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1

Surgeon delivered psoas compartment block in total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Total hip arthroplasty is associated with significant postoperative pain. A psoas compartment block is superior to other regional techniques in analgesia post THA. However, traditional methods of delivery are associated with serious complications. We present a technique of a surgeon delivered lumbar plexus block through injection at the portion of the iliopsoas seen intraoperatively. We randomised fifty-three consecutive patients into two groups. The group that received the block had an increased period prior to requesting supplementary analgesia and lower overall pain scores. There were no adverse effects. We have demonstrated the analgesic efficacy of Psoas Compartment Block performed during surgical access for total hip arthroplasty. This technique should be considered in the analgesic regimen for total hip arthroplasty. PMID:23937924

Green, Connor; Byrne, Ann Maria; O'Loughlin, Padhraig; Molony, Diarmuid; Harmon, Dominic; Masterson, Eric

2014-02-01

2

Continuous Psoas Compartment Blocks After Major Orthopedic Surgery in Children: A Prospective Computed Tomographic Scan and Clinical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoral shaft or hip surgeries are very painful for chil- dren. We conducted both computed tomographic (CT) and clinical prospective studies to define new land- marks in children and to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous psoas compartment blocks (CPCBs) using disposable elastomeric pumps. In a preliminary CT scan study of 20 patients, the plexus depth was corre- lated to patient

C. Dadure; O. Raux; P. Gaudard; M. Sagintaah; R. Troncin; A. Rochette; X. Capdevila

2004-01-01

3

Comparison of the Three-in-One and Fascia lliaca Compartment Blocks in Adults: Clinical and Radiographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-in-1 (Group 1) and fascia iliaca compartment (Group 2) blocks, two single-injection, anterior ap- proach procedures used to simultaneously block the femoral, obturator, and lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC) nerves, were compared in 100 adults after lower limb surgery. Pain control, sensory and motor blockades, and radiographically visualized spread of local anes- thetic solution were studied prospectively. Both ap- proaches

X. Capdevila; M. Bouregba; Y. Barthelet; J. Rubenovitch; F. d'Athis

4

Prehospital administered fascia iliaca compartment block by emergency medical service nurses, a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with a proximal femur fracture are often difficult to evacuate from the accident scene. Prehospital pain management for this vulnerable group of patients may be challenging. Multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy and increased age may limit the choice of suitable analgesics. The fascia iliaca compartment (FIC) block may be an alternative to intravenous analgesics. However this peripheral nerve block is mainly applied by physicians. In the Netherlands, prehospital emergency care is mostly provided by EMS-nurses. Therefore we examined whether well-trained EMS-nurses are able to successfully perform a FIC block in order to ensure timely and appropriate effective analgesia. The study was study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR-nr 3824). Methods Ten EMS nurses were educated in the performance of a FIC-block. Indications, technique, side-effects and complications were discussed. Hereafter the trained EMS-nurses staffed ambulance teams were dispatched to patients with a suspicion for a proximal femur fracture. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the block was performed and 0.3 ml/kg lidocaine (10 mg/ml) with adrenaline 5 ?g/ml was injected. The quality of pain relief, occurrence of complications and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results In 108 patients a block was performed. One hundred patients could be included. Every EMS nurse performed at least 10 FIC blocks. The block was effective in 96 patients. The initial median (NRS)-pain score decreased after block performance to a score of 6 (after 10 minutes), 4 (after 20 minutes) and 3 (after 30 minutes). At arrival at the Emergency Department the median pain score was 3. Dynamic NRS-pain scores when transferring the patient from the accident scene to the ambulance stretcher, during transportation to the hospital and when transferring the patient to a hospital bed were, 4, 3 and 3.5 respectively. Patient satisfaction was very high. No complications were noted. Conclusion Additional educated EMS-nurses are able to successfully perform a FIC-block for providing acute pain relief to patients with a suspected proximal femur fracture. PMID:24957807

2014-01-01

5

The Efficacy of Continuous Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block for Pain Management in Burn Patients Undergoing Skin Grafting Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative pain from split skin donor sites is often more intense than the pain at the grafted site. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study we as- sessed the efficacy of a continuous fascia iliaca compart- ment block (FICB) in reducing the pain at the thigh do- nor site. Twenty patients, with a total burn surface area of 16% 13% (mean

Olivier Cuignet; Jean Pirson; Jenna Boughrouph; Diane Duville

2004-01-01

6

[Psoas haematoma due to irritation of the psoas tendon].  

PubMed

Irritation of the tendon of the musculus iliopsoas after total hip replacement is a rare complication. In connection with the irritation of the iliopsoas tendon only one case report of a psoas haematoma due to anticoagulation has been published. We assume that these kinds of haematomas are more frequent than described. We report on 2 cases of haematoma caused by an iliopsoas impingement after total hip replacement. In one case a lesion of the femoral nerve was observed. Surgical treatment was composed of the revision of the acetabular component. PMID:24129721

Lausmann, C; Mathonia, P; Plötz, W

2013-10-01

7

Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations. PMID:25309762

Gharaibeh, Kamel A.; Yousuf, Tauqeer

2014-01-01

8

Psoas muscle infiltration masquerading distant adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations. PMID:25309762

Gharaibeh, Kamel A; Lopez-Ruiz, Arnaldo; Yousuf, Tauqeer

2014-01-01

9

Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia. Aim: To test the hypothesis that, adding dexamethasone would significantly prolong the duration of Bupivacaine in FICB. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 80 years posted for ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) of fracture femur were included to receive FICB. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind study done at tertiary medical college hospital. Thirty patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml saline and another 30 patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml dexamethasone (8mg). Thirty minutes after FICB, patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anesthesia was recorded. In the post-operative period, duration of analgesia and the total doses of rescue analgesics were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients who received Bupivacaine with dexamethasone had significant prolongation of analgesia and required fewer doses of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone for FICB. However, the onset of analgesia, VAS scores and patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study shows that adding Dexamethasone (8mg) to Bupivacaine for FICB significantly prolonged the duration of block and decreased the requirement of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone. FICB is relatively easy and safe to perform. In our study we did not encounter any complication while doing the procedures and also by adding dexamethasone. PMID:25302209

Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

2014-01-01

10

Primary psoas abscess due to Streptococcus milleri  

PubMed Central

Primary Psoas abscess (PPA) is an infrequent clinical entity with obscure pathogenesis and vague clinical presentation. High index of clinical suspicion is required for the diagnosis of psoas abscess. We also emphasises the importance of bacteriological confirmation of microorganism involved, although Staphylococcus aureus remains the commonest pathogen. We report an extremely rare case of PPA caused by Streptococcus milleri. Only one case has been reported in literature so far. PMID:18302782

Bagul, Nitin B; Abeysekara, Abeywardana MS; Jacob, Sabu

2008-01-01

11

Pyogenic psoas abscess: Worldwide variations in etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle results from primary suppuration or direct extension of intraabdominal infection. The etiology varies with the country of origin. Our experience with 9 cases prompted a review of 367 cases from the world literature. A total of 286 primary abscesses occurred mainly in developing nations (200 cases), although 74 were reported from the United States.

Michael A. Ricci; Frederick B. Rose; Kenneth K. Meyer

1986-01-01

12

Pott's Spine with Bilateral Psoas Abscesses  

PubMed Central

A high degree of suspicion and appropriate imaging studies are required for the early diagnosis of Pott's spine. We describe a 4-year-old boy with Pott's disease of the lumbar spine with bilateral psoas abscesses. The child responded to conservative treatment with antituberculous treatment and ultrasonographically guided percutaneous drainage of the abscesses. PMID:23259114

Masavkar, Sanjeevani; Shanbag, Preeti; Inamdar, Prithi

2012-01-01

13

A psoas abscess caused by Propionibacterium propionicum.  

PubMed

Pelvic actinomycosis-like disease due to Propionibacterium propionicum has been very rare and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We herein report a probable first case of a psoas abscess caused by P. propionicum. Since P. propionicum is indistinguishable from Actinomyces israelii by morphological features or routine biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was useful to discriminate these two species in this case. PMID:25129856

Yonetani, Shota; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Araki, Koji; Hiroi, Megumi; Takagi, Yasushi; Ichimura, Shoichi; Watanabe, Takashi

2014-10-01

14

Outcome of percutaneous continuous drainage of psoas abscess: A clinically guided technique  

PubMed Central

Background: Percutaneous aspiration of abscesses under ultrasonography (USG) and computer tomography (CT) scan has been well described. With recurrence rate reported as high as 66%. The open drainage and percutaneous continuous drainage (PCD) has reduced the recurrence rate. The disadvantage of PCD under CT is radiation hazard and problems of asepsis. Hence a technique of clinically guided percutaneous continuous drainage of the psoas abscess without real-time imaging overcomes these problems. We describe clinically guided PCD of psoas abscess and its outcome. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with dorsolumbar spondylodiscitis without gross neural deficit with psoas abscess of size >5 cm were selected for PCD. It was done as a day care procedure under local anesthesia. Sequentially, aspiration followed by guide pin-guided trocar and catheter insertion was done without image guidance. Culture sensitivity was done and chemotherapy initiated and catheter kept till the drainage was <10 ml for 48 hours. Outcome assessment was done with relief of pain, successful abscess drainage and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) score at 2 years. Results: PCD was successful in all cases. Back and radicular pain improved in all cases. Average procedure time was 24.30 minutes, drain output was 234.40 ml, and the drainage duration was 7.90 days. One patient required surgical stabilisation due to progression of the spondylodiscitis resulting in instability inspite of successful drainage of abscess. Problems with the procedure were noticed in six patients. Multiple attempts (n = 2), persistent discharge (n = 1) for 2 weeks, blocked catheter (n = 2) and catheter pull out (n = 1) occurred with no effect on the outcome. The average ODI score improved from 62.47 to 5.51 at 2 years. Conclusions: Clinically guided PCD is an efficient, safe and easy procedure in drainage of psoas abscess. PMID:24600066

Dave, Bharat R; Kurupati, Ranganatha Babu; Shah, Dipak; Degulamadi, Devanand; Borgohain, Nitu; Krishnan, Ajay

2014-01-01

15

Compartment syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

1989-01-01

16

Psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Psoas abscesses are classified into primary or secondary according to infectious etiology. However, the psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection is very rare. Here we report a case of psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection in a young woman. The disease was treated successfully. A literature review of psoas abscess in relation to its etiology, identification, and difficulties in the treatment is also presented.

Chen, Qian; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong

2014-01-01

17

The psoas muscle as cause of low back pain in infantile cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Psoas muscle spasticity is hypothesised as a rare cause of low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy. The authors describe a new manoeuvre for the study of psoas tenderness and ultrasound (US)-guided transabdominal botulinum toxin injection technique. A possible causal relationship between psoas tension and low back pain was found incidentally in two examined cases. In subsequent patients, botulinum toxin was injected and, in cases of disappearance of symptoms, the psoas tendon was sectioned at the pelvic brim with definitive disappearance of pain. The relationship between psoas tension and low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy seems likely, given the result in the four patients. PMID:19384481

Camoriano, R.; Valle, M.; Boero, S.

2008-01-01

18

Eggerthella lenta Bacteremia Complicated by Spondylodiscitis, Psoas Abscess, and Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Eggerthella lenta bacteremia is uncommon and generally associated with abdominal sepsis. The organism and its clinical significance have not been well characterized due to historical difficulties with identification. We report a case of severe infection in a paraplegic man complicated by psoas abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis and discuss treatment challenges. PMID:24430458

Korman, T. M.; Junckerstorff, R. K.

2014-01-01

19

The psoas muscle as cause of low back pain in infantile cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoas muscle spasticity is hypothesised as a rare cause of low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy. The authors\\u000a describe a new manoeuvre for the study of psoas tenderness and ultrasound (US)-guided transabdominal botulinum toxin injection\\u000a technique. A possible causal relationship between psoas tension and low back pain was found incidentally in two examined cases.\\u000a In subsequent patients,

G. Marrè-Brunenghi; R. Camoriano; M. Valle; S. Boero

2008-01-01

20

Appendicitis with psoas abscess successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery  

PubMed Central

Although acute appendicitis is a common disease, retroperitoneal abscesses are rarely observed. Here, we report a case consisting of a psoas abscess and cutaneous fistula caused by appendicitis. The patient was a 56-year-old male who was introduced to our institution due to an intractable right psoas abscess. Imaging tests had been performed over the previous 3 years; however, clinicians could not find the origin of the abscess and failed to resolve the problem. A successful operation was performed via a laparoscopic approach, and 17 mo have passed without recurrence. The advantage of laparoscopic surgery is well understood in cases of appendicitis with abscesses. However, the indication for laparoscopic approach is not clear for retroperitoneal abscesses. From our experience, we can conclude that appendicitis with retroperitoneal abscesses can be managed and treated using a laparoscopic approach. PMID:25009411

Otowa, Yasunori; Sumi, Yasuo; Kanaji, Shingo; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

21

Appendicitis with psoas abscess successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

Although acute appendicitis is a common disease, retroperitoneal abscesses are rarely observed. Here, we report a case consisting of a psoas abscess and cutaneous fistula caused by appendicitis. The patient was a 56-year-old male who was introduced to our institution due to an intractable right psoas abscess. Imaging tests had been performed over the previous 3 years; however, clinicians could not find the origin of the abscess and failed to resolve the problem. A successful operation was performed via a laparoscopic approach, and 17 mo have passed without recurrence. The advantage of laparoscopic surgery is well understood in cases of appendicitis with abscesses. However, the indication for laparoscopic approach is not clear for retroperitoneal abscesses. From our experience, we can conclude that appendicitis with retroperitoneal abscesses can be managed and treated using a laparoscopic approach. PMID:25009411

Otowa, Yasunori; Sumi, Yasuo; Kanaji, Shingo; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

2014-07-01

22

Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization  

PubMed Central

Background Minimally invasive lateral approaches to the lumbar spine have been adopted to allow access to the intervertebral disc space while avoiding the complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches. This report describes a minimally invasive technique for lateral lumbar interbody fusion LLIF that allows direct intraoperative visualization of the psoas and surrounding neurovasculature (DV-LIF). Methods The technique utilizes a radiolucent tubular retractor and a secondary psoas retractor that allows a muscle-sparing approach while offering excellent visualization of the operative site. The unique advantage of this procedure is that the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves can be directly visualized intraoperatively to supplement neuromonitoring. We retrospectively reviewed complication rates in 34 patients treated with DV-LLIF (n?=?19) or standard lateral lumbar interbody fusion (S-LLIF, n?=?15). Results There were 29 complications (median: 1 per patient) with DV-LLIF and 20 (median: 1 per patient) complications with S-LLIF. Postoperative sensory deficits were reported in eight (42%) and seven (47%) patients, respectively. Thigh pain or numbness was reported in eight (42%) and five (33%) patients, respectively. The percentage of the overall complications directly attributable to the procedure was 69% with DV-LLIF and 83% with S-LLIF. One severe complication (back pain) was reported in one DV-LLIF patient and four severe complications (severe bleeding, respiratory failure, deep venous thrombosis and gastrointestinal prophylaxis, and nicked renal vein and aborted procedure) were reported in two S-LLIF patients. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization may reduce the risk for severe procedural complications. PMID:24666669

2014-01-01

23

[Psoas abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis: presentation of a case].  

PubMed

The psoas abscess is an entity of infrequent occurrence in daily clinical practice. Many pathogens have been related with the genesis of this focal infections, but it can be said nowadays that the Staphylococcus aureus is more often involved in them. We present the case of a male aged 26, with a culture of purulent drained material, where Salmonella enteritidis, a microorganism of exceptional presentation in this pathology, was isolde. Moreover, some hypothesis have been proposed about the possible physiopathology and the current state of the diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in these processes is revised. PMID:8924551

Torres Cortada, G; López Orenes, L; Vasco Rodríguez, M A; Albasanz Olaortua, J A; Varas Lorenzo, M; Robres Puig, J

1995-09-01

24

Psoas Abscess as a Complication of Pyogenic Sacroiliitis: Report of a Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psoas abscess is, either primary or secondary, a rare entity for a general surgeon. Images by ultrasonography and computed\\u000a tomography (CT) can help a general surgeon to make an accurate diagnosis when encountering the patient complaining of unilateral\\u000a lower abdominal deep pain with fever. A case of pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle as a result of sacroiliitis in

Semih Gorgulu; Mahmut Komurcu; Emir Silit; Izzet Kocak

2002-01-01

25

Exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome should be considered in any runner experiencing exertional leg pain. Runners typically describe a tight, cramping ache over the involved compartment that commences at a reproducible point in the run and resolves with rest. Diagnosis should include a careful history and physical examination as well as documentation with intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring. Milder cases will resolve with activity modification and conservative care. More severe cases or those failing conservative care are referred for fasciotomy. PMID:20610031

Wilder, Robert P; Magrum, Eric

2010-07-01

26

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is defined as reversible ischemia within a closed fibro-osseous space, which leads to decreased tissue perfusion and ischemic pain. It is a recurrent problem seen most commonly in athletes. Diagnosis is based upon clinical examination, as well as measurement of compartment pressures. Conservative treatment has been attempted with moderate success if targeting associated and contributing factors;

Christopher A. George; Mark R. Hutchinson

27

Appropriately placed surface EMG electrodes reflect deep muscle activity (psoas, quadratus lumborum, abdominal wall) in the lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the possibility of obtaining the activity of deeper muscles in the torso—specifically psoas, quadratus lumborum, external oblique, internal oblique and transverse abdominis, using surfce myoelectric electrodes. It was hypothesized that: (1) surface electrodes adequately represent the amplitude of deep muscles (specifically psoas, quadratus lumborum, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis); (2) a single surface electrode location would

Stuart McGill; Daniel Juker; Peter Kropf

1996-01-01

28

Traitement de l'abcès primitif à pyogène du muscle psoas : étude rétrospective à propos de 18 cas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primitive abcess of psoas muscle is a rare affection which involves mainly the young. The autors report 18 cases of primitive pyogenic abcess of psoas collected during a period of six years in the urology service of UHC Ibn Rochd Casablanca. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different therapeutic attitudes. The study concerned 11 men and

Z Dahami; I Sarf; M Dakir; R Aboutaieb; S Bennani; M Elmrini; S Benjelloun

2001-01-01

29

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively common, but often overlooked cause of leg pain in athletes. A careful history and physical examination is essential in the diagnosis of CECS. Affected individuals have recurrent, activity-related leg pain that recurs at a consistent duration or intensity and is only relieved by rest. Measurement of baseline and postexercise compartment pressures confirms the diagnosis and helps in the planning of treatment. Surgical treatment with fasciotomy of the involved compartments is successful in allowing patients to return to full activity levels. With surgical treatment, it is critical to address all affected compartments as well as releasing any fascial defects, both of which may cause recurrent symptoms if neglected. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment, excellent outcomes can be achieved and allow athletes to return to full, unrestricted activity levels. PMID:22341019

George, Christopher A; Hutchinson, Mark R

2012-04-01

30

Atraumatic painless compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome is a time-sensitive diagnosis and surgical emergency because it poses a threat to life and the limbs. It is defined by Matsen et al (Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1978;147(6):943–949) as "a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the tissues within that space." The most common cause of compartment syndrome is traumatic injury. A variety of other conditions such as vascular injuries, bleeding disorders, thrombosis, fasciitis, gas gangrene, rhabdomyolysis, prolonged limb compression, cellulitis, and nephrotic syndrome may also cause compartment syndrome. Patients who are elderly, have preexisting nerve damage, or have psychopathology may have an atypical presentation. This case highlights the first report of a 75-year-old woman who developed painless bilateral compartment syndrome in the absence of traumatic injury. PMID:24041642

Blanchard, Scott; Griffin, Gregory D; Simon, Erin L

2013-12-01

31

Compartment effects in hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Compartment effects in hemodialysis are important because they reduce the efficiency of removal of the compartmentalized solute during dialysis. The dialyzer can only remove those waste products that are presented to it, and then only in proportion to the concentration of the solute in the blood. Classically a two-compartment system has been modeled, with the compartments arranged in series. Because modeling suggests that the sequestered compartment is larger than the accessible compartment, an assumption has been made that the sequestered compartment is the intracellular space. For urea and other solutes that move easily across many cell membranes, compartmentalization may be flow related, that is, related to sequestration in organs (muscle, skin, bone). Although mathematically urea rebound and mass balance can be described with either model, the flow-related model best explains data showing that urea rebound after dialysis is increased during ultrafiltration, diminished during high cardiac output states, and also reduced during exercise. Whether compartmentalization is increased in vasoconstricted intensive care unit patients receiving acute dialysis remains an open question. PMID:11489202

Schneditz, D; Daugirdas, J T

2001-01-01

32

Sterile epidural and bilateral psoas abscesses in a patient with Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Crohn's disease primarily affects the distal gastrointestinal tract, yet it is a systemic disease that can involve nearly any organ. A psoas abscess complicating Crohn's disease is uncommon and usually originates from a fistulous communication with an adherent bowel. Spinal epidural abscess, an extremely rare complication, also appears to arise by fistulization from another organ involved with Crohn's disease. Previous reports indicate that abscesses in these two areas usually contain bacterial organisms, often mixed flora, consistent with seeding from a diseased bowel. This report represents the first case of Crohn's disease complicated by both bilateral sterile psoas abscesses and a coexistent sterile epidural abscess without evidence of a fistulous communication from the bowel. We report this case because psoas and epidural abscesses can present without typical signs and symptoms. Once suspected, aggressive diagnostic workup and definitive operative intervention is indicated. Failure to promptly diagnose and treat these abscesses may result in considerable morbidity. PMID:8017369

Lamport, R D; Cheskin, L J; Moscatello, S A; Nikoomanesh, P

1994-07-01

33

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteremia without endocarditis associated with psoas abscess: the first case report in Thailand.  

PubMed

The authors report a patient with a rare manifestation of invasive septic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection without endocardial involvement. Our patient presented with progressive paraparesis and subacute fever for ten days. He had underlying diabetes mellitus and alcoholic cirrhosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine showed a psoas abscess with vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis at level of L23 of the lumbar spine. His blood culture grew E. rhusiopathiae. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated normal endocardium. Surgical drainage and debridement with concomitant intravenous antibiotics administration resulted in clinical improvement, including neurological status. MRI showed resolution of the psoas abscess and osteomyelitis. Erysipelothrix infection should be considered as a causative pathogen of musculoskeletal infection in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of psoas abscess caused by E. rhusiopathiae in Thailand. PMID:24772603

Upapan, Prasit; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

2014-03-01

34

[Psoas major abscess by heroin addictive patients--a case report].  

PubMed

Drug abuse is related to many medical complications, which depend on the drug type, dose injected, the method of delivery and site of injection. We report a case of psoas abscess in young heroin addict, HIV negative, who was admitted in Emergency Center of Clinical Center in Belgrade because of fever, anaemia, prostration and right groin pain. Clinical and radiological examination were performed. CT showed large abscess of the right psoas muscle, 12 x 4 cm large. Treatment included percutaneous drainage and administration of iv antibiotics. There is regression of inflamation. At discharge patient was in good condition without signs of infection. PMID:22369030

Bumbasirevi?, Marko Z; Zagorac, Slavisa G; Lesi?, Aleksandar R; Bumbasirevic, Vesna; Durasi?, Ljubomir M

2011-01-01

35

The Effects of Psoas Major and Lumbar Lordosis on Hip Flexion and Sprint Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were…

Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

2012-01-01

36

Consistency in size and asymmetry of the psoas major muscle among elite footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle across multiple vertebral levels, to examine any asymmetry of the PM muscle and investigate the consistency across vertebral levels, and to determine whether a relationship exists between low back pain (LBP) and the size or asymmetry of the PM muscle among elite Australian

S. Stewart; W. Stanton; S. Wilson; J. Hides

2010-01-01

37

Psoas abscess communicating to an implanted hip due to delayed hematogenous tuberculosis arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a rare case of an 75-year-old female patient who had had a Mueller cemented total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Eight years after implantation of the THA the patient developed a hematogenous TB arthritis in the already implanted hip. During the revision operation the infected hip was found to communicate with the ipsilateral psoas muscle sheath through a

P. Korovessis; M. Stamatakis; M. Repanti

1997-01-01

38

[Chronic exertional compartment syndrome].  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon first reported in the mid 50's. This condition is characterized by sharp pain during physical activity, causing reduction in activity frequency or intensity and even abstention. This syndrome is caused by elevation of the intra-compartmental pressure which leads to decreased tissue perfusion, thus ischemic damage to the tissue ensues. Chronic exertional syndrome is usually related to repetitive physical activity, usually in young people and athletes. The physical activity performed by the patient causes a rise in intra-compartmental pressure and thereby causes pain. The patient discontinues the activity and the pain subsides within minutes of rest. Chronic exertional syndrome is reported to occur in the thigh, shoulder, arm, hand, foot and gluteal region, but most commonly in the leg, especially the anterior compartment. The diagnosis of chronic exertional syndrome is primarily based on patients' medical history, supported by intramuscular pressure measurement of the specific compartment involved. Treatment of chronic exertional syndrome, especially the anterior and lateral compartment of the leg is mainly by surgery i.e. fasciotomy. If the patient is reluctant to undergo a surgical procedure, the conservative treatment is based on abstention from the offending activity, changing footwear or using arch support. However, the conservative approach is not as successful as surgical treatment. PMID:24450036

Rom, Eyal; Tenenbaum, Shay; Chechick, Ofir; Burstein, Gideon; Amit, Yehuda; Thein, Ran

2013-10-01

39

[Chronic relapsing compartment syndrome].  

PubMed

Chronic relapsing exertional compartment syndrome is not only found in young athletic subjects. Non-athletic patients can also suffer from exercise dependent pain in the lower limb. The syndrome is defined by increased tissue pressure in between a closed osteo-fibrous space resulting in disturbed microcirculation and finally irreversible neuroischemic damage. Pain increases during running and disappears gradually at rest. The diagnosis is based on the typical symptoms and so far on the pre-, 1 and 5 min post exercise intramuscular pressure measurement. We first describe sonographic criteria induced by increased compartment pressure, especially for the most frequent anterior compartment syndrome with compression of the deep veins, increased movement of arterial wall and finally enddiastolic closure of the anterior tibial artery. Duplex ultrasound also provides pathogenetic factors like popliteal and anterior entrapment, stenosis or hypoplasia of the anterior tibial artery or thrombosis of the deep muscle veins. Many patients are reporting a pain history over years, resulting in complete reduction of their sporting activity. The knowledge about pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and therapy should help shorten the negative impact of the syndrome on their quality of life. PMID:19347380

Stiegler, H; Brandl, R; Krettek, C

2009-04-01

40

Myositis ossificans circumscripta of the psoas muscle due to overuse in an adolescent gymnast.  

PubMed

Myositis ossificans is a pseudoinflammatory tumour that originates from skeletal muscle and corresponds to a heterotopic, metaplastic, nonmalignant bone tumour. The purpose of this article is to report the case of myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC) of the psoas muscle due to overuse in an adolescent gymnast. A 16-year-old female athlete presented at our outpatient orthopaedic clinic for evaluation of a 1-month history of low back pain. Initial plain radiographs were initially interpreted as negative, and laboratory values were normal. MRI imaging demonstrated a circumscribed mass with associated oedema in the psoas muscle. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy was performed and histology confirmed the diagnosis of MOC. Conservative treatment was initiated with rest and anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin). The patient had a resolution of pain and function after 3 months of conservative treatment. At 6 months' follow-up, MRI demonstrated complete resolution of the lesion and she gradually returned to her sports activity. At last follow-up she was asymptomatic. MOC is a rare lesion in the paediatric-adolescent population. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MOC in the psoas muscle produced by overuse. MRI is very sensitive in detecting oedema during the acute phase of the lesion. Conservative treatment should be considered, especially at the early stage of the disease. Spontaneous resolution can be expected in most cases. PMID:25171567

Masquijo, Julio Javier; Sartori, Federico

2014-11-01

41

Endoscopic compartment release for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a condition that typically fails conservative management and requires a fasciotomy for the patient to return to activity. Fasciotomies performed through single or multiple incisions may fail to fully release the fascia of the afflicted compartment(s) and also may result in injury to neurovascular structures that cannot be visualized. Endoscopic assistance may minimize the intraoperative and postoperative complications associated with compartment release and offer improved cosmesis. This article describes an endoscopically assisted technique using a balloon dissector designed to address the shortcomings of open and semi-blind techniques. PMID:18549745

Wittstein, Jocelyn; Moorman, Claude T; Levin, L Scott

2008-01-01

42

Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess. The isolate tested susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to nalidixic acid in vitro, a pattern associated with fluoroquinolone therapeutic failures. We review the literature for serovar Typhi psoas abscess in the absence of bacteremia and discuss the importance of identifying isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMID:15695728

Shakespeare, William A; Davie, Daniel; Tonnerre, Claude; Rubin, Michael A; Strong, Michael; Petti, Cathy A

2005-02-01

43

Ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis type 1 with bilateral psoas muscle neurofibromas: a case report  

PubMed Central

The most common gastrointestinal involvement in neurofibromatosis is due to tumoral lesions which may present with gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. We report a case of concurrent ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis. A 39 year-old woman, known case of neurofibromatosis, was admitted to our department with complaint of chronic bloody diarrhea. After thorough clinical examination and paraclinical assessments, including colonoscopy and biopsy, ulcerative colitis was confirmed as the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Another rare finding in this patient was bilateral neurofibroma in psoas muscle that was detected on abdominal spiral Computer Tomography scan. PMID:21772893

Tavakkoli, Hamid; Asadi, Mehrnaz; Mahzouni, Parvin; Foroozmehr, Abdolali

2009-01-01

44

36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192...Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible...

2010-07-01

45

36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192...Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible...

2011-07-01

46

36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192...Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible...

2013-07-01

47

36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192...Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible...

2012-07-01

48

Ultrasonographic measurement of tendon displacement caused by active force generation in the psoas major muscle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of using ultrasonography for detecting the force generated by the psoas major muscle, a muscle positioned in the deep trunk. We measured the displacement of central tendon on B-mode ultrasound images of two different longitudinal sections of the muscle during passive hip flexion-extension and isometric hip flexion at varied hip angles. In both tasks, the values of tendon displacement obtained independently from each section coincided well, indicating that tendon displacement took place along a straight trajectory, i.e., close to the nodal line between two scanned planes. It was strongly correlated with both the hip angle (R(2) = 0.98) and the hip-flexion torque (R(2) = 0.83). In the second set of experiment, we measured the tendon displacement during dynamic movements with the combination of ultrasonography and VICON-based motion analysis. From the tendon displacement during dynamic thigh lifting and walking, the force generated by the muscle could be estimated by extracting the force-related component. These results indicate that ultrasonography of the psoas major muscle can measure the displacement of its central tendon accompanied with either length change of the muscle or the elongation of tendon. Although much attention has to be paid to the limitations of this methodology, ultrasonography may be useful for detecting the force generation of the muscle during a variety of dynamic movements. PMID:18840323

Matsubayashi, Takeo; Kubo, Junjiro; Matsuo, Akifumi; Kobayashi, Kando; Ishii, Naokata

2008-10-01

49

[Treatment of primary pyogenic abscess of the psoas: retrospective study of 18 cases].  

PubMed

The primitive abcess of psoas muscle is a rare affection which involves mainly the young. The authors report 18 cases of primitive pyogenic abcess of psoas collected during a period of six years in the urology service of UHC Ibn Rochd Casablanca. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different therapeutic attitudes. The study concerned 11 men and seven women, their mean age was 35 years. The mean delay of evolution was 45 days. The physical exam found a psoitisis (five cases) and a flunk swelling (14 cases). The ultrasound exam showed the collection which was hypoechogenic in seven cases and heterogenous in 11 cases. The CT scan showed an heterogenouse hypodense collection without enhansment in seven cases. The use of antibiotherapy alone (four cases) and percutaneous drainage (four cases) permitted the recovery just respectively in one and two cases. Fifteen patients (83%) were operated through a postero-lateral lumbotomy route without costal resection. The bacteriological exam of the pus found a Staphylococcis aureus (ten cases) and Escherichia coli (two cases). The evolution was favorable in 14 cases; one patient was dead at fifth day post operatively by heart infarction. For the authors, the surgical drainage remains the treatment of choice. PMID:11774765

Dahami, Z; Sarf, I; Dakir, M; Aboutaieb, R; Bennani, S; Elmrini, M; Benjelloun, S

2001-11-01

50

Endoscopic Compartment Release for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

Knight, Justin R.; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

2013-01-01

51

Endoscopic compartment release for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

Knight, Justin R; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

2013-05-01

52

Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

2012-01-01

53

[Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus].  

PubMed

Diffuse tropical primary pyomyositis is an infrequent entity in our country, with few cases associated to community-acquired Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There are no reported cases of Community-Acquired Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA) in Peru. We present the case of a 70 year old male with a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving irregular treatment, who was admitted to the hospital with a history of 10 days of low back pain radiating to the left leg, fever and forced flexion of the right hip due to pain during movement. The diagnosis of diffuse pyomyositis of both psoas muscles was performed with MRI and culture of a posterior paravertebral collection, from which Staphylococcus aureus resistant to oxacillin, penicillin and dicloxacillin was isolated. PMID:22510919

Ticse, Ray; Melgarejo, Weymar; Fuentes-Dávila, Alfredo; Ortíz, Jesús; Zegarra, Jaime

2012-03-01

54

Psoas muscle metastasis from cervical carcinoma: Correlation and comparison of diagnostic features on FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Psoas muscle metastasis, though rare, is the commonest site of skeletal muscle involvement in cervical carcinoma. The appropriate clinical management of this condition, particularly of the pain related to malignant psoas syndrome, is still evolving and the diagnostic features on conventional morphological imaging modalities are often non specific, with the differential diagnosis lying between sarcoma, hematoma, and abscess. In this report, a comparison of various morphofunctional imaging modalities was made. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) was the first to suspect disease involvement of the psoas muscle, demonstrating intense FDG uptake (compared with the contralateral muscle), while ultrasound showed heterogeneous echotexture, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed subtle altered signal intensity in the right psoas muscle. Both anatomical imaging modalities and non contrast CT of the PET-CT examination demonstrated a bulky psoas muscle, without any focal abnormality. On diffusion-weighted imaging of MRI (DWI-MRI), restricted diffusion of the involved muscle was an important observation. The psoas muscle metastatic involvement was proven histopathologically. Thus, enhanced glucose metabolism and restricted diffusion in the newer non-invasive molecular imaging modalities (e.g., PET/CT and DWI-MRI) could serve as valuable adjunctive parameters in diagnosing this entity in the absence of a focal abnormality in the anatomical modalities. In the treatment response monitoring scenario, FDG-PET/CT demonstrated near complete resolution following administration of 3 cycles of systemic chemotherapy and local external radiotherapy. PMID:24778775

Basu, Sandip; Mahajan, Abhishek

2014-01-01

55

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

56

Colour stability of bovine Longissimus and Psoas major muscle as affected by electrical stimulation and hot boning.  

PubMed

From eight electrically stimulated and eight non-stimulated cows the righthand-side longissimus and psoas major muscles were hot boned within 1 1 2 h post mortem, vacuum packaged and chilled and storred at 1±1°C. Immediately after slaughter, the lefthand carcass-sides were blast-chilled for 1 1 2 h and subsequently chilled at 1±1°C until the following day. After cold boning, the longissimus and psoas major muscle were packaged, chilled and stored as the hot boned muscles. After 12 days of storage, steaks, cut from the primals, were displayed at 1±1°C under continuous illumination (300-400 lx). Colour measurements after 0, 2 and 4 days of display revealed a significant (p<0·10) effect of time of boning on non-stimulated psoas major muscle (lower values for a (?), b (?) values, chroma and %R630-%R580). Significant effects of electrical stimulation were not observed. Changes in hue tended to be more pronounced when the meat had been stimulated. Changes in chroma were largest (p<0·10) is non-stimulated, hot boned psoas muscle. Analysis of variances showed that in the longissimus muscle significant effects (p<0·10) of time boning and electrical stimulation were present. The effect of time of boning was often influenced by the use of electrical stimulation. Changes in hue and chroma indicated that hot boned samples had a higher colour stability than cold boned controls, especially when the carcasses had not been stimulated electrically. The observed differences in colour stability were rather small in all treatment groups and are not expected to present any practical merchandising problem. PMID:22055575

van Laack, R L; Smulders, F J

1990-01-01

57

The Orbital Workshop Sleep Compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This wide-angle view is of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) sleep compartment, located in the lower level of the OWS. Each crewman was assigned a small space for sleeping and zipped themselves into sleeping bags stretched against the wall. Because of the absence of gravity, sleeping comfort was achieved in any position relative to the spacecraft; body support was not necessary. Sleeping could be accommodated quite comfortably in a bag that held the body at a given place in Skylab.

1972-01-01

58

Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

59

36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.  

...COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be...

2014-07-01

60

Recurrent compartment syndrome after open tibial fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrence of compartment syndrome after surgical decompression is rare. We report a case where this occurred after open tibial\\u000a fracture.\\u000a \\u000a A compartment syndrome is a clinical condition in which increased interstitial pressure in a closed osseofascial compartment\\u000a results in microvascular compromise and possible myoneural damage. Compartment syndrome following open tibial fracture has\\u000a been shown to occur with an incidence between

R. U. Ashford; H. S. Plaha; D. H. Thakkar

2000-01-01

61

Endoscopic Compartment Release for Chronic Exertional Compartment SyndromeSurgical Technique and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an entity that typically fails nonoperative management and requires operative treatment with fasciotomies for return to activity. Fasciotomies performed through single or multiple incisions may fail to totally release the fascia of the afflicted compartment(s) and may result in injury to neurovascular structures that cannot be visualized.Purpose: The authors report results of endoscopic compartment

Jocelyn Wittstein; Claude T. Moorman; L. Scott Levin

2010-01-01

62

Stochastic Calculus of Wrapped Compartments  

E-print Network

The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a variant of the Calculus of Looping Sequences (CLS). While keeping the same expressiveness, CWC strongly simplifies the development of automatic tools for the analysis of biological systems. The main simplification consists in the removal of the sequencing operator, thus lightening the formal treatment of the patterns to be matched in a term (whose complexity in CLS is strongly affected by the variables matching in the sequences). We define a stochastic semantics for this new calculus. As an application we model the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic neutrophils and a mechanism of gene regulation in E.Coli.

Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.6

2010-01-01

63

Rigor tension development in glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers at high salt concentrations.  

PubMed

We attempted to measure the rigor tension development by glycerinated fibers of rabbit psoas at high salt concentrations such as 0.5 M KCl. The measurements were made feasible by covalently crosslinking the rod-portion of thick filaments in the fibers in the rigor state with a water-soluble carbodiimide (EDC) so that the thick filaments are not dissolved even at 0.5 M KCl. EDC crosslinks, though with much a slower rate, the myosin cross-bridge heads to the thin filaments. At high salt concentrations, the fibers developed no active tension but developed rigor tension when they were put into a rigor solution from a contracting or relaxing solution. Removal of only Mg++ from a MgATP-containing solution induced similar rigor tension development. The magnitude of the rigor tension was proportional to the fraction of the cross-bridge heads that were crosslinked to the thin filaments. The results suggest that the rigor tension at high salt concentrations is generated by structural changes in the cross-bridge heads that are crosslinked to the thin filaments, when these heads release MgATP or Mg++ (with ATP retained) from their active sites, but not generated by re-formation of the rigor complexes of uncrosslinked myosin heads with the thin filaments. Extrapolation to 100% crosslinked heads gave an estimate of the rigor tension development of more than 1 kg wt/cm2 at high salt concentrations. PMID:3407515

Tawada, K; Emoto, Y

1988-01-01

64

Hamstring and psoas length of crouch gait in cerebral palsy: a comparison with induced crouch gait in age- and sex-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait. Methods Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait. Results No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.456) lengths of patients and controls mimicking crouch gait. However, patients showed significantly shorter excursions of hamstring (p=0.022) and psoas (p=0.036) muscles than controls, whereas no significant excursion differences were observed between controls during normal gait and mimicking crouch gait. Conclusions Normal controls mimicking crouch gait and cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait demonstrate similar muscle length patterns. However, mimicked crouch gait did not reproduce the excursion pattern shown by patients with crouch gait, which suggests that reduced hamstring and psoas excursion is an innate characteristic of pathologic crouch gait. PMID:23363928

2013-01-01

65

Refrigerator compartment and method for accurately controlled temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combined refrigerator-freezer of the type including a compartmented cabinet including a freezer compartment and a refrigerator compartment, a controlled temperature compartment for extended storage of perishable items and formed as a separate compartment in the cabinet comprising: means for defining a plenum chamber within the separate compartment including first and second air openings providing communication between

Frohbieter

1988-01-01

66

Kinetic mechanism of Ca²?-controlled changes of skeletal troponin I in psoas myofibrils.  

PubMed

Conformational changes in the skeletal troponin complex (sTn) induced by rapidly increasing or decreasing the [Ca(2+)] were probed by 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein covalently bound to Cys-133 of skeletal troponin I (sTnI). Kinetics of conformational changes was determined for the isolated complex and after incorporating the complex into rabbit psoas myofibrils. Isolated and incorporated sTn exhibited biphasic Ca(2+)-activation kinetics. Whereas the fast phase (k(obs)?1000 s(-1)) is only observed in this study, where kinetics were induced by Ca(2+), the slower phase resembles the monophasic kinetics of sTnI switching observed in another study (Brenner and Chalovich. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2692-2708) that investigated the sTnI switching induced by releasing the feedback of force-generating cross-bridges on thin filament activation. Therefore, the slower conformational change likely reflects the sTnI switch that regulates force development. Modeling reveals that the fast conformational change can occur after the first Ca(2+) ion binds to skeletal troponin C (sTnC), whereas the slower change requires Ca(2+) binding to both regulatory sites of sTnC. Incorporating sTn into myofibrils increased the off-rate and lowered the Ca(2+) sensitivity of sTnI switching. Comparison of switch-off kinetics with myofibril force relaxation kinetics measured in a mechanical setup indicates that sTnI switching might limit the rate of fast skeletal muscle relaxation. PMID:22995498

Lopez-Davila, A J; Elhamine, Fatiha; Ruess, D F; Papadopoulos, Simon; Iorga, Bogdan; Kulozik, F P; Zittrich, Stefan; Solzin, Johannes; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Stehle, Robert

2012-09-19

67

Herpes simplex virus replication compartments can form by coalescence of smaller compartments  

E-print Network

Herpes simplex virus replication compartments can form by coalescence of smaller compartments February 2003 Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses intranuclear compartmentalization to concentrate Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. Introduction Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a large double

Knipe, David M.

68

Chronic Exertional Compartment SyndromeThe Controversial “Fifth” Compartment of the Leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The existence of a “fifth” compartment in the leg capable of developing distinct chronic exertional compartment syndrome remains a subject of controversy.Hypothesis: Specific pressure recordings and dissection will confirm or disprove the existence of a fifth compartment. Study Design: Empirical anatomic study.Methods: Radiopaque dye was injected directly into the tibialis posterior muscle of 25 embalmed cadaveric legs while intracompartmental

Matthew Hislop; Paul Tierney; Pairic Murray; Moira OBrien; Nick Mahony

2003-01-01

69

Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons  

SciTech Connect

As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

Tolliver, J.S.

1995-12-31

70

Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

2013-01-01

71

Myofibrillar ATPase activity and mechanical performance of skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle.  

PubMed Central

1. The relationship between energy turnover and mechanical performance was investigated in chemically skinned single fibres from rabbit psoas muscle at 15 degrees C, pH = 7.1, with MgATP, 5 mM; free Mg2+, 1 mM; ionic strength, 200 mM and sarcomere length, 2.4 microns by measuring force production and myofibrillar ATP turnover during isometric contractions as well as during repetitive changes in length. ATP hydrolysis was stoichiometrically coupled to the breakdown of NADH, which was measured photometrically via the absorption of near UV light at 340 nm. 2. Force and ATPase activity were measured during square-wave length changes of different amplitudes (1-10% of the fibre length, Lo) and different frequencies (2.5-167 Hz). The average force during the length changes was less than the isometric value and decreased with increasing amplitude and frequency. At full activation (pCa 4.5), the isometric ATP turnover rate (+/- S.E.M.) was 2.30 +/- 0.05 s-1 per myosin head. ATP turnover increased monotonically with increasing amplitude as well as with increasing frequency until saturation was reached. The greatest increase observed was 2.4 times the isometric value. 3. Force and ATPase activity were also determined for ramp shortenings followed by fast restretches. The average force decreased with increasing shortening velocity in a hyperbolic fashion. The ATP turnover increased with ramp velocity up to 0.5 L0 s-1 and stayed almost constant (at 2.2 times the isometric value) for larger velocities. 4. Isometric force and ATPase activity both decreased as the calcium concentration was decreased. They did not vary in proportion at low Ca2+ concentrations, but this could largely be accounted for by the presence of a residual, Ca(2+)-dependent, membrane-bound ATPase. At high calcium concentrations ATPase activity during square-wave length changes was higher than the isometric value, but at low calcium concentrations (pCa > 6.1), the ATPase activity during the length changes decreased below the isometric value and reached a minimum of 40% of the isometric level. 5. ATPase activity and average force obtained during changes in length show a high, movement protocol-independent correlation. During the length changes the rate of ATP turnover divided by the average force level (tension cost) was larger than the isometric tension cost. The largest value found, for 10% length changes at 23 Hz, was 17 times the tension cost under isometric conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8006817

Potma, E J; Stienen, G J; Barends, J P; Elzinga, G

1994-01-01

72

Differential scanning calorimetry study of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibres in intermediate state of ATP hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal denaturation experiments were extended to study the thermal behaviour of the main motor proteins (actin and myosin) in their native environment in striated muscle fibres. The interaction of actin with myosin in the highly organized muscle structure is affected by internal forces; therefore their altered conformation and interaction may differ from those obtained in solution. The energetics of long functioning intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis cycle was studied in muscle fibres by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results SETARAM Micro DSC-II was used to monitor the thermal denaturation of the fibre system in rigor and in the presence of nucleotide and nucleotide analogues. The AM.ADP.Pi state of the ATP hydrolysis cycle has a very short lifetime therefore, we mimicked the different intermediate states with AMP.PNP and/or inorganic phosphate analogues Vi and AlF4 or BeFx. Studying glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from the rabbit psoas muscle by DSC, three characteristic thermal transitions were detected in rigor. The thermal transitions can be assigned to myosin heads, myosin rods and actin with transition temperatures (Tm) of 52.9 ± 0.7°C, 57.9 ± 0.7°C, 63.7 ± 1.0°C. In different intermediate states of the ATP hydrolysis mimicked by nucleotide analogues a fourth thermal transition was also detected which is very likely connected with nucleotide binding domain of myosin and/or actin filaments. This transition temperature Tm4 depended on the mimicked intermediate states, and varied in the range of 66°C – 77°C. Conclusion According to DSC measurements, strongly and weakly binding states of myosin to actin were significantly different. In the presence of ADP only a moderate change of the DSC pattern was detected in comparison with rigor, whereas in ADP.Pi state trapped by Vi, AlF4 or BeFx a remarkable stabilization was detected on the myosin head and actin filament which is reflected in a 3.0 – 10.0°C shift in Tm to higher temperature. A similar effect was observed in the case of the nonhydrolyzable AMP.PNP analogue. Differential DSC measurements suggest that stabilization actin structure in the intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis may play an additional role in actin-myosin interaction. PMID:17588264

Dergez, Timea; L?rinczy, Dénes; Könczöl, Franciska; Farkas, Nelli; Belagyi, Joseph

2007-01-01

73

46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the compartments described in §§ 174.080 and...determining compliance with § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when...

2010-10-01

74

46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the compartments described in §§ 174.080 and...determining compliance with § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when...

2013-10-01

75

46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the compartments described in §§ 174.080 and...determining compliance with § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when...

2012-10-01

76

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the foot.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) usually refers to myoneural ischemia from a reversible increase in tissue pressure within a myofascial compartment. CECS of the leg is well documented, as its first description by Mavor in 1956. CECS of the foot remains underdiagnosed, and has been reported in the literature only on an anecdotal basis. Wood Jones proposed that there were 4 compartments in the foot, but Manoli and Weber suggest that there are 9 separate compartments. Clinical signs and symptoms of CECS of the foot remain vague, diverse, and lack the consistency of its counterpart in the leg. The most effective treatment is a fasciotomy. We present a literature review of the condition to increase the awareness and high index of suspicion among the clinicians as the symptoms are often vague and, to consider the condition as part of the differential diagnosis. PMID:19680117

Padhiar, Nat; Allen, Mike; King, John B

2009-09-01

77

14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.  

... (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision for a second pilot, the rotorcraft must be controllable with equal safety from either...

2014-01-01

78

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate. PMID:21063498

Tucker, Alicia K

2010-01-01

79

Posterior-compartment repair: a urology perspective.  

PubMed

The prevalence of posterior-compartment prolapse (rectocele) is not known. The authors have found that operative repair symptomatically improved a majority of patients with impaired defecation associated with a large rectocele, but this improvement was likely related at least in part to factors other than the size of the rectocele. Multiple surgical techniques are available for rectocele repair, and the literature is not clear regarding indications for each type of surgical intervention. This article reviews the literature regarding various types of posterior-compartment repair, and draws conclusions regarding their absolute efficacy and relative efficacy in comparison with one another. PMID:22877720

Gomelsky, Alex; Dmochowski, Roger R

2012-08-01

80

Posterior compartment prolapse: a urogynecology perspective.  

PubMed

Posterior compartment prolapse is often caused by a defect in the rectovaginal septum, also known as Denonvillier's fascia. Patients with symptomatic posterior compartment prolapse can present with bulge symptoms as well as defecatory dysfunction, including constipation, tenesmus, splinting, and fecal incontinence. The diagnosis can successfully be made on clinical examination. Treatment of posterior prolapse includes pessaries and surgery. Both traditional colporrhaphy and site-specific defect repair have excellent success rates. Complications from surgery can include sexual dysfunction, de novo dyspareunia, and defecatory dysfunction. Compared with native tissue repair, biological and synthetic grafting has not improved overall anatomic and subjective outcomes. PMID:22877719

Richardson, Monica L; Elliot, Christopher S; Sokol, Eric R

2012-08-01

81

Space Shuttle crew compartment debris-contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remedial actions undertaken to reduce debris during manned flights and ground turnaround operations at Kennedy Space Center and Palmdale are addressed. They include redesign of selected ground support equipment and Orbiter hardware to reduce particularization/debris generation; development of new detachable filters for air-cooled avionics boxes; application of tape-on screens to filter debris; and implementation of new Orbiter maintenance and turnaround procedures to clean filters and the crew compartment. Most of these steps were implemented before the return-to-flight of STS-26 in September 1988 which resulted in improved crew compartment habitability and less potential for equipment malfunction.

Goodman, Jerry R.; Villarreal, Leopoldo J.

1992-01-01

82

Acute bilateral spontaneous forearm compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm is rarely reported in the literature. It is typically associated with trauma or thromboembolism in the acute setting and repetitive exertional stress in the chronic setting. However it is rare for it to present bilaterally with no apparent underlying cause. We report the case of a young 31-year-old lady who presented to our Emergency Department with bilateral compartment syndrome of the forearm. Her presenting complaints included acute severe pain and swelling of the forearms bilaterally, with a decreased range of movement of the wrist and fingers. She also complained of numbness in all fingers. She had no history of recent trauma and ultrasound scans showed no evidence of vascular compromise. Past medical history was notable only for idiopathic hypertension and coeliac disease. The patient was taken to theatre urgently where flexor and extensor compartments and carpal tunnel were decompressed. Pronator Teres was found to be dusky initially but turned pink after decompression. All other muscles were normal. An interesting fact of this case was that combination of the high compartment pressures and anaesthetic related hypotension caused the forearm pulses to become impalpable at induction, these returned intra-operatively. The patient has been seen in the outpatient department following discharge. She is well apart from some mildly reduced grip strength in her right hand likely due to carpal tunnel decompression. No cause was found for the scenario after extensive medical investigation. PMID:24641749

Dalton, David M; Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Subramaniam, Tava; McCabe, John P

2014-01-01

83

Pathophysiology and diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) should be considered in the differential diagnosis of exertional leg pain. Currently, the pathophysiology of CCS and the mechanisms of pain production are not completely understood. It may be difficult to differentiate CCS from other etiologies of leg pain based on the history and physical examination. Objective diagnosis of CCS is facilitated by direct measurements of

Robert A. Pedowitz; David H. Gershuni

1995-01-01

84

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors present a case history along with results of case series and a literature review to demonstrate the complexity of this condition.The main aim is to increase the awareness among clinicians and the scientist to research in the area of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS).CECS usually refers to myoneural ischaemia due to a reversible increase in

N Padhiar; A Tardioli; M Allen; J B King

2011-01-01

85

Targeting Rab GTPases to distinct membrane compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rab GTPases are key to membrane-trafficking events in eukaryotic cells, and human cells contain more than 60 Rab proteins that are localized to distinct compartments. The recent determination of the structure of a monoprenylated Rab GTPase bound to GDP-dissociation inhibitor provides new molecular details that are relevant to models of Rab delivery. The further discovery of an integral membrane protein

Dikran Aivazian; Suzanne Pfeffer

2004-01-01

86

COMKAT: Compartment Model Kinetic Analysis Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment models are the basis for most physiologically based quantification of nuclear medicine data. Although some software packages are available for this purpose, many are expensive, run on relatively few types of computers or are of limited capability, and cannot be extended because of the un- availability of source code. Consequently, institutions with mod- eling expertise often develop software for

Raymond F. Muzic; Shawn Cornelius

2001-01-01

87

Thinking Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thinking Blocks is an interactive Flash tool for modeling and solving math problems visually. Students represent quantities and relationships by placing blocks and braces on a work space and using the tools to resize and label them accordingly. Users can change the color of blocks, move them, copy them, divide them into equal parts, and separate them. A pencil tool and keyboard are also available. The site includes video tutorials demonstrating how to use the tool and how to model a wide variety of problem types. It also contains a bank of hundreds of word problems.

2011-01-01

88

Exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot compartment--diagnosis and treatment: a case report.  

PubMed

Exertional compartment syndrome in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19-year-old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a 1-year follow-up. PMID:25076087

Izadi, Faye E; Richie, Douglas H

2014-07-01

89

Better Blocks  

E-print Network

a public right-of-way for the following uses is: (4) Fee for awnings and canopies: $1,000 per awning or canopy. Team Better Block ? Jason Roberts ? jason@teambetterblock.com ? www.betterblock.com ... a public right-of-way for the following uses is: (4) Fee for awnings and canopies: $1,000 per awning or canopy. Team Better Block ? Jason Roberts ? jason@teambetterblock.com ? www.betterblock.com ...

Roberts, J.

2011-01-01

90

Analysis of Pre and Postexercise Compartment Pressures in the Medial Compartment of the Foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing awareness of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the foot has led to the need for site-specific analysis of normative resting and postexertional intracompartment pressures. Thirty-four asymptomatic athletes underwent pressure testing of the medial foot compartment with an intracompartmental pressure measurement apparatus. Pressure measurements were recorded before exercise and after 20 minutes of running. Mean resting intracompartment pressure was 7.7

Matthew B. Mollica; Sarah C. Duyshart

2002-01-01

91

9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY...PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant Facilities § 354.221 Rooms and compartments. Rooms...

2010-01-01

92

9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...and Precautions Against Contamination of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments....

2010-01-01

93

9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant Facilities § 354.221 Rooms and compartments. Rooms and compartments used for edible products shall be separate and distinct from...

2013-01-01

94

9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.  

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant Facilities § 354.221 Rooms and compartments. Rooms and compartments used for edible products shall be separate and distinct from...

2014-01-01

95

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

2012-11-01

96

The Clinical Importance of the Fat Compartments in Midfacial Aging  

PubMed Central

Summary: The recent identification of the facial fat compartments has greatly affected our understanding of midfacial aging. This article chronicles the discovery of these fat compartments including the shift of attention from a purely gravitational to a volumetric approach to facial aging and the series of methodologies attempted to ultimately define the anatomy of these compartments. The revived interest in volumetric facial rejuvenation including compartment-guided augmentation techniques is discussed. Lastly, the article discusses interesting distributional patterns noted in these fat compartments likely related to the different mechanical and biologic environments of the deep and superficial facial fat pads.

Wan, Dinah; Amirlak, Bardia; Rohrich, Rod

2013-01-01

97

Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

98

Subcellular storage compartments of bacteriopheophorbide sensitizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence colocalization with the Golgi specific stain, NBD-ceramide, and the mitochondrial localizing stain, Rhodamine 123, confirmed the earlier assumption that the Golgi apparatus is one of the prominent storage compartments for bacteriopheophorbide esters in OAT 75 SCLC cells and several amelanotic melanoma cell lines (A375, Melur SP18, SkAMel 25). Furthermore, a diffuse staining of mitochondria, of non-structured cytoplasm, and an additional storage in melanine vesicles of the amelanotic melanoma cells suggests further storage compartments with quantitatively different contributions to the phototoxicity of bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizers. Independent observations of early phototoxic effects on microfilamentous networks, enzymatic activities (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), and redistribution phenomena following primary uptake of the sensitizers let us assume that only a part of the 108 molecules taken up by a cell contribute directly to phototoxicity. Thus it may be asked if a proper subcellular positioning of only a few sensitizer molecules may have similar phototoxic effects as the huge amounts stored at apparently ineffective sites.

Moser, Joerg G.; Dembeck, U.; Hubert, M.; Spengler, Bernhard; Bayer, Rainer; Wagner, Birgit

1994-03-01

99

An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes.

Lockner, David A.; Byerlee, James D.

1995-09-01

100

An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes. ?? 1995 Birkha??user Verlag.

Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

1995-01-01

101

Correlation of altitude and compartment pressures in porcine hind limbs.  

PubMed

Recent wartime contingencies have demanded frequent aeromedical evacuation of polytrauma patients, all with risk factors for the development of compartment syndrome. This study investigated the effect of altitude on the pressure in uninjured myofascial compartments of 10 pigs as part of a program with the ultimate goal of determining the behavior of an injured extremity in a changing altitude environment. The data showed a trend toward a small increase in pressure with increase in altitude--an average maximal delta of 2.7 mm Hg from the opening pressure. A small increase in compartment pressure, such as seen in this study, in a normal, uninjured compartment would likely go clinically unnoticed. However, aeromedical evacuation missions fly patients with fractures that can affect the physiology of compartments. Potentially, even a small change in pressure can lead to a compartment syndrome. Further study involving a fracture model will be required to further elucidate this clinical question. PMID:21477530

McGill, Robert; Jones, Evan; Robinson, Ben; Kryzak, Tom; Kadrmas, Warren

2011-01-01

102

The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such a channel must be less than 0.06 x 10(-3) mohs/cm2 of fibre membrane. 7. The conductance between compartment B and the extracellular space can be calculated from the efflux rate constants for Na, K and Cl. The value obtained was 5 x 10(-3) mhos/cm2 of fibre membrane or 100 times the limiting value for the conductance of the T-SR junction. 8. The finding that there is a B component in the efflux curves for large molecular weight substances like inulin and dextran and the small size of the B component in efflux curves from single muscle fibres indicate that the 'speical region' of the extra-cellular space of frog muscle is not the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This conclusion is confirmed by a calculation of the conductance between the B compartment and the extracellular space. The value obtained is incompatible with predicted electrical properteis of the SR-T-tubule junction... PMID:313982

Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

1979-01-01

103

The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

1972-01-01

104

A new vesicular compartment in Encephalitozoon cuniculi.  

PubMed

The microsporidia are emerging human and veterinary pathogens known to infect every tissue type and organ system. Their infectious spore possesses a number of peculiar organelles, including the diagnostic polar tube. In a proteomics-driven effort to find novel components of this organelle in the human-pathogenic species Encephalitozoon cuniculi, we unexpectedly discovered a protein which localizes to punctate structures consistent with the appearance of relic mitochondria, or mitosomes. However, this novel protein did not colocalize with ferredoxin, a mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster protein which shows a similar localization pattern by light microscopy. The distribution pattern of this protein thus suggests either a novel vesicular compartment that is similar to mitosomes in size and distribution, the presence of subdomains or branching architecture within mitosomes, or heterogeneity in the protein composition of E. cuniculi mitosomes. PMID:22166342

Ghosh, Kaya; Nieves, Edward; Keeling, Patrick; Cali, Ann; Weiss, Louis M

2012-04-01

105

cAMP signalling meets mitochondrial compartments.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles comprising at least three distinct areas, the OMM (outer mitochondrial membrane), the IMS (intermembrane space) and the mitochondrial matrix. Physical compartmentalization allows these organelles to host different functional domains and therefore participate in a variety of important cellular actions such as ATP synthesis and programmed cell death. In a surprising homology, it is now widely accepted that the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP uses the same stratagem, compartmentalization, in order to achieve the characteristic functional pleiotropy of its pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that all the main mitochondrial compartments contain segregated cAMP cascades; however, the regulatory properties and functional significance of such domains are not fully understood and often remain controversial issues. The present mini-review discusses our current knowledge of how the marriage between mitochondrial and cAMP compartmentalization is achieved and its effects on the biology of the cell. PMID:24646228

Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos

2014-04-01

106

Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment  

DOEpatents

A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01

107

Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg and Foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome of the lower leg or foot, a severe complication with a low incidence, is mostly caused by high-energy\\u000a deceleration trauma. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and intracompartmental pressure measurement. The most\\u000a sensitive clinical symptom of compartment syndrome is severe pain. Clinical findings must be documented carefully. A fasciotomy\\u000a should be performed when the difference between compartment

Michael Frink; Frank Hildebrand; Christian Krettek; Jurgen Brand; Stefan Hankemeier

2010-01-01

108

Enhancement of Force Generated by Individual Myosin Heads in Skinned Rabbit Psoas Muscle Fibers at Low Ionic Strength  

PubMed Central

Although evidence has been presented that, at low ionic strength, myosin heads in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers form linkages with actin filaments, the effect of low ionic strength on contraction characteristics of Ca2+-activated muscle fibers has not yet been studied in detail. To give information about the mechanism of muscle contraction, we have examined the effect of low ionic strength on the mechanical properties and the contraction characteristics of skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in both relaxed and maximally Ca2+-activated states. By progressively decreasing KCl concentration from 125 mM to 0 mM (corresponding to a decrease in ionic strength ? from 170 mM to 50 mM), relaxed fibers showed changes in mechanical response to sinusoidal length changes and ramp stretches, which are consistent with the idea of actin-myosin linkage formation at low ionic strength. In maximally Ca2+-activated fibers, on the other hand, the maximum isometric force increased about twofold by reducing KCl concentration from 125 to 0 mM. Unexpectedly, determination of the force-velocity curves indicated that, the maximum unloaded shortening velocity Vmax, remained unchanged at low ionic strength. This finding indicates that the actin-myosin linkages, which has been detected in relaxed fibers at low ionic strength, are broken quickly on Ca2+ activation, so that the linkages in relaxed fibers no longer provide any internal resistance against fiber shortening. The force-velocity curves, obtained at various levels of steady Ca2+-activated isometric force, were found to be identical if they are normalized with respect to the maximum isometric force. The MgATPase activity of muscle fibers during isometric force generation was found not to change appreciably at low ionic strength despite the two-fold increase in Ca2+-activated isometric force. These results can be explained in terms of enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads, but not by any changes in kinetic properties of cyclic actin-myosin interaction. PMID:23691080

Sugi, Haruo; Abe, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Sugiura, Seiryo

2013-01-01

109

Increase in ATP consumption during shortening in skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle: effects of inorganic phosphate.  

PubMed Central

1. The influence of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) on the relationship between ATP consumption and mechanical performance under isometric and dynamic conditions was investigated in chemically skinned single fibres or thin bundles from rabbit psoas muscle. Myofibrillar ATPase activity was measured photometrically by enzymatic coupling of the regeneration of ATP to the oxidation of NADH. NADH absorbance at 340 nm was determined inside a miniature (4 microliters) measuring chamber. 2. ATP consumption due to isovelocity shortenings was measured in the range between 0.0625 and 1 L0 s-1(L0: fibre length previous to shortening, corresponding to a sarcomere length of 2.64 microns), in solutions without added P(i) and with 30 mM P(i). To get an estimate of the amount of ATP utilized during the shortening phase, quick releases of various amplitudes were also performed. 3. After quick releases, sufficiently large that force dropped to zero, extra ATP was hydrolysed which was largely independent of the amplitude of the release and of the period of unloaded shortening. This extra amount, above the isometric ATP turnover, corresponded to about 0.7 and 0.5 ATP molecules per myosin head at 0 and 30 mM P(i), respectively. 4. ATP turnover during the isovelocity shortenings was higher than isometric turnover and increased with increasing shortening velocity up to about 2.7 times the isometric value. At low and moderate velocities of shortening (< 0.5 L0 s-1), P(i) reduced ATP turnover during isovelocity shortening and isometric ATP turnover to a similar extent, i.e. a decrease to about 77% between 0 and 30 mM added P(i). 5. The extra ATP turnover above the isometric value, resulting from isovelocity shortenings studied at different speeds, was proportional to the power output of the preparation, both in the absence and presence of added [P(i)]. 6. The effect of shortening velocity and [P(i)] on energy turnover can be understood in a cross-bridge model that consists of a detached, a non- or low-force-producing, and a force-producing state. In this model, mass action of P(i) influences the equilibrium between the force-producing and the non-or-low-force-producing cross-bridges, and shortening enhances cross-bridge detachment from both attached states. PMID:8910191

Potma, E J; Stienen, G J

1996-01-01

110

Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

1988-01-01

111

What is the clinical relevance of different lung compartments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lung consists of at least seven compartments with relevance to immune reactions. Compartment 1 - the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which represents the cells of the bronchoalveolar space: From a diagnostic point of view the bronchoalveolar space is the most important because it is easily accessible in laboratory animals, as well as in patients, using BAL. Although this technique has

Thomas Tschernig; Reinhard Pabst

2009-01-01

112

Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.  

PubMed

Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon. PMID:21667742

Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

2011-04-01

113

Differential gene expression in anatomical compartments of the human eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The human eye is composed of multiple compartments, diverse in form, function, and embryologic origin, that work in concert to provide us with our sense of sight. We set out to systematically characterize the global gene expression patterns that specify the distinctive characteristics of the various eye compartments. RESULTS: We used DNA microarrays representing approximately 30,000 human genes to

Jennifer J Diehn; Maximilian Diehn; Michael F Marmor; Patrick O Brown

2005-01-01

114

Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic head to maximize flow passing down through the ochre bed. Filtration rate in the second compartment is also facilitated by thin ochre bed because of low residual Fe(II) in the overflow. Thus, compartment ratio also significantly affects the operation span of two-compartment VFR. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation.

Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

2014-05-01

115

EGF Receptor Sorting in Endosomal Compartments  

SciTech Connect

Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates various cellular mechanisms, such as cell growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation. EGF receptors have an important role in mammalian development and have also been implicated in tumor formation. Although it has been studied for decades, the mechanism by which the EGFR signaling is switched off is poorly understood. Due to limitations in current experimental protocols, identifying the cellular location where the signal is attenuated has proved to be difficult. Computer modeling of the EGFR signaling pathway can complement experimental studies and can potentially help to fill the gaps in our understanding. In the current study, using kinetic simulations, we have investigated how receptor degradation rates in multivesicular endosome compartments affect the spatial distribution and the trafficking dynamics of the EGF receptors. Our results indicate that the variations in the mean lifetime of the late endosomes can have a significant impact on the pool size of the internalized receptors. This could be an important cell type specific regulation mechanism in the EGFR signaling.

Resat, Haluk

2004-06-22

116

Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh in combat casualties.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare clinical entity often caused by high-energy trauma and presenting with a spectrum of associated injuries. Service members in combat are at risk for these causative mechanisms. This study presents a large cohort of thigh compartment syndrome combat casualties and investigates the injury mechanisms, associated mortality, and complications related to fasciotomies. Blasts were the most frequent injury mechanism, overall mortality was 23%, burns were associated with a higher mortality, and fasciotomy morbidity was reported by all respondents. The mortality was similar to civilian cohorts with thigh compartment syndrome and was isolated to patients with high Injury Severity Scores. While mortality associated with this injury is high, it is likely related to associated injury patterns rather than the compartment syndrome itself. Thigh compartment fasciotomies carried significant morbidity, consistent with civilian trauma publications. PMID:23449054

Masini, Brendan D; Racusin, Adam W; Wenke, Joseph C; Gerlinger, Tad L; Hsu, Joseph R

2013-01-01

117

The effects of interaction compartments on stability for competitive systems.  

PubMed

The interactions between species are unlikely to be randomly arranged, and there is increasing evidence that most interactions occur within small species sub-groups, or compartments, that do not strongly interact with one another. We examine whether arranging the interactions of a competitive system into compartments influences the system properties of linear stability, feasibility, reactivity, and biomass stability, thereby altering the likelihood of species persistence. Model Lotka-Volterra systems of diffuse competition were analysed with interactions arranged randomly and in compartments. It was found, using a variety of dynamical measures, that arranging interactions into compartments enhances the likelihood of species persistence. Since many natural competitive systems appear to have interactions arranged within compartments, this may be an outcome of the positive attributes that this form of organization offers. PMID:14990391

Rozdilsky, Ian D; Stone, Lewi; Solow, Andrew

2004-03-21

118

Analgesia After Total Hip Arthroplasty: New Landmarks, Technical Guidelines, and Clinical Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computed tomographic scan was obtained in 35 patients to measure the depth and the relationship of the branches of the lumbar plexus to the posterior superior iliac spine projec- tion and the vertebral column. In addition, we prospectively studied 80 patients scheduled for total hip arthroplasty who received a continuous psoas compartment block (CPCB) in the postoperative period. CPCB

Xavier Capdevila; Philippe Macaire; Christophe Dadure; Olivier Choquet; Philippe Biboulet; Yves Ryckwaert; Francoise d'Athis

119

Structural Characterization of the Binding of Myosin*ADP*Pi to Actin in Permeabilized Rabbit Psoas Muscle  

SciTech Connect

When myosin is attached to actin in a muscle cell, various structures in the filaments are formed. The two strongly bound states (A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP and A{center_dot}M) and the weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP states are reasonably well understood. The orientation of the strongly bound myosin heads is uniform ('stereospecific' attachment), and the attached heads exhibit little spatial fluctuation. In the prehydrolysis weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state, the orientations of the attached myosin heads assume a wide range of azimuthal and axial angles, indicating considerable flexibility in the myosin head. The structure of the other weakly bound state, A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}, however, is poorly understood. This state is thought to be the critical pre-power-stroke state, poised to make the transition to the strongly binding, force-generating states, and hence it is of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of contraction. However, because of the low affinity between myosin and actin in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state, the structure of this state has eluded determination both in isolated form and in muscle cells. With the knowledge recently gained in the structures of the weakly binding M{center_dot}ATP, M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} states and the weakly attached A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state in muscle fibers, it is now feasible to delineate the in vivo structure of the attached state of A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}. The series of experiments presented in this article were carried out under relaxing conditions at 25{sup o}C, where {approx}95% of the myosin heads in the skinned rabbit psoas muscle contain the hydrolysis products. The affinity for actin is enhanced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or by lowering the ionic strength in the bathing solution. Solution kinetics and binding constants were determined in the presence and in the absence of PEG. When the binding between actin and myosin was increased, both the myosin layer lines and the actin layer lines increased in intensity, but the intensity profiles did not change. The configuration (mode) of attachment in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state is thus unique among the intermediate attached states of the cross-bridge ATP hydrolysis cycle. One of the simplest explanations is that both myosin filaments and actin filaments are stabilized (e.g., undergo reduced spatial fluctuations) by the attachment. The alignment of the myosin heads in the thick filaments and the alignment of the actin monomers in the thin filaments are improved as a result. The compact atomic structure of M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} with strongly coupled domains may contribute to the unique attachment configuration: the 'primed' myosin heads may function as 'transient struts' when attached to the thin filaments.

Xu,S.; Gu, J.; Belknap, B.; White, H.; Yu, L.

2006-01-01

120

Reversal of the cross-bridge force-generating transition by photogeneration of phosphate in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. Orthophosphate (P(i), 0.1-2.0 mM) was photogenerated within the filament lattice of isometrically contracting glycerinated fibres of rabbit psoas muscle at 10 and 20 degrees C. The P(i) was produced by laser flash photolysis of the photolabile compound 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethylphosphate (caged P(i)). Caged P(i) caused a depression of tension that was much smaller than that caused by P(i). 2. Photolysis of caged P(i) produced a decline in isometric force composed of four phases: phase I, a lag phase (e.g. 1-4 ms at 10 degrees C) during which force did not change; phase II, an exponential decline by as much as 20% of the pre-pulse force; phase III, a partial force recovery (0-3% of the pre-pulse force); and phase IV, a further slow (0.5-3 s) decline to the steady value. Phases I, III and IV were largely independent of [P(i)] and are likely to be indirect effects caused by the caged P(i) photolysis. 3. Both the rate and amplitude of phase II depended markedly on [P(i)]. The amplitude of phase II was similar to the reduction of steady-state force by P(i). The rate of phase II increased with increasing temperature and [P(i)]. At high [P(i)] the rate began to saturate, and approached limits of 123 s-1 at 10 degrees C and 194 s-1 at 20 degrees C. 4. The rate of phase II was independent of sarcomere overlap, while the amplitude was proportional to tension at partial filament overlap. A control experiment using caged ATP showed that phase II was not produced by the photolytic by-products or the light pulse. The results suggest that phase II is associated with the force-generating transition of the cross-bridge cycle. 5. Sinusoidal length oscillations at 0.5 and 2 kHz were used to measure muscle stiffness during phase II. Stiffness declined in a single exponential phase, with the same time course as phase II of the tension transient. The change in stiffness was 83 +/- 6% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10, 0.5 kHz) of the change in tension when both signals were normalized to their pre-flash values. 6. Analysis of the data shows that two steps are involved in force generation and P(i) release. The non-force exerting AM-ADP-P(i) cross-bridge state first isomerizes to form a force-exerting cross-bridge state (AM'-ADP-P(i)). P(i) is then released to form a second force-generating state, AM'-ADP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1403812

Dantzig, J A; Goldman, Y E; Millar, N C; Lacktis, J; Homsher, E

1992-01-01

121

Duality of the murine CD8 compartment.  

PubMed

CD8?? plays crucial roles in the thymic selection, differentiation, and activation of some, but not all, CD8(+) T cells, whereas CD8?? does not. To investigate these roles, we produced mice that expressed transgene P14 T-cell receptor ? (TCR?) chain and CD8? or did not (WT and KO mice, respectively). The primary CD8(+) T-cell response to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was predominantly D(b)/GP33 specific and CD8 independent in KO mice and was mostly CD8 dependent in WT mice. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from KO mice failed to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) and to kill via perforin/granzyme. Their strong Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-? response were signaled via a Ca(2+)-independent, PI3K-dependent pathway. This was also true for 15-20% of CD8-independent CTL found in WT mice. Conversely, the perforin/granzyme-mediated killing and IFN-? response of CD8-dependent CTL were signaled via a Ca(2+), p56(lck), and nuclear factor of activated T cells-dependent pathway. Deep sequencing of millions of TCR? chain transcripts revealed that the TCR repertoires of preimmune CD8(+) T cells were highly diverse, but those of LCMV D(b)/GP33-specific CTL, especially from KO mice, were narrow. The immune repertoires exhibited biased use of V? segments that encoded different complementary-determining region 1? (CDR1?) and CDR2? sequences. We suggest that TCR from WT CD8-independent T cells may engage MHC-peptide complexes in a manner unfavorable for efficient CD8 engagement and Ca(2+) signaling but permissive for Ca(2+)-independent, PI3K-dependent signaling. This duality of the CD8 compartment may provide organisms with broader protective immunity. PMID:24594598

Genolet, Raphaël; Leignadier, Julie; Østerås, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Stevenson, Brian J; Luescher, Immanuel F

2014-03-18

122

Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung - Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing - D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Baeuerle, Guenther [Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), Scharnhorststrasse 34-37, 10115 Berlin (Germany)

2007-07-01

123

Selective pharmacological manipulation of cortical-thalamic co-cultures in a dual-compartment device.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrate capabilities to selectively manipulate dissociated co-cultures of neurons plated in dual-compartment devices. Synaptic receptor antagonists and tetrodotoxin solutions were used to selectively control and study the network-wide burst propagation and cell firing in cortical-cortical and cortical-thalamic co-culture systems. The results show that in cortical-thalamic dissociated co-cultures, burst events initiate in the cortical region and propagate to the thalamic region and the burst events in thalamic region can be controlled by blocking the synaptic receptors in the cortical region. Whereas, in cortical-cortical co-culture system, one of the region acts as a site of burst initiation and facilitate propagation of bursts in the entire network. Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, when applied to either of the regions blocks the firing of neurons in that particular region with significant influence on the firing of neurons in the other region. The results demonstrate selective pharmacological manipulation capabilities of co-cultures in a dual compartment device and helps understand the effects of neuroactive compounds on networks derived from specific CNS tissues and the dynamic interaction between them. PMID:23305774

Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T; Franco, Maria; Barone, Rocco Andrea; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J; Decré, Michel M J

2013-03-30

124

Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. PMID:20858378

Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O'Brien, Peter J.

2010-01-01

125

A rare case of acute compartment syndrome after saphenectomy  

PubMed Central

Saphenectomy is one of the most validated criteria to treat varicose veins of the lower legs. Although many complications were well described, little is known about compartment syndrome due to muscle ischemia caused by constrictive bandages applied after stripping of varicose veins. We presented a case of successful conservative treatment of compartment syndrome after saphenectomy. Rehabilitation was found effective in improving fatigue, stiffness and tenderness showing the effectiveness of the combined conservative-rehabilitative treatment. However conservative treatment could not be considered the treatment of choice in daily practice. A severity score assessment of compartment syndrome should be useful to assess to which patients is allowed to not perform fasciotomy. PMID:24303473

Milone, Marco; Venetucci, Piero; Iervolino, Salvatore; Taffuri, Caterina; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Milone, Francesco

2013-01-01

126

Protein Sorting by Directed Maturation of Golgi Compartments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the Golgi stack mediate transport of cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface? A possibility is that cargo-containing vesicles derived from the ER form early Golgi compartments that then mature by retrieval of processing enzymes from later Golgi compartments. Maturation continues at terminal Golgi compartments by retrieval of transport components from the endocytic pathway to promote sorting of cargo to multiple cellular destinations. Hence, retrograde movement may integrate exocytic and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells and coordinate membrane flow and cargo transport through the Golgi stack.

Bernard Allan (The Scripps Research Institute;Department of Cell Biology); William Balch (The Scripps Research Institute;Department of Cell Biology)

1999-07-02

127

Modified Block Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Properly type a modified block style business letter. In your previous assignment, you created block style business letters. The letters, whether business or personal business, had all the content lined up on the left-hand side of the page. This is what made them block style. Today you are going to learn about modified block style letters. Modified block letters ...

Simonson, Mrs.

2009-12-05

128

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2012-10-01

129

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2011-10-01

130

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2010-10-01

131

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2013-10-01

132

14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which it may be subjected in operation. (b) Cowling must meet the drainage and ventilation...

2010-01-01

133

9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rooms, compartments, or other parts of the official plant shall be kept clean and in sanitary condition...disposed of daily. (b) All windows, doors, and light fixtures in the official plant shall be kept clean. (c) All docks and...

2012-01-01

134

The Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Current Management of Acute Compartment Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency warranting prompt evaluation and treatment. It can occur with any elevation in interstitial pressure in a closed osseo-fascial compartment. Resultant ischaemic damage may be irreversible within six hours and can result in long-term morbidity and even death. The diagnosis is largely clinical with the classical description of ‘pain out of proportion to the injury’. Compartment pressure monitors can be a helpful adjunct where the diagnosis is in doubt. Initial treatment is with the removal of any constricting dressings or casts, avoiding hypotension and optimizing tissue perfusion by keeping the limb at heart level. If symptoms persist, definitive treatment is necessary with timely surgical decompression of all the involved compartments. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of ACS. PMID:25067973

Donaldson, James; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim S

2014-01-01

135

9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

136

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

137

14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.  

...up to the maximum relief valve setting. (b) The external pressure distribution in flight, and stress concentrations and fatigue effects must be accounted for. (c) If landings may be made with the compartment pressurized, landing loads must...

2014-01-01

138

Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.  

PubMed

Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance. PMID:23979618

Hanumanthaiah, Deepak; Vaidiyanathan, Sabanayagam; Garstka, Maria; Szucs, Szilard; Iohom, Gabriella

2013-09-01

139

Lumbar Plexus Block for Management of Hip Surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbar plexus block (LPB) is one of the anesthetic options in the elderly patients undergoing hip surgeries. LPB could be safe because it targets somatic nerve in psoas region. Effectiveness of LPB is attributed to the sufficient analgesia provided intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. Adequate muscle relaxation and immobility during surgery refers to its acceptability. Objectives: In this study, LPB was used as the anesthetic method to manage the elderly patients subjected to hip surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients aged 51 to 100 years were enrolled in this study. LPB was accomplished after a mild sedation and with a modified method using patient's fingertip width (FTW) as the distance unit to determine needle entry point under electrical nerve stimulation assistance. After targeted injection, procedure time, establishment time, block duration, surgery time, hemodynamic variables, and surgeon satisfaction score were documented and analyzed. Propofol in trivial doses was infused intraoperatively to provide clinical sedation. Results: Mean patient's age was 73 ± 12 years with ASA II/III. Procedure time was 5.65 ± 1.24 minutes, establishment time was 130 ± 36 seconds, block duration was 13.1 ± 8 hours, surgery time was 149.7 ± 32.2 minutes, and surgeon satisfaction score was 9.8 ± 0.1. There was no complication and no failure. Hemodynamic stability was pleasantly achieved. Conclusions: By preserving hemodynamic stability, LPB in conjunction with a light sedation could be considered as a reliable prudent satisfying anesthetic option in management of hip fractures in the elderly patients with three beneficial characteristics of safety, effectiveness, and acceptability. PMID:25289374

Amiri, Hamid Reza; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Safari, Saeid

2014-01-01

140

Successful early surgical treatment in neonatal compartment syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

Neonatal compartment syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed because other ischemic diseases can mimic clinical signs observed on the skin. A premature newborn infant presented with skin lesions during the first hours of life that were recognized as the sentinel finding in compartment syndrome of the newborn. We restored normal function by emergency surgery. The authors highlight the importance of effective collaboration between pediatricians and surgeons to improve the management of this neonatal condition. PMID:23664365

Plancq, M C; Buisson, P; Deroussen, F; Krim, G; Collet, L M; Gouron, R

2013-06-01

141

Pattern Blocks with Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a class we will be exploring fractions with pattern blocks. Each student will have a selection of pattern blocks. The students will manipulate their blocks to match mine as we discover patterns. pattern blocks explained Two work stations to choose from 1. pattern block work station 2. pattern work station pattern assignment pattern block assignment 2 Paper copies of assignments will be handed out. Students ...

Brown, Mrs.

2010-03-20

142

Effects of Spinal Stabilization Exercise on the Cross-sectional Areas of the Lumbar Multifidus and Psoas Major Muscles, Pain Intensity, and Lumbar Muscle Strength of Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spinal stabilizing exercise to reduce atrophy of the multifidus and psoas major muscles, reduce the levels of pain and disability, and increase paraspinal muscle strength in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). [Subjects and Methods] In 33 patients (Age range: 25-65?years) diagnosed with DDD, spinal stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks. The levels of pain and disability were measured before and after exercise using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Paraspinal muscular strength in four directions was evaluated with a CENTAUR 3D Spatial Rotation Device. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both the left and right multifidus and the psoas major at the upper endplate of L4 were measured before and after exercise using computed tomography (CT). [Results] After 8 weeks of spinal stabilization exercise, the pain and lumbar disability in subjects decreased significantly from 6.12±1.24 to 2.43±1.14. The ODI score also improved from 20.18±7.14 to 8.81±5.73. In addition, paraspinal muscle strength increased significantly, while the CSAs of the left and right multifidus and psoas major widened as compared with the pre-exercise size. [Conclusion] Spinal stabilization exercise was effective for reducing pain and disability in DDD patients. It was an effective adjunct to aid rehabilitation in these cases. PMID:24764637

Kim, Seongho; Kim, Hyungguen; Chung, Jaeyeop

2014-04-01

143

Infraclavicular brachial plexus injury following axillary regional block.  

PubMed

Infraclavicular brachial plexopathy is a potential complication of axillary regional block. We retrospectively reviewed 13 such injuries and found the median nerve most often affected, followed by combined median and ulnar neuropathies, and then by various combinations involving the median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves. All were axon-loss in type and most were severe in degree electrophysiologically. The clinical and electrodiagnostic features of these injuries are strikingly similar to those sustained after axillary arteriography, which has been associated with the medial brachial fascial compartment (MBFC) syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by the evolution of neurologic deficits and pain following hematoma formation within a compartment of the upper arm. Thus, we believe that this mechanism underlies most nerve injuries that result from axillary angiography or axillary regional block. This has important treatment implications, as timely surgical intervention may lead to improved outcome. PMID:15221877

Tsao, Bryan E; Wilbourn, Asa J

2004-07-01

144

Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

1975-01-01

145

Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007). We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission. PMID:25105034

Bhalla, Mary Colleen; Dick-Perez, Ryan

2014-01-01

146

Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

2012-01-01

147

Diffusion effects on longitudinal relaxation in poorly mixed compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of spins between physical or virtual, communicating compartments having different states of longitudinal magnetization leads to diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation. Herein, in two model systems, the effects of diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation are explored experimentally and analyzed quantitatively. In the first case, longitudinal relaxation in a single slice of a water phantom is monitored spectroscopically as a function of slice thickness. In the second case, mimicking vascular flow/diffusion effects, longitudinal relaxation is monitored in a two-compartment, semi-permeable fiber phantom. In both cases, apparent longitudinal relaxation, though clearly multi-exponential, is well-modeled as bi-exponential.

Anderson, J. R.; Ye, Q.; Neil, J. J.; Ackerman, J. J. H.; Garbow, J. R.

2011-07-01

148

Epidemic Spreading in a Multi-compartment System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the variant rate and white noise into the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemics, discuss the epidemic dynamics of a multiple-compartment system, and describe this system by using master equations. For both the local epidemic spreading system and the whole multiple-compartment system, we find that a threshold could be useful in forecasting when the epidemic vanishes. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that a model with the variant infection rate and white noise can improve fitting with real SARS data.

Gao, Zong-Mao; Gu, Jiao; Li, Wei

2012-02-01

149

Acute exertional medial compartment syndrome of the foot after playing basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome of the foot is an uncommon event. The most common cause of compartment syndrome of the foot is a crush\\u000a injury. Exceedingly rare is acute compartment syndrome of the foot occurring in the absence of trauma. We describe the clinical\\u000a scenario involving a 23-year-old healthy male who developed acute exertional compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment\\u000a of

Lauchlan Chambers; Sharon L. Hame; Benjamin Levine

2011-01-01

150

Compartments within a compartment: what C. elegans can tell us about ciliary subdomain composition, biogenesis, function, and disease.  

PubMed

The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease. PMID:24732235

Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna A W M

2014-01-01

151

A Novel CT-Guided Transpsoas Approach to Diagnostic Genitofemoral Nerve Block and Ablation  

PubMed Central

Background Inguinal hernia repair is associated with a high incidence of chronic postsurgical pain. This pain may be caused by injury to the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, or genitofemoral nerves. It is often difficult to identify the specific source of the pain, in part, because these nerves are derived from overlapping nerve roots and closely colocalize in the area of surgery. It is therefore technically difficult to selectively block these nerves individually proximal to the site of surgical injury. In particular, the genitofemoral nerve is retroperitoneal before entering the inguinal canal, a position that puts anterior approaches to the proximal nerve at risk of transgressing into the peritoneum. We report a computed tomography (CT)-guided transpsoas technique to selectively block the genitofemoral nerve for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes while avoiding injury to the nearby ureter and intestines. Case A 39-year-old woman with chronic lancinating right groin pain after inguinal hernia repair underwent multiple pharmacologic interventions and invasive procedures without relief. Using CT and Stimuplex nerve stimulator guidance, the genitofemoral nerve was localized on the anterior surface of the psoas muscle and a diagnostic block with local anesthetic block was performed. The patient had immediate relief of her symptoms for 36 hours, confirming the diagnosis of genitofemoral neuralgia. She subsequently underwent CT-guided radiofrequency and phenol ablation of the genitofemoral nerve but has not achieved long-term analgesia. Conclusion CT-guided transpsoas genitofemoral nerve block is a viable option for safely and selectively blocking the genitofemoral nerve for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes proximal to injury caused by inguinal surgery. PMID:20546515

Parris, David; Fischbein, Nancy; Mackey, Sean; Carroll, Ian

2010-01-01

152

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

Manipulatives, National L.

2008-12-10

153

Living with Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Block First-degree heart block may ... whether you need ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree ...

154

The use of magnetic resonance imaging in exertional compartment syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, double-blind study was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive method in the diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome (CCS). As well, a new radiopharmaceutical known as methoxy isobutyl isoni trile that has been shown to be taken up by muscle in direct proportion to its blood flow was used to illustrate

A. Amendola; C. H. Rorabeck; D. Vellett; W. Vezina; B. Rutt; Linda Nott

1990-01-01

155

Characterization of Periplastidal CompartmentTargeting Signals in Chlorarachniophytes  

E-print Network

in the periplastidal compartment (PPC), the remnant eukaryotic cytoplasm between the inner and the outer membrane pairs encoded in the host nucleus and their products are targeted to the PPC. One such nucleus-encoded, PPC-terminal extensions of PPC-targeted EFL in transformed chlorarachniophyte cells. Using green fluorescent protein

Keeling, Patrick

156

Generation and migration of petroleum from abnormally pressured fluid compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sedimentary basins contain layers of two or more superimposed hydrogeological systems. The shallow systems are usually basin wide in extent and exhibit normal hydrostatic pressures. The deeper systems, where the oil is generated, are not basin wide and are abnormally overpressured. They usually consist of a series of individual fluid compartments that are not in hydraulic pressure communication with

J. Hunt

1990-01-01

157

Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments Daniel Kaganovich1 , Ron Kopito1 & Judith Frydman1 The accumulation of misfolded proteins in intracellular amyloid to occur after failure of the cellular protein quality control mechanisms. Here we examine the formation

Bedwell, David M.

158

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...normal flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view...

2011-01-01

159

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...normal flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view...

2012-01-01

160

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...normal flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view...

2010-01-01

161

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...normal flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view...

2013-01-01

162

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

...normal flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view...

2014-01-01

163

Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD) is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS), tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS) on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P < 0.002). Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI) analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments' variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy. PMID:24073397

Rogojanu, Radu; Croitoru, Camelia; Jitaru, Daniela; Tarniceriu, Cristina; Carasevici, Eugen

2013-01-01

164

Generic Quantum Block Compression  

E-print Network

A generic approach for compiling any classical block compression algorithm into a quantum block compression algorithm is presented. Using this technique, compression asymptoticaly approaching the von Neumann entropy of a qubit source can be achieved. The automatically compiled algorithms are competitive (in time and space complexity) with hand constructed quantum block compression algorithms.

John Langford

2001-09-17

165

1990 CENSUS BLOCK CENTROIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The block_cen layer in the EPA New England database provides the centroids of block boundaries coverage based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census Public Law (PL) 94-171 data. The block_cen layer is an ARC/INFO point coverage....

166

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

167

Building, block, street : residential block design  

E-print Network

Late twentieth-century housing, formed by economic and internally generated functional problems rather than by limitations imposed by traditional street pattern and block size, is fundamentally anti-urban. Modern American ...

Kamell, Elizabeth N. (Elizabeth Natanya)

1996-01-01

168

Blocking Delaunay triangulations  

PubMed Central

Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay triangulation of B?W there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest set W blocking B: (i) 3n/2 white points are always sufficient to block a set of n black points, (ii) if B is in convex position, 5n/4 white points are always sufficient to block it, and (iii) at least n?1 white points are always necessary to block a set of n black points. PMID:23483043

Aichholzer, Oswin; Fabila-Monroy, Ruy; Hackl, Thomas; van Kreveld, Marc; Pilz, Alexander; Ramos, Pedro; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

2013-01-01

169

The mosaic structure of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42 and its relation to other symbiotic genome compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Symbiotic bacteria known as rhizobia interact with the roots of legumes and induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In rhizobia, essential genes for symbiosis are compartmentalized either in symbiotic plasmids or in chromosomal symbiotic islands. To understand the structure and evolution of the symbiotic genome compartments (SGCs), it is necessary to analyze their common genetic content and organization as well as to study their differences. To date, five SGCs belonging to distinct species of rhizobia have been entirely sequenced. We report the complete sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42, a microsymbiont of beans, and a comparison with other SGC sequences available. Results The symbiotic plasmid is a circular molecule of 371,255 base-pairs containing 359 coding sequences. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes common to other rhizobia are clustered in a region of 125 kilobases. Numerous sequences related to mobile elements are scattered throughout. In some cases the mobile elements flank blocks of functionally related sequences, thereby suggesting a role in transposition. The plasmid contains 12 reiterated DNA families that are likely to participate in genomic rearrangements. Comparisons between this plasmid and complete rhizobial genomes and symbiotic compartments already sequenced show a general lack of synteny and colinearity, with the exception of some transcriptional units. There are only 20 symbiotic genes that are shared by all SGCs. Conclusions Our data support the notion that the symbiotic compartments of rhizobia genomes are mosaic structures that have been frequently tailored by recombination, horizontal transfer and transposition. PMID:12801410

González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Salgado, Heladia; Hernández-González, Ismael; Hernández-Celis, Juan Carlos; Quintero, Verónica; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Girard, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Oscar; Flores, Margarita; Cevallos, Miguel A; Collado-Vides, Julio; Romero, David; Dávila, Guillermo

2003-01-01

170

The lytic granules of natural killer cells are dual-function organelles combining secretory and pre-lysosomal compartments  

PubMed Central

Cytolytic lymphocytes contain specialized lytic granules whose secretion during cell-mediated cytolysis results in target cell death. Using serial section EM of RNK-16, a natural killer cell line, we show that there are structurally distinct types of granules. Each type is composed of varying proportions of a dense core domain and a multivesicular cortical domain. The dense core domains contain secretory proteins thought to play a role in cytolysis, including cytolysin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. In contrast, the multivesicular domains contain lysosomal proteins, including acid phosphatase, alpha-glucosidase, cathepsin D, and LGP-120. In addition to their protein content, the lytic granules have other properties in common with lysosomes. The multivesicular regions of the granules have an acidic pH, comparable to that of endosomes and lysosomes. The granules take up exogenous cationized ferritin with lysosome-like kinetics, and this uptake is blocked by weak bases and low temperature. The multivesicular domains of the granules are rich in the 270-kD mannose-6-phosphate receptor, a marker which is absent from mature lysosomes but present in earlier endocytic compartments. Thus, the natural killer granules represent an unusual dual-function organelle, where a regulated secretory compartment, the dense core, is contained within a pre-lysosomal compartment, the multivesicular domain. PMID:2277062

1990-01-01

171

Block LU factorization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU factorization, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU factorization is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU factorization can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth factor for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU factorization is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.

Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

1992-01-01

172

MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are assessed redundantly showing excellent agreement for mass balance purposes with more than 95 % for carbon recovery. The experimental determination of nitrogen conversion yields has shown that more than 95 % for NH4+ is converted to NO2- in the first step and that more than 0.975 NO2- is transformed to NO3- in the second step. The biomass production yields are 0.4 and 0.3 g DM mol N-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi respectively. The maximum nitrogen oxidation rates are 0.9 and 3.5 mM day-1 respectively, indicating a limitation by oxygen transfer. Keywords: autotrophy, Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, ionic chromatography, flow cytometry

Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

2012-07-01

173

Magma chambers: Formation, local stresses, excess pressures, and compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An existing magma chamber is normally a necessary condition for the generation of a large volcanic edifice. Most magma chambers form through repeated magma injections, commonly sills, and gradually expand and change their shapes. Highly irregular magma-chamber shapes are thermo-mechanically unstable; common long-term equilibrium shapes are comparatively smooth and approximate those of ellipsoids of revolution. Some chambers, particularly small and sill-like, may be totally molten. Most chambers, however, are only partially molten, the main part of the chamber being crystal mush, a porous material. During an eruption, magma is drawn from the crystal mush towards a molten zone beneath the lower end of the feeder dyke. Magma transport to the feeder dyke, however, depends on the chamber's internal structure; in particular on whether the chamber contains pressure compartments that are, to a degree, isolated from other compartments. It is only during large drops in the hydraulic potential beneath the feeder dyke that other compartments become likely to supply magma to the erupting compartment, thereby contributing to its excess pressure (the pressure needed to rupture a magma chamber) and the duration of the eruption. Simple analytical models suggest that during a typical eruption, the excess-pressure in the chamber decreases exponentially. This result applies to a magma chamber that (a) is homogeneous and totally fluid (contains no compartments), (b) is not subject to significant replenishment (inflow of new magma into the chamber) during the eruption, and (c) contains magma where exsolution of gas has no significant effect on the excess pressure. For a chamber consisting of pressure compartments, the exponential excess-pressure decline applies primarily to a single erupting compartment. When more than one compartment contributes magma to the eruption, the excess pressure may decline much more slowly and irregularly. Excess pressure is normally similar to the in-situ tensile strength of the host rock, 0.5-9 MPa. These in-situ strength estimates are based on hydraulic fracture measurements in drill-holes worldwide down to crustal depths of about 9 km. These measurements do not support some recent magma-chamber stress models that predict (a) extra gravity-related wall-parallel stresses at the boundaries of magma chambers and (b) magma-chamber excess pressures prior to rupture of as much as hundreds of mega-pascals, particularly at great depths. General stress models of magma chambers are of two main types: analytical and numerical. Earlier analytical models were based on a nucleus-of-strain source (a 'point pressure source') for the magma chamber, and have been very useful for rough estimates of magma-chamber depths from surface deformation during unrest periods. More recent models assume the magma chamber to be axisymmetric ellipsoids or, in two-dimensions, ellipses of various shapes. Nearly all these models use the excess pressure in the chamber as the only loading (since lithostatic stress effects are then automatically taken into account), assume the chamber to be totally molten, and predict similar local stress fields. The predicted stress fields are generally in agreement with the world-wide stress measurements in drill-holes and, in particular, with the in-situ tensile-strength estimates. Recent numerical models consider magma-chambers of various (ideal) shapes and sizes in relation to their depths below the Earth's surface. They also take into account crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies; in particular the effects of the effects of a nearby free surface and horizontal and inclined (dipping) mechanical layering. The results show that the free surface may have strong effects on the local stresses if the chamber is comparatively close to the surface. The mechanical layering, however, may have even stronger effects. For realistic layering, and other heterogeneities, the numerical models predict complex local stresses around magma chambers, with implications for dyke paths, dyke arrest, and ring-fault formation.

Gudmundsson, Agust

2012-09-01

174

Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome in a HIV-positive patient.  

PubMed

Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome is a very rare condition but one which requires swift diagnosis and urgent surgical decompression by fasciotomies in order to achieve the best outcome. We present the case of a 31-year-old HIV-positive man. The case highlights the perils of being sidetracked by an atypical clinical history instead of acting on the classical clinical examination findings. We will discuss the presentation and management of this patient, review the literature and highlight the key learning points. The most important learning point being that no matter how atypical the history, if a patient presents with limb pain out of proportion to the injury (with or without pain on passive stretch), sensory changes and a loss of motor power, then a diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome must be considered. PMID:24347455

Davidson, Donald James; Shaukat, Yasir Mehmood; Jenabzadeh, Reza; Gupte, Chinmay M

2013-01-01

175

Experimental study on elevated fires in a ceiling vented compartment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of elevation on fires in a ceiling vented compartment were investigated experimentally. The flame behavior of elevated fires was recorded. Various parameters including the fuel mass loss rate, the light extinction coefficient, the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature were measured. Results indicated that the variations of the flame behavior were consistent with that of the fuel mass loss rate. The fire location significantly impacted the light extinction coefficient, the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature, which all showed distinct stratification phenomena. For a higher elevated fire, the average fuel loss rate and the overall light extinction coefficient were smaller, the oxygen concentration was higher and the gas temperature was lower. In addition, the smoke descending was slower. From the perspective of those parameters the fire was less hazardous if the fire was elevated higher, which was totally different from the elevated fires in closed compartments.

Zhang, Jiaqing; Lu, Shouxiang; Li, Qiang; Li, Changhai; Yuan, Man; Yuen, Richard

2013-08-01

176

Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

177

Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

178

Light Timber-Framed Walls Exposed to Compartment Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to determine the equivalent time of exposure (to the ISO-834 standard fire), for a number of light timber-framed wall assemblies exposed to a range of time temperature curves characteristic of compartment fires.This analysis considered only the thermal behavior of the walls. Load bearing performance will be the subject of the next phase of the

G. C. Thomas; A. H. Buchanan; A. J. Carr; C. M. Fleischmann; P. J. Moss

1995-01-01

179

Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

180

Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2011-03-01

181

Wortmannin induces homotypic fusion of plant prevacuolar compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase, is a useful tool for studying protein trafficking and identifying organelles in the plant secretory and endocytic pathways. It has recently been demonstrated that wortmannin at 16.5 m Mo r 33mM caused the prevacuolar compartments (PVCs), identified as multivesicular bodies (MVBs) by their enrichment in vacuolar sorting receptor (VSRs) proteins and the BP-80

Junqi Wang; Yi Cai; Yansong Miao; Sheung Kwan Lam; Liwen Jiang

2009-01-01

182

Study of Explosion Protection in a Small Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of full-scale explosion suppression experiments were conducted in a compartment. The suppression performance of three\\u000a extinguishing systems with two suppressants for the deflagration-type explosion was studied. The impact of agent discharge\\u000a direction, the presence of an obstacle and the use of additives on suppression performance were investigated with extensive\\u000a data collection and analysis. The negative aspects and toxicity

Andrew Kim; Zhigang Liu; George Crampton

2007-01-01

183

A Novel Quality Control Compartment Derived from the Endoplasmic Reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of proteins that, because of improper or suboptimal processing, are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) involves retrotranslocation to reach the cytosolic ubiquitin-protea- some machinery. We found that substrates of this pathway, the precursor of human asialoglyco- protein receptor H2a and free heavy chains of murine class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC), accumulate in a novel preGolgi compartment that

Shiri Kamhi-Nesher; Marina Shenkman; Sandra Tolchinsky; Sharon Vigodman Fromm; Rachel Ehrlich; Gerardo Z. Lederkremer

2001-01-01

184

Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels  

PubMed Central

For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

2014-01-01

185

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2011-01-01

186

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2012-01-01

187

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2013-01-01

188

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

...2014-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2014-01-01

189

14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.  

... Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. 25.858 Section...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If...

2014-01-01

190

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartments containing gas-consuming appliances... Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation...compartments containing gas-consuming appliances...fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts...

2013-10-01

191

The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

1995-01-01

192

Opioid overdose with gluteal compartment syndrome and acute peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Gluteal compartment syndrome • acute peripheral nauropathy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Heroin addiction is common, with an estimated 3.7 million Americans reporting to have used it at some point in their lives. Complications of opiate overdose include infection, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory depression and central or peripheral nervous system neurological complications. Conclusions: We present a 42-year-old male admitted after heroin use with heroin-related peripheral nervous system complication preceded by an acute gluteal compartment syndrome and severe rhabdomyolysis. Case Report: Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of the compartment syndrome can lead to full recovery while any delay in management can be devastating and can lead to permanent disability. The presence of peripheral nervous system injuries may portend a poor prognosis and can also lead to long term disability. Careful neurological evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral nervous system injuries is of paramount importance, as these may be absent at presentation in patients with opioid overdose. There is a potential risk of delaying a necessary treatment like fasciotomy in these patients by falsely attributing clinical symptoms to a preexisting neuropathy. Early EMG and nerve conduction studies should be considered when the etiology of underlying neurological weakness is unclear. PMID:24459539

Adrish, Muhammad; Duncalf, Richard; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda; Venkatram, Sindhaghatta

2014-01-01

193

Aberrant signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer: A two compartment view  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with historically limited success in treatment and a poor prognosis. Pancreatic cancer appears to have a progressive pathway of development, initiating from well-described pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions and concluding with invasive carcinoma. These early lesions have been shown to harbor specific alterations in signaling pathways that remain throughout this tumorigenesis process. Meanwhile, new alterations occur during this process of disease progression to have a cumulative effect. This series of events not only impacts the epithelial cells comprising the tumor, but they may also affect the surrounding stromal cells. The result is the formation of complex signaling networks of communication between the tumor epithelial cell and the stromal cell compartments to promote a permissive and cooperative environment. This article highlights some of the most common pathway aberrations involved with this disease, and how these may subsequently affect one or both cellular compartments. Consequently, furthering our understanding of these pathways in terms of their function on the tumoral epithelial and stromal compartments may prove to be crucial to the development of targeted and more successful therapies in the future. PMID:22162229

McCleary-Wheeler, Angela L.; McWilliams, Robert; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.

2012-01-01

194

A two-compartment model for zinc in humans.  

PubMed

The oral absorption of zinc, from a test meal of minced beef, mashed potatoes and peas, have been measured in 19 healthy adults using the radiotracer 65Zn. The oral absorption, expressed as a percentage of the administered dose, was 20 +/- 5% (mean +/- 1 SD) in good agreement with previous results. In a subset of 9 subjects, tracer retention in whole body and whole blood was followed out to one year. The data were fitted to a simple two compartment model yielding total body zinc (TBZn), the zinc content in each of the 2 compartments and zinc turnover. The TBZn values ranged from 15.5 to 35.9 mmol while zinc turnover ranged from 0.043 to 0.073 mmol/d in keeping with results reported for significantly more complicated compartmental models applied to more comprehensive 65Zn tracer data sets. Additionally, TBZn correlated well with total body potassium, a measure of lean body mass, measured by whole body counting of the naturally-occurring potassium radioisotope, 40K. The zinc content of the more rapidly turning over compartment ranged from 3.2 to 5.6 mmol in reasonable agreement with exchangeable zinc pool estimations reported for short term studies using stable zinc isotopes. Therefore, the simple dataset and model employed in the present study yielded information on the short- and long-term behaviour of zinc compatible with both more complex radiotracer studies and analytically more demanding stable isotope studies. PMID:10612077

Watson, W S; Mitchell, K G; Lyon, T D; Kerr, N

1999-11-01

195

Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation. PMID:19091294

Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

2008-11-01

196

Shapes of Discoid Intracellular Compartments with Small Relative Volumes  

PubMed Central

A prominent feature of many intracellular compartments is a large membrane surface area relative to their luminal volume, i.e., the small relative volume. In this study we present a theoretical analysis of discoid membrane compartments with a small relative volume and then compare the theoretical results to quantitative morphological assessment of fusiform vesicles in urinary bladder umbrella cells. Specifically, we employ three established extensions of the standard approach to lipid membrane shape calculation and determine the shapes that could be expected according to three scenarios of membrane shaping: membrane adhesion in the central discoid part, curvature driven lateral segregation of membrane constituents, and existence of stiffer membrane regions, e.g., support by protein scaffolds. The main characteristics of each scenario are analyzed. The results indicate that even though all three scenarios can lead to similar shapes, there are values of model parameters that yield qualitatively distinctive shapes. Consequently, a distinctive shape of an intracellular compartment may reveal its membrane shaping mechanism and the membrane structure. The observed shapes of fusiform vesicles fall into two qualitatively different classes, yet they are all consistent with the theoretical results and the current understanding of their structure and function. PMID:22132079

Derganc, Jure; Bozic, Bojan; Romih, Rok

2011-01-01

197

Satellite Feature Identification: Blocking Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Satellite Feature Identification: Blocking Patterns examines how water vapor imagery can be used to help diagnose blocking patterns and their dissipation. Four major blocking patterns are covered in this module: Blocking highs, Cut-off lows, Rex blocks and Omega blocks. This module is part of the series: "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".

Comet

2009-06-26

198

The osmotically sensitive potassium and sodium compartments of synaptosomes  

PubMed Central

1. Synaptosomes are pinched-off nerve terminals whose components can be liberated by osmotic `shock'. A synaptosome preparation run through a Sephadex column that was eluted with an iso-osmotic solution retained its small ions, whereas when the column was eluted hypo-osmotically the small ions were lost. In this way the osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ of synaptosomes were measured. Measurements of the lactate dehydrogenase occluded within the synaptosome were also made. The release of osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase had similar characteristics with respect to the degree of osmotic `shock' necessary and the action of lytic agents. 2. The distribution of osmotically sensitive Na+, K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase in the subfractions of a crude mitochondrial preparation was examined. The synaptosome fraction was the richest source of these constituents. 3. On standing at 5° in iso-osmotic solution Na+ and K+ were lost from synaptosomes, whereas the amount of occluded lactate dehydrogenase remained stable, suggesting that the synaptosome membrane retained its integrity but that Na+ and K+ diffused through it out of the osmotically sensitive compartment. 4. The uptake of Na+ and K+ into the osmotically sensitive compartment was examined. At 5° the rates of uptake of Na+ and K+ were found to be equal to the rates of loss of these ions when correction to a uniform concentration gradient had been made. K+ travelled across the membrane slightly faster than Na+, the rate of K+ movement being about 1·0??equiv.cm.?2sec.?1 under a concentration gradient of 0·1m. Active transport is not thought to contribute to the ion movements under the conditions used. 5. The amount of K+ taken up into the osmotically sensitive compartment as a function of the external concentration was examined. Since the uncharged molecule d-[14C]galactose distributes across the synaptosome membrane similarly to K+ there is not thought to be a synaptosomal trans-membrane potential. The volume of the osmotically sensitive compartment was measured by this method and found to agree with estimates of the synaptosomal volume made from morphological studies. In media of low ionic strength synaptosomes exhibit a Donnan effect. 6. It is concluded from these studies that the osmotically sensitive compartment represents the inner volume of the synaptosome, which is completely separated from the outside environment by a diffusion barrier having many of the general properties of a biological membrane. PMID:6035507

Marchbanks, R. M.

1967-01-01

199

30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072 Section 56...Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

2010-07-01

200

30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072 Section 57...Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be...

2010-07-01

201

Compartment A126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room compartment B-1 and compartment B-2. Scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) is at right center of photograph. Manikin wearing WWII wave uniform is in display case at left center. (045) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

202

Thermally actuated wedge block  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

Queen, Jr., Charles C. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

203

Sampling versus Blocking  

E-print Network

The idea of blocking in configuration space has played an important role in the development of the RG ideas. However, despite being half a century old and having had a huge intellectual impact, generic numerical methods to perform blocking for lattice models have progressed more slowly than sampling methods. Blocking may be essential to deal with near conformal situations. Typically, blocking methods have smaller statistical errors but larger systematic errors than sampling methods. This situation is evolving with recent developments based on the Tensor RG (TRG) method. We report recent results for spin and gauge lattice models obtained with this new method regarding searches for fixed points, calculations of critical exponents and resolutions of sign problems. An interesting model for comparison is the 2-dimensional O(2) model with a chemical potential which has a sign problem with conventional Monte Carlo but allows sampling with the worm algorithm and blocking with various TRG formulations. We compare the ...

Meurice, Yannick; Unmuth-Yockey, Judah; Yang, Li-Ping; Zou, Haiyuan

2014-01-01

204

AVM Compartments: Do they modulate trasnidal pressures? An electrical network analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) compartments are thought as independently fed, hemodynamically independent components of the AVM nidus. Its possible role in modulating transnidal pressures have not been investigated to our knowledge. Objective: To investigate if AVM compartments play a role in modulating transnidal pressures by using electrical models as a method of investigation. Materials and Methods: Monocompartmental and multicompartmental AVM models were constructed using electrical circuits- building on Dr. Guglielmi's previous work. Each compartment was fed by two feeding arteries (resistors) and had a shared draining vein with other compartments in the AVM nidus. Each compartment is composed of a series of resistors which represents the pressure gradient along the AVM (arterial, arteriolar, venular, and venous). Pressure (voltage) readings were obtained within these nidal points. Results: The pressure gradient (venous-arterial) is more as there are less AVM compartments in the nidus model. The monocomparmental model had a pressure gradient of 66mmHg (V); while it was 64, 61, and 59 for the 2-, 3-, and 4-compartment models, respectively. In addition, the more the number of compartments, the greater the flow (mA) is in the whole AVM nidus, 33 ml/min for the monocompartmental AVM and 121ml/min for the 4-compartment AVM; though there was greater flow per compartment as there were less compartments, 33ml/min per compartment for the monocompartmental model versus 29ml/min for the 4-compartment model. Conclusion: Transnidal pressure gradients may be less the more compartments an AVM has. This electrical model represents an approach that can be used in investigating the hemodynamic contributions of AVM compartments. PMID:23559984

Litao, Miguel Lorenzo Silva; Pilar-Arceo, Carlene PC; Legaspi, Gerardo Dizon

2012-01-01

205

A comprehensive characterisation of the fibre composition and properties of a limb (Flexor digitorum superficialis, membri thoraci) and a trunk (Psoas major) muscle in cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The fibre type attributes and the relationships among their properties play an important role in the differences in muscle capabilities and features. Comprehensive characterisation of the skeletal muscles should study the degree of association between them and their involvement in muscle functionality. The purposes of the present study were to characterise the fibre type composition of a trunk (Psoas major, PM) and a limb (Flexor digitorum, membri thoraci, FD) muscle in the bovine species and to study the degree of coordination among contractile, metabolic and histological properties of fibre types. Immunohistochemical, histochemical and histological techniques were used. Results The fibre type composition was delineated immunohistochemically in calf muscle samples, identifying three pure (I, IIA, and IIX) and two hybrid type fibres (I+IIA, and IIAX). Most of the fibres in FD were types I and IIA, while pure IIX were absent. All fibre types were found in PM, the IIX type being the most frequent. Compared to other species, small populations of hybrid fibres were detected. The five fibre types, previously identified, were ascribed to three different acid and alkaline mATPase activity patterns. Type I fibres had the highest oxidative capacity and the lowest glycolytic capacity. The reverse was true for the IIX fibres, whereas the type IIA fibres showed intermediate properties. Regarding the histological properties, type I fibres tended to be more capillarised than the II types. Correlations among contractile, metabolic and histological features on individual fibres were significantly different from zero (r values varied between -0.31 and 0.78). Hybrid fibre values were positioned between their corresponding pure types, and their positions were different regarding their metabolic and contractile properties. Conclusion Coordination among the contractile, metabolic and histological properties of fibres has been observed. However, the magnitude of the correlation among them is always below 0.8, suggesting that the properties of muscles are not fully explained by the fibre composition. These results support the concept that, to some extent, muscle plasticity can be explained by the fibre type composition, and by the properties derived from their metabolic and histological profiles. PMID:19077313

Moreno-Sanchez, Natalia; Diaz, Clara; Carabano, Maria J; Rueda, Julia; Rivero, Jose-Luis L

2008-01-01

206

Noninvasive Measurements of Pressure for Detecting Compartment Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background We tested a noninvasive ultrasound, Pulse Phase Locked Loop (PPLL) technique for estimating Intramuscular Pressure (IMP) in a model Acute Compartment Syndrome (ACS); and compared it to a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) method. Questions We wanted to validate our model compartment syndrome, and to compare and validate the PPLL and NIRS methods of detecting compartment syndrome. Methods To simulate the tamponade of an ACS, external-pressure levels from 10 to 70 mm Hg were applied to the legs of 15 healthy adult subjects to raise their IMP. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing elevated IMP by the two noninvasive techniques. Results NIRS data varied significantly with compression (p=0.003) with large subject-to-subject variability (p<0.001). PPLL data also varied significantly with compression (p=0.004), but subject-to-subject variation was not significant (p=0.47), suggesting that individual variation does not affect the diagnostic accuracy of the PPLL technique. Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing normal IMP by the PPLL (<30 mm Hg from a slit catheter reading) from elevated IMP (>30 mm Hg) were 0.75 and 0.75, respectively, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.78. For the NIRS, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.65 and 0.65, respectively, and the AUC was 0.68. Conclusions Both NIRS and PPLL recordings are able to differentiate a simulated ACS up to 70 mm Hg. However, the PPLL technique is a slightly better diagnostic predictor than NIRS with less subject-to-subject variability and slightly better sensitivity and specificity. Level of Evidence Level II, Diagnostic test.

Lee, Samantha H.; Padilla, Michael; Lynch, John E.; Hargens, Alan R.

2014-01-01

207

compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual computer model has been constructed to simulate the compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. The model accounts for flow and transport in the variably saturated porous medium as well as biogeochemical change reactions. The most concentrated contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons and dissolved as well as mineral phase electron acceptors are considered. Also of major interest are reduced species with high oxygen demand such as ammonium. The influence of marsh plants on microbial activity, gas transport, water balance and contaminant fate in general is matter of current investigation. The constructed wetlands consist of a coarse sand or fine gravel porous medium. Marsh plants were introduced after installation, however, a number of control basins are operated unplanted. Water levels and through flow rates are adjusted to optimize the remediation efficiency. The system is likely to be neither reaction nor mixing limited, thus both, values of dispersivity and degradation kinetics may be crucial for remediation efficiency. Biogeochemical modelling is able to delineate in detail (i) the zonation of processes, (ii) temporal variation (breakthrough curves) and (iii) mass balance information. The contributions of biodegradation and volatilisation and the influence of plants (compartment transfer) can generally best be evaluated by the component's mass balance. More efficient mixing is expected in the wetlands with open water body which leads to both, more biodegradation and volatilisation. An important task is to quantify the role of plants and root systems for contaminant attenuation in constructed wetlands. The long term goal of investigation is to allow for predictions for the design of large scale compartment transfer wetlands that may be applied to remediate the site as a whole.

Maier, Uli; Oswald, Sascha; Thullner, Martin; Grathwohl, Peter

2010-05-01

208

Acute isolated lateral compartment syndrome of the leg after a noncontact sports injury.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome of the leg typically affects the anterior compartment or multiple compartments and can be traumatic or exertional (chronic) in nature. Isolated lateral (peroneal) compartment syndrome of the leg is a less typical and lesser-known condition that can potentially escape diagnosis if not considered in the workup of a painful leg. This article presents a case of isolated lateral compartment syndrome of the leg without gross muscle rupture or hematoma. The patient presented 21 hours after injury while playing soccer. Isolated lateral compartment syndrome was diagnosed based on history, physical examination, and a compartment pressure measurement of 130 mm Hg. Emergent surgical decompressive fasciotomy was performed. The peroneal longus and brevis muscle tissue was not lost. Superficial peroneal nerve sensation, which was initially impaired, was recovered at 1 month postoperatively. The patient recovered and was able to participate in sports again by 2 months postoperatively. PMID:19634843

Rehman, Saqib; Joglekar, Siddharth B

2009-07-01

209

Anammox bacteria in different compartments of recirculating aquaculture systems.  

PubMed

Strict environmental restrictions force the aquaculture industry to guarantee optimal water quality for fish production in a sustainable manner. The implementation of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) in biofilters would result in the conversion of both ammonium and nitrite (both toxic to aquatic animals) into harmless dinitrogen gas. Both marine and freshwater aquaculture systems contain populations of anammox bacteria. These bacteria are also present in the faeces of freshwater and marine fish. Interestingly, a new planctomycete species appears to be present in these recirculation systems too. Further exploitation of anammox bacteria in different compartments of aquaculture systems can lead to a more environmentally friendly aquaculture practice. PMID:22103532

van Kessel, Maartje A H J; Harhangi, Harry R; Flik, Gert; Jetten, Mike S M; Klaren, Peter H M; Op den Camp, Huub J M

2011-12-01

210

A historical review of compartment syndrome and Volkmann's ischemic contracture.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome has been a recognized disease entity since the mid-nineteenth century. Extensive research and clinical observation have allowed for a better understanding of this uniquely complex disease process. Outstanding contributions by clinicians over the past century have provided the basis for our current perspective on its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Although Volkmann's early reference to increased "pressure" as the cause of this syndrome was made over 100 years ago, today's modern concept of treatment to prevent contracture based on increased intracompartment pressure has evolved only through the combined efforts of various committed clinicians during the past century. PMID:9742414

Trice, M; Colwell, C W

1998-08-01

211

The Research Building Blocks  

E-print Network

Kindergarten Through Grade 3 Third Edition #12;#12;The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read Corporation Kindergarten Through Grade 3 #12;#12;Contents i Introduction 1 Phonemic Awareness Instruction 11

Rau, Don C.

212

Optoelectronics using block copolymers.  

SciTech Connect

Block copolymers, either as semiconductors themselves or as structure directors, are emerging as a promising class of materials for understanding and controlling processes associated with both photovoltaic energy conversion and light emitting devices.

Botiz, I.; Darling, S. B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

2010-05-01

213

Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

214

31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2014-07-01

215

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2011-07-01

216

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2010-07-01

217

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2012-07-01

218

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2014-07-01

219

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2013-07-01

220

31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2014-07-01

221

View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

222

Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Muller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

2014-01-01

223

Micro-compartment specific T2? relaxation in the brain  

PubMed Central

MRI at high field can be sensitized to the magnetic properties of tissues, which introduces a signal dependence on the orientation of white matter (WM) fiber bundles relative to the magnetic field. In addition, study of the NMR relaxation properties of this signal has indicated contributions from compartmentalized water environments inside and outside the myelin sheath that may be separable. Here we further investigated the effects of water compartmentalization on the MRI signal with the goal of extracting compartment-specific information. By comparing MRI measurements of human and marmoset brain at 7 T with magnetic field modeling, we show that: (1) water between the myelin lipid bilayers, in the axonal, and in the interstitial space each experience characteristic magnetic field effects that depend on fiber orientation (2) these field effects result in characteristic relaxation properties and frequency shifts for these compartments; and (3) compartmental contributions may be separated by multi-component fitting of the MRI signal relaxation (i.e. decay) curve. We further show the potential application of these findings to the direct mapping of myelin content and assessment of WM fiber integrity with high field MRI. PMID:23528924

Sati, Pascal; van Gelderen, Peter; Silva, Afonso C.; Reich, Daniel S.; Merkle, Hellmut; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

2013-01-01

224

Human striatal dopamine receptors are organized in compartments  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine (D2) receptors visualized in postmortem human striatum by quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding are organized into circumscribed zones of low receptor density separated from other such zones by regions of higher D2 density. The D2-rich zones of the caudate nucleus and putamen contain twice the binding of D2-poor zones. The Hill coefficient, obtained from saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding to thin sections of human striatum, gave a value near unity, indicating the binding was occurring to a single type of site. The patchiness of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding was unaltered by postincubation removal of lipid from the tissue sections, indicating that a differential absorption of tritium in white and grey matter does not account for the heterogeneous distribution. The D2-rich and D2-poor regions appear to form labyrinths oriented in the anterior-posterior axis and are typically aligned with, respectively, acetylcholinesterase-rich and -poor compartments as visualized on stained adjacent sections. Thus, the distribution of dopamine D2 receptors conforms to the striosomal organization of the human caudate-putamen, a finding that suggests that this receptor subtype may mediate the influence of dopamine on distinct neurochemical compartments within the structure.

Joyce, J.N.; Sapp, D.W.; Marshall, J.F.

1986-10-01

225

Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Müller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

2014-10-01

226

A post-lysosomal compartment in Dictyostelium discoideum.  

PubMed

Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and pyranine were fed to the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. These membrane-impermeable, pH-sensitive fluorophores initially entered a approximately equal to neutral endocytic compartment. They encountered maximal acidity (pH approximately equal to 5) about 15 min after ingestion, in what appeared to be digestive vacuoles (lysosomes). The environment of the probes returned to near neutrality by 30 min. At that time, the probes accumulated in a decreasing number of vacuoles of increasing size; ultimately, there were only a small number of vacuoles per cell with diameters of up to 3 microns. The late vacuoles sedimented more rapidly than did proton pumps, acid hydrolases, and recently ingested cargo. Unlike the vacuoles harvested immediately after the cells were fed FITC-dextran, the late vacuoles were not acidified by MgATP in vitro. Egestion of ingested FITC-dextran commenced after a lag of approximately equal to 45 min. A similar lag was observed for the resurfacing of two endocytosed bilayer-intercalated fluorophores. These results suggest that, in Dictyostelium, undigested endocytic cargo accumulates in and is returned to the cell surface through a distinctive compartment of large and nearly neutral post-lysosomal vacuoles. It will be important to determine the degree to which internalized plasma membrane components follow this post-lysosomal pathway. PMID:7681066

Padh, H; Ha, J; Lavasa, M; Steck, T L

1993-03-25

227

Assessment of cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments.  

PubMed

All nucleated cells, from yeast to animal cells, concentrate cationic chemicals (weak bases with a pKa~8-10) into acidic cell compartments (low retro-diffusion under a protonated form at low pH=ion trapping). The proton pump vacuolar (V)-ATPase is the driving force of this pseudotransport that concerns acidic organelles (mainly late endosomes and lysosomes). The latter rapidly become swollen (osmotic vacuolization) and macroautophagic. Cation concentration in cells is not proved to involve membrane transporters, but is prevented or reversed by inhibitors of V-ATPase, such as bafilomycin A1. Lipophilicity is a major determinant of the apparent affinity of this pseudotransport because simple diffusion of the uncharged form supports it. Quinacrine is a formerly used antiparasitic drug that is intensely fluorescent, lipophilic, and a tertiary amine. The drug, at micromolar concentrations, is proposed as a superior probe for assessing cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments, being readily quantified using fluorometry in cell extracts and analyzed using microscopy and cytofluorometry (fluorescence settings for fluorescein being applicable). Further, cells respond to micromolar levels of quinacrine by autophagic accumulation (e.g., accumulation of the activated macroautophagic effector LC3 II, immunoblots), an objective and universal response to sequestered amines. PMID:24359951

Marceau, François; Roy, Caroline; Bouthillier, Johanne

2014-01-01

228

Cortical alveoli of Paramecium: a vast submembranous calcium storage compartment.  

PubMed

The plasma membrane of Paramecium is underlain by a continuous layer of membrane vesicles known as cortical alveoli, whose function was unknown but whose organization had suggested some resemblance with muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The occurrence of antimonate precipitates within the alveoli first indicated to us that they may indeed correspond to a vast calcium storage site. To analyze the possible involvement of this compartment in calcium sequestration more directly, we have developed a new fractionation method, involving a Percoll gradient, that allows rapid purification of the surface layer (cortex) of Paramecium in good yield and purity and in which the alveoli retain their in vivo topological orientation. This fraction pumped calcium very actively in a closed membrane compartment, with strict dependence on ATP and Mg2+. The pumping activity was affected by anti-calmodulin drugs but no Triton-soluble calmodulin binding protein could be identified, using gel overlay procedures. The high affinity of the pump for calcium (Km = 0.5 microM) suggests that it plays an important role in the normal physiological environment of the cytosol. This may be related to at least three calcium-regulated processes that take place in the immediate vicinity of alveoli: trichocyst exocytosis, ciliary beating and cytoskeletal elements dynamics during division. PMID:1848863

Stelly, N; Mauger, J P; Claret, M; Adoutte, A

1991-04-01

229

Micro-compartment specific T2* relaxation in the brain.  

PubMed

MRI at high field can be sensitized to the magnetic properties of tissues, which introduces a signal dependence on the orientation of white matter (WM) fiber bundles relative to the magnetic field. In addition, study of the NMR relaxation properties of this signal has indicated contributions from compartmentalized water environments inside and outside the myelin sheath that may be separable. Here we further investigated the effects of water compartmentalization on the MRI signal with the goal of extracting compartment-specific information. By comparing MRI measurements of human and marmoset brain at 7T with magnetic field modeling, we show that: (1) water between the myelin lipid bilayers, in the axonal, and in the interstitial space each experience characteristic magnetic field effects that depend on fiber orientation (2) these field effects result in characteristic relaxation properties and frequency shifts for these compartments; and (3) compartmental contributions may be separated by multi-component fitting of the MRI signal relaxation (i.e. decay) curve. We further show the potential application of these findings to the direct mapping of myelin content and assessment of WM fiber integrity with high field MRI. PMID:23528924

Sati, Pascal; van Gelderen, Peter; Silva, Afonso C; Reich, Daniel S; Merkle, Hellmut; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

2013-08-15

230

Identification of a clonally expanding haematopoietic compartment in bone marrow  

PubMed Central

In mammals, postnatal haematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM) and involves specialized microenvironments controlling haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) behaviour and, in particular, stem cell dormancy and self-renewal. While these processes have been linked to a number of different stromal cell types and signalling pathways, it is currently unclear whether BM has a homogenous architecture devoid of structural and functional partitions. Here, we show with genetic labelling techniques, high-resolution imaging and functional experiments in mice that the periphery of the adult BM cavity harbours previously unrecognized compartments with distinct properties. These units, which we have termed hemospheres, were composed of endothelial, haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, were enriched in CD150+ CD48? putative HSCs, and enabled rapid haematopoietic cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Inducible gene targeting of the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 in endothelial cells disrupted hemospheres and, concomitantly, reduced the number of CD150+ CD48? cells. Our results identify a previously unrecognized, vessel-associated BM compartment with a specific localization and properties distinct from the marrow cavity. PMID:23188081

Wang, Lin; Benedito, Rui; Bixel, M Gabriele; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Stehling, Martin; Savendahl, Lars; Haigh, Jody J; Snippert, Hugo; Clevers, Hans; Breier, Georg; Kiefer, Friedemann; Adams, Ralf H

2013-01-01

231

Precursors to atmospheric blocking events  

E-print Network

Atmospheric blocking events disturb synoptic-scale features from their normal eastward progression, causing anomalous weather conditions for the duration of the blocking event. The essence of blocking can be captured by ...

Marino, Garrett P

2009-01-01

232

Plasma Membrane Area Increases with Spread Area by Exocytosis of a GPI-anchored Protein Compartment  

PubMed Central

The role of plasma membrane (PM) area as a critical factor during cell motility is poorly understood, mainly due to an inability to precisely follow PM area dynamics. To address this fundamental question, we developed static and dynamic assays to follow exocytosis, endocytosis, and PM area changes during fibroblast spreading. Because the PM area cannot increase by stretch, spreading proceeds by the flattening of membrane folds and/or by the addition of new membrane. Using laser tweezers, we found that PM tension progressively decreases during spreading, suggesting the addition of new membrane. Next, we found that exocytosis increases the PM area by 40–60% during spreading. Reducing PM area reduced spread area, and, in a reciprocal manner, reducing spreadable area reduced PM area, indicating the interconnection between these two parameters. We observed that Golgi, lysosomes, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein vesicles are exocytosed during spreading, but endoplasmic reticulum and transferrin receptor-containing vesicles are not. Microtubule depolymerization blocks lysosome and Golgi exocytosis but not the exocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein vesicles or PM area increase. Therefore, we suggest that fibroblasts are able to regulate about half of their original PM area by the addition of membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein compartment. PMID:19458190

Gauthier, Nils C.; Rossier, Olivier M.; Mathur, Anurag; Hone, James C.

2009-01-01

233

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in Lower Legs: Localization and Follow-up with Thallium201 SPECT Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

201TIuptake were about 60% for the anterior compartment and about 50% for the other three compartments. Redistribution was observed in 67% of normal compartments in the control subjects. The SPECT images demonstrated 16 ischemie compartments in eight of the nine patients. The SPECT results were consistent with those of quantitative analysis. There were discrepancies between the clinical and SPECT diagnoses

Shigeo Takebayashi; Haruo Takazawa; Ryosuke Sasaki; Hideyuki Miki; Ryotaku Soh; Junichi Nishimura

234

Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the osteons and similar to the "fully mineralized" stage of primary bone. The results of this study demonstrated that unremodeled compartments of bone grow older through maturation and growth of mineral crystals in a protracted fashion. However, the secondary osteonal remodeling impedes this aging process and maintains the mean tissue age fairly constant over decades. Therefore, slowing of remodeling may lead to brittle bone tissue through accumulation of fully mineralized tissue fragments.

Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

2003-01-01

235

Endocytosis of Epithelial Apical Junctional Proteins by a Clathrin-mediated Pathway into a Unique Storage Compartment  

PubMed Central

The adherens junction (AJ) and tight junction (TJ) are key regulators of epithelial polarity and barrier function. Loss of epithelial phenotype is accompanied by endocytosis of AJs and TJs via unknown mechanisms. Using a model of calcium depletion, we defined the pathway of internalization of AJ and TJ proteins (E-cadherin, p120 and ?-catenins, occludin, JAM-1, claudins 1 and 4, and ZO-1) in T84 epithelial cells. Proteinase protection assay and immunocytochemistry revealed orchestrated internalization of AJs and TJs into a subapical cytoplasmic compartment. Disruption of caveolae/lipid rafts did not prevent endocytosis, nor did caveolin-1 colocalize with internalized junctional proteins. Furthermore, AJ and TJ proteins did not colocalize with the macropinocytosis marker dextran. Inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis blocked internalization of AJs and TJs, and junctional proteins colocalized with clathrin and ?-adaptin. AJ and TJ proteins were observed to enter early endosomes followed by movement to organelles that stained with syntaxin-4 but not with markers of late and recycling endosomes, lysosomes, or Golgi. These results indicate that endocytosis of junctional proteins is a clathrin-mediated process leading into a unique storage compartment. Such mechanisms may mediate the disruption of intercellular contacts during normal tissue remodeling and in pathology. PMID:14528017

Ivanov, Andrei I.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.

2004-01-01

236

Cross-bridge kinetics in the presence of MgADP investigated by photolysis of caged ATP in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. The interaction between MgADP and rigor cross-bridges in glycerol-extracted single fibres from rabbit psoas muscle has been investigated using laser pulse photolysis of caged ATP (P3-1(2-nitrophenyl)ethyladenosine 5'-triphosphate) in the presence of MgADP and following small length changes applied to the rigor fibre. 2. Addition of 465 microM-MgADP to a rigor fibre caused rigor tension to decrease by 15.3 +/- 0.7% (S.E.M., n = 24 trials in thirteen fibres). The half-saturation value for this tension reduction was 18 +/- 4 microM (n = 23, thirteen fibres). 3. Relaxation from rigor by photolysis of caged ATP in the absence of Ca2+ was markedly slowed by inclusion of 20 microM-2 mM-MgADP in the photolysis medium. 4. Four phases of tension relaxation occurred with MgADP in the medium: at, a quick partial relaxation (in pre-stretch fibres); bt, a slowing of relaxation or a rise in tension for 50-100 ms; ct, a sudden acceleration of relaxation; and dt, a final, nearly exponential relaxation. 5. Experiments at varied MgATP and MgADP concentrations suggested that phase at is due to MgATP binding to nucleotide-free cross-bridges. 6. Phase bt was abbreviated by including 1-20 mM-orthophosphate (Pi) in the photolysis medium, or by applying quick stretches before photolysis or during phase bt. These results suggest that phases bt and ct are complex processes involving ADP dissociation, cross-bridge reattachment and co-operative detachment involving filament sliding and the Ca(2+)-regulatory system. 7. Stretching relaxed muscle fibres to 3.2-3.4 microns striation spacing followed by ATP removal and release of the rigor fibre until tension fell below the relaxed level allowed investigation of the strain dependence of relaxation in the regions of negative cross-bridge strain. In the presence of 50 microM-2 mM-MgADP and either 10 mM-Pi or 20 mM-2,3-butanedione monoxime, relaxation following photolysis of caged ATP was 6- to 8-fold faster for negatively strained cross-bridges than for positively strained ones. This marked strain dependence of cross-bridge detachment is predicted from the model of A. F. Huxley (1957). 8. In the presence of Ca2+, activation of contraction following photolysis of caged ATP was slowed by inclusion of 20-500 microM-MgADP in the medium. An initial decrease in tension related to cross-bridge detachment by MgATP was markedly suppressed in the presence of MgADP. 9. Ten millimolar Pi partly suppressed active tension generation in the presence of MgADP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1886072

Dantzig, J A; Hibberd, M G; Trentham, D R; Goldman, Y E

1991-01-01

237

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg in the military.  

PubMed

CECS is a common source of lower extremity disability among young athletic cohorts and military personnel. The five cardinal symptoms are pain, tightness, cramps, weakness, and diminished sensation. History and clinical examination remain the hallmarks for identifying CECS, although ICP measurements during exercise stress testing may be used to confirm diagnosis. Nonsurgical management is generally unsuccessful, although gait retraining may have benefits in selected individuals. When conservative measures have failed, operative management may be considered with fascial release of all affected compartments. Although clinical success has been documented in civilian cohorts, the results of surgical treatment in military service members have been far less reliable. Only approximately half of the military service members experience complete resolution of symptoms and at least 25% are unable to return to full duty. PMID:25280617

Dunn, John C; Waterman, Brian R

2014-10-01

238

Viral and Cellular Components of AAV2 Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a helpervirus-dependent parvovirus with a bi-phasic life cycle comprising latency in absence and lytic replication in presence of a helpervirus, such as adenovirus (Ad) or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Helpervirus-supported AAV2 replication takes place in replication compartments (RCs) in the cell nucleus where virus DNA replication and transcription occur. RCs consist of a defined set of helper virus-, AAV2-, and cellular proteins. Here we compare the profile of cellular proteins recruited into AAV2 RCs or identified in Rep78-associated complexes when either Ad or HSV-1 is the helpervirus, and we discuss the potential roles of some of these proteins in AAV2 and helpervirus infection. PMID:24222808

Vogel, Rebecca; Seyffert, Michael; Pereira, Bruna de Andrade; Fraefel, Cornel

2013-01-01

239

An iatrogenic popliteal pseudoaneurysm masked under compartment syndrome of leg  

PubMed Central

This case describes a 60-year-old gentleman who presented with a pulsating mass behind his knee. Before this, he had a fasciotomy for suspected compartment syndrome of leg following knee arthroscopy, but this failed to resolve his leg symptoms. He was hemodynamically stable on presentation. His left calf was swollen with a circumference of 3 cm greater than right. There was a large pulsating mass palpable in his left popliteal fossa. Distal neurovascular status of the leg was intact. He had a normal cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal and neurological examination. Ultrasound showed a cystic mass in the popliteal fossa suggestive of aneurysm. CT angiogram demonstrated a 6 × 5 × 4 cm pseudoaneurysm compressing and displacing the left popliteal artery with satisfactory three-vessel run-off. An emergency repair was performed. An arteriotomy was identified at the proximal end of pseudoaneurysm and it was closed with a patch of small saphenous vein. It led to a good clinical outcome. PMID:25362730

Sajjad, Jahangir; Coveney, Andrew; Ahmed, Abubakr; Fulton, Gregory

2014-01-01

240

The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin.  

PubMed

Commensal microbes on the skin surface influence the behaviour of cells below the epidermis. We hypothesized that bacteria or their products exist below the surface epithelium and thus permit physical interaction between microbes and dermal cells. Here to test this hypothesis, we employed multiple independent detection techniques for bacteria including quantitative PCR, Gram staining, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. Bacteria were consistently detectable within the dermis and dermal adipose of normal human skin. Sequencing of DNA from dermis and dermal adipose tissue identified bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA reflective of a diverse and partially distinct microbial community in each skin compartment. These results show the microbiota extends within the dermis, therefore, enabling physical contact between bacteria and various cells below the basement membrane. These observations show that normal commensal bacterial communities directly communicate with the host in a tissue previously thought to be sterile. PMID:23385576

Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chiang, Hsin-I; Jiang, Shangi B; Nagarajan, Harish; Zengler, Karsten; Gallo, Richard L

2013-01-01

241

An iatrogenic popliteal pseudoaneurysm masked under compartment syndrome of leg.  

PubMed

This case describes a 60-year-old gentleman who presented with a pulsating mass behind his knee. Before this, he had a fasciotomy for suspected compartment syndrome of leg following knee arthroscopy, but this failed to resolve his leg symptoms. He was hemodynamically stable on presentation. His left calf was swollen with a circumference of 3 cm greater than right. There was a large pulsating mass palpable in his left popliteal fossa. Distal neurovascular status of the leg was intact. He had a normal cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal and neurological examination. Ultrasound showed a cystic mass in the popliteal fossa suggestive of aneurysm. CT angiogram demonstrated a 6 × 5 × 4 cm pseudoaneurysm compressing and displacing the left popliteal artery with satisfactory three-vessel run-off. An emergency repair was performed. An arteriotomy was identified at the proximal end of pseudoaneurysm and it was closed with a patch of small saphenous vein. It led to a good clinical outcome. PMID:25362730

Sajjad, Jahangir; Coveney, Andrew; Ahmed, Abubakr; Fulton, Gregory

2014-01-01

242

Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation  

SciTech Connect

SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

Tolliver, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dillow, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-08-01

243

The transition zone: an essential functional compartment of cilia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of the primary cilium have begun to provide further insights into ciliary ultrastructure, with an emerging picture of complex compartmentalization and molecular components that combine in functional modules. Many proteins that are mutated in ciliopathies are localized to the transition zone, a compartment of the proximal region of the cilium. The loss of these components can disrupt ciliary functions such as the control of protein entry and exit from the cilium, the possible trafficking of essential ciliary components, and the regulation of signaling cascades and control of the cell cycle. The discovery of functional modules within the primary cilium may help in understanding the variable phenotypes and pleiotropy in ciliopathies. PMID:23352055

2012-01-01

244

Block copolymer nanocontainers.  

PubMed

Using cell dynamics computer simulation, we perform a systematic study of thin block copolymer films around a nanoparticle. Lamellar-, cylinder-, and sphere-forming block copolymers are investigated with respect to different film thicknesses, particle radii, and boundary conditions at the film interfaces. The obtained structures include standing lamellae and cylinders, "onions", cylinder "knitting balls", "golf ball", layered spherical, "virus"-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects. The kinetics of the structure formation and difference with planar thin films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nanocontainers can be formed by the coating of a sacrificial nanobead by a block copolymer layer with a well-controlled nanostructure. In addition, first scanning force microscopy experiments on a model system reveal surface structures similar to those predicted by our simulations. PMID:20496954

Pinna, Marco; Hiltl, Stephanie; Guo, Xiaohu; Böker, Alexander; Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

2010-05-25

245

Mini-invasive Surgery for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Forearm A New Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is now easily identified among the athletic population. It remains common in motorcyclists. The only treatment is the fasciotomy of the compart- ments and the gold standard procedure is still the open-invasive surgery. The authors describe a new mini-invasive surgical procedure to perform a 4-compartment fasciotomy of the forearm, and expose their results. Over a 3-year

Pierre Croutzet; Romain Chassat; Emmanuel H. Masmejean

246

Exertional paraspinal muscle rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome: a cause of back pain not to be missed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional compartment syndrome has been described and implicated in pain syndromes involving several fascial compartments.\\u000a This entity is classically characterized in the legs, feet and forearms of athletes. We describe a case of acute, severe exertional\\u000a compartment syndrome of the paraspinal muscles in a young and healthy male ultimately resulting in significant rhabdomyolysis\\u000a and acute kidney injury. The rarity of

Lori Wik; Jeffrey M. Patterson; Anna E. Oswald

2010-01-01

247

Spontaneous compartment syndrome in a patient with diabetes and statin administration: a case report  

PubMed Central

Compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by pressure increasing in the inextensible muscular compartments that leads to a decrease of capillary perfusion with consequent ischemic lesions of the logia elements. The authors report a case of an unusual compartment syndrome with spontaneous onset in a patient with type II diabetes and chronic therapy with statins (Atorvastatin). The condition was successfully treated by a fasciotomy and medical support. The importance of a correct anamnesis and a high level of suspicion is emphasized. PMID:19384624

Flamini, Stefano; Persi, Emanuele; Calvisi, Vittorio

2008-01-01

248

Blocks and Screws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, each student is given a block of wood and a screw (or nail), and is asked to put the screw into the block, without any tool (like a screwdriver or hammer). Their efforts, with varying success, lead to a discussion of contrivances, using various items and strategies as make-do (contrived) tools for which they were not intended, and an exploration of many examples of contrivances or adaptive compromises and other imperfections in the living world, especially in humans. This situation may be better explained by evolution rather than the result of intelligent design.

Patterson, Tim

249

Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.  

PubMed

Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30?wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

2011-05-12

250

EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE  

PubMed Central

Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

2011-01-01

251

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Caused by Massive Pyonephrosis in an Infant with Primary Obstructive Megaureter  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of abdominal compartment syndrome caused by massive pyonephrosis in an infant with primary obstructive megaureter successfully treated with emergency surgical decompression. PMID:21811507

Kavaguti, Silvia K.; Mackevicius, Barbara R.; de Andrade, Murilo F.; Tucci Jr, Silvio; Carlotti, Ana P. C. P.

2011-01-01

252

Compartments Cardiovascular Compartments  

E-print Network

.21 · 713qp(cv,g - cA,g) Switch from inhalation to exhalation based on data #12;Dissociation Constants Dissociation laws convert alveolar partial pressures to blood gas concentrations O2 and CO2 are absorbed into the blood stream differently CO2 dissociation is approximately linear cCO2 = KCO2 pCO2 + kCO2 O2

Olufsen, Mette Sofie

253

Lithosphere Compartments and Their Dynamics on the Romanian Territory. Seismotectonic Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various models for plate tectonics on the Romanian territory were constructed mainly based on geological arguments. The paper attempts to outline plate boundaries based on their geophysical behavior. Complex geophysical investigations were used to document a three-plate tectonic model for the Romanian territory. East European Plate (EEP), Moesian micro-plate (MoP), and the Intra-alpine micro-plate (IaP) are separated by major contacts: Tornquist-Teisseyre (TTZ) compresional zone, Peceneaga-Camena, and the Trans-Getica transform faults. Past to recent dynamics is discussed with emphasize on the consequences of the Black Sea opening. It seems that crust extension related to the W Black Sea basin opening split the MoP into several crustal slivers, which relatively move each to another. After the end of Black Sea evolution, active rifts in SW Arabian Plate could offer present driving forces acting on those compartments and generating normal earthquakes along their wedges. Crust shortening took place in various environments. East Carpathians, crust expelled met the inclined boundary of TTZ and came into an oblique subduction to which peculiarities of volcanism in the southernmost Harghita Mts. seem to be related. South Carpathians, crustal slivers faced the vertical margin of the IaP and provoked a lithosphere buckling, well reflected in the lowest gravity low on the Romanian territory, located in front and not beneath the highest mountains in the country. Within Vrancea active seismic zone, the confined hypocenters location seems to be due to the presence of a continental unstable transform-transform-compression triple junction. The block squeezed between MoP, EEP and IaP wedges was pushed down by tectonic forces driving the three plates. The penetration of a colder lithosphere compartment into the hotter upper mantle led to a thermodynamic disequilibrium. During the temperature accommodation various phenomena such as convective cells, phase transform, and devolatilization add new sources to the intermediate seismicity in the area. Some considerations on the migration of the triple junction are also made. Acknowledgements. Research made subject to the project 177/2003, supported by CERES Program of the Romanian Ministry of Education, Research and Youth.

Besutiu, L.; Zugravescu, D.

2004-05-01

254

A Place for Block Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

Moore, Gary T.

1997-01-01

255

Prostate stem cell compartments: expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic cells.  

PubMed

The stem cells of rapidly renewing tissues give rise to transiently proliferating cells, which in turn give rise to postmitotic terminally differentiated cells. Although the existence of a transiently proliferating compartment has been proposed for the prostate, little molecular anatomical evidence for its presence has been obtained to date. We used down-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 to identify cells capable of entering the proliferative phase of the cell cycle and, therefore, competent to fulfill the role of the transiently proliferating compartment. We examined the expression of p27Kip1 in relation to its role in the development of prostatic carcinoma. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from matched samples of normal-appearing prostate tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, primary adenocarcinomas, and pelvic lymph node metastases were evaluated by comparative immunohistochemistry against p27Kip1. In normal-appearing prostate epithelium, moderate to strong nuclear staining of p27Kip1 was present in greater than 85% of the terminally differentiated secretory cells. The normal basal cell compartment, believed to contain prostatic stem cells, showed distinctive p27Kip1 expression; acini in epithelial benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue contained more p27Kip1-negative basal cells than acini from non-benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue. A third layer of cells was identified that was sandwiched between the basal cells and the luminal cells, and this layer was consistently p27Kip1 negative. This intermediate layer was accentuated in the periurethral region, as well as in prostate tissue that had been subjected to prior combined androgen blockade. We hypothesize that, on appropriate additional mitogenic stimulation, cells in this layer, and other p27Kip1-negative basal cells, are competent for rapid entry into the cell cycle. Consistent with the fact that cancer cells are capable of cell division, all cases of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma also showed down-regulation of p27Kip1 as compared with the surrounding normal-appearing secretory cells. In pelvic lymph node metastases, p27Kip1 expression was also reduced. In summary, our results suggest that lack of nuclear p27Kip1 protein may delineate a potential transiently proliferating subcompartment within the basal cell compartment of the human prostate. In addition, these studies support the hypothesis that reduced expression of p27Kip1 removes a block to the cell cycle in human prostate epithelial cells and that dysregulation of p27Kip1 protein levels may be a critical early event in the development of prostatic neoplasia. PMID:9736039

De Marzo, A M; Meeker, A K; Epstein, J I; Coffey, D S

1998-09-01

256

Ischemic Nerve Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

Williams, Ian D.

257

Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

258

2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

259

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in an elite rower.  

PubMed

We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) affecting the volar forearm compartment of an elite rower. CECS of the forearm is a less well recognised entity than lower limb CECS. We describe a typical history and detail a potential treatment. PMID:23198215

O'heireamhoin, S; Baker, J F; Neligan, M

2011-01-01

260

Pre, during, and post exercise anterior tibial compartment pressures in long distance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess pre, during, and postexercise compartment pressures in the anterior tibial compartment in asymptomatic long distance runners (5000 m) and recreational athletes. Forty-eight participants (n = 48, 24 females and 24 males) underwent the experimental procedures. The participants were assigned into 4 groups of 12 volunteers. Intracompartmen- tal pressures measurements were recorded 1

Panagiotis Baltopoulos; Eugenia Papadakou; Maria Tsironi; Panagiotis Karagounis

261

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Forearm in an Elite Rower  

PubMed Central

We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) affecting the volar forearm compartment of an elite rower. CECS of the forearm is a less well recognised entity than lower limb CECS. We describe a typical history and detail a potential treatment. PMID:23198215

O'hEireamhoin, S.; Baker, J. F.; Neligan, M.

2011-01-01

262

Forefoot Running Improves Pain and Disability Associated With Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anterior compartment pressures of the leg as well as kinematic and kinetic measures are significantly influenced by running technique. It is unknown whether adopting a forefoot strike technique will decrease the pain and disability associated with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) in hindfoot strike runners.Hypothesis: For people who have CECS, adopting a forefoot strike running technique will lead to

Angela R. Diebal; Robert Gregory; Curtis Alitz; J. Parry Gerber

2012-01-01

263

Recurrent acute compartment syndrome of the foot following a calcaneal fracture repair.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome is a known possible complication of calcaneal fractures and few case reports have documented a recurrent event after initial surgical fasciotomies. This article describes a rare case demonstrating a recurrence of acute compartment syndrome within days of initial fasciotomies and surgical repair of a comminuted calcaneal fracture. PMID:20691378

Ramanujam, Crystal L; Wade, Justin; Selbst, Brian; Belczyk, Ronald; Zgonis, Thomas

2010-07-01

264

Internal organisation of the nucleus: assembly of compartments by macromolecular crowding and the nuclear matrix model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many and possibly all macromolecules in the nucleus are segregated into discrete compartments, but the current model that this is achieved by a fibrillar nuclear matrix which structures the nuclear interior and compartments is not consistent with all experimental observations, as reviewed here. New results are presented which suggest that macromolecular crowding forces play a crucial role in the assembly

Ronald Hancock

2004-01-01

265

Changes in core temperature compartment size on induction of general anaesthesia.  

PubMed

A two-compartment model of temperature distribution estimates the core compartment to occupy 66% of body mass at rest, while the peripheral compartment comprises the remainder. General anaesthesia impairs thermoregulation by central and peripheral actions. Peripheral vasodilatation accelerates heat transfer from the core to peripheral compartment causing the core compartment to cool and expand in size. Core hypothermia may be a significant cause of postoperative morbidity. This undocumented change in the size of the core compartment on induction of anaesthesia can be calculated. Core size increased from the established value of 66% before induction of general anaesthesia to 71.2 (SD 6)% of body mass, 20 min after induction of anaesthesia (P = 0.0001). On induction of general anaesthesia, the core compartment cools and expands while the peripheral compartment warms and contracts by a corresponding amount. Measurement of the magnitude of changes in core:periphery heat distribution on induction of anaesthesia contribute to a clearer understanding of the pathophysiology of perioperative hypothermia. PMID:10211009

Deakin, C D

1998-12-01

266

Seasonal fluctuation of cholesterol in ovarian compartments R. K. CHALANA S. S. GURAYA  

E-print Network

Seasonal fluctuation of cholesterol in ovarian compartments of birds R. K. CHALANA S. S. GURAYA of seasonal fluctuation in the cholesterol content of ovarian compartments in three species of birds (crow. The pattern of seasonal fluctuation in the cholesterol content of the three bird species is similar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Multivariate profiling of neurodegeneration-associated changes in a subcellular compartment of neurons via image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dysfunction in the endolysosome, a late endosomal to lysosomal degradative intracellular compartment, is an early hallmark of some neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease. However, the subtle morphological changes in compartments of affected neurons are difficult to quantify quickly and reliably, making this phenotype inaccessible as either an early diagnostic marker, or as a read-out for drug screening. METHODS:

Saravana K. Kumarasamy; Yunshi Wang; Vignesh Viswanathan; Rachel S. Kraut

2008-01-01

268

19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind...FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... [Can. Transit] for use on railroad cars, and “United States-Canada...

2014-04-01

269

A two-zone fire growth and smoke movement model for multi-compartment buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire growth and smoke movement model for a multi-compartment building has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada. This development is primarily intended to help evaluate the risk from fires in buildings. This paper presents the related physical models, numerical methods, and some verification examples. The 2-zone ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are derived for the compartments with

Zhuman Fu; George Hadjisophocleous

2000-01-01

270

14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

2010-01-01

271

Liquid blocking check valve  

DOEpatents

A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

Merrill, John T. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1984-01-01

272

Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.  

PubMed

Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P2 into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. PMID:25299335

Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

2014-10-01

273

Cargo- and compartment-selective endocytic scaffold proteins  

PubMed Central

The endocytosis of membrane receptors is a complex and tightly controlled process that is essential for maintaining cellular homoeostasis. The removal of receptors from the cell surface can be constitutive or ligand-induced, and occurs in a clathrin-dependent or -independent manner. The recruitment of receptors into specialized membrane domains, the formation of vesicles and the trafficking of receptors together with their ligands within endocytic compartments are regulated by reversible protein modifications, and multiple protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions. Recent reports describe a variety of multidomain molecules that facilitate receptor endocytosis and function as platforms for the assembly of protein complexes. These scaffold proteins typically act in a cargo-specific manner, recognizing one or more receptor types, or function at the level of endocytic cellular microcompartments by controlling the movement of cargo molecules and linking endocytic machineries to signalling pathways. In the present review we summarize present knowledge on endocytic scaffold molecules and discuss their functions. PMID:15219178

2004-01-01

274

Delayed retroperitoneal bleeding causing acute abdominal compartment syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

Delayed acute abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) due to retroperitoneal bleeding is rare. Herein, we report the clinical management of such a rare case. A 46-year-old male who fell from a height of 12 meters was admitted to Al-Ain Hospital. He was hemodynamically stable. His abdomen was soft and not distended. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was normal on admission. On day 7, the patient tolerated enteral feeding. On day 15, he became suddenly hypotensive. CT of the abdomen showed a large retroperitoneal hematoma compressing the inferior vena cava (IVC) associated with contrast blush indicating active bleeding. The abdomen became distended and tense. The patient developed respiratory failure and severe acidosis, increased airway pressure and reduced urine output. A clinical diagnosis of ACS was made. There was dramatic improvement in the hemodynamic and respiratory function directly after laparotomy. Exploration of the retroperitoneal hematoma showed an actively bleeding ligated ileocolic vessel. The abdomen was temporarily closed using saline IV bags sandwiched between two layers of Steri-Drape. The abdomen was closed primarily on day 6. The patient was discharged home on day 50. Life-threatening delayed retroperitoneal bleeding may occur suddenly two weeks after trauma causing ACS. PMID:21644100

Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Jawas, Ali; Boraie, Mustafa; Ahmed, Misbah U

2011-03-01

275

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs.

Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

1991-12-31

276

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs.

Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

1991-01-01

277

Predictive factors of abdominal compartment syndrome in neonatal age.  

PubMed

In the pediatric population, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of abdominal wall defect repair. However, there are only few reports on ACS in newborns and only a proposal of critical intra-abdominal pressure value (IAP) in term newborns, absent in preterm newborns. Although the prevalent clinical sign is tense abdominal distension, it may be difficult to distinguish ACS from pathologies that will not require decompression. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors for ACS and therefore morbidity or mortality indicators. We reviewed newborns presenting with tense abdominal distension and end organ failure. Anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, and instrumental investigations were analyzed to extrapolate predictors. Outcomes were compared with a control group. The incidence of ACS in our neonatal intensive care unit was 5% in the overall population of babies, 16% in tracheal-ventilated newborns, and 57% in infants with abdominal wall defects. We found that, with onset of acidosis or high gastric residuals, the lactate values will be predictive for mortality. We can also suggest paying particular attention to high lactate values just at the onset of distension, in infants with more advanced gestational age, with previously surgical repair, to determine early surgical intervention independently of a specific IAP measurement. PMID:23456905

Schierz, Ingrid Anne Mandy; Giuffrè, Mario; Piro, Ettore; Ortolano, Rita; Siracusa, Fortunato; Pinello, Giuseppa; La Placa, Simona; Corsello, Giovanni

2014-01-01

278

Coordination of the secretory compartments via inter-organelle signalling.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, accumulating data have demonstrated the presence of 'classical' signalling molecules on endomembranes, including endosomes and the Golgi complex. It is now clear that through these signalling molecules, endomembranes can serve two functions: one is to elaborate and relay signalling initiated at the plasma membrane, and the other is to initiate new signalling in response to stimuli originating from the endomembranes themselves. Here, we have examined this emerging paradigm, with particular emphasis on a novel Golgi-based signalling cascade. This system senses, and is activated by, endoplasmic reticulum chaperones that arrive at the Golgi complex during constitutive secretion; these bind to the KDEL receptor and activate the Src family kinases. These, in turn, positively regulate the intra-Golgi transport machinery. This system thus coordinates the initiating process, the membrane input, with an increased membrane output. In more general terms, it responds with signals to an endogenous event. In this respect, it is similar to the unfolded protein response, a complex cell reaction to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, that is, to our knowledge the only other examples of inter-organelle signalling initiated within the cell. However, in contrast to the Golgi-based signalling pathway, this unfolded protein signalling is generally activated by pathological conditions. We propose that inter-organelle signalling is a mechanism by which different compartments of eukaryotic cells coordinate their functions. PMID:19447052

Sallese, Michele; Giannotta, Monica; Luini, Alberto

2009-09-01

279

Compartment Venting Analyses of Ares I First Stage Systems Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compartment venting analyses have been performed for the Ares I first stage systems tunnel using both the lumped parameter method and the three-dimensional (31)) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The main objective of venting analyses is to predict the magnitudes of differential pressures across the skin so the integrity of solid walls can be evaluated and properly designed. The lumped parameter method assumes the gas pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel are spatially uniform, which is questionable since the tunnel is about 1,700 in. long and 4 in. wide. Therefore, 31) transient CFD simulations using the commercial CFD code FLUENT are performed in order to examine the gas pressure and temperature variations inside the tunnel. It was found that the uniform pressure and temperature assumptions inside the systems tunnel are valid during ascent. During reentry, the uniform pressure assumption is also reasonable but the uniform temperature assumption is not valid. Predicted pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel using CFD are also compared with those from the lumped parameter method using the NASA code CHCHVENT. In general, the average pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel from CFD are between the burst and crush results from CHCHVENT during both ascent and reentry. The skin differential pressure and pressure inside the systems tunnel relative to freestream pressure from CHCHVENT as well as velocity vectors and streamlines are also discussed in detail.

Wang, Qunzhen; Arner, Stephen

2009-01-01

280

Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

1998-01-01

281

31 CFR 585.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 585.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The...

2010-07-01

282

31 CFR 588.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WESTERN BALKANS STABILIZATION REGULATIONS General Definitions § 588.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2014-07-01

283

31 CFR 558.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 558.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2014-07-01

284

31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked...

2014-07-01

285

31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked...

2011-07-01

286

31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked...

2012-07-01

287

31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked...

2013-07-01

288

31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked...

2010-07-01

289

31 CFR 540.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.301 Blocked account; blocked property....

2014-07-01

290

VPS27 controls vacuolar and endocytic traffic through a prevacuolar compartment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Newly synthesized vacuolar hydrolases such as carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) are sorted from the secretory pathway in the late-Golgi compartment and reach the vacuole after a distinct set of membrane-trafficking steps. Endocytosed proteins are also delivered to the vacuole. It has been proposed that these pathways converge at a "prevacuolar" step before delivery to the vacuole. One group of genes has been described that appears to control both of these pathways. Cells carrying mutations in any one of the class E VPS (vacuolar protein sorting) genes accumulate vacuolar, Golgi, and endocytosed proteins in a novel compartment adjacent to the vacuole termed the "class E" compartment, which may represent an exaggerated version of the physiological prevacuolar compartment. We have characterized one of the class E VPS genes, VPS27, in detail to address this question. Using a temperature-sensitive allele of VPS27, we find that upon rapid inactivation of Vps27p function, the Golgi protein Vps10p (the CPY-sorting receptor) and endocytosed Ste3p rapidly accumulate in a class E compartment. Upon restoration of Vps27p function, the Vps10p that had accumulated in the class E compartment could return to the Golgi apparatus and restore correct sorting of CPY. Likewise, Ste3p that had accumulated in the class E compartment en route to the vacuole could progress to the vacuole upon restoration of Vps27p function indicating that the class E compartment can act as a functional intermediate. Because both recycling Golgi proteins and endocytosed proteins rapidly accumulate in a class E compartment upon inactivation of Vps27p, we propose that Vps27p controls membrane traffic through the prevacuolar/endosomal compartment in wild-type cells. PMID:7593183

1995-01-01

291

Gene expression analysis of the microvascular compartment in multiple sclerosis using laser microdissected blood vessels.  

PubMed

The blood brain barrier (BBB) is formed by capillary endothelial cells with inter-endothelial cell tight junctions and other cells such as pericytes and astrocytes present. Previous studies have shown a role for tight junction abnormalities in BBB leakage in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. This marks a key stage in the development of inflammatory demyelination in MS. The aim of this study was to identify aberrantly expressed genes involved in BBB changes in MS lesions. A focused endothelial cell biology microarray, capable of detecting changes in expression of 113 endothelial cell-specific genes, was employed to analyse endothelial cell mRNA extracted from post-mortem control white matter, MS normal appearing white matter (NAWM), chronic active or inactive lesions by laser capture microdissection. Microarray analysis found 52 genes out of 113 analysed, predominantly in the activation functional group, to be differentially expressed in lesions compared to control or NAWM (p < 0.01). The majority of the differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real time PCR. In addition, the protein expression profiles of ICAM2, MMP2, and VEGFR1 were examined by immunofluorescent staining of selected tissue blocks. ICAM-2 was expressed at a higher level in chronic inactive lesions than control or NAWM, corresponding with the increased mRNA measured by microarray and real time PCR. The data shown, presenting a number of differentially expressed genes in the microvascular compartment of MS lesions, may shed light on the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the breakdown of the BBB. This moves us a step closer to the identification of potential therapeutic targets for repair of the compromised BBB. PMID:19967542

Cunnea, Paula; McMahon, Jill; O'Connell, Enda; Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Fitzgerald, Una; McQuaid, Stephen

2010-05-01

292

View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

293

Local Anesthesia and Nerve Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many inguino-scrotal procedures in urology can be performed under local anesthesia. Sometimes local anesthetics are used to\\u000a supplement post-operative pain relief in patients who had general anesthesia. The common nerve blocks are an inguinal block\\u000a for hernia repairs and inguinal orchidectomies, a cord block for vasectomies, and a penile block for circumcision and frenuloplasty.\\u000a The testis and scrotum are innervated

Hashim Hashim

294

Snell's Law with Large Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introductory physics lab curriculum usually has one experiment devoted to the study of the refraction of light. The most obvious way to study the refraction of light is to lay a transparent block down on the lab bench and aim a laser beam horizontally at the block so that it refracts twice-inward upon entering the block and outward upon

John J. Lynch

2007-01-01

295

19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.  

...Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards...TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings;...

2014-04-01

296

Painless, atraumatic, isolated lateral compartment syndrome of the leg: an unusual triad of atypical findings.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome can be a devastating complication with significant morbidity when not recognized or treated expediently. Among the classic pentad of signs and symptoms associated with compartment syndrome, pain that is out of proportion to the injury is often cited as the earliest and most sensitive. We present a case report of an atypical presentation of compartment syndrome of the leg in which a patient taking lithium for bipolar disorder did not report pain out of proportion to the injury mechanism. Lithium has been implicated in altering pain perception and increasing the tolerance and threshold for pain, but this has not been widely reported in the orthopedic literature. In addition to compartment syndrome that was painless, the patient presented with 2 additional atypical findings. She presented with compartment syndrome that was atraumatic and isolated to only 1 out of the 4 compartments of the leg. A compartment syndrome that is painless, atraumatic, and isolated to a single compartment represents an unusual triad of atypical findings that has not been previously reported. With unusual presentations of compartment syndrome, there is an increased risk of late or unrecognized diagnosis, consequently increasing the likelihood of significant nerve damage or muscle necrosis. Clinicians have historically applied a higher level of scrutiny to patients who were deemed "obtunded," that is, those in whom an assessment of pain cannot be reliably determined. In the past, obtunded patients have included intubated or comatose patients, infants and children, mentally disabled patients, and patients with altered mental status, nerve injury, or distracting injuries. Based on evidence from the psychiatry and anesthesia literatures, we propose that patients taking lithium should be added to this list of "obtunded" patients in whom a reliable assessment of pain may not be possible. PMID:20305839

Oh, Luke S; Lewis, Paul B; Prasarn, Mark L; Lorich, Dean G; Helfet, David L

2010-01-01

297

Building Blocks for Youth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Building Blocks for Youth is an alliance of children's advocates, researchers, law enforcement professionals and community organizers that seeks to protect minority youth in the justice system and promote rational and effective justice policies." The organization's Website provides reports, data, and news releases concerning the issue of the treatment of minorities in the American criminal justice system. Issued this month, their latest report Off Balance: Youth Race and Crime in the News examines the media treatment of crime victims and perpetrators who are people of color. Building Blocks also offers three previous reports that analyze data concerning the discrepancies between sentencing for black and white juveniles accused of similar crimes, both nationally and specifically in California, and data on the growing practice of charging juveniles as adults. The site also features a number of fact sheets on related issues, a newsroom featuring press releases and links to related articles in the online press, and a monthly newsletter presenting the latest fact sheet. The reports are offered in HTML as well as .pdf formats for easy downloading.

298

Accuracy of Palpation-Guided and Ultrasound-Guided Needle Tip Placement Into the Deep and Superficial Posterior Leg Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Invasive leg compartment testing may be performed to diagnose chronic exertional compartment syndrome. No prior study has assessed the accuracy of leg compartment needle tip access.Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe and determine the accuracy of palpation-guided and ultrasound-guided techniques for needle tip placement into the deep and superficial posterior leg compartments by a less experienced clinician and

Evan Peck; Jonathan T. Finnoff; Jay Smith; Heather Curtiss; Jeffery Muir; John H. Hollman

2011-01-01

299

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a collegiate soccer player: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition among running athletes. In those who engage in repetitive activity, it can cause severe, debilitating leg pain. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough workup that includes history and physical examination, radiologic studies (x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan), and compartment pressure monitoring. Most patients do not respond well to nonoperative intervention. Fasciotomy provides satisfactory relief of symptoms and helps patients return to their sports. We present the case of a high-level collegiate soccer player with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. PMID:18795187

Farr, Derek; Selesnick, Harlan

2008-07-01

300

Optic nerve: separating compartments based on 23Na TQF spectra and TQF-diffusion anisotropy.  

PubMed

We present a triple quantum filtered (TQF) sodium spectroscopy study of an excised bovine optic nerve. By choosing proper experimental parameters, this technique allowed us to independently observe the satellite transitions originating from the various compartments in the tissue. TQF-based diffusion experiments provided further characterization of the compartments in terms of their geometry. As a result, the peak that exhibited the smallest residual quadrupolar splitting, and the largest diffusion anisotropy was assigned to axons. Two other pairs of satellite peaks were assigned to extra-cellular compartments on the basis of either the size of their quadrupolar splitting or the diffusion properties. PMID:23588155

Eliav, Uzi; Xu, Xiang; Jerschow, Alexej; Navon, Gil

2013-06-01

301

Dual-Compartment Neurofluidic System for Electrophysiological Measurements in Physically Segregated and Functionally Connected Neuronal Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

We developed a dual-compartment neurofluidic system with inter-connecting microchannels to connect neurons from their respective compartments, placed on a planar microelectrode arrays. The design and development of the compartmented microfluidic device for neuronal cell culture, protocol for sustaining long-term cultures, and neurite growth through microchannels in such a closed compartment device are presented. Using electrophysiological measurements of spontaneous network activity in the compartments and selective pharmacological manipulation of cells in one compartment, the biological origin of network activity and the fluidic isolation between the compartments are demonstrated. The connectivity between neuronal populations via the microchannels and the crossing-over of neurites are verified using transfection experiments and immunofluorescence staining. In addition to the neurite cross-over to the adjacent compartment, functional connectivity between cells in both the compartments is verified using cross-correlation (CC) based techniques. Bidirectional signal propagation between the compartments is demonstrated using functional connectivity maps. CC analysis and connectivity maps demonstrate that the two neuronal populations are not only functionally connected within each compartment but also with each other and a well connected functional network was formed between the compartments despite the physical barrier introduced by the microchannels. PMID:22025913

Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T.; Ciliberti, Davide; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J.; Decre, Michel M. J.

2011-01-01

302

The significance of intracompartmental pressures in diagnosing chronic exertional compartment syndrome – A metaanalysis of studies monitoring dynamic anterior compartment pressures during exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the musculus tibialis anterior is thought to be responsible for a major part\\u000a of complaints of the lower leg among active sportsmen. There is an important role of tissue pressure measurement in diagnosing\\u000a chronic anterior compartment syndrome during muscular activity. However, there is a controversial debate about the relevant\\u000a parameters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Metaanalysis

C. Willy; J. Sterk; H.-U. Völker; S. Benesch; H. Gerngroß

1999-01-01

303

Block copolymer investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or catastrophic damage. Although the polymer does not assume the same exact topography as before lithography or damage, the fingerprint patterns are shown to reform.

Yufa, Nataliya A.

304

Radiation Blocking Lenses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

1993-01-01

305

Baroplastic Block copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

Hewlett, Sheldon A.

2005-03-01

306

Compartment-resolved imaging of cortical functional hyperemia with OCT angiography  

PubMed Central

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) angiography was applied to image functional hyperemia in different vascular compartments in the rat somatosensory cortex. Dynamic backscattering changes, indicative of changes in dynamic red blood cell (dRBC) content, were used to monitor the hemodynamic response. Three-dimensional movies depicting the microvascular response to neuronal activation were created for the first time. An increase in the attenuation coefficient during activation was identified, and a simple normalization procedure was proposed to correct for it. This procedure was applied to determine compartment-resolved backscattering changes caused by dRBC content changes during functional activation. Increases in dRBC content were observed in all vascular compartments (arterial, arteriolar, capillary, and venular), with the largest responses found in the arterial and arteriolar compartments. dRBC content increased with dilation in arteries but with barely detectable dilation in veins. dRBC content increased in capillaries without significant “all or none” capillary recruitment. PMID:24009990

Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

2013-01-01

307

9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT SANITATION § 416.6 Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments. When an FSIS program employee finds...

2014-01-01

308

Effect of watershed parameters on mercury distribution in different environmental compartments in the  

E-print Network

to humans and wildlife. While the risks of Hg contam- ination of different environmental compartments primarily on those with a history of Hg point-source contam- ination (e.g., Lacerda et al., 1991; Bonzongo

Chaubey, Indrajeet

309

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Additional Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-5 Compartments or...

2012-10-01

310

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Additional Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-5 Compartments or...

2011-10-01

311

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Additional Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-5 Compartments or...

2013-10-01

312

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Additional Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-5 Compartments or...

2010-10-01

313

Compartment C1 engine room upper level; view aft to forward; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment C-1 engine room upper level; view aft to forward; note auxiliary condenser at lower center and main steam stop valve at upper left. (077) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

314

Compartment A125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for supporting and protecting the forward 8" gun turret above. Anchor windlass is in left background. (033) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

315

14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...flight loads when occupied. (g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck service compartment...must meet the following requirements: (1) Each lift control switch outside the lift, except emergency stop buttons, must be...

2012-01-01

316

14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flight loads when occupied. (g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck service compartment...must meet the following requirements: (1) Each lift control switch outside the lift, except emergency stop buttons, must be...

2010-01-01

317

14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flight loads when occupied. (g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck service compartment...must meet the following requirements: (1) Each lift control switch outside the lift, except emergency stop buttons, must be...

2011-01-01

318

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. PMID:21667913

Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

2011-06-01

319

Pre, during, and post exercise anterior tibial compartment pressures in long distance runners.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess pre, during, and postexercise compartment pressures in the anterior tibial compartment in asymptomatic long distance runners (5000 m) and recreational athletes. Forty-eight participants (n = 48, 24 females and 24 males) underwent the experimental procedures. The participants were assigned into 4 groups of 12 volunteers. Intracompartmental pressures measurements were recorded 1 minute before, at the 1(st) minute after the onset of exercise, and finally 5 minutes after the completion of the exercise on treadmill. The wick catheter technique was the method of choice for measuring intracompartmental pressure values. Post hoc analysis of the groups by measures interaction indicated that all pairwise comparisons among pre-test (1 minute before exercise), during-test (1(st) minute during exercise), and post-test measures (5 minutes after exercise) were statistically significant for male controls (p < .001), male athletes (p < .001), female controls (p < .001) and female athletes (p < .001). The results confirm the correlation between long distance runners and the increased risk of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) development. Key pointsCompartment syndrome is a condition characterised by increased intracompartmental pressures within inelastic fascia which surrounds muscular compartmentsInitial CECS symptomatology is not clear and increases graduallyAll the study participants presented the lowest intra-compartment pressure values one minute before the beginning of exercise (at rest) with the highest value being recorded at the first minute of exercise.Control population had lower intra-compartment pressure than professional runners.One minute after the beginning of exercise control and athlete men group showed higher intra-compartment pressure than control and athlete women group, indicating a probable sex difference both for athletes and controls.Further studies on predisposing factors of CECS, such as increased intracompartmental pressure values in asymptomatic population is needed to establish the diagnosis in a proper time. PMID:24150140

Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Papadakou, Eugenia; Tsironi, Maria; Karagounis, Panagiotis; Prionas, George

2008-01-01

320

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of Forearm Flexor Muscles in Rock Climbers — Evaluation of Physiological Standard Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chronic exertional compartment syndromes (CECS) are a well-known topic in sports medicine. Most commonly affected is the tibialis\\u000a anterior compartment in runners and walkers. Diagnostic and therapeutic criteria for this group are widely discussed. Only\\u000a a few cases of CECS of the forearm flexor muscles have been reported, although an increasing number of patients with suspected\\u000a CECS have been seen

Volker R. Schöffl; Sebastian Klee; Wolf Strecker

321

Delay in diagnosis of acute on chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional compartment syndrome is most commonly described in its chronic form in the young sportive patient. The acute form\\u000a is a lot rarer and usually only unilateral. We report a case in which a chronic compartment syndrome became acute after intense\\u000a effort. This was diagnosed rather late due to the lack of knowledge about this syndrome. The necrosis noticed during

André-Pierre Uzel; Guillaume Lebreton; Medhi Lionel Socrier

2009-01-01

322

Volume quantification of coniferous forest compartments using spectral radiance recorded by Landsat Thematic Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to (i) investigate the relationship between spectral radiance recorded by the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the volume (m ha) of forest compartments in a coniferous forest area in southern Sweden and (ii) establish and evaluate a regression for volume estimation of forest compartments. A regression of volume on spectral radiance of TM5 was established with Wald's method.Spectral radiance

J. Ardö

1992-01-01

323

Slow and fast lung compartments in cystic fibrosis measured by nitrogen multiple-breath washout.  

PubMed

Imaging studies describe significant ventilation defects across a wide range of cystic fibrosis (CF) related lung disease severity. These are unfortunately poorly reflected by phase III slope analysis-derived Scond and Sacin from multiple-breath washout (MBW). Methodology extending previous two-lung compartment model-based analysis is presented describing size and function of fast- and slow-ventilating lung compartments from nitrogen (N2) MBW and correlation to obstructive lung disease severity. In 37 CF subjects (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] mean [SD] 84.8 [19.9] % predicted; abnormal lung clearance index [LCI] in 36/37, range 7.28-18.9) and 74 matched healthy controls, volume and specific ventilation of both fast and slowly ventilated lung compartments were derived from N2-based MBW with commercial equipment. In healthy controls lung emptying was characterized by a large compartment constituting 75.6 (8.4)% of functional residual capacity (FRC) with a specific ventilation (regional alveolar tidal volume/regional lung volume) of 13.9 (3.7)% and a small compartment with high specific ventilation (48.4 [15.7]%). In CF the slowly ventilated lung compartment constituted 51.9(9.1)% of FRC, with low specific ventilation of 5.3 (2.4)%. Specific ventilation of the slowly ventilated lung compartment showed stronger correlation with LCI (r(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001) vs. Sacin (r(2) = 0.44, P < 0.001) or Scond (no significant correlation). Overventilation of the fast lung compartment was no longer seen in severe CF lung disease. Magnitude and function of under- and overventilated lung volumes can be derived from routine N2 MBW in CF. Reported values agree with previous modelling-derived estimates of impaired ventilation and offer improved correlation to disease severity, compared with SnIII analysis. PMID:25038106

Gustafsson, P M; Robinson, P D; Gilljam, M; Lindblad, A; Houltz, B K

2014-10-01

324

Compartment A4 hold at midplatform level, view from starboard to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-4 hold at mid-platform level, view from starboard to port shows protective deck framing and underside of armor plate. Open wood ceiling aids in circulating air. Note ventilation duct for fresh air at center of photograph. Open hatch penetrates protective deck and leads to bread room, compartment A-102. (012) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

325

Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg.  

PubMed

Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). PMID:9199381

Mohler, L R; Styf, J R; Pedowitz, R A; Hargens, A R; Gershuni, D H

1997-06-01

326

Validation of a two-compartment model of ventilation\\/perfusion distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventilation (V?A) to perfusion (Q?) heterogeneity (V?A\\/Q?) analyses by a two-compartment lung model (2C), utilizing routine gas exchange measurements and a computer solution to account for O2 and CO2 measurements, were compared with multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) analyses and a multi-compartment (MC) model. The 2C and MC estimates of V?A\\/Q? mismatch were obtained in 10 healthy subjects, 43

Jack A. Loeppky; Arvind Caprihan; Stephen A. Altobelli; Milton V. Icenogle; Pietro Scotto; Marcos F. Vidal Melo

2006-01-01

327

Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

1997-01-01

328

Modification of an amplification reaction in recursively dynamic compartments driven by stirring.  

PubMed

In living systems, biochemical reactions are confined to cellular or subcellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane and the organelles within a cell. These biological compartments are usually subjected to recursive changes, such as combinations of growth, fusion, and division, to constitute repeating cell cycles. In such recursively dynamic compartments, the encapsulated biochemical reaction may exhibit dynamics that differ from those of the static compartment (i.e., test tubes) used in conventional biochemistry experiments. To test this hypothesis in a simplified model, we mechanically stirred femtoliter-sized water-in-oil emulsion droplets so that individual droplets were subjected to repeated coalescence and breakage. We show that recursive dynamics appeared in the emulsion, which were measured by the exponential propagation of a water-soluble dye. The rate of the propagation, ?, was controlled by modulating the pulse-width of stirring in an electromagnetic stirrer. Within this system, we studied the dynamics of an RNA-amplification reaction in recursively increasing reaction compartments at various values of ?. We showed that there was an optimal value of ? that maximized RNA amplification. This effect was explained by the balance between the opposing effects of supply of substrate and the dilution of amplified RNA both resulting from coalescence. Moreover, when we mixed two RNA species with different kinetic properties, we found a preferential amplification for one of the species only in the recursively dynamic emulsion. This effect was partly explained by a separation effect which preferentially amplifies the number of compartments for the molecular specie that can better follow the breakage dynamics of the compartments. The present work demonstrated how the recursive dynamics of compartments modifies the internal biochemical reaction. PMID:24219119

Ichii, Tetsuo; Tanahashi, Genya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

2013-12-17

329

Mini-invasive surgery for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a new technique.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is now easily identified among the athletic population. It remains common in motorcyclists. The only treatment is the fasciotomy of the compartments and the gold standard procedure is still the open-invasive surgery. The authors describe a new mini-invasive surgical procedure to perform a 4-compartment fasciotomy of the forearm, and expose their results. Over a 3-year period, we reviewed 16 cases of forearm compartment fasciotomy for 8 patients with bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm who had been operated on. All 8 were males, with an average age of 23 years. All were competition motorcyclists, either in cross-country or speed competitions. They were all treated with the same bilateral procedure: a mini-open fasciotomy of the 4 forearm compartments using the Knifelight, which is a sharp blade between 2 plastic blunt skids originally designed for carpal tunnel release. All patients had resumed their sport in the 6 weeks after the surgery. They were back to their previous level in 3 cases, and improved their level in 5 cases. No complications and no recurrences were reported during an average 2-year follow-up. The mini-invasive technique for fasciotomy seems to be as efficient as the open technique procedure, which is still the gold standard. But the length of surgery, recovery time, and scar sequelae are much better. Mini-invasive surgery is simple, efficient, and the results are reproducible. PMID:19730042

Croutzet, Pierre; Chassat, Romain; Masmejean, Emmanuel H

2009-09-01

330

Early development of the Drosophila brain: IV. Larval neuropile compartments defined by glial septa.  

PubMed

In this study, we have analyzed the architecture of the brain neuropile of the Drosophila larva, which is formed by two main structural elements: long axon tracts and terminal axonal/dendritic arborizations carrying synapses. By using several molecular markers expressed in neurons and glial cells, we show that the early larval neuropile is subdivided by glial sheaths into numerous compartments. The three-dimensional layout of these compartments and their relationship to the pattern of long axon tracts described in the accompanying article (Nassif et al. [2003] J. Comp. Neurol 417-434) was modeled by using a three-dimensional illustration computer software. On the basis of their location relative to each other and to long axon tracts, larval brain compartments can be identified with compartments defined by structural and functional criteria for the adult fly brain. We find that small precursors of most of the compartments of the adult central brain can be identified in the early larva. Changes in brain compartmental organization occurring during larval growth are described. Neuropile compartments, representing easily identifiable landmark structures, will assist in future analyses of Drosophila brain development in which the exact location of neurons and their axonal trajectories is of importance. PMID:12508318

Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Salvaterra, Paul M; Hartenstein, Volker

2003-01-20

331

The longest telomeres: a general signature of adult stem cell compartments  

PubMed Central

Identification of adult stem cells and their location (niches) is of great relevance for regenerative medicine. However, stem cell niches are still poorly defined in most adult tissues. Here, we show that the longest telomeres are a general feature of adult stem cell compartments. Using confocal telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomapping), we find gradients of telomere length within tissues, with the longest telomeres mapping to the known stem cell compartments. In mouse hair follicles, we show that cells with the longest telomeres map to the known stem cell compartments, colocalize with stem cell markers, and behave as stem cells upon treatment with mitogenic stimuli. Using K15-EGFP reporter mice, which mark hair follicle stem cells, we show that GFP-positive cells have the longest telomeres. The stem cell compartments in small intestine, testis, cornea, and brain of the mouse are also enriched in cells with the longest telomeres. This constitutes the description of a novel general property of adult stem cell compartments. Finally, we make the novel finding that telomeres shorten with age in different mouse stem cell compartments, which parallels a decline in stem cell functionality, suggesting that telomere loss may contribute to stem cell dysfunction with age. PMID:18283121

Flores, Ignacio; Canela, Andres; Vera, Elsa; Tejera, Agueda; Cotsarelis, George; Blasco, Maria A.

2008-01-01

332

Uptake of heavy metals to the extracellular and intracellular compartments in three species of aquatic bryophyte.  

PubMed

Shoot tips of Fontinalis antipyretica, Scapania undulata, and Fissidens polyphyllus were maintained for 60 min with solutions containing 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn. A sequential extraction procedure was then used to estimate the amounts of the corresponding metal, and of K and Mg, in the extracellular compartment (extraction with NiCl(2) or EDTA), the intracellular compartment (subsequent extraction with cold dilute HNO(3)), and the particulate fraction (subsequent extraction with hot concentrated HNO(3)). In most cases more metal was taken up to the extracellular compartment than to the intracellular compartment, while particulate-fraction content was negligible. The relationship between metal concentration in the water and metal content in the extracellular compartment was well modeled with a Michaelis-Menten-type equation. Results suggest that in S. undulata extracellular cation-binding sites have a high metal affinity, while in F. polyphyllus it is relatively low. However, postincubation intracellular contents were highest in the latter species. The ranking of the six metals by amounts taken up into the intracellular compartment was the same for all three bryophyte species. Uptake of heavy metals led to considerable losses of intracellular K (probably due to effects on plasma membrane properties), and of extracellular Mg (probably due to displacement from cation-binding sites). Losses of intracellular K were most marked in S. undulata, followed by F. antipyretica. By contrast, S. undulata was the species from which losses of extracellular Mg were lowest. PMID:10499985

Vázquez, M D; López, J; Carballeira, A

1999-09-01

333

Ultrafine Membrane Compartments for Molecular Diffusion as Revealed by Single Molecule Techniques  

PubMed Central

Plasma membrane compartments, delimited by transmembrane proteins anchored to the membrane skeleton (anchored-protein picket model), would provide the membrane with fundamental mosaicism because they would affect the movement of practically all molecules incorporated in the cell membrane. Understanding such basic compartmentalized structures of the cell membrane is critical for further studies of a variety of membrane functions. Here, using both high temporal-resolution single particle tracking and single fluorescent molecule video imaging of an unsaturated phospholipid, DOPE, we found that plasma membrane compartments generally exist in various cell types, including CHO, HEPA-OVA, PtK2, FRSK, HEK293, HeLa, T24 (ECV304), and NRK cells. The compartment size varies from 30 to 230 nm, whereas the average hop rate of DOPE crossing the boundaries between two adjacent compartments ranges between 1 and 17 ms. The probability of passing a compartment barrier when DOPE is already at the boundary is also cell-type dependent, with an overall variation by a factor of ?7. These results strongly indicate the necessity for the paradigm shift of the concept on the plasma membrane: from the two-dimensional fluid continuum model to the compartmentalized membrane model in which its constituent molecules undergo hop diffusion over the compartments. PMID:15189902

Murase, Kotono; Fujiwara, Takahiro; Umemura, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kenichi; Iino, Ryota; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Saito, Mihoko; Murakoshi, Hideji; Ritchie, Ken; Kusumi, Akihiro

2004-01-01

334

31 CFR 593.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

335

31 CFR 549.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

336

31 CFR 593.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

337

31 CFR 545.207 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

338

31 CFR 593.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

339

31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

340

31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

341

31 CFR 546.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

342

31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

343

31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

344

31 CFR 543.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

345

31 CFR 543.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

346

31 CFR 576.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

347

31 CFR 576.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

348

31 CFR 588.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

349

31 CFR 544.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

350

31 CFR 546.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

351

31 CFR 544.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

352

31 CFR 548.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

353

31 CFR 549.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

354

31 CFR 544.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

355

31 CFR 546.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

356

31 CFR 543.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

357

31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

358

31 CFR 544.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

359

31 CFR 543.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

360

31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

361

31 CFR 560.214 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

362

31 CFR 560.214 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

363

31 CFR 543.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

364

31 CFR 546.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

365

31 CFR 548.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

366

31 CFR 549.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

367

31 CFR 546.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

368

31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

369

31 CFR 576.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

370

31 CFR 587.205 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

371

31 CFR 588.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

372

31 CFR 588.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

373

31 CFR 542.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

374

31 CFR 548.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

375

31 CFR 548.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

376

31 CFR 576.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2011-07-01

377

31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

378

31 CFR 588.205 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

379

31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

380

31 CFR 548.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2010-07-01

381

31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

382

31 CFR 593.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2012-07-01

383

31 CFR 541.205 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.  

...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2014-07-01

384

31 CFR 549.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

385

31 CFR 593.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account...incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to §...

2013-07-01

386

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

387

A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

1990-01-01

388

Transitional B cells are the target of negative selection in the B cell compartment  

PubMed Central

B lymphocytes recognize antigen through membrane-bound antigen- receptors, membrane IgM and IgD (mIgM and mIgD). Binding to foreign antigens initiates a cascade of biochemical events that lead to activation and differentiation. In contrast, binding to self-antigens leads to death or to inactivation. It is commonly believed that the B cells acquire the ability to discriminate between self and nonself in the early phases of development. We report here that immature B cells, which have just emerged from the mIgMneg, B220pos pool, are not deleted upon binding of self-antigen. In vivo, developing B cells become sensitive to tolerance induction in a relatively late window of differentiation, when they are in transition from the immature (HSAbright, B220dull) to the mature (HSAdull, B220bright) stage. In the transitional B cells, early markers of differentiation such as Pgp1 (CD44) and ThB reach the highest level of expression, while the expression of CD23 and mIgD, late markers of differentiation, and expression of class II MHC, progressively increases. Most of the transitional B cells, but only few of the mature and of the immature B cells, express the fas antigen, while mature B cells, but not immature and transitional B cells, express bcl-2 protein. mIgM is present in low amounts in immature B cells, reaches the highest level of expression in transitional B cells and is down-regulated in mature resting B cells, where it is coexpressed with mIgD. The high expression of mIgM, the presence of the fas antigen and the absence of bcl-2 protein is compatible with the high sensitivity of transitional B cells to negative selection. In vitro, immature B cells die rapidly by apoptosis after cross-linking of mIgM. This result, combined with the resistance of immature B cells to elimination in vivo, suggests that early in development the stroma cell microenvironment modulates signals transduced through mIgM. The functional and phenotypic division of IgMpos bone marrow B cells in three compartments not only allows to define the target population of physiological processes like negative selection, but will also be a helpful tool for an accurate description of possible developmental blocks in mutant mice. PMID:7760002

1995-01-01

389

Arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target to a unique subcellular compartment that may function in unconventional secretion in plants.  

PubMed

We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31 (At1g32930)] was found in the small compartments, of which, 45 and 40% of AtGALT29A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 29 (At1g08280)] and AtGlcAT14A [Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase from family 14 (At5g39990)] colocalized with AtGALT31A, respectively; in contrast, N-glycosylation enzymes rarely colocalized (3-18%), implicating a role of the small compartments in a part of arabinogalactan (O-glycan) biosynthesis rather than N-glycan processing. The dual localization of AtGALT31A was also observed for fluorescently tagged AtGALT31A stably expressed in an Arabidopsis atgalt31a mutant background. Further, site-directed mutagenesis of a phosphorylation site of AtGALT29A (Y144) increased the frequency of the protein being targeted to the AtGALT31A-localized small compartments, suggesting a role of Y144 in subcellular targeting. The AtGALT31A localized to the small compartments were colocalized with neither SYP61 (syntaxin of plants 61), a marker for trans-Golgi network (TGN), nor FM4-64-stained endosomes. However, 41% colocalized with EXO70E2 (Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst protein Exo70 homolog 2), a marker for exocyst-positive organelles, and least affected by Brefeldin A and Wortmannin. Taken together, AtGALT31A localized to small compartments that are distinct from the Golgi apparatus, the SYP61-localized TGN, FM4-64-stained endosomes and Wortmannin-vacuolated prevacuolar compartments, but may be part of an unconventional protein secretory pathway represented by EXO70E2 in plants. PMID:25074762

Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory; Burow, Meike; Geshi, Naomi

2014-11-01

390

Mixing Block and Traditional Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Boone, North Carolina, Watauga High School has developed an alternative schedule that blends traditional and block schedules. This composite schedule originated in the late 1990s when their faculty members and administrators were struggling to determine if the school should change to a full block schedule. The board of education encouraged…

Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

2005-01-01

391

Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)

Boice, Robert

1993-01-01

392

Standard Missile Block IV Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard Missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM 2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts

J. Martin

1996-01-01

393

New Non-Invasive Ultrasound Technique for Monitoring Perfusion Pressure in a Porcine Model of Acute Compartment Syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is the result of decreased perfusion pressure (PP) and the diagnosis frequently requires invasive monitoring. Our objective was to test a new non-invasive ultrasound device for correlating PP with measurements of fascial displacement in a controlled porcine model of ACS. We hypothesized that fascial displacement in experimental compartments with impaired PP would be significantly greater than that in control compartments with normal baseline PP. METHODS ACS was generated in right anterior compartments of seven anesthetized pigs while contralateral compartments served as normal controls. Intramuscular pressure (IMP) in all compartments was monitored by slit catheters while IMP in experimental compartments was elevated in 10 mmHg increments by infusing 0.045% albumin in saline. A non-invasive ultrasound device continuously recorded fascial displacement corresponding to arterial pressure pulses in all compartments. Mean fascial displacement amplitude was grouped by PP and analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA and contrast analysis. RESULTS As PP ranged from 80 to -40 mmHg, the change in fascial displacement of the infused compartments was significantly greater than that in the control compartments (ANOVA, p = 0.03). At each PP increment between 40 and –20 mmHg, fascial displacement in the infused compartments was significantly greater than that in the control compartments (contrast analysis, p < 0.014). CONCLUSIONS Fascial displacement is significantly greater in muscle compartments with decreased PP. Furthermore, changes in PP are associated with changes in fascial displacement over a clinically relevant range of PP, making this non-invasive technique potentially useful for monitoring in ACS. PMID:19516091

Garabekyan, Tigran; Murphey, Gary C.; Macias, Brandon R.; Lynch, John E.; Hargens, Alan R.

2009-01-01

394

Pre-embedding immunogold labeling to optimize protein localization at subcellular compartments and membrane microdomains of leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Precise immunolocalization of proteins within a cell is central to understanding cell processes and functions such as intracellular trafficking and secretion of molecules during immune responses. Here we describe a protocol for ultrastructural detection of proteins in leukocytes. The method uses a pre-embedding approach (immunolabeling before standard processing for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)). This protocol combines several strategies for ultrastructure and antigen preservation, robust blocking of nonspecific binding sites, as well as superior antibody penetration for detecting molecules at subcellular compartments and membrane microdomains. A further advantage of this technique is that electron microscopy (EM) processing is quick. This method has been used to study leukocyte biology, and it has helped demonstrate how activated leukocytes deliver specific cargos. It may also potentially be applied to a variety of different cell types. Excluding the initial time required for sample preparation (15 h) and the final resin polymerization step (16 h), the protocol (immunolabeling and EM procedures) can be completed in 8 h. PMID:25211515

Melo, Rossana C N; Morgan, Ellen; Monahan-Earley, Rita; Dvorak, Ann M; Weller, Peter F

2014-01-01

395

MELISSA: global control strategy of the artificial ecosystem by using first principles models of the compartments.  

PubMed

MELISSA is a micro-organisms based ecosystem conceived as a tool for understanding the behaviour of artificial ecosystems, and developing the technology for a future biological life support system for long term space mission. The driving element of MELISSA is the recovering of oxygen and edible biomass from waste (faeces, urea). Due to its intrinsic instability and the safety requirements of manned missions, an important control strategy is developed to pilot this system and to optimize its recycling performance. This is a hierarchical control strategy. Each MELISSA compartment has its local control system, and taking into account the states of other compartments and a global desired functioning point, the upper level determines the setpoints for each compartment. The developed approach is based on first principles models of each compartment (physico chemical equations, stoichiometries, kinetic rates, ...). Those models are used to develop a global simulator of the system (in order to study the global functioning). They are also used in the control strategy, which is a non linear predictive model based strategy. This paper presents the general approach of the control strategy of the loop from the compartment level up to the overall loop. At the end, some simulation and experimental results are presented. PMID:11542550

Fulget, N; Poughon, L; Richalet, J; Lasseur, C h

1999-01-01

396

Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

397

Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

398

31 CFR 597.303 - Blocked account; blocked funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.303 Blocked account...name of a foreign terrorist organization or its agent or in which a foreign terrorist organization or its agent has an...

2010-07-01

399

Fluvial entrainment of low density peat blocks (block carbon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many fluvial environments low density materials are transported in significant quantities and these form an important part of the stream load and /or have a distinct impact on sedimentation in these environments. However, there are significant gaps in understanding of how these materials are entrained and transported by streams and rivers. Eroding upland peatland environments in particular, frequently have fluvial systems in which large eroded peat blocks, often exceeding 1 m in length; form an important component of the stream material flux. Transport of this material is significant in determining rates of erosion but also has important impacts in terms of damage to infrastructure and carbon loss. This paper describes a field experiment designed to establish for the first time the conditions under which large peat blocks (c. > 0.1 m b axis) are initially entrained from a rough gravel bed. The field site is Trout Beck, in the North Pennines, Northern England which is an upland wandering river channel with occasional lateral and mid channel bars. Mean low flow stage is typically 0.2 m but during flood can rapidly rise, in one to two hours, to over 1.5 m. To study peat block entrainment a bespoke data acquisition system consisting of two pressure transducers, four release triggers and time lapse camera was set up. The pressure transducers provided a record of local depth and the release triggers were embedded in peat blocks to record initial motion and arranged on the rough stream bed. The time lapse camera provided verification of timing of block entrainment (during daylight hours) and also provided information on the mechanism of initial movement. Peat blocks were cut from a local source and were equidimensional, ranging in size from 0.1 to 0.7 m. The derived entrainment function is related to a critical depth of entrainment. Results demonstrate that peat blocks are entrained when the local depth approximates the height of the peat block. Blocks frequently shift position prior to entrainment but once entrained are rapidly transported downstream. Because of the rough stream bed local depth, measured on the four sides of the block varies markedly and needs to be considered in developing an appropriate entrainment function and; is useful in explaining initial movement prior to entrainment. In some experiments a small accelerometer (HOBO Pendant G data logger) was used to investigate transport dynamics following entrainment. Further work will seek to improve the entrainment function by extending the size range of tests, developing a shear stress related function and investigating the importance of block shape (rounding) on entrainment.

Warburton, Jeff

2014-05-01

400

The Loss of Gnai2 and Gnai3 in B Cells Eliminates B Lymphocyte Compartments and Leads to a Hyper-IgM Like Syndrome  

PubMed Central

B lymphocytes are compartmentalized within lymphoid organs. The organization of these compartments depends upon signaling initiated by G-protein linked chemoattractant receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins G?i2 and G?i3 in chemoattractant signaling we created mice lacking both proteins in their B lymphocytes. While bone marrow B cell development and egress is grossly intact; mucosal sites, splenic marginal zones, and lymph nodes essentially lack B cells. There is a partial block in splenic follicular B cell development and a 50-60% reduction in splenic B cells, yet normal numbers of splenic T cells. The absence of G?i2 and G?i3 in B cells profoundly disturbs the architecture of lymphoid organs with loss of B cell compartments in the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. This results in a severe disruption of B cell function and a hyper-IgM like syndrome. Beyond the pro-B cell stage, B cells are refractory to chemokine stimulation, and splenic B cells are poorly responsive to antigen receptor engagement. G?i2 and G?i3 are therefore critical for B cell chemoattractant receptor signaling and for normal B cell function. These mice provide a worst case scenario of the consequences of losing chemoattractant receptor signaling in B cells. PMID:23977324

Hwang, Il-Young; Park, Chung; Luong, Thuyvi; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Kehrl, John H.

2013-01-01

401

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a case series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is rare in the published literature. We report the outcome of a series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy over a 14 year period. All patients underwent dynamic intra-compartmental pressure testing using a slit catheter technique before surgery. Raised intra-compartmental pressures on exercise, typical symptoms and the absence of other diagnoses were criteria for offering surgical intervention. The superficial flexor, deep flexor and extensor compartments were released. Median follow-up was 9.5 years (range 7 months to 12 years). Median patient-reported percentage improvement after surgery was 88% (range 0%-100%). Median time to return to full activity was 9 weeks. Eleven out of 12 patients were satisfied, very satisfied or extremely satisfied with the outcome of surgery. Fasciotomy can be an effective treatment for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm. PMID:21339238

Brown, J S; Wheeler, P C; Boyd, K T; Barnes, M R; Allen, M J

2011-06-01

402

Recurrent Compartment Syndrome in a Patient with Clinical Features of a Connective Tissue Disorder  

PubMed Central

Arterial complications are common in vascular type Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), accounting for 66% of first complications. Several cases in the literature have documented acute compartment syndrome (ACS) following vascular rupture in vascular type EDS. Other disorders of connective tissue have also demonstrated vascular fragility, leading to arterial aneurysm and rupture, but there have been no documented cases of ACS. Here, we report on a female patient with a history of recurrent compartment syndrome who exhibits some clinical findings seen in hypermobile and vascular EDS; however she does not meet clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria for either of them. We further review the literature on ACS in heritable connective tissue disorders and suggest that compartment syndrome may rarely complicate other heritable disorders of connective tissue. PMID:23633393

Barajas, Brenda D; Sun, Angela; Rimoin, David L; Reinstein, Eyal

2013-01-01

403

Recurrent compartment syndrome in a patient with clinical features of a connective tissue disorder.  

PubMed

Arterial complications are common in vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), accounting for 66% of first complications. Several cases in the literature have documented acute compartment syndrome (ACS) following vascular rupture in vascular type EDS. Other disorders of connective tissue have also demonstrated vascular fragility, leading to arterial aneurysm and rupture, but there have been no documented cases of ACS. Here, we report on a female patient with a history of recurrent compartment syndrome who exhibits some clinical findings seen in hypermobile and vascular EDS; however she does not meet clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria for either of them. We further review the literature on ACS in heritable connective tissue disorders and suggest that compartment syndrome may rarely complicate other heritable disorders of connective tissue. PMID:23633393

Barajas, Brenda D; Sun, Angela; Rimoin, David L; Reinstein, Eyal

2013-06-01

404

Transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding.  

PubMed

Changes in aircraft cabin pressure and its interplay with a fixed diameter fiberglass cylindrical cast and the closed air cells in waterproof cast padding may cause a transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome. In this case series, 2 patients reported transient compartment syndromes that resolved with aircraft decent. As proof of concept, this work displays photographic and video evidence showing the difference in air cell volume from experimental data in a vacuum chamber as well as real-world volume changes at cruise altitude in a commercial airliner. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndromes associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding are real and surgeons and patients should be advised of this potentially devastating complication. PMID:23431541

Kadzielski, John; Bae, Donald S

2013-01-01

405

Effects of compartment size on the kinetics of intracompartmental multimeric protein synthesis.  

PubMed

The cell contents are encapsulated within a compartment, the volume of which is a fundamental physical parameter that may affect intracompartmental reactions. However, there have been few studies to elucidate whether and how volume changes alone can affect the reaction kinetics. It is difficult to address these questions in vivo, because forced cell volume changes, e.g., by osmotic inflation/deflation, globally alters the internal state. Here, we prepared artificial cell-like compartments with different volumes but with identical constituents, which is not possible with living cells, and synthesized two tetrameric enzymes, ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and ?-galactosidase (GAL), by cell-free protein synthesis. Tetrameric GUS but not GAL was synthesized more quickly in smaller compartments. The difference between the two was dependent on the rate-limiting step and the reaction order. The observed acceleration mechanism would be applicable to living cells as multimeric protein synthesis in a microcompartment is ubiquitous in vivo. PMID:23651340

Matsuura, Tomoaki; Hosoda, Kazufumi; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

2012-09-21

406

Effects of long-duration bed rest on structural compartments of m. soleus in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histomorphometry and electron microscopy of muscle demonstrate that long-term exposure to actual or simulated weightlessness (including head down bed rest) leads to decreased volume of antigravity muscles in mammals. In muscles interbundle space is occupied by the connective tissue. Rat studies show that hindlimb unloading induces muscle fiber atrophy along with increase in muscle non-fiber connective tissue compartment. Beside that, usually 20% of the muscle fiber volume is comprised by non-contractile (non-myofibrillar) compartment. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in muscle volume, and in muscle fiber size with alterations in myofibrillar apparatus, and in connective tissue compartment in human m. soleus under conditions of 120 day long head down bed rest (HDBR).

Belozerova, I.; Shenkman, B.; Mazin, M.; Leblanc, A.; LeBlanc, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

2001-01-01

407

Three-compartment modeling of C-11 N-Methyl spiperone kinetics in the human brain  

SciTech Connect

N-Methyl spiperone, as well as spiperone, has been used to study the dopamine receptor system in the brain. The authors have applied a 3-compartment model consisting of vascular, extravascular unbound, and receptor-bound activity to two normal volunteers and one patient with Parkinson's disease. The model differs from that proposed by another study, in that, as in the Sokoloff model for deoxyglucose, there is no explicit term for blood flow. Furthermore, the authors used a 3-compartment model for the cerebellum as well as the caudate/putamen. Serial scans were obtained by PET for up to 2 hrs after injection of the tracer. Time-activity curves were generated over the caudate, putamen and cerebellum. The results indicate a close fit of the observed data to the 3-compatment model. In the model, K1 represents the rate constant of delivery of the tracer in the tissue from the vascular compartment. K2 is the reverse rate constant. K1 was approximately equal to K2 for the cerebellum. In the basal ganglia, K2 was less than K1 due to nonspecific binding in compartment 2. K3 represents the rate constant of binding of the tracer to the receptor binding sites in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia and to nonspecific binding sites in the cerebellum which contains essentially no dopamine receptors. K4 represents the rate constant for dissociation of the tracer from the receptors. For N-methyl spiperone K4 is very low in the caudate/putamen. The 3-compartment model seemed to fit the data better than the 2-compartment model for both the caudate/putamen and cerebellar activity.

Brooks, R.A.; Wong, D.F.; Di Chiro, G.; Wayner, R.T.; Douglass, K.H.; Frost, J.J.; Larson, S.M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1984-01-01

408

Double-compartment cell culture apparatus: construction and biochemical evaluation for bioartificial liver support.  

PubMed

Functional demands on a bioartificial liver support (BAL) device are not limited to biosynthetic activities, but must also encompass metabolic removal of potentially toxic substances. For most BALs, however, the concept and design are exclusively directed to biosynthetic support. To add the ability to metabolize and remove toxic substances, we designed a double-compartment cell culture apparatus (DCCA). Two compartments are separated from each other by a compact epithelial cell sheet spread over a synthetic microporous membrane. When a renal proximal convoluted tubular cell line that had been transduced with the human multidrug-resistant (MDR) gene, PCTL-MDR, was introduced into one of the compartments (hereafter referred to as the "inner" compartment) of the DCCA, a compact cellular monolayer was formed on the membrane. Ammonium ions passed across the membrane, but glucose and its metabolite lactate could not, indicating that the DCCA allowed selective transportation of cellular metabolites. In addition to PCTL-MDR, HepG2, a cell line of hepatic-origin, transduced with CYP3A4 (designated GS-3A4-HepG2), was seeded on the opposite side of the membrane, and the metabolism and transportation of lidocaine were studied. The lidocaine metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide, was detected in the inner compartment across the PCTL-MDR cell layered membrane, indicating that metabolism and the selective transportation of metabolites between the two compartments occurred by cooperation of renal and hepatic cells. These results suggest that this type of DCCA represents a novel BAL that possesses biotransporting activities, as well as biosynthetic and metabolic activities. PMID:17300000

Takahashi, Masahiro; Sakurai, Masayuki; Enosawa, Shin; Omasa, Takeshi; Tsuruoka, Shuichi; Matsumura, Toshiharu

2006-01-01

409

Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Several Different Fat Compartments in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background. Chemicals that store in lipid-rich compartments have the potential for long-term disruption of metabolic and endocrine processes. Given the evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also alter systemic metabolic, endocrine, and immune system functions, it follows that elevated chemical concentrations in intra-abdominal fat may alter function, through local chemical signaling, of visceral organs. Despite this potential, there has been little study defining POP concentrations in live human intra-abdominal fat. It is at present uncertain whether POPs distribute equally to all fat compartments, including fat in serum. Methods. Seven human subjects scheduled for elective surgery for benign lesions or cancer provided consent for removal of samples of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat and/or cancerous tissue. These samples were analyzed for 22 chlorinated pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by GC/ECD plus GC/MS. Results. In only two subjects were the patterns and relative concentrations of PCBs and pesticides about the same in all fat compartments. In the other subjects, there were major differences in levels in subcutaneous as compared to other compartments, but with some higher and some lower. While the pattern of PCBs in the various compartments matched that of the pesticides in some, it was opposite in others. Interpretation. These results demonstrate a complicated distribution of PCB congeners and pesticides in various lipid compartments. The difference may reflect various Kows, different rates of metabolism, and/or different lengths of exposure. But the results suggest that contaminant levels in serum or even subcutaneous fat do not necessarily indicate concentrations and patterns in other kinds of adipose tissue. PMID:21647350

Yu, George W.; Laseter, John; Mylander, Charles

2011-01-01

410

Endoscopically Assisted FasciotomyDescription of Technique and In Vitro Assessment of Lower-Leg Compartment Decompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a reliable method of endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for treating chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the lower leg and for assessing compartment decompression in an in vitro model. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy was performed in the anterior and lateral compartments of 14 matched, fresh-frozen, through-the-knee amputation specimens using a 30° endoscope. A one-incision technique used in 4 specimens failed to

Fraser J. Leversedge; Patrick J. Casey; John G. Seiler; John W. Xerogeanes

2002-01-01

411

The diagnostic value of MRI scans for the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A prospective descriptive study to determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an aid in diagnosing (chronic)\\u000a exertional compartment syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and patients. MRI was performed in 21 patients (41 anterior compartments) with chronic compartment syndrome at rest and following physical\\u000a exercise. Median (T2-weighted) signal intensity on the MRI scan was determined in the anterior and the

E. J. M. M. Verleisdonk; A. van Gils; C. van der Werken

2001-01-01

412

Video-assisted central compartment lymphadenectomy in a patient with a positive RET oncogene: initial experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prophylactic surgery for patients carrying a positive RET proto-oncogene proved to be highly effective in curing those likely\\u000a to experience the development of a medullary carcinoma. Video-assisted procedures have been proved feasible for central compartment\\u000a dissection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 15 patients (7 men and 8 women) with a positive RET proto-oncogene underwent total thyroidectomy and central compartment\\u000a lymphadenectomy via a

P. Miccoli; R. Elisei; G. Donatini; G. Materazzi; P. Berti

2007-01-01

413

Compartment syndrome of the foot: an experimental approach to pressure measurement and release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Using a cadaver model and multiple continuous compartment pressure measurement, we sought to determine the pressure distribution\\u000a in different osseofascial spaces of the foot and determine the quickest and most effective technique of pressure release.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The compartment pressures were measured (in mmHg) in five different osseofascial spaces of each foot. In stepwise manner,\\u000a warmed saline was injected only

Jens Richter; Wito Schulze; Astrid Klaas; Berhard Clasbrummel; Gert Muhr

2008-01-01

414

Effects of diet, age and gender on the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of broiler anatomical compartments.  

PubMed

1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary fatty acid (FA) composition, age, and gender on the FA composition of different broiler anatomical compartments. Four dietary fat sources (palm fat, P; soybean oil, S; linseed oil, L; fish oil, F) were added to a wheat-soybean meal based diet at 30 g/kg in addition to 50 g/kg palm fat. Diets were fed separately to female and male birds from d 1 to either d 21 or d 42 of age. 2. The total FA content (mg/100 g tissue) and the FA composition (g/100 g FAME) was determined in 7 anatomical compartments (skinless thigh muscle, skinless breast muscle, liver, heart, brain, abdominal fat pad, and remainders plus carcase trimmings named Rest compartment). The FA profiles differed greatly among compartments and were strongly affected by diet. 3. The S diet resulted in a 2-3-fold increase of the proportion of C18:2n-6 and C20:4n-6 in all compartments compared to the other diets, except for brain. 4. The response in the proportion of C18:3n-3 following feeding the L diet was much greater, with 4-20-fold increases compared to the other diets, except again for brain. 5. In all compartments except brain, the L diet resulted in approximately a 2-fold increase in the proportion of C22:6n-3 compared to the P and S diets and smaller, but also significant, increases for C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3. 6. The proportions of C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were much higher on the F diet in all compartments, except for brain, compared to the P and S diets. The F diet resulted in higher proportions of C22:6n-3 than the proportions of C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3 in breast and thigh meat, and liver, in contrast to the other diets. 7. Brain was less responsive than other tissues to changes in the dietary FA composition. The proportion of C22:6n-3 in brain was similar on the L and F diets. 8. The effect of gender on the FA composition of different anatomical compartments was marginal. The long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA in breast, liver, and brain decreased with age. PMID:20390572

Poureslami, R; Raes, K; Huyghebaert, G; De Smet, S

2010-02-01

415

The Building Blocks of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about atoms and their structure (protons, electrons, neutrons) â the building blocks of matter. They see how scientific discoveries about atoms and molecules influence new technologies developed by engineers.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

416

Carbon-carbon cylinder block  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

417

Standard Missile Block IV battery  

SciTech Connect

During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

Martin, J. [Eagle-Picher Industries, inc., Joplin, MO (United States)

1996-11-01

418

The Building Blocks of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

Gibson, Betty O.

2001-01-01

419

Lower extremity anterior compartment syndrome complicating bilateral mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

‘Well leg compartment syndrome’ refers to compartment syndrome occurring in a nontraumatic setting. This occurs most commonly in the lower limb during surgery performed with the patient in an anatomically vulnerable position. While this complication is well documented in the setting of orthopedic, urological and gynecological surgeries, it is an exceptionally rare complication in plastic surgery; only seven cases have been published on compartment syndrome complicating an operation performed on a supine patient. A case involving a 56-year-old woman who developed an anterior compartment syndrome of her right lower leg following a bilateral mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction is presented. A detailed literature review is also included. PMID:23730157

Tashakkor, A Yashar; Macadam, Sheina A

2012-01-01

420

Fun with Pattern Block Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit from Illuminations consists of five lessons designed to help students understand fractions when they are represented as a part of a region. Learners investigate relationships between parts and wholes, the relative value of the fraction based on the pattern block shape and equivalency while working with physical and/or virtual pattern blocks. Instructional plan, questions for the students, assessment options, extensions, and teacher reflections are given for each lesson.

Hargrove, Tracy Y.

2008-01-01

421

Eugene Island Block 330 field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eugene Island Block 330 field ranks third in cumulative hydrocarbon production on the federal Outer Continental Shelf of the United States and at peak production was the largest O.C.S. oil-producing field. This giant field, located offshore Louisiana, covers parts of seven blocks in the Eugene Island area, South Addition. The field was discovered by the Pennzoil 1, OCS-G 2115

D. S. Holland; D. R. Lammlein; J. B. Leedy

1988-01-01

422

CASE REPORT: SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF ACUTE EXERTIONAL PARASPINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME WITH HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY  

PubMed Central

An NCAA football player developed an acute paraspinal compartment syndrome after a weight-lifting strain. The patient presented with myone-crosis (CK up to 77,400 U/L), and myoglobinuria. Treatment consisted of forced diuresis and six sessions in the hyperbaric oxygen chamber. PMID:21045996

Karam, Mathew D.; Amendola, Annunziato; Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio

2010-01-01

423

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a case series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is rare in the published literature. We report the outcome of a series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy over a 14 year period. All patients underwent dynamic intra-compartmental pressure testing using a slit catheter technique before surgery. Raised intra-compartmental pressures on exercise, typical symptoms and the absence of other diagnoses were criteria

J. S. Brown; P. C. Wheeler; K. T. Boyd; M. R. Barnes; M. J. Allen

2011-01-01

424

The role of tissue pressure measurement in diagnosing chronic anterior compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure studies were performed in 55 patients (24 with chronic anterior leg pain and 31 asymptomatic recreational athletes). Pressure measurements were recorded at rest, during, and after exercise, using the slit catheter system. Seventeen of the twenty-four pa tients with symptomatic anterior leg pain were diag nosed on the basis of tissue pressure studies as having chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

C. H. Rorabeck; R. B. Bourne; P. J. Fowler; J. B. Finlay; Linda Nott

1988-01-01

425

Progressive Derangement of the T Cell Compartment in a Case of Evans Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare disorder characterized by combined autoimmune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Several studies have documented a number of B cell defects, whereas only limited information is currently available about the T cell subset. Methods: A wide panel of immunological analyses aiming specifically at a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the T cell compartment was

Antonello Giovannetti; Marina Pierdominici; Antonella Esposito; Maria Cagliuso; Giuseppina Stifano; Anna Maria Giammarioli; Angela Maselli; Walter Malorni; Felice Salsano; Fernando Aiuti

2008-01-01

426

Two minimal incision fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the leg is a pathological condition often related to overuse in subject who engage repetitive physical activities. Fascial release is the mainstay of surgical management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results obtained with a double incision decompressive fasciotomy. Eighteen consecutive athletes with a diagnosis of anterior and\\/or lateral CECS of

E. Mouhsine; R. Garofalo; B. Moretti; G. Gremion; A. Akiki

2006-01-01

427

Chronic Anterior Exertional Compartment Syndrome - A conservative clinical pathway for CAECS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic anterior exertional compartment syndrome (CAECS) is one differential diagnosis of shin pain. Neither the pathophysiology, nor the etiology is clearly understood. Current theories are discussed and a number of pathomechanical etiologies are proposed. Surgery appears to be the most definitive treatment with few conservative modalities discussed in the literature. For this reason a conservative clinical pathway has been developed

Steve Manning

428

Modeling maglev passenger compartment static magnetic fields from linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger compartment magnetic field levels in a low-speed magnetic levitation (maglev) vehicle that uses linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays for both levitation and propulsion are computed through superposition of fields due to patches of magnetization charge at surfaces where the magnetization is discontinuous. End effects due to the finite lengths of the arrays lead to fields that decay much less rapidly

James F. Hoburg

2004-01-01

429

View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C1; salt water ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; salt water circulating pipe at center. Note annunciator to right of pipe and engine room telegraph at left center. Gage at left top center is a vacuum gage. (060) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

430

Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review  

PubMed Central

Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

2014-01-01

431

Role of Physical Chemical Properties in Drug Relay into Skin Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a drug to reach the interstitial fluid is an important aspect of drug efficacy – as a possible indicator of skin and cell compartment concentration. This overview addresses the relationship of the physical properties of several antibiotics to their ability to enter the interstitial fluid utilizing a cantharidin blister model. By collecting pharmacokinetic data for 12 antibiotics

C. R. Fortenbach; B. S. Modjtahedi; H. I. Maibach

2008-01-01

432

1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells  

E-print Network

1 1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells epithelial cell-ECM interactions mediated by 1 integrins in the maintenance of the functional stem cell mammary epithelium harbours a population of cells with a high regenerative potential -- mammary stem cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C1; note RPM indicator ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; note RPM indicator at top right of photograph, bilge drain manifold at lower right; worm gear at left is probably part of a hydraulic reversing gear. (057) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

434

14 CFR 121.285 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compartment if it is carried in an approved cargo bin that meets the following requirements: (1) The bin must withstand the load factors and emergency...passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is installed, multiplied by a factor of...

2010-01-01

435

14 CFR 121.285 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartment if it is carried in an approved cargo bin that meets the following requirements: (1) The bin must withstand the load factors and emergency...passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is installed, multiplied by a factor of...

2013-01-01

436

14 CFR 121.285 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compartment if it is carried in an approved cargo bin that meets the following requirements: (1) The bin must withstand the load factors and emergency...passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is installed, multiplied by a factor of...

2012-01-01

437

A two-thermocouples probe for radiation corrections of measured temperatures in compartment fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bare-bead thermocouples are widely used for measuring temperature fields in compartment fires. It is well-known that temperature readings using such a device can be significantly affected by radiation errors, the apparent thermocouple junction temperature being thus different from the true gas temperature. However, a probe consisting of two thermocouples of unequal diameters, but made of the same material can be

S Brohez; C Delvosalle; G Marlair

2004-01-01

438

W W W . Q I A G E N . C O M Qproteome Cell Compartment  

E-print Network

fractionation of proteomic samples #12;2 Qproteome Cell Compartment Handbook 04/2005 Trademarks: QIAGEN® (QIAGEN exclusively to MERCK KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany). © 2005 QIAGEN, all rights reserved. #12;Qproteome Cell of Protein Fractions 12 Troubleshooting Guide 13 Ordering Information 14 QIAGEN Distributors 15 #12

Lebendiker, Mario

439

Compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress  

PubMed Central

The tripeptide thiol glutathione (?-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression, and the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment-specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment-specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, tobacco mosaic virus). The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol). Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. PMID:25368627

Zechmann, Bernd

2014-01-01

440

Integrating Mitochondrial Energetics, Redox and ROS Metabolic Networks: A Two-Compartment Model  

PubMed Central

To understand the mechanisms involved in the control and regulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, a two-compartment computational mitochondrial energetic-redox (ME-R) model accounting for energetic, redox, and ROS metabolisms is presented. The ME-R model incorporates four main redox couples (NADH/NAD+, NADPH/NADP+, GSH/GSSG, Trx(SH)2/TrxSS). Scavenging systems—glutathione, thioredoxin, superoxide dismutase, catalase—are distributed in mitochondrial matrix and extra-matrix compartments, and transport between compartments of ROS species (superoxide: O2??, hydrogen peroxide: H2O2), and GSH is also taken into account. Model simulations are compared with experimental data obtained from isolated heart mitochondria. The ME-R model is able to simulate: i), the shape and order of magnitude of H2O2 emission and dose-response kinetics observed after treatment with inhibitors of the GSH or Trx scavenging systems and ii), steady and transient behavior of ??m and NADH after single or repetitive pulses of substrate- or uncoupler-elicited energetic-redox transitions. The dynamics of the redox environment in both compartments is analyzed with the model following substrate addition. The ME-R model represents a useful computational tool for exploring ROS dynamics, the role of compartmentation in the modulation of the redox environment, and how redox regulation participates in the control of mitochondrial function. PMID:23442855

Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Aon, Miguel A.; Winslow, Raimond L.; O'Rourke, Brian; Cortassa, Sonia

2013-01-01

441

Proteolytic targeting of Rab29 by an effector protein distinguishes the intracellular compartments  

E-print Network

Proteolytic targeting of Rab29 by an effector protein distinguishes the intracellular compartments. The molecular bases for these differences are presently unknown. Here we show that the GTPase Rab29 (Rab7L1-specific Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) iden- tified Rab29. We found

Galan, Jorge E

442

?2 integrin adhesion complexes maintain the integrity of HIV-1 assembly compartments in primary macrophages.  

PubMed

In human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly takes place primarily on complex intracellular plasma membrane domains connected to the cell surface by closely apposed membrane sheets or narrow channels. Some of the membranes associated with these compartments are decorated by thick (?30 nm), electron-dense, cytoplasmic coats. Here we show by immunolabelling of ultrathin cryosections that the ?2 integrin CD18, together with the ?M and ?X integrins (CD11b and CD11c), is clustered at these coated domains, and that the coats themselves contain the cytoskeletal linker proteins talin, vinculin and paxillin that connect the integrin complexes to the actin cytoskeleton. Intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMC) with CD18-containing focal adhesion-like coats are also present in uninfected MDM. These compartments become more prominent as the cells mature in tissue culture and their appearance correlates with increased expression of CD18, CD11b/c and paxillin. Depletion of CD18 by RNA interference leads to parallel down-regulation of CD11b and CD11c, as well as of paxillin, and the disappearance of the adhesion-like coats. In addition, CD18 knockdown alters the appearance of virus-containing IPMC in HIV-infected MDM, indicating that the ?2 integrin/focal adhesion-like coat structures are involved in the organization of these compartments. PMID:22017400

Pelchen-Matthews, Annegret; Giese, Sebastian; Ml?ochová, Petra; Turner, Jane; Marsh, Mark

2012-02-01

443

Identification of Multivesicular Bodies as Prevacuolar Compartments in Nicotiana tabacum BY2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the dynamics and molecular components of plant prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We have demonstrated recently that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins are concentrated on PVCs. In this study, we generated transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) BY-2 cell lines expressing two yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fusion reporters that mark PVC and Golgi organelles. Both transgenic cell lines exhibited typical punctate

Yu Chung Tse; Beixin Mo; Stefan Hillmer; David G. Robinson; Liwen Jianga

2004-01-01

444

Calculation of the relative metastabilities of proteins in subcellular compartments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

[abridged] Background: The distribution of chemical species in an open system at metastable equilibrium can be expressed as a function of environmental variables which can include temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and others. Calculations of metastable equilibrium for various model systems were used to characterize chemical transformations among proteins and groups of proteins found in different compartments of yeast cells. Results: With

Jeffrey M. Dick

2008-01-01

445

Synovial Sarcoma Involving the Calcaneus and Plantar Compartment of the Foot: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial sarcoma arising in the foot is a rare finding. We report a 64-year-old female with synovial sarcoma involving the calcaneus and central plantar compartment. The patient presented with a 2-year history of painful heel with soft tissue mass presentation 21 months after initial pain. We performed an incisional biopsy with frozen section; histopathology was consistent with synovial sarcoma.

John Haight; Russell Caprioli; Michael Esposito; Antonio Macias; Maria Lucchese; Elijah Davis

2010-01-01

446

View forward in starboard engine room, compartment C1. Note starboard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward in starboard engine room, compartment C-1. Note starboard engine thrust bearing in open housing at bottom center of photograph; note main circulation pump, main steam chest at top of photo. (065) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

447

Uptake of Heavy Metals to the Extracellular and Intracellular Compartments in Three Species of Aquatic Bryophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot tips of Fontinalis antipyretica, Scapania undulata, and Fissidens polyphyllus were maintained for 60 min with solutions containing 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn. A sequential extraction procedure was then used to estimate the amounts of the corresponding metal, and of K and Mg, in the extracellular compartment (extraction with

M. D. Vázquez; J. López; A. Carballeira

1999-01-01

448

SERS nanosensors that report pH of endocytic compartments during Fc?RI transit  

PubMed Central

Recently, the development of an IgE receptor (Fc?RI)-targeted, pH sensitive, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) nanosensor has been demonstrated [1]. The targeted nanosensor enables spatial and temporal pH measurements as internalized receptors progress through endosomal compartments in live cells. Trafficking of receptor-bound nanosensors was compared at physiological temperature (37°C) versus room temperature (25°C). As expected, we observed markedly slower progression of receptors through low pH endocytic compartments at the lower temperature. We also demonstrate the utility of the nanosensors to measure directly changes in the pH of intracellular compartments after treatment with bafilomycin or amiloride. We report an increase in endosome compartment pH after treatment with bafilomycin, an H+ ATPase pump inhibitor. Decreased endosomal luminal pH was measured in cells treated with amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange. The decrease in amiloride-treated cells was transient, followed by a recovery period of approximately 15–20 minutes to restore endosomal pH. These experiments demonstrate the novel application of Raman spectroscopy to monitor local pH environment in live cells with the use of targeted SERS nanosensors. PMID:20842349

Nowak-Lovato, K.L.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Rector, K.D.

2011-01-01

449

Modelling of mercury transport and transformations in the water compartment of the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Basin is highly heterogeneous with regard to its climatic and oceanographic properties. The appropriate approach for simulating the transport and transformations of Hg in the water compartment requires the use of a hydrodynamic model with additional modules for transport–dispersion and biogeochemistry. In this work, the PCFLOW3D model was upgraded with a biogeochemical module and used for simulation of

Dušan Žagar; Gregor Petkovšek; Rudi Rajar; Nataša Sirnik; Milena Horvat; Antigoni Voudouri; George Kallos; Matjaž ?etina

2007-01-01

450

Leg cramps in pregnancy caused by chronic compartment syndrome and relieved by fasciotomy after childbirth  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message A case of intolerable leg pain in pregnancy, caused by Chronic Compartment Syndrome (CCS), is presented. Increasing amounts of opioids were given throughout the pregnancy. Anesthetical dilemmas and surgery are discussed. In conclusion, early surgery rather than opioids is recommended. PMID:25356260

Orlin, Jan Roar; ?en, Jarle; Andersen, John Roger; Tjugum, Ivar Jostein; Westbye, Hans Jacob; Roska, Jomar; Aasved, Helene; Hjelmeland, Kjersti

2014-01-01

451

Cohesin-based chromatin interactions enable regulated gene expression within preexisting architectural compartments  

PubMed Central

Chromosome conformation capture approaches have shown that interphase chromatin is partitioned into spatially segregated Mb-sized compartments and sub-Mb-sized topological domains. This compartmentalization is thought to facilitate the matching of genes and regulatory elements, but its precise function and mechanistic basis remain unknown. Cohesin controls chromosome topology to enable DNA repair and chromosome segregation in cycling cells. In addition, cohesin associates with active enhancers and promoters and with CTCF to form long-range interactions important for gene regulation. Although these findings suggest an important role for cohesin in genome organization, this role has not been assessed on a global scale. Unexpectedly, we find that architectural compartments are maintained in noncycling mouse thymocytes after genetic depletion of cohesin in vivo. Cohesin was, however, required for specific long-range interactions within compartments where cohesin-regulated genes reside. Cohesin depletion diminished interactions between cohesin-bound sites, whereas alternative interactions between chromatin features associated with transcriptional activation and repression became more prominent, with corresponding changes in gene expression. Our findings indicate that cohesin-mediated long-range interactions facilitate discrete gene expression states within preexisting chromosomal compartments. PMID:24002784

Seitan, Vlad C.; Faure, Andre J.; Zhan, Ye; McCord, Rachel Patton; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Ing-Simmons, Elizabeth; Lenhard, Boris; Giorgetti, Luca; Heard, Edith; Fisher, Amanda G.; Flicek, Paul; Dekker, Job; Merkenschlager, Matthias

2013-01-01

452

Compartment model for long-term contamination prediction in deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident.  

PubMed

Radiocesium contamination from the Chernobyl accident of different parts (fruits, leaves, and shoots) of selected apricot trees in North Greece was systematically measured in 1987 and 1988. The results are presented and discussed in the framework of a simple compartment model describing the long-term contamination uptake mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident. PMID:2345105

Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Clouvas, A; Gagianas, A

1990-06-01

453

Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder-associated biomarker  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders. PMID:24487591

te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O.; Wallom, Kerri L.; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A.; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H.; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie; Jacklin, Elizabeth; Riddick, Kate; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Rolfs, Arndt; Rimmele, Florian; Wright, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Ramaswami, Uma; Cox, Timothy M.; Hastings, Caroline; Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Ory, Daniel S.; Arias, Begona; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Sillence, Daniel J.; Wraith, James E.; Porter, Forbes D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Platt, Frances M.

2014-01-01

454

Circulation of copper in the biotic compartments of a freshwater dammed reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns a chronic copper release in an aquatic ecosystem: Mirgenbach reservoir; which is characterized by high salinity, conductivity and hardness, a eutrophic state and a high temperature. To study the bioavailability of copper in the biotic compartments, the sampling covered the entire food chain (phyto- and zooplankton, macroalgae, aquatic plants, crustaceans, mollusks, and fish). Of the organisms present,

I. Vinot; J. C. Pihan

2005-01-01

455

MeCBIC 2008 Modelling biological compartments in Bio-PEPA  

E-print Network

event that occurs within cells is the movement of small molecules across compartment membranes, which lying on the membrane, called channels). In 1 fciocche@inf.ed.ac.uk 2 mguerrie@inf.ed.ac.uk This paper is electronically published in Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science URL: www

Hillston, Jane

456

A standardized block fabrication technique  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of delivered dose is a primary goal in every radiation therapy department. Improved imaging techniques now enable the radiation therapist to define more precisely the area of interest, which helps the sparing of normal surrounding tissue. Tray-mounted customized blocks are routinely used to define this treatment portal accurately and reproducibly. However, the level of accuracy is dependent on the block fabrication technique and the skill of the block cutter. We at Moffitt Cancer Center have standardized our system in a way that minimizes some of the human errors, while keeping the procedure fast and accurate. This system uses a tray template that simulates our blocking trays. The function of this tray is to position the styrofoam (and therefore the cerrobend block) on the tray in such a way as to insure proper alignment with the treatment machine. We also feel this improves upon some common designs using random holes or hole patterns, which may interfere with the treatment area. This system is not overly sophisticated and can be easily implemented in most radiation therapy departments.

Famiglietti, R.; Noriega, B.; Sanders, R. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

1990-01-01

457

Hyperbaric oxygen reduces edema and necrosis of skeletal muscle in compartment syndromes associated with hemorrhagic hypotension  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effect of exposures to hyperbaric oxygen on the development of the edema and necrosis of muscle that are associated with compartment syndromes that are complicated by hemorrhagic hypotension. A compartment syndrome (twenty millimeters of mercury for six hours) was induced by infusion of autologous plasma in the anterolateral compartment of the left hind limb of seven anesthetized dogs while the mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at sixty-five millimeters of mercury after 30 per cent loss of blood volume. These dogs were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (two atmospheres of pure oxygen) and were compared with six dogs that had an identical compartment syndrome and hypotensive condition but were not exposed to hyperbaric oxygen. Forty-eight hours later, edema was quantified by measuring the weights of the muscles (the pressurized muscle compared with the contralateral muscle), and necrosis of muscle was evaluated by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate. The ratio for edema was significantly (p = 0.01) greater in dogs that had not been exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (1.15 +/- 0.01) than in the dogs that had been treated with hyperbaric oxygen (1.01 +/- 0.03), and the ratio for necrosis of muscle was also significantly (p = 0.04) greater in dogs that had not had hyperbaric oxygen (1.96 +/- 0.41) than in those that had been treated with hyperbaric oxygen (1.05 +/- 0.11). Comparisons were also made with the muscles of four normal control dogs and separately with the muscles of six normotensive dogs that had an identical compartment syndrome and normal blood pressure and were not treated with hyperbaric oxygen.

Skyhar, M.J.; Hargens, A.R.; Strauss, M.B.; Gershuni, D.H.; Hart, G.B.; Akeson, W.H.

1986-10-01

458

Controlled release of volatile fragrance molecules from PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO block copolymer micelles in ethanol-water mixtures.  

PubMed

Active materials that can solubilize in different compartments of a sample show release properties which might be of interest in some applications where a delayed release of solutes for instance is required. We studied perfume solutes in compartments of Pluronic block copolymers of different compositions and molecular weights over a range of ethanol-water mixtures. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify and map micellar phases, then dynamic light scattering was used to characterize the solute-swollen micelles; NMR provided with the partition of solutes between solvent and micelles, and equilibrium constants K(c) were estimated using headspace analysis. Finally solute-evaporation rates were measured by thermogravimetry. We focused on two typical behaviors: when solubilization in a micellar compartment occurs, delayed release increased with K(c). When solubilization was limited or absent, either because no micelles form or, in the presence of micelles, because solubilization was minor or absent, delayed release was correspondingly absent. PMID:20146490

Berthier, Damien L; Schmidt, Isabelle; Fieber, Wolfgang; Schatz, Christophe; Furrer, Anton; Wong, Kenneth; Lecommandoux, Sébastien

2010-06-01

459

Which Linear Compartmental Systems Can Be Analyzed by Spectral Analysis of PET Output Data Summed Over All Compartments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

General linear time-invariant compartmental systems were examined to determine which systems meet the conditions necessary for application of the spectral analysis technique to the sum of the concentrations in all compartments. Spectral analysis can be used to characterize the reversible and irreversible components of the system and to estimate the minimum number of compartments, but it applies only to systems

Kathleen Schmidt

1999-01-01

460

Toe-in gait reduces the first peak knee adduction moment in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis$  

E-print Network

Toe-in gait reduces the first peak knee adduction moment in patients with medial compartment knee a c t The first peak of the knee adduction moment has been linked to the presence, severity, and progression of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate toe-in gait

Stanford University

461

14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...Accommodations § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...must be provided to prevent each item of mass (that is part of the airplane...

2010-01-01

462

Toy Blocks and Rotational Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Have you ever observed a child playing with toy blocks? A favorite game is to build towers and then make them topple like falling trees. To the eye of a trained physicist this should immediately look like an example of the physics of "falling chimneys," when tall structures bend and break in mid-air while falling to the ground. The game played with toy blocks can actually reproduce well what is usually seen in photographs of falling towers, such as the one that appeared on the cover of the September 1976 issue of The Physics Teacher. In this paper we describe how we performed and analyzed these simple but interesting experiments with toy blocks.

Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Jully, Isabel R.

2005-09-01

463

Endoscopic-assisted Fascial Decompression for Forearm Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

A case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm treated with endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression is presented. The diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm was confirmed by direct measurement of intracompartmental pressures. Following endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression, the patient was able to begin rehabilitation therapy within 2 weeks. There were no wound-related complications. The patient reported no recurrence of symptoms after returning to work requiring heavy lifting, and morbidity associated with open decompression was avoided. Endoscopic release is not an option in traumatic compartment syndrome, but a minimally invasive approach may be considered in cases of exertional compartment syndrome. Reports of endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression in exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm are relatively scarce. Confirmation of the safety and efficacy of these evolving techniques in the hand surgery literature remains important. PMID:22131927

Nagle, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

464

Endoscopic-assisted Fascial Decompression for Forearm Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

A case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm treated with endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression is presented. The diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm was confirmed by direct measurement of intracompartmental pressures. Following endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression, the patient was able to begin rehabilitation therapy within 2 weeks. There were no wound-related complications. The patient reported no recurrence of symptoms after returning to work requiring heavy lifting, and morbidity associated with open decompression was avoided. Endoscopic release is not an option in traumatic compartment syndrome, but a minimally invasive approach may be considered in cases of exertional compartment syndrome. Reports of endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression in exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm are relatively scarce. Confirmation of the safety and efficacy of these evolving techniques in the hand surgery literature remains important. PMID:22131927

Hijjawi, John; Nagle, Daniel J

2010-12-01

465

State estimation using augmented blocked matrices  

SciTech Connect

Blocked structures of the augmented matrix of power system sate estimation are studied and it is shown that there are advantages in blocking according to a nodal formulation. The topological and computational properties of three blocking alternatives are studied and their numerical condition numbers compared. Recommendations are given for developing software for the proposed nodal blocking formulation.

Alvarado, F.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (US)); Tinney, W.F.

1990-08-01

466

Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated state-of-the-art ultrasound technology for supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks in 40 outpatients. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injec- tion. The block technique we describe

Vincent W. S. Chan; Anahi Perlas; Regan Rawson; Olusegun Odukoya

2003-01-01

467

MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the bacteria will be used to calibrate the nitrification model which will be the basis of the control model for managing the nitrification process in the MELiSSA loop. The experimental results highlighted the use of online measurement of base addition and oxygen consumption as possible parameters for the control of the nitrification process. Keywords: Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, MELiSSA, bioreactor

Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

468

Ca exchange under non-perfusion-limited conditions in rat ventricular cells: Identification of subcellular compartments  

SciTech Connect

Freshly prepared ventricular myocytes from rat hearts, aliquots of which were tested for sarcolemmal integrity by La exposure, were labeled at high 45Ca specific activity. Isotope was subsequently washed out at a perfusion rate of 2.8 ml/s with washout solution sampled each 1 s. No initial unrecorded period of washout was imposed. Four compartments were distinguishable: (1) a rapid compartment (RC) containing 2.6 mmol Ca/kg dry wt of La-displaceable Ca, half time (t1/2) less than 1 s; (2) an intermediate compartment(s) (IC) containing 2.1 mmol, t1/2 = 3 and 19 s; (3) a slow compartment (SC) containing 1.6 mmol, t1/2 = 3.6 min; (4) an inexchangeable compartment that demonstrated no 45Ca uptake after 60-min labeling containing 1.2 mmol. Introduction of 10 mM caffeine as a probe for sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) content at various times during the washouts caused an increased release of 45Ca. The net increased 45Ca release plotted as a function of time at which caffeine was i