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Sample records for psoas compartment block

  1. The psoas compartment block for hip surgery: the past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, M A; Zuurmond, W W A; Perez, R S G M

    2011-01-01

    A posterior lumbar plexus block or psoas compartment block (PCB) is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the entire lower extremity including the hip. Since the first description in the early seventies, this technique has been modified based on advanced knowledge of the anatomical localization of the lumbar plexus and the improvement of technical equipment. This paper provides an overview of the history, clinical efficacy, and risk profile of the PCB focused on hip surgery. Current status and future expectations are discussed. PMID:21716721

  2. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries were randomly allocated to receive a sciatic nerve block in addition to lumbar plexus block using either an adductor canal block (ACB) or a posterior psoas compartment approach (PCB) using 25 ml of bupivacine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:400,000 injection over 2-3 minutes while observing the distribution of the local anesthetic in real time. Successful nerve block was defined as a complete loss of pinprick sensation in the region that is supplied by the three nerves along with adequate motor block, 30 minutes after injection. The degree of motor block was evaluated 30 minutes after the block procedure. The results of the present study showed that the real time ultrasound guidance of PCB is more effective than ACB approach. Although the sensory blockade of the femoral nerve achieved equally by both techniques, the LFC and OBT nerves were faster and more effectively blocked with PCB technique. Also PCB group showed significant complete sensory block without need for general anesthesia, significant decrease in the post-operative VAS and significant increase time of first analgesic requirement as compared to the ACB group. Result and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that blockade of lumber plexus by psoas compartment block is more effective in complete sensory block without general anesthesia supplementation in addition to decrease post-operative analgesic requirement than adductor canal block. PMID:27212766

  3. Psoas Compartment Blockade in a Laterally Herniated Disc Compressing the Psoas Muscle -A Case Report-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Young; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Jee Youn; Shin, Jae Hyuck; Park, Sang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    A psoas compartment block has been used to provide anesthesia for orthopedic surgical procedures and analgesia for post-operative pain. Currently, this block is advocated for relieving pain in the lower extremity and pelvic area resulting from various origins. We report a case of a 69-year-old male patient who had gait abnormality with posterior pelvic and hip pain, which were both aggravated by hip extension. From the magnetic resonance image, the patient was found to have a laterally herniated intervertebral disc at the L2/3 level, which compressed the right psoas muscle. This was thought to be the origin of the pain, so a psoas compartment block was performed using 0.25% chirocaine with triamcinolone 5mg, and the pain in both the pelvis and hip were relieved. PMID:22514781

  4. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthias C.; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R.; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally ‘program’ the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  5. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments.

    PubMed

    Huber, Matthias C; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally 'program' the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials. PMID:25362355

  6. A Continuous Infusion Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block in Hip Fracture Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dulaney-Cripe, Elizabeth; Hadaway, Scott; Bauman, Ryan; Trame, Cathy; Smith, Carole; Sillaman, Becky; Laughlin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background Hip fractures account for 350,000 fractures annually and the projected incidence is expected to exceed 6.3 million by 2050. As the number of hip fractures continues to increase as a result of the aging American population, the importance of limiting and preventing complications is magnified. Methods This study demonstrated the clinical effects of a continuous fascia iliaca compartment block placed pre-operatively when combined with a comprehensive pain protocol. All patients who presented to our institution with a hip fracture were given the option of having a continuous fascia iliaca compartment block for pain control versus usual pain management (non-opioids, opioids, and ice therapy). The block was monitored by the pain service until the day of discharge from the hospital. Data was collected regarding mean pain scores, average length of stay and opioid medication use. Results There were eighteen males and twenty four females. The pain score on post-operative day zero was reduced from a 2010 annual average of 4.1 to 1.7 in the pilot study group on the visual analog score. On post-operative day one, the 2010 annual average was 2.9 compared to 1.4 in the pilot study group. The length of stay was decreased from the 2010 annual average of 5.9 days to 4.8 days in the pilot study group. The patients used an average of 18mg of morphine equivalent medications during the average infusion time of 40.7 hours. There were no falls or infections noted within our pilot study group. Conclusions Overall, it has been noticed that the reduction in opioid usage in this elderly patient population, with an average age of seventy five years, has produced alert and mobile patients often as early as post-operative day one. The length of stay has decreased along with the average pain score in the pilot sample of forty two patients. Keywords Hip fracture; Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block; Pain Score PMID:22383926

  7. Prehospital administered fascia iliaca compartment block by emergency medical service nurses, a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with a proximal femur fracture are often difficult to evacuate from the accident scene. Prehospital pain management for this vulnerable group of patients may be challenging. Multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy and increased age may limit the choice of suitable analgesics. The fascia iliaca compartment (FIC) block may be an alternative to intravenous analgesics. However this peripheral nerve block is mainly applied by physicians. In the Netherlands, prehospital emergency care is mostly provided by EMS-nurses. Therefore we examined whether well-trained EMS-nurses are able to successfully perform a FIC block in order to ensure timely and appropriate effective analgesia. The study was study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR-nr 3824). Methods Ten EMS nurses were educated in the performance of a FIC-block. Indications, technique, side-effects and complications were discussed. Hereafter the trained EMS-nurses staffed ambulance teams were dispatched to patients with a suspicion for a proximal femur fracture. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the block was performed and 0.3 ml/kg lidocaine (10 mg/ml) with adrenaline 5 μg/ml was injected. The quality of pain relief, occurrence of complications and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results In 108 patients a block was performed. One hundred patients could be included. Every EMS nurse performed at least 10 FIC blocks. The block was effective in 96 patients. The initial median (NRS)-pain score decreased after block performance to a score of 6 (after 10 minutes), 4 (after 20 minutes) and 3 (after 30 minutes). At arrival at the Emergency Department the median pain score was 3. Dynamic NRS-pain scores when transferring the patient from the accident scene to the ambulance stretcher, during transportation to the hospital and when transferring the patient to a hospital bed were, 4, 3 and 3.5 respectively. Patient satisfaction was very high. No complications were noted

  8. Effects of continuous fascia iliaca compartment blocks for postoperative analgesia in patients with hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Hongling; Yang, Ya-Xiong; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Bin; Luan, Bo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective analgesia is essential for the postoperative care of orthopedic patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of continuous fascia iliaca compartment block (FIB) as postoperative analgesia after hip fracture surgery, and to compare FIB with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) using fentanyl for 48 h postoperatively. METHODS: Patients with hip fractures who were scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation surgery using the antirotation proximal femoral nail technique were randomly assigned to the FIB or PCIA groups. Postoperative pain was assessed using a numeral rating scale at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after analgesia was started. Delirium, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and pruritus were also monitored. RESULTS: Patients in the FIB group reported less pain than those in the PCIA group (P=0.039, d=−0.3). The change in pain scores over time was similar between the two groups. There were six patients with PONV and five patients with pruritus in the PCIA group, while no PONV or pruritus was noticed in the FIB group (P=0.013). Ten (19.6%) patients in the FIB group and three (5.7%) patients in the PCIA group developed postoperative delirium (P=0.032, d=0.77). CONCLUSION: Continuous FIB is a safe and effective technique for postoperative analgesia after hip fracture surgery, making it an option for pain management in elderly patients with hip fractures. PMID:26125194

  9. Pneumococcal psoas pyomyositis associated with complement deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tuerlinckx, David; Bodart, Eddy; de Bilderling, Georges; Nisolle, Jean-François

    2004-04-01

    A 4.5-year-old boy with complement deficiency developed infection of the psoas caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pyomyositis of the psoas muscle is uncommon but should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever and lameness. The most useful diagnostic test is computed tomography guided needle aspiration, and underlying conditions should be sought. PMID:15071302

  10. Hip labral cyst caused by psoas impingement.

    PubMed

    Tey, Marc; Alvarez, Sonia; Ríos, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Hip labral impingement can cause labral tears and secondary paralabral cyst formation. Femoroacetabular impingement is the main cause of labral impingement, but other conditions such as iliopsoas tendon impingement are described. There is no description of labral cyst resulting from psoas impingement treated arthroscopically in the literature. We present the case of a young sportsman with groin pain caused by psoas impingement with a labral tear and secondary paralabral cyst who was treated arthroscopically by cyst debridement, psoas tenotomy, and labral repair. PMID:22840990

  11. Primary pyogenic psoas abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Kadambari, D; Jagdish, S

    2000-01-01

    Primary pyogenic psoas abscess, although quite a common condition, particularly in the tropics, is often overlooked as a clinical entity, probably because a psoas abscess has been traditionally associated with tuberculous spondylitis. The abscess is easily diagnosed by ultrasonography (US). Treatment by open drainage and antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus results in complete reversal of symptoms and signs. In our series of 55 cases in the pediatric age group (0-12 years), pain and flexion at the hip were the most frequent clinical features at presentation. US was diagnostic in all cases in which it was performed. All except 1 patient showed complete resolution with extraperitoneal drainage, antibiotics, and skin traction. Although 4% of the cases were associated with suppurative external-iliac lymphadenitis, the remaining ones arose de novo in the psoas sheath, suggesting a primary pyomyositis of the psoas muscle. PMID:10955575

  12. [Psoas abscess caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis].

    PubMed

    Tamargo Delpón, María; Demelo-Rodríguez, Pablo; Cano Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Vela de la Cruz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus of growing importance and atypical behavior. The infections caused by this microorganism are becoming more frequent, having a broader spectrum. Psoas abscesses caused by this germ are rare, with few cases reported in the literature. In this work, we present a case of a psoas abscess caused by S. lugdunensis in a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis, which was treated with intravenous cloxacillin with a good outcome. PMID:27086257

  13. Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia. Aim: To test the hypothesis that, adding dexamethasone would significantly prolong the duration of Bupivacaine in FICB. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 80 years posted for ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) of fracture femur were included to receive FICB. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind study done at tertiary medical college hospital. Thirty patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml saline and another 30 patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml dexamethasone (8mg). Thirty minutes after FICB, patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anesthesia was recorded. In the post-operative period, duration of analgesia and the total doses of rescue analgesics were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients who received Bupivacaine with dexamethasone had significant prolongation of analgesia and required fewer doses of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone for FICB. However, the onset of analgesia, VAS scores and patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study shows that adding Dexamethasone (8mg) to Bupivacaine for FICB significantly prolonged the duration of block and decreased the requirement of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone. FICB is relatively easy and safe to perform. In our study we did not encounter any complication while doing the procedures and also by adding dexamethasone. PMID:25302209

  14. Single Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block is Safe and Effective for Emergency Pain Relief in Hip-fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Leonieke; Dijksman, Lea M.; Simons, Maarten P.; Zwartsenburg, Mariska M.S.; Rebel, Jasper R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, it is common practice in the emergency department (ED) for pain relief in hip-fracture patients to administer pain medication, commonly systemic opioids. However, with these pain medications come a high risk of side effects, especially in elderly patients. This study investigated the safety profile and success rate of fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) in a busy ED. This ED was staffed with emergency physicians (EPs) and residents of varying levels of experience. This study followed patients’ pain levels at various hourly intervals up to eight hours post procedure. Methods Between September 2012 and July 2013, we performed a prospective pilot study on hip-fracture patients who were admitted to the ED of a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. These patients were followed and evaluated post FICB for pain relief. Secondary outcome was the use of opioids as rescue medication. Results Of the 43 patients in this study, patients overall experienced less pain after the FICB (p=0.04). This reduction in pain was studied in conjunction with the use and non-use of opioids. A clinically meaningful decrease in pain was achieved after 30 minutes in 62% of patients (54% with the use of opioids, 8% without opioids); after 240 minutes in 82% of patients (18% with opioids, 64% without opioids); after 480 minutes in 88% of patients (16% with opioids, 72% without opioids). No adverse events were reported. Conclusion In a busy Dutch ED with rotating residents of varying levels of experience, FICB seems to be an efficient, safe and practical method for pain reduction in patients with a hip fracture. Even without the use of opioids, pain reduction was achieved in 64% of patients after four hours and in 72% of patients after eight hours. PMID:26759680

  15. Rehabilitating psoas tendonitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Jaime

    2009-02-01

    This case report describes the examination and physical therapy intervention for a woman with anterior hip pain whose medical diagnosis following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was bilateral labral tears and psoas tendinitis. Her physical therapy evaluation revealed findings consistent with psoas tendonitis. Utilizing theories of neuromuscular patterning and knowledge of normal muscle function, the patient was successfully treated in physical therapy following six physical therapy sessions, once a week for 6 weeks. The patient was found to have an overactive psoas muscle, as indicated by hip flexion being the primary mover in her movement patterns, and dysfunctional abdominal and pelvic floor muscles. Functionally based therapeutic exercise and electrical stimulation were used to reeducate the muscles of the abdomen, pelvic floor, and hips in order to create muscular balance and correct muscle dysfunction. PMID:19048347

  16. Rehabilitating Psoas Tendonitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    This case report describes the examination and physical therapy intervention for a woman with anterior hip pain whose medical diagnosis following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was bilateral labral tears and psoas tendinitis. Her physical therapy evaluation revealed findings consistent with psoas tendonitis. Utilizing theories of neuromuscular patterning and knowledge of normal muscle function, the patient was successfully treated in physical therapy following six physical therapy sessions, once a week for 6 weeks. The patient was found to have an overactive psoas muscle, as indicated by hip flexion being the primary mover in her movement patterns, and dysfunctional abdominal and pelvic floor muscles. Functionally based therapeutic exercise and electrical stimulation were used to reeducate the muscles of the abdomen, pelvic floor, and hips in order to create muscular balance and correct muscle dysfunction. PMID:19048347

  17. Retroperitoneoscopic drainage of a psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Katara, Avinash N; Shah, Rasik S; Bhandarkar, Deepraj S; Unadkat, Rajan J

    2004-09-01

    Pyogenic psoas abscess in the pediatric age group is a primary condition caused mostly by Staphylococcus aureus. The preferred treatment is percutaneous or surgical drainage under a cover of systemic antibiotics. Laparoscopic drainage scores over open surgery in terms of minimal invasion, shorter hospital stay, better patient comfort, and more complete drainage compared with the percutaneous approach. The authors report a case of a 4-year-old boy with a psoas abscess that was effectively drained laparoscopically through an extraperitoneal approach. PMID:15359416

  18. Compartments within a compartment

    PubMed Central

    Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna AWM

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease. PMID:24732235

  19. Bilateral Psoas Muscle Abscess Associated with Emphysematous Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Ki; Kwon, Jae-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous urinary tract infection is very rare. There were very few reports about urinary tract infections such as renal abscess, perinephric abscess, and emphysematous pyelonephritis complicated with psoas muscle abscess; however, psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous cystitis has not yet been reported. Here, we report a case of bilateral posas muscle abscess following emphysematous cystitis in an 81-year-old nondiabetic man, who was treated successfully with prolonged antibiotic therapy and supportive care. Early recognition of psoas muscle abscess can prevent aggressive interventional procedure and warrant good prognosis. PMID:25755669

  20. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by repetitive activities, such as running. The pressure in a compartment only increases during that activity. Compartment syndrome is most common in the lower leg and forearm. It can also occur in the hand, foot, thigh, and upper arm.

  1. Psoas abscess secondary to Pott's disease--an unusual presentation in a young child.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Atif; Arshad, Muhammad; Ashraf, Omer

    2006-04-01

    Psoas abscess in neonates and infants are rare. Primary psoas abscesses are said to be more common in young children. Limping, fever and abdominal pain has been described to be the way psoas abscesses usually present. The authors describe the unusual presentation and successful treatment of a young child with a unilateral psoas abscess secondary to advanced spondylodiscitis. PMID:16711345

  2. Outcome of percutaneous continuous drainage of psoas abscess: A clinically guided technique

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bharat R; Kurupati, Ranganatha Babu; Shah, Dipak; Degulamadi, Devanand; Borgohain, Nitu; Krishnan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous aspiration of abscesses under ultrasonography (USG) and computer tomography (CT) scan has been well described. With recurrence rate reported as high as 66%. The open drainage and percutaneous continuous drainage (PCD) has reduced the recurrence rate. The disadvantage of PCD under CT is radiation hazard and problems of asepsis. Hence a technique of clinically guided percutaneous continuous drainage of the psoas abscess without real-time imaging overcomes these problems. We describe clinically guided PCD of psoas abscess and its outcome. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with dorsolumbar spondylodiscitis without gross neural deficit with psoas abscess of size >5 cm were selected for PCD. It was done as a day care procedure under local anesthesia. Sequentially, aspiration followed by guide pin-guided trocar and catheter insertion was done without image guidance. Culture sensitivity was done and chemotherapy initiated and catheter kept till the drainage was <10 ml for 48 hours. Outcome assessment was done with relief of pain, successful abscess drainage and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) score at 2 years. Results: PCD was successful in all cases. Back and radicular pain improved in all cases. Average procedure time was 24.30 minutes, drain output was 234.40 ml, and the drainage duration was 7.90 days. One patient required surgical stabilisation due to progression of the spondylodiscitis resulting in instability inspite of successful drainage of abscess. Problems with the procedure were noticed in six patients. Multiple attempts (n = 2), persistent discharge (n = 1) for 2 weeks, blocked catheter (n = 2) and catheter pull out (n = 1) occurred with no effect on the outcome. The average ODI score improved from 62.47 to 5.51 at 2 years. Conclusions: Clinically guided PCD is an efficient, safe and easy procedure in drainage of psoas abscess. PMID:24600066

  3. An Easily Overlooked Presentation of Malignant Psoas Abscess: Hip Pain

    PubMed Central

    Askin, Ayhan; Bayram, Korhan Baris; Demirdal, Umit Secil; Korkmaz, Merve Bergin; Gurgan, Alev Demirbilek; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Psoas abscess is a rare infectious disease with nonspecific clinical presentation that frequently causes a diagnostic difficulty. Its insidious onset and occult characteristics can cause diagnostic delays. It is classified as primary or secondary. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly causative pathogen in primary psoas abscess. Secondary psoas abscess usually occurs as a result of underlying diseases. A high index of clinical suspicion, the past and recent history of the patient, and imaging studies can be helpful in diagnosing the disease. The delay of the treatment is related with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, 54-year-old patient with severe hip pain having an abscess in the psoas muscle due to metastatic cervical carcinoma is presented. PMID:25685574

  4. Primary pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Wu, T L; Huang, C H; Hwang, D Y; Lai, J H; Su, R Y

    1998-01-01

    During a six-year period, eleven persons with primary pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle were treated at the Mackay Memorial Hospital. Five were males and six were females and their average age was 47.2 years (range 6-83 years). The abscess was identified by CT in 7 patients, MRI in 2 and ultrasonography in 1. One abscess was found during laparotomy. Treatment included extraperitoneal drainage of the abscess in 7 patients and CT guided aspiration in 3. One patient improved after antibiotic therapy and they all recovered after treatment. The diagnosis of primary pyogenic abscess requires a high index of suspicion and the best treatment is early operative drainage and administration of systemic antibiotics. PMID:9549580

  5. [Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].

    PubMed

    Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

    2010-06-01

    Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics. PMID:20544129

  6. Unusual presentation of psoas abscess in a child.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, O; Cohen, Z; Barki, Y; Mares, A J

    2001-12-01

    Primary abscess of the psoas muscle is relatively rare in infants and young children. The clinical presentation of the disease, with limping, fever, and abdominal pain, may be confused with conditions such as septic arthritis of the hip, osteomyelitis, or appendicitis. The authors present an unusual case of a ruptured left psoas abscess presenting as generalized peritonitis in a child. J Pediatr Surg 36:1859-1860. PMID:11733925

  7. Differentiation of psoas muscle abscess from septic arthritis of the hip in children.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Letts, M; Monson, R

    2001-10-01

    A 20-year review was conducted of children presenting with psoas abscess at two major pediatric hospitals. Eleven children with psoas abscesses were identified. The extreme variability in the clinical presentation of this condition is shown. Psoas abscess was most difficult to differentiate from septic arthritis of the hip in pediatric patients. This study also shows the often circuitous investigative route traversed before arriving at the diagnosis of psoas abscess. Atypical features, such as femoral nerve neurapraxia or bladder irritability in association with hip pain, should alert the clinician to consider psoas abscess. Based on this study, a diagnostic algorithm to differentiate between psoas abscess and septic hip was formulated. PMID:11603678

  8. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobe MT. Compartment syndromes and Volkmann contracture. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. ... and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  9. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  10. Psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong

    2014-01-01

    Psoas abscesses are classified into primary or secondary according to infectious etiology. However, the psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection is very rare. Here we report a case of psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection in a young woman. The disease was treated successfully. A literature review of psoas abscess in relation to its etiology, identification, and difficulties in the treatment is also presented. PMID:25356161

  11. Pyogenic psoas abscess: analysis of 27 cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, M F; Lau, Y J; Hu, B S; Shi, Z Y; Lin, Y H

    1999-12-01

    From 1993 to 1998, 29 pyogenic psoas abscesses occurring in 27 patients were seen in Taichung Veterans General Hospital. Their age range was 25 to 85 years. Diabetes mellitus was the leading underlying disease. Fever and pain in the flank area, back and hip were the usual manifestations. The duration of symptoms prior to the diagnosis ranged from 3 days to 6 months. Most abscesses were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) images and proven by abscess cultures, which were divided into primary and secondary types. Eighteen of 29 abscesses were regarded as primary. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen in the primary abscesses, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, viridans streptococci, S. epidermidis, and Salmonella spp.. In the secondary abscess category, E. coli was the leading organism in this series, followed by S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, viridans streptococci and Candida albicans. The associated conditions included epidural abscess, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, perirenal abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis, empyema, hydronephrosis and trauma history. The initial empiric therapy comprised mostly of cefazolin or oxacillin with or without an aminoglycoside. Thirteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage, while six received surgical debridement, including two with a recurrent abscess. One patient had both drainage and debridement. Others received medical treatment only. Two of the patients with primary abscess died in spite of percutaneous drainage. Therefore, open drainage, besides appropriate antibiotic treatment, is still required to control complex abscesses with sepsis. PMID:10650491

  12. Solitary Psoas Muscle Metastasis of Gastroesphageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Payam; Yaghobi Joybari, Ali; Sarbaz, Samaneh; Ghiasi, Hosein Ali; Farasatinasab, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of gastroesphageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma in skeletal muscle is rare and primary sites for skeletal muscle metastases are usually lung, renal and colorectal cancer. We have encountered with the first case report of solitary psoas muscle metastasis of GEJ adenocarcinoma. Here we describe a 65 years old man was diagnosed with GEJ adenocarcinoma in Gastroenterology Department, Imam Hussein Hospital, Tehran, Iran in February 2014. We were not able to use PET techniques due to lack of access. Staging CT scans demonstrated a small mass lateral to right psoas muscle. A CT-guided core needle biopsy of right psoas muscle was performed that supported a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma consistent with primary adenocarcinoma of the GEJ. Distant metastasis to skeletal muscle rarely occurs in patients with GEJ adenocarcinoma, but heightened awareness to these soft tissue lesions is warranted. CT or MR imaging could show findings suggestive of metastatic disease, although PET is preferable modality. PMID:26870148

  13. Bilateral psoas abscess: atypical presentation of spinal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Goni, Vijay; Thapa, Babu Ram; Vyas, Sameer; Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Rajan Manoharan, Sakthivel; Krishnan, Vibhu

    2012-04-01

    Three patients who came to the surgical outpatient department of 'Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research', Chandigarh, India with features suggestive of acute abdomen are presented. On thorough evaluation, they had bilateral psoas abscess and on detailed investigations, tuberculosis was found to be the etiological factor. They were treated conservatively with good follow-up results. Psoas abscess may be clinically difficult to diagnose because of its rarity, insidious onset of the disease, and non-specific clinical presentation which can cause diagnostic delays resulting in high morbidity. Early diagnosis and appropriate management remains a challenge for clinicians. All three patients presented here have recovered following detailed investigation and appropriate management. The diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis should be considered in patients with vertebral osteomyelitis, psoas abscess, and appropriate risk factors such as a history of previous exposure in both developed and developing countries, as tuberculosis is re-emerging as an important etiological factor in spinal pathologies. PMID:22424047

  14. Eggerthella lenta Bacteremia Complicated by Spondylodiscitis, Psoas Abscess, and Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Korman, T. M.; Junckerstorff, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Eggerthella lenta bacteremia is uncommon and generally associated with abdominal sepsis. The organism and its clinical significance have not been well characterized due to historical difficulties with identification. We report a case of severe infection in a paraplegic man complicated by psoas abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis and discuss treatment challenges. PMID:24430458

  15. Psoas tunnel perforation-an unreported complication of hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Degen, Ryan M; O'Sullivan, Eilish; Sink, Ernest L; Kelly, Bryan T

    2015-10-01

    The utilization of hip arthroscopy is rapidly increasing due to improved arthroscopic techniques and training, better recognition of pathology responsible for non-arthritic hip pain and an increasing desire for minimally invasive procedures. With increasing rates of arthroscopy, associated complications are also being recognized. We present a series of six patients who experienced psoas tunnel perforation during anchor insertion from the distal anterolateral portal during labral repair. All patients underwent prior hip arthroscopy and labral repair and presented with persistent symptoms at least partly attributable to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented psoas tunnel perforation. Their clinical records, operative notes and intra-operative photographs were reviewed. All patients presented with persistent pain, both with an anterior impingement test and resisted hip flexion. MRI imaging demonstrated medial cortical perforation with anchors visualized in the psoas tunnel, adjacent to the iliopsoas muscle. Four patients have undergone revision hip arthroscopy, whereas two have undergone periacetabular osteotomies. All patients had prominent anchors in the psoas tunnel removed at the time of surgery, with varying degrees of concomitant pathology appropriately treated during the revision procedure. Care must be utilized during medial anchor placement to avoid psoas tunnel perforation. Although this complication alone was not the sole cause for revision in each case, it may have contributed to their poor outcome and should be avoided in future cases. This can be accomplished by using a smaller anchor, inserting the anchor from the mid-anterior portal and checking the drill hole with a nitinol wire prior to anchor insertion. PMID:27011849

  16. Psoas tunnel perforation—an unreported complication of hip arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Ryan M.; O’Sullivan, Eilish; Sink, Ernest L.; Kelly, Bryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of hip arthroscopy is rapidly increasing due to improved arthroscopic techniques and training, better recognition of pathology responsible for non-arthritic hip pain and an increasing desire for minimally invasive procedures. With increasing rates of arthroscopy, associated complications are also being recognized. We present a series of six patients who experienced psoas tunnel perforation during anchor insertion from the distal anterolateral portal during labral repair. All patients underwent prior hip arthroscopy and labral repair and presented with persistent symptoms at least partly attributable to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented psoas tunnel perforation. Their clinical records, operative notes and intra-operative photographs were reviewed. All patients presented with persistent pain, both with an anterior impingement test and resisted hip flexion. MRI imaging demonstrated medial cortical perforation with anchors visualized in the psoas tunnel, adjacent to the iliopsoas muscle. Four patients have undergone revision hip arthroscopy, whereas two have undergone periacetabular osteotomies. All patients had prominent anchors in the psoas tunnel removed at the time of surgery, with varying degrees of concomitant pathology appropriately treated during the revision procedure. Care must be utilized during medial anchor placement to avoid psoas tunnel perforation. Although this complication alone was not the sole cause for revision in each case, it may have contributed to their poor outcome and should be avoided in future cases. This can be accomplished by using a smaller anchor, inserting the anchor from the mid-anterior portal and checking the drill hole with a nitinol wire prior to anchor insertion. PMID:27011849

  17. Differentiation of posterior pararenal space infection from psoas abscess by gallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Mishkin, F.; Delgado, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three of four patients whose cases fit the clinical description of psoas abscess proved on gallium imaging to have infection in the posterior pararenal space sparing the psoas muscle. This space provides a route for spread of infection connecting the spine, the anterior abdominal wall, the scrotum, the anterior thigh, and the gluteal region as demonstrated by the cases presented. Clinical differentiation between posterior pararenal space infection and psoas abscesses is difficult and CT studies may not demonstrate the process when the psoas space is not involved.

  18. Conservative management of psoas haematoma following complex lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lakkol, Sandesh; Sarda, Praveen; Karpe, Prasad; Krishna, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    We report psoas hematoma communicating with extradural hematoma and compressing on lumbar nerve roots during the postoperative period in a patient who underwent L3/4 level dynamic stabilization and L4/5 and L5/S1 posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Persistent radicular symptoms occurring soon after posterior lumbar surgery are not an unknown entity. However, psoas hematoma communicating with the extradural hematoma and compressing on L4 and L5 nerve roots soon after surgery, leading to radicular symptoms has not been reported. In addition to the conservative approach in managing such cases, this case report also emphasizes the importance of clinical evaluation and utilization of necessary imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to diagnose the cause of persistent severe radicular pain in the postoperative period. PMID:24600073

  19. [Psoas abscess and lumbar spine osteomyelitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana M; Schmalbach, Lauwence A

    2016-10-01

    Psoas abscess is a common disease in children. It can have a nonspecific clinical presentation, insidious onset and sometimes fever. The most common type in children is the primary one; however, it can sometimes be of secondary origin and associated with severe infections such as osteomyelitis so a high index of suspicion is required to detect and treat it promptly. We present an unusual case of psoas abscess with infiltration of the vertebral body of L2 in a 14 year old male patient previously healthy with no history of trauma or fever on admission. X-ray and ultrasound were performed but the diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. With positive blood cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus he completed 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy and 4 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy with blood cultures negativization and resolution of symptoms. PMID:27606657

  20. Psoas abscess diagnosed at a Northern university hospital.

    PubMed

    Maagaard, Anne; Oktedalen, Olav

    2002-01-01

    Abscess of the psoas muscle is an infrequent diagnosis at hospitals in Northern countries. We report on 16 patients who had this diagnosis during the period 1991-2001. Eight patients were immigrants who had previously been healthy and most of them had experienced symptoms for approximately 1 y. MRI or CT scans revealed spondylodiscitis in 6 of these patients and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified as the causative agent. With the exception of 1 patient who was exclusively treated with antituberculous agents, all 8 immigrant patients were successfully treated with antituberculous agents in addition to percutaneous drainage. The other 8 patients were Norwegians, 4 of whom had underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus or drug abuse. The causative microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus spp., with the exception of M. tuberculosis in 1 case. The Norwegian patients had a more acute history of symptoms than the immigrant patients and 2 of them were in a septic condition on admittance. Two of the Norwegians died of serious infection; 5 were successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in addition to antibiotics and 1 was treated exclusively with antibiotic agents. The clinical history and microorganism associated with psoas abscess seemed to depend on whether or not the patient was an immigrant. Owing to increasing immigration, diagnosis of psoas abscess should be taken into account in Northern countries. PMID:12578159

  1. Ilio-psoas abscesses: percutaneous drainage under image guidance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Suri, S; Gulati, M; Singh, P

    1997-09-01

    Over a 5-year period, 56 psoas abscesses occurring in 51 patients were managed by image-guided percutaneous drainage, either by needle aspiration (n = 10) or by catheter drainage (n = 46) in conjunction with medical therapy. Twenty-seven patients had tuberculous abscesses (bilateral in five) while 24 patients had pyogenic abscesses. Percutaneous treatment was successful in 16 of the 24 patients (66.7%) with pyogenic abscesses. The reasons for failure were co-existent bowel lesions, phlegmonous involvement of muscle without liquefaction, multiloculated abscess cavity and thick tenacious pus not amenable to percutaneous drainage. Surgery was required in seven patients, either for failed percutaneous drainage or for the management of co-existent disease. Percutaneous drainage was initially successful in all 27 patients of tuberculous psoas abscesses. However, eight patients presented with recurrence requiring repeat intervention. The average duration of catheter drainage was longer in patients with tuberculous abscess (11 days) than in patients with pyogenic abscess (6 days). Percutaneous drainage under image guidance provides an effective and safe alternative to more invasive surgical drainage in most patients with psoas abscesses. PMID:9313737

  2. Rectal drainage: unusual evolution of a psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, V; Gutierrez, C; Barrios, J E; Lluna, J; Fernandez, M S; Lopez, A; Vila, J J; Roca, A; Garcia-Sala, C

    1998-04-01

    We report two cases of primary psoas abscess in two patients of 15 months and 4 years of age. As the first case showed the natural history of this process the second one was large enough to produce a huge ureterohydronephrosis and to drain through the rectal wall to the rectum spontaneously, although this natural way did not achieve complete drainage. Both were treated by open drainage and systemic antibiotics with good response. They were discharged at the 7th and 12th postoperative day. 5 months later no complication has come up. Etiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this unusual pathology are reviewed. PMID:9617614

  3. Infected retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma masquerading as psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Akshay; Tiwari, Awadhesh; Sah, Birendra Prasad; Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Shakya, Vikal Chandra; Niels, Koopmans G

    2008-01-01

    A 2-year-old male is described who presented with fever, fixed flexion deformity of the right hip and a tender mass in the right iliac fossa. A clinical diagnosis of psoas abscess was made. Abdominal ultrasound was suggestive of an echogenic retroperitoneal cyst but could not accurately determine the nature of the cyst. A contrast CT scan showed a retroperitoneal cyst. At laparotomy, a large retroperitoneal cyst containing turbid fluid was found and was excised completely. Histopathological examination was suggestive of cystic lymphangioma. Clinical presentation of retroperitoneal lymphangioma may be variable and misleading, therefore complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. PMID:18480641

  4. Unusual Presentation of Recurrent Pyogenic Bilateral Psoas Abscess Causing Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism by Iliac Vein Compression

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Mohsin; Sakam, Sailaja; Ashraf, Umair; Marquez, Jose Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Bilateral psoas abscess • acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis • bilateral pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Progressive left leg swelling • productive cough with whitish sputum • right flank pain Medication: Antibiotics and anticoagulation Clinical Procedure: CT-guided percutaneous drain placement Specialty: Internal Medicine/Critical Care Objective: Unusual presentation Background: Psoas abscesses are a known cause of back pain, but they have not been reported as a cause of acute lower extremity thromboses and bilateral pulmonary emboli. We report a patient with bilateral psoas abscesses causing extensive pulmonary emboli through compression of the iliac vein. Case Report: A 47-year-old man presented with bilateral leg swelling over 4 weeks. Physical examination revealed a thin male with bilateral leg swelling, extending to the thigh on his left side. He had hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl, leukocytosis of 16 000/ml, and an elevated D-dimer. A computed tomography (CT) angiogram of his chest showed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli and infarcts. He remained febrile with vague flank pain, prompting a CT of his abdomen and pelvis that showed large, multiloculated, septated, bilateral psoas abscesses with compression of the left femoral vein by the left psoas abscess and a thrombus distal to the occlusion. Two liters of pus was drained from the left psoas abscess by CT-guidance, and although the Gram staining showed Gram-positive cocci in clusters, cultures from the abscess and blood were negative. A repeat CT showed resolution of the abscesses, and the drain was removed. He was discharged to a nursing home to complete a course of intravenous antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusions: Although the infectious complications of psoas abscesses have been described in the literature, the mechanical complications of bilateral psoas abscesses are lacking. It is important to assess for complete resolution of psoas abscesses through

  5. G Protein Beta 5 Is Targeted to D2-Dopamine Receptor-Containing Biochemical Compartments and Blocks Dopamine-Dependent Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Octeau, J. Christopher; Schrader, Joseph M.; Masuho, Ikuo; Sharma, Meenakshi; Aiudi, Christopher; Chen, Ching-Kang; Kovoor, Abraham; Celver, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    G beta 5 (Gbeta5, Gβ5) is a unique G protein β subunit that is thought to be expressed as an obligate heterodimer with R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins instead of with G gamma (Gγ) subunits. We found that D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) coexpression enhances the expression of Gβ5, but not that of the G beta 1 (Gβ1) subunit, in HEK293 cells, and that the enhancement of expression occurs through a stabilization of Gβ5 protein. We had previously demonstrated that the vast majority of D2R either expressed endogenously in the brain or exogenously in cell lines segregates into detergent-resistant biochemical fractions. We report that when expressed alone in HEK293 cells, Gβ5 is highly soluble, but is retargeted to the detergent-resistant fraction after D2R coexpression. Furthermore, an in-cell biotin transfer proximity assay indicated that D2R and Gβ5 segregating into the detergent-resistant fraction specifically interacted in intact living cell membranes. Dopamine-induced D2R internalization was blocked by coexpression of Gβ5, but not Gβ1. However, the same Gβ5 coexpression levels had no effect on agonist-induced internalization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), cell surface D2R levels, dopamine-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin to D2R, the amplitude of D2R-G protein coupling, or the deactivation kinetics of D2R-activated G protein signals. The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and Gβ5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. PMID:25162404

  6. G protein beta 5 is targeted to D2-dopamine receptor-containing biochemical compartments and blocks dopamine-dependent receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Octeau, J Christopher; Schrader, Joseph M; Masuho, Ikuo; Sharma, Meenakshi; Aiudi, Christopher; Chen, Ching-Kang; Kovoor, Abraham; Celver, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    G beta 5 (Gbeta5, Gβ5) is a unique G protein β subunit that is thought to be expressed as an obligate heterodimer with R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins instead of with G gamma (Gγ) subunits. We found that D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) coexpression enhances the expression of Gβ5, but not that of the G beta 1 (Gβ1) subunit, in HEK293 cells, and that the enhancement of expression occurs through a stabilization of Gβ5 protein. We had previously demonstrated that the vast majority of D2R either expressed endogenously in the brain or exogenously in cell lines segregates into detergent-resistant biochemical fractions. We report that when expressed alone in HEK293 cells, Gβ5 is highly soluble, but is retargeted to the detergent-resistant fraction after D2R coexpression. Furthermore, an in-cell biotin transfer proximity assay indicated that D2R and Gβ5 segregating into the detergent-resistant fraction specifically interacted in intact living cell membranes. Dopamine-induced D2R internalization was blocked by coexpression of Gβ5, but not Gβ1. However, the same Gβ5 coexpression levels had no effect on agonist-induced internalization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), cell surface D2R levels, dopamine-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin to D2R, the amplitude of D2R-G protein coupling, or the deactivation kinetics of D2R-activated G protein signals. The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and Gβ5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. PMID:25162404

  7. Robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap and psoas hitch: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Yang, Christopher; Jones, Loren; Rivera, Marcelino E; Verlee, Graham T; Deane, Leslie A

    2011-11-01

    Robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantations were performed on 3 patients at a single institution, 2 with Boari flap and psoas hitch and 1 with psoas hitch alone. These were for urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter, ureteral obstruction caused by distal ureteral endometriosis, and ureteral transaction during gynecologic surgery. We used intraoperative ureteroscopy to confirm tumor margins as well as a simple technique for retrograde placement of transvesicle wire prior to ureteral anastomosis. Surgery and recovery were uneventful. This illustrates that robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap and psoas hitch is a safe and viable approach for ureterovesicle reconstruction. PMID:21859340

  8. Psoas abscess complicated by vesical fistula in a child managed by non-surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Gaurav; Al-Omar, Osama; McLorie, Gordon A

    2005-08-01

    We report an unusual case of a 2-year-old child with a psoas abscess fistulizing to the bladder, managed by non-surgical therapy including urethral catheter drainage, percutaneous abscess drainage and intravenous antibiotics. PMID:18947559

  9. Neonatal Ilio-Psoas Abscess: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dasmit

    2014-01-01

    Ilio-psoas abscess (IPA) is rare in children and exceptional in the neonate. However, we recently managed two consecutive male neonates with right-sided IPA. The first baby was born two days after rupture of the membranes and had thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid. There was no such high risk factor in the second child. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography in both the patients. Extraperitoneal surgical drainage was done and systemic antibiotics were given. Delay in presentation and uncontrolled sepsis, led to mortality in the first case. On the contrary, relatively early presentation, prompt drainage of the abscess and good response to higher antibiotics, lead to successful salvage of the second baby. PMID:26023475

  10. Neonatal ilio-psoas abscess: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sham, Minakshi; Singh, Dasmit

    2014-01-01

    Ilio-psoas abscess (IPA) is rare in children and exceptional in the neonate. However, we recently managed two consecutive male neonates with right-sided IPA. The first baby was born two days after rupture of the membranes and had thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid. There was no such high risk factor in the second child. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography in both the patients. Extraperitoneal surgical drainage was done and systemic antibiotics were given. Delay in presentation and uncontrolled sepsis, led to mortality in the first case. On the contrary, relatively early presentation, prompt drainage of the abscess and good response to higher antibiotics, lead to successful salvage of the second baby. PMID:26023475

  11. Mycotic Abdominal Pseudoaneurysm due to Psoas Abscess after Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Sam Youn; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old man, who had undergone thoracoscopic anterior spinal fusion using the plate system and posterior screw fusion three months previously, presented to our hospital with left flank pain and fever. Computed tomography indicated the presence of a psoas muscle abscess. However, after two days of percutaneous catheter drainage, a mycotic abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm was detected via computed tomography. We performed in situ revascularization using a prosthetic graft with omental wrapping. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified on blood and pus culture, and systemic vancomycin was administered for one month. Although the abscess recurred, it was successfully treated with percutaneous catheter drainage and systemic vancomycin administration for three months, without the need for instrumentation removal. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout two years of follow-up. PMID:26665118

  12. [Primary psoas abscess in a child. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Gilio, A E; Pahl, M M; Barbosa, R B; Henriques, C L; Ejzenberg, B; Okay, Y

    1997-01-01

    Primary psoas abscess is an uncommon disease. In children, clinical manifestations is often inspecific leading to diagnostic delay. The authors relate a primary pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle in a 7-year-old girl with secondary septic arthritis of the hip. Confirmation of diagnosis was established by computerized tomography (CT) of the abdominal and pelvic areas. A review of the literature is presented about clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, etiology, diagnostic and therapeutic management of this infrequent entity. PMID:9595782

  13. Primary ilio-psoas abscess extending to the thigh in a neonate: US, CT and MR findings.

    PubMed

    Prassopoulos, P K; Giannakopoulou, C A; Apostolaki, E G; Charoulakis, N Z; Gourtsoyiannis, N C

    1998-08-01

    Psoas abscess in children, and especially in neonates, is an uncommon condition which is difficult to diagnose clinically. The US, CT and MR findings of a psoas abscess in a neonate, which extended to the thigh, are reported. Imaging was helpful in revealing the abnormality, in demonstrating its extension and in determining its nature. The child was treated conservatively and the abscess resolved, leaving atrophy of the psoas muscle. PMID:9716633

  14. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  15. Compartment Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Hayes, Christopher B

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome in children can present differently than adults. Increased analgesic need should be considered the first sign of evolving compartment syndrome in children. Children with supracondylar humerus fractures, floating elbow injuries, operatively treated forearm fractures, and tibia fractures are at high risk for developing compartment syndrome. Elbow flexion beyond 90° in supracondylar humerus fractures and closed treatment of forearm fractures in floating elbow injuries are associated with increased risk of compartment syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with fasciotomy in children result in excellent long-term outcomes. PMID:27241380

  16. Retroperitoneal metastatic germ cell tumor presenting as a psoas abscess: a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Dieker, Carrie A; De Las Casas, Luis E; Davis, Brian R

    2013-07-01

    Most testicular neoplasms are germ cell tumors, the vast majority of which represent seminomas. Most seminomas present localized to the testis, whereas nonseminomatous germ cell tumors more often present with lymph node metastases. Psoas abscesses generally arise from a contiguous intra-abdominal or pelvic infectious process, an adjacent focus of osteomyelitis or septic emboli from distant infectious foci. In this study, the case of a 24-year-old man who presented with a right psoas mass presumptively diagnosed as an abscess secondary to fever and leukocytosis is presented. The patient had a history of right testicular seminoma, and normal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin. Surgical exploration and biopsy demonstrated seminoma metastasis. This case represents an extremely unusual clinical presentation of metastatic germ cell tumor presenting as a psoas abscess. This unique case represents an unusual presentation of a recurrent germ cell tumor mimicking a psoas abscess. Awareness of possible metastatic testicular germ cell neoplasm as a psoas abscess could prevent diagnosis delay before retroperitoneal tumor debulking. PMID:23360792

  17. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... OCR compartment. (4) Structural failure or deformation of components that could block access to the..., mechanical or structural failure, or persons standing below or against the crew rest compartment outlets....

  18. Successful medical management of multifocal psoas abscess following cesarean section: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Saylam, K; Anaf, V; Kirkpatrick, C

    2002-05-10

    The psoas abscess is a rare complication in obstetric and gynaecology. Two types of psoas abscess are recognized. The primary psoas abscess is generally following haematogenous dissemination of an infectious agent and the source is usually occult. The most frequently isolated pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, the secondary abscess is the result of local extension of an infectious process near the psoas muscle. We report the case of a patient who develops a bacteremia from an infected cesarean section wound. The complications were thigh and psoas abscesses with left sacroiliitis. Medical management with prolonged antibiotherapy permit clinical, biological and radiological improvement. Although it required a long hospital stay, medical treatment alone was effective. More experience is required to determine which therapeutic option: medical treatment and/or surgery, is the best choice for this type of complication. PMID:11950495

  19. Psoas Major: a case report and review of its anatomy, biomechanics, and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Sajko, Sandy; Stuber, Kent

    2009-01-01

    A 25-year-old male professional hockey player with right sided hip pain was diagnosed with myofascopathy of the right psoas major and rectus femoris. The patient maintained a conservative treatment regimen and was prescribed a four week active strengthening program. The program progressed from resisted concentric exercise to eccentric abduction/adduction exercises along with balance training, core stabilizing and endurance exercises in the first two weeks. In the final two weeks the program progressed to include sport specific exercises. At three weeks the patient was able to participate in non-contact practice and was clear for full contact at five weeks. The anatomy, biomechanics, and function of the psoas major muscle are discussed as is its influence on lumbar spine stability. Evidence-based evaluation and management strategies for psoas dysfunction are presented. PMID:20037696

  20. An unusual presentation of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: psoas abscess with reno-colic fistula.

    PubMed

    Ghoz, Hassan M; Williams, Martin; Perepletchikov, Aleksandr; James, Nicholas; Babeir, Abdulrahman A

    2016-07-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare histological subset of pyelonephritis characterized by being a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation of the renal parenchyma. XGP is classified according to the extent of disease into two entities: within the renal cortex (focal or segmental XGP) or diffuse spread with pelvic communication (diffuse XGP). Although rare, XGP can have fatal complications including perinephric, psoas abscess, nephro-cutaneous fistula and reno-colic fistula. Only few studies have reported XGP complicated with psaos abcess and reno-colic fistula. Our aim is to add to the literature and share our experience with a case of extensive XGP eroding into the psoas muscle and ascending colon leading to severe sepsis that was successfully managed. We report a 56-year-old woman who was found to have XGP complicated by psoas abscess and reno-colic fistula managed by antibiotics, nephrostomy, and subsequent nephrectomy and partial colectomy. PMID:27471599

  1. An unusual presentation of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: psoas abscess with reno-colic fistula

    PubMed Central

    Ghoz, Hassan M.; Williams, Martin; Perepletchikov, Aleksandr; James, Nicholas; Babeir, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare histological subset of pyelonephritis characterized by being a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation of the renal parenchyma. XGP is classified according to the extent of disease into two entities: within the renal cortex (focal or segmental XGP) or diffuse spread with pelvic communication (diffuse XGP). Although rare, XGP can have fatal complications including perinephric, psoas abscess, nephro-cutaneous fistula and reno-colic fistula. Only few studies have reported XGP complicated with psaos abcess and reno-colic fistula. Our aim is to add to the literature and share our experience with a case of extensive XGP eroding into the psoas muscle and ascending colon leading to severe sepsis that was successfully managed. We report a 56-year-old woman who was found to have XGP complicated by psoas abscess and reno-colic fistula managed by antibiotics, nephrostomy, and subsequent nephrectomy and partial colectomy. PMID:27471599

  2. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  3. [Primitive psoas abscess in children; diagnostic difficulties and non surgical treatment: apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Doumbouya, N; N'Goan-Domoua, A M; Aguehounde, C; De Silva-Anoma, S; Roux, C

    1998-01-01

    From an analysis of two files of children carriers of primitive psoas abscess, the authors report the difficulties of diagnosis due to the rarity of this affection and the similarities of its symptomatology with ostearthritis of the hip which is a common pathology at the pediatric surgery unit of C.H.U. Yopougon (Republic of Côte d'Ivoire). A non surgical treatment made of antibiotherapy and traction fixed in the axis of the limb is proposed, since it helped the two patients who had presented an echographical stage II of psoas abcess to recover without after-effects. PMID:9642471

  4. [The voluminous primitive psoas abscess in children: report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Rantomalala, H Y H; Rakotoarisoa, A J C; Rakotoarisoa, B; Andriamanarivo, M L; Rakototiana, A; Kapisy, J F

    2005-01-01

    The primitive psoas abscess is a pathology extremely rare in the child. The diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. Their treatment requires a local and general sterilization of the infection. We report three observations of primary abscess of the psoas in the child. The clinic presentation is uncommon. Ultrasonography keeps an important place. The biology objective an infectious and inflammatory syndrome. Histology permits to put in evidence all shapes association of lesions. The bacteriological survey of the pus after drainage is only positive in one case. Surgical drainage with bactericidal antibiotherapy permit a definitive recovery. PMID:15653066

  5. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. PMID:27013413

  6. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    George, Christopher A; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2012-04-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively common, but often overlooked cause of leg pain in athletes. A careful history and physical examination is essential in the diagnosis of CECS. Affected individuals have recurrent, activity-related leg pain that recurs at a consistent duration or intensity and is only relieved by rest. Measurement of baseline and postexercise compartment pressures confirms the diagnosis and helps in the planning of treatment. Surgical treatment with fasciotomy of the involved compartments is successful in allowing patients to return to full activity levels. With surgical treatment, it is critical to address all affected compartments as well as releasing any fascial defects, both of which may cause recurrent symptoms if neglected. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment, excellent outcomes can be achieved and allow athletes to return to full, unrestricted activity levels. PMID:22341019

  7. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  8. The Effects of Psoas Major and Lumbar Lordosis on Hip Flexion and Sprint Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were…

  9. Streptobacillus moniliformis as the Causative Agent in Spondylodiscitis and Psoas Abscess after Rooster Scratches▿

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Damien; Robin, Frédéric; Bouvier, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Bonnet, Richard; Lesens, Olivier; Hennequin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Streptobacillus moniliformis spondylodiscitis accompanied by a psoas abscess in an 80-year-old man scratched by a rooster. S. moniliformis was identified from abscess fluid by use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. After 18 weeks of antimicrobial therapy, the clinical condition of the patient improved. PMID:18562588

  10. Is there a relationship between psoas impingement and increased trochanteric retroversion?

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Hoyos, Juan; Schröder, Ricardo; Reddy, Manoj; Palmer, Ian J.; Khoury, Anthony; Martin, Hal David

    2015-01-01

    The concept of psoas impingement secondary to a tight or inflamed iliopsoas tendon causing impingement of the anterior labrum during hip extension has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the lesser trochanteric version (LTV) in symptomatic patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips. The femoral neck version (FNV) and LTV were evaluated on axial magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the angle between LTV and FNV. Data from 12 symptomatic patients and 250 asymptomatic patients were analysed. The mean, range and standard deviations were calculated. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups. The lesser trochanteric retroversion was significantly increased in patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips (−31.1° SD ± 6.5 versus −24.2° ± 11.5, P < 0.05). The FNV (9° ± 8.8 versus 14.1° ± 10.7, P > 0.05) and the angle between FNV and LTV (40.2° ± 9.7 versus 38.3° ± 9.6, P > 0.05) were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, the lesser trochanteric retroversion is significantly increased in patients with psoas impingement as compared with asymptomatic hips. PMID:27011834

  11. Streptobacillus moniliformis as the causative agent in spondylodiscitis and psoas abscess after rooster scratches.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Damien; Robin, Frédéric; Bouvier, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Bonnet, Richard; Lesens, Olivier; Hennequin, Claire

    2008-08-01

    We report a case of Streptobacillus moniliformis spondylodiscitis accompanied by a psoas abscess in an 80-year-old man scratched by a rooster. S. moniliformis was identified from abscess fluid by use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. After 18 weeks of antimicrobial therapy, the clinical condition of the patient improved. PMID:18562588

  12. Bilateral Psoas Abscess and Extensive Soft Tissue Involvement Due to Late Presentation of Pott's Disease of the Spine.

    PubMed

    Elnaim, Abdel Latif K

    2011-04-01

    Pott's disease of the spine with psoas abscess is currently rare form of Extra- pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the developed countries, however it is still seen in areas where TB is endemic. We describe a rare case if not the first (according to our knowledge) of bilateral ruptured psoas abscess with extensive tissue necrosis and pelvic organs exposure with limited neurological deficit presented late in young girl. In this case Pott's disease was associated with extensive tissue necrosis exposing pubic bones, urinary bladder and psoas muscle. PMID:22468071

  13. Spacecraft Compartment Venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1998-01-01

    At various time concerns have been expressed that rapid decompressions of compartments of gas pockets and thermal blankets during spacecraft launches may have caused pressure differentials across their walls sufficient to cause minor structural failures, separations of adhesively-joined parts, ballooning, and flapping of blankets. This paper presents a close form equation expressing the expected pressure differentials across the walls of a compartment as a function of the external to the volume pressure drops, the pressure at which the rates occur and the vent capability of the compartment. The pressure profiles measured inside the shrouds of several spacecraft propelled by several vehicles and some profiles obtained from ground vacuum systems have been included. The equation can be used to design the appropriate vent, which will preclude excessive pressure differentials. Precautions and needed approaches for the evaluations of the expected pressures have been indicated. Methods to make a rapid assessment of the response of the compartment to rapid external pressure drops have been discussed. These are based on the evaluation of the compartment vent flow conductance, the volume and the length of time during which the rapid pressure drop occurs.

  14. The Crew Compartment Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-93 crew emergency egress training in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The five crewmembers of STS-93 in the middeck mock-up are from left to right: Mission Specialist Michel Tognini, Mission Specialist Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, Pilot Jeffrey Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins and Mission Specialist Stephen Hawley.

  15. [Chronic exertional compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rom, Eyal; Tenenbaum, Shay; Chechick, Ofir; Burstein, Gideon; Amit, Yehuda; Thein, Ran

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon first reported in the mid 50's. This condition is characterized by sharp pain during physical activity, causing reduction in activity frequency or intensity and even abstention. This syndrome is caused by elevation of the intra-compartmental pressure which leads to decreased tissue perfusion, thus ischemic damage to the tissue ensues. Chronic exertional syndrome is usually related to repetitive physical activity, usually in young people and athletes. The physical activity performed by the patient causes a rise in intra-compartmental pressure and thereby causes pain. The patient discontinues the activity and the pain subsides within minutes of rest. Chronic exertional syndrome is reported to occur in the thigh, shoulder, arm, hand, foot and gluteal region, but most commonly in the leg, especially the anterior compartment. The diagnosis of chronic exertional syndrome is primarily based on patients' medical history, supported by intramuscular pressure measurement of the specific compartment involved. Treatment of chronic exertional syndrome, especially the anterior and lateral compartment of the leg is mainly by surgery i.e. fasciotomy. If the patient is reluctant to undergo a surgical procedure, the conservative treatment is based on abstention from the offending activity, changing footwear or using arch support. However, the conservative approach is not as successful as surgical treatment. PMID:24450036

  16. Sulphydryl reagents trigger Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skinned rabbit psoas fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Salama, G; Abramson, J J; Pike, G K

    1992-01-01

    1. By analogy with studies on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, Ca2+ release induced by heavy metals and mercaptans (e.g. cysteine) was investigated in rabbit skinned psoas fibres through measurements of isometric tension. 2. Heavy metals (at 2-5 microM) elicited phasic contractions by triggering Ca2+ release from the SR and had the following order of potency: Hg2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Ag+ > Ni2+. Higher concentrations produced tonic contractions due to maintained high Ca2+ permeability of SR membranes. 3. Contractions induced by heavy metals required a functional and Ca(2+)-loaded SR, were dependent on [Ca2+]free, blocked by Ruthenium Red (RR), inhibited by free Mg2+ and reduced glutathione (GSH) but not by oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Such contractions were not elicited through direct interaction(s) of heavy metals with the myofilaments. 4. In the presence of catalytic concentrations of Hg2+ or Cu2+ (2-5 microM), additions of cysteine (25-100 microM) elicited rapid twitches, producing 70% of maximal force with a time to half-peak of 2 s. Contractions induced by cysteine plus a catalyst required a functional SR network, were dependent on free [Mg2+] and were blocked by RR or GSH but not by GSSG. 5. In the presence of Hg2+ (2-5 microM), low concentrations of cysteine (10 microM) elicited tonic contractures, but subsequent or higher additions of cysteine (50-100 microM) caused further SR Ca2+ release and tension, followed by rapid and full relaxation. 6. High cysteine (200-250 microM, without Cu2+ or Hg2+) blocked contractions elicited by Cl- induced depolarization of sealed T-tubules. High cysteine probably acted as a sulphydryl reducing agent which promoted rapid relaxation of the fibres through the closure of Ca(2+)-release channels and ATP-dependent re-uptake of Ca2+ by the SR. 7. In some batches of skinned fibres (approximately 10%), cysteine (5-50 microM) alone (without Hg2+ or Cu2+ catalyst) produced rapid twitches. This implied that the catalyst(s) necessary

  17. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi

    PubMed Central

    Snoj, Ziga; Savic, Nenad; Regvat, Jaka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention. PMID:26401876

  18. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Ziga; Savic, Nenad; Regvat, Jaka

    2015-01-01

    Kidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention. PMID:26401876

  19. [Treatment of psoas abscess. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Solas Beltrán, A; Velasco Sánchez, B; Lendínez, F; Ramírez Huertas, A; Paredes Esteban, R M

    2002-01-01

    Psoas abscess is an infrequent disease. We present a right psoas abscess diagnosed in a thirteen-year-old child. There wasn't a history of known trauma nor immunodeficiency. We didn't find another infection focus so the abscess was described as primary one. This is the most commonly presentation in children. Staphylococcus aureus was the bacteria identified in blood culture. The presenting symptoms were bottom and hip pain, limp and fever. The differential diagnosis was established with suppurative arthritis of the hip. Diagnosis was confirmed by Magnetic Resonance. In regard to treatment the patient was exclusively treated with systemic antibiotics, high spectrum of activity. The patient didn't require percutaneous-drainage. Though surgical drainage wasn't made, evolution was favourable and recurrence wasn't observed. PMID:12025477

  20. Psoas abscess with associated septic arthritis of the hip in infants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Enbo; Ma, Lili; Edmonds, Eric W; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Lijun; Ji, Shijun

    2010-12-01

    We describe psoas abscess with concomitant septic hip arthritis in 2 infants, 3 and 7 months old. The common clinical features were a palpable mass in the inguinal region, irritable hip, and delayed treatment. The diagnosis of septic hip was delayed in one child, and they both had residual hip deformity at follow-up. It is possible that initial delay in diagnoses resulted in the concurrent pathologic condition because of spread of infection. These 2 cases demonstrate the first known reports of concurrent psoas abscess and septic hip arthritis in infancy. Magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable method to identify these concurrent pathologic conditions. A proposed etiologic mechanism is also discussed in the article. PMID:21129563

  1. Hematoma of the psoas muscle, in prostatic cancer patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Almushayti, Ziyad

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of 64-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with abdominal distension. He underwent abdomen and pelvis ultrasound for assessment of ascites, which showed localized fluid collections identified at the left and right iliac fossa. After that, non enhanced abdomen and pelvis CT scan was performed and showed heterogeneous organized collections identified along the psoas muscles bilaterally, causing focal contour bulge representing haematoma.

  2. Composition of psoas major muscle fibers compared among humans, orangutans, and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tadanao

    2002-03-01

    In primate species the m. psoas major, the only muscle simultaneously controlling the spinal column and lower extremity, is expected to reflect morpho-functional adaptation to diversified locomotor behavior. By using histochemical analysis with Sudan black B staining, composition of different types of muscle fibers in the psoas major was compared between 2 Japanese macaques, 2 hamadryas baboons, 2 anubis baboons, 2 orangutans, and 17 humans. The comparison has revealed unique features of this muscle in humans: 1) Type 1 or red fibers are thicker than Type 2 or white fibers in humans but vice versa in nonhumans; 2) among the species examined the number of the muscle fibers per unit cross-sectional area is largest, implying the fibers are thinnest, in humans; 3) frequency of Type 1 fibers is highest in humans, intermediate in monkeys, and lowest in the orangutan, whereas Type 2 fibers show an inverse trend among the species. These results suggest a correspondence in primates between the composition of the psoas major muscle fibers and difference in substrates inhabited as well as in their positional behaviors. PMID:12050900

  3. Patient Psoas Muscle Mass as a Predictor of Complications and Survival After Radical Cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Montie, James E; Weizer, Alon Z; Morgan, Todd; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Lee, Cheryl T

    2015-11-01

    As a treatment for high-risk bladder cancer, radical cystectomy (RC) remains a highly morbid operation with complication rates of 40-60% and mortality rates as high as 9% in the first 90 days after surgery (Aziz et al., Eur Urol 66(1):156-163, 2014; Shabsigh et al., Eur Urol 55(1):164-174, 2009). Many patients suffer from a failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with anorexia, weight loss, dehydration, and immobility. In elderly patients, failure-to-thrive may result in loss of independence and a cascade of events that increases the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality, ultimately resulting in impaired survival. Psoas muscle mass has been used to predict morbidity and mortality after major surgical procedures in vulnerable populations with substantial comorbidities. Increasingly, psoas muscle mass is also being used to predict outcomes after RC. If patients with a high risk of impaired survival are identified preoperatively, prehabilitative interventions can be integrated into their preparation for surgical treatment (Porserud et al., Clin Rehab 28(5):451-459, 2014; Friedman et al., Nutr Clin Pract: Off Publ Am Soc Parenter Enter Nutr 30(2):175-179, 2015). This chapter discusses the role of psoas muscle mass as a predictor of negative surgical outcomes after cystectomy. PMID:26403157

  4. Acute Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrew H

    2016-07-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a well-known pathophysiologic complication of trauma or tissue ischemia. ACS affects the appearance, function, and even the viability of the involved limb, and demands immediate diagnosis and treatment. However, ACS is difficult to diagnose and the only effective treatment is decompressive surgical fasciotomy. The clinical signs and symptoms may easily be attributed to other aspects of the injury, which further complicates the diagnosis. This article highlights the latest information regarding the diagnosis of ACS, how to perform fasciotomies, how to manage fasciotomy wounds, and also reviews complications and outcomes of ACS. PMID:27241376

  5. Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Presenting as a Primary Psoas Abscess: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, William A.; Davie, Daniel; Tonnerre, Claude; Rubin, Michael A.; Strong, Michael; Petti, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess. The isolate tested susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to nalidixic acid in vitro, a pattern associated with fluoroquinolone therapeutic failures. We review the literature for serovar Typhi psoas abscess in the absence of bacteremia and discuss the importance of identifying isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMID:15695728

  6. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure. PMID:27241383

  7. 76 FR 10482 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew-Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... equipment within the OFCR compartment. (4) Structural failure or deformation of components that could block... structural tests must not impede rapid evacuation of the OFCR compartment occupants. Seat deformations must... structural failure, or persons standing below or against the flightcrew-rest compartment outlets. One of...

  8. Ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis type 1 with bilateral psoas muscle neurofibromas: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Hamid; Asadi, Mehrnaz; Mahzouni, Parvin; Foroozmehr, Abdolali

    2009-01-01

    The most common gastrointestinal involvement in neurofibromatosis is due to tumoral lesions which may present with gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. We report a case of concurrent ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis. A 39 year-old woman, known case of neurofibromatosis, was admitted to our department with complaint of chronic bloody diarrhea. After thorough clinical examination and paraclinical assessments, including colonoscopy and biopsy, ulcerative colitis was confirmed as the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Another rare finding in this patient was bilateral neurofibroma in psoas muscle that was detected on abdominal spiral Computer Tomography scan. PMID:21772893

  9. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  10. Infectious Spondylodiscitis, Epidural Phlegmon, and Psoas Abscess Complicating Diabetic Foot Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Nicole; Pratt, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Few published case reports have cited vertebral osteomyelitis as a sequela of a diabetic foot infection. The purpose of the present report is to increase awareness of a potentially severe complication of diabetic foot ulceration: vertebral osteomyelitis and associated pathologic features. We present the case of a 63-year-old male with right calcaneal osteomyelitis who developed acute onset lower back pain with concomitant fever and chills. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed L4-L5 vertebral osteomyelitis, a T9-L1 epidural abscess, and a right psoas muscle abscess secondary to hematogenous seeding from the calcaneus. The patient underwent right partial calcanectomy, spinal and right psoas abscess incision and drainage, and direct lumbar interbody fusion of L4-L5 with a right iliac crest allograft. All bone, blood, and abscess cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. After the surgery, the patient's pain resolved in his back and hip and he regained full right lower extremity function. The 1-year follow-up examination revealed that the patient had vertebral arthritis but was able to perform his activities of daily living with a walker and cane. It is important to recognize the potential complications of diabetic foot ulcerations and be aware of the identifying symptoms and treatment options for this condition to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:25128309

  11. [Treatment of primary pyogenic abscess of the psoas: retrospective study of 18 cases].

    PubMed

    Dahami, Z; Sarf, I; Dakir, M; Aboutaieb, R; Bennani, S; Elmrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-11-01

    The primitive abcess of psoas muscle is a rare affection which involves mainly the young. The authors report 18 cases of primitive pyogenic abcess of psoas collected during a period of six years in the urology service of UHC Ibn Rochd Casablanca. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different therapeutic attitudes. The study concerned 11 men and seven women, their mean age was 35 years. The mean delay of evolution was 45 days. The physical exam found a psoitisis (five cases) and a flunk swelling (14 cases). The ultrasound exam showed the collection which was hypoechogenic in seven cases and heterogenous in 11 cases. The CT scan showed an heterogenouse hypodense collection without enhansment in seven cases. The use of antibiotherapy alone (four cases) and percutaneous drainage (four cases) permitted the recovery just respectively in one and two cases. Fifteen patients (83%) were operated through a postero-lateral lumbotomy route without costal resection. The bacteriological exam of the pus found a Staphylococcis aureus (ten cases) and Escherichia coli (two cases). The evolution was favorable in 14 cases; one patient was dead at fifth day post operatively by heart infarction. For the authors, the surgical drainage remains the treatment of choice. PMID:11774765

  12. Not all pain in the left iliac fossa is diverticular disease: A case study of a psoas myxoma and review.

    PubMed

    Dormand, E L; Prabhu-Desai, A; Rice, A J; Rosin, R D

    2006-08-01

    Intramuscular myxomas are rare, benign, mesenchymal tumours that may present to a wide variety of specialties. We present a case study of an intramuscular myxoma in the psoas muscle, followed by a review of the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of intramuscular myxomas PMID:16892842

  13. Mechanical properties of skinned rabbit psoas and soleus muscle fibres during lengthening: effects of phosphate and Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, G J; Versteeg, P G; Papp, Z; Elzinga, G

    1992-01-01

    1. Mechanical properties of permeabilized single fibres from rabbit psoas and soleus muscle were determined by measuring the length responses due to abrupt changes in load and the force responses due to isovelocity length changes at different phosphate and Ca2+ concentrations. 2. The length responses due to abrupt increases in load from psoas fibres showed a rapid lengthening during the change in load followed by a phase of lengthening during which the velocity gradually decreased. In soleus fibres an abrupt lengthening during the change in load was followed by a phase of lengthening during which the velocity remained constant or decreased slightly for increases in load to less than 1.45 of the isometric force (F0). For larger increases in load the velocity during this later phase first increased and thereafter decreased. 3. The initial force-velocity curve, derived from the early part of the isotonic responses after the change in load, as well as the late force-velocity curve derived from the force level attained during isovelocity length changes, were sensitive to phosphate. Phosphate caused a shift of the absolute force-velocity curves of both psoas and soleus fibres towards lower values of force. In psoas fibres, the relative force-velocity curves derived by normalization of the force level to the force developed isometrically was shifted by phosphate to smaller velocities. In soleus fibres, the initial velocity at low and intermediate relative loads (less than 1.75 F0) was increased by phosphate but at higher loads it decreased, while the late force-velocity curve showed an overall decrease in velocity. 4. The force responses during isovelocity lengthening of psoas fibres showed an early rapid increase in force followed by a slow rise in force. The position of this break point in force was sensitive to the phosphate concentration. In soleus fibres, the force responses without phosphate showed an overshoot followed by a slow rise in force. The overshoot

  14. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... equipment within the OFCR compartment. (4) Structural failure or deformation of components that could block... applicable to this configuration. Hence, deformations resulting from required static and dynamic structural..., mechanical or structural failure, or persons standing below or against the crew rest compartment outlets....

  15. Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

    2012-12-01

    Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

  16. Endoscopic compartment release for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knight, Justin R; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

    2013-05-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

  17. Endoscopic Compartment Release for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Justin R.; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

    2013-01-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

  18. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  19. Spontaneous appendico-cutaneous fistula: an unusual presentation of retroperitoneal appendicular perforation associated with psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Samaiya, Atul; Sainia, Tarun Kumar; Saxena, Agamya

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous appendico-cutaneous fistula is an extremely rare complication of appendicitis and only a few cases are reported in literature. We present one such case in a 65-year-old diabetic male who had recurrent atypical abdominal pain for 32 years. The patient also had recurrent right psoas abscess, which had failed to respond to a repeated surgical drainage, antibiotics and anti-tubercular treatment. Patient presented to us with recurrent discharging sinus in right lumbar region since 6 months. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) suspected the appendicitis as a possible cause. On laparotomy, retroperitoneal perforated appendix tip was found communicating with the fistulous tract. Appendectomy with excision of fistulous tract resulted in cure. To prevent inappropriate treatment and complication in such atypical presentation of appendicitis, high index of suspicion is required and MDCT is a very useful tool for making correct diagnosis. PMID:27340228

  20. [Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Ticse, Ray; Melgarejo, Weymar; Fuentes-Dávila, Alfredo; Ortíz, Jesús; Zegarra, Jaime

    2012-03-01

    Diffuse tropical primary pyomyositis is an infrequent entity in our country, with few cases associated to community-acquired Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There are no reported cases of Community-Acquired Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA) in Peru. We present the case of a 70 year old male with a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving irregular treatment, who was admitted to the hospital with a history of 10 days of low back pain radiating to the left leg, fever and forced flexion of the right hip due to pain during movement. The diagnosis of diffuse pyomyositis of both psoas muscles was performed with MRI and culture of a posterior paravertebral collection, from which Staphylococcus aureus resistant to oxacillin, penicillin and dicloxacillin was isolated. PMID:22510919

  1. Spontaneous appendico-cutaneous fistula: an unusual presentation of retroperitoneal appendicular perforation associated with psoas abscess

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Samaiya, Atul; Sainia, Tarun Kumar; Saxena, Agamya

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous appendico-cutaneous fistula is an extremely rare complication of appendicitis and only a few cases are reported in literature. We present one such case in a 65-year-old diabetic male who had recurrent atypical abdominal pain for 32 years. The patient also had recurrent right psoas abscess, which had failed to respond to a repeated surgical drainage, antibiotics and anti-tubercular treatment. Patient presented to us with recurrent discharging sinus in right lumbar region since 6 months. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) suspected the appendicitis as a possible cause. On laparotomy, retroperitoneal perforated appendix tip was found communicating with the fistulous tract. Appendectomy with excision of fistulous tract resulted in cure. To prevent inappropriate treatment and complication in such atypical presentation of appendicitis, high index of suspicion is required and MDCT is a very useful tool for making correct diagnosis. PMID:27340228

  2. Usefulness of Psoas Muscle Area to Predict Mortality in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Saji, Mike; Lim, D Scott; Ragosta, Michael; LaPar, Damien J; Downs, Emily; Ghanta, Ravi K; Kern, John A; Dent, John M; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-07-15

    Frailty has become high-priority theme in cardiovascular diseases because of aging and increasingly complex nature of patients. Low muscle mass is characteristic of frailty, in which invasive interventions are avoided if possible because of decreased physiological reserve. This study aimed to determine if the psoas muscle area (PMA) could predict mortality and to investigate its utility in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We retrospectively reviewed 232 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR. Cross-sectional areas of the psoas muscles at the level of fourth lumbar vertebra were measured by computed tomography and normalized to body surface area. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the normalized PMA for each gender (men: tertile 1, 1,708 to 1,178 mm(2)/m(2); tertile 2, 1,176 to 1,011 mm(2)/m(2); and tertile 3, 1,009 to 587 mm(2)/m(2); women: tertile 1, 1,436 to 962 mm(2)/m(2); tertile 2, 952 to 807 mm(2)/m(2); and tertile 3, 806 to 527 mm(2)/m(2)). Smaller normalized PMA was independently correlated with women and higher New York Heart Association classification. After adjustment for multiple confounding factors, the normalized PMA tertile was independently associated with mortality at 6 months (adjusted hazard ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.21). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that tertile 3 had higher mortality rates than tertile 1 at 6 months (14% and 31%, respectively, p = 0.029). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that normalized PMA provided the increase of C-statistics for predicting mortality for a clinical model and gait speed. In conclusion, PMA is an independent predictor of mortality after TAVR and can complement a clinical model and gait speed. PMID:27236254

  3. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  4. Psoas muscle pyogenic abscess in association with infected hip arthroplasty: a rare case of simultaneous bilateral presentation.

    PubMed

    Volpin, Andrea; Kini, Sunil Gurpur; Berizzi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral presentation of psoas abscess with prosthetic joint involvement is extremely rare. A 68-year-old woman presented to us with bilateral dull aching groin pain of 6 months' duration, which flared up in the past month, associated with pyrexial symptoms. She had undergone bilateral hip replacements in the past with uneventful recovery. MRI showed bilateral psoas muscle collection in communication with the hip joints. Preoperative hip aspirate demonstrated frank pus with positivity on Gram stain and radiographs confirmed prosthetic loosening of bilateral hips. The patient subsequently underwent two-stage revision arthroplasty of both infected hip implants. At 5-year follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic with good functional outcome and no recurrence on serial MRI. PMID:25994433

  5. Temperature dependence of active tension in mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres: effect of inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Coupland, M E; Puchert, E; Ranatunga, K W

    2001-11-01

    1. The effect of added inorganic phosphate (P(i), range 3-25 mM) on active tension was examined at a range of temperatures (5-30 degrees C) in chemically skinned (0.5 % Brij) rabbit psoas muscle fibres. Three types of experiments were carried out. 2. In one type of experiment, a muscle fibre was maximally activated at low temperature (5 degrees C) and its tension change was recorded during stepwise heating to high temperature in approximately 60 s. As found in previous studies, the tension increased with temperature and the normalised tension-(reciprocal) temperature relation was sigmoidal, with a half-maximal tension at 8 degrees C. In the presence of 25 mM added P(i), the temperature for half-maximal tension of the normalised curve was approximately 5 degrees C higher than in the control. The difference in the slope was small. 3. In a second type of experiment, the tension increment during a large temperature jump (from 5 to 30 degrees C) was examined during an active contraction. The relative increase of active tension on heating was significantly higher in the presence of 25 mM added P(i) (30/5 degrees C tension ratio of 6-7) than in the control with no added P(i) (tension ratio of approximately 3). 4. In a third type of experiment, the effect on the maximal Ca(2+)-activated tension of different levels of added P(i) (3-25 mM) (and P(i) mop adequate to reduce contaminating P(i) to micromolar levels) was examined at 5, 10, 20 and 30 degrees C. The tension was depressed with increased [P(i)] in a concentration-dependent manner at all temperatures, and the data could be fitted with a hyperbolic relation. The calculated maximal tension depression in excess [P(i)] was approximately 65 % of the control at 5-10 degrees C, in contrast to a maximal depression of 40 % at 20 degrees C and 30 % at 30 degrees C. 5. These experiments indicate that the active tension depression induced by P(i) in psoas fibres is temperature sensitive, the depression becoming less marked at

  6. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the cross-bridge cycle in rabbit psoas muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y; Kawai, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of temperature on elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle was investigated with sinusoidal analysis technique in skinned rabbit psoas fibers. We studied the effect of MgATP on exponential process (C) to characterize the MgATP binding step and cross-bridge detachment step at six different temperatures in the range 5-30 degrees C. Similarly, we studied the effect of MgADP on exponential process (C) to characterize the MgADP binding step. We also studied the effect of phosphate (Pi) on exponential process (B) to characterize the force generation step and Pi-release step. From the results of these studies, we deduced the temperature dependence of the kinetic constants of the elementary steps and their thermodynamic properties. We found that the MgADP association constant (K0) and the MgATP association constant (K1) significantly decreased when the temperature was increased from 5 to 20 degrees C, implying that nucleotide binding became weaker at higher temperatures. K0 and K1 did not change much in the 20-30 degree C range. The association constant of Pi to cross-bridges (K5) did not change much with temperature. We found that Q10 for the cross-bridge detachment step (k2) was 2.6, and for its reversal step (k-2) was 3.0. We found that Q10 for the force generation step (Pi-isomerization step, k4) was 6.8, and its reversal step (k-4) was 1.6. The equilibrium constant of the detachment step (K2) was not affected much by temperature, whereas the equilibrium constant of the force generation step (K4) increased significantly with temperature increase. Thus, the force generation step consists of an endothermic reaction. The rate constant of the rate-limiting step (k6) did not change much with temperature, whereas the ATP hydrolysis rate increased significantly with temperature increase. We found that the force generation step accompanies a large entropy increase and a small free energy change; hence, this step is an entropy-driven reaction. These observations

  7. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  8. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this photograph, the Orbital Workshop shower compartment was unfolded by technicians for inspection. The shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  9. The Orbital Workshop Sleep Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This wide-angle view is of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) sleep compartment, located in the lower level of the OWS. Each crewman was assigned a small space for sleeping and zipped themselves into sleeping bags stretched against the wall. Because of the absence of gravity, sleeping comfort was achieved in any position relative to the spacecraft; body support was not necessary. Sleeping could be accommodated quite comfortably in a bag that held the body at a given place in Skylab.

  10. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  11. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  12. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  13. Color attributes and oxidative stability of longissimus lumborum and psoas major muscles from Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Viana, Fernanda M; Salim, Ana Paula A A; Nair, Mahesh N; Silva, Teofilo J P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The influence of muscle source on color stability of fresh beef from purebred Bos indicus cattle was investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles obtained from twelve (n=12) Nellore bull carcasses (24h post-mortem) were fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed on day 0 for proximate composition and myoglobin concentration, whereas pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. LL steaks exhibited greater (P<0.05) redness, color stability, and MRA than PM counterparts. On the other hand, PM steaks demonstrated greater (P<0.05) myoglobin content, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation than LL steaks. These results indicated the critical influence of muscle source on discoloration of fresh beef from Bos indicus animals and suggested the necessity to engineer muscle-specific strategies to improve color stability and marketability of beef from Bos indicus cattle. PMID:27236337

  14. Stiffness of glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers in the rigor state. Filament-overlap relation.

    PubMed Central

    Tawada, K; Kimura, M

    1984-01-01

    The stiffness of glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers in the rigor state was measured at various sarcomere lengths in order to determine the distribution of the sarcomere compliance between the cross-bridge and other structures. The stiffness was determined by measuring the tension increment at one end of a fiber segment while stretching the other end of the fiber. The contribution of the end compliance to the rigor segments was checked both by laser diffractometry of the sarcomere length change and by measuring the length dependence of the Young's modulus; the contribution was found to be small. The stiffness in the rigor state was constant at sarcomere lengths of 2.4 microns or less; at greater sarcomere lengths the stiffness, when corrected for the contribution of resting stiffness, scaled with the amount of overlap between the thick and thin filaments. These results suggest that the source of the sarcomere compliance of the rigor fiber at the full overlapping of filaments is mostly the cross-bridge compliance. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 PMID:6713072

  15. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 29.853 Section 29.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.853 Compartment interiors. For each compartment to...

  16. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ufuk; Mataracı, İlker

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities' compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy. PMID:25120938

  17. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  18. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  19. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  20. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  1. 14 CFR 23.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 23.771 Section 23.771... Cargo Accommodations § 23.771 Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue;...

  2. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  3. 14 CFR 25.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 25.771 Section 25.771... Pilot compartment. (a) Each pilot compartment and its equipment must allow the minimum flight crew... pilot, the airplane must be controllable with equal safety from either pilot seat. (d) The...

  4. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  5. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  6. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  7. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  8. 76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... equipment within the OFAR compartment. (4) Structural failure or deformation of components that could block... minimize the possibility of blockage, which might result from fire, mechanical or structural failure,...

  9. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome Testing.

    PubMed

    Flick, David; Flick, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on historical and physical exam findings combined with elevated intracompartmental pressures. Direct static testing with a large bore needle device is the most common instrument used for diagnosis. Based on the most recent systematic reviews, there is poor evidence for the traditional diagnostic pressures used in practice with no standardization of the procedure. New research has introduced a standardized approach with dynamic testing of the limb with transducer-tipped catheters. Less invasive methods of testing using radiologic techniques are currently under investigation. A detailed understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the limb is paramount in executing a safe and accurate procedure. PMID:26359839

  10. Kyste hydatique du foie rompu dans la paroi abdominale et dans le muscle psoas : à propos d'une rare observation

    PubMed Central

    En-Nafaa, Issam; Moujahid, Mountassir; Alahyane, Abdelouahabe; Amil, Touria; Hanine, Ahmed; Ziadi, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique du foie est une parasitose qui sévit à l′état endémique au maroc. La rupture dans la paroi abdominale et dans le psoas est une complication exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons un cas de kyste hydatique du foie rompu dans la paroi et dans le muscle psoas. Le diagnostic a été établi sur les données de l′échographie et surtout de la tomodensitométrie. Le patient a été opéré avec des suites simples. PMID:22187585

  11. Urolithiasis and psoas abscess in a 2-year-old boy with type 1 glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Zafar; Qazi, Saqib Hamid

    2006-11-01

    We report on a pyogenic psoas abscess secondary to an impacted calcium oxalate ureteric stone in a 2-year-old boy with glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD-1). The patient had a drainage of the abscess through a flank incision followed by percutaneous nephrostomy and open ureterolithotomy. Metabolic acidosis, hyperuricemia, hypocitraturia, and hypercalciuria appear to be significant in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis in patients with GSD-1. Regular ultrasonography of the abdomen along with optimal metabolic control may delay or prevent urolithiasis and its complications in GSD-1 patients. PMID:16932895

  12. Regulation of force development studied by photolysis of caged ADP in rabbit skinned psoas fibers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Swartz, D R; Metzger, J M; Moss, R L; Walker, J W

    2001-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of Ca(2+) and strongly bound cross-bridges on tension development induced by changes in the concentration of MgADP. Addition of MgADP to the bath increased isometric tension over a wide range of [Ca(2+)] in skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle. Tension-pCa (pCa is -log [Ca(2+)]) relationships and stiffness measurements indicated that MgADP increased mean force per cross-bridge at maximal Ca(2+) and increased recruitment of cross-bridges at submaximal Ca(2+). Photolysis of caged ADP to cause a 0.5 mM MgADP jump initiated an increase in isometric tension under all conditions examined, even at pCa 6.4 where there was no active tension before ADP release. Tension increased monophasically with an observed rate constant, k(ADP), which was similar in rate and Ca(2+) sensitivity to the rate constant of tension re-development, k(tr), measured in the same fibers by a release-re-stretch protocol. The amplitude of the caged ADP tension transient had a bell-shaped dependence on Ca(2+), reaching a maximum at intermediate Ca(2+) (pCa 6). The role of strong binding cross-bridges in the ADP response was tested by treatment of fibers with a strong binding derivative of myosin subfragment 1 (NEM-S1). In the presence of NEM-S1, the rate and amplitude of the caged ADP response were no longer sensitive to variations in the level of activator Ca(2+). The results are consistent with a model in which ADP-bound cross-bridges cooperatively activate the thin filament regulatory system at submaximal Ca(2+). This cooperative interaction influences both the magnitude and kinetics of force generation in skeletal muscle. PMID:11423418

  13. Force and stiffness in glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers. Effects of calcium and elevated phosphate.

    PubMed

    Martyn, D A; Gordon, A M

    1992-05-01

    Force (F) and stiffness (K) were measured in glycerinated psoas fibers at various calcium levels with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mM orthophosphate (Pi) added to the bathing solutions. The concentrations of bathing solution constituents were as follows: 110 mM potassium, 40 mM sodium, 4 mM MgATP, 10 mM total EGTA, and variable amounts of MOPS (pH buffer). The pH was 7.0, the ionic strength was 200 mM, and the temperature was 10 degrees C. Calcium levels were established by adding various amounts of CaCl2. All solutions contained 4% Dextran T-500. Fiber K was measured by imposing sinusoidal length changes (0.03-0.1%) at 1 kHz and by applying rapid steps in length and measuring the resulting F changes. At all [Pi] tested, K was more sensitive to calcium than F. Elevating bathing solution [Pi] caused a decrease in the calcium sensitivity of both F and K, while the slopes of F-calcium and K-calcium relations increased. In maximally activating calcium, raising [Pi] caused a continuous decrease in F over the range tested, while from very low to 10 mM Pi K remained constant. Above 10 mM Pi K declined, but to a lesser extent than did F. The results suggest that under our experimental conditions strongly attached crossbridges can exist in both force-producing and non-force-producing states, and that the relative population of these states may be calcium dependent. PMID:1607853

  14. Independent Active Contraction of Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscle (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, whereas all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. Mechanical independence between both types of compartments has been demonstrated during passive tensile loading. We examined coupling between EOM compartments during active, ex vivo contraction. Methods. Fresh bovine EOMs were removed, and one compartment of each was coated with hydrophobic petrolatum. Contraction of the uncoated compartment was induced by immersion in a solution of 50 mM CaCl2 at 38°C labeled with sodium fluorescein dye, whereas tensions in both compartments were monitored by strain gauges. Control experiments omitted petrolatum so that the entire EOM contracted. After physiological experiments, EOMs were sectioned transversely to demonstrate specificity of CaCl2 permeation by yellow fluorescence dye excited by blue light. Results. In control experiments without petrolatum, both transverse and GL and OL compartments contracted similarly. Selective compartmental omission of petrolatum caused markedly independent compartmental contraction whether measured at the GL or the OL insertions or for transverse compartments at the scleral insertion. Although some CaCl2 spread occurred, mean (±SD) tension in the coated compartments averaged only 10.5 ± 3.3% and 6.0 ± 1.5% in GL/OL and transverse compartments, respectively relative to uncoated compartments. Fluorescein penetration confirmed selective CaCl2 permeation. Conclusions. These data confirm passive tensile findings of mechanical independence of EOM compartments and extend results to active contraction. EOMs behave actively as if composed of mechanically independent parallel fiber bundles having different insertional targets, consistent with the active pulley and transverse compartmental hypotheses. PMID:25503460

  15. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  16. Kinetics of force recovery following length changes in active skinned single fibres from rabbit psoas muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Kevin; Simmons, Robert M; Sleep, John; Smith, David A

    2006-01-01

    Redevelopment of isometric force following shortening of skeletal muscle is thought to result from a redistribution of cross-bridge states. We varied the initial force and cross-bridge distribution by applying various length-change protocols to active skinned single fibres from rabbit psoas muscle, and observed the effect on the slowest phase of recovery (‘late recovery’) that follows transient changes. In response to step releases that reduced force to near zero (∼8 nm (half sarcomere)−1) or prolonged shortening at high velocity, late recovery was well described by two exponentials of approximately equal amplitude and rate constants of ∼2 s−1 and ∼9 s−1 at 5°C. When a large restretch was applied at the end of rapid shortening, recovery was accelerated by (1) the introduction of a slow falling component that truncated the rise in force, and (2) a relative increase in the contribution of the fast exponential component. The rate of the slow fall was similar to that observed after a small isometric step stretch, with a rate of 0.4–0.8 s−1, and its effects could be reversed by reducing force to near zero immediately after the stretch. Force at the start of late recovery was varied in a series of shortening steps or ramps in order to probe the effect of cross-bridge strain on force redevelopment. The rate constants of the two components fell by 40–50% as initial force was raised to 75–80% of steady isometric force. As initial force increased, the relative contribution of the fast component decreased, and this was associated with a length constant of about 2 nm. The results are consistent with a two-state strain-dependent cross-bridge model. In the model there is a continuous distribution of recovery rate constants, but two-exponential fits show that the fast component results from cross-bridges initially at moderate positive strain and the slow component from cross-bridges at high positive strain. PMID:16497718

  17. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  18. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  19. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  20. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  1. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  2. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  3. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.787 Stowage compartments. (a)...

  4. Coupling volume-excluding compartment-based models of diffusion at different scales: Voronoi and pseudo-compartment approaches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P R; Baker, R E; Simpson, M J; Yates, C A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous processes across both the physical and biological sciences are driven by diffusion. Partial differential equations are a popular tool for modelling such phenomena deterministically, but it is often necessary to use stochastic models to accurately capture the behaviour of a system, especially when the number of diffusing particles is low. The stochastic models we consider in this paper are 'compartment-based': the domain is discretized into compartments, and particles can jump between these compartments. Volume-excluding effects (crowding) can be incorporated by blocking movement with some probability. Recent work has established the connection between fine- and coarse-grained models incorporating volume exclusion, but only for uniform lattices. In this paper, we consider non-uniform, hybrid lattices that incorporate both fine- and coarse-grained regions, and present two different approaches to describe the interface of the regions. We test both techniques in a range of scenarios to establish their accuracy, benchmarking against fine-grained models, and show that the hybrid models developed in this paper can be significantly faster to simulate than the fine-grained models in certain situations and are at least as fast otherwise. PMID:27383421

  5. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... compartment, (4) Structural failure or deformation of components that could block access to the available... blockage, which might result from fire, mechanical or structural failure, or persons standing below...

  6. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  7. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  8. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts, air... in a common housing, seat belts, shoulder harnesses, and cargo and baggage tiedown...

  9. Microscale and nanoscale compartments for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Retterer, Scott T; Simpson, Michael L

    2012-08-01

    Compartmentalization is essential in the organization of biological systems, playing a fundamental role in modulating biochemical activity. An appreciation of the impact that biological compartments have on chemical reactions and an understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena that affect their assembly and function have inspired the development of synthetic compartments. Organic compartments assembled from amphiphilic molecules or derived from biological materials, have formed the basis of initial work in the field. However, inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic compartments that capitalize on the optical and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor materials are emerging. Methods for arraying these microcompartment and nanocompartment materials in higher order systems promise to enable the scaling and integration of these technologies for industrial and commercial applications. PMID:22321942

  10. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  11. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  12. NOCARDIA BEIJINGENSIS PSOAS ABSCESS AND SUBCUTANEOUS PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS CAUSED BY PHAEOACREMONIUM PARASITICUM IN A RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT: THE FIRST CASE REPORT IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Palavutitotai, Nattawan; Chongtrakoo, Piriyaporn; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2015-11-01

    We describe the first case of a psoas muscle abscess caused by Nocardia beijingensis and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phaeoacremonium parasiticum in a renal transplant recipient. The patient was treated for nocardiosis with percutaneous drainage and intravenous trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) combined with imipenem for 2 weeks, followed by a 4-week course of intravenous TMP/SMX and then oral TMP/SMX. During hospitalization for the psoas muscle abscess the patient developed cellulitis with subcutaneous nodules of his right leg. Skin biopsy and cultures revealed a dematiaceous mold, subsequently identified as P. parasiticum by DNA sequencing. The subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis was treated with surgical drainage and liposomal amphotericin B for 4 weeks followed by a combination of itraconazole and terbinafine. The patient gradually improved and was discharged home after 18 weeks of hospitalization. PMID:26867363

  13. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  14. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasch, James J.; Misodi, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Gluteal fasciotomy Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. Case Report: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  15. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  16. Proteomics of the rice cell: systematic identification of the protein populations in subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Fujita, M; Handa, H; Murayama, S; Uemura, M; Kawamura, Y; Mitsui, T; Mikami, S; Tozawa, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Komatsu, S

    2004-06-01

    Despite recent progress in sequencing the complete genome of rice ( Oryza sativa), the proteome of this species remains poorly understood. To extend our knowledge of the rice proteome, the subcellular compartments, which include plasma membranes (PM), vacuolar membranes (VM), Golgi membranes (GM), mitochondria (MT), and chloroplasts (CP), were purified from rice seedlings and cultured suspension cells. The proteins of each of these compartments were then systematically analyzed using two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and Edman sequencing, followed by database searching. In all, 58 of the 464 spots detected by 2D electrophoresis in PM, 43 of the 141 spots in VM, 46 of the 361 spots in GM, 146 in the 672 spots in MT, and 89 of the 252 spots in CP could be identified by this procedure. The characterized proteins were found to be involved in various processes, such as respiration and the citric acid cycle in MT; photosynthesis and ATP synthesis in CP; and antifungal defense and signal systems in the membranes. Edman degradation revealed that 60-98% of N-terminal sequences were blocked, and the ratios of blocked to unblocked proteins in the proteomes of the various subcellular compartments differed. The data on the proteomes of subcellular compartments in rice will be valuable for resolving questions in functional genomics as well as for genome-wide exploration of plant function. PMID:15069638

  17. Compartment syndrome in a patient treated with perineural liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel).

    PubMed

    Soberón, José Raul; Sisco-Wise, Leslie E; Dunbar, Ross M

    2016-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a condition that may result in sensorimotor deficits and loss of function of the affected limb as a result of ischemic injury. It is considered a surgical emergency and prompt diagnosis and treatment results in more favorable outcomes. The use of regional anesthesia is controversial in patients at risk for compartment syndrome due to concern of its potential to mask symptoms of the condition. A 44-year-old African American male presented to surgery for open reduction and internal fixation of a comminuted distal radius fracture. As part of an off-label, investigator-initiated, and institutional review board-approved study, he received a perineural injection of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) around the median, ulnar, and radial nerves at the level of the proximal forearm. The following morning, his initial complaints of numbness and incisional pain progressively evolved into worsening numbness, diffuse discomfort, and pain with passive movement. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent an emergency fasciotomy. The diagnosis of compartment syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment. This patient's changing pattern of symptoms-rather than his pain complaints alone-resulted in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome treated with emergent fasciotomy in spite of finger numbness that was initially attributed to the liposomal bupivacaine. While the use of liposomal bupivacaine did not preclude the diagnosis of compartment syndrome in our patient, it should be used with caution in patients at risk for compartment syndrome until additional data, particularly regarding block characteristics, are available. PMID:27185666

  18. Psoas abscess and chronic Q fever: a contiguous or hematogenous complication? A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Galy, Adrien; Decousser, Jean Winoc; El-Anbassi, Sarra; Nebbad, Biba; Belzunce, Carine; Cochennec, Frédéric; Deforges, Lionel; Lepeule, Raphaël

    2016-08-01

    Few cases of psoas abscesses (PA) during chronic Q fever have been reported, and the route of transmission remains unknown. Here, we report a new case and have performed a systematic literature review to determinate the spreading route of this complication. Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched. Local spreading was supported by endocarditis exclusion, evidence of vascular infection and absence of distantly infected sites. Among 275 retrieved references, 179 were initially rejected, and 85 additional references were rejected after full-text review. A total of 11 studies, reporting 13 cases, were included. Additionally, we reported one new case. A total of 14/14 cases reached Q fever vascular infection diagnostic criteria, and 7/14 provided adequate evidence supporting a causal relationship between Q fever vascular infection and PA. All patients presented aorta defects. In conclusion, Q fever PA results from the spreading of a local infection and occurs specifically in patients presenting a vascular graft or an abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:27167531

  19. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tasch, James J; Misodi, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  20. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Diaz Dilernia, Fernando; Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E; Gamsie, Sebastian; Taype Zamboni, Danilo E R; Carabelli, Guido S; Barla, Jorge D; Sancineto, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  1. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems §...

  2. What's new in acute compartment syndrome?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Edward J; Sanders, David W; Shuler, Michael S; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Cole, Ashley L; Alqahtani, Saad M; Schmidt, Andrew H

    2012-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) after trauma is often the result of increased size of the damaged tissues after acute crush injury or from reperfusion of ischemic areas. It usually is not solely caused by accumulation of free blood or fluid in the compartment, although that can contribute in some cases. There is no reliable and reproducible test that confirms the diagnosis of ACS. A missed diagnosis or failure to cut the fascia to release pressure within a few hours can result in severe intractable pain, paralysis, and sensory deficits. Reduced blood circulation leads to oxygen and nutrient deprivation, muscle necrosis, and permanent disability. Currently, the diagnosis of ACS is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated needle sticks over a short time frame to measure intracompartmental pressures. Missed compartment syndromes continue to be one of most common causes of malpractice lawsuits. Existing technology for continuous pressure measurements are insensitive, particularly in the deep tissues and compartments, and their use is restricted to highly trained personnel. Newer concepts of the pathophysiology accompanied by new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have recently been advanced. Among these are the concept of inflammatory mediators as markers and anti-inflammatories as medical adjunct therapy. New diagnostic modalities include near-infrared spectroscopy, ultrafiltration catheters, and radio-frequency identification implants. These all address current shortcomings in the diagnostic armamentarium that trauma surgeons can use. The strengths and weaknesses of these new concepts are discussed to allow the trauma surgeon to follow current evolution of the field. PMID:22913965

  3. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taype Zamboni, Danilo E. R.; Carabelli, Guido S.; Barla, Jorge D.; Sancineto, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  4. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  8. Acute bilateral spontaneous forearm compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Subramaniam, Tava; McCabe, John P

    2014-01-01

    Acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm is rarely reported in the literature. It is typically associated with trauma or thromboembolism in the acute setting and repetitive exertional stress in the chronic setting. However it is rare for it to present bilaterally with no apparent underlying cause. We report the case of a young 31-year-old lady who presented to our Emergency Department with bilateral compartment syndrome of the forearm. Her presenting complaints included acute severe pain and swelling of the forearms bilaterally, with a decreased range of movement of the wrist and fingers. She also complained of numbness in all fingers. She had no history of recent trauma and ultrasound scans showed no evidence of vascular compromise. Past medical history was notable only for idiopathic hypertension and coeliac disease. The patient was taken to theatre urgently where flexor and extensor compartments and carpal tunnel were decompressed. Pronator Teres was found to be dusky initially but turned pink after decompression. All other muscles were normal. An interesting fact of this case was that combination of the high compartment pressures and anaesthetic related hypotension caused the forearm pulses to become impalpable at induction, these returned intra-operatively. The patient has been seen in the outpatient department following discharge. She is well apart from some mildly reduced grip strength in her right hand likely due to carpal tunnel decompression. No cause was found for the scenario after extensive medical investigation. PMID:24641749

  9. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  10. Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Medial Foot Compartment: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie Jr, Douglas H

    2014-06-25

    Abstract Exertional compartment syndrome (ECS) in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19 year old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a one year follow up. PMID:24963970

  11. Exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot compartment--diagnosis and treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19-year-old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a 1-year follow-up. PMID:25076087

  12. 76 FR 44246 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... the Federal Register on May 10, 2011 (76 FR 26949). No comments were received and the special... compartment. (4) Structural failure or deformation of components that could block access to the available... possibility of blockage, which might result from fire, mechanical or structural failure, or persons...

  13. 78 FR 25846 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A340-600 Series Airplanes; Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background... equipment within the LDCR compartment, (4) Structural failure or deformation of components that could block... designed to minimize the possibility of blockage, which might result from fire, mechanical or...

  14. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children.

    PubMed

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks have an important role in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. Indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on benefits/risks analysis of each technique for each patient. The indications include surgery associated with intense postoperative pain, surgery requiring painful physical therapy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appear to facilitate nerve and plexus identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may mask compartment syndrome in certain surgical procedure or trauma. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the best local anaesthetic for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rate with low concentration of the local anaesthetic. PMID:15966500

  15. Non-small cell lung cancer with concomitant intramuscular myxoma of the right psoas mimicking intramuscular metastasis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, PENG; MENG, XUE; XIA, LIANKE; XIE, PENG; SUN, XINDONG; GAO, YONGSHENG; WANG, SHIJIANG; ZHAO, XIANGUANG; YU, JINMING

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma (IMM) as a rare soft-tissue tumor arising from the muscles is completely benign. When IMM accompanies malignance, it may be misdiagnosed as muscle metastasis, and for this extremely rare concurrence, the subsequent treatment would vary accordingly. The current study presents, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) concomitant with IMM mimicking skeletal muscle metastasis. A 64-year-old female was hospitalized with a history of chest discomfort and right lumbar pain that had persisted for four months. The computed tomography scan showed a lesion in the left upper lobe of the lung and the right psoas, respectively. Serum biomarkers for NSCLC were abnormal. A presumptive clinical diagnosis was compatible with left NSCLC and right psoas muscle metastasis (cT2aN3M1b, stage IV). Stage IV lung cancer would receive palliative treatment. However, the final diagnosis of synchronous left lung squamous cell carcinoma (cT2aN3M0, stage IIIB) and IMM in the right psoas was confirmed by biopsy. The patient therefore underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy for lung carcinoma, and conservative treatment, including analgesics, for IMM. The diagnosis process for a malignant neoplasm concomitant with IMM is not straightforward due to a lack of clinical experience, and it significantly affects the tumor staging and subsequent treatment strategy. The present case suggests that IMM should be included in the differential diagnosis when an abnormal intramuscular lesion concomitant with malignancy is identified. The value of histopathological diagnosis prior to definitive treatment also requires highlighting. PMID:26722289

  16. Patterning and Compartment Formation in the Diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Mallika; Li, James Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The diencephalon gives rise to structures that play an important role in connecting the anterior forebrain with the rest of the central nervous system. The thalamus is the major diencephalic derivative that functions as a relay station between the cortex and other lower order sensory systems. Almost two decades ago, neuromeric/prosomeric models were proposed describing the subdivision and potential segmentation of the diencephalon. Unlike the laminar structure of the cortex, the diencephalon is progressively divided into distinct functional compartments consisting principally of thalamus, epithalamus, pretectum, and hypothalamus. Neurons generated within these domains further aggregate to form clusters called nuclei, which form specific structural and functional units. We review the recent advances in understanding the genetic mechanisms that are involved in the patterning and compartment formation of the diencephalon. PMID:22593732

  17. A modern definition of mediastinal compartments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett W; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Bhora, Faiz Y; Rosado de Christenson, Melissa L; Nakajima, Jun; Boiselle, Phillip M; Detterbeck, Frank C; Marom, Edith M

    2014-09-01

    Division of the mediastinum into compartments is used to help narrow the differential diagnosis of newly detected mediastinal masses, to assist in planning biopsy and surgical procedures, and to facilitate communication among clinicians of multiple disciplines. Several traditional mediastinal division schemes exist based upon arbitrary landmarks on the lateral chest radiograph. We describe a modern, computed tomography-based mediastinal division scheme, which has been accepted by the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group as a new standard. This clinical classification defines a prevascular (anterior), a visceral (middle), and a paravertebral (posterior) compartment, with anatomic boundaries defined clearly by computed tomography. It is our intention that this definition be used in the reporting of clinical cases and the design of prospective clinical trials. PMID:25396318

  18. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. PMID:26356766

  19. [Acute compartment syndrome after a bowling game].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C Y; Braun, K F; Huber-Wagner, S; Neu, J

    2015-11-01

    A 28-year-old male patient was initially conservatively treated by a general physician for muscle strain of the right calf after a bowling game. Due to increasing pain and swelling of the lower leg 5 days later, the differential diagnosis of a deep vein thrombosis was considered. Furthermore, the onset of neurological deficits and problems with raising the foot prompted inclusion of compartment syndrome in the differential diagnosis for the first time. Admission to hospital for surgical intervention was scheduled for the following day. At this point in time the laboratory results showed a negative d-dimer value and greatly increased C-reactive protein level. On day 6 a dermatofasciotomy was performed which revealed extensive muscular necrosis with complete palsy of the peroneal nerve. In the following lawsuit the patient accused the surgeon of having misdiagnosed the slow-onset compartment syndrome and thus delaying correct and mandatory treatment. The arbitration board ruled that the surgeon should have performed fasciotomy immediately on day 5 at the patient's consultation. The clinical presentation of progressive pain, swelling of the lower leg in combination with peroneal palsy must lead to the differential diagnosis of compartment syndrome resulting in adequate therapy. The delay of immediate surgery, therefore, was assessed to be faulty as this knowledge is to be expected of a surgeon. PMID:26440405

  20. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    PubMed

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. PMID:26451864

  1. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied. PMID:26795486

  2. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental type... SFAR the airplane meets the compartment interior requirements set forth in § 25.853 (a), (b), (b-1),...

  3. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and (3) The... that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result...

  4. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  5. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  6. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  7. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  8. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  9. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  10. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  11. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  12. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  13. [Mini-invasive treatment of purulent spondylitis associated with a psoas abscess in a child (case report)].

    PubMed

    Konecný, M; Chlebovic, S; Stefanco, V

    2002-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a 12 years old boy who suffered from pain in the lumbar region, limitation of dynamics in lumbosacral spine with a gradual deterioration of the condition. The patient was afebrile. The pain was getting worse and the classic radiographs did not show at the beginning any pathological changes. Suspected were mainly the discogenic syndrome, functional vertebrogenous syndrome but also development of a tumour in the region of spine. CT scan revealed structural changes in the region of L3 vertebra and less in the L4 region. At the same time it showed a soft mass pushing the psoas muscle to the left which was described as paravertebral abscess and the structural changes as a suspect L3, L4 spondylitis. The condition of the patient was associated with a high risk of endocarditis as in the childhood he underwent the Senning operation for coarctation of great vessels. Therefore it was necessary to determine etiological agent as quickly as possible. After a mini-invasive surgery with a probational biopsy and subsequent drainage the spondylytis was confirmed also histologically and a coagulation-negative Staphylococcus aureus was cultivated as an etiological agent. At the same time tumour development was eliminated. After 15 weeks the antibiotic therapy was changed as after the removal of drains the microbe was already resistant to the administered antibiotics and therefore the antibiotics were changed with regard to sensitivity and minimum inhibition concentrations. Within 15 weeks after a local drainage by antibiotics and the total antibiotic therapy also inflammation markers gradually decreased and the patient is for a long period without complaints with full range of motion in the lumbosacral spine. In the conclusion the authors emphasize the accurate timing algorithm of the diagnosis in children which may initiate an early and successful treatment. PMID:12073641

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  15. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Little Thought about Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is a well described entity but there have been relatively few case reports in the emergency medicine literature of hand compartment syndromes (HCS). Prompt recognition and treatment of this potential limb threat are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Presented is a case of a documented hand compartment syndrome following a motor vehicle collision. PMID:27293917

  16. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cowling and engine compartment covering. 29... Protection § 29.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each cowling and engine compartment... of § 29.1187. (c) On rotorcraft with a diaphragm isolating the engine power section from the...

  17. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  18. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29... Accommodations § 29.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply: (1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a...

  19. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo compartment classification. 25.857....857 Cargo compartment classification. (a) Class A; A Class A cargo or baggage compartment is one in... detector or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station. (c) Class C....

  20. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29... Accommodations § 29.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply: (1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a...

  1. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  2. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  3. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  4. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  5. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  6. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  7. Orbital compartment syndrome following aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Gauden, Andrew J; Hardy, Thomas; Mack, Heather G; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Kaye, Andrew H

    2012-07-01

    Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is a rare cause of blindness following intracranial surgery. We report a patient with OCS following intracranial cerebrovascular surgery precipitated by severe straining. OCS occurred due to a rapid increase in intraorbital pressure within the rigid confines of the orbit causing hypoperfusion of critical neural structures, which resulted in visual loss and a complete external ophthalmoplegia. Treatment involved urgent surgical soft tissue decompression of the orbit, corticosteroids and osmotic agents. It is important to consider OCS as a cause of blindness in the neurosurgical postoperative setting as without rapid treatment this condition has a very poor prognosis. PMID:22555128

  8. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  9. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prolonged immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Liu, H L; Wong, David S Y

    2009-04-01

    Muscles in the gluteal region are confined by distinct fascial attachments which can potentially result in compartment syndrome. A 74-year-old chronic drinker was admitted to the medical ward after being found drunk on the street. He noticed acute painful swelling of the right side of his buttock the following morning and recalled a slip and fall prior to his blackout. The whole right half of the buttock was tense with erythematous overlying skin. Examination revealed sciatic nerve palsy and myoglobinuria. Emergency fasciotomy and debridement were performed. Intra-operative pressure measurement confirmed a grossly elevated intra-compartmental pressure. Gluteal compartment syndrome is an extremely rare condition and has only been scantily documented previously in case reports. Early diagnosis is crucial but delay recognition is common from lack of knowledge of the condition and readily results in permanent sciatic nerve injury and acute renal shutdown from myoglobinuria. Awareness of the condition, early diagnosis and prompt exploration provide the only chance of avoiding these devastating consequences. Acute swelling diffusely affecting the whole or one side of the buttock, a history of trauma and prolonged local pressure impingement associated with pain out of proportion to the clinical signs should raise a suspicion of this rare condition. PMID:19423461

  10. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  11. Increase in ATP consumption during shortening in skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle: effects of inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Potma, E J; Stienen, G J

    1996-01-01

    1. The influence of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) on the relationship between ATP consumption and mechanical performance under isometric and dynamic conditions was investigated in chemically skinned single fibres or thin bundles from rabbit psoas muscle. Myofibrillar ATPase activity was measured photometrically by enzymatic coupling of the regeneration of ATP to the oxidation of NADH. NADH absorbance at 340 nm was determined inside a miniature (4 microliters) measuring chamber. 2. ATP consumption due to isovelocity shortenings was measured in the range between 0.0625 and 1 L0 s-1(L0: fibre length previous to shortening, corresponding to a sarcomere length of 2.64 microns), in solutions without added P(i) and with 30 mM P(i). To get an estimate of the amount of ATP utilized during the shortening phase, quick releases of various amplitudes were also performed. 3. After quick releases, sufficiently large that force dropped to zero, extra ATP was hydrolysed which was largely independent of the amplitude of the release and of the period of unloaded shortening. This extra amount, above the isometric ATP turnover, corresponded to about 0.7 and 0.5 ATP molecules per myosin head at 0 and 30 mM P(i), respectively. 4. ATP turnover during the isovelocity shortenings was higher than isometric turnover and increased with increasing shortening velocity up to about 2.7 times the isometric value. At low and moderate velocities of shortening (< 0.5 L0 s-1), P(i) reduced ATP turnover during isovelocity shortening and isometric ATP turnover to a similar extent, i.e. a decrease to about 77% between 0 and 30 mM added P(i). 5. The extra ATP turnover above the isometric value, resulting from isovelocity shortenings studied at different speeds, was proportional to the power output of the preparation, both in the absence and presence of added [P(i)]. 6. The effect of shortening velocity and [P(i)] on energy turnover can be understood in a cross-bridge model that consists of a detached, a non

  12. An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes. ?? 1995 Birkha??user Verlag.

  13. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  14. The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such

  15. Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative π-Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

    Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative π -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed π -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

  16. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  17. Delayed onset thigh compartment syndrome secondary to contusion.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Rehman, Saqib

    2009-08-01

    While thigh compartment syndrome is relatively uncommon, it can occur in various situations. Multiple reports document thigh contusions as a cause of acute compartment syndrome; however, compartment syndrome of the thigh presenting primarily in a delayed fashion secondary to a contusion has not been described. This article reports a case of thigh compartment syndrome. A 39-year-old man sustained a left thigh contusion while playing basketball. He continued to play and also worked at the office over the next 2 days. Fifty-two hours postinjury, he developed severe pain in the thigh after a long walk. Increased swelling of the thigh followed, with numbness in the anterolateral thigh and pain with knee motion. He presented 60 hours postinjury with a compartment syndrome, and a lateral decompressive fasciotomy of the thigh was performed 62 hours postinjury. The wound was closed after 5 days. Three months postoperatively, the patient returned to playing basketball with no deficits. Treatment of established compartment syndrome in such cases is controversial, with some reports recommending nonoperative management. Contusion-related compartment syndromes are frequently associated with intramuscular bleeding in the involved compartment, which may accumulate slowly or worsen with further activity. Guidelines regarding return to sports need to be established in individuals sustaining severe contusions during sports-related activities to prevent compartment syndrome. Any individual sustaining such an injury should be under surveillance for delayed onset symptoms or signs of this potentially devastating syndrome. PMID:19708619

  18. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  19. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  20. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  1. Structural Characterization of the Binding of Myosin*ADP*Pi to Actin in Permeabilized Rabbit Psoas Muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,S.; Gu, J.; Belknap, B.; White, H.; Yu, L.

    2006-01-01

    When myosin is attached to actin in a muscle cell, various structures in the filaments are formed. The two strongly bound states (A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP and A{center_dot}M) and the weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP states are reasonably well understood. The orientation of the strongly bound myosin heads is uniform ('stereospecific' attachment), and the attached heads exhibit little spatial fluctuation. In the prehydrolysis weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state, the orientations of the attached myosin heads assume a wide range of azimuthal and axial angles, indicating considerable flexibility in the myosin head. The structure of the other weakly bound state, A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}, however, is poorly understood. This state is thought to be the critical pre-power-stroke state, poised to make the transition to the strongly binding, force-generating states, and hence it is of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of contraction. However, because of the low affinity between myosin and actin in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state, the structure of this state has eluded determination both in isolated form and in muscle cells. With the knowledge recently gained in the structures of the weakly binding M{center_dot}ATP, M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} states and the weakly attached A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state in muscle fibers, it is now feasible to delineate the in vivo structure of the attached state of A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}. The series of experiments presented in this article were carried out under relaxing conditions at 25{sup o}C, where {approx}95% of the myosin heads in the skinned rabbit psoas muscle contain the hydrolysis products. The affinity for actin is enhanced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or by lowering the ionic strength in the bathing solution. Solution kinetics and binding constants were determined in the presence and in

  2. Endothermic force generation, temperature-jump experiments and effects of increased [MgADP] in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Coupland, M E; Pinniger, G J; Ranatunga, K W

    2005-09-01

    We studied, by experiment and by kinetic modelling, the characteristics of the force increase on heating (endothermic force) in muscle. Experiments were done on maximally Ca2+-activated, permeabilized, single fibres (length approximately 2 mm; sarcomere length, 2.5 microm) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mM, pH 7.1 and ionic strength was 200 mM. A small-amplitude (approximately 3 degrees C) rapid laser temperature-jump (0.2 ms T-jump) at 8-9 degrees C induced a tension rise to a new steady state and it consisted of two (fast and slow) exponential components. The T-jump-induced tension rise became slower as [MgADP] was increased, with half-maximal effect at 0.5 mM [MgADP]; the pre- and post-T-jump tension increased approximately 20% with 4 mM added [MgADP]. As determined by the tension change to small, rapid length steps (<1.4%L0 complete in <0.5 ms), the increase of force by [MgADP] was not associated with a concomitant increase of stiffness; the quick tension recovery after length steps (Huxley-Simmons phase 2) was slower with added MgADP. In steady-state experiments, the tension was larger at higher temperatures and the plot of tension versus reciprocal absolute temperature was sigmoidal, with a half-maximal tension at 10-12 degrees C; the relation with added 4 mM MgADP was shifted upwards on the tension axis and towards lower temperatures. The potentiation of tension with 4 mM added MgADP was 20-25% at low temperatures (approximately 5-10 degrees C), but approximately 10% at the physiological temperatures (approximately 30 degrees C). The shortening velocity was decreased with increased [MgADP] at low and high temperatures. The sigmoidal relation between tension and reciprocal temperature, and the basic effects of increased [MgADP] on endothermic force, can be qualitatively simulated using a five-step kinetic scheme for the crossbridge/A-MATPase cycle where the force generating conformational change occurs in a reversible step before the release of

  3. Reversal of the cross-bridge force-generating transition by photogeneration of phosphate in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Dantzig, J A; Goldman, Y E; Millar, N C; Lacktis, J; Homsher, E

    1992-01-01

    1. Orthophosphate (P(i), 0.1-2.0 mM) was photogenerated within the filament lattice of isometrically contracting glycerinated fibres of rabbit psoas muscle at 10 and 20 degrees C. The P(i) was produced by laser flash photolysis of the photolabile compound 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethylphosphate (caged P(i)). Caged P(i) caused a depression of tension that was much smaller than that caused by P(i). 2. Photolysis of caged P(i) produced a decline in isometric force composed of four phases: phase I, a lag phase (e.g. 1-4 ms at 10 degrees C) during which force did not change; phase II, an exponential decline by as much as 20% of the pre-pulse force; phase III, a partial force recovery (0-3% of the pre-pulse force); and phase IV, a further slow (0.5-3 s) decline to the steady value. Phases I, III and IV were largely independent of [P(i)] and are likely to be indirect effects caused by the caged P(i) photolysis. 3. Both the rate and amplitude of phase II depended markedly on [P(i)]. The amplitude of phase II was similar to the reduction of steady-state force by P(i). The rate of phase II increased with increasing temperature and [P(i)]. At high [P(i)] the rate began to saturate, and approached limits of 123 s-1 at 10 degrees C and 194 s-1 at 20 degrees C. 4. The rate of phase II was independent of sarcomere overlap, while the amplitude was proportional to tension at partial filament overlap. A control experiment using caged ATP showed that phase II was not produced by the photolytic by-products or the light pulse. The results suggest that phase II is associated with the force-generating transition of the cross-bridge cycle. 5. Sinusoidal length oscillations at 0.5 and 2 kHz were used to measure muscle stiffness during phase II. Stiffness declined in a single exponential phase, with the same time course as phase II of the tension transient. The change in stiffness was 83 +/- 6% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10, 0.5 kHz) of the change in tension when both signals were normalized to their

  4. Force generation examined by laser temperature-jumps in shortening and lengthening mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Ranatunga, K W; Coupland, M E; Pinniger, G J; Roots, H; Offer, G W

    2007-11-15

    We examined the tension change induced by a rapid temperature jump (T-jump) in shortening and lengthening active muscle fibres. Experiments were done on segments of permeabilized single fibres (length (L0) approximately 2 mm, sarcomere length 2.5 microm) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mm, pH 7.1, ionic strength 200 mm and temperature approximately 9 degrees C. A fibre was maximally Ca2+-activated in the isometric state and a approximately 3 degrees C, rapid (< 0.2 ms), laser T-jump applied when the tension was approximately steady in the isometric state, or during ramp shortening or ramp lengthening at a limited range of velocities (0-0.2 L0 s(-1)). The tension increased to 2- to 3 x P0 (isometric force) during ramp lengthening at velocities > 0.05 L0 s(-1), whereas the tension decreased to about < 0.5 x P0 during shortening at 0.1-0.2 L0 s(-1); the unloaded shortening velocity was approximately 1 L0 s(-1) and the curvature of the force-shortening velocity relation was high (a/P0 ratio from Hill's equation of approximately 0.05). In isometric state, a T-jump induced a tension rise of 15-20% to a new steady state; by curve fitting, the tension rise could be resolved into a fast (phase 2b, 40-50 s(-1)) and a slow (phase 3, 5-10 s(-1)) exponential component (as previously reported). During steady lengthening, a T-jump induced a small instantaneous drop in tension, followed by recovery, so that the final tension recorded with and without a T-jump was not significantly different; thus, a T-jump did not lead to a net increase of tension. During steady shortening, the T-jump induced a pronounced tension rise and both its amplitude and the rate (from a single exponential fit) increased with shortening velocity; at 0.1-0.2 L0 s(-1), the extent of fibre shortening during the T-jump tension rise was estimated to be approximately 1.2% L(0) and it was shorter at lower velocities. At a given shortening velocity and over the temperature range of 8-30 degrees C, the

  5. Force generation examined by laser temperature-jumps in shortening and lengthening mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, K W; Coupland, M E; Pinniger, G J; Roots, H; Offer, G W

    2007-01-01

    We examined the tension change induced by a rapid temperature jump (T-jump) in shortening and lengthening active muscle fibres. Experiments were done on segments of permeabilized single fibres (length (L0) ∼2 mm, sarcomere length 2.5 μm) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mm, pH 7.1, ionic strength 200 mm and temperature ∼9°C. A fibre was maximally Ca2+-activated in the isometric state and a ∼3°C, rapid (< 0.2 ms), laser T-jump applied when the tension was approximately steady in the isometric state, or during ramp shortening or ramp lengthening at a limited range of velocities (0–0.2 L0 s−1). The tension increased to 2- to 3 × P0 (isometric force) during ramp lengthening at velocities > 0.05 L0 s−1, whereas the tension decreased to about < 0.5 × P0 during shortening at 0.1–0.2 L0 s−1; the unloaded shortening velocity was ∼1 L0 s−1 and the curvature of the force–shortening velocity relation was high (a/P0 ratio from Hill's equation of ∼0.05). In isometric state, a T-jump induced a tension rise of 15–20% to a new steady state; by curve fitting, the tension rise could be resolved into a fast (phase 2b, 40–50 s−1) and a slow (phase 3, 5–10 s−1) exponential component (as previously reported). During steady lengthening, a T-jump induced a small instantaneous drop in tension, followed by recovery, so that the final tension recorded with and without a T-jump was not significantly different; thus, a T-jump did not lead to a net increase of tension. During steady shortening, the T-jump induced a pronounced tension rise and both its amplitude and the rate (from a single exponential fit) increased with shortening velocity; at 0.1–0.2 L0 s−1, the extent of fibre shortening during the T-jump tension rise was estimated to be ∼1.2% L0 and it was shorter at lower velocities. At a given shortening velocity and over the temperature range of 8–30°C, the rate of T-jump tension rise increased with warming (Q10 ≈ 2.7), similar to

  6. Endothermic force generation, temperature-jump experiments and effects of increased [MgADP] in rabbit psoas muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, ME; Pinniger, GJ; Ranatunga, KW

    2005-01-01

    We studied, by experiment and by kinetic modelling, the characteristics of the force increase on heating (endothermic force) in muscle. Experiments were done on maximally Ca2+-activated, permeabilized, single fibres (length ∼2 mm; sarcomere length, 2.5 μm) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mm, pH 7.1 and ionic strength was 200 mm. A small-amplitude (∼3°C) rapid laser temperature-jump (0.2 ms T-jump) at 8–9°C induced a tension rise to a new steady state and it consisted of two (fast and slow) exponential components. The T-jump-induced tension rise became slower as [MgADP] was increased, with half-maximal effect at 0.5 mm[MgADP]; the pre- and post-T-jump tension increased ∼20% with 4 mm added [MgADP]. As determined by the tension change to small, rapid length steps (<1.4%L0 complete in <0.5 ms), the increase of force by [MgADP] was not associated with a concomitant increase of stiffness; the quick tension recovery after length steps (Huxley–Simmons phase 2) was slower with added MgADP. In steady-state experiments, the tension was larger at higher temperatures and the plot of tension versus reciprocal absolute temperature was sigmoidal, with a half-maximal tension at 10–12°C; the relation with added 4 mm MgADP was shifted upwards on the tension axis and towards lower temperatures. The potentiation of tension with 4 mm added MgADP was 20–25% at low temperatures (∼5–10°C), but ∼10% at the physiological temperatures (∼30°C). The shortening velocity was decreased with increased [MgADP] at low and high temperatures. The sigmoidal relation between tension and reciprocal temperature, and the basic effects of increased [MgADP] on endothermic force, can be qualitatively simulated using a five-step kinetic scheme for the crossbridge/A-MATPase cycle where the force generating conformational change occurs in a reversible step before the release of inorganic phosphate (Pi), it is temperature sensitive (Q10 of ∼4) and the release of Mg

  7. The effect of lattice spacing change on cross-bridge kinetics in chemically skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. I. Proportionality between the lattice spacing and the fiber width.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, M; Wray, J S; Zhao, Y

    1993-01-01

    Chemically skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers/bundles were osmotically compressed with a macromolecule dextran T-500 (0-16%, g/100 ml) at 20 degrees C, 200 mM ionic strength, and pH 7.0. The lattice spacing of psoas bundles was measured by equatorial x-ray diffraction studies during relaxation and after rigor induction, and the results were compared with the fiber width measurements by optical microscopy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether fiber width is a reliable measure of the lattice spacing, and to determine the available spacing for myosin cross-bridges between the thick and thin filaments. We observed that both the lattice spacing and the fiber width decreased with an increase in the dextran concentration during relaxation or after rigor induction, and that the spacing and the fiber width were proportionately related. We further observed that, in the absence of dextran, the lattice spacing (and the fiber width) shrank on a relax-to-rigor transition, whereas in the presence of 16% dextran, the spacing expanded on a relax-to-rigor transition. The cross-over of these plots occurred at the 4-7% dextran concentration. During Ca activation, the fiber width shrank in the absence of dextran, and it slightly expanded in the presence of 14.4% dextran. The degree of expansion was not as large as in the relax-to-rigor transition, and the cross-over occurred at about 11% dextran concentration. We also carried out experiments with dextran T-40 and T-10 to determine the upper limit of the molecular weight that enters the lattice space. We found that the upper limit is about 20 kD. PMID:7679296

  8. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... issuance of the initial airworthiness certificate under that SFAR, the airplane meets the compartment... a large airplane unless it meets the following additional airworthiness requirements: (1) Except...

  9. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo compartment classification. 25.857 Section 25.857 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.857 Cargo compartment classification....

  11. Compartment Syndrome of the Arm After Cable-Wakeboard Accident.

    PubMed

    Barendse-Hofmann, Minke G; Steenvoorde, Pascal; van Doorn, Louk; Zeillemaker, Anneke

    2009-02-01

    A compartment syndrome is an increased tissue pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment. This compromises blood flow to the muscles and nerves within that compartment, which -if not treated adequately in an early stage-results in permanent tissue and nerve damage. It most frequently occurs in the lower leg, but can also occur elsewhere when muscles are enclosed in tight fascial compartments, such as the forearm and hand. In this report a patient is described who developed an acute compartment syndrome of the arm after a cable-wakeboard accident in which his arm was strangulated. Cable-wakeboarding is an extreme sport that has become very popular over the last years. Early recognition and treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is of extreme importance since in short term necrotic muscles can lead to severe irreversible complications. Accidents with cable-wakeboarding often occur during the start. This is caused by the strong forces that are on the cable during the start. Strangulation injuries of the arm can cause a compartment syndrome of the arm. Possibly a wet-suit or dry-suit offers some protection. However, the duration of strangulation determines much of the damage. Although diagnosis of a compartment syndrome can be difficult, a high index of suspicion combined with fast and adequate treatment with a fasciotomy improve outcome and prognosis. PMID:26814537

  12. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, will enter any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers; (3) There is a separate approved smoke... compartment but in which— (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to...

  13. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Hand in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tanagho, Andy; Hatab, Sameh; Youssef, Sally; Ansara, Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Compartment syndrome refers to a condition of compromised circulation within a limited space due to increased pressure within that space. The reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced venous drainage, leading to increased interstitial tissue pressure and subsequent compromised arterial flow. Although not as common as compartment syndrome of the leg and forearm, compartment syndrome of the hand is not rare and can lead to devastating sequelae as a result of tissue necrosis. Compartment syndrome of the hand has several etiologies, including trauma, arterial injury, thermal injury, and constrictive bandaging. The cardinal clinical sign is pain that is aggravated by passive stretching of the muscles within the involved compartments. Extremity function is usually restored with expeditious fasciotomy of the involved myofascial compartments, and complications, such as intrinsic muscular dysfunction and Volkmann's ischemic contracture, can usually be prevented. There are no reported cases of compartment syndrome of the hand in patients with systemic sclerosis or Raynaud's phenomenon. Systemic sclerosis is a form of scleroderma that affects the skin and internal organs. The limited cutaneous subset affects the skin of the extremities but is associated with a set of characteristic features that includes calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. This report describes an unusual case of a patient who had spontaneous compartment syndrome of the hand. The patient's concomitant limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis may have played a role in this unusual occurrence. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture, and the symptoms resolved after surgical decompression. PMID:26375546

  14. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  16. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  17. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  18. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  19. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.855 Section 29.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.855 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a)...

  20. Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

    2011-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon. PMID:21667742

  1. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, will enter any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers; (3) There is a separate approved smoke... compartment but in which— (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  3. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental...

  4. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  5. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  6. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  7. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  8. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  9. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  10. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  11. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  12. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  13. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  14. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 27.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  15. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 29.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 29.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  17. Endothelial Src kinase regulates membrane recycling from the lateral border recycling compartment during leukocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bidisha; Muller, William A

    2008-12-01

    When leukocytes cross endothelial cells during the inflammatory response, membrane from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) is selectively targeted around diapedesing leukocytes. This "targeted recycling" is critical for leukocyte transendothelial migration. Blocking homophilic PECAM interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells blocks targeted recycling from the LBRC and blocks diapedesis. However, the cellular signaling pathways that trigger targeted recycling are not known. We show that targeted recycling from the LBRC is dependent on Src kinase. The selective Src kinase inhibitor PP2 blocked targeted recycling and blocked diapedesis by over 70%. However, Src kinase inhibition did not affect the structure or normal constitutive recycling of membrane from the LBRC in the absence of leukocytes. PECAM, a Src kinase substrate, traffics between the LBRC and the endothelial surface at the cell border. However, virtually all of the PECAM in the cell that was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues was found in the LBRC. These findings demonstrate that Src kinase activity is critical for the targeted recycling of membrane from the LBRC to the site of transendothelial migration and that the PECAM in the LBRC is qualitatively different from the PECAM on the surface of endothelial cells. PMID:18991269

  18. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  19. Structural and functional analysis of endosomal compartments in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bay, Andres E Perez; Schreiner, Ryan; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells display segregated early endosomal compartments, termed apical sorting endosomes and basolateral sorting endosomes, that converge into a common late endosomal-lysosomal degradative compartment and common recycling endosomes (CREs). Unlike recycling endosomes of nonpolarized cells, CREs have the ability to sort apical and basolateral plasma membrane proteins into distinct apical and basolateral recycling routes, utilizing mechanisms similar to those employed by the trans Golgi network in the biosynthetic pathway. The apical recycling route includes an additional compartment, the apical recycling endosomes, consisting of multiple vesicles bundled around the basal body. Recent evidence indicates that, in addition to their role in internalizing ligands and recycling their receptors back to the cell surface, endosomal compartments act as intermediate stations in the biosynthetic routes to the plasma membrane. Here we review methods employed by our laboratory to study the endosomal compartments of epithelial cells and their multiple trafficking roles. PMID:26360040

  20. Safe arthroscopic access to the central compartment of the hip.

    PubMed

    Dienst, Michael; Seil, Romain; Kohn, Dieter M

    2005-12-01

    This technical note describes a new method that allows access to the central compartment of the hip under arthroscopic control via the peripheral compartment with less risk of labral perforation and/or cartilage scuffing. After placement of the anterolateral portal in the peripheral compartment without traction, the anterior head area with the anterior acetabular labrum and the anterior surface of the femoral head are inspected. Under arthroscopic control, a guidewire is introduced through the anterior portal in between the anterior labrum and anterior femoral head cartilage and into the central compartment. The arthroscope is then removed from the anterolateral portal, the hip distracted, and the arthroscope introduced via cannulated instruments over the guidewire into the central compartment. Further portal placement can be controlled arthroscopically. PMID:16376244

  1. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA. PMID:26652332

  2. Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

    2013-09-27

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 μg/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells. PMID:23603023

  3. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

  4. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... the P and the R waves on the EKG (electrocardiogram). First-degree heart block may not cause ...

  5. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  6. Striatal patch compartment lesions reduce stereotypy following repeated cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ryan C; Logan, Mary C; Horner, Kristen A

    2015-08-27

    Stereotypy can be characterized as inflexible, repetitive behaviors that occur following repeated exposure to psychostimulants, such as cocaine (COC). Stereotypy may be related to preferential activation of the patch (striosome) compartment of striatum, as enhanced relative activation of the patch compartment has been shown to positively correlate with the emergence of stereotypy following repeated psychostimulant treatment. However, the specific contribution of the patch compartment to COC-induced stereotypy following repeated exposure is unknown. To elucidate the involvement of the patch compartment to the development of stereotypy following repeated COC exposure, we determined if destruction of this sub-region altered COC-induced behaviors. The neurons of the patch compartment were ablated by bilateral infusion of the neurotoxin dermorphin-saporin (DERM-SAP; 17 ng/μl) into the striatum. Animals were allowed to recover for eight days following the infusion, and then were given daily injections of COC (25mg/kg) or saline for one week, followed by a weeklong drug-free period. Animals were then given a challenge dose of saline or COC, observed for 2h in activity chambers and sacrificed. The number of mu-labeled patches in the striatum were reduced by DERM-SAP pretreatment. In COC-treated animals DERM-SAP pretreatment significantly reduced the immobilization and intensity of stereotypy but increased locomotor activity. DERM-SAP pretreatment attenuated COC-induced c-Fos expression in the patch compartment, while enhancing COC-induced c-Fos expression in the matrix compartment. These data indicate that the patch compartment contributes to repetitive behavior and suggests that alterations in activity in the patch vs matrix compartments may underlie to this phenomenon. PMID:26100338

  7. Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enshaei, Ali; Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe’s tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome. PMID:26894227

  8. 113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING MASTER GYRO AND INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS SWITCHBOARD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. Decompression of Neglected Compartment Syndrome of the Arm

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Matt DA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Compartment syndrome of the arm is rare, and delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating. A case is reported of compartment syndrome of the whole arm occurring in a remote location and arrival at hospital 15 hours after injury with good results despite delayed treatment. Case Report: A 26 year old male presented with a combined crush injury and compartment syndrome of the arm, with delay in presentation due to remote injury and delay in rescue. Late (>16 hours)fasciotomy was performed with retention of the upper arm, elbow and proximal forearm with good residual function. Conclusion: Despite significant delay in treatment of compartment syndrome of the arm, useful function and tissue can be preserved with adequate decompression. PMID:27299052

  10. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate forward... resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage...

  14. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate forward... resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage...

  15. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate forward... resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage...

  16. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  17. Dynamics of the establishment of multinucleate compartments in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M M; Rep, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  18. 3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Astronaut Richard Covey working in the Crew Compartment Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Richard O. Covey retrieves a helmet from a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EM) spacesuit in the airlock of the one-G crew compartment trainer (CCT) at JSC. Covey was training for the STS 26 flight.

  20. [Compartment syndrome following laparoscopic procedures in the lithotomy position].

    PubMed

    Donckers, Janneke; de Kruif, Jan H; van der Stappen, William A H

    2010-01-01

    A laparoscopic tubectomy in the lithotomy position was performed on a healthy 31-year-old woman, as treatment following an extra-uterine pregnancy. The operation proceeded without complications and took 60 minutes. However, on the third day following surgery the woman was diagnosed with compartment syndrome, which was treated with three-compartment fasciotomy. Compartment syndrome is a rare but dangerous complication of an operation in the lithotomy position. Since pressure on leg compartments increases with time spent in the lithotomy position, regardless of the type of stirrups used, it is important to maintain the position only as long as is necessary for the procedure. The patient's legs should be taken out of the lithotomy position as soon as possible, and the position resumed if necessary at a later stage in the procedure. This can easily be achieved with pneumatic stirrups. PMID:20619013

  1. Two clinical tests for assessing lateral compartment arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, David

    2006-08-01

    Two clinical tests, the valgus tap test and the valgus skid test, are described which detect bone contact in the lateral compartment of the knee. They are useful in planning surgical intervention. PMID:16632364

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind G; Weaver, Michael J; Appleton, Paul T; Appelton, Paul T; Bae, Donald S; Dyer, George S M; Heng, Marilyn; Jupiter, Jesse B; Vrahas, Mark S

    2015-09-26

    Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data. PMID:26460664

  3. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  4. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  5. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing required. Merchandise in...

  7. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Current Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luckianow, Gina M.; Ellis, Matthew; Governale, Deborah; Kaplan, Lewis J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome's manifestations are difficult to definitively detect on physical examination alone. Therefore, objective criteria have been articulated that aid the bedside clinician in detecting intra-abdominal hypertension as well as the abdominal compartment syndrome to initiate prompt and potentially life-saving intervention. At-risk patient populations should be routinely monitored and tiered interventions should be undertaken as a team approach to management. PMID:22720147

  8. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios. PMID:25361367

  9. Differential gene expression in anatomical compartments of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Diehn, Jennifer J; Diehn, Maximilian; Marmor, Michael F; Brown, Patrick O

    2005-01-01

    Background The human eye is composed of multiple compartments, diverse in form, function, and embryologic origin, that work in concert to provide us with our sense of sight. We set out to systematically characterize the global gene expression patterns that specify the distinctive characteristics of the various eye compartments. Results We used DNA microarrays representing approximately 30,000 human genes to analyze gene expression in the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body, retina, and optic nerve. The distinctive patterns of expression in each compartment could be interpreted in relation to the physiology and cellular composition of each tissue. Notably, the sets of genes selectively expressed in the retina and in the lens were particularly large and diverse. Genes with roles in immune defense, particularly complement components, were expressed at especially high levels in the anterior segment tissues. We also found consistent differences between the gene expression patterns of the macula and peripheral retina, paralleling the differences in cell layer densities between these regions. Based on the hypothesis that genes responsible for diseases that affect a particular eye compartment are likely to be selectively expressed in that compartment, we compared our gene expression signatures with genetic mapping studies to identify candidate genes for diseases affecting the cornea, lens, and retina. Conclusion Through genome-scale gene expression profiling, we were able to discover distinct gene expression 'signatures' for each eye compartment and identified candidate disease genes that can serve as a reference database for investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the eye. PMID:16168081

  10. Return to activity following fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Irion, Val; Magnussen, Robert A; Miller, Timothy L; Kaeding, Christopher C

    2014-10-01

    Diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is relatively rare but has been well documented in athletes. There are, however, few reports regarding return to athletic activity after surgery among elite-level athletes. We hypothesized that a majority of elite-level athletes would successfully return to their previous level of competition following fasciotomy for CECS. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify elite-level athletes (collegiate or professional sport participation) who underwent fasciotomy for CECS over a 3-year period. Data collected included sport or activity, treatment and surgical details, time away from sport/activity after surgery, and ability to return to prior level of activity. Six males and seven females were included in the analysis. Patient age ranged from 17 to 24 years with a mean of 19.7 years. Six patients underwent unilateral lower extremity compartment release, and seven underwent bilateral lower extremity compartment release. The anterior and lateral compartments alone were released in 11 patients (84.6%). Two patients (15.4%) underwent four-compartment releases. Eleven patients (84.6%) were able to return to their previous elite level of sport participation at a mean of 10.6 weeks following surgical fasciotomy. Patients who had four-compartment release had a more than 3.5 week average longer return to full sporting activities (p = 0.011). Fasciotomy is effective in allowing elite athletes with CECS to return to sport. PMID:24664450

  11. Compartment Syndrome of the Gluteus Medius Occurred without Bleeding or Trauma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Gyu-Min; Park, Jun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is an ischemic change resulting from an increase in compartment pressure. Initially, patients present with direct tenderness and swelling, and the weak circulation secondary to compartment syndrome can eventually lead to motor and sensory impairment. If the increase in pressure results in neurological impairment, emergency intervention is required to decompress the compartment. Typically, compartment syndrome develops on forearms or lower legs. The gluteal compartment is rarely the location of compartment syndrome and only a few cases have been presented in the literature with trauma or hematoma. We have treated a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome who presented with no history of trauma or hemorrhage and present that case report here.

  12. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  13. Calcium-dependence of Donnan potentials in glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle in rigor, at and beyond filament overlap; a role for titin in the contractile process.

    PubMed

    Coomber, S J; Bartels, E M; Elliott, G F

    2011-07-01

    In glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle, Donnan potential measurements demonstrated that the net electric charge on the actin-myosin matrix undergoes a sharp switch-like transition at pCa(50) = 6.8. The potentials are 2 mV less negative at the lower pCa(2+) (P < 0.001). If ATP is present, the muscle contracts and breaks the microelectrode. Therefore the rigor state was studied. There is no reason to suppose a priori that a similar voltage switch does not occur during contraction, however. Calcium dependence is still apparent in muscles stretched beyond overlap (sarcomere length>3.8 μm) and is also seen in the gap filaments between the A- and I-band ends; further stretching abolishes the dependence. These experiments strongly suggest that calcium dependence is controlled initially by the titin component, and that this control is lost when titin filaments break. We suppose that that effect is mediated by the titin kinase in the M-line region and may involve the extensible PEVK region of titin. There is great interest in the electric charge on proteins in muscle within the structural system. We suggest how changes in these charges may control the calcium activation process. We also suggest some simple experimental approaches that could clarify these effects. PMID:21663965

  14. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  15. Effect of arthritis in other compartment after unicompartmental arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mofidi, Ali; Lu, Bo; Plate, Johannes F; Lang, Jason E; Poehling, Gary G; Jinnah, Riyaz H

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of robotic-assisted (MAKO Surgical Corp.) unicondylar replacement in the treatment for knee osteoarthritis after the initial surgical insult is worn off to evaluate the impact of residual patellofemoral and lateral osteoarthritis on the outcome of medial unicompartmental knee replacement. One hundred and thirty-four patients who underwent uncomplicated 144 robotic-assisted medial unicondylar replacements for knee arthritis were identified and studied. Original radiographs were used to classify severity of patellofemoral and lateral compartmental osteoarthritis in these patients. Severity of patellofemoral and lateral compartmental osteoarthritis was analyzed against Oxford and Knee Society scores and amount of ipsilateral residual knee symptoms at 6 months postoperative period. Preoperative Oxford and Knee Society scores, other comorbidities and long-term disability were studied as confounding variables. We found significant improvement in symptoms and scores in spite of other compartment diseases. Poorer outcome was seen in association with comorbidities and long-term disability but not when radiographic signs of arthritis in the other compartments were present. Six patients required revision of which three had (lateral facet) patellofemoral disease in the original X-rays. In conclusion, there is a higher amount of postoperative retained symptoms, but similar outcome when there is radiographic disease in the other compartments. However, when symptoms are severe enough to necessitate revision, this is due to the lateral facet of patellofemoral compartment and not lateral compartment disease. PMID:23771595

  16. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered. PMID:26885421

  17. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, ... surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can cause numbness, paralysis, and other nervous ...

  18. Acute compartment syndrome of the foot in a 17-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio; Roda, Simone; Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is both a life and limb threatening surgical emergency, caused by an increase in compartment contents due to either trauma or surgery. We illustrate a foot compartment syndrome, clinically diagnosed, that took place after direct injury during a football match. Compartments release through fasciotomies promptly relieved symptoms. Educational images are furnished. PMID:23306283

  19. Compartment A101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary compartment. Door at left leads to ship's brig. Ladder leads to compartment A-123. Compartment aft of ladder is bread room, A-102. (07) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  1. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    PubMed

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

  2. Chronic compartment syndrome. An unusual cause for claudication.

    PubMed Central

    Turnipseed, W; Detmer, D E; Girdley, F

    1989-01-01

    Chronic Compartment Syndrome (CCS) is usually caused by overuse injury in well-conditioned athletes (particularly runners). Less common causes of CCS include blunt trauma, venous insufficiency, and tumor. CCS is clinically manifested as claudication, tightness, and occasional paresthesia. Unlike other forms of overuse injury (tendonitis, stress fracture), CCS does not respond to rest, anti-inflammatory medications, or physical therapy. The diagnosis of this condition is confirmed by elevated compartment pressures (normal less than 15 mmHg; CCS greater than 20 mmHg). The only effective treatment is surgical compartment release. Two hundred nine patients have been surgically treated for CCS, 100 by subcutaneous fasciotomy (group I) and 109 by open fasciectomy (group II). These procedures were usually performed in ambulatory surgery using local anesthesia. Patients treated by open faciectomy instead of subcutaneous fasciotomy had fewer early postoperative wound complications (6% vs. 11%) and fewer late recurrences (2% vs. 11%). PMID:2802837

  3. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management

    PubMed Central

    Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

  4. Dendritic spines as individual neuronal compartments for synaptic Ca2+ responses.

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Connor, J A

    1991-11-01

    The possibility that postsynaptic spines on neuronal dendrites are discrete biochemical compartments for Ca(2+)-activated processes involved in synaptic plasticity is a widely proposed concept that has eluded experimental demonstration. Using microfluorometry on CA3 neurons in hippocampal slices, we show here that with weak presynaptic stimulation of associative/commissural fibres, Ca2+ accumulates in single postsynaptic spines but not in the parent dendrite. Stronger stimulation also promotes changes in dendrites. The NMDA-receptor antagonist AP-5 blocks changes in Ca2+ in spines. Sustained steep Ca2+ gradients between single spines and the parent dendrite, often lasting several minutes, develop with repeated stimulation. The observed compartmentalization allows for the specificity, cooperativity and associativity displayed by memory models such as long-term potentiation. PMID:1682815

  5. The Block Scheduling Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    Block scheduling encourages increased comprehensive immersion into subject matter, improved teacher-student relationships, and decreased disciplinary problems. While block scheduling may offer many advantages, moving to a block schedule from conventional scheduling can be a major adjustment for both students and teachers. This guide is intended to…

  6. Block Scheduling. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    What are the effects of block scheduling? Results of transitioning from traditional to block scheduling are mixed. Some studies indicate no change in achievement results, nor change in teachers' opinions about instructional strategies. Other studies show that block scheduling doesn't work well for Advanced Placement or Music courses, that "hard to…

  7. Blocking Delaunay triangulations

    PubMed Central

    Aichholzer, Oswin; Fabila-Monroy, Ruy; Hackl, Thomas; van Kreveld, Marc; Pilz, Alexander; Ramos, Pedro; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay triangulation of B∪W there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest set W blocking B: (i) 3n/2 white points are always sufficient to block a set of n black points, (ii) if B is in convex position, 5n/4 white points are always sufficient to block it, and (iii) at least n−1 white points are always necessary to block a set of n black points. PMID:23483043

  8. Blocking Delaunay triangulations.

    PubMed

    Aichholzer, Oswin; Fabila-Monroy, Ruy; Hackl, Thomas; van Kreveld, Marc; Pilz, Alexander; Ramos, Pedro; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

    2013-02-01

    Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay triangulation of [Formula: see text] there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest set W blocking B: (i) [Formula: see text] white points are always sufficient to block a set of n black points, (ii) if B is in convex position, [Formula: see text] white points are always sufficient to block it, and (iii) at least [Formula: see text] white points are always necessary to block a set of n black points. PMID:23483043

  9. Block LU factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU factorization, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU factorization is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU factorization can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth factor for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU factorization is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.

  10. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prostatectomy caused by incorrect positioning.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Jens; Ladurner, R; Ozimek, A; Vogel, T; Hallfeldt, K K; Mussack, T

    2006-04-28

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is an uncommon and rare disease. Most reasonable causes for the development of this disease are trauma, drug induced coma, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, sickle cell associated muscle infarction, incorrect positioning during surgical procedures and prolonged pressure in patients with altered consciousness levels. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, especially in postoperative patient where sedation or peridural anaesthesia can confound the neurological examination. Early signs include gluteal tenderness, decrease in vibratory sensation during clinical examination and increasing CK in laboratory findings. We present a case of a 52 year-old patient, who developed gluteal compartment syndrome after radical prostatectomy in lithotomic position. After operation, diuresis decreased [<50 ml/h] and CK [93927 U/l], LDH [1528 U/l], creatinin [1.5 mg/dl] and urea [20 mg/dl] increased in laboratory findings. Despite peridural anaesthesia, the patient complained about increasing pain in the gluteal region and both thighs. His thighs and the gluteal region were swollen. Passive stretch of the thighs caused enormous pain. The compartment pressure was 92 mmHg. Therefore, emergency fasciotomy was performed successfully. The gluteal compartment syndrome was most likely caused by elevated pressure on the gluteal muscle during operation. We suggest heightened awareness of positioning the patient on the operating table is important especially in obese patients with lengthy operating procedures. PMID:16720283

  12. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment but in which— (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to give... approved smoke or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station; (3) There... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent,...

  13. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  14. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  15. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  16. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  17. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  18. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  19. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  20. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  1. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  2. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  3. An expanding forearm phlegmon and subsequent compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agha, R A; Geh, J

    2016-03-01

    We present the case of a young, fit woman who developed a forearm phlegmon with subsequent compartment syndrome. Further investigation found her to be suffering from endocarditis and she had had recent dental work. Presentation and management is discussed, with learning points highlighted. PMID:26890848

  4. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  5. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 58.510 Section 58.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  6. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 58.510 Section 58.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  7. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 58.510 Section 58.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  8. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 27.787 Section 27.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.787 Cargo and...

  9. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.787 Section 29.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.787 Cargo and...

  10. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  11. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  12. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  13. Astronaut Richard Covey in the Crew Compartment trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Richard O. Covey sits at the pilot's station in the one-G Crew Compartment trainer (CCT) at JSC. Astronaut Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck (almost obscured at left) is in the commander's station. Covey was named as pilot for the STS 26 mission to be flown in 1988.

  14. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  15. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  16. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  17. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  18. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  19. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  20. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  1. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  2. Acute Lower Leg Compartment Syndrome: A Rare Complication following CABG

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of lower legs following coronary artery bypass grafting is a rare complication which results from a combination of local and systemic factors. Early recognition is vital for good outcome. The case discussed describes this rare complication of CABG resulting in long term disability. PMID:27525152

  3. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

  5. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  6. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 121.314 Section 121.314 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND...

  7. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  8. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  9. Targeted Recycling of the Lateral Border Recycling Compartment Precedes Adherens Junction Dissociation during Transendothelial Migration.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Annette M; Cyrus, Bita F; Muller, William A

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) requires two major events: local dissociation of adherens junctions manifested as gaps in vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin staining at the site of TEM and targeted trafficking of the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) to the site of TEM. However, the association between LBRC recycling and VE-cadherin gaps remains unknown. We found that when targeting of the LBRC is selectively inhibited using established methods, such as a function blocking anti-platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 antibody, depolymerizing microtubules, or microinjection of an antibody that inhibits kinesin, VE-cadherin gaps do not form around the blocked leukocyte. This is the first time that the LBRC has been implicated in this process. We obtained similar results for neutrophils and monocytes and in studies using live cell imaging microscopy conducted under fluid shear conditions. Depolymerizing microtubules did not affect the ability of leukocytes to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin. A VE-cadherin double mutant (Y658F, Y731F) expressed in endothelial cells acted as a dominant negative and inhibited VE-cadherin gap formation and TEM, yet targeting of the LBRC still occurred. These data suggest that targeting of the LBRC to the site of TEM precedes VE-cadherin clearance. Recruitment of the LBRC may play a role in clearing VE-cadherin from the site of TEM. PMID:26968345

  10. MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

    2012-07-01

    As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are

  11. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  12. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  13. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  14. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  15. Magma chambers: Formation, local stresses, excess pressures, and compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2012-09-01

    An existing magma chamber is normally a necessary condition for the generation of a large volcanic edifice. Most magma chambers form through repeated magma injections, commonly sills, and gradually expand and change their shapes. Highly irregular magma-chamber shapes are thermo-mechanically unstable; common long-term equilibrium shapes are comparatively smooth and approximate those of ellipsoids of revolution. Some chambers, particularly small and sill-like, may be totally molten. Most chambers, however, are only partially molten, the main part of the chamber being crystal mush, a porous material. During an eruption, magma is drawn from the crystal mush towards a molten zone beneath the lower end of the feeder dyke. Magma transport to the feeder dyke, however, depends on the chamber's internal structure; in particular on whether the chamber contains pressure compartments that are, to a degree, isolated from other compartments. It is only during large drops in the hydraulic potential beneath the feeder dyke that other compartments become likely to supply magma to the erupting compartment, thereby contributing to its excess pressure (the pressure needed to rupture a magma chamber) and the duration of the eruption. Simple analytical models suggest that during a typical eruption, the excess-pressure in the chamber decreases exponentially. This result applies to a magma chamber that (a) is homogeneous and totally fluid (contains no compartments), (b) is not subject to significant replenishment (inflow of new magma into the chamber) during the eruption, and (c) contains magma where exsolution of gas has no significant effect on the excess pressure. For a chamber consisting of pressure compartments, the exponential excess-pressure decline applies primarily to a single erupting compartment. When more than one compartment contributes magma to the eruption, the excess pressure may decline much more slowly and irregularly. Excess pressure is normally similar to the in

  16. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Strano, Sabrina; Roth, Judith; Blandino, Giovanni . E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  17. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  18. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Pramod B; Lebrun, Drake G; Roth, Cameron A; Kelly, John D

    2015-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  19. Distributed transit compartments for arbitrary lifespan distributions in aging populations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gilbert; Schropp, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Transit compartment models (TCM) are often used to describe aging populations where every individual has its own lifespan. However, in the TCM approach these lifespans are gamma-distributed which is a serious limitation because often the Weibull or more complex distributions are realistic. Therefore, we extend the TCM concept to approximately describe any lifespan distribution and call this generalized concept distributed transit compartment models (DTCMs). The validity of DTCMs is obtained by convergence investigations. From the mechanistic perspective the transit rates are directly controlled by the lifespan distribution. Further, DTCMs could be used to approximate the convolution of a signal with a probability density function. As example a stimulatory effect of a drug in an aging population with a Weibull-distributed lifespan is presented where distribution and model parameters are estimated based on simulated data. PMID:26100181

  20. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  1. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  3. Three STS 26 astronauts training in the Crew Compartment trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Three astronauts named in January 1987 as part of a five-member crew for NASA's first flight since the Challenger accident are shown in a photo session of July 1986. Left to right are Astronauts John M. (Mike) Lounge, Richard O. Covey and David C. Hilmers. Lounge and Hilmers will serve as Mission specialists for the STS 26 flight and Covey will serve as pilot. The three are on the middeck of JSC's one-G Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  4. Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated. PMID:27186379

  6. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  7. Lemniscal and Extralemniscal Compartments in the VPM of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Yu, Chunxiu; Rubin, Naama; Ahissar, Ehud

    2008-01-01

    The ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) of the rat contains at least two major vibrissa-representing compartments: the dorsomedial (VPMdm), which belongs to the lemniscal afferent pathway, and the ventrolateral (VPMvl), which belongs to the extralemniscal afferent pathway. Although input–output projections and functional characteristics that distinguish these two compartments were recently clarified, a comprehensive structural analysis of these compartments and the border between them was lacking. This paper addresses structural and functional relationships between the VPMdm and VPMvl. We found that the size of the VPM is almost constant across individual rats. Next, we computed a canonical map of the VPM in the oblique plane, where structural borders are best visualized. Using the canonical map, and sequential slices cut in oblique and coronal planes, we determined the border between the VPMdm and VPMvl in the standard coronal plane, and verified it with in vivo extracellular recordings. The position of the border between these two vibrissal sub-nuclei changes along the rostrocaudal extent within the VPM due to the relative sizes of these sub-nuclei at any point. The border between the VPMdm and VPMvl, which was revealed by this technique, can now be included in atlases of the rat brain and should facilitate experimental correlation of tactile functions with thalamic regions. PMID:18958201

  8. Wound Complications Following Resection of Adductor Compartment Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, Robert J.; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose Limb salvage surgery of soft tissue sarcomas is associated with both a risk of local recurrence and wound complications. Although the lower limb appears to be at greater risk of wound-related morbidity, few studies separate anatomical compartments. We believe that the adductor compartment of the thigh has a particularly high rate of complications and so performed a retrospective analysis of all soft tissue sarcomas arising in this region undergoing limb salvage. Patients Patients with intermediate and high grade adductor compartment tumours were identified from our database and the case notes were reviewed for patient, tumour, surgical and wound variables, identifying those with wound complications both before and after discharge. Results Of 49 patients who underwent limb salvage surgery, 22 (42.9%) developed complications. Twelve patients (24.5%) required further surgery prior to wound healing and 10 patients had delays in post-operative radiotherapy. There were significant differences in the rates of preceding surgery, open biopsy performed at other centres and previous radiotherapy to this region between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Discussion The management of these difficult tumours carries a high rate of wound complications and requires careful planning prior to tissue biopsy. Open biopsies should be performed by the tumour surgeon to allow easy inclusion of this site in the definitive procedure. In previously irradiated or operated limbs, alternative strategies for wound management may need to be considered. PMID:18521315

  9. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  10. Opioid overdose with gluteal compartment syndrome and acute peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adrish, Muhammad; Duncalf, Richard; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda; Venkatram, Sindhaghatta

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Gluteal compartment syndrome • acute peripheral nauropathy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Heroin addiction is common, with an estimated 3.7 million Americans reporting to have used it at some point in their lives. Complications of opiate overdose include infection, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory depression and central or peripheral nervous system neurological complications. Conclusions: We present a 42-year-old male admitted after heroin use with heroin-related peripheral nervous system complication preceded by an acute gluteal compartment syndrome and severe rhabdomyolysis. Case Report: Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of the compartment syndrome can lead to full recovery while any delay in management can be devastating and can lead to permanent disability. The presence of peripheral nervous system injuries may portend a poor prognosis and can also lead to long term disability. Careful neurological evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral nervous system injuries is of paramount importance, as these may be absent at presentation in patients with opioid overdose. There is a potential risk of delaying a necessary treatment like fasciotomy in these patients by falsely attributing clinical symptoms to a preexisting neuropathy. Early EMG and nerve conduction studies should be considered when the etiology of underlying neurological weakness is unclear. PMID:24459539

  11. Effect of vacuum sealing drainage in osteofascial compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Ji, Lei; Tao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of vacuum sealing drainage in the patients with osteofascial compartment syndrome in comparison to conventional treatment. Methods: Fifty-two patients diagnosed with osteofascial compartment syndrome were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups based on treatments: vacuum sealing drainage and conventional treatment. After operation, the length of hospital stay and antibiotics administration were recorded in the two groups, as well as swelling elimination and wound closure. Results: No significant difference was observed in terms of the baseline characteristics between the two groups. There are no obvious local or systemic complications in all cases. In contrast to conventional treatment group, the time of swelling elimination, wound closure, hospital stay and antibiotics application were reduced significantly in vacuum sealing drainage group. No allergic reactions or other side effects were observed after the application of vacuum sealing drainage material, indicating its safety. Conclusion: Vacuum sealing drainage is effective in treating osteofascial compartment syndrome with better clinical outcomes than conventional therapy. PMID:26629121

  12. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  13. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, James J; Hennrikus, William L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms. PMID:26229700

  14. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, James J.; Hennrikus, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms. PMID:26229700

  15. RAB24 facilitates clearance of autophagic compartments during basal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Mikkonen, Elisa; Happonen, Kaisa E; Holland, Petter; Ueno, Takashi; Simonsen, Anne; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    RAB24 belongs to a family of small GTPases and has been implicated to function in autophagy. Here we confirm the intracellular localization of RAB24 to autophagic vacuoles with immuno electron microscopy and cell fractionation, and show that prenylation and guanine nucleotide binding are necessary for the targeting of RAB24 to autophagic compartments. Further, we show that RAB24 plays a role in the maturation and/or clearance of autophagic compartments under nutrient-rich conditions, but not during short amino acid starvation. Quantitative electron microscopy shows an increase in the numbers of late autophagic compartments in cells silenced for RAB24, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe and autophagy flux experiments indicate that this is due to a hindrance in their clearance. Formation of autophagosomes is shown to be unaffected by RAB24-silencing with siRNA. A defect in aggregate clearance in the absence of RAB24 is also shown in cells forming polyglutamine aggregates. This study places RAB24 function in the termination of the autophagic process under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26325487

  16. View of compartment D16, passing room; shaft and universal joints ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment D-16, passing room; shaft and universal joints at top of photograph transmit control forces to steering unit in compartment d-23. (p62) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Forearm compartment syndrome after intravenous mannitol extravasation in a carbosulfan poisoning patient.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ahmet; Uzunlar, Halil

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of forearm compartment syndrome caused by extravasation of mannitol in an intoxicated patient. The pathophysiology and management of a forearm compartment syndrome from extravasation of mannitol are discussed in this case. PMID:15462158

  18. View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B126 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B-126 used for servicng boiler room compartments B-3 and B-4. (052A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  9. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  10. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  12. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  13. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  14. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  15. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  16. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  17. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  20. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  1. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  2. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  3. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  4. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  5. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  6. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  9. RX for Writer's Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  10. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  11. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  12. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Christian A.; Flegg, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial reaction–diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction–diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as ‘compartment-based’ or ‘on-lattice’. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of ‘compartments’. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: ‘how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?’ First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient

  13. AVM Compartments: Do they modulate trasnidal pressures? An electrical network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Litao, Miguel Lorenzo Silva; Pilar-Arceo, Carlene PC; Legaspi, Gerardo Dizon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) compartments are thought as independently fed, hemodynamically independent components of the AVM nidus. Its possible role in modulating transnidal pressures have not been investigated to our knowledge. Objective: To investigate if AVM compartments play a role in modulating transnidal pressures by using electrical models as a method of investigation. Materials and Methods: Monocompartmental and multicompartmental AVM models were constructed using electrical circuits- building on Dr. Guglielmi's previous work. Each compartment was fed by two feeding arteries (resistors) and had a shared draining vein with other compartments in the AVM nidus. Each compartment is composed of a series of resistors which represents the pressure gradient along the AVM (arterial, arteriolar, venular, and venous). Pressure (voltage) readings were obtained within these nidal points. Results: The pressure gradient (venous-arterial) is more as there are less AVM compartments in the nidus model. The monocomparmental model had a pressure gradient of 66mmHg (V); while it was 64, 61, and 59 for the 2-, 3-, and 4-compartment models, respectively. In addition, the more the number of compartments, the greater the flow (mA) is in the whole AVM nidus, 33 ml/min for the monocompartmental AVM and 121ml/min for the 4-compartment AVM; though there was greater flow per compartment as there were less compartments, 33ml/min per compartment for the monocompartmental model versus 29ml/min for the 4-compartment model. Conclusion: Transnidal pressure gradients may be less the more compartments an AVM has. This electrical model represents an approach that can be used in investigating the hemodynamic contributions of AVM compartments. PMID:23559984

  14. Exercise-induced Pediatric Lumbar Paravertebral Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Verena M; Ward, W Timothy

    2015-09-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is described as an elevation of interstitial pressure in a closed fascial compartment that can lead to damage of the microvasculature with subsequent tissue necrosis. Although paravertebral compartment syndrome has been described there is no case of paravertebral compartment syndrome that has been described in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented at our institution with severe, acute-onset low back pain that started shortly after a rigorous 4-hour workout. He was diagnosed with acute lumbar paravertebral compartment syndrome and underwent emergent fasciotomy with 2 more debridements. PMID:25887821

  15. Identification Bracelet Precipitated Acute Compartment Syndrome during Intravenous Infusion in an Obtunded Patient

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Wahib; Chaucer, Benjamin; Felek, Suleyman; Arsura, Edward L.; Nfonoyim, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious condition requiring immediate medical care. A lack of urgent medical treatment can result in serious complications such as loss of function and even amputation. While the pathophysiology of acute compartment syndrome is well understood, numerous potential causes are still being discovered. A rare cause of acute compartment syndrome is IV infiltration. We present a case of acute compartment syndrome resulting from intravenous infusion due to proximal placement of a patient identification bracelet. We conclude that both routine evaluation for IV infiltration and proximal placement of IV lines are essential for prevention of acute compartment syndrome. PMID:26904308

  16. Permeability of iodide in multilamellar liposomes modeled by two compartments and a reservoir.

    PubMed

    Schullery, S E

    1977-07-14

    A previously published rate law for the diffusion of iodide from multilamellar egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes (Schullery, S.E. (1975) Chem. Phys. Lipids 14, 49-58) is fitted to the relatively simple mathematical model of two compartments in series with a reservoir. All of the inner liposome compartments are assumed to behave as effectively one compartment in series with the liposome's outermost compartment. Based on this model, reasonable values are calculated for the fraction of the total solution trapped by liposomes which is in the outermost liposome compartment, 17%, and the permeability coefficient of iodide against isotonic, mixed iodide-chloride solution, 2-10(-9) cm/s. PMID:884087

  17. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Alok R.; Peirce, Susan K.; Joshi, Shweta; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-09-10

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), e.g. toll receptors (TLRs) that bind ligands within the microbiome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. LPS is a ligand for two TLR family members, TLR4 and RP105 which mediate LPS signaling in B cell proliferation and migration. Although LPS/TLR/RP105 signaling is well-studied; our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling these PRR signaling pathways remains incomplete. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for PTEN/PI-3K signaling in B cell selection and survival, however a role for PTEN/PI-3K in TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the B cell compartment has not been reported. Herein, we crossed a CD19cre and PTEN{sup fl/fl} mouse to generate a conditional PTEN knockout mouse in the CD19+ B cell compartment. These mice were further crossed with an IL-14α transgenic mouse to study the combined effect of PTEN deletion, PI-3K inhibition and expression of IL-14α (a cytokine originally identified as a B cell growth factor) in CD19+ B cell lymphoproliferation and response to LPS stimulation. Targeted deletion of PTEN and directed expression of IL-14α in the CD19+ B cell compartment (IL-14+PTEN-/-) lead to marked splenomegaly and altered spleen morphology at baseline due to expansion of marginal zone B cells, a phenotype that was exaggerated by treatment with the B cell mitogen and TLR4/RP105 ligand, LPS. Moreover, LPS stimulation of CD19+ cells isolated from these mice display increased proliferation, augmented AKT and NFκB activation as well as increased expression of c-myc and cyclinD1. Interestingly, treatment of LPS treated IL-14+PTEN-/- mice with a pan PI-3K inhibitor, SF1126, reduced splenomegaly, cell proliferation, c-myc and cyclin D1 expression in the CD19+ B cell compartment and normalized the splenic histopathologic architecture. These findings provide the direct evidence that PTEN and PI-3K inhibitors control TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the CD19+ B cell compartment and that pan PI

  18. Renal compartment segmentation in DCE-MRI images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Le Minh, Hung; Tim Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Sung, Kyung Hyun; Liu, Wenyu

    2016-08-01

    Renal compartment segmentation from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) images is an important task for functional kidney evaluation. Despite advancement in segmentation methods, most of them focus on segmenting an entire kidney on CT images, there still lacks effective and automatic solutions for accurate segmentation of internal renal structures (i.e. cortex, medulla and renal pelvis) from DCE-MRI images. In this paper, we introduce a method for renal compartment segmentation which can robustly achieve high segmentation accuracy for a wide range of DCE-MRI data, and meanwhile requires little manual operations and parameter settings. The proposed method consists of five main steps. First, we pre-process the image time series to reduce the motion artifacts caused by the movement of the patients during the scans and enhance the kidney regions. Second, the kidney is segmented as a whole based on the concept of Maximally Stable Temporal Volume (MSTV). The proposed MSTV detects anatomical structures that are homogeneous in the spatial domain and stable in terms of temporal dynamics. MSTV-based kidney segmentation is robust to noises and does not require a training phase. It can well adapt to kidney shape variations caused by renal dysfunction. Third, voxels in the segmented kidney are described by principal components (PCs) to remove temporal redundancy and noises. And then k-means clustering of PCs is applied to separate voxels into multiple clusters. Fourth, the clusters are automatically labeled as cortex, medulla and pelvis based on voxels' geometric locations and intensity distribution. Finally, an iterative refinement method is introduced to further remove noises in each segmented compartment. Experiments on 14 real clinical kidney datasets and 12 synthetic dataset demonstrate that results produced by our method match very well with those segmented manually and the performance of our method is superior to the other five existing methods. PMID:27236222

  19. Molecular targeting of intracellular compartments specifically in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Hetal; Gibo, Denise M; Debinski, Waldemar

    2010-05-01

    We have implemented a strategy in which a genetically engineered, single-chain protein specifically recognizes cancer cells and is trafficked to a targeted subcellular compartment, such as the nucleus. The recombinant protein termed IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS has a triple functional property: (1) it binds a cancer-associated receptor, interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2), using modified IL-13 ligand, IL-13.E13K; (2) it exports its C-terminal portion out of the endosomal compartment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) translocation domain (D2); and (3) it travels to and accumulates in the nucleus guided by the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Here, we have demonstrated that this protein is transported into the brain tumor cells' nucleus, using 3 different methods of protein conjugation to dyes for the purpose of direct visualization of the protein's intracellular trafficking. IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS, and not the controls such as IL-13.E13K-D2, IL-13.E13K-NLS, or IL-13.E13K, accumulated in nuclei very efficiently, which increased with the time the cells were exposed to the protein. Also, IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS did not exhibit nuclear transport in cells with low expression levels of IL-13Rα2. Thus, it is possible to recognize cancer cells through their specific receptors and deliver a conjugated protein that travels specifically to the nucleus. Hence, our molecular targeting strategy succeeded in generating a single-chain proteinaceous agent capable of delivering drugs/labels needed to be localized to the cells' nuclei or potentially any other subcellular compartment, for their optimal efficacy or ability to exert their specific action. PMID:20740056

  20. Molecular Targeting of Intracellular Compartments Specifically in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hetal; Gibo, Denise M.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2010-01-01

    We have implemented a strategy in which a genetically engineered, single-chain protein specifically recognizes cancer cells and is trafficked to a targeted subcellular compartment, such as the nucleus. The recombinant protein termed IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS has a triple functional property: (1) it binds a cancer-associated receptor, interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2), using modified IL-13 ligand, IL-13.E13K; (2) it exports its C-terminal portion out of the endosomal compartment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) translocation domain (D2); and (3) it travels to and accumulates in the nucleus guided by the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Here, we have demonstrated that this protein is transported into the brain tumor cells’ nucleus, using 3 different methods of protein conjugation to dyes for the purpose of direct visualization of the protein’s intracellular trafficking. IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS, and not the controls such as IL-13.E13K-D2, IL-13.E13K-NLS, or IL-13.E13K, accumulated in nuclei very efficiently, which increased with the time the cells were exposed to the protein. Also, IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS did not exhibit nuclear transport in cells with low expression levels of IL-13Rα2. Thus, it is possible to recognize cancer cells through their specific receptors and deliver a conjugated protein that travels specifically to the nucleus. Hence, our molecular targeting strategy succeeded in generating a single-chain proteinaceous agent capable of delivering drugs/labels needed to be localized to the cells’ nuclei or potentially any other subcellular compartment, for their optimal efficacy or ability to exert their specific action. PMID:20740056

  1. compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Uli; Oswald, Sascha; Thullner, Martin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A conceptual computer model has been constructed to simulate the compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. The model accounts for flow and transport in the variably saturated porous medium as well as biogeochemical change reactions. The most concentrated contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons and dissolved as well as mineral phase electron acceptors are considered. Also of major interest are reduced species with high oxygen demand such as ammonium. The influence of marsh plants on microbial activity, gas transport, water balance and contaminant fate in general is matter of current investigation. The constructed wetlands consist of a coarse sand or fine gravel porous medium. Marsh plants were introduced after installation, however, a number of control basins are operated unplanted. Water levels and through flow rates are adjusted to optimize the remediation efficiency. The system is likely to be neither reaction nor mixing limited, thus both, values of dispersivity and degradation kinetics may be crucial for remediation efficiency. Biogeochemical modelling is able to delineate in detail (i) the zonation of processes, (ii) temporal variation (breakthrough curves) and (iii) mass balance information. The contributions of biodegradation and volatilisation and the influence of plants (compartment transfer) can generally best be evaluated by the component's mass balance. More efficient mixing is expected in the wetlands with open water body which leads to both, more biodegradation and volatilisation. An important task is to quantify the role of plants and root systems for contaminant attenuation in constructed wetlands. The long term goal of investigation is to allow for predictions for the design of large scale compartment transfer wetlands that may be applied to remediate the site as a whole.

  2. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient With Cloacal Exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caleb E; Kennedy, Alfred P; Smith, D Preston

    2016-07-01

    We present a rare complication of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a child undergoing complex urologic reconstruction. A 10-year-old female born with the abdominal wall defect cloacal exstrophy who had previously undergone multiple abdominal procedures then developed findings consistent with ACS following a complex Mitrofanoff procedure. Although intravesical pressures were not documented because of the nature of her reconstruction, her ACS-type findings were (1) abdominal pain, (2) melena, (3) pulmonary hypoinflation, (4) renal insufficiency, (5) tachycardia, and (6) segmental ischemic small bowel. Management consisted of abdominal decompression, segmental bowel resections, and wound vacuum-assisted-closure management. Patient was eventually discharged home. PMID:26921644

  3. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  4. Lysosome-related organelles: Unusual compartments become mainstream

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael S.; Heijnen, Harry F. G.; Raposo, Graça

    2013-01-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) comprise a group of cell type-specific subcellular compartments with unique composition, morphology and structure that share some features with endosomes and lysosomes and that function in varied processes such as pigmentation, hemostasis, lung plasticity and immunity. In recent years, studies of genetic diseases in which LRO functions are compromised have provided new insights into the mechanisms of LRO biogenesis and the regulated secretion of LRO contents. These insights have revealed previously unappreciated specialized endosomal sorting processes in all cell types, and are expanding our views of the plasticity of the endosomal and secretory systems in adapting to cell type-specific needs. PMID:23726022

  5. [Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the lower leg].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rasmus Lund; Jessen, Peter Toquer

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) commonly occurs in young adult runners. The mechanism of pain is unknown. CECS is a clinical diagnosis and is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing (IPT). The evidence-based guidance for IPT is sparse. Instead of Pedowitz et al's criteria we recommend one minute after pain triggered exercise IPT ≥ 36 mmHg as diagnostic value. At the moment fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity, but injection with botulinum toxin type A could be a new useful alternative. PMID:25557448

  6. Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

  7. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S.; Pierce, R. Dean; Mulcahey, Thomas P.; Johnson, Gerald K.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  8. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Poa, D.S.; Pierce, R.D.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Johnson, G.K.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  9. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  10. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John E.; Cundall-Curry, Duncan J.; Stohr, Kuldeep K.

    2016-01-01

    A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale) with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis. PMID:27073707

  11. Characterization of a Novel Prevacuolar Compartment in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Barry J; Draskovic, Marija; Schnittker, Robert R; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Plamann, Michael D; Sánchez-León, Eddy; Riquelme, Meritxell; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2015-12-01

    Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs. A pigment produced by adenine auxotrophs, used to visualize vacuoles, also accumulated in PVCs. Soluble enzymes of the vacuolar lumen, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase Y, were not observed in PVCs. The fluorescent molecule Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid diacetate, succinimidyl ester (carboxy-DFFDA) accumulated in vacuoles and in a subset of PVCs, suggesting maturation of PVCs from the tip to distal regions. Three of the nine Rab GTPases in N. crassa, RAB-2, RAB-4, and RAB-7, localized to the PVCs. RAB-2 and RAB-4, which have similar amino acid sequences, are present in filamentous fungi but not in yeasts, and no function has previously been reported for these Rab GTPases in fungi. PVCs are highly pleomorphic, producing tubular projections that subsequently become detached. Dynein and dynactin formed globular clusters enclosed inside the lumen of PVCs. The size, structure, dynamic behavior, and protein composition of the PVCs appear to be significantly different from those of the well-studied prevacuolar compartment of yeasts. PMID:26453652

  12. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  13. Gene expression analysis in the compartments of the murine uterus.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Gracy Xavier; Cheng, Jr-Gang; Stewart, Colin L

    2016-01-01

    Embryo implantation, a key critical feature of mammalian pregnancy, involves co-ordinate interplay between an incoming blastocyst and a receptive uterus. Aberrations in signaling cascades during this process result in pregnancy loss in mammals, including women. Analysis of the complete uterus at any given point either during preparation for implantation or during and after embryo attachment and invasion makes it difficult to assign specific signaling mechanism to the individual cellular compartments of the uterus. Here, we describe methods for the specific isolation of the luminal epithelium (LE) and subsequent analysis of gene expression/signaling pathways during embryo attachment. We further describe the analysis of RNA and proteins by specific techniques of quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunostaining and Western blotting of uterine tissues. These methods can be applied to the other cellular compartments of the uterus and embryo invasion and endometrial development. These techniques will be beneficial to investigators for delineating the mechanisms involved during embryo attachment and female reproduction as well as providing a means to studying highly dynamic changes in gene expression in tissues. PMID:26651425

  14. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology. PMID:25689980

  15. Remodeling of secretory compartments creates CUPS during nutrient starvation.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Garcia, David; Curwin, Amy J; Popoff, Jean-François; Bruns, Caroline; Duran, Juan M; Malhotra, Vivek

    2014-12-22

    Upon starvation, Grh1, a peripheral membrane protein located at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites and early Golgi in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under growth conditions, relocates to a compartment called compartment for unconventional protein secretion (CUPS). Here we report that CUPS lack Golgi enzymes, but contain the coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle tethering protein Uso1 and the Golgi t-SNARE Sed5. Interestingly, CUPS biogenesis is independent of COPII- and COPI-mediated membrane transport. Pik1- and Sec7-mediated membrane export from the late Golgi is required for complete assembly of CUPS, and Vps34 is needed for their maintenance. CUPS formation is triggered by glucose, but not nitrogen starvation. Moreover, upon return to growth conditions, CUPS are absorbed into the ER, and not the vacuole. Altogether our findings indicate that CUPS are not specialized autophagosomes as suggested previously. We suggest that starvation triggers relocation of secretory and endosomal membranes, but not their enzymes, to generate CUPS to sort and secrete proteins that do not enter, or are not processed by enzymes of the ER-Golgi pathway of secretion. PMID:25512390

  16. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology. PMID:26337290

  17. Crosstalk between cellular compartments protects against proteotoxicity and extends lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Perić, Matea; Dib, Peter Bou; Dennerlein, Sven; Musa, Marina; Rudan, Marina; Lovrić, Anita; Nikolić, Andrea; Šarić, Ana; Sobočanec, Sandra; Mačak, Željka; Raimundo, Nuno; Kriško, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In cells living under optimal conditions, protein folding defects are usually prevented by the action of chaperones. Here, we investigate the cell-wide consequences of loss of chaperone function in cytosol, mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in budding yeast. We find that the decline in chaperone activity in each compartment results in loss of respiration, demonstrating the dependence of mitochondrial activity on cell-wide proteostasis. Furthermore, each chaperone deficiency triggers a response, presumably via the communication among the folding environments of distinct cellular compartments, termed here the cross-organelle stress response (CORE). The proposed CORE pathway encompasses activation of protein conformational maintenance machineries, antioxidant enzymes, and metabolic changes simultaneously in the cytosol, mitochondria, and the ER. CORE induction extends replicative and chronological lifespan in budding yeast, highlighting its protective role against moderate proteotoxicity and its consequences such as the decline in respiration. Our findings accentuate that organelles do not function in isolation, but are integrated in a functional crosstalk, while also highlighting the importance of organelle communication in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27346163

  18. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  19. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

    1990-09-24

    The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams [1]. The scope of this ``phase I`` analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering [2], is to carry out a ``scoping analysis`` of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the ``phase I`` calculations.

  20. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

    1990-09-24

    The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams (1). The scope of this phase I'' analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering (2), is to carry out a scoping analysis'' of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the phase I'' calculations.

  1. Human striatal dopamine receptors are organized in compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.N.; Sapp, D.W.; Marshall, J.F.

    1986-10-01

    Dopamine (D2) receptors visualized in postmortem human striatum by quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding are organized into circumscribed zones of low receptor density separated from other such zones by regions of higher D2 density. The D2-rich zones of the caudate nucleus and putamen contain twice the binding of D2-poor zones. The Hill coefficient, obtained from saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding to thin sections of human striatum, gave a value near unity, indicating the binding was occurring to a single type of site. The patchiness of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding was unaltered by postincubation removal of lipid from the tissue sections, indicating that a differential absorption of tritium in white and grey matter does not account for the heterogeneous distribution. The D2-rich and D2-poor regions appear to form labyrinths oriented in the anterior-posterior axis and are typically aligned with, respectively, acetylcholinesterase-rich and -poor compartments as visualized on stained adjacent sections. Thus, the distribution of dopamine D2 receptors conforms to the striosomal organization of the human caudate-putamen, a finding that suggests that this receptor subtype may mediate the influence of dopamine on distinct neurochemical compartments within the structure.

  2. Developmental compartments in the larval trachea of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prashanth R; Lin, Li; Huang, Hai; Guha, Arjun; Roy, Sougata; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila tracheal system is a branched tubular network that forms in the embryo by a post-mitotic program of morphogenesis. In third instar larvae (L3), cells constituting the second tracheal metamere (Tr2) reenter the cell cycle. Clonal analysis of L3 Tr2 revealed that dividing cells in the dorsal trunk, dorsal branch and transverse connective branches respect lineage restriction boundaries near branch junctions. These boundaries corresponded to domains of gene expression, for example where cells expressing Spalt, Delta and Serrate in the dorsal trunk meet vein–expressing cells in the dorsal branch or transverse connective. Notch signaling was activated to one side of these borders and was required for the identity, specializations and segregation of border cells. These findings suggest that Tr2 is comprised of developmental compartments and that developmental compartments are an organizational feature relevant to branched tubular networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08666.001 PMID:26491942

  3. A Case of Occult Compartment Syndrome and Nonresolving Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Minnema, Brian J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Quraishi, Nasir A.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Case report A 32-year-old African male presented with 10 hours of severe back pain. Initial computed tomography scan of the back showed no abnormality, and initial laboratory investigations were consistent with rhabdomyolysis. Despite stopping potential causative medications, aggressive intravenous hydration, and urine alkalinization, his creatinine kinase continued to steadily climb. Thirty-six hours after admission, a magnetic resonance imaging of his back was done because of new swelling over the right paraspinal muscles and loss of sensation in this region. Marked swelling of the right erector spinae muscles was observed, and right and left compartment pressure measurements were 108 and 21 mm Hg, respectively. He had urgent fasciotomy after which his rhabdomyolysis and pain recovered. Conclusion Our case highlights the need for early consideration of compartment syndrome as a possible cause of back pain in the setting of rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis can present in the absence of late complications such as neurological and vascular compromise. PMID:18350340

  4. Amyloid-like Self-Assembly of a Cellular Compartment.

    PubMed

    Boke, Elvan; Ruer, Martine; Wühr, Martin; Coughlin, Margaret; Lemaitre, Regis; Gygi, Steven P; Alberti, Simon; Drechsel, David; Hyman, Anthony A; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-07-28

    Most vertebrate oocytes contain a Balbiani body, a large, non-membrane-bound compartment packed with RNA, mitochondria, and other organelles. Little is known about this compartment, though it specifies germline identity in many non-mammalian vertebrates. We show Xvelo, a disordered protein with an N-terminal prion-like domain, is an abundant constituent of Xenopus Balbiani bodies. Disruption of the prion-like domain of Xvelo, or substitution with a prion-like domain from an unrelated protein, interferes with its incorporation into Balbiani bodies in vivo. Recombinant Xvelo forms amyloid-like networks in vitro. Amyloid-like assemblies of Xvelo recruit both RNA and mitochondria in binding assays. We propose that Xenopus Balbiani bodies form by amyloid-like assembly of Xvelo, accompanied by co-recruitment of mitochondria and RNA. Prion-like domains are found in germ plasm organizing proteins in other species, suggesting that Balbiani body formation by amyloid-like assembly could be a conserved mechanism that helps oocytes function as long-lived germ cells. PMID:27471966

  5. Characterization of a Compartment Syndrome-like Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Oyster, Nick; Witt, Michelle; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Poddar, Minakshi; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is caused by an elevation of pressure within a muscular compartment which can be caused by numerous factors, including blunt trauma. In this study, we characterized a rodent model of CS-like injury. METHODS Forty male athymic rats received a standardized injury of ischemia and compression to their hindlimbs, while the intracompartmental pressure (ICP) was measured using an implantable transmitter. Tetanic muscle function was evaluated, and histology was performed on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. RESULTS ICPs were held at 260.70±2.70mmHg during injury. Injured muscles recovered 59% of their total function 4 weeks after injury, and histology showed high levels of edema, inflammation (CD68+), angiogenesis (CD31+), and fibrosis within 72 hours following injury. DISCUSSION We describe a novel CS-like injury model and a novel method to measure ICP which could potentially be used to develop innovative therapies to manage CS injury in humans. PMID:25242666

  6. Crosstalk between cellular compartments protects against proteotoxicity and extends lifespan.

    PubMed

    Perić, Matea; Dib, Peter Bou; Dennerlein, Sven; Musa, Marina; Rudan, Marina; Lovrić, Anita; Nikolić, Andrea; Šarić, Ana; Sobočanec, Sandra; Mačak, Željka; Raimundo, Nuno; Kriško, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In cells living under optimal conditions, protein folding defects are usually prevented by the action of chaperones. Here, we investigate the cell-wide consequences of loss of chaperone function in cytosol, mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in budding yeast. We find that the decline in chaperone activity in each compartment results in loss of respiration, demonstrating the dependence of mitochondrial activity on cell-wide proteostasis. Furthermore, each chaperone deficiency triggers a response, presumably via the communication among the folding environments of distinct cellular compartments, termed here the cross-organelle stress response (CORE). The proposed CORE pathway encompasses activation of protein conformational maintenance machineries, antioxidant enzymes, and metabolic changes simultaneously in the cytosol, mitochondria, and the ER. CORE induction extends replicative and chronological lifespan in budding yeast, highlighting its protective role against moderate proteotoxicity and its consequences such as the decline in respiration. Our findings accentuate that organelles do not function in isolation, but are integrated in a functional crosstalk, while also highlighting the importance of organelle communication in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27346163

  7. Evolution of early eukaryotic cells: genomes, proteomes, and compartments.

    PubMed

    Bogorad, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotes arose from an endosymbiotic association of an alpha-proteobacterium-like organism (the ancestor of mitochondria) with a host cell (lacking mitochondria or plastids). Plants arose by the addition of a cyanobacterium-like endosymbiont (the ancestor of plastids) to the two-member association. Each member of the association brought a unique internal environment and a unique genome. Analyses of recently acquired genomic sequences with newly developed algorithms have revealed (a) that the number of endosymbiont genes that remain in eukaryotic cells-principally in the nucleus-is surprisingly large, (b) that protein products of a large number of genes (or their descendents) that entered the association in the genome of the host are now directed to an organelle derived from an endosymbiont, and (c) that protein products of genes traceable to endosymbiont genomes are directed to the nucleo-cytoplasmic compartment. Consideration of these remarkable findings has led to the present suggestion that contemporary eukaryotic cells evolved through continual chance relocation and testing of genes as well as combinations of gene products and biochemical processes in each unique cell compartment derived from a member of the eukaryotic association. Most of these events occurred during about 300 million years, or so, before contemporary forms of eukaryotic cells appear in the fossil record; they continue today. PMID:17912611

  8. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  9. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  10. Inhibition of kinin breakdown prolongs retention and action of bradykinin in a myocardial B2 receptor compartment

    PubMed Central

    Dendorfer, Andreas; Folkers, Verena; Klinger, Matthias; Wolfrum, Sebastian; Dominiak, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The high efficacy of ACE inhibitors to potentiate the actions of kinins might be explained by a hypothetical compartment in which B2-receptors are colocalized with kinin degrading enzymes. To demonstrate the functional consequence of such a compartment we compared the myocardial uptake and the persistence of action of bradykinin under the influence of kininase inhibitors. Bradykinin-induced vasodilation and uptake of tritiated bradykinin were studied in perfused rat hearts during inhibition of ACE and aminopeptidase P. B2-receptors were localized by immuno-gold labelling and electron-microscopy. The EC50 of bradykinin-induced vasodilation (5.1±0.8 nM) was shifted to 14 fold lower concentrations during inhibition of both kininases. The maximum persistence of vasodilation after termination of bradykinin application (half-life 112±20 s) was increased by kininase inhibitors to 398±130 s. This prolongation was reversed when B2-receptors were blocked simultaneously with the termination of bradykinin infusion. Tritiated bradykinin (perfused for 1 min) was partially (1.7±0.24%) retained by the myocardium and consecutively released with a half-life of 70±9 s. Kinin uptake was increased during kininase inhibition (7.7±2.6%), and was normalized by HOE 140 (2.0±0.34%), or when a tritiated B2-receptor antagonist (NPC 17731) was used as label. B2-receptors were localized in plasmalemmal and cytosolic vesicles of capillary endothelium. Bradykinin is locally incorporated and can associate with B2-receptors repeatedly when kinin breakdown is inhibited. This is the kinetic and functional consequence of a colocalization of kininases and B2-receptors in a compartment constituted by endothelial membrane vesicles. PMID:12540521

  11. Invasive Compartment Pressure Testing for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Survey of Clinical Practice Among Military Orthopedic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Aristides I; Laidlaw, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    We surveyed military orthopedic surgeons to investigate the clinical practice of performing invasive compartment pressure (ICP) testing in patients with suspected chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS).Eighty-five percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed with always confirming the diagnosis of CECS with ICP testing. Thirty-nine percent stated they would recommend surgical treatment without ICP testing if they were confident about the diagnosis based on clinical examination findings. Survey results highlighted differences between surgeons with more and less experience in evaluating patients with suspected CECS. Respondents who were in practice longer and respondents who saw more patients with suspected CECS per year were more likely to recommend surgical treatment based on clinical diagnosis alone. Diagnosis of CECS is challenging, and diagnostic modalities remain imperfect. There is less than 100% agreement about use of ICP testing, which is the gold standard for diagnosis. While most survey respondents agreed that ICP testing should be used in the diagnosis of CECS, clinical acumen and experience seem to significantly influence actual use. PMID:26447416

  12. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  13. [Perioperative analgesia with continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children].

    PubMed

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2007-02-01

    Recently, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. But single injection techniques have a limited duration of postoperative analgesia. Then, continuous peripheral nerve blocks have taken an important position in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing an effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. As adults, indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on the analysis of individual benefits/risks ratio. Main indications are intense postoperative pain surgical procedures, with or without postoperative rehabilitation, and complex regional pain syndrome. Contraindications to these procedures are rather similar to those in adults, plus parental and/or children refusal. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation in children, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appeared to facilitate nerve and plexus approach identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may theoretically mask a compartment syndrome after trauma surgical procedures. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the most appropriate drug for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rates and concentrations of local anaesthetic. These techniques may facilitate early ambulation by an improved pain management or even postoperative analgesia at home with disposable pumps. One might infer from the current review that excellent pain relief coupled with a reduction of side effects would contribute to improve the quality of life and to decrease the frequency of disabling behavioural modifications in children, sometimes psychologically injured by hospital stay and postoperative pain. PMID:17174518

  14. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the

  15. 2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

  16. Confinement of block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The following were studied: confinement of block copolymers, free surface confinement, effects of substrate interactions, random copolymers at homopolymer interfaces, phase separation in thin film polymer mixtures, buffing of polymer surfaces, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

  17. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  18. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  19. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  20. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆. PMID:24469750

  1. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Foot due to Infection After Local Hydrocortisone Injection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sampat Dumbre; Patil, Vaishali Dumbre; Abane, Sachin; Luthra, Rohit; Ranaware, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    High-energy trauma associated with calcaneal fracture or Lisfranc fracture dislocation and midfoot crushing injuries are known causes of compartment syndrome in the foot. Suppurative infection in the deep osseofascial compartments can also cause compartment syndrome. We describe the case of a 29-year-old female who had developed a suppurative local infection that resulted in acute compartment syndrome after receiving a local hydrocortisone injection for plantar fasciitis. We diagnosed the compartment syndrome, and fasciotomy was promptly undertaken. After more than 2 years of follow-up, she had a satisfactory functional outcome without substantial morbidity. To our knowledge, no other report in the English-language studies has described compartment syndrome due to abscess formation after a local injection of hydrocortisone. The aim of our report was to highlight this rare, but serious, complication of a routine outpatient clinical procedure. PMID:24838218

  2. The fourth-compartment syndrome: its anatomical basis and clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Kojima, T; Fukumoto, K

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new term, the "fourth-compartment syndrome" to describe chronic dorsal wrist pain of the fourth compartment. Five main causes responsible for this syndrome are thought to be as follows: 1. Ganglion involvement, including an occult ganglion; 2. Extensor digitorum brevis manus muscle; 3. Abnormal extensor indicis muscle; 4. Tenosynovialitis; 5. Anomaly or deformity of carpal bones. Should the above mentioned conditions occur in the fourth compartment, pressure within the fourth compartment increases, ultimately compressing the posterior interosseous nerve directly or indirectly. Anatomical studies of the fourth compartment of the wrist and the posterior interosseous nerve are presented and the fourth-compartment syndrome is summarized with twelve clinical cases (six cases of occult ganglions, two cases of extensor digitorum brevis manus, two cases of tenosynovialitis, one case of abnormal extensor indicis muscle, and one case of carpal bossing). PMID:10080065

  3. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  4. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-28

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. PMID:25946401

  5. Spatial organization of chromatin domains and compartments in single chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyuan; Su, Jun-Han; Beliveau, Brian J; Bintu, Bogdan; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Wu, Chao-ting; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-08-01

    The spatial organization of chromatin critically affects genome function. Recent chromosome-conformation-capture studies have revealed topologically associating domains (TADs) as a conserved feature of chromatin organization, but how TADs are spatially organized in individual chromosomes remains unknown. Here, we developed an imaging method for mapping the spatial positions of numerous genomic regions along individual chromosomes and traced the positions of TADs in human interphase autosomes and X chromosomes. We observed that chromosome folding deviates from the ideal fractal-globule model at large length scales and that TADs are largely organized into two compartments spatially arranged in a polarized manner in individual chromosomes. Active and inactive X chromosomes adopt different folding and compartmentalization configurations. These results suggest that the spatial organization of chromatin domains can change in response to regulation. PMID:27445307

  6. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  7. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  8. Nonoperative Management of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Hall, Mederic M

    2016-01-01

    Although nonoperative treatment options for chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) are often used in clinical practice, supporting evidence is limited. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature for nonsurgical treatment options for CECS of the lower leg. The literature search identified seven articles describing in total four different treatment options: massage, gait changes, chemodenervation, and ultrasound-guided (USG) fascial fenestration. Pertinent studies were in the form of case series and one case report, which limited the robustness of the data. Nevertheless, all four treatment options have little to no reported adverse effect profiles and can be considered in clinical practice. In addition, gait changes and USG fascial fenestration were found to have continued effect at 1 and 1.5 years, respectively. PMID:27172084

  9. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg in the military.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John C; Waterman, Brian R

    2014-10-01

    CECS is a common source of lower extremity disability among young athletic cohorts and military personnel. The five cardinal symptoms are pain, tightness, cramps, weakness, and diminished sensation. History and clinical examination remain the hallmarks for identifying CECS, although ICP measurements during exercise stress testing may be used to confirm diagnosis. Nonsurgical management is generally unsuccessful, although gait retraining may have benefits in selected individuals. When conservative measures have failed, operative management may be considered with fascial release of all affected compartments. Although clinical success has been documented in civilian cohorts, the results of surgical treatment in military service members have been far less reliable. Only approximately half of the military service members experience complete resolution of symptoms and at least 25% are unable to return to full duty. PMID:25280617

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Unbounded Cellular Compartments: Synaptic Clefts.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ken H; Stawski, Philipp S; Draycott, Austin S; Udeshi, Namrata D; Lehrman, Emily K; Wilton, Daniel K; Svinkina, Tanya; Deerinck, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Stevens, Beth; Carr, Steven A; Ting, Alice Y

    2016-08-25

    Cellular compartments that cannot be biochemically isolated are challenging to characterize. Here we demonstrate the proteomic characterization of the synaptic clefts that exist at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Normal brain function relies on the careful balance of these opposing neural connections, and understanding how this balance is achieved relies on knowledge of their protein compositions. Using a spatially restricted enzymatic tagging strategy, we mapped the proteomes of two of the most common excitatory and inhibitory synaptic clefts in living neurons. These proteomes reveal dozens of synaptic candidates and assign numerous known synaptic proteins to a specific cleft type. The molecular differentiation of each cleft allowed us to identify Mdga2 as a potential specificity factor influencing Neuroligin-2's recruitment of presynaptic neurotransmitters at inhibitory synapses. PMID:27565350

  11. Viral and Cellular Components of AAV2 Replication Compartments.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Rebecca; Seyffert, Michael; Pereira, Bruna de Andrade; Fraefel, Cornel

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a helpervirus-dependent parvovirus with a bi-phasic life cycle comprising latency in absence and lytic replication in presence of a helpervirus, such as adenovirus (Ad) or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Helpervirus-supported AAV2 replication takes place in replication compartments (RCs) in the cell nucleus where virus DNA replication and transcription occur. RCs consist of a defined set of helper virus-, AAV2-, and cellular proteins. Here we compare the profile of cellular proteins recruited into AAV2 RCs or identified in Rep78-associated complexes when either Ad or HSV-1 is the helpervirus, and we discuss the potential roles of some of these proteins in AAV2 and helpervirus infection. PMID:24222808

  12. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stefen, Holly; Chaichim, Chanchanok

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:27127658

  13. Compartment calcium model of frog skeletal muscle during activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weifan; Olson, Sarah D

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is triggered by a rise in calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration in the myofibrillar space. The objective of this study was to develop a voltage dependent compartment model of Ca(2+) dynamics in frog skeletal muscle fibers. The compartment model corresponds to the myofibrillar space (MS) and a calcium store, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Ca(2+) is released from the SR to the MS based on the voltage and is able to bind to several proteins in the MS. We use a detailed model to account for voltage dependent Ca(2+) release and inactivation. With this model, we are able to match previous experimental data for Ca(2+) release and binding to proteins for an applied (fixed) voltage. We explore the sensitivity of parameters in the model and illustrate the importance of inactivation of the SR; during a long depolarization, the SR must be inactivated in order to achieve realistic Ca(2+) concentrations in the MS. A Hodgkin Huxley type model was also developed to describe voltage at the surface membrane using electrophysiological data from previous experiments. This voltage model was then used as the time dependent voltage to determine Ca(2+) release from the SR. With this fully coupled model, we were able to match previous experimental results for Ca(2+) concentrations for a given applied current. Additionally, we examined simulated Ca(2+) concentrations in the case of twitch and tetanus, corresponding to different applied currents. The developed model is robust and reproduces many aspects of voltage dependent calcium signaling in frog skeletal muscle fibers. This modeling framework provides a platform for future studies of excitation contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:25234233

  14. Evolution of trochlear compartment geometry in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Demey, Guillaume; Nover, Luca; Dejour, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to compare trochlear profiles in recent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) models and to determine whether they feature improvements compared to their predecessors. The hypothesis was that recent TKA models have more anatomic trochlear compartments and would display no signs of trochlear dysplasia. Methods The authors analyzed the geometry of the 6 following TKA models using engineering software: PFC and Attune (DePuy), NexGen and Persona (Zimmer), Noetos and KneeTec (Tornier). The mediolateral trochlear profiles were plotted at various flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30° and 45°) to deduce the sulcus angle. Results Analysis of sulcus angles reveals general convergence of recent designs towards anatomic values. At 0° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent implant models were between 156.0–157.4°, while those of previous generation models between 154.5–165.5°. At 30° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent models also lie within 145.7–148.6°, but those of previous models are between 149.5–152.0°. All three manufacturers deepened their trochlear profile at 30° of flexion in recent models compared to earlier designs. Sulcus angles converge towards anatomic values but still exceed radiologic signs of dysplasia by 2–5°. Conclusions Recent TKA designs have more anatomic trochlear geometries than earlier TKA models by the same manufacturers, but trochlear compartments still exceed radiologic signs of trochlear dysplasia by 2° to 5°. The hypothesis that recent TKA models display no signs of trochlear dysplasia is therefore refuted. Surgeons should be aware of design limitations to optimize choice of implant and extensor mechanisms alignment. Level of evidence: IV geometric implant analysis. PMID:26855943

  15. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  16. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  17. Block 3. This photograph depicts the northern view of Block ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. This photograph depicts the northern view of Block 2 towards the May D & F Tower from the main path along the western facades - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  18. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked...

  19. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-01

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of silica coating without a polymer layer, experiments for removal of the polymer by solvent extraction, TEM images of spherical α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an asymmetric PSGD coating, and additional FESEM

  1. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  2. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  3. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  4. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  5. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  7. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  8. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  9. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  10. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  11. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  12. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting § 18.4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling... Provisions § 18.4 Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. (a)(1)...

  13. 9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments. 416.6 Section 416.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... attach to it a “U.S. Rejected” tag. Equipment, utensils, rooms, or compartments so tagged cannot be...

  14. 9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments. 416.6 Section 416.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... attach to it a “U.S. Rejected” tag. Equipment, utensils, rooms, or compartments so tagged cannot be...

  15. 9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments. 416.6 Section 416.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... attach to it a “U.S. Rejected” tag. Equipment, utensils, rooms, or compartments so tagged cannot be...

  16. 9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments. 416.6 Section 416.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... attach to it a “U.S. Rejected” tag. Equipment, utensils, rooms, or compartments so tagged cannot be...

  17. 9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments. 416.6 Section 416.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... attach to it a “U.S. Rejected” tag. Equipment, utensils, rooms, or compartments so tagged cannot be...

  18. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank and... pumping operations, provided the pumping engine compartment contains no cargo valves and is...

  19. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  20. Acute exertional medial compartment syndrome of the foot after playing basketball.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lauchlan; Hame, Sharon L; Levine, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Compartment syndrome of the foot is an uncommon event. The most common cause of compartment syndrome of the foot is a crush injury. Exceedingly rare is acute compartment syndrome of the foot occurring in the absence of trauma. We describe the clinical scenario involving a 23-year-old healthy male who developed acute exertional compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment of the foot after playing basketball. The patient had no evidence of injury nor trauma, and the diagnosis was made based on physical exam, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and compartment pressure measurements. The patient did undergo successful fasciotomy on the day of presentation to the emergency department and has since completely recovered. We found four cases reported in the literature of acute exertional medial compartment syndrome of the foot in the absence of trauma or injury. This is the second case reported after playing basketball, while the others occurred after aerobics, a long distance run, and football. The most recent case was reported by Miozzari et al. [Am J Sports Med. 36(5):983-6, 2008] and involved a marathon runner who developed an isolated medial compartment syndrome of the foot. We would like to increase awareness of this uncommon clinical presentation in the absence of trauma and present the dramatic radiographic findings. PMID:21494907