autophagic pathway, a notion that has become apparent during the past few years. For instance, in many cases of autophagy directed against bacterial phagosomes, subversion of the process results in multimembrane vacuoles that promote bacterial replication instead of the usual degradative outcome. In a different atypical modality, single-membrane vesicles can be labeled with LC3 to direct their contents for lysosomal degradation. In fact, single-membrane compartments of various kinds often provide an assembly site for the autophagic machinery to perform unanticipated nondegradative activities that range from localized secretion of lysosomal contents to melanosome function. Interestingly, many of these unconventional processes seem to be initiated through engagement of relevant nodes of the autophagic signaling network that, once activated, promote LC3 decoration of the targeted membrane, and some cases of inducer/receptor proteins that specifically engage those important signaling hubs have recently been described. Here we review the available examples of all autophagic variants involving membranous compartments, with a main focus on the more recently discovered unconventional phenomena where the usual degradation purpose of autophagy or its canonical mechanistic features are not completely conserved. PMID:24419294

  8. Differential scanning calorimetry study of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibres in intermediate state of ATP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Dergez, Timea; L?rinczy, Dnes; Knczl, Franciska; Farkas, Nelli; Belagyi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background Thermal denaturation experiments were extended to study the thermal behaviour of the main motor proteins (actin and myosin) in their native environment in striated muscle fibres. The interaction of actin with myosin in the highly organized muscle structure is affected by internal forces; therefore their altered conformation and interaction may differ from those obtained in solution. The energetics of long functioning intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis cycle was studied in muscle fibres by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results SETARAM Micro DSC-II was used to monitor the thermal denaturation of the fibre system in rigor and in the presence of nucleotide and nucleotide analogues. The AM.ADP.Pi state of the ATP hydrolysis cycle has a very short lifetime therefore, we mimicked the different intermediate states with AMP.PNP and/or inorganic phosphate analogues Vi and AlF4 or BeFx. Studying glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from the rabbit psoas muscle by DSC, three characteristic thermal transitions were detected in rigor. The thermal transitions can be assigned to myosin heads, myosin rods and actin with transition temperatures (Tm) of 52.9 0.7C, 57.9 0.7C, 63.7 1.0C. In different intermediate states of the ATP hydrolysis mimicked by nucleotide analogues a fourth thermal transition was also detected which is very likely connected with nucleotide binding domain of myosin and/or actin filaments. This transition temperature Tm4 depended on the mimicked intermediate states, and varied in the range of 66C 77C. Conclusion According to DSC measurements, strongly and weakly binding states of myosin to actin were significantly different. In the presence of ADP only a moderate change of the DSC pattern was detected in comparison with rigor, whereas in ADP.Pi state trapped by Vi, AlF4 or BeFx a remarkable stabilization was detected on the myosin head and actin filament which is reflected in a 3.0 10.0C shift in Tm to higher temperature. A similar effect was observed in the case of the nonhydrolyzable AMP.PNP analogue. Differential DSC measurements suggest that stabilization actin structure in the intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis may play an additional role in actin-myosin interaction. PMID:17588264

  9. Faster force transient kinetics at submaximal Ca2+ activation of skinned psoas fibers from rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, D. A.; Chase, P. B.

    1995-01-01

    The early, rapid phase of tension recovery (phase 2) after a step change in sarcomere length is thought to reflect the force-generating transition of myosin bound to actin. We have measured the relation between the rate of tension redevelopment during phase 2 (r), estimated from the half-time of tension recovery during phase 2 (r = t0.5(-1)), and steady-state force at varying [Ca2+] in single fibers from rabbit psoas. Sarcomere length was monitored continuously by laser diffraction of fiber segments (length approximately 1.6 mm), and sarcomere homogeneity was maintained using periodic length release/restretch cycles at 13-15 degrees C. At lower [Ca2+] and forces, r was elevated relative to that at pCa 4.0 for both releases and stretches (between +/- 8 nm). For releases of -3.4 +/- 0.7 nm.hs-1 at pCa 6.6 (where force was 10-20% of maximum force at pCa 4.0), r was 3.3 +/- 1.0 ms-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 5), whereas the corresponding value of r at pCa 4.0 was 1.0 +/- 0.2 ms-1 for releases of -3.5 +/- 0.5 nm.hs-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 5). For stretches of 1.9 +/- 0.7 nm.hs-1, r was 1.0 +/- 0.3 ms-1 (mean +/- SD; N = 9) at pCa 6.6, whereas r was 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms-1 at pCa 4.0 for stretches of 1.9 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SD; N = 14). Faster phase 2 transients at submaximal Ca(2+)-activation were not caused by changes in myofilament lattice spacing because 4% Dextran T-500, which minimizes lattice spacing changes, was present in all solutions. The inverse relationship between phase 2 kinetics and force obtained during steady-state activation of skinned fibers appears to be qualitatively similar to observations on intact frog skeletal fibers during the development of tetanic force. The data are consistent with models that incorporate a direct effect of [Ca2+] on phase 2 kinetics of individual cross-bridges or, alternatively, in which phase 2 kinetics depend on cooperative interactions between cross-bridges. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7711246

  10. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  11. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received

  12. Compartments revealed in food-web structure.

    PubMed

    Krause, Ann E; Frank, Kenneth A; Mason, Doran M; Ulanowicz, Robert E; Taylor, William W

    2003-11-20

    Compartments in food webs are subgroups of taxa in which many strong interactions occur within the subgroups and few weak interactions occur between the subgroups. Theoretically, compartments increase the stability in networks, such as food webs. Compartments have been difficult to detect in empirical food webs because of incompatible approaches or insufficient methodological rigour. Here we show that a method for detecting compartments from the social networking science identified significant compartments in three of five complex, empirical food webs. Detection of compartments was influenced by food web resolution, such as interactions with weights. Because the method identifies compartmental boundaries in which interactions are concentrated, it is compatible with the definition of compartments. The method is rigorous because it maximizes an explicit function, identifies the number of non-overlapping compartments, assigns membership to compartments, and tests the statistical significance of the results. A graphical presentation reveals systemic relationships and taxa-specific positions as structured by compartments. From this graphic, we explore two scenarios of disturbance to develop a hypothesis for testing how compartmentalized interactions increase stability in food webs. PMID:14628050

  13. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles. PMID:26165811

  14. Thigh abscess as an extension of psoas abscess: the first manifestation of perforated appendiceal adenocarcinoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Igor; Pecin, Ivan; Prutki, Maja; Augustin, Goran; Nedic, Ana; Gojevic, Ante; Potocki, Kristina; Reiner, Zeljko

    2015-08-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with a painful, swollen, red right thigh and the mild pain in the right abdomen without nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea that lasted for 1 week. Laboratory findings revealed elevated inflammatory markers. Computed tomography of the right thigh, abdomen and pelvis showed an abscess formation in the adductor muscles draining from the abscess that completely occupied the right retroperitoneum up to the diaphragm, dissecting downward through the inguinal canal. Appendix was enlarged with an appendicolith. Emergent exploratory laparotomy revealed a perforated appendix with psoas abscess. Pathohistological diagnosis revealed adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Thigh abscess is an uncommon condition with insidious clinical presentation. Therefore, early recognition and setting of the correct diagnosis enables adequate treatment avoiding additional complications and in some cases potential life-threatening conditions. When upper leg abscess is suspected or proven abdominal examination is mandatory. PMID:25412593

  15. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  16. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  17. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; S, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10 before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  18. Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia Congenital Heart Defects Electrocardiogram How the Heart Works Sudden Cardiac Arrest Send ... block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test detects ...

  19. Recurrent Lower-Extremity Compartment Syndrome after Four-Compartment Fasciotomy Secondary to Acute Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kerkar, Ashwini P; Farber, Alik; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening event necessitating emergent treatment using fasciotomy. Recurrent compartment syndrome is rare and has only been reported after trauma and in conjunction with underlying connective tissue disorders. In this report, we present a case of recurrent lower-extremity compartment syndrome caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury, in a patient previously treated with adequate 4-compartment fasciotomies. As such, this is the first reported case of recurrent compartment syndrome in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury that required treatment with 4-compartment fasciotomies on both occasions. This case demonstrates that fasciotomy is not protective against the development of recurrent compartment syndrome due to ischemia-reperfusion injury and that patients at high risk require monitoring. PMID:26363426

  20. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining

  1. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  2. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compartment. (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting... 15 inches, above the floor and shall have a clear floor area directly in front a minimum of 30...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compartment. (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting... 15 inches, above the floor and shall have a clear floor area directly in front a minimum of 30...

  4. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compartment. (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting... 15 inches, above the floor and shall have a clear floor area directly in front a minimum of 30...

  5. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture?

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brando; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  6. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brando; Dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; Dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  7. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either letters or symbols) notifying all... illuminated, be legible to each passenger seated in the passenger cabin under all probable lighting...

  8. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  9. Solution self-assembly behavior of block copolymer blends with the same hydrophilic block but different hydrophobic blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Ke; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

    2010-03-01

    Novel micellar structures due to segregation of unlike hydrophobic domains trapped within the same micelle core have been produced via self-assembly of block copolymer blends in tetrahydrofuran/water solution. The blend is composed of two or more block copolymers with distinctive hydrophobic blocks but the same poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrophilic block chemistry. By taking advantage of the complexation in the hydrophilic corona between the acid side chains of the PAA block and added organoamine molecules unlike hydrophobic blocks are trapped in the same micelle core and consequently, locally segregate. This segregation gives rise to a class of new multi-compartment micelle structures in which both the volume and shape of each compartment can be well controlled by changing the blending ratio, block length and kinetic pathway of micelle formation. The arrangement of hydrophilic PAA block and varied hydrophobic blocks within the micelles makes them potential templates for multi-functional composite nanomaterials by putting varied inorganic nanoparticles into targeting domains. Transmission electron, cryogenic transmission electron, and neutron scattering have been applied to characterize the assembled structures

  10. Status spasticus and psoas muscle edema due to anti-GAD antibody associated stiff-man syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maramattom, Boby Varkey

    2015-01-01

    Severe muscle rigidity and spasms are uncommon causes of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions. Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) is a rare disorder characterized by continuous muscle spasms, axial muscle rigidity, “tin soldier gait,” and continuous motor unit activity on electromyography. There are three clinical variants of SMS; stiff-limb syndrome, classical SMS, and paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Three types of antibodies have been associated with SMS; however, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies are the most frequent and are seen in the idiopathic type of SMS. The spasms of SMS can be very disabling and severe enough to cause muscle ruptures and skeletal fractures. We present a case of anti-GAD positive SMS with “status spasticus” causing bilateral psoas myoedema and rhabdomyolysis due to repeated axial muscle jerking in a 64-year-old man and discuss the differential diagnosis of a “jerking patient in the ICU.” PMID:26321813

  11. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  12. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size

  13. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: (a) Each Class C or Class D compartment, as defined in § 25.857 of this Chapter in effect on June 16... capability of the liner to safely contain a fire. (c) After March 19, 2001, each Class D compartment... compartment unless the operation is an all-cargo operation in which case each Class D compartment may meet...

  14. Ketone bodies and two-compartment tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2012-01-01

    We have previously suggested that ketone body metabolism is critical for tumor progression and metastasis. Here, using a co-culture system employing human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts, we provide new evidence to directly support this hypothesis. More specifically, we show that the enzymes required for ketone body production are highly upregulated within cancer-associated fibroblasts. This appears to be mechanistically controlled by the stromal expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and/or serum starvation. In addition, treatment with ketone bodies (such as 3-hydroxy-butyrate, and/or butanediol) is sufficient to drive mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells. This observation was also validated by unbiased proteomic analysis. Interestingly, an MCT1 inhibitor was sufficient to block the onset of mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells, suggesting a possible avenue for anticancer therapy. Finally, using human breast cancer tumor samples, we directly confirmed that the enzymes associated with ketone body production (HMGCS2, HMGCL and BDH1) were preferentially expressed in the tumor stroma. Conversely, enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1) and mitochondrial biogenesis (HSP60) were selectively associated with the epithelial tumor cell compartment. Our current findings are consistent with the two-compartment tumor metabolism model. Furthermore, they suggest that we should target ketone body metabolism as a new area for drug discovery, for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. PMID:23082721

  15. Space Shuttle crew compartment debris-contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Villarreal, Leopoldo J.

    1992-01-01

    Remedial actions undertaken to reduce debris during manned flights and ground turnaround operations at Kennedy Space Center and Palmdale are addressed. They include redesign of selected ground support equipment and Orbiter hardware to reduce particularization/debris generation; development of new detachable filters for air-cooled avionics boxes; application of tape-on screens to filter debris; and implementation of new Orbiter maintenance and turnaround procedures to clean filters and the crew compartment. Most of these steps were implemented before the return-to-flight of STS-26 in September 1988 which resulted in improved crew compartment habitability and less potential for equipment malfunction.

  16. Acute and chronic compartment syndromes: know when to act fast.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Heard, Hank; Kelham, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Compartment syndrome is a fairly common condition noted in patients with fractures or crush injuries to the extremities (acute compartment syndrome) and in athletes (chronic compartment syndrome). Compartments bound by fascia are found in the extremities, buttocks, and abdomen; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss. This article reviews diagnosis of the problem, monitoring of compartment pressure, and appropriate treatment. PMID:24819953

  17. Heart block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart (atria). This area is the heart's pacemaker. The electrical signals travel to the lower chambers ... third-degree heart block, you may need a pacemaker to help your heart beat regularly. A pacemaker ...

  18. Class E compartments form in response to ESCRT dysfunction in yeast due to hyperactivity of the Vps21 Rab GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Matthew R. G.; Shideler, Tess; Nickerson, Daniel P.; West, Matt; Odorizzi, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Summary The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) mediate the budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) at late endosomes. ESCRT dysfunction causes drastic changes in endosome morphology, which are manifested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the formation of aberrant endosomes known as class E compartments. Except for the absence of ILVs, the mechanistic basis for class E compartment biogenesis is unknown. We used electron microscopy to examine endosomal morphology in response to transient ESCRT inactivation and recovery in yeast expressing the temperature-sensitive mutant vps4ts allele. Our results show class E compartments accumulate fourfold the amount of membrane normally present at multivesicular bodies and that multivesicular bodies can form directly from class E compartments upon recovery of ESCRT function. We found class E compartment formation requires Vps21, which is orthologous to the Rab5A GTPase in metazoans that promotes fusion of endocytic vesicles with early endosomes and homotypic fusion of early endosomes with one another. We also determined that class E compartments accumulate GTP-bound Vps21 and its effector, the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET). Ypt7, the yeast ortholog of Rab7 that in metazoans promotes fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes, also accumulates at class E compartments but without its effector, the homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS), signifying that Ypt7 at class E compartments is dysfunctional. These results suggest that failure to complete Rab5Rab7 conversion is a consequence of ESCRT dysfunction, which results in Vps21 hyperactivity that drives the class E compartment morphology. Indeed, genetic disruption of Rab conversion without ESCRT dysfunction autonomously drives the class E compartment morphology without blocking ILV budding. PMID:22899724

  19. Non-small cell lung cancer with concomitant intramuscular myxoma of the right psoas mimicking intramuscular metastasis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, PENG; MENG, XUE; XIA, LIANKE; XIE, PENG; SUN, XINDONG; GAO, YONGSHENG; WANG, SHIJIANG; ZHAO, XIANGUANG; YU, JINMING

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma (IMM) as a rare soft-tissue tumor arising from the muscles is completely benign. When IMM accompanies malignance, it may be misdiagnosed as muscle metastasis, and for this extremely rare concurrence, the subsequent treatment would vary accordingly. The current study presents, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) concomitant with IMM mimicking skeletal muscle metastasis. A 64-year-old female was hospitalized with a history of chest discomfort and right lumbar pain that had persisted for four months. The computed tomography scan showed a lesion in the left upper lobe of the lung and the right psoas, respectively. Serum biomarkers for NSCLC were abnormal. A presumptive clinical diagnosis was compatible with left NSCLC and right psoas muscle metastasis (cT2aN3M1b, stage IV). Stage IV lung cancer would receive palliative treatment. However, the final diagnosis of synchronous left lung squamous cell carcinoma (cT2aN3M0, stage IIIB) and IMM in the right psoas was confirmed by biopsy. The patient therefore underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy for lung carcinoma, and conservative treatment, including analgesics, for IMM. The diagnosis process for a malignant neoplasm concomitant with IMM is not straightforward due to a lack of clinical experience, and it significantly affects the tumor staging and subsequent treatment strategy. The present case suggests that IMM should be included in the differential diagnosis when an abnormal intramuscular lesion concomitant with malignancy is identified. The value of histopathological diagnosis prior to definitive treatment also requires highlighting. PMID:26722289

  20. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems §...

  1. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Grger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  2. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 29.853 Section 29.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  3. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 29.853 Section 29.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.111... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems ...

  6. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations §...

  7. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations §...

  8. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced heterotopic ossification of the retroperitoneum, psoas muscle, pelvis and abdominal wall following lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Shah, Raj K; Moncayo, Valeria M; Smitson, Robert D; Pierre-Jerome, Claude; Terk, Michael R

    2010-05-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with vertebral collapse at L5 as an initial manifestation of multiple myeloma and underwent spinal fusion surgery using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Subsequent computed tomography (CT) scans and X-rays revealed heterotopic ossification of the left psoas muscle, pelvis, and anterior abdominal wall. While the occurrence of heterotopic ossification has previously been reported when rhBMP-2 has been used for spinal fusion surgery, this case demonstrates that it can occur to a much greater degree than previously seen. PMID:20162273

  9. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  10. Block Busters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A number of college publications editors and designers share their secrets for coping with writer's block and other forms of creative anxiety. Suggested techniques include a change of scenery, guarding one's time, sharing ideas with others, thorough research, and organization. (MSE)

  11. Block People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an activity in which students in an after-school art class drew one another on pieces of 2-by-4 scrap lumber in order to create a class portrait in three dimensions. Stresses that the portraits on the wood blocks were done in-the-round, or each side was covered. (CMK)

  12. Spinal blocks.

    PubMed

    Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Every anesthetist should have the expertise to perform lumbar puncture that is the prerequisite to induce spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia is easy and effective technique: small amount of local anesthetic injected in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid provides highly effective anesthesia, analgesia, and sympathetic and motor block in the lower part of the body. The main limitation of spinal anesthesia is a variable and relatively short duration of the block with a single-injection of local anesthetic. With appropriate use of adjuvant or combining spinal anesthesia with epidural anesthesia, the analgesic action can be controlled in case of early recovery of initial block or in patients with prolonged procedures. Contraindications are rare. Bleeding disorders and any major dysfunction in coagulation system are rare in children, but spinal anesthesia should not be used in children with local infection or increased intracranial pressure. Children with spinal anesthesia may develop the same adverse effects as has been reported in adults, but in contrast to adults, cardiovascular deterioration is uncommon in children even with high blocks. Most children having surgery with spinal anesthesia need sedation, and in these cases, close monitoring of sufficient respiratory function and protective airway reflexes is necessary. Postdural puncture headache and transient neurological symptoms have been reported also in pediatric patients, and thus, guardians should be provided instructions for follow-up and contact information if symptoms appear or persist after discharge. Epidural blood patch is effective treatment for prolonged, severe headache, and nonopioid analgesic is often sufficient for transient neurological symptoms. PMID:21899656

  13. PTFE mesh in renal allograft compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maione, C; Gambino, G; Di Bona, A; Luna, E; Turco, D; Scio, A; Damiano, G; Virz, C; Gioviale, M C; Buscemi, G; Romano, M; Lo Monte, A I

    2006-05-01

    We report a case of anuria in a 42-year-old female kidney transplant patient that occurred secondary to extrinsic compression from a large kidney being placed extraperitoneally in a small iliac fossa. Prompt reexploration in the immediate postoperative period resulted in salvage of the graft with restoration of kidney function. The abdominal wall was reconstructed using prosthetic mesh, which decreased the compartment pressure within the iliac fossa sufficiently to allow the renal vein patency and the kidney perfusion. We think that this tension-free surgical technique should be applied in those cases in which the retroperitoneal space is less than the size of the kidney to avoid renal allograft compartment syndrome or incisional hernia. PMID:16757260

  14. Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Groth, Shawn S; Leon, Jorge A; Mohr, William J

    2012-04-01

    Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial. PMID:22787350

  15. [Acute compartment syndrome after a bowling game].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C Y; Braun, K F; Huber-Wagner, S; Neu, J

    2015-11-01

    A 28-year-old male patient was initially conservatively treated by a general physician for muscle strain of the right calf after a bowling game. Due to increasing pain and swelling of the lower leg 5days later, the differential diagnosis of a deep vein thrombosis was considered. Furthermore, the onset of neurological deficits and problems with raising the foot prompted inclusion of compartment syndrome in the differential diagnosis for the first time. Admission to hospital for surgical intervention was scheduled for the following day. At this point in time the laboratory results showed a negative d-dimer value and greatly increased C-reactive protein level. On day6 a dermatofasciotomy was performed which revealed extensive muscular necrosis with complete palsy of the peroneal nerve. In the following lawsuit the patient accused the surgeon of having misdiagnosed the slow-onset compartment syndrome and thus delaying correct and mandatory treatment. The arbitration board ruled that the surgeon should have performed fasciotomy immediately on day5 at the patient's consultation. The clinical presentation of progressive pain, swelling of the lower leg in combination with peroneal palsy must lead to the differential diagnosis of compartment syndrome resulting in adequate therapy. The delay of immediate surgery, therefore, was assessed to be faulty as this knowledge is to be expected of a surgeon. PMID:26440405

  16. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. PMID:26356766

  17. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied. PMID:26795486

  18. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented. PMID:19254364

  19. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and (3) The... that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result...

  20. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and (3) The... that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result...

  1. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and (3) The... that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result...

  2. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and (3) The... that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result...

  3. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and (3) The... that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result...

  4. State-dependent radial elasticity of attached cross-bridges in single skinned fibres of rabbit psoas muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1993-01-01

    1. In a single skinned fibre of rabbit psoas muscle, upon attachment of cross bridges to actin in the presence of ADP or pyrophosphate (PPi), the separation between the contractile filaments, as determined by equatorial X-ray diffraction, is found to decrease, suggesting that force is generated in the radial direction. 2. The single muscle fibres were subjected to compression by 0-8% of dextran T500. The changes in lattice spacings by dextran compression were compared with changes induced by cross-bridge attachment to actin. Based on this comparison, the magnitude and the direction of the radial force generated by the attached cross-bridges were estimated. The radial cross-bridge force varied with filament separation, and the magnitude of the radial cross-bridge force reached as high as the maximal axial force produced during isometric contraction. 3. One key parameter of the radial elasticity, i.e. the equilibrium spacing where the radial force is zero, was found to depend on the ligand bound to the myosin head. In the presence of ADP, the equilibrium spacing was 36 nm. In the presence of MgPPi the equilibrium spacing shifted to 35 nm and Ca2+ had little effect on the equilibrium spacing. 4. The equilibrium spacing was independent of the fraction of cross-bridges attached to actin. The fraction of cross-bridges attached in rigor was modulated from 100% to close to 0% by adding up to 10 mM of ATP gamma S in the rigor solution. The lattice spacing remained at 38 nm, the equilibrium spacing for nucleotide-free cross-bridges at mu = 170 mM. 5. Radial force generated by cross-bridges in rigor at large lattice spacings (38 nm < or = d10 < or = 46 nm) appeared to vary linearly with lattice spacing. 6. The titration of ATP gamma S to fibres in rigor provided a correlation between the radial stiffness of the nucleotide-free cross-bridges and the equatorial intensities. The relation between the equatorial intensity ratio I11/I10 and radial stiffness appeared to be approximately linear. 7. The fibres under different conditions showed a wide range of radial stiffness, which was not proportional to the apparent axial stiffness of the fibre. If the apparent axial stiffness is a measure of the fraction of cross-bridges bound to actin, it follows that the radial elastic constant is state dependent; or vice versa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7693922

  5. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cowling and engine compartment covering. 29... Protection 29.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each cowling and engine compartment... of 29.1187. (c) On rotorcraft with a diaphragm isolating the engine power section from the...

  7. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25.772 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... compartment and the passenger compartment: (a) For airplanes with a maximum passenger seating configuration...

  8. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks...

  9. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks...

  10. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks...

  11. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks...

  12. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental type... SFAR the airplane meets the compartment interior requirements set forth in § 25.853 (a), (b), (b-1),...

  13. Multigeometry micelles made from self-assembly of block copolymer mixtures via kinetic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Shiyi; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Ke; Miesch, Caroline; Emrick, Todd; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

    2011-03-01

    Multicompartment/multigeometry micellar structures, due to segregation of unlike hydrophobic domains trapped within the same micelle core, have been produced via self-assembly of block copolymer mixtures in tetrahydrofuran/water solution. The mixture is composed of two/or more block copolymers with distinctive hydrophobic blocks but the same poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrophilic block. By taking advantage of the complexation in the hydrophilic corona between the acid side chains of the PAA block and added organoamine molecules, unlike hydrophobic blocks are trapped in the same micelle core and, consequently, locally segregate into compartments. Through designed kinetic pathways, block copolymer design and mixing ratios, both micelle compartment size and shape could be controlled to form multicompartment spheres, sphere-cylinder hybrid micelles and multicompartment cylinders. New mixtures using PAA-containing block copolymers with additional hydrophilic blocks or end-group functionalization produce multigeometry/multicompartment micelles with patterned surfaces in addition to multicompartment cores.

  14. Compartment Syndrome in Children: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Talwalkar, Vishwas R

    2016-12-01

    Compartment syndrome (CS) can present differently in children than in adults. Increased need for analgesics is the first sign of evolving CS in children. Children with supracondylar humeral fractures, floating elbow injuries, operatively treated forearm fractures, and tibial fractures are at high risk for CS. Elbow flexion beyond 90° in supracondylar humeral fractures and closed treatment of forearm fractures in floating elbow injuries are associated with increased risk for CS. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with fasciotomy in children result in excellent long-term outcomes. PMID:26761913

  15. Acute compartment syndrome of the dorsal forearm following noncontact injury.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Brent; Comstock, Sean

    2010-09-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening condition in which early diagnosis and surgical consultation for fasciotomy are required to preserve functional outcome. The diagnosis is typically considered in patients with traumatic mechanisms of injury such as a direct blow and crush to the compartment, particularly when there is a fracture in the same compartment. We report the case of a patient with acute compartment syndrome of the dorsal forearm that occurred as a result of an atypical noncontact traumatic mechanism. Establishing the diagnosis of compartment syndrome was complicated in this patient, as some of the signs and symptoms of acute compartment syndrome could have been attributed to the presence of a coexisting rupture of the extensor digitorum muscle. This report serves to remind emergency physicians that, although rare, acute compartment syndrome can result from exertional and noncontact traumatic mechanisms. PMID:20925169

  16. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  17. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  18. Subcellular storage compartments of bacteriopheophorbide sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Joerg G.; Dembeck, U.; Hubert, M.; Spengler, Bernhard; Bayer, Rainer; Wagner, Birgit

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescence colocalization with the Golgi specific stain, NBD-ceramide, and the mitochondrial localizing stain, Rhodamine 123, confirmed the earlier assumption that the Golgi apparatus is one of the prominent storage compartments for bacteriopheophorbide esters in OAT 75 SCLC cells and several amelanotic melanoma cell lines (A375, Melur SP18, SkAMel 25). Furthermore, a diffuse staining of mitochondria, of non-structured cytoplasm, and an additional storage in melanine vesicles of the amelanotic melanoma cells suggests further storage compartments with quantitatively different contributions to the phototoxicity of bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizers. Independent observations of early phototoxic effects on microfilamentous networks, enzymatic activities (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), and redistribution phenomena following primary uptake of the sensitizers let us assume that only a part of the 108 molecules taken up by a cell contribute directly to phototoxicity. Thus it may be asked if a proper subcellular positioning of only a few sensitizer molecules may have similar phototoxic effects as the huge amounts stored at apparently ineffective sites.

  19. Endothermic force generation, temperature-jump experiments and effects of increased [MgADP] in rabbit psoas muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, ME; Pinniger, GJ; Ranatunga, KW

    2005-01-01

    We studied, by experiment and by kinetic modelling, the characteristics of the force increase on heating (endothermic force) in muscle. Experiments were done on maximally Ca2+-activated, permeabilized, single fibres (length ?2 mm; sarcomere length, 2.5 ?m) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mm, pH 7.1 and ionic strength was 200 mm. A small-amplitude (?3C) rapid laser temperature-jump (0.2 ms T-jump) at 89C induced a tension rise to a new steady state and it consisted of two (fast and slow) exponential components. The T-jump-induced tension rise became slower as [MgADP] was increased, with half-maximal effect at 0.5 mm[MgADP]; the pre- and post-T-jump tension increased ?20% with 4 mm added [MgADP]. As determined by the tension change to small, rapid length steps (<1.4%L0 complete in <0.5 ms), the increase of force by [MgADP] was not associated with a concomitant increase of stiffness; the quick tension recovery after length steps (HuxleySimmons phase 2) was slower with added MgADP. In steady-state experiments, the tension was larger at higher temperatures and the plot of tension versus reciprocal absolute temperature was sigmoidal, with a half-maximal tension at 1012C; the relation with added 4 mm MgADP was shifted upwards on the tension axis and towards lower temperatures. The potentiation of tension with 4 mm added MgADP was 2025% at low temperatures (?510C), but ?10% at the physiological temperatures (?30C). The shortening velocity was decreased with increased [MgADP] at low and high temperatures. The sigmoidal relation between tension and reciprocal temperature, and the basic effects of increased [MgADP] on endothermic force, can be qualitatively simulated using a five-step kinetic scheme for the crossbridge/A-MATPase cycle where the force generating conformational change occurs in a reversible step before the release of inorganic phosphate (Pi), it is temperature sensitive (Q10 of ?4) and the release of MgADP occurs by a subsequent, slower, two-step mechanism. Modelling shows that the sigmoidal relation between force and reciprocal temperature arises from conversion of preforce-generating (A-M.ADP.Pi) states to force-bearing (A-M.ADP) states as the temperature is raised. A tension response to a simulated T-jump consists of three (one fast and two slow) components, but, by combining the two slow components, they could be reduced to two; their relative amplitudes vary with temperature. The model can qualitatively simulate features of the tension responses induced by large-T-jumps from low starting temperatures, and those induced by small-T-jumps from different starting temperatures and, also, the interactive effects of Pi and temperature on force in muscle fibres. PMID:15975981

  20. Structural Characterization of the Binding of Myosin*ADP*Pi to Actin in Permeabilized Rabbit Psoas Muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,S.; Gu, J.; Belknap, B.; White, H.; Yu, L.

    2006-01-01

    When myosin is attached to actin in a muscle cell, various structures in the filaments are formed. The two strongly bound states (A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP and A{center_dot}M) and the weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP states are reasonably well understood. The orientation of the strongly bound myosin heads is uniform ('stereospecific' attachment), and the attached heads exhibit little spatial fluctuation. In the prehydrolysis weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state, the orientations of the attached myosin heads assume a wide range of azimuthal and axial angles, indicating considerable flexibility in the myosin head. The structure of the other weakly bound state, A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}, however, is poorly understood. This state is thought to be the critical pre-power-stroke state, poised to make the transition to the strongly binding, force-generating states, and hence it is of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of contraction. However, because of the low affinity between myosin and actin in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state, the structure of this state has eluded determination both in isolated form and in muscle cells. With the knowledge recently gained in the structures of the weakly binding M{center_dot}ATP, M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} states and the weakly attached A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state in muscle fibers, it is now feasible to delineate the in vivo structure of the attached state of A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}. The series of experiments presented in this article were carried out under relaxing conditions at 25{sup o}C, where {approx}95% of the myosin heads in the skinned rabbit psoas muscle contain the hydrolysis products. The affinity for actin is enhanced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or by lowering the ionic strength in the bathing solution. Solution kinetics and binding constants were determined in the presence and in the absence of PEG. When the binding between actin and myosin was increased, both the myosin layer lines and the actin layer lines increased in intensity, but the intensity profiles did not change. The configuration (mode) of attachment in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state is thus unique among the intermediate attached states of the cross-bridge ATP hydrolysis cycle. One of the simplest explanations is that both myosin filaments and actin filaments are stabilized (e.g., undergo reduced spatial fluctuations) by the attachment. The alignment of the myosin heads in the thick filaments and the alignment of the actin monomers in the thin filaments are improved as a result. The compact atomic structure of M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} with strongly coupled domains may contribute to the unique attachment configuration: the 'primed' myosin heads may function as 'transient struts' when attached to the thin filaments.

  1. Force generation examined by laser temperature-jumps in shortening and lengthening mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, K W; Coupland, M E; Pinniger, G J; Roots, H; Offer, G W

    2007-01-01

    We examined the tension change induced by a rapid temperature jump (T-jump) in shortening and lengthening active muscle fibres. Experiments were done on segments of permeabilized single fibres (length (L0) ?2 mm, sarcomere length 2.5 ?m) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mm, pH 7.1, ionic strength 200 mm and temperature ?9C. A fibre was maximally Ca2+-activated in the isometric state and a ?3C, rapid (< 0.2 ms), laser T-jump applied when the tension was approximately steady in the isometric state, or during ramp shortening or ramp lengthening at a limited range of velocities (00.2 L0 s?1). The tension increased to 2- to 3 P0 (isometric force) during ramp lengthening at velocities > 0.05 L0 s?1, whereas the tension decreased to about < 0.5 P0 during shortening at 0.10.2 L0 s?1; the unloaded shortening velocity was ?1 L0 s?1 and the curvature of the forceshortening velocity relation was high (a/P0 ratio from Hill's equation of ?0.05). In isometric state, a T-jump induced a tension rise of 1520% to a new steady state; by curve fitting, the tension rise could be resolved into a fast (phase 2b, 4050 s?1) and a slow (phase 3, 510 s?1) exponential component (as previously reported). During steady lengthening, a T-jump induced a small instantaneous drop in tension, followed by recovery, so that the final tension recorded with and without a T-jump was not significantly different; thus, a T-jump did not lead to a net increase of tension. During steady shortening, the T-jump induced a pronounced tension rise and both its amplitude and the rate (from a single exponential fit) increased with shortening velocity; at 0.10.2 L0 s?1, the extent of fibre shortening during the T-jump tension rise was estimated to be ?1.2% L0 and it was shorter at lower velocities. At a given shortening velocity and over the temperature range of 830C, the rate of T-jump tension rise increased with warming (Q10 ? 2.7), similar to phase 2b (endothermic force generation) in isometric muscle. Results are discussed in relation to the previous findings in isometric muscle fibres which showed that a T-jump promotes an early step in the crossbridgeATPase cycle that generates force. In general, the finding that the T-jump effect on active muscle tension is pronounced during shortening, but is depressed/inhibited during lengthening, is consistent with the expectations from the Fenn effect that energy liberation (and acto-myosin ATPase rate) in muscle are increased during shortening and depressed/inhibited during lengthening. PMID:17916609

  2. An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes. ?? 1995 Birkha??user Verlag.

  3. Morphometric analysis of somatotropic cells of the adenohypophysis and muscle fibers of the psoas muscle in the process of aging in humans.

    PubMed

    Antić, Vladimir M; Stefanović, Natalija; Jovanović, Ivan; Antić, Milorad; Milić, Miroslav; Krstić, Miljan; Kundalić, Braca; Milošević, Verica

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify changes of the adenohypophyseal somatotropes and types 1 and 2 muscle fibers with aging, as well as to establish mutual interactions and correlations with age. Material was samples of hypophysis and psoas major muscle of 27 cadavers of both genders, aged from 30 to 90 years. Adenohypophyseal and psoas major tissue sections were immunohistochemically processed and stained by anti-human growth hormone and anti-fast myosin antibodies, respectively. Morphometric analysis was performed by ImageJ. Results of morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the somatotrope area, and significant decrease in somatotrope volume density and nucleocytoplasmic ratio with age. Cross-sectional areas of types 1 and 2, and volume density of type 2 muscle fibers decreased significantly with age. One Way ANOVA showed that the latter cited changes in the somatotropes and types 1 and 2 muscle fibers mostly become significant after the age of 70. Significant positive correlation was observed between the area of the somatotropes and volume density of type 2 muscle fibers. A significant negative correlation was detected between the nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the somatotropes and cross-sectional areas of types 1 and 2 muscle fibers. So, it can be concluded that after the age of 70, there is significant loss of the anterior pituitary's somatotropes associated with hypertrophy and possible functional decline of the remained cells. Age-related changes in the somatotropes are correlated with the simultaneous atrophy of type 1, as well as with the atrophy and loss of type 2 muscle fibers. PMID:25769135

  4. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  5. A new vesicular compartment in Encephalitozoon cuniculi

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kaya; Nieves, Edward; Keeling, Patrick; Cali, Ann; Weiss, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    The microsporidia are emerging human and veterinary pathogens known to infect every tissue type and organ system. Their infectious spore possesses a number of peculiar organelles, including the diagnostic polar tube. In a proteomics-driven effort to find novel components of this organelle in the human-pathogenic species Encephalitozoon cuniculi, we unexpectedly discovered a protein which localizes to punctate structures consistent with the appearance of relic mitochondria, or mitosomes. However, this novel protein did not colocalize with ferredoxin, a mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster protein which shows a similar localization pattern by light microscopy. The distribution pattern of this protein thus suggests either a novel vesicular compartment that is similar to mitosomes in size and distribution, the presence of subdomains or branching architecture within mitosomes, or heterogeneity in the protein composition of Encephalitozoon cuniculi mitosomes. PMID:22166342

  6. Lipidomics in tissues, cells and subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D

    2012-04-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) advances in recent years have revolutionized the biochemical analysis of lipids in plants, and made possible new theories about the structural diversity and functional complexity of lipids in plant cells. Approaches have been developed to profile the lipidome of plants with increasing chemical and spatial resolution. Here we highlight a variety of methods for lipidomics analysis at the tissue, cellular and subcellular levels. These procedures allow the simultaneous identification and quantification of hundreds of lipids species in tissue extracts by direct-infusion MS, localization of lipids in tissues and cells by laser desorption/ionization MS, and even profiling of lipids in individual subcellular compartments by direct-organelle MS. Applications of these approaches to achieve improved understanding of plant lipid metabolism, compartmentation and function are discussed. PMID:22117762

  7. Compartmented Neuron Cultures for Directional Infection by Alpha Herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Curanović, Dušica; Ch'ng, Toh Hean; Szpara, Moriah; Enquist, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Compartmented neuronal cultures allow experimenters to establish separate fluid environments for neuronal axons and the soma from which they emanate. Physical isolation of cell bodies and axons is achieved by culturing neurons in tri-chambered Teflon rings. Dissociated ganglia are plated in one end compartment of the trichamber, and axonal growth is guided underneath watertight silicone grease barriers into a separate compartment. Since the axons and cell bodies are located in different compartments, they can be infected and assayed separately. We describe the assembly and use of compartmented neuronal cultures for in vitro study of directional infection of neurons by alpha herpesviruses. Selective application of viral inoculum to only one compartment ensures that the remainder of the neuron is not contaminated by input inoculum. This allows for quantification of viral spread, and unambiguous interpretation of immunofluorescence and electron microscopy images. PMID:19499506

  8. Regionally compartmented groundwater flow on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Keith P.; Grimm, Robert E.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater flow on Mars likely contributed to the formation of several types of morphologic and mineralogic features, including chaotic terrains, valley networks, Meridiani Planum geologic units and, potentially, sulfate and phyllosilicate deposits. A central issue for these features is the spatial scale of groundwater flow required for their formation. For groundwater simulation purposes, a global Martian aquifer has frequently been assumed, but the validity of this assumption has not been tested. Chaotic terrains, thought to have formed owing to the disruption of a cryosphere under high aquifer pore pressures, provide the basis for such a test. Specifically, we use groundwater models to predict regions of cryosphere disruption due to recharge-driven pore pressure increases, and we compare these regions to observed Martian chaotic terrains. Our results suggest that a globally connected aquifer cannot give rise to cryosphere disruption at the two locations where large chaotic terrains are observed (the circum-Chryse region and the eastern Hellas Planitia). Conversely, modeled cryosphere disruption occurs in locations such as Amazonis Planitia and west Hellas Planitia where no supporting evidence is present, suggesting again that groundwater flow was likely regionally compartmented. Furthermore, the consistent occurrence of modeled breakouts in the Valles Marineris canyon system suggests that large-scale fractures there likely discharged most of the groundwater required for circum-Chryse outflow channel formation, with only minor contributions from chaotic terrains. The fractures are close to a likely source of recharge over Tharsis, and their low elevations lead to high pore pressures even if groundwater flow is regionally compartmented.

  9. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Block? Heart block has many causes. Some people are ... develop it during their lifetimes (acquired). Congenital Heart Block One form of congenital heart block occurs in ...

  10. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Heart Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at ... Block In first-degree heart block, the heart's electrical signals are slowed as they move from the ...

  11. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  12. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.853 Passenger and crew compartment interiors. For each... applicable: (i) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large...

  13. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  14. Cylinder block for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Y.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a cylinder block; means defining at least one cylinder in the cylinder block; a cylinder head attached to the cylinder block in a manner to close one end of the at least one cylinder and define a combustion chamber therein; means defining a coolant jacket in the cylinder block, the coolant jacket surrounding the at least one cylinder; a condenser in which gaseous coolant is condensed to its liquid form; means for communicating between the cylinder block and the condenser for introducing liquid coolant from the condenser into the coolant jacket; means for collecting gaseous coolant produced by the boiling of the liquid coolant introduced into the coolant jacket, the collecting means defining a cavity; means for conveying the coolant collected in the cavity to the condenser for condensation therein; an upper deck formed along the top of the cylinder block and against which the cylinder head is secured; a lower deck formed along the bottom of the cylinder block; at least one non-perforate rib member in the coolant jacket which extends between and interconnects the upper deck and the lower deck, and means defining apertures in the upper deck through which the gaseous coolant produced by the boiling of the coolant in cell-like compartments is transferred to the cavity.

  15. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  16. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, will enter any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers; (3) There is a separate approved smoke... compartment but in which (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  20. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....510 Rooms and compartments. (a) Processing operations with open cheese vats should be separated from... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  1. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....510 Rooms and compartments. (a) Processing operations with open cheese vats should be separated from... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  2. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....510 Rooms and compartments. (a) Processing operations with open cheese vats should be separated from... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  3. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....510 Rooms and compartments. (a) Processing operations with open cheese vats should be separated from... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  4. Neonatal Compartment Syndrome Associated With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Sherif M; Gust, Madeleine J; Liem, Robert I; Ball, Molly K; Gosain, Arun K; Sharathkumar, Anjali A

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal compartment syndrome is a rare, but devastating limb-threatening condition that requires early recognition and timely surgical intervention. We discuss the clinical presentation and management challenges of a neonate with forearm compartment syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:25910025

  5. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 135... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... interior requirements set forth in § 25.853(a) in effect March 6, 1995 (formerly § 25.853 (a), (b),...

  6. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The...

  7. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks....

  8. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The...

  9. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks. (a) When a tank...

  10. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The...

  11. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks. (a) When a tank...

  12. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks. (a) When a tank...

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks. (a) When a tank...

  14. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant Facilities § 354.221 Rooms and compartments. Rooms and compartments used for edible products shall be... separate operation. The official plant should have separate rooms for each of the following...

  15. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant Facilities § 354.221 Rooms and compartments. Rooms and compartments used for edible products shall be... separate operation. The official plant should have separate rooms for each of the following...

  16. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant Facilities § 354.221 Rooms and compartments. Rooms and compartments used for edible products shall be... separate operation. The official plant should have separate rooms for each of the following...

  17. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant Facilities § 354.221 Rooms and compartments. Rooms and compartments used for edible products shall be... separate operation. The official plant should have separate rooms for each of the following...

  18. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  19. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  20. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  1. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  2. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... critical load distributions at the appropriate maximum load factors corresponding to the flight and ground load conditions of this part. (2) Have means to prevent the contents of any compartment from becoming...

  3. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... critical load distributions at the appropriate maximum load factors corresponding to the flight and ground load conditions of this part. (2) Have means to prevent the contents of any compartment from becoming...

  4. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... critical load distributions at the appropriate maximum load factors corresponding to the flight and ground load conditions of this part. (2) Have means to prevent the contents of any compartment from becoming...

  5. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks. (a) The inner container may be divided into compartments by inserting interior heads, or by fabricating each...

  6. Compartment syndrome: a complication of use of the MAST suit.

    PubMed

    Teeny, S M; Wiss, D A

    1987-01-01

    A case of compartment syndrome following the use of a MAST suit is reported. The most significant factor in its development is prolonged application combined with severe hemodynamic compromise. Amputation was performed or death occurred in 50% of reported cases. Compartment pressure monitoring should be done in patients who require a MAST suit for more than 4 h. PMID:3333388

  7. Effects of Spinal Stabilization Exercise on the Cross-sectional Areas of the Lumbar Multifidus and Psoas Major Muscles, Pain Intensity, and Lumbar Muscle Strength of Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongho; Kim, Hyungguen; Chung, Jaeyeop

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spinal stabilizing exercise to reduce atrophy of the multifidus and psoas major muscles, reduce the levels of pain and disability, and increase paraspinal muscle strength in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). [Subjects and Methods] In 33 patients (Age range: 2565?years) diagnosed with DDD, spinal stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks. The levels of pain and disability were measured before and after exercise using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Paraspinal muscular strength in four directions was evaluated with a CENTAUR 3D Spatial Rotation Device. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both the left and right multifidus and the psoas major at the upper endplate of L4 were measured before and after exercise using computed tomography (CT). [Results] After 8 weeks of spinal stabilization exercise, the pain and lumbar disability in subjects decreased significantly from 6.121.24 to 2.431.14. The ODI score also improved from 20.187.14 to 8.815.73. In addition, paraspinal muscle strength increased significantly, while the CSAs of the left and right multifidus and psoas major widened as compared with the pre-exercise size. [Conclusion] Spinal stabilization exercise was effective for reducing pain and disability in DDD patients. It was an effective adjunct to aid rehabilitation in these cases. PMID:24764637

  8. Effects of Spinal Stabilization Exercise on the Cross-sectional Areas of the Lumbar Multifidus and Psoas Major Muscles, Pain Intensity, and Lumbar Muscle Strength of Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongho; Kim, Hyungguen; Chung, Jaeyeop

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spinal stabilizing exercise to reduce atrophy of the multifidus and psoas major muscles, reduce the levels of pain and disability, and increase paraspinal muscle strength in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). [Subjects and Methods] In 33 patients (Age range: 25-65 years) diagnosed with DDD, spinal stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks. The levels of pain and disability were measured before and after exercise using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Paraspinal muscular strength in four directions was evaluated with a CENTAUR 3D Spatial Rotation Device. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both the left and right multifidus and the psoas major at the upper endplate of L4 were measured before and after exercise using computed tomography (CT). [Results] After 8 weeks of spinal stabilization exercise, the pain and lumbar disability in subjects decreased significantly from 6.12±1.24 to 2.43±1.14. The ODI score also improved from 20.18±7.14 to 8.81±5.73. In addition, paraspinal muscle strength increased significantly, while the CSAs of the left and right multifidus and psoas major widened as compared with the pre-exercise size. [Conclusion] Spinal stabilization exercise was effective for reducing pain and disability in DDD patients. It was an effective adjunct to aid rehabilitation in these cases. PMID:24764637

  9. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic head to maximize flow passing down through the ochre bed. Filtration rate in the second compartment is also facilitated by thin ochre bed because of low residual Fe(II) in the overflow. Thus, compartment ratio also significantly affects the operation span of two-compartment VFR. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation.

  10. Orientationally invariant metrics of apparent compartment eccentricity from double pulsed field gradient diffusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Sune Nrhj; Lundell, Henrik; Snderby, Casper Kaae; Dyrby, Tim B

    2013-12-01

    Pulsed field gradient diffusion sequences (PFG) with multiple diffusion encoding blocks have been indicated to offer new microstructural tissue information, such as the ability to detect nonspherical compartment shapes in macroscopically isotropic samples, i.e. samples with negligible directional signal dependence on diffusion gradients in standard diffusion experiments. However, current acquisition schemes are not rotationally invariant in the sense that the derived metrics depend on the orientation of the sample, and are affected by the interplay of sampling directions and compartment orientation dispersion when applied to macroscopically anisotropic systems. Here we propose a new framework, the d-PFG 5-design, to enable rotationally invariant estimation of double wave vector diffusion metrics (d-PFG). The method is based on the idea that an appropriate orientational average of the signal emulates the signal from a powder preparation of the same sample, where macroscopic anisotropy is absent by construction. Our approach exploits the theory of exact numerical integration (quadrature) of polynomials on the rotation group, and we exemplify the general procedure with a set consisting of 60 pairs of diffusion wave vectors (the d-PFG 5-design) facilitating a theoretically exact determination of the fourth order Taylor or cumulant expansion of the orientationally averaged signal. The d-PFG 5-design is evaluated with numerical simulations and ex vivo high field diffusion MRI experiments in a nonhuman primate brain. Specifically, we demonstrate rotational invariance when estimating compartment eccentricity, which we show offers new microstructural information, complementary to that of fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The imaging observations are supported by a new theoretical result, directly relating compartment eccentricity to FA of individual pores. PMID:24038641

  11. Selective pharmacological manipulation of cortical-thalamic co-cultures in a dual-compartment device.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T; Franco, Maria; Barone, Rocco Andrea; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J; Decr, Michel M J

    2013-03-30

    In this study, we demonstrate capabilities to selectively manipulate dissociated co-cultures of neurons plated in dual-compartment devices. Synaptic receptor antagonists and tetrodotoxin solutions were used to selectively control and study the network-wide burst propagation and cell firing in cortical-cortical and cortical-thalamic co-culture systems. The results show that in cortical-thalamic dissociated co-cultures, burst events initiate in the cortical region and propagate to the thalamic region and the burst events in thalamic region can be controlled by blocking the synaptic receptors in the cortical region. Whereas, in cortical-cortical co-culture system, one of the region acts as a site of burst initiation and facilitate propagation of bursts in the entire network. Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, when applied to either of the regions blocks the firing of neurons in that particular region with significant influence on the firing of neurons in the other region. The results demonstrate selective pharmacological manipulation capabilities of co-cultures in a dual compartment device and helps understand the effects of neuroactive compounds on networks derived from specific CNS tissues and the dynamic interaction between them. PMID:23305774

  12. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

  13. Block relaxation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.

    1980-01-01

    It is desired to solve the linear system Ax = b, where the matrix A is n x n block tridiagonal with block size m. This system is to be solved by block line relaxation when the largest block problem with block size m that can be cheaply solved directly is l x l. Iteration steps, strategies, and results are summarized. It is concluded that the convergence rate of some block relaxation strategies is much faster than that of the strategies generally used. (RWR)

  14. Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enshaei, Ali; Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe’s tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome. PMID:26894227

  15. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; OBrien, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. PMID:20858378

  16. The impact of discrete compartments of a multi-compartment collagen-GAG scaffold on overall construct biophysical properties

    PubMed Central

    Weisgerber, D.W.; Kelkhoff, D.O.; Caliari, S.R.; Harley, B.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthopedic interfaces such as the tendon-bone junction (TBJ) present unique challenges for biomaterials development. Here we describe a multi-compartment collagenGAG scaffold fabricated via lyophilization that contains discrete mineralized (CGCaP) and non-mineralized (CG) regions joined by a continuous interface. Modifying CGCaP preparation approaches, we demonstrated scaffold variants of increasing mineral content (40 vs. 80 wt% CaP). We report the impact of fabrication parameters on microstructure, composition, elastic modulus, and permeability of the entire multi-compartment scaffold as well as discrete mineralized and non-mineralized compartments. Notably, individual mineralized and non-mineralized compartments differentially impacted the global properties of the multi-compartment composite. Of particular interest for the development of mechanically-loaded multi-compartment composites, the elastic modulus and permeability of the entire construct were governed primarily by the non-mineralized and mineralized compartments, respectively. Based on these results we hypothesize spatial variations in scaffold structural, compositional, and mechanical properties may be an important design parameter in orthopedic interface repair. PMID:23973610

  17. 3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements 121.314 Cargo... time as all Class D compartments in aircraft operated under this part by the certificate have...

  2. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements 121.314 Cargo... time as all Class D compartments in aircraft operated under this part by the certificate have...

  3. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements 121.314 Cargo... time as all Class D compartments in aircraft operated under this part by the certificate have...

  4. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind G; Weaver, Michael J; Appelton, Paul T; Bae, Donald S; Dyer, George S M; Heng, Marilyn; Jupiter, Jesse B; Vrahas, Mark S

    2015-09-26

    Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data. PMID:26460664

  6. Fire spread and percolation in polydisperse compartment structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekri, N.; Zekri, L.; Lallemand, C.; Pizzo, Y.; Kaiss, A.; Clerc, J.-P.; Porterie, B.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we employ a cellular automata and percolation analysis to model fire spread in polydisperse amorphous massively multi-compartmented structures (e.g. naval vessels, high-rise buildings, warehouses, or nuclear plants). Various shapes and sizes of compartments are considered. Each compartment is composed of nc equal-size cells. It is found that increasing nc increases fingering and lacunarities of fire patterns, and subsequently front roughness. However, this also increases the probability of fire propagation throughout the system as the percolation threshold presents a power-law decrease with nc -1 for small values of nc. For large polydisperse compartments, the propagation/non propagation transition seems to be size-independent. A special emphasis is put on the dynamics of fire propagation. Further study is needed to evaluate network properties that should help in developing better strategies to reduce fire consequences.

  7. 9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  8. The periplastidal compartment: a naturally minimized eukaryotic cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Grosche, Christopher; Hempel, Franziska; Bolte, Kathrin; Zauner, Stefan; Maier, Uwe G

    2014-12-01

    Many important algae groups like diatoms, dinoflagellates and kelp but also apicomplexan parasites evolved in secondary endosymbiosis. Here, a eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis created chimeric cells, in which a eukaryotic symbiont was reduced to a complex plastid. Although having lost nearly all of the eukaryotic compartments of the symbiont, a tiny lumen representing the remnant of the cytoplasm of the symbiont is still present in most of these organisms. This compartment, the periplastidal compartment, shows different degrees of reductions as in two algal groups the former nucleus is still present in a minimized form, called nucleomorph, whereas most others have lost the genetic system completely. Thus, the natural reduction of eukaryotic cytoplasms can be studied in terms of evolution and functionality, giving additionally advices for the design of synthetic minimized compartments. PMID:25460801

  9. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing required. Merchandise in...

  10. Dynamics of the establishment of multinucleate compartments in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M M; Rep, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  11. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  12. Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Daniel; Kopito, Ron; Frydman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in intracellular amyloid inclusions, typical of many neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's and prion disease, is thought to occur after failure of the cellular protein quality control mechanisms. Here we examine the formation of misfolded protein inclusions in the eukaryotic cytosol of yeast and mammalian cell culture models. We identify two intracellular compartments for the sequestration of misfolded cytosolic proteins. Partition of quality control substrates to either compartment seems to depend on their ubiquitination status and aggregation state. Soluble ubiquitinated misfolded proteins accumulate in a juxtanuclear compartment where proteasomes are concentrated. In contrast, terminally aggregated proteins are sequestered in a perivacuolar inclusion. Notably, disease-associated Huntingtin and prion proteins are preferentially directed to the perivacuolar compartment. Enhancing ubiquitination of a prion protein suffices to promote its delivery to the juxtanuclear inclusion. Our findings provide a framework for understanding the preferential accumulation of amyloidogenic proteins in inclusions linked to human disease. PMID:18756251

  13. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  14. Engrailed: a gene controlling compartment and segment formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Kornberg, T

    1981-01-01

    A total of 58 mutations at the engrailed locus were isolated. Analysis suggests that this genetic locus is necessary for survival but required only in the cells of the posterior compartments. Inactivation of the engrailed locus renders the animal incapable of maintaining the separation between the groups of cells that constitute either the compartments that subdivide each segment or the individual segments themselves. Images PMID:6821526

  15. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Current Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luckianow, Gina M.; Ellis, Matthew; Governale, Deborah; Kaplan, Lewis J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome's manifestations are difficult to definitively detect on physical examination alone. Therefore, objective criteria have been articulated that aid the bedside clinician in detecting intra-abdominal hypertension as well as the abdominal compartment syndrome to initiate prompt and potentially life-saving intervention. At-risk patient populations should be routinely monitored and tiered interventions should be undertaken as a team approach to management. PMID:22720147

  16. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios. PMID:25361367

  17. Hepatitis B surface antigen assembles in a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the major envelope protein of the virus, in the absence of other viral proteins leads to its secretion as oligomers in the form of disk-like or tubular lipoprotein particles. The observation that these lipoprotein particles are heavily disulphide crosslinked is paradoxical since HBsAg assembly is classically believed to occur in the ER, and hence in the presence of high levels of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) which should resolve these higher intermolecular crosslinks. Indeed, incubation of mature, highly disulphide crosslinked HBsAg with recombinant PDI causes the disassembly of HBsAg to dimers. We have used antibodies against resident ER proteins in double immunofluorescence studies to study the stages of the conversion of the HBsAg from individual protein subunits to the secreted, crosslinked, oligomer. We show that HBsAg is rapidly sorted to a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment which excludes PDI and other major soluble resident ER proteins although it overlaps with the distribution of rab2, an established marker of an intermediate compartment. Kinetic studies showed that disulphide-linked HBsAg dimers began to form during a short (2 min) pulse, increased in concentration to peak at 60 min, and then decreased as the dimers were crosslinked to form higher oligomers. These higher oligomers are the latest identifiable intracellular form of HBsAg before its secretion (t 1/2 = 2 h). Brefeldin A treatment does not alter the localization of HBsAg in this PDI excluding compartment, however, it blocks the formation of new oligomers causing the accumulation of dimeric HBsAg. Hence this oligomerization must occur in a pre-Golgi compartment. These data support a model in which rapid dimer formation, catalyzed by PDI, occurs in the ER, and is followed by transport of dimers to a pre-Golgi compartment where the absence of PDI and a different lumenal environment allow the assembly process to be completed. PMID:1522109

  18. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2015-12-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  19. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  20. Immunocytochemical analysis of Uukuniemi virus budding compartments: role of the intermediate compartment and the Golgi stack in virus maturation.

    PubMed

    Jntti, J; Hildn, P; Rnk, H; Mkiranta, V; Kernen, S; Kuismanen, E

    1997-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Uukuniemi virus, a bunyavirus, matures at the membranes of the Golgi complex. In this study we have employed immunocytochemical techniques to analyze in detail the budding compartment(s) of the virus. Electron microscopy of infected BHK-21 cells showed that virus particles are found in the cisternae throughout the Golgi stack. Within the cisternae, the virus particles were located preferentially in the dilated rims. This would suggest that virus budding may begin at or before the cis Golgi membranes. The virus budding compartment was studied further by immunoelectron microscopy with a pre-Golgi intermediate compartment marker, p58, and a Golgi stack marker protein, mannosidase II (ManII). Virus particles and budding virus were detected in ManII-positive Golgi stack membranes and, interestingly, in both juxtanuclear and peripheral p58-positive elements of the intermediate compartment. In cells incubated at 15 degrees C the nucleocapsid and virus envelope proteins were seen to accumulate in the intermediate compartment. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that at 15 degrees C the nucleocapsid is associated with membranes that show a characteristic distribution and tubulo-vesicular morphology of the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment. These membranes contained virus particles in the lumen. The results indicate that the first site of formation of Uukuniemi virus particles is the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment and that virus budding continues in the Golgi stack. The results raise questions about the intracellular transport pathway of the virus particles, which are 100 to 120 nm in diameter and are therefore too large to be transported in the 60-nm-diameter vesicles postulated to function in the intra-Golgi transport. The distribution of the virus in the Golgi stack may imply that the cisternae themselves have a role in the vectorial transport of virus particles. PMID:8995638

  1. Immunocytochemical analysis of Uukuniemi virus budding compartments: role of the intermediate compartment and the Golgi stack in virus maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Jntti, J; Hildn, P; Rnk, H; Mkiranta, V; Kernen, S; Kuismanen, E

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Uukuniemi virus, a bunyavirus, matures at the membranes of the Golgi complex. In this study we have employed immunocytochemical techniques to analyze in detail the budding compartment(s) of the virus. Electron microscopy of infected BHK-21 cells showed that virus particles are found in the cisternae throughout the Golgi stack. Within the cisternae, the virus particles were located preferentially in the dilated rims. This would suggest that virus budding may begin at or before the cis Golgi membranes. The virus budding compartment was studied further by immunoelectron microscopy with a pre-Golgi intermediate compartment marker, p58, and a Golgi stack marker protein, mannosidase II (ManII). Virus particles and budding virus were detected in ManII-positive Golgi stack membranes and, interestingly, in both juxtanuclear and peripheral p58-positive elements of the intermediate compartment. In cells incubated at 15 degrees C the nucleocapsid and virus envelope proteins were seen to accumulate in the intermediate compartment. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that at 15 degrees C the nucleocapsid is associated with membranes that show a characteristic distribution and tubulo-vesicular morphology of the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment. These membranes contained virus particles in the lumen. The results indicate that the first site of formation of Uukuniemi virus particles is the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment and that virus budding continues in the Golgi stack. The results raise questions about the intracellular transport pathway of the virus particles, which are 100 to 120 nm in diameter and are therefore too large to be transported in the 60-nm-diameter vesicles postulated to function in the intra-Golgi transport. The distribution of the virus in the Golgi stack may imply that the cisternae themselves have a role in the vectorial transport of virus particles. PMID:8995638

  2. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  3. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topa, Zelin; Kurtulmu?, Tuhan; Irkren, Saime

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered. PMID:26885421

  4. Living with Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree heart block and ... people who have second-degree heart block need pacemakers. These devices use electrical pulses to prompt the ...

  5. Compartment A101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary compartment. Door at left leads to ship's brig. Ladder leads to compartment A-123. Compartment aft of ladder is bread room, A-102. (07) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  7. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management

    PubMed Central

    Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be lifethreatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

  8. Lateral compartment osteoarthritis of the knee: Biomechanics and surgical management of end-stage disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, C E H; Nutton, R W; Biant, L C

    2013-04-01

    The lateral compartment is predominantly affected in approximately 10% of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. The anatomy, kinematics and loading during movement differ considerably between medial and lateral compartments of the knee. This in the main explains the relative protection of the lateral compartment compared with the medial compartment in the development of osteoarthritis. The aetiology of lateral compartment osteoarthritis can be idiopathic, usually affecting the femur, or secondary to trauma commonly affecting the tibia. Surgical management of lateral compartment osteoarthritis can include osteotomy, unicompartmental knee replacement and total knee replacement. This review discusses the biomechanics, pathogenesis and development of lateral compartment osteoarthritis and its management. PMID:23539693

  9. Anterior tibial compartment syndrome following femoral artery perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, B. V.; Mercer, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Palmer, B. V., and Mercer, J. L. (1973).Thorax, 28, 492-494. Anterior tibial compartment syndrome following femoral artery perfusion. Four patients are described who developed the anterior tibial compartment syndrome following open heart surgery. It occurred in the limb used for femoral artery perfusion in each patient. In two it was known that the collateral circulation to the limb was also considerably impaired. It is suggested that prolonged limb ischaemia is the major initiating factor. The treatment of these patients is discussed and although one patient was successfully treated conservatively, surgical treatment is advisable. PMID:4741453

  10. Multi-compartment refrigerator with system for minimizing condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Fristoe, J.E.; Kueterman, D.B.

    1994-01-11

    A refrigerator having multi-compartments and having a heat pipe which transfers heat from a heat source in the refrigeration system to surfaces on the refrigerator which are prone to sweating such as the mullion between compartments. The refrigerator has a gas absorption refrigeration system and the heat pipe is routed from the generator in the system, between the inner and outer shells of the cabinet to the mullion. The heat pipe minimizes condensation of moisture on the external surface of the mullion. 5 figs.

  11. STS-103 Wiring inspections in the aft compartment of Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Danny Wyatt, with NASA Quality, inspects wiring, using a flashlight and magnifying glass, in the aft compartment of Discovery before launch. Electrical wire inspections and repairs in the orbiter's payload bay, external tank umbilical and engine compartment have been ongoing for more than a month and are near completion. Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 is scheduled for Dec. 11 at 11:42 p.m. from Launch Pad 39B. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  12. Surgical Management of Lymph Node Compartments in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Cord; Yang, Anthony; Elaraj, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Although papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) commonly metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, prophylactic central neck dissection is controversial. The primary treatment for lymph node metastases is surgical resection. Patients diagnosed with PTC should be assessed preoperatively by cervical ultrasound to evaluate central and lateral neck lymph node compartments. Sonographically suspicious lymph nodes in the lateral neck should be biopsied for cytology or thyroglobulin levels. Any compartment (central or lateral) that has definitive proof of nodal metastases should be formally dissected at the time of thyroidectomy. PMID:26610772

  13. Primary Cilia and Dendritic Spines: Different but Similar Signaling Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Doroquez, David B.; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures. PMID:24048681

  14. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  15. Block LU factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU factorization, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU factorization is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU factorization can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth factor for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU factorization is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.

  16. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Additional...

  17. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Additional...

  18. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Additional...

  19. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Additional...

  20. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  1. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  2. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  4. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  5. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartment but in which (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to give... approved smoke or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station; (3) There... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 121.314 Section 121.314 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND...

  7. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY...

  8. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY...

  9. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 58.510 Section 58.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  10. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  12. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  13. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  14. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  15. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  16. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  17. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  18. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  19. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  20. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  1. Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Kramer, Kim; Smith-Jones, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John; Larson, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of 131I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Methods Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[CIAR]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[CIA], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC [CIAR]/AUC[CIA]). Results Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R=0.950.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R=0.920.11 versus 0.770.21, p=0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of 131I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[CIAR]) and therapeutic ratio ([AUC[CIAR]/AUC[CIA

  2. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome after Fenestrated Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Hau, Melinda Y T; Glasby, Michael; Davies, Robert S M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) after a 4-vessel fenestrated endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for GCS as a differential diagnosis for spinal cord ischemia in patients developing perioperative lower limb neurologic deficit after extensive abdominal aortic stent-graft coverage. PMID:26522580

  3. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  4. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...

  5. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  6. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials; airplanes type certificated in accordance with SFAR No. 41 of 14 CFR part 21. No person may... SFAR No. 41 of 14 CFR part 21 for a maximum certificated takeoff weight in excess of 12,500 pounds... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors....

  7. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved

  8. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  9. Test strips detect different CO2 concentrations in closed compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Four different test strips, using crystal violet for one pair of strips and basic fuchsin as a dye for the second pair, give unambiguous colorimetric indications of four different concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of a closed compartment. Tetraethylene pentamine is used as a dye decoloring agent.

  10. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baggage and cargo compartments. 23.787 Section 23.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations...

  11. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baggage and cargo compartments. 23.787 Section 23.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations...

  12. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car...

  13. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...— (i) In heavy rain at forward speeds up to V H; and (ii) In the most severe icing condition for...

  14. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...— (i) In heavy rain at forward speeds up to V H; and (ii) In the most severe icing condition for...

  15. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 25.773 Section 25.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... retracted; and (ii) The icing conditions specified in § 25.1419 if certification for flight in...

  16. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 25.773 Section 25.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... retracted; and (ii) The icing conditions specified in § 25.1419 if certification for flight in...

  17. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 25.773 Section 25.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... retracted; and (ii) The icing conditions specified in § 25.1419 if certification for flight in...

  18. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...— (i) In heavy rain at forward speeds up to V H; and (ii) In the most severe icing condition for...

  19. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...— (i) In heavy rain at forward speeds up to V H; and (ii) In the most severe icing condition for...

  20. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...— (i) In heavy rain at forward speeds up to V H; and (ii) In the most severe icing condition for...

  1. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 25.773 Section 25.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... retracted; and (ii) The icing conditions specified in § 25.1419 if certification for flight in...

  2. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 25.773 Section 25.773 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... retracted; and (ii) The icing conditions specified in § 25.1419 if certification for flight in...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection... part of the cowling or engine compartment in the normal ground and flight attitudes. (c) No drain may... event of structural or mechanical failure of the normal retention means, unless such failure...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection... part of the cowling or engine compartment in the normal ground and flight attitudes. (c) No drain may... event of structural or mechanical failure of the normal retention means, unless such failure...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection... part of the cowling or engine compartment in the normal ground and flight attitudes. (c) No drain may... event of structural or mechanical failure of the normal retention means, unless such failure...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection... part of the cowling or engine compartment in the normal ground and flight attitudes. (c) No drain may... event of structural or mechanical failure of the normal retention means, unless such failure...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection... part of the cowling or engine compartment in the normal ground and flight attitudes. (c) No drain may... event of structural or mechanical failure of the normal retention means, unless such failure...

  8. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  9. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  10. Multicompartment micelles with block copolymer blending through kinetic control of solution assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochan, Darrin; Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Ke; Wooley, Karen

    2010-03-01

    By manipulating the interaction of charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrophilic corona blocks with organic multiamines, and controlling the kinetic pathway of block copolymer solution assembly, multicompartment micelles were formed. Specifically, block copolymers with the same hydrophilic block PAA chemistry but different hydrophobic block chemistry were blended together and forced to reside within the same micelle particle. The hydrophobic core blocks phase separate into distinct domains within the micelle. Unlike core blocks were used to construct different sizes of compartments and also different shapes such as sphere-cylinder hybrid micelles. The kinetic control required to construct such blended micelles will be discussed. The system has been investigated by means of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS).

  11. MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

    2012-07-01

    As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are assessed redundantly showing excellent agreement for mass balance purposes with more than 95 % for carbon recovery. The experimental determination of nitrogen conversion yields has shown that more than 95 % for NH4+ is converted to NO2- in the first step and that more than 0.975 NO2- is transformed to NO3- in the second step. The biomass production yields are 0.4 and 0.3 g DM mol N-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi respectively. The maximum nitrogen oxidation rates are 0.9 and 3.5 mM day-1 respectively, indicating a limitation by oxygen transfer. Keywords: autotrophy, Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, ionic chromatography, flow cytometry

  12. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  13. Distributed transit compartments for arbitrary lifespan distributions in aging populations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gilbert; Schropp, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Transit compartment models (TCM) are often used to describe aging populations where every individual has its own lifespan. However, in the TCM approach these lifespans are gamma-distributed which is a serious limitation because often the Weibull or more complex distributions are realistic. Therefore, we extend the TCM concept to approximately describe any lifespan distribution and call this generalized concept distributed transit compartment models (DTCMs). The validity of DTCMs is obtained by convergence investigations. From the mechanistic perspective the transit rates are directly controlled by the lifespan distribution. Further, DTCMs could be used to approximate the convolution of a signal with a probability density function. As example a stimulatory effect of a drug in an aging population with a Weibull-distributed lifespan is presented where distribution and model parameters are estimated based on simulated data. PMID:26100181

  14. ROS-containing endosomal compartments: implications for signaling.

    PubMed

    Davis Volk, A Paige; Moreland, Jessica G

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), previously perceived as a detrimental by-product of cellular processes, is now recognized as a critical component of intracellular signaling. Exploration of these biological signaling functions requires understanding the complex redox biochemistry and recognizing the compartment-specific elements of ROS generation. The endosomal compartment is increasingly recognized as a source for NADPH oxidase (NOX)-generated signaling ROS. Despite this growing understanding, there are significant limitations to the available detection and measurement systems for endogenous ROS. This chapter provides information about specific methodologies and redox-sensitive probes to guide the investigator and define the critical limitations for many of the available approaches. Although measurement continues to be challenging, the rapid growth and development of new detection systems suggests that our capacity to assign specific signaling roles to endosomal ROS will expand markedly in the next several years. PMID:24377926

  15. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Strano, Sabrina; Roth, Judith; Blandino, Giovanni . E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  16. Magma chambers: Formation, local stresses, excess pressures, and compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2012-09-01

    An existing magma chamber is normally a necessary condition for the generation of a large volcanic edifice. Most magma chambers form through repeated magma injections, commonly sills, and gradually expand and change their shapes. Highly irregular magma-chamber shapes are thermo-mechanically unstable; common long-term equilibrium shapes are comparatively smooth and approximate those of ellipsoids of revolution. Some chambers, particularly small and sill-like, may be totally molten. Most chambers, however, are only partially molten, the main part of the chamber being crystal mush, a porous material. During an eruption, magma is drawn from the crystal mush towards a molten zone beneath the lower end of the feeder dyke. Magma transport to the feeder dyke, however, depends on the chamber's internal structure; in particular on whether the chamber contains pressure compartments that are, to a degree, isolated from other compartments. It is only during large drops in the hydraulic potential beneath the feeder dyke that other compartments become likely to supply magma to the erupting compartment, thereby contributing to its excess pressure (the pressure needed to rupture a magma chamber) and the duration of the eruption. Simple analytical models suggest that during a typical eruption, the excess-pressure in the chamber decreases exponentially. This result applies to a magma chamber that (a) is homogeneous and totally fluid (contains no compartments), (b) is not subject to significant replenishment (inflow of new magma into the chamber) during the eruption, and (c) contains magma where exsolution of gas has no significant effect on the excess pressure. For a chamber consisting of pressure compartments, the exponential excess-pressure decline applies primarily to a single erupting compartment. When more than one compartment contributes magma to the eruption, the excess pressure may decline much more slowly and irregularly. Excess pressure is normally similar to the in-situ tensile strength of the host rock, 0.5-9 MPa. These in-situ strength estimates are based on hydraulic fracture measurements in drill-holes worldwide down to crustal depths of about 9 km. These measurements do not support some recent magma-chamber stress models that predict (a) extra gravity-related wall-parallel stresses at the boundaries of magma chambers and (b) magma-chamber excess pressures prior to rupture of as much as hundreds of mega-pascals, particularly at great depths. General stress models of magma chambers are of two main types: analytical and numerical. Earlier analytical models were based on a nucleus-of-strain source (a 'point pressure source') for the magma chamber, and have been very useful for rough estimates of magma-chamber depths from surface deformation during unrest periods. More recent models assume the magma chamber to be axisymmetric ellipsoids or, in two-dimensions, ellipses of various shapes. Nearly all these models use the excess pressure in the chamber as the only loading (since lithostatic stress effects are then automatically taken into account), assume the chamber to be totally molten, and predict similar local stress fields. The predicted stress fields are generally in agreement with the world-wide stress measurements in drill-holes and, in particular, with the in-situ tensile-strength estimates. Recent numerical models consider magma-chambers of various (ideal) shapes and sizes in relation to their depths below the Earth's surface. They also take into account crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies; in particular the effects of the effects of a nearby free surface and horizontal and inclined (dipping) mechanical layering. The results show that the free surface may have strong effects on the local stresses if the chamber is comparatively close to the surface. The mechanical layering, however, may have even stronger effects. For realistic layering, and other heterogeneities, the numerical models predict complex local stresses around magma chambers, with implications for dyke paths, dyke arrest, and ring-fault formation.

  17. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  18. Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome in a HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Donald James; Shaukat, Yasir Mehmood; Jenabzadeh, Reza; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome is a very rare condition but one which requires swift diagnosis and urgent surgical decompression by fasciotomies in order to achieve the best outcome. We present the case of a 31-year-old HIV-positive man. The case highlights the perils of being sidetracked by an atypical clinical history instead of acting on the classical clinical examination findings. We will discuss the presentation and management of this patient, review the literature and highlight the key learning points. The most important learning point being that no matter how atypical the history, if a patient presents with limb pain out of proportion to the injury (with or without pain on passive stretch), sensory changes and a loss of motor power, then a diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome must be considered. PMID:24347455

  19. Understanding tumor heterogeneity as functional compartments - superorganisms revisited

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence broadens our understanding of tumors as highly heterogeneous populations derived from one common progenitor. In this review we portray various stages of tumorigenesis, tumor progression, self-seeding and metastasis in analogy to the superorganisms of insect societies to exemplify the highly complex architecture of a neoplasm as a system of functional "castes." Accordingly, we propose a model in which clonal expansion and cumulative acquisition of genetic alterations produce tumor compartments each equipped with distinct traits and thus distinct functions that cooperate to establish clinically apparent tumors. This functional compartment model also suggests mechanisms for the self-construction of tumor stem cell niches. Thus, thinking of a tumor as a superorganism will provide systemic insight into its functional compartmentalization and may even have clinical implications. PMID:21619636

  20. Documentation of acute compartment syndrome during medical evacuation.

    PubMed

    George, Spencer M; Hsu, Joseph R; Kragh, John; Stinner, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the documentation of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in combat casualties in an effort to identify potential areas for improvement. Medical records of U.S. service members wounded during the current conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq who underwent fasciotomies were reviewed. Key descriptors including signs and symptoms of ACS were recorded. Injury severity scores and muscle excision at the time of fasciotomy were also included for analysis. Of 134 patients who met inclusion criteria, documentation was inadequate overall in 65 patients (49%). Fourteen (10%) had muscle excised at the time of fasciotomy, but this was not associated with a higher rate of inadequate documentation. This study demonstrates the need for improved awareness and documentation of impending compartment syndrome in the austere setting to improve the continuity of care during the medical evacuation process. PMID:25830259

  1. A New Etiology for the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Charles; Vaillandet, Colette; Tuech, Jean-Jacques; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare diagnosis with an incidence of 12 per million. Most cases originate from an appendix which ruptures and releases mucin into the peritoneal cavity. The progression of the disease results in obstruction and cutaneous leak. Abdominal compartment syndrome is an uncommon complication of peritoneal pseudomyxoma. In the present article, we report the case of a patient with PMP and abdominal compartment syndrome. A laparotomy to decrease the abdominal pressure was performed. Three months later, a peritonectomy with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was performed. The patient was still alive 1 year after the procedure without any recurrence. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain and respiratory failure in patients with peritoneal PMP should lead to the measurement of the abdominal pressure but are not a contra indication for curative treatment of PMP. PMID:26483617

  2. Air quality inside the passenger compartment of a bus.

    PubMed

    Conceio, E Z; Silva, M C; Viegas, D X

    1997-01-01

    The indoor air quality in the passenger compartment of an intercity bus is studied. A system used for the remotion of the contaminants from the compartment, based on an extraction duct, was projected using a simple, unidimensional flow model with capability to predict the air exchange rate as a function of the vehicle velocity. Some tests using tracer gan methods were performed in a real vehicle with the contaminant remotion system mounted, in order to validate the calculation model and evaluate the performances of the system. A good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results was verified and the obtained air exchange rate was quite reasonable when compared with the former situation, without extraction duct. PMID:9306235

  3. Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome in a HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Donald James; Shaukat, Yasir Mehmood; Jenabzadeh, Reza; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome is a very rare condition but one which requires swift diagnosis and urgent surgical decompression by fasciotomies in order to achieve the best outcome. We present the case of a 31-year-old HIV-positive man. The case highlights the perils of being sidetracked by an atypical clinical history instead of acting on the classical clinical examination findings. We will discuss the presentation and management of this patient, review the literature and highlight the key learning points. The most important learning point being that no matter how atypical the history, if a patient presents with limb pain out of proportion to the injury (with or without pain on passive stretch), sensory changes and a loss of motor power, then a diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome must be considered. PMID:24347455

  4. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  5. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication

    PubMed Central

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome. PMID:23264161

  6. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  7. Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  10. Reconstituting geometry-modulated protein patterns in membrane compartments.

    PubMed

    Zieske, Katja; Schwille, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The MinCDE protein system from Escherichia coli has become one of the most striking paradigms of protein self-organization and biological pattern formation. The whole set of Min proteins is functionally active to position the divisome machinery by inhibiting Z ring assembly away from mid-cell. This is accomplished by an oscillation behavior between the cell poles, induced by the reaction between the two antagonistic proteins MinD and MinE, which has long caught the attention of quantitative biologists. Technical advances in fluorescence microscopy and molecular biology have allowed us in the past years to reconstitute this MinDE self-organization in cell-free environments on model membranes. We verified the compositional simplicity of protein systems principally required for biological pattern formation, and subjected the mechanism to quantitative biophysical analysis on a single-molecule level. On flat extended membranes, MinD and MinE self-organized into parallel propagating waves. Moreover, employing microsystems technology to construct membrane-clad soft polymer compartments mimicking the shape of native E. coli cells has further enabled us to faithfully reproduce Min protein oscillations. We further investigated the response of this self-organizing molecular system to three-dimensional compartment geometry. We could show that Min protein patterns depend strongly on the size and shape of the compartment, and the oscillation axis can only be preserved within a certain length interval and narrow width of the compartment. This renders the Min system a perfectly adapted oscillator to the bacterial cell geometry. PMID:25997347

  11. Characterization of the MAL2-positive compartment in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bello-Morales, Raquel; de Marco, Mara C; Aranda, Juan Francisco; Matesanz, Fuencisla; Alcina, Antonio; Lpez-Guerrero, Jos Antonio

    2009-11-15

    Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system, segregate different surface subdomains at the plasma membrane as do other differentiated cells such as polarized epithelia and neurons. To generate the complex membrane system that characterizes myelinating OLs, large amounts of membrane proteins and lipids need to be synthesized and correctly targeted. In polarized epithelia, a considerable fraction of apical proteins are transported by an indirect pathway involving a detour to the basolateral membrane before being internalized and transported across the cell to the apical membrane by a process known as transcytosis. The apical recycling endosome (ARE) or its equivalent, the subapical compartment (SAC), of hepatocytes is an intracellular trafficking station involved in the transcytotic pathway. MAL2, an essential component of the machinery for basolateral-to-apical transcytosis, is an ARE/SAC resident protein. Here, we show that, after differentiation, murine oligodendrocyte precursor and human oligodendroglioma derived cell lines, Oli-neu and HOG, respectively, up-regulate the expression of MAL2 and accumulate it in an intracellular compartment, exhibiting a peri-centrosomal localization. In these oligodendrocytic cell lines, this compartment shares some of the main features of the ARE/SAC, such as colocalization with Rab11a, sensitivity to disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton with nocodazole, and lack of internalized transferrin. Therefore, we suggest that the MAL2-positive compartment in oligodendrocytic cells could be a structure analogous to the ARE/SAC and might have an important role in the sorting of proteins and lipids for myelin assembly during oligodendrocyte differentiation. PMID:19683524

  12. Compartment A19, paint & oils locker from bulkhead #9 aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-19, paint & oils locker from bulkhead #9 aft to forward; wood storage shelves at center of photograph are for storing containers. Sea valve at lower right is on the starboard side. This would be opened if it was necessary to scuttle the vessel. Heavy frame marked "A-2" supports armored protective deck. (03) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome. PMID:23264161

  14. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  15. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  16. RAB24 facilitates clearance of autophagic compartments during basal conditions.

    PubMed

    Yl-Anttila, Pivi; Mikkonen, Elisa; Happonen, Kaisa E; Holland, Petter; Ueno, Takashi; Simonsen, Anne; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-10-01

    RAB24 belongs to a family of small GTPases and has been implicated to function in autophagy. Here we confirm the intracellular localization of RAB24 to autophagic vacuoles with immuno electron microscopy and cell fractionation, and show that prenylation and guanine nucleotide binding are necessary for the targeting of RAB24 to autophagic compartments. Further, we show that RAB24 plays a role in the maturation and/or clearance of autophagic compartments under nutrient-rich conditions, but not during short amino acid starvation. Quantitative electron microscopy shows an increase in the numbers of late autophagic compartments in cells silenced for RAB24, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe and autophagy flux experiments indicate that this is due to a hindrance in their clearance. Formation of autophagosomes is shown to be unaffected by RAB24-silencing with siRNA. A defect in aggregate clearance in the absence of RAB24 is also shown in cells forming polyglutamine aggregates. This study places RAB24 function in the termination of the autophagic process under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26325487

  17. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, James J.; Hennrikus, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30?mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99?mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms. PMID:26229700

  18. Effect of vacuum sealing drainage in osteofascial compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Ji, Lei; Tao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of vacuum sealing drainage in the patients with osteofascial compartment syndrome in comparison to conventional treatment. Methods: Fifty-two patients diagnosed with osteofascial compartment syndrome were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups based on treatments: vacuum sealing drainage and conventional treatment. After operation, the length of hospital stay and antibiotics administration were recorded in the two groups, as well as swelling elimination and wound closure. Results: No significant difference was observed in terms of the baseline characteristics between the two groups. There are no obvious local or systemic complications in all cases. In contrast to conventional treatment group, the time of swelling elimination, wound closure, hospital stay and antibiotics application were reduced significantly in vacuum sealing drainage group. No allergic reactions or other side effects were observed after the application of vacuum sealing drainage material, indicating its safety. Conclusion: Vacuum sealing drainage is effective in treating osteofascial compartment syndrome with better clinical outcomes than conventional therapy. PMID:26629121

  19. Compartment A126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room compartment B-1 and compartment B-2. Scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) is at right center of photograph. Manikin wearing WWII wave uniform is in display case at left center. (045) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with ...

  1. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with ...

  2. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  3. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  4. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  5. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  8. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

  9. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

  10. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

  11. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

  12. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

  13. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear compartment must (1) Be readily accessible and, as far as...

  14. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear compartment must (1) Be readily accessible and, as far as...

  15. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear compartment must (1) Be readily accessible and, as far as...

  16. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear compartment must (1) Be readily accessible and, as far as...

  17. Cross-bridge kinetics in the presence of MgADP investigated by photolysis of caged ATP in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Dantzig, J A; Hibberd, M G; Trentham, D R; Goldman, Y E

    1991-01-01

    1. The interaction between MgADP and rigor cross-bridges in glycerol-extracted single fibres from rabbit psoas muscle has been investigated using laser pulse photolysis of caged ATP (P3-1(2-nitrophenyl)ethyladenosine 5'-triphosphate) in the presence of MgADP and following small length changes applied to the rigor fibre. 2. Addition of 465 microM-MgADP to a rigor fibre caused rigor tension to decrease by 15.3 +/- 0.7% (S.E.M., n = 24 trials in thirteen fibres). The half-saturation value for this tension reduction was 18 +/- 4 microM (n = 23, thirteen fibres). 3. Relaxation from rigor by photolysis of caged ATP in the absence of Ca2+ was markedly slowed by inclusion of 20 microM-2 mM-MgADP in the photolysis medium. 4. Four phases of tension relaxation occurred with MgADP in the medium: at, a quick partial relaxation (in pre-stretch fibres); bt, a slowing of relaxation or a rise in tension for 50-100 ms; ct, a sudden acceleration of relaxation; and dt, a final, nearly exponential relaxation. 5. Experiments at varied MgATP and MgADP concentrations suggested that phase at is due to MgATP binding to nucleotide-free cross-bridges. 6. Phase bt was abbreviated by including 1-20 mM-orthophosphate (Pi) in the photolysis medium, or by applying quick stretches before photolysis or during phase bt. These results suggest that phases bt and ct are complex processes involving ADP dissociation, cross-bridge reattachment and co-operative detachment involving filament sliding and the Ca(2+)-regulatory system. 7. Stretching relaxed muscle fibres to 3.2-3.4 microns striation spacing followed by ATP removal and release of the rigor fibre until tension fell below the relaxed level allowed investigation of the strain dependence of relaxation in the regions of negative cross-bridge strain. In the presence of 50 microM-2 mM-MgADP and either 10 mM-Pi or 20 mM-2,3-butanedione monoxime, relaxation following photolysis of caged ATP was 6- to 8-fold faster for negatively strained cross-bridges than for positively strained ones. This marked strain dependence of cross-bridge detachment is predicted from the model of A. F. Huxley (1957). 8. In the presence of Ca2+, activation of contraction following photolysis of caged ATP was slowed by inclusion of 20-500 microM-MgADP in the medium. An initial decrease in tension related to cross-bridge detachment by MgATP was markedly suppressed in the presence of MgADP. 9. Ten millimolar Pi partly suppressed active tension generation in the presence of MgADP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1886072

  18. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  19. Using the Stern Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    Extracts from "Experimenting with Numbers" by Margaret Stern demonstrate the use of Stern Blocks to develop the conceptual base on which learning disabled students can build further mathematical skills. (DB)

  20. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  1. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  2. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  5. Identification Bracelet Precipitated Acute Compartment Syndrome during Intravenous Infusion in an Obtunded Patient

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Wahib; Chaucer, Benjamin; Felek, Suleyman; Arsura, Edward L.; Nfonoyim, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious condition requiring immediate medical care. A lack of urgent medical treatment can result in serious complications such as loss of function and even amputation. While the pathophysiology of acute compartment syndrome is well understood, numerous potential causes are still being discovered. A rare cause of acute compartment syndrome is IV infiltration. We present a case of acute compartment syndrome resulting from intravenous infusion due to proximal placement of a patient identification bracelet. We conclude that both routine evaluation for IV infiltration and proximal placement of IV lines are essential for prevention of acute compartment syndrome. PMID:26904308

  6. Herpesvirus Replication Compartments Originate with Single Incoming Viral Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kobiler, O.; Brodersen, P.; Taylor, M. P.; Ludmir, E. B.; Enquist, L. W.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously we described a method to estimate the average number of virus genomes expressed in an infected cell. By analyzing the color spectrum of cells infected with a mixture of isogenic pseudorabies virus (PRV) recombinants expressing three fluorophores, we estimated that fewer than seven incoming genomes are expressed, replicated, and packaged into progeny per cell. In this report, we expand this work and describe experiments demonstrating the generality of the method, as well as providing more insight into herpesvirus replication. We used three isogenic PRV recombinants, each expressing a fluorescently tagged VP26 fusion protein (VP26 is a capsid protein) under the viral VP26 late promoter. We calculated a similar finite limit on the number of expressed viral genomes, indicating that this method is independent of the promoter used to transcribe the fluorophore genes, the time of expression of the fluorophore (early versus late), and the insertion site of the fluorophore gene in the PRV genome (UL versus US). Importantly, these VP26 fusion proteins are distributed equally in punctate virion assembly structures in each nucleus, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio when determining the color spectrum of each cell. To understand how the small number of genomes are distributed among the replication compartments, we used a two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization assay. Most viral replication compartments in the nucleus occupy unique nuclear territories, implying that they arose from single genomes. Our experiments suggest a correlation between the small number of expressed viral genomes and the limited number of replication compartments. PMID:22186611

  7. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Alok R.; Peirce, Susan K.; Joshi, Shweta; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-09-10

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), e.g. toll receptors (TLRs) that bind ligands within the microbiome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. LPS is a ligand for two TLR family members, TLR4 and RP105 which mediate LPS signaling in B cell proliferation and migration. Although LPS/TLR/RP105 signaling is well-studied; our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling these PRR signaling pathways remains incomplete. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for PTEN/PI-3K signaling in B cell selection and survival, however a role for PTEN/PI-3K in TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the B cell compartment has not been reported. Herein, we crossed a CD19cre and PTEN{sup fl/fl} mouse to generate a conditional PTEN knockout mouse in the CD19+ B cell compartment. These mice were further crossed with an IL-14α transgenic mouse to study the combined effect of PTEN deletion, PI-3K inhibition and expression of IL-14α (a cytokine originally identified as a B cell growth factor) in CD19+ B cell lymphoproliferation and response to LPS stimulation. Targeted deletion of PTEN and directed expression of IL-14α in the CD19+ B cell compartment (IL-14+PTEN-/-) lead to marked splenomegaly and altered spleen morphology at baseline due to expansion of marginal zone B cells, a phenotype that was exaggerated by treatment with the B cell mitogen and TLR4/RP105 ligand, LPS. Moreover, LPS stimulation of CD19+ cells isolated from these mice display increased proliferation, augmented AKT and NFκB activation as well as increased expression of c-myc and cyclinD1. Interestingly, treatment of LPS treated IL-14+PTEN-/- mice with a pan PI-3K inhibitor, SF1126, reduced splenomegaly, cell proliferation, c-myc and cyclin D1 expression in the CD19+ B cell compartment and normalized the splenic histopathologic architecture. These findings provide the direct evidence that PTEN and PI-3K inhibitors control TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the CD19+ B cell compartment and that pan PI-3 kinase inhibitors reverse the lymphoproliferative phenotype in vivo. - Highlights: • First genetic evidence that PTEN controls LPS/TLR4 signaling in B lymphocytes. • Evidence that PTEN regulates LPS induced lymphoproliferation in vivo. • PI-3 kinase inhibitors block LPS induced lymphoproliferation in vivo.

  8. Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

  9. Trafficking and function of GPCRs in the endosomal compartment.

    PubMed

    Calebiro, Davide; Godbole, Amod; Lyga, Sandra; Lohse, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    New methods based on fluorescently labeled agonists, genetically encoded fluorescent sensors, and advanced microscopy techniques, such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and highly inclined thin illumination (HILO), allow direct monitoring of signaling, internalization, and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands in living cells with high temporal and spatial resolution. These methods have been essential in revealing that GPCRs can continue signaling via production of the soluble second messenger cyclic AMP after internalization into the endosomal compartment. PMID:25304358

  10. Lysosome-related organelles: Unusual compartments become mainstream

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael S.; Heijnen, Harry F. G.; Raposo, Graa

    2013-01-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) comprise a group of cell type-specific subcellular compartments with unique composition, morphology and structure that share some features with endosomes and lysosomes and that function in varied processes such as pigmentation, hemostasis, lung plasticity and immunity. In recent years, studies of genetic diseases in which LRO functions are compromised have provided new insights into the mechanisms of LRO biogenesis and the regulated secretion of LRO contents. These insights have revealed previously unappreciated specialized endosomal sorting processes in all cell types, and are expanding our views of the plasticity of the endosomal and secretory systems in adapting to cell type-specific needs. PMID:23726022

  11. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  12. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  13. Multigeometry nanoparticles and higher-order assemblies from block copolymer blends via kinetic control and chemical modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Shiyi; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

    2012-02-01

    Multigeometry micellar structures, due to segregation of unlike hydrophobic domains trapped within the same micelle core, have been produced via self-assembly of block copolymer mixtures in tetrahydrofuran/water solution. The mixture is composed of two block copolymers with distinctive hydrophobic blocks but the same poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrophilic block. By taking advantage of the complexation in the hydrophilic corona between the acid side chains of the PAA block and added organoamine molecules, unlike hydrophobic blocks can be trapped in the same micelle core. Locally, the unlike hydrophobic blocks can segregate into compartments and even express different interfacial curvatures, or geometries, within the same nanoparticle. Through controlled kinetic pathways, block copolymer design and mixing ratios, both micelle compartment size and shape can be controlled to generate sphere-sphere, sphere-cylinder, cylinder-cylinder, cylinder-bilayer, and bilayer-bilayer blended multigeometry nanoparticles. Furthermore, higher order assembly behavior of the micelles has been investigated by taking advantage of chemical modification on the hydrophilic PAA shells. New mixtures using functionalized-PAA-containing block copolymers produce nanoparticles with a compartmentalized surface. These patchy surfaces can be used as templates for asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles, but also as building blocks for hierarchical assembly of the nanoparticles to produce one-dimensional arrays or three dimensional networks.

  14. Block distributions on Itokawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazrouei, S.; Daly, M. G.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.; DeSouza, I.

    2014-02-01

    Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is a small elongated asteroid with two distinct parts. The evolution of this two-part body has been the source of speculation. The scenarios for the formation of this asteroid include: two-body capture, catastrophic disruption and rapid reaccretion, YORP spin-up and mass shedding, and disruption (or partial disruption) with two-body reaccretion. In this paper we use the global and regional analyses of block populations and size-frequency distributions as evidence of the probable evolutionary history of Itokawa. The block sample used in this study is believed to be complete for blocks of size >6 m and consists of a sample more than twice as large as previous known studies. Although block size-frequency distributions hint at different evolutionary paths for the head and the body, their differences are not statistically significant. The distribution of blocks across each body provides clues as to the histories of each body. The head is populated in a spherically symmetric fashion while the body has a distinct equatorial peak. When considering that the head and the body may have been separate entities for a period of time and estimating a rotational axis using minimum rotational energy considerations, the preferential equatorial distribution becomes even more pronounced. We interpret this as excellent evidence for the partial disruption of a proto-Itokawa, subsequent planarization of a debris field and reaccretion of the head and the body into its present configuration.

  15. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  16. COMPARTMENTS: unification and visualization of protein subcellular localization evidence.

    PubMed

    Binder, Janos X; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Stolte, Christian; O'Donoghue, Sen I; Schneider, Reinhard; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Information on protein subcellular localization is important to understand the cellular functions of proteins. Currently, such information is manually curated from the literature, obtained from high-throughput microscopy-based screens and predicted from primary sequence. To get a comprehensive view of the localization of a protein, it is thus necessary to consult multiple databases and prediction tools. To address this, we present the COMPARTMENTS resource, which integrates all sources listed above as well as the results of automatic text mining. The resource is automatically kept up to date with source databases, and all localization evidence is mapped onto common protein identifiers and Gene Ontology terms. We further assign confidence scores to the localization evidence to facilitate comparison of different types and sources of evidence. To further improve the comparability, we assign confidence scores based on the type and source of the localization evidence. Finally, we visualize the unified localization evidence for a protein on a schematic cell to provide a simple overview. Database URL: http://compartments.jensenlab.org. PMID:24573882

  17. Developmental compartments in the larval trachea of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prashanth R; Lin, Li; Huang, Hai; Guha, Arjun; Roy, Sougata; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila tracheal system is a branched tubular network that forms in the embryo by a post-mitotic program of morphogenesis. In third instar larvae (L3), cells constituting the second tracheal metamere (Tr2) reenter the cell cycle. Clonal analysis of L3 Tr2 revealed that dividing cells in the dorsal trunk, dorsal branch and transverse connective branches respect lineage restriction boundaries near branch junctions. These boundaries corresponded to domains of gene expression, for example where cells expressing Spalt, Delta and Serrate in the dorsal trunk meet veinexpressing cells in the dorsal branch or transverse connective. Notch signaling was activated to one side of these borders and was required for the identity, specializations and segregation of border cells. These findings suggest that Tr2 is comprised of developmental compartments and that developmental compartments are an organizational feature relevant to branched tubular networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08666.001 PMID:26491942

  18. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  19. Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Mller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-10-01

    Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

  20. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  1. Characterization of an apical ceramide-enriched compartment regulating ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Qian; Wang, Guanghu; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Dinkins, Michael; Zhu, Gu; Bieberich, Erhard

    2012-08-01

    We show that in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, an apical ceramide-enriched compartment (ACEC) at the base of primary cilia is colocalized with Rab11a. Ceramide and Rab11a vesicles isolated by magnetic sorting contain a highly similar profile of proteins (atypical protein kinase C [aPKC], Cdc42, Sec8, Rab11a, and Rab8) and ceramide species, suggesting the presence of a ciliogenic protein complex associated with ceramide at the ACEC. It is intriguing that C16 and C18 ceramide, although less abundant ceramide species in MDCK cells, are highly enriched in ceramide and Rab11a vesicles. Expression of a ceramide-binding but dominant-negative mutant of aPKC suppresses ciliogenesis, indicating that the association of ceramide with aPKC is critical for the formation of this complex. Our results indicate that ciliogenic ceramide is derived from apical sphingomyelin (SM) that is endocytosed and then converted to the ACEC. Consistently, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase with imipramine disrupts ACEC formation, association of ciliogenic proteins with Rab11a vesicles, and cilium formation. Ciliogenesis is rescued by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating that ceramide promotes tubulin acetylation in cilia. Taken together, our results suggest that the ACEC is a novel compartment in which SM-derived ceramide induces formation of a ciliogenic lipid-protein complex that sustains primary cilia by preventing deacetylation of microtubules. PMID:22718902

  2. Characterization of a Novel Prevacuolar Compartment in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Draskovic, Marija; Schnittker, Robert R.; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Plamann, Michael D.; Sánchez-León, Eddy; Riquelme, Meritxell; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2015-01-01

    Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs. A pigment produced by adenine auxotrophs, used to visualize vacuoles, also accumulated in PVCs. Soluble enzymes of the vacuolar lumen, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase Y, were not observed in PVCs. The fluorescent molecule Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid diacetate, succinimidyl ester (carboxy-DFFDA) accumulated in vacuoles and in a subset of PVCs, suggesting maturation of PVCs from the tip to distal regions. Three of the nine Rab GTPases in N. crassa, RAB-2, RAB-4, and RAB-7, localized to the PVCs. RAB-2 and RAB-4, which have similar amino acid sequences, are present in filamentous fungi but not in yeasts, and no function has previously been reported for these Rab GTPases in fungi. PVCs are highly pleomorphic, producing tubular projections that subsequently become detached. Dynein and dynactin formed globular clusters enclosed inside the lumen of PVCs. The size, structure, dynamic behavior, and protein composition of the PVCs appear to be significantly different from those of the well-studied prevacuolar compartment of yeasts. PMID:26453652

  3. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2): its intracellular compartment and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Takata, K

    2006-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins serving in the transfer of water and small solutes across cellular membranes. At least 7 isoforms, namely AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, AQP4, AQP6, AQP7 and AQP11 are expressed in the kidney. Among them, AQP2 plays a pivotal role in the concentration of urine. AQP2 is expressed in the principal cells of the collecting ducts. It is localized in the intracellular compartment and is translocated to the cell surface upon anti-diuretic hormone stimulation. Analyses in cultured cells expressing AQP2 have provided clues to the trafficking of AQP2. AQP2 resides in the subapical vesicles, some of which are Rab11-positive, suggesting their close relationship with apical recycling endosomes. Upon stimulation with forskolin, AQP2 is translocated to the cell surface. After washout, AQP2 is endocytosed to early endosomes and then transferred to the apical storage compartment. Some of AQP2 is excreted as exosomes. Actin cytoskeleton plays important roles in the trafficking of AQP2. Analyses of molecules found in AQP2-containing vesicles will shed light on the mechanism of AQP2 translocation. PMID:17543219

  4. Arthrotome: a specific joint forming compartment in the avian somite.

    PubMed

    Mittapalli, Venugopal Rao; Huang, Ruijin; Patel, Ketan; Christ, Bodo; Scaal, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Somitocoele cells previously have been shown to form the proximal part of the ribs, the intervertebral discs, and the intervertebral joints (synovial joints). To determine whether the somitocoele cells are necessary for the development of axial skeleton joints, we microsurgically ablated the somitocoele cells in epithelial somites of 2-day-old chick embryos. The operated embryos were analyzed after whole-mount skeletal preparations and in sections. Removal of the somitocoele cells led to two major outcomes: (1) Intervertebral joints failed to develop and resulted in the fusion of the superior articular process and the inferior articular process; (2) Adjacent vertebral bodies fused and lacked the intervertebral disc. These results demonstrate that somitocoele cells specifically give rise to intervertebral joints and discs. Furthermore, these results suggest that neighboring sclerotome cells cannot adapt to form vertebral joints in the absence of the somitocoele compartment. Thus, we provide for the first time experimental evidence for the existence of a joint forming compartment in the somites, which we term the "arthrotome." PMID:16028274

  5. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology. PMID:26337290

  6. Characterization of a Novel Prevacuolar Compartment in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Barry J; Draskovic, Marija; Schnittker, Robert R; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Plamann, Michael D; Snchez-Len, Eddy; Riquelme, Meritxell; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2015-12-01

    Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs. A pigment produced by adenine auxotrophs, used to visualize vacuoles, also accumulated in PVCs. Soluble enzymes of the vacuolar lumen, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase Y, were not observed in PVCs. The fluorescent molecule Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid diacetate, succinimidyl ester (carboxy-DFFDA) accumulated in vacuoles and in a subset of PVCs, suggesting maturation of PVCs from the tip to distal regions. Three of the nine Rab GTPases in N. crassa, RAB-2, RAB-4, and RAB-7, localized to the PVCs. RAB-2 and RAB-4, which have similar amino acid sequences, are present in filamentous fungi but not in yeasts, and no function has previously been reported for these Rab GTPases in fungi. PVCs are highly pleomorphic, producing tubular projections that subsequently become detached. Dynein and dynactin formed globular clusters enclosed inside the lumen of PVCs. The size, structure, dynamic behavior, and protein composition of the PVCs appear to be significantly different from those of the well-studied prevacuolar compartment of yeasts. PMID:26453652

  7. Pressure transients in NET building compartments under LOCA conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, Roland

    1993-06-01

    The NET cooling systems for in-vessel components and vessel are generally based on low pressure and low temperature water. However, the cooling loops for the breeder blanket are intended to operate at a water temperature of about 250C. A pipe break in a loop with such data would pressurize the compartment where the break takes place. Therefore, as a basis for proper compartment design, it is important to analyze possible pressure increases following pipe breaks. It may also be necessary to introduce equipment for pressure relief or pressure suppression. The objective of the parameter study presented is to determine the relationship between allowed maximum containment pressure following postulated large pipe break in breeding blanket loop and required containment volume. Parameters varied are: blanket loop temperature and pressure (within the range of burn and baking), and pressure suppression system inclusion/exclusion. The analysis has been performed by means of the Swedish containment code COPTA. The results of the analysis are summarized in a plot showing the influence of the varied parameters on required containment volume. In addition, the results presented include required vent areas, heat sink capacities, etc.

  8. Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Mller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

  9. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    PubMed

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system". PMID:828004

  10. Targeting enzymes to the right compartment: metabolic engineering for itaconic acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Blumhoff, Marzena L; Steiger, Matthias G; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block. It can be microbially produced from some Aspergillus species, such as Aspergillus itaconicus and Aspergillus terreus. However, the achieved titers are significantly lower as compared to the citric acid production by A. niger. Heterologous expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase in A. niger leads to the accumulation of small amounts of itaconic acid. Additional expression of aconitase, the second enzyme metabolically linking citric acid and itaconic acid improves productivity. However, proper organelle targeting of the enzymes appears to be an important point to consider. Here we compare the mitochondrial expression with the cytosolic expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase or aconitase in A. niger. Heterologous expression of both enzymes in the mitochondria doubles the productivity compared to strains which express the enzymes in the cytosol. It is essential to target enzymes to the correct compartment in order to establish a proper flux through a compartmentalized pathway. PMID:23727192

  11. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other

  12. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  13. 2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

  14. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIDCR) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). This finding shows that a specific combination of two molecules can block only pain-related neurons. It holds the promise of major future breakthroughs for the millions of persons who suffer ...

  15. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate

  16. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of

  17. Block Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Block Island coast and shows a rock crab and several shrimp on a boulder that is covered with bryozoans. Shell fragments and other coarse grained sediment can be seen in the background (upper left corner). This photograph was collected to support research a...

  18. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the osteons and similar to the "fully mineralized" stage of primary bone. The results of this study demonstrated that unremodeled compartments of bone grow older through maturation and growth of mineral crystals in a protracted fashion. However, the secondary osteonal remodeling impedes this aging process and maintains the mean tissue age fairly constant over decades. Therefore, slowing of remodeling may lead to brittle bone tissue through accumulation of fully mineralized tissue fragments.

  19. Methylated and unmethylated DNA compartments in the sea urchin genome.

    PubMed

    Bird, A P; Taggart, M H; Smith, B A

    1979-08-01

    Sea urchin (Echinus esculentus) DNA has been separated into high and low molecular weight fractions by digestion with the mCpG-sensitive restriction endonucleases Hpa II, Hha I and Ava I. The separation was due to differences in methylation at the recognition sequences for these enzymes because an mCpG-insensitive isoschizomer of Hpa II (Msp I) digested Hpa II-resistant DNA to low molecular weight, showing that many Hpa II sites were in fact present in this fraction; and because 3H-methyl methionine administered to embryos was incorporated into the high molecular weight Hpa II-, Hha I- and Ava I-resistant fraction, but not significantly into the low molecular weight fraction. The fraction resistant to Hpa II, Hha I and Ava I amounted to about 40% of the total DNA. It consisted of long sequence tracts between 15 and well over 50 kg in length, in which many sites for each of these enzymes were methylated consecutively. The remaining 60% of the genome, (m-), was not significantly methylated. Methylated and unmethylated fractions were considered to be subfractions of the genome because enriched unique sequences from one fraction cross-reassociated poorly with the other fraction and specific sequences were found in either (m+) or (m-) but not in both (see below). Similar (m+) and (m-) compartments were found in embryos, germ cells and adult somatic tissues. Furthermor, we found no evidence for changes in the sequence composition of (m+) or (m-) between sperm, embryo or intestine DNAs, although low levels of exchange would not have been detected. Using cloned Echinus histone DNA, heterologous 5S DNA and ribosomal DNA probes, we have found that each of these gene families belongs to the unmethylated DNA compartment in all the tissues examined. In particular, there was no detectable methylation of histone DNA either in early embryos, which are thought to be actively transcribing the bulk of histone genes, or in sperm and gastrulae, in which most histone genes are not being transcribed. In contrast to these gene families, sequences complementary to an internally repetitious Echinus DNA clone were found primarily in the methylated DNA compartment. PMID:487434

  20. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrz?bski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V? and V?). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V? and V?. PMID:24469750

  1. Endocytosis of Epithelial Apical Junctional Proteins by a Clathrin-mediated Pathway into a Unique Storage Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    The adherens junction (AJ) and tight junction (TJ) are key regulators of epithelial polarity and barrier function. Loss of epithelial phenotype is accompanied by endocytosis of AJs and TJs via unknown mechanisms. Using a model of calcium depletion, we defined the pathway of internalization of AJ and TJ proteins (E-cadherin, p120 and β-catenins, occludin, JAM-1, claudins 1 and 4, and ZO-1) in T84 epithelial cells. Proteinase protection assay and immunocytochemistry revealed orchestrated internalization of AJs and TJs into a subapical cytoplasmic compartment. Disruption of caveolae/lipid rafts did not prevent endocytosis, nor did caveolin-1 colocalize with internalized junctional proteins. Furthermore, AJ and TJ proteins did not colocalize with the macropinocytosis marker dextran. Inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis blocked internalization of AJs and TJs, and junctional proteins colocalized with clathrin and α-adaptin. AJ and TJ proteins were observed to enter early endosomes followed by movement to organelles that stained with syntaxin-4 but not with markers of late and recycling endosomes, lysosomes, or Golgi. These results indicate that endocytosis of junctional proteins is a clathrin-mediated process leading into a unique storage compartment. Such mechanisms may mediate the disruption of intercellular contacts during normal tissue remodeling and in pathology. PMID:14528017

  2. Ketone bodies and two-compartment tumor metabolism: stromal ketone production fuels mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2012-11-01

    We have previously suggested that ketone body metabolism is critical for tumor progression and metastasis. Here, using a co-culture system employing human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts, we provide new evidence to directly support this hypothesis. More specifically, we show that the enzymes required for ketone body production are highly upregulated within cancer-associated fibroblasts. This appears to be mechanistically controlled by the stromal expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and/or serum starvation. In addition, treatment with ketone bodies (such as 3-hydroxy-butyrate, and/or butanediol) is sufficient to drive mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells. This observation was also validated by unbiased proteomic analysis. Interestingly, an MCT1 inhibitor was sufficient to block the onset of mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells, suggesting a possible avenue for anticancer therapy. Finally, using human breast cancer tumor samples, we directly confirmed that the enzymes associated with ketone body production (HMGCS2, HMGCL and BDH1) were preferentially expressed in the tumor stroma. Conversely, enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1) and mitochondrial biogenesis (HSP60) were selectively associated with the epithelial tumor cell compartment. Our current findings are consistent with the "two-compartment tumor metabolism" model. Furthermore, they suggest that we should target ketone body metabolism as a new area for drug discovery, for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. PMID:23082721

  3. Aging of the CD4 T Cell Compartment.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Julie S; Haynes, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Higher morbidity and mortality following infections, particularly influenza, is observed in the elderly population. Because of this, people over 65 years old are often targeted for preventive immunization. Many vaccines, however, are not as effective in generating protective antibodies in older individuals. CD4(+) T cells, through their B cell helper functions, play a central role in the humoral response. Aging has deleterious effects on the immune system, and understanding how aging impairs CD4(+) T cell functions is of critical importance to design new immunization and treatment strategies targeted to the elderly population. In this paper, we review some of the qualitative and quantitative changes in the CD4(+) T cell compartment that arise with aging. We also summarize the age-related intrinsic defects that impact nave, memory and regulatory CD4(+) T cell functions. PMID:24839469

  4. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  5. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  6. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  7. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-28

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. PMID:25946401

  8. A Multi-Compartment Segmentation Framework With Homeomorphic Level Sets

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xian; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L.

    2011-01-01

    The simultaneous segmentation of multiple objects is an important problem in many imaging and computer vision applications. Various extensions of level set segmentation techniques to multiple objects have been proposed; however, no one method maintains object relationships, preserves topology, is computationally efficient, and provides an object-dependent internal and external force capability. In this paper, a framework for segmenting multiple objects that permits different forces to be applied to different boundaries while maintaining object topology and relationships is presented. Because of this framework, the segmentation of multiple objects each with multiple compartments is supported, and no overlaps or vacuums are generated. The computational complexity of this approach is independent of the number of objects to segment, thereby permitting the simultaneous segmentation of a large number of components. The properties of this approach and comparisons to existing methods are shown using a variety of images, both synthetic and real. PMID:23223164

  9. Compartment pressure in the foot. Analysis of normal values and measurement technique.

    PubMed

    Dayton, P; Goldman, F D; Barton, E

    1990-10-01

    This clinical trial was carried out to verify the validity of the current objective compartment pressure parameters described in the forearm and leg for use in the foot. The authors evaluated the compartment pressures of the central plantar compartment in 25 normal volunteers (94 separate measurements). In addition to determining an average normal foot compartment pressure, two methods of measurement were compared. Results showed no significant difference in normal values through the use of an arterial line monitor technique (5.98 +/- 2.78 mm Hg [SD]) as compared with a Stryker intracompartmental pressure monitor (4.69 +/- 2.62 mm Hg [SD]). It was found that pedal edema caused a statistically significant increase in pressures. The authors propose a standard technique for pedal compartment pressure measurement and discuss diagnosis and management of compartment syndrome in the foot. PMID:2269919

  10. Tissue Compartment Analysis for Biomarker Discovery by Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Disset, Antoine; Cheval, Lydie; Soutourina, Olga; Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Li, Guorong; Genin, Christian; Tostain, Jacques; Loupy, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Background Although high throughput technologies for gene profiling are reliable tools, sample/tissue heterogeneity limits their outcomes when applied to identify molecular markers. Indeed, inter-sample differences in cell composition contribute to scatter the data, preventing detection of small but relevant changes in gene expression level. To date, attempts to circumvent this difficulty were based on isolation of the different cell structures constituting biological samples. As an alternate approach, we developed a tissue compartment analysis (TCA) method to assess the cell composition of tissue samples, and applied it to standardize data and to identify biomarkers. Methodology/Principal Findings TCA is based on the comparison of mRNA expression levels of specific markers of the different constitutive structures in pure isolated structures, on the one hand, and in the whole sample on the other. TCA method was here developed with human kidney samples, as an example of highly heterogeneous organ. It was validated by comparison of the data with those obtained by histo-morphometry. TCA demonstrated the extreme variety of composition of kidney samples, with abundance of specific structures varying from 5 to 95% of the whole sample. TCA permitted to accurately standardize gene expression level amongst >100 kidney biopsies, and to identify otherwise imperceptible molecular disease markers. Conclusions/Significance Because TCA does not require specific preparation of sample, it can be applied to all existing tissue or cDNA libraries or to published data sets, inasmuch specific operational compartments markers are available. In human, where the small size of tissue samples collected in clinical practice accounts for high structural diversity, TCA is well suited for the identification of molecular markers of diseases, and the follow up of identified markers in single patients for diagnosis/prognosis and evaluation of therapy efficiency. In laboratory animals, TCA will interestingly be applied to central nervous system where tissue heterogeneity is a limiting factor. PMID:19901995

  11. Evolution of trochlear compartment geometry in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Demey, Guillaume; Nover, Luca; Dejour, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to compare trochlear profiles in recent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) models and to determine whether they feature improvements compared to their predecessors. The hypothesis was that recent TKA models have more anatomic trochlear compartments and would display no signs of trochlear dysplasia. Methods The authors analyzed the geometry of the 6 following TKA models using engineering software: PFC and Attune (DePuy), NexGen and Persona (Zimmer), Noetos and KneeTec (Tornier). The mediolateral trochlear profiles were plotted at various flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30° and 45°) to deduce the sulcus angle. Results Analysis of sulcus angles reveals general convergence of recent designs towards anatomic values. At 0° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent implant models were between 156.0–157.4°, while those of previous generation models between 154.5–165.5°. At 30° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent models also lie within 145.7–148.6°, but those of previous models are between 149.5–152.0°. All three manufacturers deepened their trochlear profile at 30° of flexion in recent models compared to earlier designs. Sulcus angles converge towards anatomic values but still exceed radiologic signs of dysplasia by 2–5°. Conclusions Recent TKA designs have more anatomic trochlear geometries than earlier TKA models by the same manufacturers, but trochlear compartments still exceed radiologic signs of trochlear dysplasia by 2° to 5°. The hypothesis that recent TKA models display no signs of trochlear dysplasia is therefore refuted. Surgeons should be aware of design limitations to optimize choice of implant and extensor mechanisms alignment. Level of evidence: IV geometric implant analysis. PMID:26855943

  12. Continual maintenance of the blood-testis barrier during spermatogenesis: the intermediate compartment theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Yazama, Futoshi

    2008-10-01

    Tight junctions occur between the lateral processes of neighboring Sertoli cells that divide the seminiferous epithelium into two compartments: basal and adluminal compartments. These tight junctions constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The established theory that the BTB must open when spermatocytes translocate from the basal compartment to the adluminal compartment is marked by one contradiction, that is, normal spermatogenesis occurs in the testis because the BTB is expected to constantly seclude the adluminal compartment from the basal compartment in order to protect haploid germ cells from the autoimmune system. Subsequently, another concept was proposed in which two BTBs divide the seminiferous epithelium into three compartments: basal, intermediate and adluminal compartments. It has been suggested that the transition from the basal region to the adluminal region without the BTB open occurs through the agency of a short-lived intermediate compartment embodying some primary spermatocytes. In contrast, the results of recent findings in the molecular architecture of the BTB suggest that the BTB in the seminiferous epithelium must "open". In this paper, I re-examine the BTBs of boar and experimental cryptorchid mouse testes by transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM analysis showed that an atypical basal compartment existed in the thin seminiferous epithelium of 14-day post-cryptorchid mice testes. In developmental boar testes, ectoplasmic specialization (ES) of the seminiferous epithelium showed dynamic behavior. The intermediate compartment was clearly observed between the basal and adluminal compartments of the mature boar seminiferous epithelium. ESs were observed between Sertoli cells and spermatids at all developmental stages, including early, late and mature. Furthermore, ESs were situated on the apical surface of the seminiferous epithelium. From these results, I propose that the BTB is continually maintained during spermatogenesis and suggest a model of ES circulation in the seminiferous epithelium. PMID:18544902

  13. Yeast vacuolar proenzymes are sorted in the late Golgi complex and transported to the vacuole via a prevacuolar endosome-like compartment.

    PubMed

    Vida, T A; Huyer, G; Emr, S D

    1993-06-01

    We are studying intercompartmental protein transport to the yeast lysosome-like vacuole with a reconstitution assay using permeabilized spheroplasts that measures, in an ATP and cytosol dependent reaction, vacuolar delivery and proteolytic maturation of the Golgi-modified precursor forms of vacuolar hydrolases like carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). To identify the potential donor compartment in this assay, we used subcellular fractionation procedures that have uncovered a novel membrane-enclosed prevacuolar transport intermediate. Differential centrifugation was used to separate permeabilized spheroplasts into 15K and 150K g membrane pellets. Centrifugation of these pellets to equilibrium on sucrose density gradients separated vacuolar and Golgi complex marker enzymes into light and dense fractions, respectively. When the Golgi-modified precursor form of CPY (p2CPY) was examined (after a 5-min pulse, 30-s chase), as much as 30-40% fractionated with an intermediate density between both the vacuole and the Golgi complex. Pulse-chase labeling and fractionation of membranes indicated that p2CPY in this gradient region had already passed through the Golgi complex, which kinetically ordered it between the Golgi and the vacuole. A mutant CPY protein that lacks a functional vacuolar sorting signal was detected in Golgi fractions but not in the intermediate compartment indicating that this corresponds to a post-sorting compartment. Based on the low transport efficiency of the mutant CPY protein in vitro (decreased by sevenfold), this intermediate organelle most likely represents the donor compartment in our reconstitution assay. This organelle is not likely to be a transport vesicle intermediate because EM analysis indicates enrichment of 250-400 nm compartments and internalization of surface-bound 35S-alpha-factor at 15 degrees C resulted in its apparent cofractionation with wild-type p2CPY, indicating an endosome-like compartment (Singer, B., and H. Reizman. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 110:1911-1922). Fractionation of p2CPY accumulated in the temperature sensitive vps15 mutant revealed that the vps15 transport block did not occur in the endosome-like compartment but rather in the late Golgi complex, presumably the site of CPY sorting. Therefore, as seen in mammalian cells, yeast CPY is sorted away from secretory proteins in the late Golgi and transits to the vacuole via a distinct endosome-like intermediate. PMID:8509446

  14. Upper limb compartment syndrome after an adder bite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Mohamed Faouzi; Baccari, Sayed; Daghfous, Mehdi; Tarhouni, Lamjed

    2010-04-01

    Compartment syndrome after an adder bite is extremely rare, whose effects are only secondary to the cytotoxic and hemorrhagic effects of venom. Here we reported a case of compartment syndrome in the upper limb following an adder bite in the thenar eminence. Elevated compartment pressure was documented and immediate surgical fasciotomy was practiced. The patient achieved complete recovery with a good functional result. We discussed the controversies on fasciotomy and non-invasive measures in such a situation, and recommended intracompartmental pressure monitoring during the management of compartment syndrome following adder bites. PMID:20356449

  15. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Emergency... lower deck service compartment, that indicates when seat belts should be fastened. (e) If a...

  16. EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

  17. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  18. Liquid blocking check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  19. Intraocular radiation blocking.

    PubMed

    Finger, P T; Ho, T K; Fastenberg, D M; Hyman, R A; Stroh, E M; Packer, S; Perry, H D

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application. PMID:2211021

  20. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  1. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses

  2. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-01

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of silica coating without a polymer layer, experiments for removal of the polymer by solvent extraction, TEM images of spherical α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an asymmetric PSGD coating, and additional FESEM, TEM/EDX images of α-Fe2O3@PSGD-2@SiO2 nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00924c

  3. Metabolic reprogramming and two-compartment tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarina, Barbara; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1? and 2? are transcription factors responsible for the cellular response to hypoxia. The functional roles of HIF1? and HIF2? in cancer are distinct and vary among different tumor types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compartment-specific role(s) of HIF1? and HIF2? in breast cancer. To this end, immortalized human fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells carrying constitutively active HIF1? or HIF2? mutants were analyzed with respect to their metabolic function(s) and ability to promote tumor growth in an in vivo setting. We observed that activation of HIF1?, but not HIF2?, in stromal cells promotes a shift toward aerobic glycolysis, with increased L-lactate production and a loss of mitochondrial activity. In a xenograft model, HIF1?-activated fibroblasts promoted the tumor growth of co-injected MDA-MB-231 cells without an increase in angiogenesis. Conversely, HIF2?-activated stromal cells did not favor tumor growth and behaved as the empty vector controls. Similarly, activation of HIF1?, but not HIF2?, in MDA-MB-231 cells promoted a shift toward aerobic glycolysis, with increased glucose uptake and L-lactate production. In contrast, HIF2? activation in cancer cells increased the expression of EGFR, Ras and cyclin D1, which are known markers of tumor growth and cell cycle progression. In a xenograft model, HIF1? activation in MDA-MB-231 cells acted as a tumor suppressor, resulting in an almost 2-fold reduction in tumor mass and volume. Interestingly, HIF2? activation in MDA-MB-231 cells induced a significant ~2-fold-increase in tumor mass and volume. Analysis of mitochondrial activity in these tumor xenografts using COX (cytochrome C oxidase) staining demonstrated elevated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (OXPHOS) in HIF2?-tumors. We conclude that the role(s) of HIF1? and HIF2? in tumorigenesis are compartment-specific. HIF1? acts as a tumor promoter in stromal cells but as a tumor suppressor in cancer cells. Conversely, HIF2? is a tumor promoter in cancer cells. Mechanistically, HIF1?-driven aerobic glycolysis in stromal cells supports cancer cell growth via the paracrine production of nutrients (such as L-lactate) that can feed cancer cells. However, HIF1?-driven aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells inhibits tumor growth. Finally, HIF2? activation in cancer cells induces the expression of known pro-oncogenic molecules and promotes the mitochondrial activity of cancer cells. PMID:22894905

  4. How Is Heart Block Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... second-degree heart block, you may need a pacemaker . A pacemaker is a small device that's placed under the ... third-degree heart block, you will need a pacemaker. In an emergency, a temporary pacemaker might be ...

  5. Experiences with Blocks in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, W.

    1975-01-01

    Multi-shaped blocks can be used to help young children develop many mathematical concepts and abilities. Several suggestions for using these blocks to create problem situations through which children develop concepts are offered. (SD)

  6. Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

  7. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  8. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the airplane's main power system or compartment main lighting system should fail, emergency... lower deck service compartment, that indicates when seat belts should be fastened. (e) If a public address system is installed in the airplane, speakers must be provided in each lower deck...

  9. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation 169.629 Compartments...

  10. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation 169.629 Compartments...

  11. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation 169.629 Compartments...

  12. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  13. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks....

  14. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... contributing to a fire, in the event smoke or fire is detected in the cargo compartment and lavatory. The... requirements for cargo- or baggage-compartment fire- or smoke-detection systems, and a standard that fire be... waste-receptacle design-and-material standards. (g) Section 25.854, lavatory smoke-detector and...

  15. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting...

  16. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection,...

  17. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection,...

  18. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection,...

  19. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection,...

  20. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting...

  1. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON... Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat....

  2. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON... Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat....

  3. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting...

  4. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON... Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat....

  5. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON... Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat....

  6. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection,...

  7. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON... Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat....

  8. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting...

  9. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting...

  10. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  11. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  12. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  13. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  15. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  16. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  17. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... taxi, take-off, and landing (TT&L). The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or..., for overhead flightcrew rest (OFCR) compartments allowed to be occupied during TT&L, as well as during..., during TT&L. The compartment will be accessed from the main deck by stairs through a vestibule....

  18. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  19. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  20. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  1. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  2. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  3. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40 Section 58.25-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The...

  4. Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome After Coronary Artery Bypass: Easy to Miss Unless Suspected.

    PubMed

    Etra, Joanna W; Metkus, Thomas S; Whitman, Glenn J; Mandal, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a rare adverse event, and the diagnosis is challenging unless this condition is actively considered. We report a case from our institution of a patient with confounding presentation leading to adelayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome after CABG. PMID:26694303

  5. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language

  6. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  7. Calpain restrains the stem cells compartment in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, M; Marcassa, E; Cataldo, F; Arnandis, T; Mendoza-Maldonado, R; Bestagno, M; Schneider, C; Demarchi, F

    2016-01-01

    CAPNS1 is essential for the stability and function of ubiquitous CAPN1 and CAPN2. Calpain modulates by proteolytic cleavage many cellular substrates and its activity is often deregulated in cancer cells, therefore calpain inhibition has been proposed as a therapeutical strategy for a number of malignancies. Here we show that CAPNS1 depletion is coupled to impairment of MCF7 and MCF10AT cell lines growth on plate and defective architecture of mammary acini derived from MCF10A cells. In soft agar CAPNS1 depletion leads to cell growth increase in MCF7, and decrease in MCF10AT cells. In both MCF7 and MCF10AT, CAPNS1 depletion leads to the enlargement of the stem cell compartment, as demonstrated by mammosphere formation assays and evaluation of stem cell markers by means of FACS and western blot analysis. Accordingly, activation of calpain by thapsigargin treatment leads to a decrease in the stem cell reservoir. The expansion of the cancer stem cell population in CAPNS1 depleted cells is coupled to a defective shift from symmetric to asymmetric division during mammosphere growth coupled to a decrease in NUMB protein level. PMID:26771715

  8. Compartment Venting Analyses of Ares I First Stage Systems Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qunzhen; Arner, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Compartment venting analyses have been performed for the Ares I first stage systems tunnel using both the lumped parameter method and the three-dimensional (31)) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The main objective of venting analyses is to predict the magnitudes of differential pressures across the skin so the integrity of solid walls can be evaluated and properly designed. The lumped parameter method assumes the gas pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel are spatially uniform, which is questionable since the tunnel is about 1,700 in. long and 4 in. wide. Therefore, 31) transient CFD simulations using the commercial CFD code FLUENT are performed in order to examine the gas pressure and temperature variations inside the tunnel. It was found that the uniform pressure and temperature assumptions inside the systems tunnel are valid during ascent. During reentry, the uniform pressure assumption is also reasonable but the uniform temperature assumption is not valid. Predicted pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel using CFD are also compared with those from the lumped parameter method using the NASA code CHCHVENT. In general, the average pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel from CFD are between the burst and crush results from CHCHVENT during both ascent and reentry. The skin differential pressure and pressure inside the systems tunnel relative to freestream pressure from CHCHVENT as well as velocity vectors and streamlines are also discussed in detail.

  9. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-01

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P? into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. PMID:25299335

  10. TENDINOPATHY OF THE ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE ANKLE

    PubMed Central

    De Carvalho Junior, Antonio Egydio; Bittar, Cíntia Kelly; Salomão, Osny; Miranda, João Batista; Ninomiya, André; Silva, Daniel Bento

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a retrospective analysis on the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic options in cases of tendinopathy of the anterior compartment of the ankle. Method: 13 patients underwent surgery between September 1998 and February 2009; ten men and three women. The right side was involved in twelve patients and the left in one. The mean age was 35 years (range 15-67). The etiology was traumatic in eight patients and degenerative (non-traumatic) in five. The mean time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment was 19 months (range 1 – 60) and the mean length of follow-up was 34 months (range 4 – 127). The diagnosis was made through anamnesis and clinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on nine patients, for staging and planning. The surgical treatment was personalized in each case (synovectomy, resection of the muscle belly, consolidation with the adjacent tendon, and free grafting of the semitendinosus tendon). The following scales were used to evaluate the results: 1) subjective satisfaction scale, 2) AOFAS and 3) Maryland. Results: In relation to the subjective satisfaction scale, 12 patients were satisfied and one was dissatisfied. The mean AOFAS score was 80 points, and the mean Maryland scale was 86 points. Conclusion: Surgical treatment is effective for restoring function. The surgical techniques need to be personalized. The option of free grafting of the semitendinosus tendon is effective for gaps larger than five centimeters.

  11. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  12. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  13. Anatomical compartments of the parasellar region: adipose tissue bodies represent intracranial continuations of extracranial spaces

    PubMed Central

    WENINGER, WOLFGANG J.; STREICHER, JOHANNES; MLLER, GERD B.

    1997-01-01

    The cavernous sinus is traditionally described as a single anatomical compartment that contains cranial nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. A detailed analysis of 45 infant and 4 fetal parasellar regions shows that this view must be modified. The spatial arrangement, the topographic relations, and the expansion of the adipose and connective tissue spaces were analysed and reconstructed 3-dimensionally on a computer. It is shown that 3 different anatomical compartments, which are strictly demarcated by connective tissue, compose the parasellar region of infants. Two represent intracranial continuations of extracranial tissue spaces. The 3rd compartment corresponds to the so-called cavernous sinus of the adult. Each of the 3 compartments contains characteristic adipose tissue bodies. Because the cavernous sinus represents only one compartment of the area, we propose to use the term parasellar region to designate the entire anatomical region on either side of the sella turcica. PMID:9306202

  14. Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

  15. Non-traumatic compartment syndrome secondary to deep vein thrombosis and anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter Alexander; Deo, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of non-traumatic compartment syndrome in three compartments of the left lower limb in a 57-year-old male inpatient. He had recently been started on anticoagulation therapy for multiple pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis of the left posterior tibial and peroneal veins. Three of the four osteofascial compartments had pressures above 70?mm?Hg, hence four compartment fasciotomies were performed. Postoperatively, intravenous heparin therapy was started resulting in a significant blood loss, but he had no neurovascular deficit. At reoperation, for primary wound closure, his tissues looked healthy. Non-traumatic causes of acute compartment syndrome, including deep venous thrombosis and anticoagulation, are considered. PMID:24443334

  16. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  17. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  18. Regulation of the development of the hepatic B cell compartment during Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Keke C; Everts, Bart; Smith, Amber M; Pearce, Edward J

    2013-10-15

    During infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, Ab regulates hepatic inflammation, and local production of Ig in the liver appears to play a role in this process. Exploring the development of the B cell response during infection, we found that parasite-specific IgG1-secreting plasma cells appeared first in the hepatic and mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs) and then at later times in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The LN B cell population peaked between weeks 10 and 12 of infection, and then contracted at a time that coincided with the expansion of the hepatic IgG1(+) B cell compartment, suggesting that B cells migrate from LNs to liver. CXCL9 and -16 expression in the liver increased during the time frame of B cell recruitment. Expression of the CXCL16 receptor CXCR6 was increased on B cells within the hepatic LNs, but not the mesenteric LNs. CXCR3, the receptor for CXCL9, was broadly expressed on IgG1(+) B cells in LNs and liver during infection. Increased hepatic expression of CXCL9 and -16 failed to occur if the IL-10R was blocked in vivo, an intervention associated with decreased liver B cell infiltration and the development of severe disease. Hepatic LN IgG1(+) cells migrated toward CXCL9 and -16 in vitro and to the liver in a pertussis toxin-sensitive fashion. Our data suggest that the coordinated expression of CXCL9 and -16 in the liver and of CXCR6 and CXCR3 on responding B cells within the hepatic LNs underpins establishment of the hepatic B cell infiltrate during chronic schistosomiasis. PMID:24038090

  19. Numerical analysis of air-flow and temperature field in a passenger car compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed; Kamsah, Nazri; Mohammad Nor, Ahmad Miski

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the temperature field inside a passenger's compartment of a Proton Wira saloon car using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The main goal is to investigate the effects of different glazing types applied onto the front and rear windscreens of the car on the distribution of air-temperature inside the passenger compartment in the steady-state conditions. The air-flow condition in the passenger's compartment is also investigated. Fluent CFD software was used to develop a three-dimensional symmetrical model of the passenger's compartment. Simplified representations of the driver and one rear passenger were incorporated into the CFD model of the passenger's compartment. Two types of glazing were considered namely clear insulated laminated tint (CIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.78 and green insulated laminate tint (GIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.5. Results of the CFD analysis were compared with those obtained when the windscreens are made up of clear glass having a shading coefficient of 0.86. Results of the CFD analysis show that for a given glazing material, the temperature of the air around the driver is slightly lower than the air around the rear passenger. Also, the use of GIL glazing material on both the front and rear windscreens significantly reduces the air temperature inside the passenger's compartment of the car. This contributes to a better thermal comfort condition to the occupants. Swirling air flow condition occurs in the passenger compartment. The air-flow intensity and velocity are higher along the side wall of the passenger's compartment compared to that along the middle section of the compartment. It was also found that the use of glazing materials on both the front and rear windscreen has no significant effects on the air-flow condition inside the passenger's compartment of the car.

  20. Antagonism of Sigma-1 Receptors Blocks Compulsive-Like Eating

    PubMed Central

    Cottone, Pietro; Wang, Xiaofan; Park, Jin Won; Valenza, Marta; Blasio, Angelo; Kwak, Jina; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Hayashi, Teruo; Sabino, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain a sugary, highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1?h a day under fixed ratio 1 operant conditioning. Following intake stabilization, we evaluated the effects of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on food responding. Using a light/dark conflict test, we also tested whether BD-1063 could block the time spent and the food eaten in an aversive, open compartment, where the palatable diet was offered. Furthermore, we measured Sig-1R mRNA and protein expression in several brain areas of the two groups, 24?h after the last binge session. Palatable rats rapidly developed binge-like eating, escalating the 1?h intake by four times, and doubling the eating rate and the regularity of food responding, compared to Chow rats. BD-1063 dose-dependently reduced binge-like eating and the regularity of food responding, and blocked the increased eating rate in Palatable rats. In the light/dark conflict test, BD-1063 antagonized the increased time spent in the aversive compartment and the increased intake of the palatable diet, without affecting motor activity. Finally, Palatable rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and a two-fold increase in Sig-1R protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex compared to control Chow rats. These findings suggest that the Sig-1R system may contribute to the neurobiological adaptations driving compulsive-like eating, opening new avenues of investigation towards pharmacologically treating binge eating disorder. PMID:22713906

  1. Antagonism of sigma-1 receptors blocks compulsive-like eating.

    PubMed

    Cottone, Pietro; Wang, Xiaofan; Park, Jin Won; Valenza, Marta; Blasio, Angelo; Kwak, Jina; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Hayashi, Teruo; Sabino, Valentina

    2012-11-01

    Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain a sugary, highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1?h a day under fixed ratio 1 operant conditioning. Following intake stabilization, we evaluated the effects of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on food responding. Using a light/dark conflict test, we also tested whether BD-1063 could block the time spent and the food eaten in an aversive, open compartment, where the palatable diet was offered. Furthermore, we measured Sig-1R mRNA and protein expression in several brain areas of the two groups, 24?h after the last binge session. Palatable rats rapidly developed binge-like eating, escalating the 1?h intake by four times, and doubling the eating rate and the regularity of food responding, compared to Chow rats. BD-1063 dose-dependently reduced binge-like eating and the regularity of food responding, and blocked the increased eating rate in Palatable rats. In the light/dark conflict test, BD-1063 antagonized the increased time spent in the aversive compartment and the increased intake of the palatable diet, without affecting motor activity. Finally, Palatable rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and a two-fold increase in Sig-1R protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex compared to control Chow rats. These findings suggest that the Sig-1R system may contribute to the neurobiological adaptations driving compulsive-like eating, opening new avenues of investigation towards pharmacologically treating binge eating disorder. PMID:22713906

  2. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  3. Block copolymer investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yufa, Nataliya A.

    The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or catastrophic damage. Although the polymer does not assume the same exact topography as before lithography or damage, the fingerprint patterns are shown to reform.

  4. Expansion of Hepatic Stem Cell Compartment Boosts Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Veronika; Rókusz, András; Dezső, Katalin; Bugyik, Edina; Szabó, Vanessza; Pávai, Zoltán; Paku, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    The hepatic stem cells reside periportally forming the canals of Hering in normal liver. They can be identified by their unique immunophenotype in rat. The oval cells, the progenies of stem cells invade deep the liver parenchyma after activation and differentiate into focally arranged small—and eventually trabecularly ordered regular hepatocytes. We have observed that upon the completion of intense oval cell reactions narrow ductular structures are present in the parenchyma, we propose to call them parenchymal ductules. These parenchymal ductules have the same immunophenotype [cytokeratin (CK)7−/CK19+/alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)−/delta-like protein (DLK)−] as the resting stem cells of the canals of Hering, but different from them reside scattered in the parenchyma. In our present experiments, we have investigated in an in vivo functional assay if the presence of these parenchymal ductules has any impact on a progenitor cell driven regeneration process. Parenchymal ductules were induced either by an established model of oval cell induction consisting of the administration of necrogenic dose of carbontetrachloride to 2-acetaminofluorene pretreated rats (AAF/CCl4) or a large necrogenic dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The oval cells expanded faster and the foci evolved earlier after repeated injury in the livers with preexistent parenchymal ductules. When the animals were left to survive for one more year increased liver tumor formation was observed exclusively in the DEN treated rats. Thus, repeated oval cell reactions are not necessarily carcinogenic. We conclude that the expansion of hepatic stem cell compartment conceptually can be used to facilitate liver regeneration without an increased risk of tumorigenesis. PMID:23952741

  5. ATP stimulates pannexin 1 internalization to endosomal compartments.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Andrew K J; Kim, Michelle S; Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh E; Swayne, Leigh Anne

    2015-09-15

    The ubiquitous pannexin 1 (Panx1) ion- and metabolite-permeable channel mediates the release of ATP, a potent signalling molecule. In the present study, we provide striking evidence that ATP, in turn, stimulates internalization of Panx1 to intracellular membranes. These findings hold important implications for understanding the regulation of Panx1 when extracellular ATP is elevated. In the nervous system, this includes phenomena such as synaptic plasticity, pain, precursor cell development and stroke; outside of the nervous system, this includes things like skeletal and smooth muscle activity and inflammation. Within 15 min, ATP led to significant Panx1-EGFP internalization. In a series of experiments, we determined that hydrolysable ATP is the most potent stimulator of Panx1 internalization. We identified two possible mechanisms for Panx1 internalization, including activation of ionotropic purinergic (P2X) receptors and involvement of a putative ATP-sensitive residue in the first extracellular loop of Panx1 (Trp(74)). Internalization was cholesterol-dependent, but clathrin, caveolin and dynamin independent. Detailed analysis of Panx1 at specific endosome sub-compartments confirmed that Panx1 is expressed in endosome membranes of the classical degradation pathway under basal conditions and that elevation of ATP levels diverts a sub-population to recycling endosomes. This is the first report detailing endosome localization of Panx1 under basal conditions and the potential for ATP regulation of its surface expression. Given the ubiquitous expression profile of Panx1 and the importance of ATP signalling, these findings are of critical importance for understanding the role of Panx1 in health and disease. PMID:26195825

  6. Perinucleolar Compartment Prevalence Is a Phenotypic Pancancer Marker of Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Norton, John T.; Pollock, Callie B.; Wang, Chen; Schink, Julian C.; Kim, J. Julie; Huang, Sui

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a subnuclear structure localized at the nucleolar periphery. Previous studies using breast cancer as a model system demonstrated that PNC prevalence (the percentage of cells with 1 or more PNC) increased with disease progression and was associated with poor patient outcomes. METHODS To evaluate the validity of developing PNC prevalence as a novel pan-cancer prognostic marker, the authors investigated whether PNC prevalence was correlated with malignancy in a spectrum of tissue types and evaluated its selective association with malignancy under various experimental conditions. RESULTS PNC prevalence was low in primary and immortalized cells and in cell lines derived from hematologic malignancies, but it was heterogeneous in cell lines derived from solid tumors, including those of epithelial and nonepithelial origins. Studies using human myometrial tissue and thyroid cancer cell lines with various levels of malignancy demonstrated a correlation between high PNC prevalence and malignant potential. Furthermore, PNC prevalence corresponded directly to metastatic capacities in a series of well characterized cell lines of the same origin that were selected for various levels of metastatic capacity in a mouse model. Conversely, PNC prevalence was reduced experimentally by over expressing an antimetastatic protein in breast cancer cells. However, PNC prevalence was not associated with traits that were shared by both cancer and normal cells, including proliferation, glycolysis, and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS Together, these observations helped to verify that PNC prevalence selectively represents malignancy in a broad spectrum of solid tissue tumors, demonstrating its potential to be developed as a pancancer prognostic marker of malignancy. PMID:18543322

  7. Characterization of periplastidal compartment-targeting signals in chlorarachniophytes.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Gile, Gillian H; Ota, Shuhei; Keeling, Patrick J; Ishida, Ken-ichiro

    2010-07-01

    Secondary plastids are acquired by the engulfment and retention of eukaryotic algae, which results in an additional surrounding membrane or pair of membranes relative to the more familiar primary plastids of land plants. In most cases, the endocytosed alga loses its eukaryotic genome as it becomes integrated, but in two algal groups, the cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes, the secondary plastids retain a vestigial nucleus in the periplastidal compartment (PPC), the remnant eukaryotic cytoplasm between the inner and the outer membrane pairs. Many essential housekeeping genes are missing from these reduced genomes, suggesting that they are now encoded in the host nucleus and their products are targeted to the PPC. One such nucleus-encoded, PPC-targeted protein, the translation elongation factor like (EFL) was recently identified in chlorarachniophytes. It bears an N-terminal-targeting sequence comprising a signal peptide and a transit peptide-like sequence (TPL) similar to the plastid-targeted proteins of chlorarachniophytes as well as a hydrophilic C-terminal extension rich in lysine and aspartic acid. Here, we characterize the function of the N- and C-terminal extensions of PPC-targeted EFL in transformed chlorarachniophyte cells. Using green fluorescent protein as a reporter molecule, we demonstrate that several negatively charged amino acids within the TPL are essential for accurate targeting to the PPC. Our findings further reveal that the C-terminal extension functions as a PPC retention signal in combination with an N-terminal plastid-targeting peptide, which suggests that plastid and PPC proteins may be sorted in the PPC. PMID:20133351

  8. A theoretical compartment model for antigen kinetics in the skin.

    PubMed

    Rmgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Oomens, Cees W J

    2016-03-10

    The skin is a promising location for vaccination with its abundant population of antigen capturing and presenting cells. The development of new techniques, such as the use of microneedles, can facilitate the delivery of vaccines into the skin. In recent years, many different types of microneedle arrays have been designed. However, their geometry and arrangement within an array may be optimized to trigger sufficient antigen presenting cells. A computational model can support the rational design of microneedle arrays. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to describe the distribution and kinetics of a delivered antigen within the skin using a theoretical compartment model, which included binding of antigens to receptors and their uptake by cells, and to determine which parameters should be measured to validate the model for a specific application. Multiple simulations were performed using a high and low antigen delivery dose and a range of values for the rate constants. The results indicated that the cells were highly saturated when a high dose was applied, while for a low dose saturation was only reached in 5% of the simulations. This was caused by the difference in the ratio between the administered dose and the available binding sites and suggests the dose should be adapted to the number of cells and receptors for a specific compound. The sensitivity analysis of the model parameters confirmed that the initial dose and receptor concentrations were indeed the two parameters that had the largest influence on the variance in antigen concentrations within the cells and circulation at equilibrium. Hence, these parameters are important to be measured in vivo. The presented pharmacokinetics model can be used in future computational models to predict the influence of microneedle array geometry to optimize their design. PMID:26776970

  9. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  10. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  11. Blanket integrated blocking diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebele, P.; Kasper, C.; Rasch, K.-D.

    1986-11-01

    Two types of large area protection diodes for integration in solar arrays were developed in planar technology. For application in a bus voltage concept of V sub bus = 80 V a p-doped blanket integrated blocking diode (p-IBD) was developed with V sub rev = 120 V, whereas for the high voltage concept of V sub bus = 160 V a n-IBD with V sub rev = 250 V was developed. Application as blanket integrated shunt diodes is recommended. The optimized rearside diffusion provides a low forward voltage drop in the temperature range of minus 100 to plus 150 C. As a consequence of planar technology metallized coverglasses have to be used to minimize the photocurrent.

  12. Radiation Blocking Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

  13. Preynaptic induction and expression of t-LTD demonstrated by compartment-specific photorelease of a use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, James E.; Eaton, Thomas R.; Collins, Hazel A.; Anderson, Harry L.; Paulsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are important for synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In order to help investigate the precise location of the NMDA receptors that are required for different types of synaptic plasticity, we synthesized a caged form of the use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801, which we loaded into individual neurons in vitro, followed by compartment-specific uncaging. To demonstrate the potential of this new method, we investigated timing-dependent plasticity at layer 4-layer 2/3 synapses of mouse barrel cortex. Somatodendritic photorelease of MK801 in the postsynaptic neuron produced a use-dependent block of synaptic NMDA receptor-mediated currents and prevented the induction of LTP. Compartment-specific photorelease of MK801 in the presynaptic neuron showed that axonal, but not somatodendritic, presynaptic NMDA receptors are required for induction of LTD. The rate of use-dependent block of postsynaptic NMDA receptor current was slower following induction of LTD, consistent with a presynaptic locus of expression. Thus, this new caged compound has demonstrated the axonal location of NMDA receptors required for induction and the presynaptic locus of expression of LTD at layer 4-layer 2/3 synapses. PMID:21653860

  14. [Lower limb blocks in children].

    PubMed

    Dalens, B

    1993-01-01

    Conduction blocks have important advantage over spinal blocks for unilateral low extremity surgery in children. The complexity of innervation compared with upper limb is more apparent than real and a good understanding of fascial diffusion spaces is as essential as it is of neural pathways. Useful techniques can be classified into two groups, proximal blocks and distal blocks. Beside emergency situations, proximal blocks are usually performed under light general anaesthesia, with the aid of a neurostimulation. The most used proximal blocks are the femoral block, the sciatic nerve block and to a lesser degree the lumbar plexus direct blockade. Distal blocks can complete a non quite satisfactory proximal block, or be effected so as to obtain analgesia in a limited area (in a cooperative vigil patient). Some of these consist of several anaesthetic subcutaneous infiltrations for which no costly material nor special dexterity are required. A judicious choice among the main available techniques allows an excellent analgesia with a very low cost and almost no risks. PMID:8287307

  15. Psychological evaluation of sound environment in a compartment of a high-speed train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, Sonoko; Namba, Seiichiro; Okamoto, Takehisa

    2004-10-01

    Sound environment in a compartment of high-speed trains (Shinkansen) was examined in relation to speech communication and annoyance. Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, the annoyance caused by the compartment noise was judged. In Experiment 2, both the compartment noise and the conversation were presented together and the annoyance of the combined sounds was judged. In Experiment 3, both sounds were presented and only the disturbance of conversation was judged. The results showed that: The annoyance of compartment noise showed good correlation with LAeq. The annoyance of the combination of the compartment noise (N) and the conversation (C) increased as C/N decreased. There was, however, a tendency that annoyance increased as C/N increased in some conditions. This suggests that there exists an optimum level of compartment noise at 50-60 dBA taking the level of conversation into consideration. The disturbance of the conversation increased as C/N increased. However, when the level of conversation became high, it was judged as being disturbing regardless of the level of compartment noise.

  16. Characterization and comparison of the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract compartments in horses.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Silva, G; Ramos, R V; Staempfli, H R; Arroyo, L G; Kim, P; Weese, J S

    2015-07-01

    The advance of new sequencing technologies has allowed more comprehensive characterization of complex microbial communities, including the ones inhabiting the intestinal tract. The presence of extreme environmental filters, such as low pH, digestive enzymes and anaerobic conditions along the tract, acts on the selection of unique bacteria in each compartment. The intestinal microbiota has an enormous impact on the maintenance of health. However, data about the bacteria present in the different intestinal compartments of horses are sparse. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to characterize and compare bacterial profiles from different intestinal compartments of 11 horses scheduled for euthanasia for reasons other than gastrointestinal problems. Marked differences among compartments even at high taxonomic levels were found, with Firmicutes comprising the main bacterial phylum in all compartments. Lactobacillus spp. and Sarcina spp. predominated in the stomach and a marked increase of Streptococcus spp. occurred in the duodenum. Actinobacillus and Clostridium sensu stricto were the most abundant genera in the ileum and '5 genus incertae sedis', a genus from the Subdivision 5 class of the Verrucomicrobia, was the most abundant from the large colon through feces. There was a significant increase in diversity towards the distal gut with similar profiles observed from the cecum through feces at the class level. The bacterial population comprising the equine intestinal tract varies greatly among compartments and fecal samples may be useful as representative of changes occurring in the distal compartments. PMID:25975855

  17. Differential patterns of altered bone formation in different bone compartments in established osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, R J; Denton, J; Hoyland, J A; Freemont, A J

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the level of bone formation in the different bone compartments in cases of established osteoporosis, as previous work has concentrated on trabecular bone alone. METHODS: Bone formation rates were measured histomorphometrically, in the periosteal (P), cortical (C), subcortical (SC), and trabecular (T) compartments in iliac crest biopsies from 159 patients with established osteoporosis. The values were standardised using age and sex matched control data and patterns of differential change determined by analysis of parametric status (increased, normal, reduced). RESULTS: Mean bone formation was reduced in all four compartments. This was more marked (4.4/4.1 standard deviations below the mean in C/T, v 2.3/0.9 in P/SC) and more frequent (reduced in 81.5%/78.3% in T/C, v 43.3%/44% in P/SC) in the trabecular and cortical compartments than in the periosteal or subcortical bone. Parametric status was equal in trabecular and cortical bone in 85.4% of cases, and in periosteal and subcortical bone in 65.7%, but in all four compartments in only 35.1%, indicating differential alteration of bone formation in the two sets of compartments (T/C v P/SC). CONCLUSIONS: Altered trabecular bone formation is important in osteoporosis, but there are differential patterns of alteration in the other three compartments, emphasising the presence of different microenvironments in bone; thus the effect on the cortical compartment was similar to that on the trabecular, while the subcortical and periosteal compartments also showed linkage. The linkage between the two pairs was divergent, indicating different control of bone formation, with resultant different patterns of perturbation in osteoporosis. Images PMID:10343608

  18. Large Block Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test. Sections 5 through 9 report the measurements made on the block during the preheating, heating, and cooling phases. These measurements include temperature, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, hydrological measurements (electrical resistivity, neutron logging, gas pressure, and relative humidity), geomechanics, selected chemical analyses, and microbial activity. These sections also include analyses and simulations of the block behavior. Finally, conclusions are presented in Section 10. Complete data sets were submitted during the time the test was conducted. The data tracking numbers (DTNs) of all of the data are presented in Table 1-1.

  19. Acute Compartment Syndrome after Non-Contact Peroneus Longus Muscle Rupture.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Jarrad; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis; Yi, Anthony; Romano, Russ; Hatch, George F Rick

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a rare variation in the pattern of injury and the presentation of acute lateral compartment syndrome of the leg. Although uncommon, lateral compartment syndrome of the leg after an ankle inversion leading to peroneus longus muscle rupture has been previously documented. This case was unusual because there was no overt ankle injury and the patient was able to continue physical activity, in spite of a significant rupture of the peroneus longus muscle that was determined later. This case highlights the necessary vigilance clinicians must maintain when assessing non-contact injuries in patients with possible compartment syndrome. PMID:26640640

  20. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following bariatric surgery: A rare but important complication

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Bernadette; Heath, Dugal

    2015-01-01

    Gluteal Compartment Syndrome is a rare condition caused by excessive pressure within the gluteal compartments which leads to a number of potentially serious sequelae including rhabdomyolysis, nerve damage, renal failure and death. As bariatric patients are heavy and during prolonged bariatric procedures lie in one position for extended periods of time, they are especially susceptible to developing this complication. It is therefore essential that bariatric surgeons are aware of this complication and how to minimise the chances of it occurring and how to diagnose it. We describe a case of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome in a patient following a gastric bypass and review the aetiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prevention of this complication. PMID:25750728