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Sample records for psoas compartment block

  1. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthias C.; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R.; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally ‘program’ the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  2. Psoas abscess: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, R; Srikanth, A; Rutter, S M; Butcher, C J; Snape, J

    2006-01-01

    Psoas abscess is an uncommon presentation on the acute medical take. However recognition and appropriate treatment is essential. This review is designed to highlight the clinical features, microbiology, diagnostic tests and treatment for this condition. In order to illustrate some of the pitfalls and complexities in the management of psoas abscess we have included a case history of a patient who was recently treated in our department. PMID:21655500

  3. [Psoas muscular abscess in children].

    PubMed

    Pires, A M; Reis, A G; Grisi, S J

    1996-01-01

    Symptoms of psoas muscular abscess in children are nonspecific and differential diagnosis is made among diseases included in childre?s acute hip pain syndrome, imaging tests being necessary for diagnostic confirmation. During the first semester of 1995, 48,550 children were examined in Pronto Socorro do Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, four of them diagnosed as having psoas muscular abscess (2 females and 2 males, ages varying from 1 to 12 years). All of them had nonspecific clinical features and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasound and/or computerized tomography. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated as the etiologic agent in 3 children, findings similar to the ones in literature. PMID:14688940

  4. Retroperitoneal Cystic Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Mimicking a Psoas Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madan Mohan; Bahri, Nandini; Watal, Pankaj; Rathod, Ketan; Thaker, Siddarth; Bhandari, Parthiv; Dhamecha, Ketul; Ajudia, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Primary neoplasms in the psoas muscle including schwannoma and soft tissue sarcoma with secondary cystic degeneration are rare entities. They are difficult to distinguish from psoas abscess purely based on radiological findings. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in the retroperitoneum is an uncommon entity in contrast to liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. Psoas abscess is a common infection in the retroperitoneum, especially in regions where tuberculosis is endemic. In the current case, the patient presented with gradually progressive lower abdominal pain and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lymphocyte count and sputum positive for acid fast bacilli. There was a presence of previous history of skeletal tuberculosis. Imaging revealed well-defined multilocular cystic lesion involving the left psoas muscle which along with the clinical scenario suggested psoas abscess. However, post-operative biopsy showed the lesion to be a MFH with extensive cystic degeneration. To the best of our knowledge, cystic MFH mimicking an abscess has been previously reported only once in an oncology literature. PMID:26557275

  5. Retroperitoneal Cystic Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Mimicking a Psoas Abscess.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madan Mohan; Bahri, Nandini; Watal, Pankaj; Rathod, Ketan; Thaker, Siddarth; Bhandari, Parthiv; Dhamecha, Ketul; Ajudia, Jasmin

    2015-07-01

    Primary neoplasms in the psoas muscle including schwannoma and soft tissue sarcoma with secondary cystic degeneration are rare entities. They are difficult to distinguish from psoas abscess purely based on radiological findings. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in the retroperitoneum is an uncommon entity in contrast to liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. Psoas abscess is a common infection in the retroperitoneum, especially in regions where tuberculosis is endemic. In the current case, the patient presented with gradually progressive lower abdominal pain and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lymphocyte count and sputum positive for acid fast bacilli. There was a presence of previous history of skeletal tuberculosis. Imaging revealed well-defined multilocular cystic lesion involving the left psoas muscle which along with the clinical scenario suggested psoas abscess. However, post-operative biopsy showed the lesion to be a MFH with extensive cystic degeneration. To the best of our knowledge, cystic MFH mimicking an abscess has been previously reported only once in an oncology literature. PMID:26557275

  6. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  7. Abdominal compartment syndrome after hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Justin; Owens, Brett D

    2010-01-01

    As hip arthroscopy becomes a more common procedure, more complications may occur. We present a case of abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from fluid extravasation in a 42-year-old man who underwent routine hip arthroscopy for femoral acetabular impingement. He had not had previous surgeries to that hip, and arthroscopy was performed in the supine position. After adequate distraction, arthroscopy was performed with an automated pressure- and flow-controlled pump with the pressure maintained between 40 and 60 mm Hg. We performed debridement of a degenerative tear of the anterosuperior labrum, removal of a pincer lesion, and a psoas tenotomy through a capsular window. A distended abdomen was noted on drape removal, and the patient required decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. Extravasation of arthroscopy fluid is a potentially devastating complication during hip arthroscopy, and there should be careful monitoring by the surgeons, anesthesiologists, and operating room staff. PMID:20117637

  8. The psoas muscle as cause of low back pain in infantile cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Camoriano, R.; Valle, M.; Boero, S.

    2008-01-01

    Psoas muscle spasticity is hypothesised as a rare cause of low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy. The authors describe a new manoeuvre for the study of psoas tenderness and ultrasound (US)-guided transabdominal botulinum toxin injection technique. A possible causal relationship between psoas tension and low back pain was found incidentally in two examined cases. In subsequent patients, botulinum toxin was injected and, in cases of disappearance of symptoms, the psoas tendon was sectioned at the pelvic brim with definitive disappearance of pain. The relationship between psoas tension and low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy seems likely, given the result in the four patients. PMID:19384481

  9. Eggerthella lenta bacteremia complicated by spondylodiscitis, psoas abscess, and meningitis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, B J; Korman, T M; Junckerstorff, R K

    2014-04-01

    Eggerthella lenta bacteremia is uncommon and generally associated with abdominal sepsis. The organism and its clinical significance have not been well characterized due to historical difficulties with identification. We report a case of severe infection in a paraplegic man complicated by psoas abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis and discuss treatment challenges. PMID:24430458

  10. Eggerthella lenta Bacteremia Complicated by Spondylodiscitis, Psoas Abscess, and Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Korman, T. M.; Junckerstorff, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Eggerthella lenta bacteremia is uncommon and generally associated with abdominal sepsis. The organism and its clinical significance have not been well characterized due to historical difficulties with identification. We report a case of severe infection in a paraplegic man complicated by psoas abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis and discuss treatment challenges. PMID:24430458

  11. Psoas Abscess Secondary to Renal Tuberculosis in a Middle-aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A psoas muscle abscess is a relatively uncommon condition that can present with vague clinical features. With the decreasing prevalence of tuberculosis, psoas abscesses of tuberculous origin are currently rare in developed countries, but are typically caused by tuberculosis of the spine. Here, an unusual case of a psoas abscess secondary to renal tuberculosis in a middle-aged woman is presented. The abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage followed by nephrectomy and additional antituberculous medications. PMID:24255765

  12. Differentiation of posterior pararenal space infection from psoas abscess by gallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Mishkin, F.; Delgado, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three of four patients whose cases fit the clinical description of psoas abscess proved on gallium imaging to have infection in the posterior pararenal space sparing the psoas muscle. This space provides a route for spread of infection connecting the spine, the anterior abdominal wall, the scrotum, the anterior thigh, and the gluteal region as demonstrated by the cases presented. Clinical differentiation between posterior pararenal space infection and psoas abscesses is difficult and CT studies may not demonstrate the process when the psoas space is not involved.

  13. A rare presentation of a relatively common disease: psoas abscess as a complication of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ho?oleanu, Cristina; Bheecarry, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Psoas abscess is a rare condition that might represent a diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a 47 years old male patient with diabetes mellitus and chronic pancreatitis, who was admitted for fever and severe pain of the left shoulder, in spite of a normal rheumatologic exam. The pain was interpreted as Kehr's sign when complementary investigations revealed a perisplenic collection, leading to the irritation of the diaphragm; the collection was extended to the left psoas muscle and resulted in psoas abscess. The psoas abscess represents a very rare complication of pancreatitis, favored in this case by the diabetic terrain. After the needle aspiration and percutaneous catheter drainage, along with antibiotics, the course was favorable. The case illustrates the importance of the referred pain and the clinical difficulties in the assessment of psoas abscess, manifested here only with fever and antalgic position. A brief review of the literature is then presented. PMID:25000679

  14. Positive psoas sign in presentation of retroperitoneal malignant triton tumour

    PubMed Central

    Winterbottom, Christopher Toby

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a case of a rare malignant neoplasm presenting to the emergency department with common symptomatology and its subsequent identification using a simple physical examination technique. Discussion includes a description of this rare soft tissue sarcoma and a consideration of the value of the psoas sign as a part of the routine abdominal exam to detect intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal pathology. In conclusion, this article acts as a reminder to all clinicians that uncommon and significant pathology may present to the emergency department masquerading as a common, seemingly benign, complaint, but can be clinically identified using simple techniques available to all and rapidly investigated using appropriate special investigations. PMID:22479296

  15. Unusual Presentation of Recurrent Pyogenic Bilateral Psoas Abscess Causing Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism by Iliac Vein Compression

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Mohsin; Sakam, Sailaja; Ashraf, Umair; Marquez, Jose Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Bilateral psoas abscess • acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis • bilateral pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Progressive left leg swelling • productive cough with whitish sputum • right flank pain Medication: Antibiotics and anticoagulation Clinical Procedure: CT-guided percutaneous drain placement Specialty: Internal Medicine/Critical Care Objective: Unusual presentation Background: Psoas abscesses are a known cause of back pain, but they have not been reported as a cause of acute lower extremity thromboses and bilateral pulmonary emboli. We report a patient with bilateral psoas abscesses causing extensive pulmonary emboli through compression of the iliac vein. Case Report: A 47-year-old man presented with bilateral leg swelling over 4 weeks. Physical examination revealed a thin male with bilateral leg swelling, extending to the thigh on his left side. He had hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl, leukocytosis of 16 000/ml, and an elevated D-dimer. A computed tomography (CT) angiogram of his chest showed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli and infarcts. He remained febrile with vague flank pain, prompting a CT of his abdomen and pelvis that showed large, multiloculated, septated, bilateral psoas abscesses with compression of the left femoral vein by the left psoas abscess and a thrombus distal to the occlusion. Two liters of pus was drained from the left psoas abscess by CT-guidance, and although the Gram staining showed Gram-positive cocci in clusters, cultures from the abscess and blood were negative. A repeat CT showed resolution of the abscesses, and the drain was removed. He was discharged to a nursing home to complete a course of intravenous antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusions: Although the infectious complications of psoas abscesses have been described in the literature, the mechanical complications of bilateral psoas abscesses are lacking. It is important to assess for complete resolution of psoas abscesses through follow-up imaging to prevent venous thromboembolic events. PMID:26356406

  16. Mycotic Abdominal Pseudoaneurysm due to Psoas Abscess after Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Sam Youn; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old man, who had undergone thoracoscopic anterior spinal fusion using the plate system and posterior screw fusion three months previously, presented to our hospital with left flank pain and fever. Computed tomography indicated the presence of a psoas muscle abscess. However, after two days of percutaneous catheter drainage, a mycotic abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm was detected via computed tomography. We performed in situ revascularization using a prosthetic graft with omental wrapping. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified on blood and pus culture, and systemic vancomycin was administered for one month. Although the abscess recurred, it was successfully treated with percutaneous catheter drainage and systemic vancomycin administration for three months, without the need for instrumentation removal. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout two years of follow-up. PMID:26665118

  17. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteremia without endocarditis associated with psoas abscess: the first case report in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Upapan, Prasit; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2014-03-01

    The authors report a patient with a rare manifestation of invasive septic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection without endocardial involvement. Our patient presented with progressive paraparesis and subacute fever for ten days. He had underlying diabetes mellitus and alcoholic cirrhosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine showed a psoas abscess with vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis at level of L23 of the lumbar spine. His blood culture grew E. rhusiopathiae. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated normal endocardium. Surgical drainage and debridement with concomitant intravenous antibiotics administration resulted in clinical improvement, including neurological status. MRI showed resolution of the psoas abscess and osteomyelitis. Erysipelothrix infection should be considered as a causative pathogen of musculoskeletal infection in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of psoas abscess caused by E. rhusiopathiae in Thailand. PMID:24772603

  18. Right-sided colonic tuberculosis: a rare cause of ilio-psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, George A; Nair, Manojkumar S; Navaratnam, Romi

    2013-01-01

    Ilio-psoas abscess due to right colon origin is rare and normally occurs secondary to Crohn's disease, diverticulitis or cancer. We report a case of a caecal tuberculosis (TB) presented initially with an appendicular mass and systemic symptoms of fever and fatigue and 3 weeks after, with right-sided anterior thigh pain and found to have an ilio-psoas abscess. Colonoscopy and histology confirmed the diagnosis of caecal-TB. She had a CT drainage of the abscess and was discharged with anti-TB treatment and her drain in situ. Repeat pelvic MRI 10 days after treatment showed the abscess resolving and her systemic symptoms improving. PMID:23616337

  19. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  20. The Effects of Psoas Major and Lumbar Lordosis on Hip Flexion and Sprint Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were…

  1. Bilateral Psoas Abscess and Extensive Soft Tissue Involvement Due to Late Presentation of Pott's Disease of the Spine.

    PubMed

    Elnaim, Abdel Latif K

    2011-04-01

    Pott's disease of the spine with psoas abscess is currently rare form of Extra- pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the developed countries, however it is still seen in areas where TB is endemic. We describe a rare case if not the first (according to our knowledge) of bilateral ruptured psoas abscess with extensive tissue necrosis and pelvic organs exposure with limited neurological deficit presented late in young girl. In this case Pott's disease was associated with extensive tissue necrosis exposing pubic bones, urinary bladder and psoas muscle. PMID:22468071

  2. Atraumatic painless compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Scott; Griffin, Gregory D; Simon, Erin L

    2013-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a time-sensitive diagnosis and surgical emergency because it poses a threat to life and the limbs. It is defined by Matsen et al (Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1978;147(6):943–949) as "a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the tissues within that space." The most common cause of compartment syndrome is traumatic injury. A variety of other conditions such as vascular injuries, bleeding disorders, thrombosis, fasciitis, gas gangrene, rhabdomyolysis, prolonged limb compression, cellulitis, and nephrotic syndrome may also cause compartment syndrome. Patients who are elderly, have preexisting nerve damage, or have psychopathology may have an atypical presentation. This case highlights the first report of a 75-year-old woman who developed painless bilateral compartment syndrome in the absence of traumatic injury. PMID:24041642

  3. Acute compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure – ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. Conclusion: acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS. PMID:25878982

  4. Effects of physiological and toxic metals on the contraction of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Both, A.B.; Wofford, H.W.

    1995-07-01

    The effects of three physiological metals (Fe, Zn, and Cu) and three toxic metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg) on the contraction of glycerinated psoas muscle of rabbit were examined. Four different dilutions of each metal solution were added to glycerinated psoas muscle fibers of rabbit. A solution containing 0.25 % ATP plus 0.05 M KCl plus 0.001 M M{sub g}Cl{sub 2} was applied. The lengths of the muscle fibers before and after the addition of the ATP and salt solution were measured. All six metals inhibited muscle contraction in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of whether they were considered physiological or toxic. A possible explanation for the results involving a metal-ATP complex is given.

  5. Contamination control of the space shuttle Orbiter crew compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelson, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Effective contamination control as applied to manned space flight environments is a discipline characterized and controlled by many parameters. An introduction is given to issues involving Orbiter crew compartment contamination control. An effective ground processing contamination control program is an essential building block to a successful shuttle mission. Personnel are required to don cleanroom-grade clothing ensembles before entering the crew compartment and follow cleanroom rules and regulations. Prior to crew compartment entry, materials and equipment must be checked by an orbiter integrity clerk stationed outside the white-room entrance for compliance to program requirements. Analysis and source identification of crew compartment debris studies have been going on for two years. The objective of these studies is to determine and identify particulate generating materials and activities in the crew compartment. Results show a wide spectrum of many different types of materials. When source identification is made, corrective action is implemented to minimize or curtail further contaminate generation.

  6. Osteomyelitis, discitis, epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica in a man with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed ?-thalassaemia trait.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Helen; Abbey, Aoife; Patel, Vinod; Nair, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ?-thalassaemia trait. Investigations for relapsing and remitting fever found vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis and epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica. PMID:25608980

  7. Original Article Compartments in Scyphozoa

    E-print Network

    Berking, Stefan

    endodermal compartments meet. KEY WORDS: Cnidaria, polyp, medusa, pattern formation, mathematical model), respectively, are each sepa- rated by a mesoglea. In Cnidaria, the number 4 is of particular importance

  8. Endoscopic compartment release for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knight, Justin R; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

    2013-05-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

  9. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can be closed for environmental protection of the suits, suit maintenance, and pressurization.

  10. Changes in the Cross-Sectional Area of Multifidus and Psoas in Unilateral Sciatica Caused by Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wook Ha; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively evaluate the asymmetry of the multifidus and psoas muscles in unilateral sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Seventy-six patients who underwent open microdiscectomy for unilateral L5 radiculopathy caused by disc herniation at the L4-5 level were enrolled, of which 39 patients (51.3%) had a symptom duration of 1 month or less (group A), and 37 (48.7%) had a symptom duration of 3 months or more (group B). The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus and psoas muscles were measured at the mid-portion of the L4-5 disc level on axial MRI, and compared between the diseased and normal sides in each group. Results The mean symptom duration was 0.6±0.4 months and 5.4±2.7 months for groups A and B, respectively (p<0.001). There were no differences in the demographics between the 2 groups. There was a significant difference in the CSA of the multifidus muscle between the diseased and normal sides (p<0.01) in group B. In contrast, no significant multifidus muscle asymmetry was found in group A. The CSA of the psoas muscle was not affected by disc herniation in either group. Conclusion The CSA of the multifidus muscle was reduced by lumbar disc herniation when symptom duration was 3 months or more. PMID:22102949

  11. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  12. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  13. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...using a wheelchair or mobility aid to enter, maneuver within and approach and use each element within such compartment. (See Fig. 5.) (b) Each accessible compartment shall contain a restroom complying with § 1192.123(a) which can be entered...

  14. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ufuk; Matarac?, ?lker

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities' compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy. PMID:25120938

  15. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 29.853 Section 29.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.853 Compartment interiors. For each compartment to...

  16. Cross-sectional area of psoas major muscle and hip flexion strength in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Iida, Tomomi; Ii, Nozomi; Muramatsu, Masataka; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Chumank, Kentaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the differences in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle and hip flexion force (HFF) of the right (dominant) side between adolescent male soccer players and age-matched non-athletes. PM CSA at L4–L5 and HFF at 1.05 rad/s were determined in 22 early (12.8–13.6 years) and 27 late (16.1–17.9 years) adolescent soccer players and 11 early (12.6–13.5 years) and 20 late (16.0–17.7 years) adolescent non-athletes. Fat-free mass (FFM) was greater in late adolescent soccer players than in late adolescent non-athletes, but was similar between the two early adolescent groups. Without the effect of age, PM CSA and HFF were greater in soccer players than in non-athletes. PM CSA and HFF were significantly correlated to FFM (soccer players, r = 0.860, P < 0.0001; non-athletes, r = 0.709, P < 0.0001) and PM CSA (soccer players, r = 0.760, P < 0.0001; non-athletes, r = 0.777, P < 0.0001), respectively. The difference between soccer players and non-athletes in PM CSA was still significant even when PM CSA was covaried for FFM. On the other hand, HFF covaried for PM CSA was similar between the two groups. The current results indicate that, as compared to age-matched non-athletes: (1) not only late, but also early adolescent soccer players have a greater PM CSA even when the difference in FFM was adjusted, and (2) their superiority in hip flexion force can be attributed to the difference in PM CSA. PMID:22297611

  17. Compartments revealed in food-web structure.

    PubMed

    Krause, Ann E; Frank, Kenneth A; Mason, Doran M; Ulanowicz, Robert E; Taylor, William W

    2003-11-20

    Compartments in food webs are subgroups of taxa in which many strong interactions occur within the subgroups and few weak interactions occur between the subgroups. Theoretically, compartments increase the stability in networks, such as food webs. Compartments have been difficult to detect in empirical food webs because of incompatible approaches or insufficient methodological rigour. Here we show that a method for detecting compartments from the social networking science identified significant compartments in three of five complex, empirical food webs. Detection of compartments was influenced by food web resolution, such as interactions with weights. Because the method identifies compartmental boundaries in which interactions are concentrated, it is compatible with the definition of compartments. The method is rigorous because it maximizes an explicit function, identifies the number of non-overlapping compartments, assigns membership to compartments, and tests the statistical significance of the results. A graphical presentation reveals systemic relationships and taxa-specific positions as structured by compartments. From this graphic, we explore two scenarios of disturbance to develop a hypothesis for testing how compartmentalized interactions increase stability in food webs. PMID:14628050

  18. Selective autophagy against membranous compartments

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Muiños, Felipe X; Boada-Romero, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Selective autophagic degradation of cellular components underlies many of the important physiological and pathological implications that autophagy has for mammalian cells. Cytoplasmic vesicles, just like other intracellular items, can be subjected to conventional autophagic events where double-membrane autophagosomes specifically isolate and deliver them for lysosomal destruction. However, intracellular membranes appear to constitute common platforms for unconventional versions of the autophagic pathway, a notion that has become apparent during the past few years. For instance, in many cases of autophagy directed against bacterial phagosomes, subversion of the process results in multimembrane vacuoles that promote bacterial replication instead of the usual degradative outcome. In a different atypical modality, single-membrane vesicles can be labeled with LC3 to direct their contents for lysosomal degradation. In fact, single-membrane compartments of various kinds often provide an assembly site for the autophagic machinery to perform unanticipated nondegradative activities that range from localized secretion of lysosomal contents to melanosome function. Interestingly, many of these unconventional processes seem to be initiated through engagement of relevant nodes of the autophagic signaling network that, once activated, promote LC3 decoration of the targeted membrane, and some cases of inducer/receptor proteins that specifically engage those important signaling hubs have recently been described. Here we review the available examples of all autophagic variants involving membranous compartments, with a main focus on the more recently discovered unconventional phenomena where the usual degradation purpose of autophagy or its canonical mechanistic features are not completely conserved. PMID:24419294

  19. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  20. Status spasticus and psoas muscle edema due to anti-GAD antibody associated stiff-man syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maramattom, Boby Varkey

    2015-01-01

    Severe muscle rigidity and spasms are uncommon causes of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions. Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) is a rare disorder characterized by continuous muscle spasms, axial muscle rigidity, “tin soldier gait,” and continuous motor unit activity on electromyography. There are three clinical variants of SMS; stiff-limb syndrome, classical SMS, and paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Three types of antibodies have been associated with SMS; however, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies are the most frequent and are seen in the idiopathic type of SMS. The spasms of SMS can be very disabling and severe enough to cause muscle ruptures and skeletal fractures. We present a case of anti-GAD positive SMS with “status spasticus” causing bilateral psoas myoedema and rhabdomyolysis due to repeated axial muscle jerking in a 64-year-old man and discuss the differential diagnosis of a “jerking patient in the ICU.” PMID:26321813

  1. Recurrent Lower-Extremity Compartment Syndrome after Four-Compartment Fasciotomy Secondary to Acute Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kerkar, Ashwini P; Farber, Alik; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening event necessitating emergent treatment using fasciotomy. Recurrent compartment syndrome is rare and has only been reported after trauma and in conjunction with underlying connective tissue disorders. In this report, we present a case of recurrent lower-extremity compartment syndrome caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury, in a patient previously treated with adequate 4-compartment fasciotomies. As such, this is the first reported case of recurrent compartment syndrome in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury that required treatment with 4-compartment fasciotomies on both occasions. This case demonstrates that fasciotomy is not protective against the development of recurrent compartment syndrome due to ischemia-reperfusion injury and that patients at high risk require monitoring. PMID:26363426

  2. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  3. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  4. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  5. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  6. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  7. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  8. Acute and chronic compartment syndromes: know when to act fast.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Heard, Hank; Kelham, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Compartment syndrome is a fairly common condition noted in patients with fractures or crush injuries to the extremities (acute compartment syndrome) and in athletes (chronic compartment syndrome). Compartments bound by fascia are found in the extremities, buttocks, and abdomen; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss. This article reviews diagnosis of the problem, monitoring of compartment pressure, and appropriate treatment. PMID:24819953

  9. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  10. 14 CFR 27.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 27.853 Section 27.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.853...

  11. 14 CFR 27.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 27.853 Section 27.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.853...

  12. 14 CFR 27.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 27.853 Section 27.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.853...

  13. Non-small cell lung cancer with concomitant intramuscular myxoma of the right psoas mimicking intramuscular metastasis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, PENG; MENG, XUE; XIA, LIANKE; XIE, PENG; SUN, XINDONG; GAO, YONGSHENG; WANG, SHIJIANG; ZHAO, XIANGUANG; YU, JINMING

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma (IMM) as a rare soft-tissue tumor arising from the muscles is completely benign. When IMM accompanies malignance, it may be misdiagnosed as muscle metastasis, and for this extremely rare concurrence, the subsequent treatment would vary accordingly. The current study presents, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) concomitant with IMM mimicking skeletal muscle metastasis. A 64-year-old female was hospitalized with a history of chest discomfort and right lumbar pain that had persisted for four months. The computed tomography scan showed a lesion in the left upper lobe of the lung and the right psoas, respectively. Serum biomarkers for NSCLC were abnormal. A presumptive clinical diagnosis was compatible with left NSCLC and right psoas muscle metastasis (cT2aN3M1b, stage IV). Stage IV lung cancer would receive palliative treatment. However, the final diagnosis of synchronous left lung squamous cell carcinoma (cT2aN3M0, stage IIIB) and IMM in the right psoas was confirmed by biopsy. The patient therefore underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy for lung carcinoma, and conservative treatment, including analgesics, for IMM. The diagnosis process for a malignant neoplasm concomitant with IMM is not straightforward due to a lack of clinical experience, and it significantly affects the tumor staging and subsequent treatment strategy. The present case suggests that IMM should be included in the differential diagnosis when an abnormal intramuscular lesion concomitant with malignancy is identified. The value of histopathological diagnosis prior to definitive treatment also requires highlighting. PMID:26722289

  14. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  15. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Cargo Accommodations § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently...

  16. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and Cargo Accommodations § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently...

  17. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Cargo Accommodations § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently...

  18. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and Cargo Accommodations § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently...

  19. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  20. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  1. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  2. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  3. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  4. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  5. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  6. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  7. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  8. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

  9. Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Groth, Shawn S; Leon, Jorge A; Mohr, William J

    2012-04-01

    Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial. PMID:22787350

  10. Bacterial Translocation – Impact on the Adipocyte Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called “creeping fat.” The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system. PMID:24432024

  11. Joint Compartmented Threshold Access Structures Ali Aydin Selcuk, Ramazan Yilmaz

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Joint Compartmented Threshold Access Structures Ali Aydin Sel¸cuk, Ramazan Yilmaz Department the notion of a joint compartmented threshold ac- cess structure (JCTAS). We study the necessary conditions are not necessarily disjoint, and refer to such an access structures as a joint compartmented threshold access

  12. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  13. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks...

  14. State-dependent radial elasticity of attached cross-bridges in single skinned fibres of rabbit psoas muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1993-01-01

    1. In a single skinned fibre of rabbit psoas muscle, upon attachment of cross bridges to actin in the presence of ADP or pyrophosphate (PPi), the separation between the contractile filaments, as determined by equatorial X-ray diffraction, is found to decrease, suggesting that force is generated in the radial direction. 2. The single muscle fibres were subjected to compression by 0-8% of dextran T500. The changes in lattice spacings by dextran compression were compared with changes induced by cross-bridge attachment to actin. Based on this comparison, the magnitude and the direction of the radial force generated by the attached cross-bridges were estimated. The radial cross-bridge force varied with filament separation, and the magnitude of the radial cross-bridge force reached as high as the maximal axial force produced during isometric contraction. 3. One key parameter of the radial elasticity, i.e. the equilibrium spacing where the radial force is zero, was found to depend on the ligand bound to the myosin head. In the presence of ADP, the equilibrium spacing was 36 nm. In the presence of MgPPi the equilibrium spacing shifted to 35 nm and Ca2+ had little effect on the equilibrium spacing. 4. The equilibrium spacing was independent of the fraction of cross-bridges attached to actin. The fraction of cross-bridges attached in rigor was modulated from 100% to close to 0% by adding up to 10 mM of ATP gamma S in the rigor solution. The lattice spacing remained at 38 nm, the equilibrium spacing for nucleotide-free cross-bridges at mu = 170 mM. 5. Radial force generated by cross-bridges in rigor at large lattice spacings (38 nm < or = d10 < or = 46 nm) appeared to vary linearly with lattice spacing. 6. The titration of ATP gamma S to fibres in rigor provided a correlation between the radial stiffness of the nucleotide-free cross-bridges and the equatorial intensities. The relation between the equatorial intensity ratio I11/I10 and radial stiffness appeared to be approximately linear. 7. The fibres under different conditions showed a wide range of radial stiffness, which was not proportional to the apparent axial stiffness of the fibre. If the apparent axial stiffness is a measure of the fraction of cross-bridges bound to actin, it follows that the radial elastic constant is state dependent; or vice versa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7693922

  15. Acute compartment syndrome of the dorsal forearm following noncontact injury.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Brent; Comstock, Sean

    2010-09-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening condition in which early diagnosis and surgical consultation for fasciotomy are required to preserve functional outcome. The diagnosis is typically considered in patients with traumatic mechanisms of injury such as a direct blow and crush to the compartment, particularly when there is a fracture in the same compartment. We report the case of a patient with acute compartment syndrome of the dorsal forearm that occurred as a result of an atypical noncontact traumatic mechanism. Establishing the diagnosis of compartment syndrome was complicated in this patient, as some of the signs and symptoms of acute compartment syndrome could have been attributed to the presence of a coexisting rupture of the extensor digitorum muscle. This report serves to remind emergency physicians that, although rare, acute compartment syndrome can result from exertional and noncontact traumatic mechanisms. PMID:20925169

  16. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  17. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  18. An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes. ?? 1995 Birkha??user Verlag.

  19. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  20. Structural Characterization of the Binding of Myosin*ADP*Pi to Actin in Permeabilized Rabbit Psoas Muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,S.; Gu, J.; Belknap, B.; White, H.; Yu, L.

    2006-01-01

    When myosin is attached to actin in a muscle cell, various structures in the filaments are formed. The two strongly bound states (A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP and A{center_dot}M) and the weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP states are reasonably well understood. The orientation of the strongly bound myosin heads is uniform ('stereospecific' attachment), and the attached heads exhibit little spatial fluctuation. In the prehydrolysis weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state, the orientations of the attached myosin heads assume a wide range of azimuthal and axial angles, indicating considerable flexibility in the myosin head. The structure of the other weakly bound state, A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}, however, is poorly understood. This state is thought to be the critical pre-power-stroke state, poised to make the transition to the strongly binding, force-generating states, and hence it is of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of contraction. However, because of the low affinity between myosin and actin in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state, the structure of this state has eluded determination both in isolated form and in muscle cells. With the knowledge recently gained in the structures of the weakly binding M{center_dot}ATP, M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} states and the weakly attached A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state in muscle fibers, it is now feasible to delineate the in vivo structure of the attached state of A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}. The series of experiments presented in this article were carried out under relaxing conditions at 25{sup o}C, where {approx}95% of the myosin heads in the skinned rabbit psoas muscle contain the hydrolysis products. The affinity for actin is enhanced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or by lowering the ionic strength in the bathing solution. Solution kinetics and binding constants were determined in the presence and in the absence of PEG. When the binding between actin and myosin was increased, both the myosin layer lines and the actin layer lines increased in intensity, but the intensity profiles did not change. The configuration (mode) of attachment in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state is thus unique among the intermediate attached states of the cross-bridge ATP hydrolysis cycle. One of the simplest explanations is that both myosin filaments and actin filaments are stabilized (e.g., undergo reduced spatial fluctuations) by the attachment. The alignment of the myosin heads in the thick filaments and the alignment of the actin monomers in the thin filaments are improved as a result. The compact atomic structure of M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} with strongly coupled domains may contribute to the unique attachment configuration: the 'primed' myosin heads may function as 'transient struts' when attached to the thin filaments.

  1. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  2. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  3. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  4. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  5. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  6. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  7. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  8. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  9. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  10. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  11. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  12. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241...Contamination of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments. Rooms...construction as readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and rooms should...

  13. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241...Contamination of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments. Rooms...construction as readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and rooms should...

  14. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241...Contamination of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments. Rooms...construction as readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and rooms should...

  15. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241...Contamination of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments. Rooms...construction as readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and rooms should...

  16. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241...Contamination of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and compartments. Rooms...construction as readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks and rooms should...

  17. Spinal blocks.

    PubMed

    Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Every anesthetist should have the expertise to perform lumbar puncture that is the prerequisite to induce spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia is easy and effective technique: small amount of local anesthetic injected in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid provides highly effective anesthesia, analgesia, and sympathetic and motor block in the lower part of the body. The main limitation of spinal anesthesia is a variable and relatively short duration of the block with a single-injection of local anesthetic. With appropriate use of adjuvant or combining spinal anesthesia with epidural anesthesia, the analgesic action can be controlled in case of early recovery of initial block or in patients with prolonged procedures. Contraindications are rare. Bleeding disorders and any major dysfunction in coagulation system are rare in children, but spinal anesthesia should not be used in children with local infection or increased intracranial pressure. Children with spinal anesthesia may develop the same adverse effects as has been reported in adults, but in contrast to adults, cardiovascular deterioration is uncommon in children even with high blocks. Most children having surgery with spinal anesthesia need sedation, and in these cases, close monitoring of sufficient respiratory function and protective airway reflexes is necessary. Postdural puncture headache and transient neurological symptoms have been reported also in pediatric patients, and thus, guardians should be provided instructions for follow-up and contact information if symptoms appear or persist after discharge. Epidural blood patch is effective treatment for prolonged, severe headache, and nonopioid analgesic is often sufficient for transient neurological symptoms. PMID:21899656

  18. Orientationally invariant metrics of apparent compartment eccentricity from double pulsed field gradient diffusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Dyrby, Tim B

    2013-12-01

    Pulsed field gradient diffusion sequences (PFG) with multiple diffusion encoding blocks have been indicated to offer new microstructural tissue information, such as the ability to detect nonspherical compartment shapes in macroscopically isotropic samples, i.e. samples with negligible directional signal dependence on diffusion gradients in standard diffusion experiments. However, current acquisition schemes are not rotationally invariant in the sense that the derived metrics depend on the orientation of the sample, and are affected by the interplay of sampling directions and compartment orientation dispersion when applied to macroscopically anisotropic systems. Here we propose a new framework, the d-PFG 5-design, to enable rotationally invariant estimation of double wave vector diffusion metrics (d-PFG). The method is based on the idea that an appropriate orientational average of the signal emulates the signal from a powder preparation of the same sample, where macroscopic anisotropy is absent by construction. Our approach exploits the theory of exact numerical integration (quadrature) of polynomials on the rotation group, and we exemplify the general procedure with a set consisting of 60 pairs of diffusion wave vectors (the d-PFG 5-design) facilitating a theoretically exact determination of the fourth order Taylor or cumulant expansion of the orientationally averaged signal. The d-PFG 5-design is evaluated with numerical simulations and ex vivo high field diffusion MRI experiments in a nonhuman primate brain. Specifically, we demonstrate rotational invariance when estimating compartment eccentricity, which we show offers new microstructural information, complementary to that of fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The imaging observations are supported by a new theoretical result, directly relating compartment eccentricity to FA of individual pores. PMID:24038641

  19. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

  20. Selective pharmacological manipulation of cortical-thalamic co-cultures in a dual-compartment device.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T; Franco, Maria; Barone, Rocco Andrea; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J; Decré, Michel M J

    2013-03-30

    In this study, we demonstrate capabilities to selectively manipulate dissociated co-cultures of neurons plated in dual-compartment devices. Synaptic receptor antagonists and tetrodotoxin solutions were used to selectively control and study the network-wide burst propagation and cell firing in cortical-cortical and cortical-thalamic co-culture systems. The results show that in cortical-thalamic dissociated co-cultures, burst events initiate in the cortical region and propagate to the thalamic region and the burst events in thalamic region can be controlled by blocking the synaptic receptors in the cortical region. Whereas, in cortical-cortical co-culture system, one of the region acts as a site of burst initiation and facilitate propagation of bursts in the entire network. Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, when applied to either of the regions blocks the firing of neurons in that particular region with significant influence on the firing of neurons in the other region. The results demonstrate selective pharmacological manipulation capabilities of co-cultures in a dual compartment device and helps understand the effects of neuroactive compounds on networks derived from specific CNS tissues and the dynamic interaction between them. PMID:23305774

  1. Including Blocks Blockly Language Creation and Applications

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    Including Blocks Blockly Language Creation and Applications Visual Programming for Media, allowing visual abstraction of code blocks. Blockly is a webbased, clientside JavaScript library application with Blockly, and present two case studies created for this project that demonstrate the power

  2. Block theory Fusion systems

    E-print Network

    Block theory Fusion systems Results Block theory and fusion systems Benjamin Sambale Jena 02. 05. 2011 Benjamin Sambale Block theory and fusion systems #12;Block theory Fusion systems Results Blocks Characters in blocks Defect groups Conjectures Blocks Let G be a finite group and p be a prime. Let (K, R, F

  3. Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

    2013-09-27

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 ?g/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells. PMID:23603023

  4. The impact of discrete compartments of a multi-compartment collagen-GAG scaffold on overall construct biophysical properties

    PubMed Central

    Weisgerber, D.W.; Kelkhoff, D.O.; Caliari, S.R.; Harley, B.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthopedic interfaces such as the tendon-bone junction (TBJ) present unique challenges for biomaterials development. Here we describe a multi-compartment collagen–GAG scaffold fabricated via lyophilization that contains discrete mineralized (CGCaP) and non-mineralized (CG) regions joined by a continuous interface. Modifying CGCaP preparation approaches, we demonstrated scaffold variants of increasing mineral content (40 vs. 80 wt% CaP). We report the impact of fabrication parameters on microstructure, composition, elastic modulus, and permeability of the entire multi-compartment scaffold as well as discrete mineralized and non-mineralized compartments. Notably, individual mineralized and non-mineralized compartments differentially impacted the global properties of the multi-compartment composite. Of particular interest for the development of mechanically-loaded multi-compartment composites, the elastic modulus and permeability of the entire construct were governed primarily by the non-mineralized and mineralized compartments, respectively. Based on these results we hypothesize spatial variations in scaffold structural, compositional, and mechanical properties may be an important design parameter in orthopedic interface repair. PMID:23973610

  5. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  6. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  7. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  8. The periplastidal compartment: a naturally minimized eukaryotic cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Grosche, Christopher; Hempel, Franziska; Bolte, Kathrin; Zauner, Stefan; Maier, Uwe G

    2014-12-01

    Many important algae groups like diatoms, dinoflagellates and ‘kelp’ but also apicomplexan parasites evolved in secondary endosymbiosis. Here, a eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis created chimeric cells, in which a eukaryotic symbiont was reduced to a complex plastid. Although having lost nearly all of the eukaryotic compartments of the symbiont, a tiny lumen representing the remnant of the cytoplasm of the symbiont is still present in most of these organisms. This compartment, the periplastidal compartment, shows different degrees of reductions as in two algal groups the former nucleus is still present in a minimized form, called nucleomorph, whereas most others have lost the genetic system completely. Thus, the natural reduction of eukaryotic cytoplasms can be studied in terms of evolution and functionality, giving additionally advices for the design of synthetic minimized compartments. PMID:25460801

  9. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery....

  10. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks....

  11. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets... cable insulation, and for small parts (such as knobs, handles, rollers, fasteners, clips, grommets,...

  12. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets... cable insulation, and for small parts (such as knobs, handles, rollers, fasteners, clips, grommets,...

  13. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets... cable insulation, and for small parts (such as knobs, handles, rollers, fasteners, clips, grommets,...

  14. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers and transparencies... by other approved equivalent methods. (v) Except for electrical wire cable insulation, and for...

  15. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing required. Merchandise in...

  16. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  17. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

  18. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view for safe operation. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the pilot's view. If certification for night operation is requested, this must be shown by...

  19. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view for safe operation. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the pilot's view. If certification for night operation is requested, this must be shown by...

  20. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

  1. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

  2. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

  3. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view for safe operation. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the pilot's view. If certification for night operation is requested, this must be shown by...

  4. 14 CFR 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be...

  5. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view for safe operation. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the pilot's view. If certification for night operation is requested, this must be shown by...

  6. 3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind G; Weaver, Michael J; Appelton, Paul T; Bae, Donald S; Dyer, George S M; Heng, Marilyn; Jupiter, Jesse B; Vrahas, Mark S

    2015-09-26

    Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data. PMID:26460664

  8. 9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  9. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  13. Fire spread and percolation in polydisperse compartment structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekri, N.; Zekri, L.; Lallemand, C.; Pizzo, Y.; Kaiss, A.; Clerc, J.-P.; Porterie, B.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we employ a cellular automata and percolation analysis to model fire spread in polydisperse amorphous massively multi-compartmented structures (e.g. naval vessels, high-rise buildings, warehouses, or nuclear plants). Various shapes and sizes of compartments are considered. Each compartment is composed of nc equal-size cells. It is found that increasing nc increases fingering and lacunarities of fire patterns, and subsequently front roughness. However, this also increases the probability of fire propagation throughout the system as the percolation threshold presents a power-law decrease with nc -1 for small values of nc. For large polydisperse compartments, the propagation/non propagation transition seems to be size-independent. A special emphasis is put on the dynamics of fire propagation. Further study is needed to evaluate network properties that should help in developing better strategies to reduce fire consequences.

  14. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Hepatitis B surface antigen assembles in a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the major envelope protein of the virus, in the absence of other viral proteins leads to its secretion as oligomers in the form of disk-like or tubular lipoprotein particles. The observation that these lipoprotein particles are heavily disulphide crosslinked is paradoxical since HBsAg assembly is classically believed to occur in the ER, and hence in the presence of high levels of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) which should resolve these higher intermolecular crosslinks. Indeed, incubation of mature, highly disulphide crosslinked HBsAg with recombinant PDI causes the disassembly of HBsAg to dimers. We have used antibodies against resident ER proteins in double immunofluorescence studies to study the stages of the conversion of the HBsAg from individual protein subunits to the secreted, crosslinked, oligomer. We show that HBsAg is rapidly sorted to a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment which excludes PDI and other major soluble resident ER proteins although it overlaps with the distribution of rab2, an established marker of an intermediate compartment. Kinetic studies showed that disulphide-linked HBsAg dimers began to form during a short (2 min) pulse, increased in concentration to peak at 60 min, and then decreased as the dimers were crosslinked to form higher oligomers. These higher oligomers are the latest identifiable intracellular form of HBsAg before its secretion (t 1/2 = 2 h). Brefeldin A treatment does not alter the localization of HBsAg in this PDI excluding compartment, however, it blocks the formation of new oligomers causing the accumulation of dimeric HBsAg. Hence this oligomerization must occur in a pre-Golgi compartment. These data support a model in which rapid dimer formation, catalyzed by PDI, occurs in the ER, and is followed by transport of dimers to a pre-Golgi compartment where the absence of PDI and a different lumenal environment allow the assembly process to be completed. PMID:1522109

  16. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended.

  17. The preendosomal compartment comprises distinct coated and noncoated endocytic vesicle populations

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of molecules from the cell surface to the early endosomes is mediated by preendosomal vesicles. These vesicles, which have pinched off completely from the plasma membrane but not yet fused with endosomes, form the earliest compartment along the endocytic route. Using a new assay to distinguish between free and cell surface connected vesicle profiles, we have characterized the preedosomal compartment ultrastructurally. Our basic experimental setup was labeling of the entire cell surface at 4 degrees C with Con A-gold, warming of the cells to 37 degrees C to allow endocytosis, followed by replacing incubation medium with fixative, all within either 30 or 60 s. Then the fixed cells were incubated with anti-Con A-HRP to distinguish truly free (gold labeled) endocytic vesicles from surface- connected structures. Finally, analysis of thin (20-30 nm) serial sections and quantification of vesicle diameters were carried out. Based on this approach it is shown that the preendosomal compartment comprises both clathrin-coated and non-coated endocytic vesicles with approximately the same frequency but with distinct diameter distributions, the average noncoated vesicle being smaller (95 nm) than the average coated one (110 nm). In parallel experiments, using an anti- transferrin receptor gold-conjugate as a specific marker for clathrin- dependent endocytosis it is also shown that uncoating of coated vesicles plays only a minor role for the total frequency of noncoated vesicles. Furthermore, after perturbation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis by potassium depletion where uptake of transferrin is blocked, noncoated endocytic vesicles with Con A-gold, but not coated vesicles, exist already after 30 and 60 s. Finally, it is shown that the existence of small, free vesicles in the short-time experiments cannot be ascribed to recycling from the early endosomes. PMID:1673969

  18. Compartment A101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary compartment. Door at left leads to ship's brig. Ladder leads to compartment A-123. Compartment aft of ladder is bread room, A-102. (07) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... firefighter, the firefighter should check for potential fire sources at areas closest to the OFCR compartment... between the firefighter and his or her way to get out of the compartment. Procedures describing methods... compartment. The amount of smoke entrained by a firefighter exiting the OFCR compartment is not...

  20. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  1. Random walks of cytoskeletal motors in open and closed compartments.

    PubMed

    Lipowsky, R; Klumpp, S; Nieuwenhuizen, T M

    2001-09-01

    Random walks of molecular motors, which bind to and unbind from cytoskeletal filaments, are studied theoretically. The bound and unbound motors undergo directed and nondirected motion, respectively. Motors in open compartments exhibit anomalous drift velocities. Motors in closed compartments generate stationary nonequilibrium states with spatially varying densities of the motor concentrations and currents. "Traffic jams" on the filaments lead to a maximum of the motor current at an optimal motor concentration. Quantitative estimates based on experimental data for bound motors indicate that these transport phenomena are accessible to experiments. PMID:11531504

  2. Primary Cilia and Dendritic Spines: Different but Similar Signaling Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Doroquez, David B.; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures. PMID:24048681

  3. Random Walks of Cytoskeletal Motors in Open and Closed Compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard; Klumpp, Stefan; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2001-09-01

    Random walks of molecular motors, which bind to and unbind from cytoskeletal filaments, are studied theoretically. The bound and unbound motors undergo directed and nondirected motion, respectively. Motors in open compartments exhibit anomalous drift velocities. Motors in closed compartments generate stationary nonequilibrium states with spatially varying densities of the motor concentrations and currents. ``Traffic jams'' on the filaments lead to a maximum of the motor current at an optimal motor concentration. Quantitative estimates based on experimental data for bound motors indicate that these transport phenomena are accessible to experiments.

  4. Surgical Management of Lymph Node Compartments in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Cord; Yang, Anthony; Elaraj, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Although papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) commonly metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, prophylactic central neck dissection is controversial. The primary treatment for lymph node metastases is surgical resection. Patients diagnosed with PTC should be assessed preoperatively by cervical ultrasound to evaluate central and lateral neck lymph node compartments. Sonographically suspicious lymph nodes in the lateral neck should be biopsied for cytology or thyroglobulin levels. Any compartment (central or lateral) that has definitive proof of nodal metastases should be formally dissected at the time of thyroidectomy. PMID:26610772

  5. INTRODUCTION Protein traffic between membrane-bounded compartments of

    E-print Network

    Kirchhausen, Tomas

    INTRODUCTION Protein traffic between membrane-bounded compartments of eukaryotic cells is mediated temperature. These Golgi-specific effects of apl2 in chc1-ts cells provide evidence that Apl2p is a component on the cytoplasmic surface of the donor organelle membrane, followed by membrane invagination and release of a coated

  6. DESCUBRE, UTILIZA Y COMPARTE EL CONTENIDO DE ARCGIS Diego Llamas

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    DESCUBRE, UTILIZA Y COMPARTE EL CONTENIDO DE ARCGIS Diego Llamas Geopgraphic Mapping Technologies ArcGIS Online que pueden ser utilizados por los usuarios organizacionales de forma gratuita. Se estará Huracanes, la NOAA, USGS entre otros. Se generarán Mapas que se alojarán en ArcGIS Online y se crearán

  7. 38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, with salon wall panels removed to show engine frame. Main connecting rod from crank to walking beam appears at extreme right of view, top of cylinder and piston rod appear at extreme left. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  8. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  9. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  10. Running head: Transcriptional Dynamics in Two Seed Compartments Corresponding author

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    Dekkers, bas.dekkers@wur.nl #12;4 ABSTRACT Seed germination is a critical stage in the plant life cycle1 Running head: Transcriptional Dynamics in Two Seed Compartments Corresponding author: Bas JW Dekkers, Wageningen Seed Lab, Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen UR, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708

  11. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...be an emergency means to enable a flight attendant to enter the pilot compartment in the event that the flightcrew becomes incapacitated. [Doc. No. 24344, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-106, 67 FR 2127, Jan. 15,...

  12. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  13. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  14. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  15. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  16. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  17. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  18. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  19. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  20. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  1. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  2. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... compartment as a separate container and joining with a cylinder, the cylinder must have a plate thickness not less than that required for the inner container shell and must be applied to the outside surface of the... distance of at least two times the plate thickness, or 1 inch, whichever is greater and must be joined...

  3. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car...

  4. Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Kramer, Kim; Smith-Jones, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John; Larson, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of 131I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Methods Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[CIAR]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[CIA], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC [CIAR]/AUC[CIA]). Results Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R=0.95±0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R=0.92±0.11 versus 0.77±0.21, p=0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of 131I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[CIAR]) and therapeutic ratio ([AUC[CIAR]/AUC[CIA

  5. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. Compartmented Secret Sharing Based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Compartmented Secret Sharing Based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem Sorin Iftene Faculty of Computer Science "Al. I. Cuza" University Ia¸si, Romania siftene@infoiasi.ro Abstract A secret sharing scheme starts with a secret and then derives from it certain shares (or shadows) which are distributed

  7. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome after Fenestrated Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Hau, Melinda Y T; Glasby, Michael; Davies, Robert S M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) after a 4-vessel fenestrated endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for GCS as a differential diagnosis for spinal cord ischemia in patients developing perioperative lower limb neurologic deficit after extensive abdominal aortic stent-graft coverage. PMID:26522580

  8. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. The mosaic structure of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42 and its relation to other symbiotic genome compartments

    PubMed Central

    González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Salgado, Heladia; Hernández-González, Ismael; Hernández-Celis, Juan Carlos; Quintero, Verónica; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Girard, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Oscar; Flores, Margarita; Cevallos, Miguel A; Collado-Vides, Julio; Romero, David; Dávila, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Background Symbiotic bacteria known as rhizobia interact with the roots of legumes and induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In rhizobia, essential genes for symbiosis are compartmentalized either in symbiotic plasmids or in chromosomal symbiotic islands. To understand the structure and evolution of the symbiotic genome compartments (SGCs), it is necessary to analyze their common genetic content and organization as well as to study their differences. To date, five SGCs belonging to distinct species of rhizobia have been entirely sequenced. We report the complete sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42, a microsymbiont of beans, and a comparison with other SGC sequences available. Results The symbiotic plasmid is a circular molecule of 371,255 base-pairs containing 359 coding sequences. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes common to other rhizobia are clustered in a region of 125 kilobases. Numerous sequences related to mobile elements are scattered throughout. In some cases the mobile elements flank blocks of functionally related sequences, thereby suggesting a role in transposition. The plasmid contains 12 reiterated DNA families that are likely to participate in genomic rearrangements. Comparisons between this plasmid and complete rhizobial genomes and symbiotic compartments already sequenced show a general lack of synteny and colinearity, with the exception of some transcriptional units. There are only 20 symbiotic genes that are shared by all SGCs. Conclusions Our data support the notion that the symbiotic compartments of rhizobia genomes are mosaic structures that have been frequently tailored by recombination, horizontal transfer and transposition. PMID:12801410

  10. The lytic granules of natural killer cells are dual-function organelles combining secretory and pre-lysosomal compartments

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Cytolytic lymphocytes contain specialized lytic granules whose secretion during cell-mediated cytolysis results in target cell death. Using serial section EM of RNK-16, a natural killer cell line, we show that there are structurally distinct types of granules. Each type is composed of varying proportions of a dense core domain and a multivesicular cortical domain. The dense core domains contain secretory proteins thought to play a role in cytolysis, including cytolysin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. In contrast, the multivesicular domains contain lysosomal proteins, including acid phosphatase, alpha-glucosidase, cathepsin D, and LGP-120. In addition to their protein content, the lytic granules have other properties in common with lysosomes. The multivesicular regions of the granules have an acidic pH, comparable to that of endosomes and lysosomes. The granules take up exogenous cationized ferritin with lysosome-like kinetics, and this uptake is blocked by weak bases and low temperature. The multivesicular domains of the granules are rich in the 270-kD mannose-6-phosphate receptor, a marker which is absent from mature lysosomes but present in earlier endocytic compartments. Thus, the natural killer granules represent an unusual dual-function organelle, where a regulated secretory compartment, the dense core, is contained within a pre-lysosomal compartment, the multivesicular domain. PMID:2277062

  11. MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

    2012-07-01

    As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are assessed redundantly showing excellent agreement for mass balance purposes with more than 95 % for carbon recovery. The experimental determination of nitrogen conversion yields has shown that more than 95 % for NH4+ is converted to NO2- in the first step and that more than 0.975 NO2- is transformed to NO3- in the second step. The biomass production yields are 0.4 and 0.3 g DM mol N-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi respectively. The maximum nitrogen oxidation rates are 0.9 and 3.5 mM day-1 respectively, indicating a limitation by oxygen transfer. Keywords: autotrophy, Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, ionic chromatography, flow cytometry

  12. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  13. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  14. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  15. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  16. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. 24.13 Section 24... § 24.13 Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  17. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

  18. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

  19. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

  20. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

  1. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

  2. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629... § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  3. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629... § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  4. Characterization of a Compartment Syndrome-like Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Oyster, Nick; Witt, Michelle; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Poddar, Minakshi; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is caused by an elevation of pressure within a muscular compartment which can be caused by numerous factors, including blunt trauma. In this study, we characterized a rodent model of CS-like injury. METHODS Forty male athymic rats received a standardized injury of ischemia and compression to their hindlimbs, while the intracompartmental pressure (ICP) was measured using an implantable transmitter. Tetanic muscle function was evaluated, and histology was performed on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. RESULTS ICPs were held at 260.70±2.70mmHg during injury. Injured muscles recovered 59% of their total function 4 weeks after injury, and histology showed high levels of edema, inflammation (CD68+), angiogenesis (CD31+), and fibrosis within 72 hours following injury. DISCUSSION We describe a novel CS-like injury model and a novel method to measure ICP which could potentially be used to develop innovative therapies to manage CS injury in humans. PMID:25242666

  5. Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome in a HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Donald James; Shaukat, Yasir Mehmood; Jenabzadeh, Reza; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome is a very rare condition but one which requires swift diagnosis and urgent surgical decompression by fasciotomies in order to achieve the best outcome. We present the case of a 31-year-old HIV-positive man. The case highlights the perils of being sidetracked by an atypical clinical history instead of acting on the classical clinical examination findings. We will discuss the presentation and management of this patient, review the literature and highlight the key learning points. The most important learning point being that no matter how atypical the history, if a patient presents with limb pain out of proportion to the injury (with or without pain on passive stretch), sensory changes and a loss of motor power, then a diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome must be considered. PMID:24347455

  6. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Strano, Sabrina; Roth, Judith; Blandino, Giovanni . E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  7. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome. PMID:23264161

  8. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  10. Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  12. Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb. This study compared foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) using a range of clinical foot measures. The reliability of the foot measures was also assessed. Methods The foot posture of 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA predominantly in the medial compartment of the knee and 28 asymptomatic age-matched healthy controls was investigated using the foot posture index (FPI), vertical navicular height and drop, and the arch index. Independent t tests and effect size (Cohen's d) were used to investigate the differences between the groups in the foot posture measurements. Results Significant differences were found between the control and the knee OA groups in relation to the FPI (1.35 ± 1.43 vs. 2.46 ± 2.18, p = 0.02; d = 0.61, medium effect size), navicular drop (0.02 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.01; d = 1.02, large effect size) and the arch index (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04, p = 0.04; d = 1.02, large effect size). No significant difference was found for vertical navicular height (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03, p = 0.54; d = 0.04, negligible effect size). Conclusion People with medial compartment knee OA exhibit a more pronated foot type compared to controls. It is therefore recommended that the assessment of patients with knee OA in clinical practice should include simple foot measures, and that the potential influence of foot structure and function on the efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of medial compartment knee OA be further investigated. PMID:21162748

  13. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  14. Role of calcium in neuronal cell injury: which subcellular compartment is involved?

    PubMed

    Paschen, W

    2000-11-01

    It is widely believed that calcium plays a primary role in the development of neuronal cell injury in different pathological states of the brain. Disturbances of calcium homeostasis may be induced in three different subcellular compartments, the cytoplasm, mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The traditional calcium hypothesis holds that neuronal cell injury is induced by a marked increase in cytoplasmic calcium activity during stress (e.g., cerebral ischemia). Recently, this hypothesis has been modified, taking into account that under different experimental conditions the extent of cell injury does not correlate closely with calcium load or total calcium influx into the cell, and that neuronal cell injury has been found to be associated with both increases and decreases of cytoplasmic calcium activity. The mitochondrial calcium hypothesis is based on the observation that after a severe form of stress there is a massive influx of calcium ions into mitochondria, which may lead to production of free radicals, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and disturbances of energy metabolism. However, it has still to be established whether drugs such as cyclosporin A are neuroprotective through their effect on MPT or through the blocking of processes upstream of MPT. The ER calcium hypothesis arose from the observation that ER calcium stores are depleted after severe forms of stress, and that the response of cells to disturbances of ER calcium homeostasis (activation of the expression of genes coding for ER resident stress proteins and suppression of the initiation of protein synthesis) resembles their response to a severe form of stress (e.g., transient ischemia) implying common underlying mechanisms. Elucidating the exact mechanisms of calcium toxicity and identifying the subcellular compartment playing the most important role in this pathological process will help to evaluate strategies for specific therapeutic intervention. PMID:11136996

  15. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, James J.; Hennrikus, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30?mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99?mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms. PMID:26229700

  16. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  17. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  18. Effect of vacuum sealing drainage in osteofascial compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Ji, Lei; Tao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of vacuum sealing drainage in the patients with osteofascial compartment syndrome in comparison to conventional treatment. Methods: Fifty-two patients diagnosed with osteofascial compartment syndrome were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups based on treatments: vacuum sealing drainage and conventional treatment. After operation, the length of hospital stay and antibiotics administration were recorded in the two groups, as well as swelling elimination and wound closure. Results: No significant difference was observed in terms of the baseline characteristics between the two groups. There are no obvious local or systemic complications in all cases. In contrast to conventional treatment group, the time of swelling elimination, wound closure, hospital stay and antibiotics application were reduced significantly in vacuum sealing drainage group. No allergic reactions or other side effects were observed after the application of vacuum sealing drainage material, indicating its safety. Conclusion: Vacuum sealing drainage is effective in treating osteofascial compartment syndrome with better clinical outcomes than conventional therapy. PMID:26629121

  19. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  20. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  1. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  2. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  3. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  6. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear compartment must— (1) Be readily accessible and, as far as...

  7. Compartment A126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room compartment B-1 and compartment B-2. Scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) is at right center of photograph. Manikin wearing WWII wave uniform is in display case at left center. (045) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 76 FR 10476 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew-Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ...sign as a part of their training in evacuation procedures. Special Condition 13 contains...to crewmembers who are trained in the evacuation procedures for the OCR compartment...compartment and able to rapidly use the evacuation routes of the OCR compartment....

  9. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

  10. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

  11. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

  12. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

  13. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

  14. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548... Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 548.201(a), or in which such...

  15. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 570... Definitions § 570.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  16. 31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... General Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 541.201(a), or in which...

  17. 31 CFR 549.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 549... Definitions § 549.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 549.201(a), or in which such...

  18. 31 CFR 546.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 546... Definitions § 546.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 546.201(a), or in which such...

  19. 31 CFR 588.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 588... General Definitions § 588.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 588.201(a), or in which...

  20. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542... Definitions § 542.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 542.201(a), or in which such...

  1. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551... Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 551.201, or in which such person...

  2. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552... Definitions § 552.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 552.201, or in which such person...

  3. 31 CFR 546.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... Definitions § 546.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 546.201(a), or in which such...

  4. 31 CFR 543.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 543... Definitions § 543.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 543.201(a), or in which such...

  5. 31 CFR 588.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 588... General Definitions § 588.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 588.201(a), or in which...

  6. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 570... Definitions § 570.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  7. 31 CFR 543.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 543... Definitions § 543.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 543.201(a), or in which such...

  8. 31 CFR 543.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 543... Definitions § 543.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 543.201(a), or in which such...

  9. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594... General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 594.201(a), or in which...

  10. 31 CFR 546.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 546... Definitions § 546.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 546.201(a), or in which such...

  11. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... General Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 548.201(a), or in which...

  12. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594... General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 594.201(a), or in which...

  13. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510... Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 510.201, and either blocked pursuant...

  14. 31 CFR 558.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 558... Definitions § 558.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 558.201, or in which such person...

  15. 31 CFR 543.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 543... Definitions § 543.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 543.201(a), or in which such...

  16. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... Definitions § 542.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 542.201(a), or in which such...

  17. 31 CFR 589.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 589... General Definitions § 589.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 589.201, or in which...

  18. 31 CFR 537.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 537... Definitions § 537.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 537.201(a), or in which such...

  19. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551... Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 551.201, or in which such person...

  20. 31 CFR 549.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 549... Definitions § 549.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 549.201(a), or in which such...

  1. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548... Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 548.201(a), or in which such...

  2. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548... Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 548.201(a), or in which such...

  3. 31 CFR 549.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 549... Definitions § 549.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 549.201(a), or in which such...

  4. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551... Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 551.201, or in which such person...

  5. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542... Definitions § 542.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 542.201(a), or in which such...

  6. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 570... Definitions § 570.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  7. 31 CFR 537.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 537... Definitions § 537.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 537.201(a), or in which such...

  8. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 551.201, or in which...

  9. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552... Definitions § 552.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 552.201, or in which such person...

  10. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594... General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 594.201(a), or in which...

  11. 31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 541... Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 541.201(a), or in which such...

  12. 31 CFR 546.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 546... Definitions § 546.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 546.201(a), or in which such...

  13. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 570... Definitions § 570.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  14. 31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 541... Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 541.201(a), or in which such...

  15. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510... Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 510.201, and either blocked pursuant...

  16. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594... General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 594.201(a), or in which...

  17. 31 CFR 546.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 546... Definitions § 546.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 546.201(a), or in which such...

  18. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510... Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 510.201, and either blocked pursuant...

  19. 31 CFR 537.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... General Definitions § 537.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 537.201(a), or in which...

  20. 31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 541... Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 541.201(a), or in which such...

  1. 31 CFR 588.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 588... General Definitions § 588.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 588.201(a), or in which...

  2. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542... Definitions § 542.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 542.201(a), or in which such...

  3. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548... Definitions § 548.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 548.201(a), or in which such...

  4. 31 CFR 537.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 537... Definitions § 537.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 537.201(a), or in which such...

  5. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510... Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 510.201, and either blocked pursuant...

  6. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551... Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 551.201, or in which such person...

  7. 31 CFR 537.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 537... Definitions § 537.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 537.201(a), or in which such...

  8. 31 CFR 549.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 549... Definitions § 549.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 549.201(a), or in which such...

  9. 31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 541... Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 541.201(a), or in which such...

  10. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542... Definitions § 542.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall... Government of Syria or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  11. 31 CFR 588.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 588... General Definitions § 588.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked... person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 588.201(a), or in which...

  12. AVM Compartments: Do they modulate trasnidal pressures? An electrical network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Litao, Miguel Lorenzo Silva; Pilar-Arceo, Carlene PC; Legaspi, Gerardo Dizon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) compartments are thought as independently fed, hemodynamically independent components of the AVM nidus. Its possible role in modulating transnidal pressures have not been investigated to our knowledge. Objective: To investigate if AVM compartments play a role in modulating transnidal pressures by using electrical models as a method of investigation. Materials and Methods: Monocompartmental and multicompartmental AVM models were constructed using electrical circuits- building on Dr. Guglielmi's previous work. Each compartment was fed by two feeding arteries (resistors) and had a shared draining vein with other compartments in the AVM nidus. Each compartment is composed of a series of resistors which represents the pressure gradient along the AVM (arterial, arteriolar, venular, and venous). Pressure (voltage) readings were obtained within these nidal points. Results: The pressure gradient (venous-arterial) is more as there are less AVM compartments in the nidus model. The monocomparmental model had a pressure gradient of 66mmHg (V); while it was 64, 61, and 59 for the 2-, 3-, and 4-compartment models, respectively. In addition, the more the number of compartments, the greater the flow (mA) is in the whole AVM nidus, 33 ml/min for the monocompartmental AVM and 121ml/min for the 4-compartment AVM; though there was greater flow per compartment as there were less compartments, 33ml/min per compartment for the monocompartmental model versus 29ml/min for the 4-compartment model. Conclusion: Transnidal pressure gradients may be less the more compartments an AVM has. This electrical model represents an approach that can be used in investigating the hemodynamic contributions of AVM compartments. PMID:23559984

  13. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, ... surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can cause numbness, paralysis, and other nervous ...

  14. 1990 CENSUS BLOCK CENTROIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The block_cen layer in the EPA New England database provides the centroids of block boundaries coverage based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census Public Law (PL) 94-171 data. The block_cen layer is an ARC/INFO point coverage.

  15. Building, block, street : residential block design

    E-print Network

    Kamell, Elizabeth N. (Elizabeth Natanya)

    1996-01-01

    Late twentieth-century housing, formed by economic and internally generated functional problems rather than by limitations imposed by traditional street pattern and block size, is fundamentally anti-urban. Modern American ...

  16. Trafficking and function of GPCRs in the endosomal compartment.

    PubMed

    Calebiro, Davide; Godbole, Amod; Lyga, Sandra; Lohse, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    New methods based on fluorescently labeled agonists, genetically encoded fluorescent sensors, and advanced microscopy techniques, such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and highly inclined thin illumination (HILO), allow direct monitoring of signaling, internalization, and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands in living cells with high temporal and spatial resolution. These methods have been essential in revealing that GPCRs can continue signaling via production of the soluble second messenger cyclic AMP after internalization into the endosomal compartment. PMID:25304358

  17. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  18. Anammox bacteria in different compartments of recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    van Kessel, Maartje A H J; Harhangi, Harry R; Flik, Gert; Jetten, Mike S M; Klaren, Peter H M; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-12-01

    Strict environmental restrictions force the aquaculture industry to guarantee optimal water quality for fish production in a sustainable manner. The implementation of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) in biofilters would result in the conversion of both ammonium and nitrite (both toxic to aquatic animals) into harmless dinitrogen gas. Both marine and freshwater aquaculture systems contain populations of anammox bacteria. These bacteria are also present in the faeces of freshwater and marine fish. Interestingly, a new planctomycete species appears to be present in these recirculation systems too. Further exploitation of anammox bacteria in different compartments of aquaculture systems can lead to a more environmentally friendly aquaculture practice. PMID:22103532

  19. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  20. Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

  1. Lysosome-related organelles: Unusual compartments become mainstream

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael S.; Heijnen, Harry F. G.; Raposo, Graça

    2013-01-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) comprise a group of cell type-specific subcellular compartments with unique composition, morphology and structure that share some features with endosomes and lysosomes and that function in varied processes such as pigmentation, hemostasis, lung plasticity and immunity. In recent years, studies of genetic diseases in which LRO functions are compromised have provided new insights into the mechanisms of LRO biogenesis and the regulated secretion of LRO contents. These insights have revealed previously unappreciated specialized endosomal sorting processes in all cell types, and are expanding our views of the plasticity of the endosomal and secretory systems in adapting to cell type-specific needs. PMID:23726022

  2. Deletion of spoIIAB blocks endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis at an early stage.

    PubMed Central

    Coppolecchia, R; DeGrazia, H; Moran, C P

    1991-01-01

    During an early stage of endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis, the cell divides asymmetrically into two compartments that follow different developmental paths. The differential expression of genes in these two compartments is controlled in part by the production of compartment-specific transcription factors, sigma G and sigma K. It is not known how sigma G accumulation is restricted to one of the two compartments, the forespore. However, the observations that sigma F directs transcription of the structural gene for sigma G and that sigma F activity can be modified by the product of a gene, spoIIAB, has led us to investigate the role of spoIIAB during sporulation. We have isolated mutants that carry deletion alleles of spoIIAB. Electron microscopic examination of these mutants revealed that these mutations blocked endospore formation at an early stage before septation and caused extensive cell lysis. The spoIIAB deletion alleles caused hyperexpression of genes that are normally expressed exclusively in the forespore compartments of sporulating wild-type cells, whereas these alleles reduced expression of other genes, including spoIIE, which is expressed before septation in wild-type cells. These observations confirm that spoIIAB is essential for sporulation and are consistent with models in which the product of spoIIAB plays a role in regulating the timing and/or compartment specificity of sigma F- and sigma G-directed transcription. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1938874

  3. 31 CFR 597.303 - Blocked account; blocked funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked funds. 597... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.303 Blocked account; blocked funds. The terms blocked account and blocked funds shall mean any account or funds subject to the prohibitions in § 597.201 held in the name...

  4. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 595.301 Section 595.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  5. 31 CFR 540.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 540... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibition...

  6. 31 CFR 538.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 538.301 Section 538.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 538.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  7. 31 CFR 585.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 585.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account and any property or interest in property...

  8. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 595.301 Section 595.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  9. 31 CFR 590.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 590... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 590.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  10. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 562.201 held in...

  11. 31 CFR 597.303 - Blocked account; blocked funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked funds. 597... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.303 Blocked account; blocked funds. The terms blocked account and blocked funds shall mean any account or funds subject to the prohibitions in § 597.201 held in the name...

  12. 31 CFR 538.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 538.301 Section 538.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 538.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  13. 31 CFR 576.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 576... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean: (a) (1) Any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  14. 31 CFR 576.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 576... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean: (a) (1) Any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  15. 31 CFR 545.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property, shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 545.201 held in...

  16. 31 CFR 598.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 598... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property mean any account or property subject to § 598.202 held in the name of a...

  17. 31 CFR 598.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 598... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property mean any account or property subject to § 598.202 held in the name of a...

  18. 31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 547... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 547.201 held in...

  19. 31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or...

  20. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibition in § 594.201 held in...

  1. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 595.301 Section 595.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  2. 31 CFR 588.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 588.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 588.201 held in...

  3. 31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 547... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 547.201 held in...

  4. 31 CFR 597.303 - Blocked account; blocked funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked funds. 597... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.303 Blocked account; blocked funds. The terms blocked account and blocked funds shall mean any account or funds subject to the prohibitions in § 597.201 held in the name...

  5. 31 CFR 576.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 576... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean: (a) (1) Any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  6. 31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  7. 31 CFR 538.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 538.301 Section 538.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 538.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  8. 31 CFR 576.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 576... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean: (a) (1) Any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  9. 31 CFR 560.322 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 560... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.322 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 560.211 held in...

  10. 31 CFR 540.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 540... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibition...

  11. 31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  12. 31 CFR 560.322 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 560... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.322 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 560.211 held in...

  13. 31 CFR 598.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property mean any account or property subject to § 598.202 held in the name of a...

  14. 31 CFR 597.303 - Blocked account; blocked funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked funds. 597... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.303 Blocked account; blocked funds. The terms blocked account and blocked funds shall mean any account or funds subject to the prohibitions in § 597.201 held in the name...

  15. 31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to...

  16. 31 CFR 598.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 598... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property mean any account or property subject to § 598.202 held in the name of a...

  17. 31 CFR 540.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 540... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibition...

  18. 31 CFR 575.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 575.301 Section 575.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Definitions § 575.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  19. 31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property... PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions...

  20. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 562.201 held in...

  1. 31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 547... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 547.201 held in...

  2. 31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 547... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 547.201 held in...

  3. 31 CFR 540.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 540... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibition...

  4. 31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  5. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 562.201 held in...

  6. 31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  7. 31 CFR 597.303 - Blocked account; blocked funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked funds. 597... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.303 Blocked account; blocked funds. The terms blocked account and blocked funds shall mean any account or funds subject to the prohibitions in § 597.201 held in the name...

  8. 31 CFR 538.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 538.301 Section 538.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 538.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  9. 31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  10. 31 CFR 590.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 590... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 590.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  11. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 562.201 held in...

  12. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 595.301 Section 595.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property...

  13. 31 CFR 540.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the...

  14. 31 CFR 590.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 590... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 590.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in §...

  15. Characterization of a Novel Prevacuolar Compartment in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Barry J; Draskovic, Marija; Schnittker, Robert R; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Plamann, Michael D; Sánchez-León, Eddy; Riquelme, Meritxell; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2015-12-01

    Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs. A pigment produced by adenine auxotrophs, used to visualize vacuoles, also accumulated in PVCs. Soluble enzymes of the vacuolar lumen, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase Y, were not observed in PVCs. The fluorescent molecule Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid diacetate, succinimidyl ester (carboxy-DFFDA) accumulated in vacuoles and in a subset of PVCs, suggesting maturation of PVCs from the tip to distal regions. Three of the nine Rab GTPases in N. crassa, RAB-2, RAB-4, and RAB-7, localized to the PVCs. RAB-2 and RAB-4, which have similar amino acid sequences, are present in filamentous fungi but not in yeasts, and no function has previously been reported for these Rab GTPases in fungi. PVCs are highly pleomorphic, producing tubular projections that subsequently become detached. Dynein and dynactin formed globular clusters enclosed inside the lumen of PVCs. The size, structure, dynamic behavior, and protein composition of the PVCs appear to be significantly different from those of the well-studied prevacuolar compartment of yeasts. PMID:26453652

  16. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

    1990-09-24

    The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams [1]. The scope of this ``phase I`` analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering [2], is to carry out a ``scoping analysis`` of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the ``phase I`` calculations.

  17. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

    1990-09-24

    The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams (1). The scope of this phase I'' analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering (2), is to carry out a scoping analysis'' of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the phase I'' calculations.

  18. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  19. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  20. COMPARTMENTS: unification and visualization of protein subcellular localization evidence.

    PubMed

    Binder, Janos X; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Stolte, Christian; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Schneider, Reinhard; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Information on protein subcellular localization is important to understand the cellular functions of proteins. Currently, such information is manually curated from the literature, obtained from high-throughput microscopy-based screens and predicted from primary sequence. To get a comprehensive view of the localization of a protein, it is thus necessary to consult multiple databases and prediction tools. To address this, we present the COMPARTMENTS resource, which integrates all sources listed above as well as the results of automatic text mining. The resource is automatically kept up to date with source databases, and all localization evidence is mapped onto common protein identifiers and Gene Ontology terms. We further assign confidence scores to the localization evidence to facilitate comparison of different types and sources of evidence. To further improve the comparability, we assign confidence scores based on the type and source of the localization evidence. Finally, we visualize the unified localization evidence for a protein on a schematic cell to provide a simple overview. Database URL: http://compartments.jensenlab.org. PMID:24573882

  1. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2): its intracellular compartment and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Takata, K

    2006-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins serving in the transfer of water and small solutes across cellular membranes. At least 7 isoforms, namely AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, AQP4, AQP6, AQP7 and AQP11 are expressed in the kidney. Among them, AQP2 plays a pivotal role in the concentration of urine. AQP2 is expressed in the principal cells of the collecting ducts. It is localized in the intracellular compartment and is translocated to the cell surface upon anti-diuretic hormone stimulation. Analyses in cultured cells expressing AQP2 have provided clues to the trafficking of AQP2. AQP2 resides in the subapical vesicles, some of which are Rab11-positive, suggesting their close relationship with apical recycling endosomes. Upon stimulation with forskolin, AQP2 is translocated to the cell surface. After washout, AQP2 is endocytosed to early endosomes and then transferred to the apical storage compartment. Some of AQP2 is excreted as exosomes. Actin cytoskeleton plays important roles in the trafficking of AQP2. Analyses of molecules found in AQP2-containing vesicles will shed light on the mechanism of AQP2 translocation. PMID:17543219

  2. Pressure transients in NET building compartments under LOCA conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, Roland

    1993-06-01

    The NET cooling systems for in-vessel components and vessel are generally based on low pressure and low temperature water. However, the cooling loops for the breeder blanket are intended to operate at a water temperature of about 250°C. A pipe break in a loop with such data would pressurize the compartment where the break takes place. Therefore, as a basis for proper compartment design, it is important to analyze possible pressure increases following pipe breaks. It may also be necessary to introduce equipment for pressure relief or pressure suppression. The objective of the parameter study presented is to determine the relationship between allowed maximum containment pressure following postulated large pipe break in breeding blanket loop and required containment volume. Parameters varied are: blanket loop temperature and pressure (within the range of burn and baking), and pressure suppression system inclusion/exclusion. The analysis has been performed by means of the Swedish containment code COPTA. The results of the analysis are summarized in a plot showing the influence of the varied parameters on required containment volume. In addition, the results presented include required vent areas, heat sink capacities, etc.

  3. Identification of a clonally expanding haematopoietic compartment in bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Benedito, Rui; Bixel, M Gabriele; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Stehling, Martin; Sävendahl, Lars; Haigh, Jody J; Snippert, Hugo; Clevers, Hans; Breier, Georg; Kiefer, Friedemann; Adams, Ralf H

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, postnatal haematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM) and involves specialized microenvironments controlling haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) behaviour and, in particular, stem cell dormancy and self-renewal. While these processes have been linked to a number of different stromal cell types and signalling pathways, it is currently unclear whether BM has a homogenous architecture devoid of structural and functional partitions. Here, we show with genetic labelling techniques, high-resolution imaging and functional experiments in mice that the periphery of the adult BM cavity harbours previously unrecognized compartments with distinct properties. These units, which we have termed hemospheres, were composed of endothelial, haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, were enriched in CD150+ CD48? putative HSCs, and enabled rapid haematopoietic cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Inducible gene targeting of the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 in endothelial cells disrupted hemospheres and, concomitantly, reduced the number of CD150+ CD48? cells. Our results identify a previously unrecognized, vessel-associated BM compartment with a specific localization and properties distinct from the marrow cavity. PMID:23188081

  4. Cortical alveoli of Paramecium: a vast submembranous calcium storage compartment

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The plasma membrane of Paramecium is underlain by a continuous layer of membrane vesicles known as cortical alveoli, whose function was unknown but whose organization had suggested some resemblance with muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The occurrence of antimonate precipitates within the alveoli first indicated to us that they may indeed correspond to a vast calcium storage site. To analyze the possible involvement of this compartment in calcium sequestration more directly, we have developed a new fractionation method, involving a Percoll gradient, that allows rapid purification of the surface layer (cortex) of Paramecium in good yield and purity and in which the alveoli retain their in vivo topological orientation. This fraction pumped calcium very actively in a closed membrane compartment, with strict dependence on ATP and Mg2+. The pumping activity was affected by anti-calmodulin drugs but no Triton-soluble calmodulin binding protein could be identified, using gel overlay procedures. The high affinity of the pump for calcium (Km = 0.5 microM) suggests that it plays an important role in the normal physiological environment of the cytosol. This may be related to at least three calcium-regulated processes that take place in the immediate vicinity of alveoli: trichocyst exocytosis, ciliary beating and cytoskeletal elements dynamics during division. PMID:1848863

  5. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology. PMID:26337290

  6. Visualization of the Peroxisomal Compartment in Living Mammalian Cells: Dynamic Behavior and Association with Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Erik A.C.; Wenzel, Thibaut; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Subramani, Suresh

    1997-01-01

    Peroxisomes in living CV1 cells were visualized by targeting the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to this subcellular compartment through the addition of a COOH-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (GFP–PTS1). The organelle dynamics were examined and analyzed using time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy. Two types of movement could be distinguished: a relatively slow, random, vibration-like movement displayed by the majority (?95%) of the peroxisomes, and a saltatory, fast directional movement displayed by a small subset (?5%) of the peroxisomes. In the latter instance, peak velocities up to 0.75 ?m/s and sustained directional velocities up to 0.45 ?m/s over 11.5 ?m were recorded. Only the directional type of motion appeared to be energy dependent, whereas the vibrational movement continued even after the cells were depleted of energy. Treatment of cells, transiently expressing GFP–PTS1, with microtubule-destabilizing agents such as nocodazole, vinblastine, and demecolcine clearly altered peroxisome morphology and subcellular distribution and blocked the directional movement. In contrast, the microtubule-stabilizing compound paclitaxel, or the microfilament-destabilizing drugs cytochalasin B or D, did not exert these effects. High resolution confocal analysis of cells expressing GFP–PTS1 and stained with anti-tubulin antibodies revealed that many peroxisomes were associated with microtubules. The GFP–PTS1–labeled peroxisomes were found to distribute themselves in a stochastic, rather than ordered, manner to daughter cells at the time of mitosis. PMID:9008704

  7. Management of abdominal compartment syndrome after transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Gaut, Megan M; Ortiz, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Acute abdominal compartment syndrome is most commonly associated with blunt abdominal trauma, although it has been seen after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, liver transplantation, pancreatitis, and massive volume resuscitation. Acute abdominal compartment syndrome develops once the intra-abdominal pressure increases to 20-25mmHg and is characterized by an increase in airway pressures, inadequate ventilation and oxygenation, altered renal function, and hemodynamic instability. This case report details the development of acute abdominal compartment syndrome during transurethral resection of the prostate with extra- and intraperitoneal bladder rupture under general anesthesia. The first signs of acute abdominal compartment syndrome in this patient were high peak airway pressures and difficulty delivering tidal volumes. Management of the compartment syndrome included re-intubation, emergent exploratory laparotomy, and drainage of irrigation fluid. Difficulty with ventilation should alert the anesthesiologist to consider abdominal compartment syndrome high in the list of differential diagnoses during any endoscopic bladder or bowel case. PMID:26614151

  8. Compartment pressure in the foot. Analysis of normal values and measurement technique.

    PubMed

    Dayton, P; Goldman, F D; Barton, E

    1990-10-01

    This clinical trial was carried out to verify the validity of the current objective compartment pressure parameters described in the forearm and leg for use in the foot. The authors evaluated the compartment pressures of the central plantar compartment in 25 normal volunteers (94 separate measurements). In addition to determining an average normal foot compartment pressure, two methods of measurement were compared. Results showed no significant difference in normal values through the use of an arterial line monitor technique (5.98 +/- 2.78 mm Hg [SD]) as compared with a Stryker intracompartmental pressure monitor (4.69 +/- 2.62 mm Hg [SD]). It was found that pedal edema caused a statistically significant increase in pressures. The authors propose a standard technique for pedal compartment pressure measurement and discuss diagnosis and management of compartment syndrome in the foot. PMID:2269919

  9. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Foot due to Infection After Local Hydrocortisone Injection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sampat Dumbre; Patil, Vaishali Dumbre; Abane, Sachin; Luthra, Rohit; Ranaware, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    High-energy trauma associated with calcaneal fracture or Lisfranc fracture dislocation and midfoot crushing injuries are known causes of compartment syndrome in the foot. Suppurative infection in the deep osseofascial compartments can also cause compartment syndrome. We describe the case of a 29-year-old female who had developed a suppurative local infection that resulted in acute compartment syndrome after receiving a local hydrocortisone injection for plantar fasciitis. We diagnosed the compartment syndrome, and fasciotomy was promptly undertaken. After more than 2 years of follow-up, she had a satisfactory functional outcome without substantial morbidity. To our knowledge, no other report in the English-language studies has described compartment syndrome due to abscess formation after a local injection of hydrocortisone. The aim of our report was to highlight this rare, but serious, complication of a routine outpatient clinical procedure. PMID:24838218

  10. Spinning Conformal Blocks

    E-print Network

    Miguel S. Costa; Joao Penedones; David Poland; Slava Rychkov

    2011-09-28

    For conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions, we introduce a method to derive the conformal blocks corresponding to the exchange of a traceless symmetric tensor appearing in four point functions of operators with spin. Using the embedding space formalism, we show that one can express all such conformal blocks in terms of simple differential operators acting on the basic scalar conformal blocks. This method gives all conformal blocks for conformal field theories in three dimensions. We demonstrate how this formalism can be applied in a few simple examples.

  11. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  12. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  13. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the osteons and similar to the "fully mineralized" stage of primary bone. The results of this study demonstrated that unremodeled compartments of bone grow older through maturation and growth of mineral crystals in a protracted fashion. However, the secondary osteonal remodeling impedes this aging process and maintains the mean tissue age fairly constant over decades. Therefore, slowing of remodeling may lead to brittle bone tissue through accumulation of fully mineralized tissue fragments.

  14. Experimental Review of the Homogeneous Temperature Assumption in Post-Flashover Compartment Fires 

    E-print Network

    Stern-Gottfried, Jamie; Rein, Guillermo; Bisby, Luke; Torero, Jose L

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods for quantifying and modelling compartment fires for structural engineering analysis assume spatially homogeneous temperature conditions. The accuracy and range of validity of this assumption is examined ...

  15. EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

  16. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  17. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  18. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  19. The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chiang, Hsin-I; Jiang, Shangi B.; Nagarajan, Harish; Zengler, Karsten; Gallo, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Commensal microbes on the skin surface influence the behavior of cells below the epidermis. We hypothesized that bacteria or their products exist below the surface epithelium and thus permit physical interaction between microbes and dermal cells. Here, to test this hypothesis, we employed multiple independent detection techniques for bacteria including qPCR, Gram-staining, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization. Bacteria were consistently detectable within the dermis and dermal adipose of normal human skin. Sequencing of DNA from dermis and dermal adipose tissue identified bacterial 16S rRNA reflective of a diverse and partially distinct microbial community in each skin compartment. These results show the microbiota extends within the dermis, therefore enabling physical contact between bacteria and various cells below the basement membrane. These observations show that normal commensal bacterial communities directly communicate with the host in a tissue previously thought to be sterile. PMID:23385576

  20. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-28

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. PMID:25946401

  1. Prototype thermal bus for manned Space Station compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zentner, Ronald C.; Owen, James W.

    1986-01-01

    A summary is presented of NASA efforts, to February 1986, on development of an advanced thermal bus for manned spacecraft. Design details are described for a prototype to be tested in 1987 that includes a contact heat exchanger, an air cooling heat exchanger for manned cabin conditions, and an interface heat exchanger for transferring compartment heat loads to the Space Station Central Thermal Bus. The design and performance criteria defined for the thermal bus are outlined and results are reported from comparisons of the capabilities and operational costs of pumped water and two-phase evaporating/condensing heat transport concepts. The operating temperature, launch weight/thermal performance ratios, and power requirements of each concept are discussed, along with the critical technologies identified for use of a water/titanium two-phase thermal bus.

  2. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-01

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of silica coating without a polymer layer, experiments for removal of the polymer by solvent extraction, TEM images of spherical ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an asymmetric PSGD coating, and additional FESEM, TEM/EDX images of ?-Fe2O3@PSGD-2@SiO2 nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00924c

  3. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  4. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  5. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 595.301 Section 595.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  6. 31 CFR 538.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 538.301 Section 538.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 538.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  7. 31 CFR 536.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 536.301 Section 536.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... General Definitions § 536.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  8. Membrane traffic between secretory compartments is differentially affected during mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiner, T; Moore, H P

    1990-01-01

    Membrane traffic has been shown to be regulated during cell division. In particular, with the use of viral membrane proteins as markers, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in mitotic cells has been shown to be essentially blocked. However, the effect of mitosis on other steps in the secretory pathway is less clear, because an early block makes examination of following steps difficult. Here, we report studies on the functional characteristics of secretory pathways in mitotic mammalian tissue culture cells by the use of a variety of markers. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding secretory proteins. Consistent with earlier results following viral membrane proteins, we found that the overall secretory pathway is nonfunctional in mitotic cells, and a major block to secretion is at the step between ER and Golgi: the overall rate of secretion of human growth hormone is reduced at least 10-fold in mitotic cells, and export of truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein from the ER is inhibited to about the same extent, as judged by acquisition of endoglycosidase H resistance. To ascertain the integrity of transport from the trans-Golgi to plasma membrane, we followed the secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are synthesized in the Golgi and thus are not subject to the earlier ER-to-Golgi block. GAG chains are valid markers for the pathway taken by constitutive secretory proteins; both protein secretion and GAG chain secretion are sensitive to treatment with n-ethyl-maleimide and monensin and are blocked at 19 degrees C. We found that the extent of GAG-chain secretion is not altered during mitosis, although the initial rate of secretion is reduced about twofold in mitotic compared with interphase cells. Thus, during mitosis, transport from the trans-Golgi to plasma membrane is much less hindered than ER-to-Golgi traffic. We conclude that transport steps are not affected to the same extent during mitosis. Images PMID:2099191

  9. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 31 CFR 545.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

  12. 9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...that any equipment, utensil, room, or compartment at an official establishment is insanitary or that its use could cause the adulteration of product, he will attach to it a “U.S. Rejected” tag. Equipment, utensils, rooms, or compartments so tagged...

  13. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  15. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  16. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  17. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  18. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments...

  19. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments...

  20. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments...

  1. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which... flight loads when occupied. (g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck...

  2. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which... flight loads when occupied. (g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck...

  3. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which... flight loads when occupied. (g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck...

  4. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which... flight loads when occupied. (g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck...

  5. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which... flight loads when occupied. (g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck...

  6. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  7. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  8. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40 Section 58.25-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The...

  9. Case report A case of severe hyperkalaemia and compartment syndrome due to

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    Case report A case of severe hyperkalaemia and compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis after of the non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis, which have been related to drug abuse, alcohol, etc. We report on a case of bilateral tibial compartment syndrome, severe hyperkalaemia and rhabdomyolysis after drug abuse. A 35-year

  10. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  11. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... the firefighter, the firefighter should check for potential fire sources at areas closest to the OCR..., will not be between the firefighter and his or her way to get out of the compartment. Procedures... firefighter exiting the OCR compartment through the access is not considered hazardous. During the...

  12. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40 Section 58.25-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The...

  13. Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

  14. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  15. Using the Stern Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    Extracts from "Experimenting with Numbers" by Margaret Stern demonstrate the use of Stern Blocks to develop the conceptual base on which learning disabled students can build further mathematical skills. (DB)

  16. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  17. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  18. Compartment Venting Analyses of Ares I First Stage Systems Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qunzhen; Arner, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Compartment venting analyses have been performed for the Ares I first stage systems tunnel using both the lumped parameter method and the three-dimensional (31)) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The main objective of venting analyses is to predict the magnitudes of differential pressures across the skin so the integrity of solid walls can be evaluated and properly designed. The lumped parameter method assumes the gas pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel are spatially uniform, which is questionable since the tunnel is about 1,700 in. long and 4 in. wide. Therefore, 31) transient CFD simulations using the commercial CFD code FLUENT are performed in order to examine the gas pressure and temperature variations inside the tunnel. It was found that the uniform pressure and temperature assumptions inside the systems tunnel are valid during ascent. During reentry, the uniform pressure assumption is also reasonable but the uniform temperature assumption is not valid. Predicted pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel using CFD are also compared with those from the lumped parameter method using the NASA code CHCHVENT. In general, the average pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel from CFD are between the burst and crush results from CHCHVENT during both ascent and reentry. The skin differential pressure and pressure inside the systems tunnel relative to freestream pressure from CHCHVENT as well as velocity vectors and streamlines are also discussed in detail.

  19. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-01

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P? into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. PMID:25299335

  20. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  1. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  2. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  3. Concurrent Periostalgia and Chronic Proximal Deep Posterior Compartment Syndrome in a Collegiate Track and Field Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Kristinn I.; Lachowicz, Wendy M.; Detmer, Don E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Exercise-induced leg pain may be triggered by abnormally high compartment pressure. In addition to the more widely publicized anterior compartment syndrome, the deep posterior compartment syndrome can just as frequently occur, resulting in severe pain and disability due to muscle and nerve ischemia. Background: Obtaining a thorough history and compartmental pressure measurements are the usual components in the accurate diagnosis of compartment syndromes. While few other disorders mimic compartment syndromes, differential diagnoses must be considered. Surgical management of deep compartment syndrome, consisting of fasciotomy or fasciectomy, or both, is successful for most patients. Differential Diagnosis: Tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, tibial periostalgia, distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome, proximal deep chronic compartment syndrome, superficial lateral compartment syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, popliteal artery entrapment, or chronic compartment syndrome. Uniqueness: Chronic deep compartment syndrome is one of the most common causes of exercise-induced leg pain in aerobic athletes. Therefore, the athletic trainer must be able to recognize the condition. Signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and surgical management of chronic deep compartment syndrome, chronic periostalgia, and superficial lateral compartment syndrame in a 21-year-old Division IA track and field athlete are presented. Conclusions: With the correct diagnosis, persistent and methodical reevaluation, and appropriate management, the athlete can expect a successful treatment outcome. PMID:16558661

  4. Preynaptic induction and expression of t-LTD demonstrated by compartment-specific photorelease of a use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, James E.; Eaton, Thomas R.; Collins, Hazel A.; Anderson, Harry L.; Paulsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are important for synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In order to help investigate the precise location of the NMDA receptors that are required for different types of synaptic plasticity, we synthesized a caged form of the use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801, which we loaded into individual neurons in vitro, followed by compartment-specific uncaging. To demonstrate the potential of this new method, we investigated timing-dependent plasticity at layer 4-layer 2/3 synapses of mouse barrel cortex. Somatodendritic photorelease of MK801 in the postsynaptic neuron produced a use-dependent block of synaptic NMDA receptor-mediated currents and prevented the induction of LTP. Compartment-specific photorelease of MK801 in the presynaptic neuron showed that axonal, but not somatodendritic, presynaptic NMDA receptors are required for induction of LTD. The rate of use-dependent block of postsynaptic NMDA receptor current was slower following induction of LTD, consistent with a presynaptic locus of expression. Thus, this new caged compound has demonstrated the axonal location of NMDA receptors required for induction and the presynaptic locus of expression of LTD at layer 4-layer 2/3 synapses. PMID:21653860

  5. (block mode classification ) Wyner-Ziv intra

    E-print Network

    Yang, Shih-Hsuan

    (Block Mode Information, BMI) Mode decision block WZ Intra Intra H.264 FMO skip block SDSP block Wyner-Ziv blocks BMI Wyner-Ziv blocks BMI Wyner-Ziv blocks WZ Slice CRC code Turbo code Intra Decoded Key block Wyner-Ziv Side Information BMI Turbo code Decoded key block (Reconstruction Frame

  6. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  7. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  8. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  9. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  10. 19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

  11. 76 FR 44246 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... the Federal Register on May 10, 2011 (76 FR 26949). No comments were received and the special...; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...

  12. Sensitivity, block sensitivity, and `block sensitivity of boolean functions

    E-print Network

    Mathieu, Claire

    Sensitivity, block sensitivity, and `­block sensitivity of boolean functions Claire Kenyon LRI, bat of the simplest, and block sensitivity one of the most useful, invariants of a boolean function. Nisan [8] and Nisan and Szegedy [9] have shown that block sensitivity is polynomially related to a number of measures

  13. On block identities and block inclusions Jrn B. Olsson

    E-print Network

    Olsson, Jørn Børling

    On block identities and block inclusions Jørn B. Olsson (joint work with D. Stanton, C. Bessenrodt for a prime p and a p-block Bp of G the set Irr(Bp) of irreducible complex characters of Bp. It was conjectured by Navarro and Willems [4], that if for different primes p, q we have a block equality Irr

  14. Characterization and comparison of the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract compartments in horses.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Silva, G; Ramos, R V; Staempfli, H R; Arroyo, L G; Kim, P; Weese, J S

    2015-07-01

    The advance of new sequencing technologies has allowed more comprehensive characterization of complex microbial communities, including the ones inhabiting the intestinal tract. The presence of extreme environmental filters, such as low pH, digestive enzymes and anaerobic conditions along the tract, acts on the selection of unique bacteria in each compartment. The intestinal microbiota has an enormous impact on the maintenance of health. However, data about the bacteria present in the different intestinal compartments of horses are sparse. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to characterize and compare bacterial profiles from different intestinal compartments of 11 horses scheduled for euthanasia for reasons other than gastrointestinal problems. Marked differences among compartments even at high taxonomic levels were found, with Firmicutes comprising the main bacterial phylum in all compartments. Lactobacillus spp. and Sarcina spp. predominated in the stomach and a marked increase of Streptococcus spp. occurred in the duodenum. Actinobacillus and Clostridium sensu stricto were the most abundant genera in the ileum and '5 genus incertae sedis', a genus from the Subdivision 5 class of the Verrucomicrobia, was the most abundant from the large colon through feces. There was a significant increase in diversity towards the distal gut with similar profiles observed from the cecum through feces at the class level. The bacterial population comprising the equine intestinal tract varies greatly among compartments and fecal samples may be useful as representative of changes occurring in the distal compartments. PMID:25975855

  15. Block distributions on Itokawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazrouei, S.; Daly, M. G.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.; DeSouza, I.

    2014-02-01

    Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is a small elongated asteroid with two distinct parts. The evolution of this two-part body has been the source of speculation. The scenarios for the formation of this asteroid include: two-body capture, catastrophic disruption and rapid reaccretion, YORP spin-up and mass shedding, and disruption (or partial disruption) with two-body reaccretion. In this paper we use the global and regional analyses of block populations and size-frequency distributions as evidence of the probable evolutionary history of Itokawa. The block sample used in this study is believed to be complete for blocks of size >6 m and consists of a sample more than twice as large as previous known studies. Although block size-frequency distributions hint at different evolutionary paths for the head and the body, their differences are not statistically significant. The distribution of blocks across each body provides clues as to the histories of each body. The head is populated in a spherically symmetric fashion while the body has a distinct equatorial peak. When considering that the head and the body may have been separate entities for a period of time and estimating a rotational axis using minimum rotational energy considerations, the preferential equatorial distribution becomes even more pronounced. We interpret this as excellent evidence for the partial disruption of a proto-Itokawa, subsequent planarization of a debris field and reaccretion of the head and the body into its present configuration.

  16. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  17. Reformulated tenofovir gel for use as a dual compartment microbicide

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Rohan, Lisa C.; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Shetler, Cory; Cost, Marilyn; Lynam, J. D.; Friend, David

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Coital use of 1% tenofovir gel was shown to be modestly effective at preventing HIV transmission when applied vaginally in the CAPRISA 004 trial. Because the gel is hyperosmolar, which would reduce the integrity of the epithelium and induce fluid movement into the lumen, rectal use may not be acceptable. This study evaluated the pre-clinical safety and efficacy of a reformulated (reduced osmolality) tenofovir gel product. Methods Reduced glycerine (RG)-tenofovir gel was compared with the original tenofovir gel for physiochemical characteristics, product safety and anti-HIV-1 activity. Results The formulations were similar in all characteristics except for osmolality and spreadability/firmness. The RG-tenofovir gel had a 73% lower osmolality, a 29.6% increase in spreadability and a 27% decrease in firmness as compared with the original tenofovir gel. When applied to epithelial cell monolayers, tenofovir gel showed a transient reduction in the transepithelial resistance while the RG-tenofovir gel did not. Both gels retained ectocervical and colorectal explant viability. However, tenofovir gel treatment resulted in epithelial stripping that was absent after RG-tenofovir gel treatment of the polarized explants. Anti-HIV-1 activity was confirmed by lack of HIV-1 infection in polarized explants treated with either gel as compared with the control explants. Conclusions Reducing the osmolality of the tenofovir gel resulted in improved epithelial integrity, which suggests better safety upon rectal use. The improved gel safety did not compromise drug release or anti-HIV-1 activity. These data support the use of this gel as a dual compartment microbicide. PMID:22581908

  18. ?F508 CFTR Surface Stability Is Regulated by DAB2 and CHIP-Mediated Ubiquitination in Post-Endocytic Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lianwu; Rab, Andras; Tang, Li ping; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Rowe, Steven M.; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Collawn, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The ?F508 mutant form of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (?F508 CFTR) that is normally degraded by the ER-associated degradative pathway can be rescued to the cell surface through low-temperature (27°C) culture or small molecular corrector treatment. However, it is unstable on the cell surface, and rapidly internalized and targeted to the lysosomal compartment for degradation. To understand the mechanism of this rapid turnover, we examined the role of two adaptor complexes (AP-2 and Dab2) and three E3 ubiquitin ligases (c-Cbl, CHIP, and Nedd4-2) on low-temperature rescued ?F508 CFTR endocytosis and degradation in human airway epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that siRNA depletion of either AP-2 or Dab2 inhibits ?F508 CFTR endocytosis by 69% and 83%, respectively. AP-2 or Dab2 depletion also increases the rescued protein half-life of ?F508 CFTR by ~18% and ~91%, respectively. In contrast, the depletion of each of the E3 ligases had no effect on ?F508 CFTR endocytosis, whereas CHIP depletion significantly increased the surface half-life of ?F508 CFTR. To determine where and when the ubiquitination occurs during ?F508 CFTR turnover, we monitored the ubiquitination of rescued ?F508 CFTR during the time course of CFTR endocytosis. Our results indicate that ubiquitination of the surface pool of ?F508 CFTR begins to increase 15 min after internalization, suggesting that CFTR is ubiquitinated in a post-endocytic compartment. This post-endocytic ubiquination of ?F508 CFTR could be blocked by either inhibiting endocytosis, by siRNA knockdown of CHIP, or by treating cells with the CFTR corrector, VX-809. Our results indicate that the post-endocytic ubiquitination of CFTR by CHIP is a critical step in the peripheral quality control of cell surface ?F508 CFTR. PMID:25879443

  19. ?F508 CFTR surface stability is regulated by DAB2 and CHIP-mediated ubiquitination in post-endocytic compartments.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lianwu; Rab, Andras; Tang, Li ping; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Rowe, Steven M; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Collawn, James F

    2015-01-01

    The ?F508 mutant form of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (?F508 CFTR) that is normally degraded by the ER-associated degradative pathway can be rescued to the cell surface through low-temperature (27°C) culture or small molecular corrector treatment. However, it is unstable on the cell surface, and rapidly internalized and targeted to the lysosomal compartment for degradation. To understand the mechanism of this rapid turnover, we examined the role of two adaptor complexes (AP-2 and Dab2) and three E3 ubiquitin ligases (c-Cbl, CHIP, and Nedd4-2) on low-temperature rescued ?F508 CFTR endocytosis and degradation in human airway epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that siRNA depletion of either AP-2 or Dab2 inhibits ?F508 CFTR endocytosis by 69% and 83%, respectively. AP-2 or Dab2 depletion also increases the rescued protein half-life of ?F508 CFTR by ~18% and ~91%, respectively. In contrast, the depletion of each of the E3 ligases had no effect on ?F508 CFTR endocytosis, whereas CHIP depletion significantly increased the surface half-life of ?F508 CFTR. To determine where and when the ubiquitination occurs during ?F508 CFTR turnover, we monitored the ubiquitination of rescued ?F508 CFTR during the time course of CFTR endocytosis. Our results indicate that ubiquitination of the surface pool of ?F508 CFTR begins to increase 15 min after internalization, suggesting that CFTR is ubiquitinated in a post-endocytic compartment. This post-endocytic ubiquination of ?F508 CFTR could be blocked by either inhibiting endocytosis, by siRNA knockdown of CHIP, or by treating cells with the CFTR corrector, VX-809. Our results indicate that the post-endocytic ubiquitination of CFTR by CHIP is a critical step in the peripheral quality control of cell surface ?F508 CFTR. PMID:25879443

  20. Acute Compartment Syndrome after Non-Contact Peroneus Longus Muscle Rupture.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Jarrad; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis; Yi, Anthony; Romano, Russ; Hatch, George F Rick

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a rare variation in the pattern of injury and the presentation of acute lateral compartment syndrome of the leg. Although uncommon, lateral compartment syndrome of the leg after an ankle inversion leading to peroneus longus muscle rupture has been previously documented. This case was unusual because there was no overt ankle injury and the patient was able to continue physical activity, in spite of a significant rupture of the peroneus longus muscle that was determined later. This case highlights the necessary vigilance clinicians must maintain when assessing non-contact injuries in patients with possible compartment syndrome. PMID:26640640

  1. Acute Compartment Syndrome after Non-Contact Peroneus Longus Muscle Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Jarrad; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis; Romano, Russ; Hatch, George F. Rick

    2015-01-01

    This case demonstrates a rare variation in the pattern of injury and the presentation of acute lateral compartment syndrome of the leg. Although uncommon, lateral compartment syndrome of the leg after an ankle inversion leading to peroneus longus muscle rupture has been previously documented. This case was unusual because there was no overt ankle injury and the patient was able to continue physical activity, in spite of a significant rupture of the peroneus longus muscle that was determined later. This case highlights the necessary vigilance clinicians must maintain when assessing non-contact injuries in patients with possible compartment syndrome. PMID:26640640

  2. Spin block inclusions Christine Bessenrodt

    E-print Network

    Olsson, Jørn Børling

    Spin block inclusions Christine Bessenrodt Fakult¨at f¨ur Mathematik und Physik, Universit Classifications: 20C30, 05A17 Abstract In this paper we classify all block equalities and all nontrivial block inclu- sions for spin blocks of the double covers of the symmetric groups at different odd primes. More

  3. Random Block Operators

    E-print Network

    Werner Kirsch; Bernd Metzger; Peter Müller

    2010-09-20

    We study fundamental spectral properties of random block operators that are common in the physical modelling of mesoscopic disordered systems such as dirty superconductors. Our results include ergodic properties, the location of the spectrum, existence and regularity of the integrated density of states, as well as Lifshits tails. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities arising from the block structure such as the occurrence of a robust gap in the middle of the spectrum. Without randomness in the off-diagonal blocks the density of states typically exhibits an inverse square-root singularity at the edges of the gap. In the presence of randomness we establish a Wegner estimate that is valid at all energies. It implies that the singularities are smeared out by randomness, and the density of states is bounded. We also show Lifshits tails at these band edges. Technically, one has to cope with a non-monotone dependence on the random couplings.

  4. Fermion-Scalar Conformal Blocks

    E-print Network

    Luca Iliesiu; Filip Kos; David Poland; Silviu S. Pufu; David Simmons-Duffin; Ran Yacoby

    2015-11-04

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called `seed blocks' in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  5. Fermion-Scalar Conformal Blocks

    E-print Network

    Iliesiu, Luca; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called `seed blocks' in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  6. Rna-seq analysis of the functional compartments within the rat placentation site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rat placentation site is distinctly organized into interacting zones, the so-called labyrinth, junctional, and metrial gland compartments. These zones house unique cell populations equipped to undertake myriad prescribed functions including transport, hormonal responses, and immune interactions....

  7. Compartment A125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for supporting and protecting the forward 8" gun turret above. Anchor windlass is in left background. (033) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or...

  9. A delayed presentation of bilateral leg compartment syndrome following non-stop dancing.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, James Gordon; Carter, Tom; White, Tim Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a young man with a 48 h delayed presentation of bilateral lower limb acute compartment syndrome (ACS) affecting the anterior compartments following an extended period of dancing at a music festival. On making the diagnosis of ACS, the patient was immediately taken to theatre for fasciotomies and compartmental decompression. Repeat look fasciotomies revealed further necrosis to the muscles of the anterior compartments bilaterally and, effectively, all the muscle bellies within the anterior compartments were excised. The patient has been left with a significant functional deficit and disability. This case highlights the importance of timely diagnosis of ACS as delay in presentation can impact significantly on subsequent functional outcome and quality of life. PMID:25786817

  10. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...affected by that hoisting operation and a “Men Working in Shaft” sign shall be posted at the...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...affected by that hoisting operation and a “Men Working in Shaft” sign shall be posted at the...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...affected by that hoisting operation and a “Men Working in Shaft” sign shall be posted at the...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...affected by that hoisting operation and a “Men Working in Shaft” sign shall be posted at the...

  14. View of compartment B126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment B-126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock hooks, ash hoist rails at top left and coal chute left of center. (047) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Compartment B3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment B-3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 aft to forward from passing room B-25. (030A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Compartment A14m cork lined powder magazine looking port to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-14m - cork lined powder magazine looking port to starboard; note temperature sensor in the overhead. (022) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND METHYLMERCURY IN DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEM COMPARTMENTS IN THE EVERGLADES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades were analyzed at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation, and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to t...

  18. THE CALCULATION OF TRANSFER RATES IN TWO COMPARTMENT SYSTEMS NOT IN DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Eugene Y.; Steele, J. Murray

    1958-01-01

    Dynamic equilibrium in a biological system implies that the compartment under study does not change in size during the period of observation. In many biological systems there are, however, net changes with time and this report deals with the mathematical treatment necessary to calculate unequal rates of inflow and outflow. A method is presented for the calculation of transfer rates in a two compartment system when the rates of flow between these compartments are unequal but constant. Equations were developed to calculate the amount of material transported per unit time derived from measurements of specific activity and compartment size. The problems of (1) sampling from the pool and (2) the effects of analytical errors on the estimation of rate have been evaluated. An example has been presented in which the derived equations have been applied to a study of the simultaneous passage of sodium into and out of a permanently isolated loop of bowel. PMID:13563804

  19. STS-35 Pilot Gardner in sleep station compartment on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner demonstrates the bunk-style sleep compartments onboard Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Gardner uses bunk #2 of the sleep station located against the middeck starboard wall.

  20. Something Silent This Way Forms: The Functional Organization of the Repressive Nuclear Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ritland Politz, Joan C.; Scalzo, David; Groudine, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The repressive compartment of the nucleus is comprised primarily of telomeric and centromeric regions, the silent portion of ribosomal RNA genes, the majority of transposable element repeats, and facultatively repressed genes specific to different cell types. This compartment localizes into three main regions: the peripheral heterochromatin, perinucleolar heterochromatin, and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Both chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription of noncoding RNAs are involved in maintenance of repression in these compartments. Global reorganization of the repressive compartment occurs at each cell division, during early development, and during terminal differentiation. Differential action of chromatin remodeling complexes and boundary element looping activities are involved in mediating these organizational changes. We discuss the evidence that heterochromatin formation and compartmentalization may drive nuclear organization. PMID:23834025

  1. View starboard to port of crew's galley, compartment A127; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View starboard to port of crew's galley, compartment A-127; note showing steam kettles. Coal stove at left, sink and coffee urn at right. (p53) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Confinement of block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The following were studied: confinement of block copolymers, free surface confinement, effects of substrate interactions, random copolymers at homopolymer interfaces, phase separation in thin film polymer mixtures, buffing of polymer surfaces, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

  3. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  4. Block Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Block Island coast and shows a rock crab and several shrimp on a boulder that is covered with bryozoans. Shell fragments and other coarse grained sediment can be seen in the background (upper left corner). This photograph was collected to support research a...

  5. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  6. 2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

  7. EXCESS INFALL BLOCKS CONVECTION.

    E-print Network

    Kurucz, Robert L.

    #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;1 JET HOT SPOT #12;2 3 #12;4 HEAT HEAT EXCESS INFALL BLOCKS CONVECTION PUFFS UP. INFALL 5 #12;ENVELOPE AND ATMOSPHERE MATERIAL FLOW OUTWARD. SOME INFALL IS DRAGGED ALONG XXXXXXXX 25 #12;POPCORN STICKY CRUSHABLE INSULATING RADIOACTIVELY SELF-HEATING WARMED AND ANNEALED BY STAR

  8. Copperhead Envenomation Resulting in a Rare Case of Hand Compartment Syndrome and Subsequent Fasciotomy

    PubMed Central

    Brys, Adam K.; Gandolfi, Brad M.; Gerardo, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Copperhead bites account for nearly 40% of all snakebites in the United States. Although common, these bites are rarely severe, and most are treated with supportive care and antivenom. We describe the first reported case of a copperhead envenomation resulting in a hand compartment syndrome with measured elevated compartment pressures that necessitated fasciotomy of the hand. Our case underscores the importance of vigilance in the diagnosis and management of copperhead envenomation. PMID:26090286

  9. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  10. Modification of an amplification reaction in recursively dynamic compartments driven by stirring.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Tetsuo; Tanahashi, Genya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2013-12-17

    In living systems, biochemical reactions are confined to cellular or subcellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane and the organelles within a cell. These biological compartments are usually subjected to recursive changes, such as combinations of growth, fusion, and division, to constitute repeating cell cycles. In such recursively dynamic compartments, the encapsulated biochemical reaction may exhibit dynamics that differ from those of the static compartment (i.e., test tubes) used in conventional biochemistry experiments. To test this hypothesis in a simplified model, we mechanically stirred femtoliter-sized water-in-oil emulsion droplets so that individual droplets were subjected to repeated coalescence and breakage. We show that recursive dynamics appeared in the emulsion, which were measured by the exponential propagation of a water-soluble dye. The rate of the propagation, ?, was controlled by modulating the pulse-width of stirring in an electromagnetic stirrer. Within this system, we studied the dynamics of an RNA-amplification reaction in recursively increasing reaction compartments at various values of ?. We showed that there was an optimal value of ? that maximized RNA amplification. This effect was explained by the balance between the opposing effects of supply of substrate and the dilution of amplified RNA both resulting from coalescence. Moreover, when we mixed two RNA species with different kinetic properties, we found a preferential amplification for one of the species only in the recursively dynamic emulsion. This effect was partly explained by a separation effect which preferentially amplifies the number of compartments for the molecular specie that can better follow the breakage dynamics of the compartments. The present work demonstrated how the recursive dynamics of compartments modifies the internal biochemical reaction. PMID:24219119

  11. Compartment A4 hold at midplatform level, view from starboard to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-4 hold at mid-platform level, view from starboard to port shows protective deck framing and underside of armor plate. Open wood ceiling aids in circulating air. Note ventilation duct for fresh air at center of photograph. Open hatch penetrates protective deck and leads to bread room, compartment A-102. (012) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Activation of individual extrinsic thumb muscles and compartments of extrinsic finger muscles.

    PubMed

    Birdwell, J Alexander; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A; Weir, Richard F Ff

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical and neurological couplings exist between musculotendon units of the human hand and digits. Studies have begun to understand how these muscles interact when accomplishing everyday tasks, but there are still unanswered questions regarding the control limitations of individual muscles. Using intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, this study examined subjects' ability to individually initiate and sustain three levels of normalized muscular activity in the index and middle finger muscle compartments of extensor digitorum communis (EDC), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), as well as the extrinsic thumb muscles abductor pollicis longus (APL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), and flexor pollicis longus (FPL). The index and middle finger compartments each sustained activations with significantly different levels of coactivity from the other finger muscle compartments. The middle finger compartment of EDC was the exception. Only two extrinsic thumb muscles, EPL and FPL, were capable of sustaining individual activations from the other thumb muscles, at all tested activity levels. Activation of APL was achieved at 20 and 30% MVC activity levels with significantly different levels of coactivity. Activation of EPB elicited coactivity levels from EPL and APL that were not significantly different. These results suggest that most finger muscle compartments receive unique motor commands, but of the four thumb muscles, only EPL and FPL were capable of individually activating. This work is encouraging for the neural control of prosthetic limbs because these muscles and compartments may potentially serve as additional user inputs to command prostheses. PMID:23803329

  13. Differential activity of Drosophila Hox genes induces myosin expression and can maintain compartment boundaries.

    PubMed

    Curt, Jesús R; de Navas, Luis F; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Compartments are units of cell lineage that subdivide territories with different developmental potential. In Drosophila, the wing and haltere discs are subdivided into anterior and posterior (A/P) compartments, which require the activity of Hedgehog, and into dorsal and ventral (D/V) compartments, needing Notch signaling. There is enrichment in actomyosin proteins at the compartment boundaries, suggesting a role for these proteins in their maintenance. Compartments also develop in the mouse hindbrain rhombomeres, which are characterized by the expression of different Hox genes, a group of genes specifying different structures along their main axis of bilaterians. We show here that the Drosophila Hox gene Ultrabithorax can maintain the A/P and D/V compartment boundaries when Hedgehog or Notch signaling is compromised, and that the interaction of cells with and without Ultrabithorax expression induces high levels of non-muscle myosin II. In the absence of Ultrabithorax there is occasional mixing of cells from different segments. We also show a similar role in cell segregation for the Abdominal-B Hox gene. Our results suggest that the juxtaposition of cells with different Hox gene expression leads to their sorting out, probably through the accumulation of non-muscle myosin II at the boundary of the different cell territories. The increase in myosin expression seems to be a general mechanism used by Hox genes or signaling pathways to maintain the segregation of different groups of cells. PMID:23451173

  14. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  15. 31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.301 Blocked account; blocked property....

  16. 31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.301 Blocked account; blocked...

  17. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The...

  18. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The...

  19. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The...

  20. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The...

  1. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

  2. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

  3. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

  4. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

  5. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

  6. On balanced incomplete-block designs with repeated blocks

    E-print Network

    Queen Mary, University of London

    On balanced incomplete-block designs with repeated blocks P. Dobcs´anyia,b , D.A. Preecec,d , L.A.Preece@qmul.ac.uk, L.H.Soicher@qmul.ac.uk In Memory of Jack van Lint Abstract Balanced incomplete-block designs (BIBDs) with repeated blocks are studied and constructed. We continue work initiated by van Lint and Ryser in 1972

  7. Thermal blocking of preheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Rose; Tranberg, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The parametric resonance responsible for preheating after inflation will end when self-interactions of the resonating field and interactions of this field with secondary degrees of freedom become important. In many cases, the effect may be quantified in terms of an effective mass and the resulting shifting out of the spectrum of the strongest resonance band. In certain curvaton models, such thermal blocking can even occur before preheating has begun, delaying or even preventing the decay of the curvaton. We investigate numerically to what extent this thermal blocking is realised in a specific scenario, and whether the effective mass is well approximated by the perturbative leading order thermal mass. We find that the qualitative behaviour is well reproduced in this approximation, and that the end of preheating can be confidently estimated.

  8. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  9. Intraocular radiation blocking.

    PubMed

    Finger, P T; Ho, T K; Fastenberg, D M; Hyman, R A; Stroh, E M; Packer, S; Perry, H D

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application. PMID:2211021

  10. Postsynaptic Density Protein 95 in the Striosome and Matrix Compartments of the Human Neostriatum

    PubMed Central

    Morigaki, Ryoma; Goto, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The human neostriatum consists of two functional subdivisions referred to as the striosome (patch) and matrix compartments. The striosome-matrix dopamine systems play a central role in cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia circuits, and their involvement is thought to underlie the genesis of multiple movement and behavioral disorders, and of drug addiction. Human neuropathology also has shown that striosomes and matrix have differential vulnerability patterns in several striatal neurodegenerative diseases. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), also known as disks large homolog 4, is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic densities of dendritic spines. PSD-95 is now known to negatively regulate not only N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate signaling, but also dopamine D1 signals at sites of postsynaptic transmission. Accordingly, a neuroprotective role for PSD-95 against dopamine D1 receptor (D1R)-mediated neurotoxicity in striatal neurodegeneration also has been suggested. Here, we used a highly sensitive immunohistochemistry technique to show that in the human neostriatum, PSD-95 is differentially concentrated in the striosome and matrix compartments, with a higher density of PSD-95 labeling in the matrix compartment than in the striosomes. This compartment-specific distribution of PSD-95 was strikingly complementary to that of D1R. In addition to the possible involvement of PSD-95-mediated synaptic function in compartment-specific dopamine signals, we suggest that the striosomes might be more susceptible to D1R-mediated neurotoxicity than the matrix compartment. This notion may provide new insight into the compartment-specific vulnerability of MSNs in striatal neurodegeneration. PMID:26648848

  11. Arabinogalactan Glycosyltransferases Target to a Unique Subcellular Compartment That May Function in Unconventional Secretion in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory; Burow, Meike; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31 (At1g32930)] was found in the small compartments, of which, 45 and 40% of AtGALT29A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 29 (At1g08280)] and AtGlcAT14A [Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase from family 14 (At5g39990)] colocalized with AtGALT31A, respectively; in contrast, N-glycosylation enzymes rarely colocalized (3–18%), implicating a role of the small compartments in a part of arabinogalactan (O-glycan) biosynthesis rather than N-glycan processing. The dual localization of AtGALT31A was also observed for fluorescently tagged AtGALT31A stably expressed in an Arabidopsis atgalt31a mutant background. Further, site-directed mutagenesis of a phosphorylation site of AtGALT29A (Y144) increased the frequency of the protein being targeted to the AtGALT31A-localized small compartments, suggesting a role of Y144 in subcellular targeting. The AtGALT31A localized to the small compartments were colocalized with neither SYP61 (syntaxin of plants 61), a marker for trans-Golgi network (TGN), nor FM4-64-stained endosomes. However, 41% colocalized with EXO70E2 (Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst protein Exo70 homolog 2), a marker for exocyst-positive organelles, and least affected by Brefeldin A and Wortmannin. Taken together, AtGALT31A localized to small compartments that are distinct from the Golgi apparatus, the SYP61-localized TGN, FM4-64-stained endosomes and Wortmannin-vacuolated prevacuolar compartments, but may be part of an unconventional protein secretory pathway represented by EXO70E2 in plants. PMID:25074762

  12. Transversus Abdominal Plane (TAP) block

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    !" Transversus Abdominal Plane (TAP) block Presentation developed by Dr. Ashley Meister Presented by Dr. Kevin Wong April 25, 2015 #12;Objectives ! Goals of the TAP block & effects ! Anatomy-sparing ! Good for abdominal wall pain (incisional pain) ! Does not cover visceral pain ! Field block in fascial

  13. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  14. ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.T.

    1981-05-01

    An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems.

  15. Investigating the robustness of the classical enzyme kinetic equations in small intracellular compartments

    E-print Network

    Ramon Grima

    2009-10-23

    Classical descriptions of enzyme kinetics ignore the physical nature of the intracellular environment. Main implicit assumptions behind such approaches are that reactions occur in compartment volumes which are large enough so that molecular discreteness can be ignored and that molecular transport occurs via diffusion. Starting from a master equation description of enzyme reaction kinetics and assuming metabolic steady-state conditions, we derive novel mesoscopic rate equations which take into account (i) the intrinsic molecular noise due to the low copy number of molecules in intracellular compartments (ii) the physical nature of the substrate transport process, i.e. diffusion or vesicle-mediated transport. These equations replace the conventional macroscopic and deterministic equations in the context of intracellular kinetics. The latter are recovered in the limit of infinite compartment volumes. We find that deviations from the predictions of classical kinetics are pronounced (hundreds of percent in the estimate for the reaction velocity) for enzyme reactions occurring in compartments which are smaller than approximately 200nm, for the case of substrate transport to the compartment being mediated principally by vesicle or granule transport and in the presence of competitive enzyme inhibitors. This has implications for the common approach of modelling large intracellular reaction networks using ordinary differential equations and also for the calculation of the effective dosage of competitive inhibitor drugs.

  16. Blocked exchanges revisited.

    PubMed

    Machan, T R

    1997-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the topic of blocked exchanges. It has been argued by some philosophers and social theorists that in order to encourage people to make donations of, e.g., blood, the sale of such items should be banned by law or public policy. In this paper I argue that (a) donations made without the option of selling are morally diminished and (2) selling such items isn't morally wrong or even insignificant in all cases since prudence (which is a moral virtue, pace Kant) may require that one sell them. PMID:12474848

  17. Holomorphic Blocks in Three Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Christopher Beem; Tudor Dimofte; Sara Pasquetti

    2014-12-27

    We decompose sphere partition functions and indices of three-dimensional N=2 gauge theories into a sum of products involving a universal set of "holomorphic blocks". The blocks count BPS states and are in one-to-one correspondence with the theory's massive vacua. We also propose a new, effective technique for calculating the holomorphic blocks, inspired by a reduction to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The blocks turn out to possess a wealth of surprising properties, such as a Stokes phenomenon that integrates nicely with actions of three-dimensional mirror symmetry. The blocks also have interesting dual interpretations. For theories arising from the compactification of the six-dimensional (2,0) theory on a three-manifold M, the blocks belong to a basis of wavefunctions in analytically continued Chern-Simons theory on M. For theories engineered on branes in Calabi-Yau geometries, the blocks offer a non-perturbative perspective on open topological string partition functions.

  18. Basic aspects of the concept of reactor compartment (including damaged compartments) management during utilization of nuclear powered submarines -- High priority R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Mazokin, V.A.; Borisov, V.V.; Netecha, M.E.; Orlov, Yu.V.; Stanislavsky, G.A.; Ulasevich, V.K.

    1996-07-01

    Large-scale decommissioning of Russian nuclear-powered submarines (NPS) and their utilization prospects gave rise to numerous complicated scientific and technical, as well as economic, problems. Problems of handling of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartments (RC) are among the vital ones, arousing a growing concern with the public. Without solution of the problems the processes of NPS utilization can not be considered completed. It involves potential hazard, for the environment both from NPS being paid up (temporal on-float storage) with unloaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and RC, cut from submarine hull, containing highly radioactive equipment and materials but no SNF. Diverse variations of the concept of reactor compartment handling of NPS subject to, utilization are possible, but, in principle, there are essentially two variants: (1) RC utilization directly in the course of NPS utilization, envisaging removal of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartment and its cutting; (2) RC utilization after preliminary long-term storage of radioactive equipment of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) in the standard sites within RC, when radioactivity of SGF equipment and materials as a result of natural decay of radionuclides is reduced to the values permitting RC cutting without employment of special means. When analyzing this or that variant of the concept, various factors are to be allowed for. First and foremost, the technology of RC handling is to provide: (1) minimum amount of radioactive wastes; (2) minimum radiation burden to the environment and personnel; (3) minimum material and financial expenditures; and (4) maximum radiation and ecological safety. RDIPE in cooperation with the leading enterprises of RF Minatom, Goskomoboronprom and Ministry of Defense has developed a concept of handling radioactive equipment in NPS reactor compartments, and its principle concepts are presented here.

  19. Two nested developmental waves demarcate a compartment boundary in the mouse lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A.; Chen, Jichao

    2014-05-01

    The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments—the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region—separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three-dimensions (3D) and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signalling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signalling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a new mechanism of boundary formation in complex, 3D organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth.

  20. Recurrent Compartment Syndrome in a Patient with Clinical Features of a Connective Tissue Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Brenda D; Sun, Angela; Rimoin, David L; Reinstein, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Arterial complications are common in vascular type Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), accounting for 66% of first complications. Several cases in the literature have documented acute compartment syndrome (ACS) following vascular rupture in vascular type EDS. Other disorders of connective tissue have also demonstrated vascular fragility, leading to arterial aneurysm and rupture, but there have been no documented cases of ACS. Here, we report on a female patient with a history of recurrent compartment syndrome who exhibits some clinical findings seen in hypermobile and vascular EDS; however she does not meet clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria for either of them. We further review the literature on ACS in heritable connective tissue disorders and suggest that compartment syndrome may rarely complicate other heritable disorders of connective tissue. PMID:23633393

  1. Two-compartment behavior during transport of folate compounds in L1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.H.; Dembo, M.; Sirotnak, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of (/sup 3/H) 1,L 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, (/sup 3/H) folic acid, and (/sup 3/H)methotrexate by L1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles exhibited multicompartmental behavior. Two separate vesicular compartments (parallel relationship) of approximately equal volume were revealed during measurements of influx and efflux. Flux in one compartment was rapid, saturable, highly temperature-sensitive, and inhibited by pCMBS. Flux in the other compartment exhibited all of the characteristics of passive diffusion. These results imply that our plasma membrane vesicle preparations consist of a mixture of two functional species. Transport of folate into one of these species occurs by passive diffusion alone, whereas transport into the other kind of vesicle occurs by both passive diffusion and carrier-facilitated transport.

  2. Effects of long-duration bed rest on structural compartments of m. soleus in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belozerova, I.; Shenkman, B.; Mazin, M.; Leblanc, A.; LeBlanc, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histomorphometry and electron microscopy of muscle demonstrate that long-term exposure to actual or simulated weightlessness (including head down bed rest) leads to decreased volume of antigravity muscles in mammals. In muscles interbundle space is occupied by the connective tissue. Rat studies show that hindlimb unloading induces muscle fiber atrophy along with increase in muscle non-fiber connective tissue compartment. Beside that, usually 20% of the muscle fiber volume is comprised by non-contractile (non-myofibrillar) compartment. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in muscle volume, and in muscle fiber size with alterations in myofibrillar apparatus, and in connective tissue compartment in human m. soleus under conditions of 120 day long head down bed rest (HDBR).

  3. Scenarios Approach to the Electromagnetic Exposure: The Case Study of a Train Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Paffi, A.; Apollonio, F.; Pinto, R.; Liberti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies identified the train compartment as the place where people can experience the highest exposure levels (still below the international guideline limits) to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range. Here a possible scenario of a train compartment has been reproduced and characterized, both numerically and experimentally. A good agreement between the simulated electric field distributions and measurements has been found. Results indicate that the higher values of exposure in specific positions inside the train compartment depend on the number of active cell phones, the bad coverage condition, the cell orientation, and the presence of metallic walls. This study shows that the proposed approach, based on the scenarios characterization, may efficiently support the assessment of the individual electromagnetic exposure. PMID:25802868

  4. Two nested developmental waves demarcate a compartment boundary in the mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A; Chen, Jichao

    2014-01-01

    The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments--the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region--separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three-dimensions (3D) and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signalling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signalling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a new mechanism of boundary formation in complex, 3D organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth. PMID:24879355

  5. Two Nested Developmental Waves Demarcate a Compartment Boundary in the Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A.; Chen, Jichao

    2014-01-01

    The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments — the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region — separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three dimensions and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signaling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signaling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a novel mechanism of boundary formation in complex, three-dimensional organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth. PMID:24879355

  6. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  7. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE ?(x)?(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]? also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/? perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ? dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  8. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE ?(x)?(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]? also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fockmore »space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/? perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ? dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  9. Development of a multi-compartment pharmacokinetic model to characterize the exposure to Hexamoll® DINCH®.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Andre; Lorber, Matthew; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Apel, Petra; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2015-06-01

    We developed and calibrated a multi compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model to predict urinary concentrations after oral exposure of four specific DINCH metabolites: MINCH, OH-MINCH, cx-MINCH, and oxo-MINCH. This descriptive model has 4 compartments: a "stomach" (SC) compartment, a "holding" (HC) compartment, a "blood" (BC) compartment and a "bladder" (BLC) compartment. DINCH is assumed to first deposit into the SC, with transfer split between the HC and the BC. Unmetabolized DINCH from the HC then transfers to the BC. The DINCH metabolism is assumed to occur in the BC before excretion via the BLC. At each urination event, all the metabolite mass in the BLC is excreted. The model was calibrated using published urine metabolite data from 3 different male volunteers, each orally dosed with 50mg DINCH. Full urine voids were taken for 48 h after dosage. The predicted values showed a good agreement with the observed urinary DINCH metabolite concentrations, with a Spearman correlation coefficient exceeding 0.7 for all oxidized metabolites. We showed the importance of a holding reservoir. Without it, a good agreement could not be found. We applied the model to a set of 24-h general population samples measured for DINCH metabolites. The model was unable to duplicate the ratio of metabolites seen in the 24-h samples. Two possibilities were offered to explain the difference: the exposure pattern in the general population did not match the oral exposure in the dosing experiments, or the long-term toxicokinetics of DINCH was not captured in the 48-h controlled dosing experiments. PMID:25710321

  10. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Cole, Rex A.; Fowler, John E.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 ?m/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6–1.5 ?m/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development. PMID:26426395

  11. Intra-oral compartment pressures: a biofunctional model and experimental measurements under different conditions of posture.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Wilfried; Jung, Klaus; Knösel, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Oral posture is considered to have a major influence on the development and reoccurrence of malocclusion. A biofunctional model was tested with the null hypotheses that (1) there are no significant differences between pressures during different oral functions and (2) between pressure measurements in different oral compartments in order to substantiate various postural conditions at rest by intra-oral pressure dynamics. Atmospheric pressure monitoring was simultaneously carried out with a digital manometer in the vestibular inter-occlusal space (IOS) and at the palatal vault (sub-palatal space, SPS). Twenty subjects with normal occlusion were evaluated during the open-mouth condition (OC), gently closed lips (semi-open compartment condition, SC), with closed compartments after the generation of a negative pressure (CCN) and swallowing (SW). Pressure curve characteristics were compared between the different measurement phases (OC, SC, CCN, SW) as well as between the two compartments (IOS, SPS) using analysis of variance and Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests adopting a significance level of ? = 0.05. Both null hypotheses were rejected. Average pressures (IOS, SPS) in the experimental phases were 0.0, -0.08 (OC); -0.16, -1.0 (SC); -48.79, -81.86 (CCN); and -29.25, -62.51 (SW)?mbar. CCN plateau and peak characteristics significantly differed between the two compartments SPS and IOS. These results indicate the formation of two different intra-oral functional anatomical compartments which provide a deeper understanding of orofacial biofunctions and explain previous observations of negative intra-oral pressures at rest. PMID:20127264

  12. Three-compartment modeling of C-11 N-Methyl spiperone kinetics in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.A.; Wong, D.F.; Di Chiro, G.; Wayner, R.T.; Douglass, K.H.; Frost, J.J.; Larson, S.M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    N-Methyl spiperone, as well as spiperone, has been used to study the dopamine receptor system in the brain. The authors have applied a 3-compartment model consisting of vascular, extravascular unbound, and receptor-bound activity to two normal volunteers and one patient with Parkinson's disease. The model differs from that proposed by another study, in that, as in the Sokoloff model for deoxyglucose, there is no explicit term for blood flow. Furthermore, the authors used a 3-compartment model for the cerebellum as well as the caudate/putamen. Serial scans were obtained by PET for up to 2 hrs after injection of the tracer. Time-activity curves were generated over the caudate, putamen and cerebellum. The results indicate a close fit of the observed data to the 3-compatment model. In the model, K1 represents the rate constant of delivery of the tracer in the tissue from the vascular compartment. K2 is the reverse rate constant. K1 was approximately equal to K2 for the cerebellum. In the basal ganglia, K2 was less than K1 due to nonspecific binding in compartment 2. K3 represents the rate constant of binding of the tracer to the receptor binding sites in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia and to nonspecific binding sites in the cerebellum which contains essentially no dopamine receptors. K4 represents the rate constant for dissociation of the tracer from the receptors. For N-methyl spiperone K4 is very low in the caudate/putamen. The 3-compartment model seemed to fit the data better than the 2-compartment model for both the caudate/putamen and cerebellar activity.

  13. Solving block-banded block Toeplitz systems with banded Toeplitz blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Dario A.; Meini, Beatrice

    1999-11-01

    We introduce the concept of (epsilon) -displacement rank, that allows us to devise a fast algorithm for the approximate solution of BBBT/BTB (Block Banded Block Toeplitz with Banded Toeplitz Blocks) systems by means of cyclic reduction. We also introduce the concept of incomplete displacement block LU factorization of a Toeplitz-like matrix, where the displacement structure is imposed to the blocks of the factors L and U. The role of the matrix LU as preconditioner is discussed. Finally we propose another preconditioner obtained by extending a BBBT/BTB matrix to a banded Toeplitz matrix. Some open problems are addressed.

  14. Balance between the proximal dendritic compartment and the soma determines spontaneous firing rate in midbrain dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jinyoung; Um, Ki Bum; Jang, Miae; Kim, Shin Hye; Cho, Hana; Chung, Sungkwon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Myoung Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are slow intrinsic pacemakers that require the elaborate composition of many ion channels in the somatodendritic compartments. Understanding the major determinants of the spontaneous firing rate (SFR) of midbrain DA neurons is important because they determine the basal DA levels in target areas, including the striatum. As spontaneous firing occurs synchronously at the soma and dendrites, the electrical coupling between the soma and dendritic compartments has been regarded as a key determinant for the SFR. However, it is not known whether this somatodendritic coupling is served by the whole dendritic compartments or only parts of them. In the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) DA neurons, we demonstrate that the balance between the proximal dendritic compartment and the soma determines the SFR. Isolated SNc DA neurons showed a wide range of soma size and a variable number of primary dendrites but preserved a quite consistent SFR. The SFR was not correlated with soma size or with the number of primary dendrites, but it was strongly correlated with the area ratios of the proximal dendritic compartments to the somatic compartment. Tetrodotoxin puff and local Ca2+ perturbation experiments, computer simulation, and local glutamate uncaging experiments suggest the importance of the proximal dendritic compartments in pacemaker activity. These data indicate that the proximal dendritic compartments, not the whole dendritic compartments, play a key role in the somatodendritic balance that determines the SFR in DA neurons. PMID:24756642

  15. Compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and risk of acute renal failure as complications of the lithotomy position.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Gianlorenzo; van Moorselaar, Jeroen A; Feitz, Wout F J; van der Staak, Frans H J M; Monnens, Leo A H

    2002-01-01

    Compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and the risk of acute renal failure are potential complications of the lithotomy position. A six-year-old girl is described who developed a compartment syndrome with rhabdomyolysis after prolonged surgery in the lithotomy position. This complication occurred three times over ten years in our hospital. Rhabdomyolysis may induce acute renal failure. The pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis--induced renal failure has not yet been elucidated. However, forced diuresis by intravenous administration of mannitol and furosemide can prevent acute renal failure. PMID:12018636

  16. Cell replacement strategies aimed at reconstitution of the ?-cell compartment in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Gianello, Pierre; Salvatori, Marcus; Stratta, Robert J; Soker, Shay; Ricordi, Camillo; Domínguez-Bendala, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Emerging technologies in regenerative medicine have the potential to restore the ?-cell compartment in diabetic patients, thereby overcoming the inadequacies of current treatment strategies and organ supply. Novel approaches include: 1) Encapsulation technology that protects islet transplants from host immune surveillance; 2) stem cell therapies and cellular reprogramming, which seek to regenerate the depleted ?-cell compartment; and 3) whole-organ bioengineering, which capitalizes on the innate properties of the pancreas extracellular matrix to drive cellular repopulation. Collaborative efforts across these subfields of regenerative medicine seek to ultimately produce a bioengineered pancreas capable of restoring endocrine function in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. PMID:24757193

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