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1

Effect of continuous psoas compartment block and intravenous patient controlled analgesia on postoperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) generates severe postoperative pain in 60% of patients and moderate pain in 30% of patients. Because inadequate postoperative pain control can hinder early physiotherapy and rehabilitation, it is the most influential factor dictating a good outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous psoas compartment block (PCB) in comparison to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in TKA patients. Methods 40 TKA patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group IVPCA (n = 20) received intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IVPCA) for 48 hours. Group PCB (n = 20) received continuous PCB for 48 hours at the fourth intertransverse process of the lumbar using the C-arm. Pain scores, side effects, satisfaction, the length of hospital stay, rescue antiemetics, and analgesics were recorded. Results Pain scores (VNRS 0-100) were higher in Group IVPCA than in Group PCB. Nausea and sedation occurred more frequently in Group IVPCA than in Group PCB. There were no differences between the groups in the length of the hospital stay, satisfaction scores, and the use of rescue antiemetics and analgesics. Conclusions Continuous PCB seemed to be an appropriate and reliable technique for TKA patients, because it provided better analgesia and fewer side effects such as nausea and sedation when compared to IVPCA.

Lee, Jae Jin; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lim, Byung Gun; Hur, Wonseok

2012-01-01

2

Psoas Compartment Blockade in a Laterally Herniated Disc Compressing the Psoas Muscle -A Case Report-  

PubMed Central

A psoas compartment block has been used to provide anesthesia for orthopedic surgical procedures and analgesia for post-operative pain. Currently, this block is advocated for relieving pain in the lower extremity and pelvic area resulting from various origins. We report a case of a 69-year-old male patient who had gait abnormality with posterior pelvic and hip pain, which were both aggravated by hip extension. From the magnetic resonance image, the patient was found to have a laterally herniated intervertebral disc at the L2/3 level, which compressed the right psoas muscle. This was thought to be the origin of the pain, so a psoas compartment block was performed using 0.25% chirocaine with triamcinolone 5mg, and the pain in both the pelvis and hip were relieved.

Kim, Hye Young; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Jee Youn; Shin, Jae Hyuck; Park, Sang Hyun

2012-01-01

3

Comparison of fascia iliaca compartment block and 3-in-1 block in adults undergoing knee arthroscopy and meniscal repair.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve blocks have become a popular method for treatment of pain after lower-extremity surgical procedures. Two peripheral nerve blocks for knee arthroscopy include the 3-in-1 block and the fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB). There is limited research comparing the efficacy of these blocks in adults undergoing knee arthroscopy and meniscal repair who receive both the peripheral nerve block and general anesthesia. This was a randomized controlled trial of 60 adult patients undergoing knee arthroscopy under general anesthesia and with a 3-in-1 block or FICB using the same local anesthetic admixture. Onset of block, time to postoperative analgesic requirements, pain scores, and overall satisfaction scores were measured. No differences in analgesic requirements or pain scores were noted. A faster onset of anesthesia occurred in the 3-in-7 block group, but there was a longer duration of postoperative analgesia in the FICB group. Patient satisfaction scores were similar between groups. Based on this study we recommend that the choice of block can be determined by the clinical scenario. We recommend a 3-in-1 block if speed of onset is the primary goal of anesthesia before induction, and we recommend the FICB block if prolonged postoperative analgesia is the primary goal. PMID:23248829

Wallace, Jerrol B; Andrade, Joseph A; Christensen, Jasen P; Osborne, Lisa A; Pellegrini, Joseph E

2012-08-01

4

The psoas quartus muscle.  

PubMed

We report an unusual finding in an adult male cadaver. During the routine dissection of the posterior abdominal wall as part of an anatomy course at our institution, an anomalous muscle was noted. This muscle originated from the transverse process of the left L3 vertebrae and the medial aspect of the quadratus lumborum. We believe this muscle to represent a variety of the psoas quartus that, to our knowledge, has only been described once before in the extant medical literature. The presence of a psoas quartus muscle may contribute to femoral nerve compression. The clinician may wish to consider this rare muscular anomaly in patients with symptoms of femoral nerve compression in which no other clear etiology is found. Furthermore, clinicians who image the posterior abdominal wall should be aware of this potential anomaly when interpreting the anatomy of this region. PMID:16506239

Tubbs, R Shane; Oakes, W Jerry; Salter, E George

2006-10-01

5

Prehospital administered fascia iliaca compartment block by emergency medical service nurses, a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with a proximal femur fracture are often difficult to evacuate from the accident scene. Prehospital pain management for this vulnerable group of patients may be challenging. Multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy and increased age may limit the choice of suitable analgesics. The fascia iliaca compartment (FIC) block may be an alternative to intravenous analgesics. However this peripheral nerve block is mainly applied by physicians. In the Netherlands, prehospital emergency care is mostly provided by EMS-nurses. Therefore we examined whether well-trained EMS-nurses are able to successfully perform a FIC block in order to ensure timely and appropriate effective analgesia. The study was study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR-nr 3824). Methods Ten EMS nurses were educated in the performance of a FIC-block. Indications, technique, side-effects and complications were discussed. Hereafter the trained EMS-nurses staffed ambulance teams were dispatched to patients with a suspicion for a proximal femur fracture. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the block was performed and 0.3 ml/kg lidocaine (10 mg/ml) with adrenaline 5 ?g/ml was injected. The quality of pain relief, occurrence of complications and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results In 108 patients a block was performed. One hundred patients could be included. Every EMS nurse performed at least 10 FIC blocks. The block was effective in 96 patients. The initial median (NRS)-pain score decreased after block performance to a score of 6 (after 10 minutes), 4 (after 20 minutes) and 3 (after 30 minutes). At arrival at the Emergency Department the median pain score was 3. Dynamic NRS-pain scores when transferring the patient from the accident scene to the ambulance stretcher, during transportation to the hospital and when transferring the patient to a hospital bed were, 4, 3 and 3.5 respectively. Patient satisfaction was very high. No complications were noted. Conclusion Additional educated EMS-nurses are able to successfully perform a FIC-block for providing acute pain relief to patients with a suspected proximal femur fracture.

2014-01-01

6

Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release  

PubMed Central

Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

Garala, K.; Power, R. A.

2013-01-01

7

Iliopsoas tendon reformation after psoas tendon release.  

PubMed

Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief. PMID:23662230

Garala, K; Power, R A

2013-01-01

8

Compartments within a compartment  

PubMed Central

The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease.

Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna AWM

2014-01-01

9

Psoas abscess: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Psoas muscle abscess is rare and presents a diagnostic challenge requiring a high index of suspicion. We report an unusual case of primary psoas abscess caused by Proteus mirabilis. Primary psoas abscess is most commonly present in children and is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 434 cases of psoas abscess has been reported. The subject is discussed noting the differences between primary and secondary cases, and emphasizing the importance of ultrasound and computerized tomography guided drainage of psoas abscess. A flow chart for the evaluation and management of primary and secondary abscess is presented, taking into consideration the success rate of the various methods of treatment described in the literature. PMID:1593704

Gruenwald, I; Abrahamson, J; Cohen, O

1992-06-01

10

Compartment syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Compartment syndrome is a serious condition that involves increased pressure in a muscle compartment. It can lead to ... need to be amputated. Swelling that leads to compartment syndrome occurs from trauma such as a car accident ...

11

Arthroscopic psoas release for iliopsoas impingement after total hip replacement.  

PubMed

Psoas impingement is a rare cause of persisting pain after hip arthroplasty. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and exclusion of other complications after arthroplasty by radiographs, ultrasound, CT and blood analysis. The diagnosis is strongly supported by temporary pain relief after infiltration. When conservative measures fail, treatment can consist of a psoas tenotomy or a revision arthroplasty. When there is no obvious cause such as malpositioning for component impingement, psoas release reliably improves pain and function. This procedure is mostly performed through an open approach, which can give significant complications. An arthroscopic technique for psoas tenotomy after hip arthroplasty is described. This report shows that this minimal invasive technique is safe and effective and allows for inspection of the implant in the same session. However, the score used did not improve in a significant way. PMID:21473444

Van Riet, Anne; De Schepper, Jo; Delport, Hendrik Pieter

2011-02-01

12

Cytomegalovirus prevents antigen presentation by blocking the transport of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex class I molecules into the medial-Golgi compartment  

PubMed Central

Selective expression of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate-early (IE) genes leads to the presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule Ld of a peptide derived from MCMV IE protein pp89 (Reddehase, M.J., J. B. Rothbard, and U.H. Koszinowski. 1989. Nature (Lond.). 337:651). Characterization of endogenous antigenic peptides identified the pp89 peptide as the nonapeptide 168YPHFMPTNL176 (del Val, M., H.-J. Schlicht, T. Ruppert, M.J. Reddehase, and U.H. Koszinowski. 1991. Cell. 66:1145). Subsequent expression of MCMV early genes prevents presentation of pp89 (del Val, M., K. Munch, M.J. Reddehase, and U.H. Koszinowski. 1989. Cell. 58:305). We report on the mechanism by which MCMV early genes interfere with antigen presentation. Expression of the IE promoter-driven bacterial gene lacZ by recombinant MCMV subjected antigen presentation of beta-galactosidase to the same control and excluded antigen specificity. The Ld-dependent presence of naturally processed antigenic peptides also in nonpresenting cells located the inhibitory function subsequent to the step of antigen processing. The finding that during the E phase of MCMV gene expression the MHC class I heavy chain glycosylation remained in an Endo H-sensitive form suggested a block within the endoplasmic reticulum/cis-Golgi compartment. The failure to present antigenic peptides was explained by a general retention of nascent assembled trimolecular MHC class I complexes. Accordingly, at later stages of infection a significant decrease of surface MHC class I expression was seen, whereas other membrane glycoproteins remained unaffected. Thus, MCMV E genes endow this virus with an effective immune evasion potential. These results also indicate that the formation of the trimolecular complex of MHC class I heavy chain, beta 2-microglobulin, and the finally trimmed peptide is completed before entering the medial-Golgi compartment.

1992-01-01

13

The psoas muscle as cause of low back pain in infantile cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Psoas muscle spasticity is hypothesised as a rare cause of low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy. The authors describe a new manoeuvre for the study of psoas tenderness and ultrasound (US)-guided transabdominal botulinum toxin injection technique. A possible causal relationship between psoas tension and low back pain was found incidentally in two examined cases. In subsequent patients, botulinum toxin was injected and, in cases of disappearance of symptoms, the psoas tendon was sectioned at the pelvic brim with definitive disappearance of pain. The relationship between psoas tension and low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy seems likely, given the result in the four patients. PMID:19384481

Marrè-Brunenghi, G; Camoriano, R; Valle, M; Boero, S

2008-03-01

14

Compartment syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

1989-01-01

15

Compartment syndromes.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome can be defined as increased tissue pressure within a closed myofascial space, resulting in disturbed microcirculation and the potential for irreversible neuromuscular ischemic damage. It may present either acutely or chronically. Acute compartment syndrome most commonly occurs following lower limb trauma, and emergency decompression through open and extensive fasciotomies is the treatment of choice. There is little place for imaging in the acute setting because the diagnosis should be made on clinical grounds, possibly supported by measurements of compartmental pressure. Chronic compartment syndrome is more common, usually presenting with recurrent episodes of pain on exercise. The demonstration of elevated compartment pressures following exercise is currently the gold standard method for diagnosis. There is increasing interest in the use of imaging as either a potential alternative to compartmental pressure measurement or as an initial screening investigation prior to invasive testing. The literature evaluating the use of imaging techniques is reviewed, with an emphasis on the potential role of postexertional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:20486031

McDonald, Scott; Bearcroft, Philip

2010-06-01

16

Conservative management of psoas haematoma following complex lumbar surgery  

PubMed Central

We report psoas hematoma communicating with extradural hematoma and compressing on lumbar nerve roots during the postoperative period in a patient who underwent L3/4 level dynamic stabilization and L4/5 and L5/S1 posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Persistent radicular symptoms occurring soon after posterior lumbar surgery are not an unknown entity. However, psoas hematoma communicating with the extradural hematoma and compressing on L4 and L5 nerve roots soon after surgery, leading to radicular symptoms has not been reported. In addition to the conservative approach in managing such cases, this case report also emphasizes the importance of clinical evaluation and utilization of necessary imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to diagnose the cause of persistent severe radicular pain in the postoperative period.

Lakkol, Sandesh; Sarda, Praveen; Karpe, Prasad; Krishna, Manoj

2014-01-01

17

Appendicitis with psoas abscess successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery  

PubMed Central

Although acute appendicitis is a common disease, retroperitoneal abscesses are rarely observed. Here, we report a case consisting of a psoas abscess and cutaneous fistula caused by appendicitis. The patient was a 56-year-old male who was introduced to our institution due to an intractable right psoas abscess. Imaging tests had been performed over the previous 3 years; however, clinicians could not find the origin of the abscess and failed to resolve the problem. A successful operation was performed via a laparoscopic approach, and 17 mo have passed without recurrence. The advantage of laparoscopic surgery is well understood in cases of appendicitis with abscesses. However, the indication for laparoscopic approach is not clear for retroperitoneal abscesses. From our experience, we can conclude that appendicitis with retroperitoneal abscesses can be managed and treated using a laparoscopic approach.

Otowa, Yasunori; Sumi, Yasuo; Kanaji, Shingo; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

18

The psoas muscle as cause of low back pain in infantile cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoas muscle spasticity is hypothesised as a rare cause of low back pain in patients with infantile cerebral palsy. The authors\\u000a describe a new manoeuvre for the study of psoas tenderness and ultrasound (US)-guided transabdominal botulinum toxin injection\\u000a technique. A possible causal relationship between psoas tension and low back pain was found incidentally in two examined cases.\\u000a In subsequent patients,

G. Marrè-Brunenghi; R. Camoriano; M. Valle; S. Boero

2008-01-01

19

Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization  

PubMed Central

Background Minimally invasive lateral approaches to the lumbar spine have been adopted to allow access to the intervertebral disc space while avoiding the complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches. This report describes a minimally invasive technique for lateral lumbar interbody fusion LLIF that allows direct intraoperative visualization of the psoas and surrounding neurovasculature (DV-LIF). Methods The technique utilizes a radiolucent tubular retractor and a secondary psoas retractor that allows a muscle-sparing approach while offering excellent visualization of the operative site. The unique advantage of this procedure is that the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves can be directly visualized intraoperatively to supplement neuromonitoring. We retrospectively reviewed complication rates in 34 patients treated with DV-LLIF (n?=?19) or standard lateral lumbar interbody fusion (S-LLIF, n?=?15). Results There were 29 complications (median: 1 per patient) with DV-LLIF and 20 (median: 1 per patient) complications with S-LLIF. Postoperative sensory deficits were reported in eight (42%) and seven (47%) patients, respectively. Thigh pain or numbness was reported in eight (42%) and five (33%) patients, respectively. The percentage of the overall complications directly attributable to the procedure was 69% with DV-LLIF and 83% with S-LLIF. One severe complication (back pain) was reported in one DV-LLIF patient and four severe complications (severe bleeding, respiratory failure, deep venous thrombosis and gastrointestinal prophylaxis, and nicked renal vein and aborted procedure) were reported in two S-LLIF patients. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization may reduce the risk for severe procedural complications.

2014-01-01

20

Differentiation of posterior pararenal space infection from psoas abscess by gallium imaging  

SciTech Connect

Three of four patients whose cases fit the clinical description of psoas abscess proved on gallium imaging to have infection in the posterior pararenal space sparing the psoas muscle. This space provides a route for spread of infection connecting the spine, the anterior abdominal wall, the scrotum, the anterior thigh, and the gluteal region as demonstrated by the cases presented. Clinical differentiation between posterior pararenal space infection and psoas abscesses is difficult and CT studies may not demonstrate the process when the psoas space is not involved.

Bose, A.; Mishkin, F.; Delgado, J.

1983-01-01

21

Compartment Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... This type of injury can occur when a motorcycle falls on the leg of the rider, or a football player is hit in the leg with another player's helmet. Reestablished blood flow after blocked circulation. This may ...

22

The pelvic compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pelvic region three major compartments (gluteus medius-minimus compartment, gluteus maximus compartment, and iliopsoas compartment) can be distinguished from the smaller compartment of the tensor fasciae latae muscle. Pelvic compartment syndromes are rare. A clear history of trauma is often lacking. Association with drug and alcohol abuse is common, as is the association with the widespread use of anticoagulant

U. Bosch; H. Tscherne

1992-01-01

23

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. Identification of a glutamine to proline substitution that leads to a transport block of sucrase-isomaltase in a pre-Golgi compartment.  

PubMed Central

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is an example of a disease in which mutant phenotypes generate transport-incompetent molecules. Here, we analyze at the molecular level a phenotype of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency in which sucrase-isomaltase (SI) is not transported to the brush border membrane but accumulates as a mannose-rich precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and the cis-Golgi, where it is finally degraded. A 6-kb clone containing the full-length cDNA encoding SI was isolated from the patient's intestinal tissue and from normal controls. Sequencing of the cDNA revealed a single mutation, A/C at nucleotide 3298 in the coding region of the sucrase subunit of the enzyme complex. The mutation leads to a substitution of the glutamine residue by a proline at amino acid 1098 (Q1098P). The Q1098P mutation lies in a region that is highly conserved between sucrase and isomaltase from different species and several other structurally and functionally related proteins. This is the first report that characterizes a point mutation in the SI gene that is responsible for the transport incompetence of SI and for its retention between the ER and the Golgi.

Ouwendijk, J; Moolenaar, C E; Peters, W J; Hollenberg, C P; Ginsel, L A; Fransen, J A; Naim, H Y

1996-01-01

24

Toxicological evaluation of peroxy sulfonated oleic acid (PSOA) in subacute and developmental toxicity studies.  

PubMed

Peroxy sulfonated oleic acid (PSOA) is a new coupler used in sanitizing solutions primarily for the food and beverage industry. The toxicity of PSOA was evaluated in a 28-day repeat dose study according to OECD 407 guidelines with a 14-day recovery period and a developmental toxicity study according to OECD 414 guidelines. In both studies, PSOA was administered once daily via gavage at 0, 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg/day to Sprague-Dawley rats. Due to its corrosive properties, the highest test concentration was restricted to 0.5%. No findings related to PSOA administration were observed for the 28-day repeat-dose study and the NOEL is 50 mg/kg/day. Additionally, no impairment of the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract was observed up to 0.5%, which is considered the NOEC in terms of local toxicity. For the developmental study, an embryo-fetal NOEL of 50 mg/kg/day was identified and the maternal NOEL is considered to be 15 mg/kg/day, based on slight reductions in maternal body weight and food consumption, as well as a modest increase in the incidence of clinical observations at the high dose. These findings demonstrate that PSOA appears to have minimal potential to induce toxicity associated with repeat-dose or developmental exposures. PMID:24007740

Pechacek, Nathan; Laidlaw, Karen; Clubb, Stephanie; Aulmann, Walter; Osorio, Magdalena; Caudill, Jeff

2013-12-01

25

Psoas Major: a case report and review of its anatomy, biomechanics, and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

A 25-year-old male professional hockey player with right sided hip pain was diagnosed with myofascopathy of the right psoas major and rectus femoris. The patient maintained a conservative treatment regimen and was prescribed a four week active strengthening program. The program progressed from resisted concentric exercise to eccentric abduction/adduction exercises along with balance training, core stabilizing and endurance exercises in the first two weeks. In the final two weeks the program progressed to include sport specific exercises. At three weeks the patient was able to participate in non-contact practice and was clear for full contact at five weeks. The anatomy, biomechanics, and function of the psoas major muscle are discussed as is its influence on lumbar spine stability. Evidence-based evaluation and management strategies for psoas dysfunction are presented.

Sajko, Sandy; Stuber, Kent

2009-01-01

26

[Infection of the hip joint following psoas abscess. Case report and literature review].  

PubMed

Infection of the hip joint following psoas abscess is uncommon. In fact, only two cases have been reported in the literature. The clinical aspect of psoas abscess is characterised only by unspecific back pain and hip pain, which are responsible for delayed diagnosis. MRT and culture of joint aspirate can permit early diagnosis. The preferred treatment is immediate surgical intervention with debridement, drainage and antibiotic therapy. Percutaneous drainage of psoas abscess alone only rarely is sufficient. In cases of infected hip joint, resection arthroplasty often cannot be avoided. Following complete decline of inflammatory parameters and certain absence of bacteria confirmed by repeated joint aspiration, prosthetic joint replacement is possible. This decision should be made on an individual basis, because Girdlestone hip also can lead to a satisfactory result concerning pain relief and functional outcome. PMID:15778825

Auerbach, F; Kolbow, B; Walz, M

2005-08-01

27

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an often overlooked and uncommon cause of pain in the extremities of individuals who engage in repetitive physical activity. A thorough history, a careful physical examination, and compartment pressure testing are essential to establish the diagnosis. Catheter measurements can provide useful information on baseline resting compartment pressures as well as compartment pressures after exercise or trauma. Patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome usually do not respond to nonsurgical therapy other than completely ceasing the activities that cause the symptoms. Surgical intervention entails fasciotomies of the involved compartments. Although obtaining accurate compartment pressure measurements can be difficult and fascial releases must be done carefully, patients typically have satisfactory functional results and are able to return to their usual physical activities after fasciotomy. PMID:12889865

Fraipont, Michael J; Adamson, Gregory J

2003-01-01

28

Kyste hydatique du foie rompu dans la paroi abdominale et dans le muscle psoas : ? propos d'une rare observation  

PubMed Central

Le kyste hydatique du foie est une parasitose qui sévit à l?état endémique au maroc. La rupture dans la paroi abdominale et dans le psoas est une complication exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons un cas de kyste hydatique du foie rompu dans la paroi et dans le muscle psoas. Le diagnostic a été établi sur les données de l?échographie et surtout de la tomodensitométrie. Le patient a été opéré avec des suites simples.

En-Nafaa, Issam; Moujahid, Mountassir; Alahyane, Abdelouahabe; Amil, Touria; Hanine, Ahmed; Ziadi, Tarik

2011-01-01

29

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication.

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

30

Unilateral psoas abscess following posterior transpedicular stabilization of the lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of unilateral psoas abscess in a 58-year-old patient, shortly after posterior lower spine stabilization and fusion\\u000a for spinal stenosis using transpedicular spine fixation is reported. The diagnosis was delayed because the patient’s symptoms\\u000a were referred to the thigh and the plain roentgenograms were negative for pathology. The technetium scintigram and computed\\u000a tomography (CT) helped localization, diagnosis and treatment

Panagiotis Korovessis; Giorgos Petsinis; Zisis Papazisis

2000-01-01

31

Spacecraft Compartment Venting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At various time concerns have been expressed that rapid decompressions of compartments of gas pockets and thermal blankets during spacecraft launches may have caused pressure differentials across their walls sufficient to cause minor structural failures, separations of adhesively-joined parts, ballooning, and flapping of blankets. This paper presents a close form equation expressing the expected pressure differentials across the walls of a compartment as a function of the external to the volume pressure drops, the pressure at which the rates occur and the vent capability of the compartment. The pressure profiles measured inside the shrouds of several spacecraft propelled by several vehicles and some profiles obtained from ground vacuum systems have been included. The equation can be used to design the appropriate vent, which will preclude excessive pressure differentials. Precautions and needed approaches for the evaluations of the expected pressures have been indicated. Methods to make a rapid assessment of the response of the compartment to rapid external pressure drops have been discussed. These are based on the evaluation of the compartment vent flow conductance, the volume and the length of time during which the rapid pressure drop occurs.

Scialdone, John J.

1998-01-01

32

Postoperative Analgesia Using PSOAS Sheath Block Versus Three-in-One Block in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, the effects of two regional anesthetic techniques on postoperative pain of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery were described. Patients were assigned the morning of surgery to one of two groups. Subjects in...

C. A. Burch

1999-01-01

33

Abdominal compartment syndrome  

PubMed Central

The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) was first described in surgical patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, trauma, bleeding, or infection, but in recent years it has also been described in patients with other pathologies such as burn injury and sepsis and in medical patients. This F1000 Medicine Report is intended to provide critical care physicians a clear insight into the current state of knowledge regarding intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS, and will focus primarily on the recent literature as well as on the definitions and recommendations published by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. The definitions regarding increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) will be listed, followed by a brief but comprehensive overview of the different mechanisms of organ dysfunction associated with IAH. The gold standard measurement technique for IAP as well as recommendations for organ function support in patients with IAH and options for medical and surgical treatment of IAH and ACS will be discussed.

2009-01-01

34

Percutaneous drainage of psoas abscess under real-time computed tomography fluoroscopic guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The goal of our study was to determine the usefulness of percutaneous abscess drainage under guidance of computed tomography\\u000a (CT) fluoroscopy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Our subjects were 21 patients (seven women, 14 men; mean age 64 years; age range 30–87 years) who had undergone percutaneous\\u000a drainage of 26 psoas abscess lesions under CT fluoroscopic guidance between May 2001 and January 2008. Drainage methods

Takuji Yamagami; Koshi Terayama; Rika Yoshimatsu; Tomohiro Matsumoto; Hiroshi Miura; Tsunehiko Nishimura

2009-01-01

35

Two-compartment tumor metabolism  

PubMed Central

Previously, we proposed a new paradigm to explain the compartment-specific role of autophagy in tumor metabolism. In this model, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the tumor stroma promotes cellular catabolism, which results in the production of recycled nutrients. These chemical building blocks and high-energy “fuels” would then drive the anabolic growth of tumors, via autophagy resistance and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. We have termed this new form of stromal-epithelial metabolic coupling: “two-compartment tumor metabolism.” Here, we stringently tested this energy-transfer hypothesis, by genetically creating (1) constitutively autophagic fibroblasts, with mitochondrial dysfunction or (2) autophagy-resistant cancer cells, with increased mitochondrial function. Autophagic fibroblasts were generated by stably overexpressing key target genes that lead to AMP-kinase activation, such as DRAM and LKB1. Autophagy-resistant cancer cells were derived by overexpressing GOLPH3, which functionally promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. As predicted, DRAM and LKB1 overexpressing fibroblasts were constitutively autophagic and effectively promoted tumor growth. We validated that autophagic fibroblasts showed mitochondrial dysfunction, with increased production of mitochondrial fuels (L-lactate and ketone body accumulation). Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpressing breast cancer cells were autophagy-resistant, and showed signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which resulted in increased tumor growth. Thus, autophagy in the tumor stroma and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in cancer cells can both dramatically promote tumor growth, independently of tumor angiogenesis. For the first time, our current studies also link the DNA damage response in the tumor microenvironment with “Warburg-like” cancer metabolism, as DRAM is a DNA damage/repair target gene.

Salem, Ahmed F.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Lin, Zhao; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

2012-01-01

36

Contamination control of the space shuttle Orbiter crew compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective contamination control as applied to manned space flight environments is a discipline characterized and controlled by many parameters. An introduction is given to issues involving Orbiter crew compartment contamination control. An effective ground processing contamination control program is an essential building block to a successful shuttle mission. Personnel are required to don cleanroom-grade clothing ensembles before entering the crew compartment and follow cleanroom rules and regulations. Prior to crew compartment entry, materials and equipment must be checked by an orbiter integrity clerk stationed outside the white-room entrance for compliance to program requirements. Analysis and source identification of crew compartment debris studies have been going on for two years. The objective of these studies is to determine and identify particulate generating materials and activities in the crew compartment. Results show a wide spectrum of many different types of materials. When source identification is made, corrective action is implemented to minimize or curtail further contaminate generation.

Bartelson, Donald W.

1986-01-01

37

Abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic,\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 musculoskeletal\\/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention

Jeffrey Bailey; Marc J Shapiro

2000-01-01

38

One-year psoas training can prevent lumbar bone loss in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary On the premise that bone response to exercise is locally controlled [1], we conducted a randomized trial to evaluate the effects of a 1-year training of psoas muscles (treatment group: TG) versus a 1-year training of deltoid muscles (control group: CG) on the lumbar trabecular bone mineral density (TBMD). TBMD was measured with computed tomography scan. Seventy-eight subjects were

M. Revel; M. A. Mayoux-Benhamou; J. P. Rabourdin; F. Bagheri; C. Roux

1993-01-01

39

The rising psoas sign: an analysis of preoperative imaging characteristics of aborted minimally invasive lateral interbody fusions at L4-5.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis, or scoliosis is becoming increasingly popular. The approach at L4-5 carries the highest risk of nerve injury given the proximity of the lumbar plexus and femoral nerve. The authors present 3 cases that were aborted during the approach because of pervasive electromyography responses throughout the L4-5 disc space. Preoperative imaging characteristics of psoas muscle anatomy in all 3 cases are analyzed and discussed. In all cases, the psoas muscle on axial views was rising away from the vertebral column as opposed to its typical location lateral to it. Preoperative evaluation of psoas muscle anatomy is important. A rising psoas muscle at L4-5 on axial imaging may complicate a lateral approach. PMID:24606002

Voyadzis, Jean-Marc; Felbaum, Daniel; Rhee, Jay

2014-05-01

40

The mitochondrial compartment.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are vital organelles that perform a variety of fundamental functions ranging from the synthesis of ATP through to being intimately involved in programmed cell death. Comprised of at least six compartments: outer membrane, inner boundary membrane, intermembrane space, cristal membranes, intracristal space, and matrix, mitochondria have a complex, dynamic internal structure. This internal dynamism is reflected in the pleomorphy and motility of mitochondria. Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA), encoding a small number of vital genes, but this role as a genetic vault is not compatible with the role of mitochondria in bioenergetics since electron transport results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce lesions in the mtDNA. It is hypothesized that ROS shape the morphological organization of the higher plant cell mitochondrial population into a discontinuous whole, and that ROS are a selective pressure affecting the organization of the mitochondrial genome. This review describes how inter- and intra-mitochondrial compartmentalization underpins the biology of this complex organelle. PMID:16556626

Logan, David C

2006-01-01

41

The mitochondrial compartment.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are vital organelles that perform a variety of fundamental functions ranging from the synthesis of ATP through to being intimately involved in programmed cell death. Comprised of at least six compartments: outer membrane, inner boundary membrane, intermembrane space, cristal membranes, intracristal space, and matrix, mitochondria have a complex, dynamic internal structure. This internal dynamism is reflected in the pleomorphy and motility of mitochondria. Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA), encoding a small number of vital genes, but this role as a genetic vault is not compatible with the role of mitochondria in bioenergetics since electron transport results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce lesions in the mtDNA. It is hypothesized that ROS shape the morphological organization of the higher plant cell mitochondrial population into a discontinuous whole, and that ROS are a selective pressure affecting the organization of the mitochondrial genome. This review describes how inter- and intra-mitochondrial compartmentalization underpins the biology of this complex organelle. PMID:17269154

Logan, David C

2007-01-01

42

Abdominal compartment syndrome in children.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as sustained intra-abdominal pressure greater than 20 mm Hg (with or without abdominal perfusion pressure <60 mm Hg) associated with new organ failure or dysfunction. The syndrome is associated with 90% to 100% mortality if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. Nurses are responsible for accurately measuring intra-abdominal pressure in children with abdominal compartment syndrome and for alerting physicians about important changes. This article provides relevant definitions, outlines risk factors for abdominal compartment syndrome developing in children, and discusses an instructive case involving an adolescent with abdominal compartment syndrome. Techniques for measuring intra-abdominal pressure, normal ranges, and the importance of monitoring in the critical care setting for timely identification of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome also are discussed. PMID:23203955

Newcombe, Jennifer; Mathur, Mudit; Ejike, J Chiaka

2012-12-01

43

Psoas muscle metastasis from cervical carcinoma: Correlation and comparison of diagnostic features on FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Psoas muscle metastasis, though rare, is the commonest site of skeletal muscle involvement in cervical carcinoma. The appropriate clinical management of this condition, particularly of the pain related to malignant psoas syndrome, is still evolving and the diagnostic features on conventional morphological imaging modalities are often non specific, with the differential diagnosis lying between sarcoma, hematoma, and abscess. In this report, a comparison of various morphofunctional imaging modalities was made. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) was the first to suspect disease involvement of the psoas muscle, demonstrating intense FDG uptake (compared with the contralateral muscle), while ultrasound showed heterogeneous echotexture, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed subtle altered signal intensity in the right psoas muscle. Both anatomical imaging modalities and non contrast CT of the PET-CT examination demonstrated a bulky psoas muscle, without any focal abnormality. On diffusion-weighted imaging of MRI (DWI-MRI), restricted diffusion of the involved muscle was an important observation. The psoas muscle metastatic involvement was proven histopathologically. Thus, enhanced glucose metabolism and restricted diffusion in the newer non-invasive molecular imaging modalities (e.g., PET/CT and DWI-MRI) could serve as valuable adjunctive parameters in diagnosing this entity in the absence of a focal abnormality in the anatomical modalities. In the treatment response monitoring scenario, FDG-PET/CT demonstrated near complete resolution following administration of 3 cycles of systemic chemotherapy and local external radiotherapy.

Basu, Sandip; Mahajan, Abhishek

2014-01-01

44

Colour stability of bovine Longissimus and Psoas major muscle as affected by electrical stimulation and hot boning.  

PubMed

From eight electrically stimulated and eight non-stimulated cows the righthand-side longissimus and psoas major muscles were hot boned within 1 1 2 h post mortem, vacuum packaged and chilled and storred at 1±1°C. Immediately after slaughter, the lefthand carcass-sides were blast-chilled for 1 1 2 h and subsequently chilled at 1±1°C until the following day. After cold boning, the longissimus and psoas major muscle were packaged, chilled and stored as the hot boned muscles. After 12 days of storage, steaks, cut from the primals, were displayed at 1±1°C under continuous illumination (300-400 lx). Colour measurements after 0, 2 and 4 days of display revealed a significant (p<0·10) effect of time of boning on non-stimulated psoas major muscle (lower values for a (?), b (?) values, chroma and %R630-%R580). Significant effects of electrical stimulation were not observed. Changes in hue tended to be more pronounced when the meat had been stimulated. Changes in chroma were largest (p<0·10) is non-stimulated, hot boned psoas muscle. Analysis of variances showed that in the longissimus muscle significant effects (p<0·10) of time boning and electrical stimulation were present. The effect of time of boning was often influenced by the use of electrical stimulation. Changes in hue and chroma indicated that hot boned samples had a higher colour stability than cold boned controls, especially when the carcasses had not been stimulated electrically. The observed differences in colour stability were rather small in all treatment groups and are not expected to present any practical merchandising problem. PMID:22055575

van Laack, R L; Smulders, F J

1990-01-01

45

Metallosis, psoas abscess and infected hip prosthesis in a patient with bilateral metal on metal total hip replacement  

PubMed Central

Metal on metal hip (MoM) resurfacing / replacement has recently been one of the most discussed topics in orthopaedics. Significant revision rates and complications are associated with MoM. We report a patient presenting with infection of a total hip prosthesis in conjunction with a psoas abscess in which the presentation is complicated by radiological evidence of suspected metallic debris in the lower limb tissues and elevated chromium and cobalt levels, suggestive of metallosis secondary to MoM.

Rymaruk, S; Razak, A; McGivney, R

2012-01-01

46

Metallosis, psoas abscess and infected hip prosthesis in a patient with bilateral metal on metal total hip replacement.  

PubMed

Metal on metal hip (MoM) resurfacing / replacement has recently been one of the most discussed topics in orthopaedics. Significant revision rates and complications are associated with MoM. We report a patient presenting with infection of a total hip prosthesis in conjunction with a psoas abscess in which the presentation is complicated by radiological evidence of suspected metallic debris in the lower limb tissues and elevated chromium and cobalt levels, suggestive of metallosis secondary to MoM. PMID:24960139

Rymaruk, S; Razak, A; McGivney, R

2012-01-01

47

An MRI study of psoas major and abdominal large vessels with respect to the X/DLIF approach.  

PubMed

Extreme/direct lateral interbody fusion (X/DLIF) has been used to treat various lumbar diseases. However, it involves risks to injure the lumbar plexus and abdominal large vessels when it gains access to the lumbar spine via lateral approach that passes through the retroperitoneal fat and psoas major muscle. This study was aimed to determine the distribution of psoas major and abdominal large vessels at lumbar intervertebral spaces in order to select an appropriate X/DLIF approach to avoid nerve and large vessels injury. Magnetic resonance imaging scanning on lumbar intervertebral spaces was performed in 48 patients (24 males, 24 females, 54.2 years on average). According to Moro's method, lumbar intervertebral space was divided into six zones A, I, II, III, IV and P. Thickness of psoas major was measured and distribution of abdominal large vessels was surveyed at each zone. The results show vena cava migrate from the right of zone A to the right of zone I at L1/2-L4/5; abdominal aorta was located mostly to the left of zone A at L1/2-L3/4 and divided into bilateral iliac arteries at L4/5; Psoas major was tenuous and dorsal at L1/2 and L2/3, large and ventral at L3/4 and L4/5. Combined with the distribution of nerve roots reported by Moro, X/DLIF approach is safe via zones II-III at L1/2 and L2/3, and via zone II at L3/4. At L4/5, it is safe via zones I-II in left and via zone II in right side, respectively. PMID:21053027

Hu, Wan-Kun; He, Shi-Sheng; Zhang, Shao-Cheng; Liu, Yan-Bin; Li, Ming; Hou, Tie-Sheng; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Jian

2011-04-01

48

Effect of viscosity on mechanics of single, skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle.  

PubMed Central

Muscle contraction is highly dynamic and thus may be influenced by viscosity of the medium surrounding the myofilaments. Single, skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were used to test this hypothesis. Viscosity within the myofilament lattice was increased by adding to solutions low molecular weight sugars (disaccharides sucrose or maltose or monosaccharides glucose or fructose). At maximal Ca2+ activation, isometric force (Fi) was inhibited at the highest solute concentrations studied, but this inhibition was not directly related to viscosity. Solutes readily permeated the filament lattice, as fiber diameter was unaffected by added solutes (except for an increased diameter with Fi < 30% of control). In contrast, there was a linear dependence upon 1/viscosity for both unloaded shortening velocity and also the kinetics of isometric tension redevelopment; these effects were unrelated to either variation in solution osmolarity or inhibition of force. All effects of added solute were reversible. Inhibition of both isometric as well as isotonic kinetics demonstrates that viscous resistance to filament sliding was not the predominant factor affected by viscosity. This was corroborated by measurements in relaxed fibers, which showed no significant change in the strain-rate dependence of elastic modulus when viscosity was increased more than twofold. Our results implicate cross-bridge diffusion as a significant limiting factor in cross-bridge kinetics and, more generally, demonstrate that viscosity is a useful probe of actomyosin dynamics.

Chase, P B; Denkinger, T M; Kushmerick, M J

1998-01-01

49

Kinetic Mechanism of Ca2+-controlled Changes of Skeletal Troponin I in Psoas Myofibrils  

PubMed Central

Conformational changes in the skeletal troponin complex (sTn) induced by rapidly increasing or decreasing the [Ca2+] were probed by 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein covalently bound to Cys-133 of skeletal troponin I (sTnI). Kinetics of conformational changes was determined for the isolated complex and after incorporating the complex into rabbit psoas myofibrils. Isolated and incorporated sTn exhibited biphasic Ca2+-activation kinetics. Whereas the fast phase (kobs?1000 s?1) is only observed in this study, where kinetics were induced by Ca2+, the slower phase resembles the monophasic kinetics of sTnI switching observed in another study (Brenner and Chalovich. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2692–2708) that investigated the sTnI switching induced by releasing the feedback of force-generating cross-bridges on thin filament activation. Therefore, the slower conformational change likely reflects the sTnI switch that regulates force development. Modeling reveals that the fast conformational change can occur after the first Ca2+ ion binds to skeletal troponin C (sTnC), whereas the slower change requires Ca2+ binding to both regulatory sites of sTnC. Incorporating sTn into myofibrils increased the off-rate and lowered the Ca2+ sensitivity of sTnI switching. Comparison of switch-off kinetics with myofibril force relaxation kinetics measured in a mechanical setup indicates that sTnI switching might limit the rate of fast skeletal muscle relaxation.

Lopez-Davila, A.J.; Elhamine, Fatiha; Ruess, D.F.; Papadopoulos, Simon; Iorga, Bogdan; Kulozik, F.P.; Zittrich, Stefan; Solzin, Johannes; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Stehle, Robert

2012-01-01

50

[Multimodal treatment for MFH originating from the psoas muscle-a case report].  

PubMed

A 51-year-old male presented with lower abdominal mass and thigh and lumbar pain. CT scan showed a large retroperitoneal tumor compressing the lumbar vertebrae and IVC. Arterial infusion of mitomycin C, epirubicin and DSM was performed for unresectable tumor. The tumor was shrunken and the infusion repeated in 6 and 10 weeks later until right femoral palsy occurred. Radical resection with lumbar fascicles and psoas muscle and IORT (25 Gy) was performed. Local recurrence appeared before the sacrum in the next year. Arterial infusion and resection was done. Local recurrence invading the right common iliac artery was found five years later. The tumor and the artery were resected, followed by extra-anatomical ilio-iliac bypass. Local recurrences occurred in the 6th, 7th and 9th year. Radiation therapy was effective. But for the last recurrence, no radiation was applicable because of over dosage. As the most important thing in the treatment of MFH is to resect the tumor with curative margin at the initial operation, and the retroperitoneum and pelvic cavity are not good places to obtain good margins, multimodal treatment including irradiation should have been considered even preoperatively. Also consultation with orthopedic oncologists, radiologists, vascular surgeons and team practice are essential to get curative margins. PMID:22202340

Sakamoto, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Yoichi; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Amikura, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yoji; Yatsuoka, Toshimasa; Ninomiya, Riki; Yamaura, Tadayoshi; Yokoyama, Yasuyuki; Noda, Kazumasa; Kikuchi, Isao

2011-11-01

51

Hamstring and psoas length of crouch gait in cerebral palsy: a comparison with induced crouch gait in age- and sex-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait. Methods Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait. Results No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.456) lengths of patients and controls mimicking crouch gait. However, patients showed significantly shorter excursions of hamstring (p=0.022) and psoas (p=0.036) muscles than controls, whereas no significant excursion differences were observed between controls during normal gait and mimicking crouch gait. Conclusions Normal controls mimicking crouch gait and cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait demonstrate similar muscle length patterns. However, mimicked crouch gait did not reproduce the excursion pattern shown by patients with crouch gait, which suggests that reduced hamstring and psoas excursion is an innate characteristic of pathologic crouch gait.

2013-01-01

52

The role of monovalent phosphate anions in the crossbridge kinetics of chemically skinned rabbit psoas fibers.  

PubMed

The role of phosphate ions (Pi) in crossbridge kinetics is investigated by parallel measurements of the ATP hydrolysis rate and the tension transients in maximally activated, chemically skinned rabbit psoas fibers. The tension transients are induced by sinusoidal length oscillations, and resulting time courses are analyzed in terms of three exponential processes (A), (B), and (C). The ATP hydrolysis rate is measured by the NADH fluorscence method coupled with enzymatic reactions which rephosphorylate ADP and oxidize NADH. The hydrolysis rate of the standard activation at 20 degrees C is measured at 0.61 mM/sec. The isometric tension, stiffness, and the ATPase rate progressively decrease with increasing concentrations of Pi (0-16 mM). The decrease is most notably observed with tension, followed by stiffness and the ATPase rate. Both the apparent rate constant and the magnitude parameters of exponential process (B) increase with Pi concentration resulting in a large increase in the oscillatory power output. The active species of Pi which causes this effect is found to be the monovalent anion H2PO4-. The effects of Pi on processes (A) and (C) are only marginal. When fibers are oscillated at 1 Hz, no increase in the ATP hydrolysis rate is observed; a small increase is noticed at 10 Hz (1%), and at 100 Hz (6%). We interpret these results in terms of a crossbridge scheme which adds a branch pathway to the conventional hydrolysis cycle: the number of crossbridges entering the branch pathway increases at higher Pi concentrations and in the presence of oscillations. PMID:2970207

Kawai, M; Güth, K; Cornacchia, T W

1988-01-01

53

Predicting the outcome of intramuscular psoas lengthening in children with cerebral palsy using preoperative gait data and the random forest algorithm.  

PubMed

This study used the random forest algorithm to predict outcomes of intramuscular psoas lengthening as part of a single event multi-level surgery in patients with cerebral palsy. Data related to preoperative medical history, physical exam, and instrumented three-dimensional gait analysis were extracted from a historic database in a motion analysis center. Data from 800 limbs of patients with diplegic cerebral palsy were analyzed. An index quantifying the overall deviation in pelvic tilt and hip flexion was used to define outcome categories. The random forest algorithm was used to derive criteria that predicted the outcome of a limb. The criteria were applied to limbs that underwent psoas lengthening with outstanding results (accuracy=.78, sensitivity=.82, specificity=.73). The criteria were then validated using an extended retrospective case-control design. Case limbs met the criteria and underwent psoas lengthening. Control limbs met the criteria, but did not undergo psoas lengthening. Over-treated limbs failed the criteria and underwent psoas lengthening. Other-treated limbs failed the criteria and did not undergo psoas lengthening. The rate of good outcomes among Cases exceeded that observed among controls (82% vs. 60%, relative risk=1.37), and far exceeded that observed in Over-treated limbs (27%). Other-treated limbs had good outcomes 52% of the time. Application of the criteria in the future is estimated to increase the overall rate of good pelvis-hip outcomes from 58% to 72% among children with diplegia who undergo single-event multi-level surgery (SEMLS). PMID:23079586

Schwartz, Michael H; Rozumalski, Adam; Truong, Walter; Novacheck, Tom F

2013-04-01

54

Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun's CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1....

J. S. Tolliver

1995-01-01

55

ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN POLYTRAUMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authors inform about the group of 8 patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurred as a compli- cation in large blunt injury of abdominal cavity. To the ACS diagnose, the measurement of intracystic pressure is used routinely, whose values correlate fully with values of intraabdominal pressure (IAP). In case of increasing values of IAP over 25 mm Hg with positive

Leopold Pleva; Jaroslav Mayzlíkb

56

Understanding HIV Compartments and Reservoirs.  

PubMed

The spectrum of HIV-1 cellular reservoirs is highly diversified, and their role varies according to the milieu of the anatomical sites in which the virus replicates. In this light, mechanisms underlying HIV-1 persistence in anatomical compartments may be profoundly different from what is observed in peripheral blood. This scenario is further complicated by sub-optimal drug penetration in tissues allowing persistent and cryptic HIV-1 replication in body districts despite undetectable viremia. On this basis, this review aims at providing recent insights regarding the critical role of HIV-1 cellular reservoirs in different anatomical compartments, and their relationship with the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. A comprehensive definition of the complex interplay between the virus and its reservoir is critical in order to set up prophylactic and therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving the maximal virological suppression and hopefully in the near future the cure of HIV-1 infection (either functional or biological). PMID:24729094

Svicher, Valentina; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Antinori, Andrea; Aquaro, Stefano; Perno, Carlo Federico

2014-06-01

57

Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

58

Transient tension changes initiated by laser temperature jumps in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.  

PubMed

1. A technique was developed to generate 2-8 degrees C step temperature perturbations (T-jumps) in single muscle fibres to study the thermodynamics of muscle contraction. A solid-state pulsed holmium laser emitting at 2.065 microns heated the fibre and surrounding solution in approximately 150 mus. The signal from a 100 microns thermocouple fed back to a heating wire maintained the elevated temperature after the laser pulse. 2. Tension of glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from rabbit psoas muscle did not change significantly following T-jumps when the fibre was relaxed. 3. In rigor, tension decreased abruptly on heating indicating normal (not rubber-like) thermoelasticity. The thermoelastic coefficient (negative ratio of relative length change to relative temperature change) of the fibre was estimated to be -0.021 at sarcomere lengths of 2.5-2.8 microns. Rigor tension was constant after the temperature step and returned to the original value on recooling. 4. In maximal Ca2+ activation, tension transients initiated by T-jumps had several phases. An immediate tension decrease suggests that thermoelasticity during contraction is similar to that in rigor. Active tension then recovered to the value before the T-jump with an apparent rate constant of approximately 400 s-1 (at 10-20 degrees C). This rate constant did not have an appreciable dependence on the final temperature. Finally, tension increased exponentially to a new higher level with a rate constant of approximately 20 s-1 at 20 degrees C. This rate constant increased with temperature with a Q10 of 1.4. 5. At submaximal Ca2+ activation the tension rise was followed by a decay to below the value before the T-jump. This decline was expected from the temperature dependence of steady pCa-tension curves. The final tension decline occurred on the 1-5 s time scale. 6. The value and amplitude dependence of the rate constant for the quick recovery following T-jumps were similar to those of the quick recovery following length steps during active contractions. The enthalpy change associated with the quick tension recovery following temperature-step perturbations was estimated to be positive suggesting that the recovery process is an endothermic reaction. Slower reaction steps on the 10-30 ms timescale, as well as reactions corresponding to the quick recovery, may contribute to the cross-bridge power stroke. PMID:3446791

Goldman, Y E; McCray, J A; Ranatunga, K W

1987-11-01

59

Differential scanning calorimetry study of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibres in intermediate state of ATP hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal denaturation experiments were extended to study the thermal behaviour of the main motor proteins (actin and myosin) in their native environment in striated muscle fibres. The interaction of actin with myosin in the highly organized muscle structure is affected by internal forces; therefore their altered conformation and interaction may differ from those obtained in solution. The energetics of long functioning intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis cycle was studied in muscle fibres by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results SETARAM Micro DSC-II was used to monitor the thermal denaturation of the fibre system in rigor and in the presence of nucleotide and nucleotide analogues. The AM.ADP.Pi state of the ATP hydrolysis cycle has a very short lifetime therefore, we mimicked the different intermediate states with AMP.PNP and/or inorganic phosphate analogues Vi and AlF4 or BeFx. Studying glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from the rabbit psoas muscle by DSC, three characteristic thermal transitions were detected in rigor. The thermal transitions can be assigned to myosin heads, myosin rods and actin with transition temperatures (Tm) of 52.9 ± 0.7°C, 57.9 ± 0.7°C, 63.7 ± 1.0°C. In different intermediate states of the ATP hydrolysis mimicked by nucleotide analogues a fourth thermal transition was also detected which is very likely connected with nucleotide binding domain of myosin and/or actin filaments. This transition temperature Tm4 depended on the mimicked intermediate states, and varied in the range of 66°C – 77°C. Conclusion According to DSC measurements, strongly and weakly binding states of myosin to actin were significantly different. In the presence of ADP only a moderate change of the DSC pattern was detected in comparison with rigor, whereas in ADP.Pi state trapped by Vi, AlF4 or BeFx a remarkable stabilization was detected on the myosin head and actin filament which is reflected in a 3.0 – 10.0°C shift in Tm to higher temperature. A similar effect was observed in the case of the nonhydrolyzable AMP.PNP analogue. Differential DSC measurements suggest that stabilization actin structure in the intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis may play an additional role in actin-myosin interaction.

Dergez, Timea; Lorinczy, Denes; Konczol, Franciska; Farkas, Nelli; Belagyi, Joseph

2007-01-01

60

Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

2013-01-01

61

Chronic compartment syndrome: Diagnosis, management, and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consecutive operative series of 100 patients with chronic compartment syndrome involving 233 compart ments is reported. Seven of every eight were athletes, and runners predominated. Exercise-induced symp toms of consistently recurring tightness, aching (in some, sharp pains) in anatomically defined compart ments were pathognomonic. Mean months of symp toms prior to operation was 22; median age was 26 years.

Don E. Detmer; Kim Sharpe; Robert L. Sufit; Forrest M. Girdley

1985-01-01

62

The tibialis posterior muscle compartmentAn unrecognized cause of exertional compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional compartment syndrome in the deep poste rior compartment of the leg is well recognized. This paper reports investigations which were performed to prove that the tibialis posterior muscle is contained in its own osseofascial compartment, separate from the rest of the deep posterior compartment. Radiographs following the injection of radio-opaque dye into the tibialis posterior muscle demonstrated the fluid-imper

J. R. Davey; C. H. Rorabeck; P. J. Fowler

1984-01-01

63

Kinetics of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by shortening myofibrils from rabbit psoas muscle.  

PubMed Central

1. Using a solenoid-operated mixing device, time-resolved measurements were made of shortening and accompanying ATP hydrolysis at 20 degrees C by myofibrils prepared from rabbit psoas muscle. 2. The extent of ATP hydrolysis was determined by an improved Malachite Green method for determination of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the presence of a large excess of ATP. For the measurement of the change in sarcomere length by phase contrast microscopy, shortening was terminated without delay and artifact by a mixture of 0.2 M-acetate (pH 4.6) and 1.25% (v/v) glutaraldehyde. 3. The shortening velocity per half-sarcomere was 10 microns s-1 in 25 mM-KCl for sarcomere lengths above 1.4 microns, and at least 12 microns s-1 in 150 mM-KCl for sarcomere lengths above 1.7 microns. During this rapid shortening, there was no significant ATP turnover by cross-bridges (upper 95% confidence limit: 0.14 mol (mol of myosin head)-1 in 25 mM-KCl; 0.12 mol mol-1 in KCl solutions greater than or equal to 100 mM). 4. When the sarcomeres shortened below 1.7 microns in KCl concentrations greater than 100 mM or below 1.4 microns in 25 mM-KCl, there was a transient acceleration of ATP hydrolysis (delayed ATP hydrolysis), which was then followed by a steady slow hydrolysis. 5. The magnitudes (+/- estimated standard deviation) of delayed ATP hydrolysis by myofibrils of initial sarcomere length 2.4 microns were 0.42 +/- 0.19, 0.31 +/- 0.10 and 0.17 +/- 0.09 mol (mol myosin head)-1 in 25 mM, 100 mM and 150 mM-KCl, respectively. For myofibrils of sarcomere length 2.0 microns, however, it decreased to 0.24 +/- 0.10 mol mol-1 in 25 mM-KCl or to an insignificant level in 150 mM-KCl. 6. These results indicate that most of the ATP hydrolysis products remain bound to cross-bridges during rapid shortening, and that when the force opposing shortening increases, a proportion of cross-bridges rapidly dissociate the products and enter the next ATP cycle, which diminishes with the decrease in shortening distance as well as the increase in ionic strength. Such behaviour of the cross-bridge is probably a manifestation of its energetic and kinetic properties in the state with bound ADP and Pi interacting with actin filaments at zero load and at a transition from zero to non-zero loads.

Ohno, T; Kodama, T

1991-01-01

64

Wetting transitions within membrane compartments.  

PubMed

A biomimetic membrane in contact with several aqueous phases is theoretically studied using a combination of Helfrich curvature elasticity theory for fluid membranes and self-consistent field theory for polymers in solutions. Two phases that are thermodynamically formed by phase separation of aqueous solutions, as well as stable and metastable shapes of fluid vesicles, have been observed. The wetting transitions from complete to partial wetting and to complete dewetting are identified within a membrane compartment. The dependences of wetting transitions on material parameters, such as the intrinsic contact angles ?in, the interaction strengths between the polymers ??? and between the membrane and the polymer ?p, and impermeability of the membrane to the enclosed polymers ?p, are investigated. For a given ???, impermeability ?p and affinity to the membrane ?p, ?in is found to be a constant and independent of the reduced volume of vesicles and the volume fraction of two phases. PMID:24946020

Guo, Kunkun; Xiao, Wenjia; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

2014-08-01

65

Exertional compartment syndrome in a Marine grunt.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced exertional compartment syndrome was first described by Vogt in 1945 as "march gangrene." The authors report a case of a 20-year-old United States Marine presenting with the florid findings of acute crural compartment syndrome. The patient's history of prior episodes of crural pain following long hikes led the authors to conclude that this patient had a chronic exertional compartment syndrome. PMID:1603411

Webb, L X; Grossling, S

1992-03-01

66

Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative ?-Calculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative ? -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed ? -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

67

Backdraft Experiments in a Small Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes results of preliminary backdraft experiments in a 0.85 m high, 0.78 m wide, 1.08 m long compartment,\\u000a a roughly one third scale residential room. Each surface of the compartment was made with two layers of insulation board to\\u000a obtain a highly insulated condition. The compartment had a small opening in the middle of the front wall to

Hiroshi Hayasaka; Yuji Kudo; Hideyoshi Kojima; Tsutomu Hashigami; Jun Ito; Takashi Ueda

68

Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Extremity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a limb-threatening emergency that requires prompt surgical treatment.\\u000a Early detection and decompression are necessary in order to avoid irreversible damage. In the lower extremity, compartment\\u000a syndrome may occur around the pelvis, in the thigh, the lower leg or the foot. Acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg\\u000a is most common. Sometimes, combined

Martin H. Hessmann; Patrick Ingelfinger; Pol M. Rommens

2007-01-01

69

Mechanical and biochemical analyses of tibial compartment fascia in chronic compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in compartment pressure associated with chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) may be due to changes in the mechanical\\u000a properties and\\/or thickness of fascia (4,22). To explore this possibility, we compared the mechanical and biochemical characteristics\\u000a (stiffness, thickness, time-dependent response, collagen content, and collagen crosslinking) of fascia from patients with\\u000a symptomatic anterior compartment syndrome to fascia from adjacent collateral compartments. We

Christof Hurschler; RAY VANDERBY JR; Daniel A. Martinez; Arthur C. Vailas; William D. Turnipseed

1994-01-01

70

Bilateral Compartment Syndrome Complicating Prolonged Lithotomy Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A case of bilateral compartment syndrome after prolonged Lloyd-Davies lithotomy position is described. The diagnosis was made early, despite effective extradural bupivacaine- fentanyl analgesia. The aetiology, diagnosis, pathology and treatment of compartment syn- drome are described. Complications of the syndrome may be life-threatening and perma- nently disabling. The anaesthetist should be aware of the potential complications of the operative

J. TUCKEY

1997-01-01

71

ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN TIBIAL DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

e reviewed 25 patients with tibial diaphyseal fractures which had been complicated by an acute compartment syndrome. Thirteen had undergone continuous monitoring of the compartment pressure and the other 12 had not. The average delay from injury to fasciotomy in the monitored group was 16 hours and in the non-monitored group 32 hours (p < 0.05). Of the 12 surviving

M. M. MCQUEEN; J. CHRISTIE; C. M. COURT-BROWN

1996-01-01

72

Diagnosis and management of chronic compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This article describes the diagnosis and management of chronic compartment syndrome and functional popliteal entrapment syndrome, unusual causes for claudication in young adults. Methods. A total of 276 patients (<50 years old) with isolated muscle cramping, swelling, and plantar paresthesia were routinely evaluated with compartment pressures (normal < 15 mm Hg), stress plethysmography, and selectively evaluated with pulse volume

William D Turnipseed

2002-01-01

73

Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons  

SciTech Connect

As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

Tolliver, J.S.

1995-12-31

74

Unicompartment compartment syndrome following laparascopic colonic resection.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 43-year-old man who developed anterior compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the lithotomy position. This was initially masked by postoperative epidural usage and ultimately diagnosed 2 days postoperatively. The patient underwent decompression by four compartment fasciotomy and two follow-up re-explorations of the affected lower limb. This case is unique for two reasons: only the anterior compartment of the lower limb was affected--which is rare in itself--and there was a delay in presentation secondary to postoperative epidural usage. PMID:23843407

Kalin, Asli; Hariharan, Vimal; Tudor, Francois

2013-01-01

75

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg  

PubMed Central

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate.

2010-01-01

76

Compartment syndromes of the upper extremity.  

PubMed

Upper extremity compartment syndromes are difficult conditions that are manifest in a myriad of ways. Careful attention to the details of the history and physical examination can assist in the development of a useful working diagnosis. Testing ITPs is the best method available to help confirm the diagnosis. Prompt fasciotomy is effective for diminishing compartment pressure and limiting additional tissue necrosis due to pressure elevation. Unfortunately, a number of characteristics specific to compartment syndrome affect ultimate outcome. Other variables, such as the amount of muscle damage from the initial injury, problems originating from any associated fracture, and soft tissue injury, also significantly affect overall patient outcome. PMID:12141186

Seiler, J G; Casey, P J; Binford, S H

2000-01-01

77

Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and m...

W. T. Yost T. Ueno A. R. Hargens

2004-01-01

78

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As hip arthroscopy becomes a more common procedure, more complications may occur. We present a case of abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from fluid extravasation in a 42-year-old man who underwent routine hip arthroscopy for femoral acetabular impi...

B. D. Owens J. Fowler

2010-01-01

79

Aircraft cargo compartment fire test simulation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

Blumke, R. E.

1977-01-01

80

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most\\u000a commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental\\u000a pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the\\u000a affected compartment at the same

Alicia K. Tucker

2010-01-01

81

Epidural block  

MedlinePLUS

An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) in the back. It numbs or causes a loss of ... The block or shot is given into an area over your lower back or spine. You may lie on ...

82

Analysis of pre- and postexercise compartment pressures in the medial compartment of the foot.  

PubMed

Growing awareness of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the foot has led to the need for site-specific analysis of normative resting and postexertional intracompartment pressures. Thirty-four asymptomatic athletes underwent pressure testing of the medial foot compartment with an intracompartmental pressure measurement apparatus. Pressure measurements were recorded before exercise and after 20 minutes of running. Mean resting intracompartment pressure was 7.7 mm Hg, whereas mean pressures 1 and 5 minutes after exercise were 19.1 mm Hg and 10.7 mm Hg, respectively. These data were then compared with data from compartment pressure studies performed in nine symptomatic subjects, each with a clinical history suggestive of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot compartment. The results demonstrated normative compartment pressures of the medial foot compartment are comparable with previously measured pressures of the leg. This study shows that previously defined criteria for diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg may also be used for diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the foot. PMID:11912099

Mollica, Matthew B; Duyshart, Sarah C

2002-01-01

83

Population Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

Smith, Martin H.

1992-01-01

84

[The acute compartment syndrome of the arm].  

PubMed

Two 37-year-old men, both drug addicts, and a 32-year-old homeless woman presented themselves with a painful arm. Except for the first patient, there was a delay in diagnosing the compartment syndrome of the arm. In the first patient emergency fasciotomy led to a good functional recovery, however kidney function was lost despite proper treatment, possibly due to combined heroine use and muscle breakdown. In the second patient prolonged immobility and altered consciousness by drug use should have increased clinical suspicion. Poor arm function remained even after fasciotomy. In the third patient inadequate clinical examination delayed surgery. Major early symptoms of compartment syndrome are progressive disproportional pain and sensory loss, not relieved by analgesia. If left untreated, the ischaemic tissue damage is potentially limb and even life threatening. The acute compartment syndrome is a clinical diagnosis and a low threshold for surgical exploration and fasciotomy is advocated. PMID:15568631

Heemskerk, V H; Hulsewé, K W E; Stroeken, H J G; Hoofwijk, A G M

2004-11-01

85

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate. PMID:21063498

Tucker, Alicia K

2010-01-01

86

Posterior compartment prolapse: a urogynecology perspective.  

PubMed

Posterior compartment prolapse is often caused by a defect in the rectovaginal septum, also known as Denonvillier's fascia. Patients with symptomatic posterior compartment prolapse can present with bulge symptoms as well as defecatory dysfunction, including constipation, tenesmus, splinting, and fecal incontinence. The diagnosis can successfully be made on clinical examination. Treatment of posterior prolapse includes pessaries and surgery. Both traditional colporrhaphy and site-specific defect repair have excellent success rates. Complications from surgery can include sexual dysfunction, de novo dyspareunia, and defecatory dysfunction. Compared with native tissue repair, biological and synthetic grafting has not improved overall anatomic and subjective outcomes. PMID:22877719

Richardson, Monica L; Elliot, Christopher S; Sokol, Eric R

2012-08-01

87

Paravertebral blocks.  

PubMed

PVB remains an underused block. It is easy to perform reliable and effective blocks for a wide variety of applications both for acute or chronic pain. As evidence continues to be published showing the advantages of PVB versus traditional methods of pain control, it is hoped that PVB will become part of the standard repertoire of blocks used in teaching hospitals and in private practice. PMID:22227423

Greengrass, Roy A; Duclas, Reynold

2012-01-01

88

Acute and chronic compartment syndromes: know when to act fast.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome is a fairly common condition noted in patients with fractures or crush injuries to the extremities (acute compartment syndrome) and in athletes (chronic compartment syndrome). Compartments bound by fascia are found in the extremities, buttocks, and abdomen; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss. This article reviews diagnosis of the problem, monitoring of compartment pressure, and appropriate treatment. PMID:24819953

McLaughlin, Nancy; Heard, Hank; Kelham, Steven

2014-06-01

89

Ionic Blocks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

90

Posterior compartment syndrome following ruptured Baker's cyst.  

PubMed

A 35 year old man presented with the sudden onset of left leg pain and swelling. Empirical anticoagulation for presumed deep vein thrombophlebitis was followed by acute worsening of symptoms. On further evaluation the patient was found to have a ruptured Baker's cyst and an acute posterior compartment syndrome. PMID:2256746

Petros, D P; Hanley, J F; Gilbreath, P; Toon, R D

1990-11-01

91

Orbital compartment syndrome following extracorporeal support.  

PubMed

Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is a rare, catastrophic, but potentially treatable complication. It requires prompt diagnosis and immediate intervention, as critical period for possible functional recovery is very short. This report adds to our understanding of potential mechanisms of perioperative blindness, and suggests extracorporeal circulatory support, systemic inflammatory response, and massive blood and fluid resuscitation as potential risk factors for perioperative OCS. PMID:23898881

Brodt, Jessica; Gologorsky, Daniel; Walter, Scott; Pham, Si M; Gologorsky, Edward

2013-09-01

92

Class E compartments form in response to ESCRT dysfunction in yeast due to hyperactivity of the Vps21 Rab GTPase  

PubMed Central

Summary The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) mediate the budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) at late endosomes. ESCRT dysfunction causes drastic changes in endosome morphology, which are manifested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the formation of aberrant endosomes known as class E compartments. Except for the absence of ILVs, the mechanistic basis for class E compartment biogenesis is unknown. We used electron microscopy to examine endosomal morphology in response to transient ESCRT inactivation and recovery in yeast expressing the temperature-sensitive mutant vps4ts allele. Our results show class E compartments accumulate fourfold the amount of membrane normally present at multivesicular bodies and that multivesicular bodies can form directly from class E compartments upon recovery of ESCRT function. We found class E compartment formation requires Vps21, which is orthologous to the Rab5A GTPase in metazoans that promotes fusion of endocytic vesicles with early endosomes and homotypic fusion of early endosomes with one another. We also determined that class E compartments accumulate GTP-bound Vps21 and its effector, the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET). Ypt7, the yeast ortholog of Rab7 that in metazoans promotes fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes, also accumulates at class E compartments but without its effector, the homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS), signifying that Ypt7 at class E compartments is dysfunctional. These results suggest that failure to complete Rab5–Rab7 conversion is a consequence of ESCRT dysfunction, which results in Vps21 hyperactivity that drives the class E compartment morphology. Indeed, genetic disruption of Rab conversion without ESCRT dysfunction autonomously drives the class E compartment morphology without blocking ILV budding.

Russell, Matthew R. G.; Shideler, Tess; Nickerson, Daniel P.; West, Matt; Odorizzi, Greg

2012-01-01

93

Stiffness and fraction of Myosin motors responsible for active force in permeabilized muscle fibers from rabbit psoas.  

PubMed

The stiffness of the single myosin motor (epsilon) is determined in skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle by both mechanical and thermodynamic approaches. Changes in the elastic strain of the half-sarcomere (hs) are measured by fast mechanics both in rigor, when all myosin heads are attached, and during active contraction, with the isometric force (T0) modulated by changing either [Ca2+] or temperature. The hs compliance is 43.0+/-0.8 nm MPa-1 in isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+], whereas in rigor it is 28.2+/-1.1 nm MPa-1. The equivalent compliance of myofilaments is 21.0+/-3.3 nm MPa-1. Accordingly, the stiffness of the ensemble of myosin heads attached in the hs is 45.5+/-1.7 kPa nm-1 in isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+] (e0), and in rigor (er) it rises to 138.9+/-21.2 kPa nm-1. Epsilon, calculated from er and the lattice molecular dimensions, is 1.21+/-0.18 pN nm-1. epsilon estimated, using a thermodynamic approach, from the relation of T0 at saturating [Ca2+] versus the reciprocal of absolute temperature is 1.25+/-0.14 pN nm-1, similar to that estimated for fibers in rigor. Consequently, the ratio e0/er (0.33+/-0.05) can be used to estimate the fraction of attached heads during isometric contraction at saturating [Ca2+]. If the osmotic agent dextran T-500 (4 g/100 ml) is used to reduce the lateral filament spacing of the relaxed fiber to the value before skinning, both e0 and er increase by approximately 40%. Epsilon becomes approximately 1.7 pN nm-1 and the fraction and the force of myosin heads attached in the isometric contraction remain the same as before dextran application. The finding that the fraction of myosin heads attached to actin in an isometric contraction is 0.33 rules out the hypothesis of multiple mechanical cycles per ATP hydrolyzed. PMID:17237201

Linari, Marco; Caremani, Marco; Piperio, Claudia; Brandt, Philip; Lombardi, Vincenzo

2007-04-01

94

Analysis of Pre and Postexercise Compartment Pressures in the Medial Compartment of the Foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing awareness of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the foot has led to the need for site-specific analysis of normative resting and postexertional intracompartment pressures. Thirty-four asymptomatic athletes underwent pressure testing of the medial foot compartment with an intracompartmental pressure measurement apparatus. Pressure measurements were recorded before exercise and after 20 minutes of running. Mean resting intracompartment pressure was 7.7

Matthew B. Mollica; Sarah C. Duyshart

2002-01-01

95

Characterizing powder mixing processes utilizing compartment models.  

PubMed

Powder mixing has been the subject of substantial research due to its importance in a variety of industrial sectors, including pharmaceuticals, food, and polymer manufacturing. Although a number of different models have been proposed in the literature, most of them are either empirical or require computationally intensive calculations that make them difficult to implement for realistic systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a simplified framework, based on compartment modeling that efficiently and accurately captures the system behavior. Using the V-blender as a model system, the compartment modeling approach was used to illustrate the effects of vessel loading on mixing as well as the impact of sampling methods on the accuracy of mixing characterization. PMID:16698203

Portillo, Patricia M; Muzzio, Fernando J; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G

2006-08-31

96

Engineering nanoscale protein compartments for synthetic organelles.  

PubMed

Advances in metabolic engineering have given rise to the biological production of novel fuels and chemicals, but yields are often low without significant optimization. One generalizable solution is to create a specialized organelle for the sequestration of engineered metabolic pathways. Bacterial microcompartments are an excellent scaffold for such an organelle. These compartments consist of a porous protein shell that encapsulates enzymes. To repurpose these structures, researchers have begun to determine how the protein shell is assembled, how pores may be used to control small molecule transport across the protein shell, and how to target heterologous enzymes to the compartment interior. With these advances, it will soon be possible to use engineered forms of these protein shells to create designer organelles. PMID:23273660

Kim, Edward Y; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

2013-08-01

97

The Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Aortic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: multi-organ failure is a leading cause of death following aneurysm surgery, especially in the emergency setting. Intra-abdominal hypertension is an important factor in the development of multi-organ failure. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome may reduce mortality following aneurysm surgery.Methods: a descriptive review of the literature from a Medline search.Results and

I. M Loftus; M. M Thompson

2003-01-01

98

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions  

PubMed Central

"Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented.

Cheatham, Michael L

2009-01-01

99

Bacterial Translocation - Impact on the Adipocyte Compartment  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called “creeping fat.” The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system.

Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

2013-01-01

100

Central compartment dissection in laryngeal cancer.  

PubMed

We report here a review of the literature intended to clarify the nomenclature and boundaries of the nodes in the "central compartment" of the neck, the frequency with which tumors from the different laryngeal sites metastasize to these nodes, and the indications for central compartment node dissection in the treatment of cancers of the larynx. From this review, we conclude that, until consensus is reached about grouping of the lymph nodes in this area, it is best to refer to these nodes by their anatomic location, ie, prelaryngeal, pretracheal, or paratracheal lymph nodes. It is also advisable to describe dissection of these nodes as selective neck dissection (SND) with an annotation about the specific lymph node groups removed. Metastases in prelaryngeal and paratracheal lymph nodes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx are associated with increased tumor recurrence, more frequent metastases in lymph nodes of the lateral compartment of the neck, and decreased survival. If untreated, they may lead to the development of peristomal recurrence. Therefore, elective treatment of level VI nodes is recommended in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the subglottic region, advanced glottis carcinomas with subglottic extension, and in certain advanced carcinomas of the supraglottic region. PMID:20652888

Medina, Jesus E; Ferlito, Alfio; Robbins, K Thomas; Silver, Carl E; Rodrigo, Juan P; de Bree, Remco; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Elsheikh, Mohamed N; Weber, Randal S; Werner, Jochen A

2011-05-01

101

Neuromuscular block.  

PubMed

Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

Bowman, W C

2006-01-01

102

Neuromuscular block  

PubMed Central

Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

Bowman, W C

2006-01-01

103

Reversal of the cross-bridge force-generating transition by photogeneration of phosphate in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. Orthophosphate (P(i), 0.1-2.0 mM) was photogenerated within the filament lattice of isometrically contracting glycerinated fibres of rabbit psoas muscle at 10 and 20 degrees C. The P(i) was produced by laser flash photolysis of the photolabile compound 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethylphosphate (caged P(i)). Caged P(i) caused a depression of tension that was much smaller than that caused by P(i). 2. Photolysis of caged P(i) produced a decline in isometric force composed of four phases: phase I, a lag phase (e.g. 1-4 ms at 10 degrees C) during which force did not change; phase II, an exponential decline by as much as 20% of the pre-pulse force; phase III, a partial force recovery (0-3% of the pre-pulse force); and phase IV, a further slow (0.5-3 s) decline to the steady value. Phases I, III and IV were largely independent of [P(i)] and are likely to be indirect effects caused by the caged P(i) photolysis. 3. Both the rate and amplitude of phase II depended markedly on [P(i)]. The amplitude of phase II was similar to the reduction of steady-state force by P(i). The rate of phase II increased with increasing temperature and [P(i)]. At high [P(i)] the rate began to saturate, and approached limits of 123 s-1 at 10 degrees C and 194 s-1 at 20 degrees C. 4. The rate of phase II was independent of sarcomere overlap, while the amplitude was proportional to tension at partial filament overlap. A control experiment using caged ATP showed that phase II was not produced by the photolytic by-products or the light pulse. The results suggest that phase II is associated with the force-generating transition of the cross-bridge cycle. 5. Sinusoidal length oscillations at 0.5 and 2 kHz were used to measure muscle stiffness during phase II. Stiffness declined in a single exponential phase, with the same time course as phase II of the tension transient. The change in stiffness was 83 +/- 6% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10, 0.5 kHz) of the change in tension when both signals were normalized to their pre-flash values. 6. Analysis of the data shows that two steps are involved in force generation and P(i) release. The non-force exerting AM-ADP-P(i) cross-bridge state first isomerizes to form a force-exerting cross-bridge state (AM'-ADP-P(i)). P(i) is then released to form a second force-generating state, AM'-ADP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Dantzig, J A; Goldman, Y E; Millar, N C; Lacktis, J; Homsher, E

1992-01-01

104

Force generation examined by laser temperature-jumps in shortening and lengthening mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres  

PubMed Central

We examined the tension change induced by a rapid temperature jump (T-jump) in shortening and lengthening active muscle fibres. Experiments were done on segments of permeabilized single fibres (length (L0) ?2 mm, sarcomere length 2.5 ?m) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mm, pH 7.1, ionic strength 200 mm and temperature ?9°C. A fibre was maximally Ca2+-activated in the isometric state and a ?3°C, rapid (< 0.2 ms), laser T-jump applied when the tension was approximately steady in the isometric state, or during ramp shortening or ramp lengthening at a limited range of velocities (0–0.2 L0 s?1). The tension increased to 2- to 3 × P0 (isometric force) during ramp lengthening at velocities > 0.05 L0 s?1, whereas the tension decreased to about < 0.5 × P0 during shortening at 0.1–0.2 L0 s?1; the unloaded shortening velocity was ?1 L0 s?1 and the curvature of the force–shortening velocity relation was high (a/P0 ratio from Hill's equation of ?0.05). In isometric state, a T-jump induced a tension rise of 15–20% to a new steady state; by curve fitting, the tension rise could be resolved into a fast (phase 2b, 40–50 s?1) and a slow (phase 3, 5–10 s?1) exponential component (as previously reported). During steady lengthening, a T-jump induced a small instantaneous drop in tension, followed by recovery, so that the final tension recorded with and without a T-jump was not significantly different; thus, a T-jump did not lead to a net increase of tension. During steady shortening, the T-jump induced a pronounced tension rise and both its amplitude and the rate (from a single exponential fit) increased with shortening velocity; at 0.1–0.2 L0 s?1, the extent of fibre shortening during the T-jump tension rise was estimated to be ?1.2% L0 and it was shorter at lower velocities. At a given shortening velocity and over the temperature range of 8–30°C, the rate of T-jump tension rise increased with warming (Q10 ? 2.7), similar to phase 2b (endothermic force generation) in isometric muscle. Results are discussed in relation to the previous findings in isometric muscle fibres which showed that a T-jump promotes an early step in the crossbridge–ATPase cycle that generates force. In general, the finding that the T-jump effect on active muscle tension is pronounced during shortening, but is depressed/inhibited during lengthening, is consistent with the expectations from the Fenn effect that energy liberation (and acto-myosin ATPase rate) in muscle are increased during shortening and depressed/inhibited during lengthening.

Ranatunga, K W; Coupland, M E; Pinniger, G J; Roots, H; Offer, G W

2007-01-01

105

Two compartment fusion system designed for physiological state monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-compartment fusion system designed to reduce high rates of false alarm (FAR) in single channel monitoring systems was tested with physiological data from pilots exposed to high +Gz forces on a human centrifuge. The first compartment expands input signals into the time-frequency domain, where transient changes are captured by wavelet coefficients in frequency ranges of interest. The second compartment

H. C. Ryoo; Hun H. Sun; Leonid Hrebien

2001-01-01

106

46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the compartments described in §§ 174.080 and...determining compliance with § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when...

2013-10-01

107

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the foot. A case report.  

PubMed

The author describes a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the foot affecting a 19-year-old male triathlete. Relevant anatomy, subjective symptoms, and clinical examination are discussed. Diagnostic confirmation, as achieved with compartment-pressure testing, is also presented, as is surgical treatment through decompressive fasciotomy of the affected compartment. PMID:9458629

Mollica, M B

1998-01-01

108

Theme: Block Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Block Scheduling" (Brannon); "Block Schedule and Agricultural Education" (Rising); "Block Scheduling: A Student Perspective" (Gilham); "What Goes around Comes around" (Baker); "Accelerated Block Schedule" (Whitson); "Block Scheduling: Students Sound Off"; "Block Scheduling: Maintaining a Complete Agriculture Program" (Agnew, Masters);…

Agricultural Education Magazine, 1998

1998-01-01

109

Block People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an activity in which students in an after-school art class drew one another on pieces of 2-by-4 scrap lumber in order to create a class portrait in three dimensions. Stresses that the portraits on the wood blocks were done in-the-round, or each side was covered. (CMK)

Peterson, Rayma

1999-01-01

110

Unloader Braces for Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: For persons with unicompartment knee osteoarthritis (OA), off-unloader braces are a mechanical intervention designed to reduce pain, improve physical function, and possibly slow disease progression. Pain relief is thought to be mediated by distracting the involved compartment via external varus or valgus forces applied to the knee. In so doing, tibiofemoral alignment is improved, and load is shifted off the degenerative compartment, where exposure to potentially damaging and provocative mechanical stresses are reduced. Objectives: To provide a synopsis of the evidence documented in the scientific literature concerning the efficacy of off-loader knee braces for improving symptomatology associated with painful disabling medial compartment knee OA. Search Strategy: Relevant peer-reviewed publications were retrieved from a MEDLINE search using the terms with the reference terms osteoarthritis, knee, and braces (per Medical Subject Headings), plus a manual search of bibliographies from original and review articles and appropriate Internet resources. Results: For persons with combined unicompartment knee OA and mild to moderate instability, the strength of recommendation reported by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International in the ability of off-loader knee braces to reduce pain, improve stability, and diminish the risk of falling was 76% (95% confidence interval, 69%-83%). The more evidence the treatment is effective, the higher the percentage. Conclusions: Given the encouraging evidence that off-loader braces are effective in mediating pain relief in conjunction with knee OA and malalignment, bracing should be fully used before joint realignment or replacement surgery is considered. With the number of patients with varus deformities and knee pain predicted to increase as the population ages, a reduction of patient morbidity for this widespread chronic condition in combination with this treatment modality could have a positive impact on health care costs and the economic productivity and quality of life of the affected individuals.

Ramsey, Dan K.; Russell, Mary E.

2009-01-01

111

Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

112

Multigeometry micelles made from self-assembly of block copolymer mixtures via kinetic control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicompartment/multigeometry micellar structures, due to segregation of unlike hydrophobic domains trapped within the same micelle core, have been produced via self-assembly of block copolymer mixtures in tetrahydrofuran/water solution. The mixture is composed of two/or more block copolymers with distinctive hydrophobic blocks but the same poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrophilic block. By taking advantage of the complexation in the hydrophilic corona between the acid side chains of the PAA block and added organoamine molecules, unlike hydrophobic blocks are trapped in the same micelle core and, consequently, locally segregate into compartments. Through designed kinetic pathways, block copolymer design and mixing ratios, both micelle compartment size and shape could be controlled to form multicompartment spheres, sphere-cylinder hybrid micelles and multicompartment cylinders. New mixtures using PAA-containing block copolymers with additional hydrophilic blocks or end-group functionalization produce multigeometry/multicompartment micelles with patterned surfaces in addition to multicompartment cores.

Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Shiyi; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Ke; Miesch, Caroline; Emrick, Todd; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

2011-03-01

113

Biodistribution of titanium dioxide from biologic compartments.  

PubMed

The layer of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) of the implant is chronically exposed to the internal electrolyte milieu in the peri-implant biological compartment. Corrosion results from electrochemical attack and ensuing gradual degradation of the metallic materials and is thus of biological interest when these biomaterials are employed in clinical implantology. Herein we evaluated and compared the chronic effect and the biodistribution of TiO(2) administered subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. We propose that the compartmentalization of titanium in the area of subcutaneous injection would reproduce the biological compartment of the implant and its microenvironment from which metal ions could be released and migrate systemically. Potential TiO(2) deposits were identified and characterized in skin, liver and lung by histological and EDX analyses. After both treatments, the skin, liver, and lungs exhibited histological evidence of TiO(2) deposits. In order to characterize in situ macrophage-like cells, tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for CD68. Tissue specimens from all organs assayed showed positive staining for anti-macrophage monoclonal antibody CD68 (PGM1). Despite the compartmentalization of titanium within nodular areas in rats treated subcutaneously, systemic migration occurred. We concluded that systemic migration of TiO(2) occurred regardless of the administration route. PMID:18389343

Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Guglielmotti, María Beatriz; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis

2008-09-01

114

Functional dissociation of the basolateral transcytotic compartment from the apical phago-lysosomal compartment in human osteoclasts.  

PubMed

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is essential for elimination of Staphylococcus aureus, the main infectious agent responsible for osteomyelitis. This in vitro study investigated uptake and processing of fluorescence-labeled S. aureus by human osteoclasts and dendritic cells. The cells were stained for TRAP and the acidic compartment using a fluorescence-based protocol. In dendritic cells, TRAP and bacteria were colocalized. In osteoclasts, there was no colocalization of bacteria, TRAP, or the acidic compartment, indicating that there are three distinct vesicular compartments: the apical phago-lysosomal compartment, the basal secretory compartment, and the basolateral transcytotic compartment. Dissociation of the TRAP-containing transcytotic vesicles from the apical phago-lysosomal compartment may restrain osteoclasts from eliminating S. aureus. PMID:15872059

Meagher, James; Zellweger, René; Filgueira, Luis

2005-05-01

115

Construction block  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A construction block is provided that includes at least one base member that includes a plurality of lower side wall receptacles. The construction block further includes a plurality of side wall assemblies. Each of the side wall assemblies includes a plurality of interconnected panels. Each of the panels is hingedly connected to each adjacent one of the panels of the respective one of the side wall assemblies. Each of the side wall assemblies defines a hollow load chamber having an open top and an open bottom. At least some of the panels of each of the side wall assemblies are angled relative to one another. Each of the lower side wall receptacles receives one of the side wall assemblies.

2010-08-03

116

An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes. ?? 1995 Birkha??user Verlag.

Lockner, D. A.; Byerlee, J. D.

1995-01-01

117

[Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].  

PubMed

Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving a critical clinical condition of Polycompartment Syndrome. The monitoring of Abdominal Perfusion Pressure (APP) is more correct than the measurement of IAP because it reveals hydrodynamic alterations in the abdominal compartment. The APP (MAP-IAP) depends on arterial flow, venous outflow and capacity of the abdominal compartments response to increased internal volumes. The medical therapy used to decrease IAH and to contrast ACS is intestinal decompression with gastric and rectal tube; colonic endoscopic detention; correction of electrolytic abnormalities and prokinetic agents. Surgery, besides being decompressive and resolutive, must prevent a recurrence of ACS through the "tension-free closure" procedure. PMID:20476671

Stagnitti, Franco

2009-01-01

118

The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

1972-01-01

119

Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment  

DOEpatents

A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01

120

Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: Beware of Innocuous Radius Fractures  

PubMed Central

Objective: Describe an unusual presentation of compartment syndrome of the hand. Methods: An unusual and severe case of compartment syndrome of the hand occurred in a 68-year-old woman following an innocuous distal radius fracture and ulnar styloid avulsion fracture. Results: The patient required surgical decompression and amputation of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Conclusions: This article highlights the importance of clinical suspicion toward postinjury compartment syndrome even if a fracture is not adjacent to the compartment itself and no clear vascular disruption is present.

Egro, Francesco Maria; Jaring, Matthew Robert Frederick; Khan, Asif Zafar

2014-01-01

121

Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

1988-01-01

122

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Compartments in Human and Mouse B Lymphoblasts Represent Conventional Endocytic Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most human and mouse antigen-present- ing cells, the majority of intracellular major histocom- patibility complex (MHC) class II molecules resides in late endocytic MHC class II compartments (MIICs), thought to function in antigen processing and peptide loading. However, in mouse A20 B cells, early en- docytic class II-containing vesicles (CIIVs) have been reported to contain most of the intracellular

Monique J. Kleijmeer; Stanislaw Morkowski; Janice M. Griffith; Alexander Y. Rudensky; Hans J. Geuze

2010-01-01

123

Two-compartment basophil cell trafficking model for methylprednisolone pharmacodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-compartment closed model was used to characterize the movement of basophils between blood and extravascular sites resulting from methylprednisolone (MP) exposure. This model is consistent with the view that corticosteroids cause a decrease in the recirculation of these cells from peripheral compartments. Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) was given to healthy males at doses of 10, 25, and 40 mg. Blood samples

Jeffrey A. Wald; Daniel E. Salazar; Haiyung Cheng; William J. Jusko

1991-01-01

124

Shapes of Discoid Intracellular Compartments with Small Relative Volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent feature of many intracellular compartments is a large membrane surface area relative to their luminal volume, i.e., the small relative volume. In this study we present a theoretical analysis of discoid membrane compartments with a small relative volume and then compare the theoretical results to quantitative morphological assessment of fusiform vesicles in urinary bladder umbrella cells. Specifically, we

Jure Derganc; Bojan Boži?; Rok Romih

2011-01-01

125

Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

2001-01-01

126

Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh after weight training.  

PubMed Central

Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare but serious condition that is normally associated with closed trauma or compressive injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome of the thigh occurred in a 16 year old boy after intensive weight training. There was no evidence of muscle tear or focal haemorrhage during subsequent fasciotomy.

Bidwell, J P; Gibbons, C E; Godsiff, S

1996-01-01

127

NOTE: Ultrasonic device for the noninvasive diagnosis of compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrasonic device for the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome is described and results on six human cadaveric legs are presented. The ultrasonic device uses a pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) to measure sub-micrometer displacements of the fascia wall. These displacements occur as a result of volume expansion of the muscle compartment of the lower leg and are related to

John E. Lynch; Joseph S. Heyman; Alan R. Hargens

2004-01-01

128

Ultrasonic device for the noninvasive diagnosis of compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrasonic device for the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome is described and results on six human cadaveric legs are presented. The ultrasonic device uses a pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) to measure sub-micrometer displacements of the fascia wall. These displacements occur as a result of volume expansion of the muscle compartment of the lower leg and are related to

John E Lynch; Joseph S Heyman; Alan R Hargens

2004-01-01

129

EGF Receptor Sorting in Endosomal Compartments  

SciTech Connect

Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates various cellular mechanisms, such as cell growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation. EGF receptors have an important role in mammalian development and have also been implicated in tumor formation. Although it has been studied for decades, the mechanism by which the EGFR signaling is switched off is poorly understood. Due to limitations in current experimental protocols, identifying the cellular location where the signal is attenuated has proved to be difficult. Computer modeling of the EGFR signaling pathway can complement experimental studies and can potentially help to fill the gaps in our understanding. In the current study, using kinetic simulations, we have investigated how receptor degradation rates in multivesicular endosome compartments affect the spatial distribution and the trafficking dynamics of the EGF receptors. Our results indicate that the variations in the mean lifetime of the late endosomes can have a significant impact on the pool size of the internalized receptors. This could be an important cell type specific regulation mechanism in the EGFR signaling.

Resat, Haluk

2004-06-22

130

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not.

Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

2011-01-01

131

Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic head to maximize flow passing down through the ochre bed. Filtration rate in the second compartment is also facilitated by thin ochre bed because of low residual Fe(II) in the overflow. Thus, compartment ratio also significantly affects the operation span of two-compartment VFR. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation.

Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

2014-05-01

132

Safe arthroscopic access to the central compartment of the hip.  

PubMed

This technical note describes a new method that allows access to the central compartment of the hip under arthroscopic control via the peripheral compartment with less risk of labral perforation and/or cartilage scuffing. After placement of the anterolateral portal in the peripheral compartment without traction, the anterior head area with the anterior acetabular labrum and the anterior surface of the femoral head are inspected. Under arthroscopic control, a guidewire is introduced through the anterior portal in between the anterior labrum and anterior femoral head cartilage and into the central compartment. The arthroscope is then removed from the anterolateral portal, the hip distracted, and the arthroscope introduced via cannulated instruments over the guidewire into the central compartment. Further portal placement can be controlled arthroscopically. PMID:16376244

Dienst, Michael; Seil, Romain; Kohn, Dieter M

2005-12-01

133

Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 ?g/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells. PMID:23603023

Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

2013-09-27

134

Duality of the murine CD8 compartment.  

PubMed

CD8?? plays crucial roles in the thymic selection, differentiation, and activation of some, but not all, CD8(+) T cells, whereas CD8?? does not. To investigate these roles, we produced mice that expressed transgene P14 T-cell receptor ? (TCR?) chain and CD8? or did not (WT and KO mice, respectively). The primary CD8(+) T-cell response to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was predominantly D(b)/GP33 specific and CD8 independent in KO mice and was mostly CD8 dependent in WT mice. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from KO mice failed to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) and to kill via perforin/granzyme. Their strong Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-? response were signaled via a Ca(2+)-independent, PI3K-dependent pathway. This was also true for 15-20% of CD8-independent CTL found in WT mice. Conversely, the perforin/granzyme-mediated killing and IFN-? response of CD8-dependent CTL were signaled via a Ca(2+), p56(lck), and nuclear factor of activated T cells-dependent pathway. Deep sequencing of millions of TCR? chain transcripts revealed that the TCR repertoires of preimmune CD8(+) T cells were highly diverse, but those of LCMV D(b)/GP33-specific CTL, especially from KO mice, were narrow. The immune repertoires exhibited biased use of V? segments that encoded different complementary-determining region 1? (CDR1?) and CDR2? sequences. We suggest that TCR from WT CD8-independent T cells may engage MHC-peptide complexes in a manner unfavorable for efficient CD8 engagement and Ca(2+) signaling but permissive for Ca(2+)-independent, PI3K-dependent signaling. This duality of the CD8 compartment may provide organisms with broader protective immunity. PMID:24594598

Genolet, Raphaël; Leignadier, Julie; Østerås, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Stevenson, Brian J; Luescher, Immanuel F

2014-03-18

135

46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartment containing pumping engines and their auxiliaries which...operations, provided the pumping engine compartment contains no...compartment are completely water jacketed or insulated and that gasoline engine intakes are fitted with...

2013-10-01

136

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2010-10-01

137

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2013-10-01

138

46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017 Section 171.017 Shipping...017 One and two compartment standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one...

2009-10-01

139

Modified Block Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Properly type a modified block style business letter. In your previous assignment, you created block style business letters. The letters, whether business or personal business, had all the content lined up on the left-hand side of the page. This is what made them block style. Today you are going to learn about modified block style letters. Modified block letters ...

Simonson, Mrs.

2009-12-05

140

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

141

11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

142

10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

143

Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (CS) remains problematic due to difficulty in diagnosis. Current treatment for acute extremity symptomatic CS is fasciotomy. However, surgical treatment has associated morbidity and may delay the recovery of the...

H. Kim X. Liu

2013-01-01

144

Diagnosis of compartment syndrome using a microwave-based detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for identifying compartment syndrome is presented. This method is based on a novel device that uses electromagnetic waves in the microwave radio frequency (RF) region and a modified algorithm previously used for the estimation of the angle of arrival of radar signals. In this study, we employ this radio frequency triage tool (RAFT) to the clinical condition of compartment syndrome, which is a clinical condition where blood or edema in the muscle compartment of the leg leads to critical sichemia of that exptremity. In anesthetized pigs, RAFT, can detect changes in the RF signature from a leg is due to 2cc or greater of either blood or slaine (a surrogate of edema). These results are compared to clinical examination. RAFT is superior to clinical examination in its ability to detect compartment syndrome in pgis.

Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Riechers, Ronald G., Sr.; Pasala, Krishna M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Rosner, Michael; Jarell, Abel; Yun, Catherine; Garcia-Pinto, Patricia; Song, Ki-Il; Day, Keith; Riechers, Ronald G., Jr.; Zeidman, Seth M.; Rhee, Peter; Ecklund, James M.; Fitzpatrick, Thomas; Lockhart, Stephen

2002-07-01

145

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

146

3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

147

19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing...

2013-04-01

148

The Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Current Management of Acute Compartment Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency warranting prompt evaluation and treatment. It can occur with any elevation in interstitial pressure in a closed osseo-fascial compartment. Resultant ischaemic damage may be irreversible within six hours and can result in long-term morbidity and even death. The diagnosis is largely clinical with the classical description of ‘pain out of proportion to the injury’. Compartment pressure monitors can be a helpful adjunct where the diagnosis is in doubt. Initial treatment is with the removal of any constricting dressings or casts, avoiding hypotension and optimizing tissue perfusion by keeping the limb at heart level. If symptoms persist, definitive treatment is necessary with timely surgical decompression of all the involved compartments. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of ACS.

Donaldson, James; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim S

2014-01-01

149

Cytoarchitecture of size-excluding compartments in living cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

By f luorescence ratio imaging of large and small inert tracer particles in living cells, we have previously shown that particles 24 nm in radius are excluded from other- wise uncharacterized compartments in the distal and perinuclear cytoplasm (Luby-Phelps, K. and Taylor, D.L., 1988. Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 10, 28-37). In this study we examined the cytoarchitecture of these compart- ments.

D. William; Alasdair McDowall; Michael Marko; Katherine Luby-Phelps

150

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Current Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome's manifestations are difficult to definitively detect on physical examination alone. Therefore, objective criteria have been articulated that aid the bedside clinician in detecting intra-abdominal hypertension as well as the abdominal compartment syndrome to initiate prompt and potentially life-saving intervention. At-risk patient populations should be routinely monitored and tiered interventions should be undertaken as a team approach to management.

Luckianow, Gina M.; Ellis, Matthew; Governale, Deborah; Kaplan, Lewis J.

2012-01-01

151

Acute bilateral forearm compartment syndrome of unknown aetiology.  

PubMed

This is the first reported case of non-traumatic, acute bilateral forearm compartment syndrome. Despite a delay of over 24 hours until surgical decompression and 50% muscle fibre necrosis in the histopathological examination, the clinical outcome was excellent after fasciotomy, delayed primary wound closure and early institution of a range of motion exercise programme. The literature on non-traumatic causes of compartment syndrome is reviewed. PMID:17405196

O'Leary, E J P; Bulstrode, N W; Gschwind, C

2006-01-01

152

Imperfect pitchfork bifurcation in asymmetric two-compartment granular gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clustering behavior of a mono-disperse granular gas is experimentally studied in an asymmetric two-compartment setup. Unlike the random clustering in either compartment in the case of symmetric configuration when lowering the shaking strength to below a critical value, the directed clustering is observed, which corresponds to an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation. Numerical solutions of the flux equation using a modified simple flux function show qualitative agreements with the experimental results. The potential application of this asymmetric structure is discussed.

Zhang, Yin; Li, Yin-Chang; Liu, Rui; Cui, Fei-Fei; Pierre, Evesque; Hou, Mei-Ying

2013-05-01

153

Compartment Syndrome in Open Tibial Fractures*t  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective review of the cases of 180 patients who had 198 acute open fractures of the tibial shaft and were admitted to a multiple-trauma re- ferral center over a three-year period revealed an mci- dence of accompanying compartment syndrome of 9.1 per cent (eighteen fractures in sixteen patients). Each of the eighteen compartment syndromes was documented by measurements of

SAMUEL S. BLICK; ROBERT J. BRUMBACK; ATTILA POKA; ANDREW R. BURGESS; NABIL A. EBRAHEIM

154

Block relaxation strategies  

SciTech Connect

It is desired to solve the linear system Ax = b, where the matrix A is n x n block tridiagonal with block size m. This system is to be solved by block line relaxation when the largest block problem with block size m that can be cheaply solved directly is l x l. Iteration steps, strategies, and results are summarized. It is concluded that the convergence rate of some block relaxation strategies is much faster than that of the strategies generally used. (RWR)

Faber, V.

1980-01-01

155

Pattern Blocks with Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a class we will be exploring fractions with pattern blocks. Each student will have a selection of pattern blocks. The students will manipulate their blocks to match mine as we discover patterns. pattern blocks explained Two work stations to choose from 1. pattern block work station 2. pattern work station pattern assignment pattern block assignment 2 Paper copies of assignments will be handed out. Students ...

Brown, Mrs.

2010-03-20

156

The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.  

PubMed

A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. PMID:24929991

Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

2014-10-01

157

A review of directions of gaze during intraocular anesthetic blocks.  

PubMed

Safety of orbital blocks depends on operator and patient factors. Among the patient factors, the direction of gaze is important. Certain ocular structures move when the gaze is shifted. These may veer into the path of the needle, setting the stage for injury. The optic nerve with its accompanying artery swerves medially during abduction, direct up gaze, and superolateral and inferolateral gazes. These gazes are therefore risky for medial compartment blocks. In a superomedial gaze, the optic nerve shifts down and out and is likely to be injured during inferolateral needle blocks. Primary gaze is considered to be the safest for akinetic sharp needle blocks. "Tethering tests" involving extremes of gazes are dangerous. The superomedial, superior, superolateral, and inferomedial routes are perilous in all gazes. The superolateral gaze during classic Steven's sub-Tenon's block brings the optic nerve forward, rendering it vulnerable. Complications can be reduced by avoiding deep blind dissection and posterior injections. PMID:22185610

Vohra, Shashi B

2012-01-01

158

Effect of arthritis in other compartment after unicompartmental arthroplasty.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of robotic-assisted (MAKO Surgical Corp.) unicondylar replacement in the treatment for knee osteoarthritis after the initial surgical insult is worn off to evaluate the impact of residual patellofemoral and lateral osteoarthritis on the outcome of medial unicompartmental knee replacement. One hundred and thirty-four patients who underwent uncomplicated 144 robotic-assisted medial unicondylar replacements for knee arthritis were identified and studied. Original radiographs were used to classify severity of patellofemoral and lateral compartmental osteoarthritis in these patients. Severity of patellofemoral and lateral compartmental osteoarthritis was analyzed against Oxford and Knee Society scores and amount of ipsilateral residual knee symptoms at 6 months postoperative period. Preoperative Oxford and Knee Society scores, other comorbidities and long-term disability were studied as confounding variables. We found significant improvement in symptoms and scores in spite of other compartment diseases. Poorer outcome was seen in association with comorbidities and long-term disability but not when radiographic signs of arthritis in the other compartments were present. Six patients required revision of which three had (lateral facet) patellofemoral disease in the original X-rays. In conclusion, there is a higher amount of postoperative retained symptoms, but similar outcome when there is radiographic disease in the other compartments. However, when symptoms are severe enough to necessitate revision, this is due to the lateral facet of patellofemoral compartment and not lateral compartment disease. PMID:23771595

Mofidi, Ali; Lu, Bo; Plate, Johannes F; Lang, Jason E; Poehling, Gary G; Jinnah, Riyaz H

2014-07-01

159

Defining the fat compartments in the neck: a cadaver study.  

PubMed

Background: Cervicoplasty is an important component of aesthetic facial and neck surgery, but the fat content in this area has not been described. Objectives: The authors identify anatomic compartments of fat in the neck (specifically the areas relevant to surgical management), quantify the fat in each compartment, and describe the relationships between each compartment and the submandibular glands. Methods: The skin was removed from 10 fresh cadaver heads. Each compartment of fat was weighed, along with the submandibular gland. Supraplatysmal fat was found between the skin and the platysma muscle, and it was compartmentalized into suprahyoid and infrahyoid fat. Subplatysmal fat was found deep to the platysma and between the medial edges of the anterior digastric in the midline; this fat also fell into suprahyoid and infrahyoid compartments. The "very deep" fat was deep to the anterior digastric muscles and submandibular gland, and adherent to the strap muscles. Results: On average, supraplatysmal fat represented 44.7% of the fat in the neck, the subplatysmal fat represented 30.7%, and the submandibular gland represented 24.5%. The very deep fat was scant, representing less than 1% of the fat in the neck. Conclusions: This anatomic study provides a comprehensive review of fat in the neck, and the results should serve as an additional guide as surgeons approach this challenging area in surgical rejuvenation. PMID:24633742

Larson, Jeffrey D; Tierney, William S; Ozturk, Cemile Nurdan; Zins, James E

2014-05-01

160

Effect of functional neuromuscular stimulation on anterior tibial compartment pressure.  

PubMed

Intramuscular pressures in the anterior tibial compartment were measured in five paraplegic subjects who used functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) by percutaneous intramuscular electrodes for exercise and walking. Effects of two types of stimulation pattern were tested: continuous stimulation for 15 minutes and cyclic stimulation for 60 minutes, with duty cycle and stimulation levels similar to that used in walking. Resting compartment pressure levels before stimulation were less than 7 mm Hg in all subjects. Continuous stimulation at maximum parameters produced compartment pressure levels up to 116 mm Hg, but these were not sustained. They decreased to below 40 mm Hg within one minute in all except one subject, who was having repeated spasms. Cyclical stimulation raised mean muscle pressure to between 70 and 80 mm Hg in two patients. Muscle contraction pressure increased to 153 mm Hg in one patient, but was below 100 mm Hg in all patients after two minutes, except during spasms. Muscle relaxation pressure stayed below 30 mm Hg in four subjects. After stimulation, the pressure returned to prestimulation levels within 15 minutes. These results suggest that FNS subjects are not in danger of developing compartment syndrome. Nevertheless, occasional testing of compartment pressures is recommended, especially when activity levels rise significantly. PMID:1395291

Doyle, J; Kobetic, R; Marsolais, E B

1992-11-01

161

Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome.

Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

2012-01-01

162

Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.  

PubMed

Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

Artmann, A; Henninger, W

2001-12-01

163

Alpha contamination levels in SMF south cell and compartments  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the detailed contamination survey performed in the Shielded Materials Facility (SMF) South Cell and the four compartments used during the CsCl activities. Smears were obtained at each operating station in South Cell and analyzed at the 325 Building. The smear results indicate that the highest contamination levels are in Compartment 1 and South Cell proper, with significantly lower contamination levels measured in the other three compartments. Although some of the smears indicated the presence of alpha contamination, it will be shown that the source of the alpha contamination was cross-contamination during processing in the 325 Building hot cells and that the SMF is free of alpha contamination. The alpha-free status of South Cell is consistent with process knowledge of previous South Cell activities.

Durham, J.S.

1998-06-16

164

Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

1975-01-01

165

Abdominal compartment syndrome after laparoscopic salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome is a consequence of increased intraabdominal pressure. It can be triggered by inflammation, hemorrhage, chemical peritonitis, or prolonged insufflations during laparoscopy. It is a well-known phenomenon for intensive care specialists, but gynecologists are relatively unfamiliar with its occurrence. A woman with heterotopic pregnancy underwent urgent laparoscopy because of abdominal hemorrhage. The postoperative course was complicated by abdominal pain, ascites, bowel dysfunction, and renal failure, which resolved rapidly after catheterization and paracentesis. In this case, abdominal compartment syndrome developed after unremarkable laparoscopy, and appeared to be triggered by change of progesterone formulation. Decompression by paracentesis was lifesaving, and led to rapid resolution of the symptoms. PMID:18602054

Soltsman, Sofia; Russo, Pablo; Greenshpun, Anatoly; Ben-Ami, Moshe

2008-01-01

166

Random Walks of Cytoskeletal Motors in Open and Closed Compartments  

SciTech Connect

Random walks of molecular motors, which bind to and unbind from cytoskeletal filaments, are studied theoretically. The bound and unbound motors undergo directed and nondirected motion, respectively. Motors in open compartments exhibit anomalous drift velocities. Motors in closed compartments generate stationary nonequilibrium states with spatially varying densities of the motor concentrations and currents. ''Traffic jams'' on the filaments lead to a maximum of the motor current at an optimal motor concentration. Quantitative estimates based on experimental data for bound motors indicate that these transport phenomena are accessible to experiments.

Lipowsky, Reinhard; Klumpp, Stefan; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

2001-09-03

167

Random walks of cytoskeletal motors in open and closed compartments.  

PubMed

Random walks of molecular motors, which bind to and unbind from cytoskeletal filaments, are studied theoretically. The bound and unbound motors undergo directed and nondirected motion, respectively. Motors in open compartments exhibit anomalous drift velocities. Motors in closed compartments generate stationary nonequilibrium states with spatially varying densities of the motor concentrations and currents. "Traffic jams" on the filaments lead to a maximum of the motor current at an optimal motor concentration. Quantitative estimates based on experimental data for bound motors indicate that these transport phenomena are accessible to experiments. PMID:11531504

Lipowsky, R; Klumpp, S; Nieuwenhuizen, T M

2001-09-01

168

STS-103 Wiring inspections in the aft compartment of Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Danny Wyatt, with NASA Quality, inspects wiring, using a flashlight and magnifying glass, in the aft compartment of Discovery before launch. Electrical wire inspections and repairs in the orbiter's payload bay, external tank umbilical and engine compartment have been ongoing for more than a month and are near completion. Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 is scheduled for Dec. 11 at 11:42 p.m. from Launch Pad 39B. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

169

Compartment-specific transcription factors orchestrate angiogenesis gradients in the embryonic brain.  

PubMed

Prevailing notions of cerebral vascularization imply that blood vessels sprout passively into the brain parenchyma from pial vascular plexuses to meet metabolic needs of growing neuronal populations. Endothelial cells, building blocks of blood vessels, are thought to be homogeneous in the brain with respect to their origins, gene expression patterns and developmental mechanisms. These current notions that cerebral angiogenesis is regulated by local environmental signals contrast with current models of cell-autonomous regulation of neuronal development. Here we demonstrate that telencephalic angiogenesis in mice progresses in an orderly, ventral-to-dorsal gradient regulated by compartment-specific homeobox transcription factors. Our data offer new perspectives on intrinsic regulation of angiogenesis in the embryonic telencephalon, call for a revision of the current models of telencephalic angiogenesis and support novel roles for endothelial cells in brain development. PMID:18344991

Vasudevan, Anju; Long, Jason E; Crandall, James E; Rubenstein, John L R; Bhide, Pradeep G

2008-04-01

170

Characterization of the budding compartment of mouse hepatitis virus: evidence that transport from the RER to the Golgi complex requires only one vesicular transport step  

PubMed Central

Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) buds into pleomorphic membrane structures with features expected of the intermediate compartment between the ER and the Golgi complex. Here, we characterize the MHV budding compartment in more detail in mouse L cells using streptolysin O (SLO) permeabilization which allowed us to better visualize the membrane structures at the ER-Golgi boundary. The MHV budding compartment shares membrane continuities with the rough ER as well as with cisternal elements on one side of the Golgi stack. It also labeled with p58 and rab2, two markers of the intermediate compartment, and with PDI, usually considered to be a marker of the rough ER. The membranes of the budding compartment, as well as the budding virions themselves, but not the rough ER, labeled with the N-acetyl- galactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin Helix pomatia. When the SLO- permeabilized cells were treated with guanosine 5'-(3-O- thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S), the budding compartment accumulated a large number of beta-cop-containing buds and vesicular profiles. Complementary biochemical experiments were carried out to determine whether vesicular transport was required for the newly synthesized M protein, that contains only O-linked oligosaccharides, to acquire first, GalNAc and second, the Golgi modifications galactose and sialic acid. The results from both in vivo studies and from the use of SLO- permeabilized cells showed that, while GalNAc addition occurred under conditions which block vesicular transport, both cytosol and ATP were prerequisites for the M protein oligosaccharides to acquire Golgi modifications. Collectively, our data argue that transport from the rough ER to the Golgi complex requires only one vesicular transport step and that the intermediate compartment is a specialized domain of the endoplasmatic reticulum that extends to the first cisterna on the cis side of the Golgi stack.

1994-01-01

171

Polycyclic musk fragrances in different environmental compartments in Berlin (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to obtain data about the contamination of different environmental compartments (102 surface water samples, 59 sediment samples and 165 eel samples) by polycyclic musks (HHCB, AHTN, ADBI, AHMI, and ATII) within the framework of an exposure monitoring program.Results for HHCB (Galaxolide®) gave the following mean values in areas strongly polluted with sewage: surface water

Hermann Fromme; Thomas Otto; Konstanze Pilz

2001-01-01

172

12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

173

Spontaneous complete hamstring avulsion causing posterior thigh compartment syndrome  

PubMed Central

Complete avulsion of the hamstring muscle group from its ischial origin is an uncommon condition, and has been mostly reported in young athletes. A case is presented in which a middle aged man sustained this injury and developed a compartment syndrome of the thigh, which has not been previously reported. The surgical management of this patient is described.

Kwong, Y; Patel, J

2006-01-01

174

[Reconstructive measures for the foot after compartment syndrome].  

PubMed

Following severe indirect and/or direct trauma to the foot, compartment syndrome can easily develop in this foot. Untreated, the compartment syndrome results in a complex post-traumatic deformity--the "short foot syndrome." This may manifest itself as a contracted pes equinovarus foot with clawing of the toes. Isolated compartment syndrome of the foot due to local injury may result in the formation of hammer toes. During childhood and adolescence, severe soft tissue injuries to the lower leg or foot, with subsequent compartment syndrome of the foot or a neurovascular injury to the lower limb, may result in an alteration in growth of the affected region or may involve the foot. Radiological assessment of this contracted "short foot" using sonography or MRI demonstrates scarred, necrotic musculature mainly involving the muscles of the posterior tibia, the flexor hallucis and the flexor digitum. Muscular imbalance due to long-standing muscle palsies, or chronic post-traumatic osteitis of the tibia contribute to the development of rigid equinus foot and ankle. Treatment of the contracted foot includes complex soft tissue release, muscle and tendon transfer, tendon-lengthening procedures, and intrinsic releases to correct the toe deformities. In the adult with a severe post-traumatic pes equino-varus deformity, triple arthrodesis is recommended. PMID:1678209

Zwipp, H

1991-05-01

175

Analysis of sodium compartments and fluxes in frog skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The path of the transepithelial Na transport through the frog skin was investigated by the use of compartment analysis. Therefore tracer wash-out kinetics from the preloaded epithelium to both sides of the skin and time course of tracer uptake at the epithelial side were measured under control conditions and after alteration of transport parameter by amiloride, ouabain and incubation at

Wolfram Nagel; Adolf Dörge; Dieter Moshagen; Roger Rick

1974-01-01

176

Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration  

PubMed Central

The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis.

Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

2013-01-01

177

The use of magnetic resonance imaging in exertional compartment syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, double-blind study was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive method in the diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome (CCS). As well, a new radiopharmaceutical known as methoxy isobutyl isoni trile that has been shown to be taken up by muscle in direct proportion to its blood flow was used to illustrate

A. Amendola; C. H. Rorabeck; D. Vellett; W. Vezina; B. Rutt; Linda Nott

1990-01-01

178

Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (CS) remains problematic due to difficulty in diagnosis. Continuous measurement of intramuscular tissue oxygenation (PmO2) of the leg has been shown to be feasible in humans and highly responsive to induced comp...

H. Kim

2012-01-01

179

Compartment syndrome after prolonged surgery with leg supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome has been reported in a few cases after prolonged surgery with patients in leg supports. A recent case in our hospital (57-year-old man undergoing cystourethrectomy because of cancer) made us interested in the problem. This case together with six from the literature are analysed. Moreover, the first 11 cases operated on with a pelvic pouch and ileoanal anastomosis

D. Bergqvist; M. Bohe; G. Ekelund; S. Hellsten; H. Jiborn; N. H. Persson; R. Takolander

1990-01-01

180

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

181

Endocytic Recycling Compartments Altered in Cisplatin-Resistant Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utility of cisplatin to treat human malignancies is often limited by the development of drug resistance. We have previously shown that cisplatin-resistant human KB adeno- carcinoma cells that are cross-resistant to methotrexate and heavy metals have altered endocytic recycling. In this work, we tracked lipids in the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) and found that the distribution of the

Xing-Jie Liang; Sushmita Mukherjee; Ding-Wu Shen; Frederick R. Maxfield; Michael M. Gottesman

2006-01-01

182

Generation and migration of petroleum from abnormally pressured fluid compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sedimentary basins contain layers of two or more superimposed hydrogeological systems. The shallow systems are usually basin wide in extent and exhibit normal hydrostatic pressures. The deeper systems, where the oil is generated, are not basin wide and are abnormally overpressured. They usually consist of a series of individual fluid compartments that are not in hydraulic pressure communication with

J. Hunt

1990-01-01

183

Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD) is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS), tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS) on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P < 0.002). Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI) analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments' variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

Rogojanu, Radu; Croitoru, Camelia; Jitaru, Daniela; Tarniceriu, Cristina; Carasevici, Eugen

2013-01-01

184

Two Compartments for Insulin-Stimulated Exocytosis in 3t3-L1 Adipocytes Defined by Endogenous Acrp30 and Glut4  

PubMed Central

Insulin stimulates adipose cells both to secrete proteins and to translocate the GLUT4 glucose transporter from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that whereas insulin stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes has no effect on secretion of the ?3 chain of type VI collagen, secretion of the protein hormone adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kD (ACRP30) is markedly enhanced. Like GLUT4, regulated exocytosis of ACRP30 appears to require phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity, since insulin-stimulated ACRP30 secretion is blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of this enzyme. Thus, 3T3-L1 adipocytes possess a regulated secretory compartment containing ACRP30. Whether GLUT4 recycles to such a compartment has been controversial. We present deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy data demonstrating that the subcellular distributions of ACRP30 and GLUT4 are distinct and nonoverlapping; in contrast, those of GLUT4 and the transferrin receptor overlap. Together with supporting evidence that GLUT4 does not recycle to a secretory compartment via the trans-Golgi network, we conclude that there are at least two compartments that undergo insulin-stimulated exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: one for ACRP30 secretion and one for GLUT4 translocation.

Bogan, Jonathan S.; Lodish, Harvey F.

1999-01-01

185

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

Manipulatives, National L.

2008-12-10

186

Acquired Atrioventricular Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many causes of atrioventricular (AV) block but progressive idiopathic fibrosis of the conduction system related\\u000a to an aging process of the cardiac skeleton is the most common cause of chronic acquired AV block. Barring congenital AV block,\\u000a Lyme disease is the most common cause of reversible third-degree AV block in young individuals and it is usually AV nodal.

S. Serge Barold; Bengt Herweg

187

Block decision feedback equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural generalization of the conventional decision feedback equalizer (DFE) based on block processing and maximum a posteriori decisions is presented. This block DFE is indexed by two parameters depending on the block length p and the number of decisions q⩽p made at each iteration. The block DFE emulates: the conventional DFE when p=q=1; the maximum likelihood sequence estimator when

Darrell Williamson; Rodney A. Kennedy; Graham W. Pulford

1992-01-01

188

Generalized Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventions and rules for generalized block diagram representation are developed and the relationships between generalized block diagrams and network graphs discussed. The generalized block diagram as developed here should prove of value in the computer-aided study of complex systems.

A. G. J. MACFARLANE

1967-01-01

189

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

190

1990 CENSUS BLOCK CENTROIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The block_cen layer in the EPA New England database provides the centroids of block boundaries coverage based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census Public Law (PL) 94-171 data. The block_cen layer is an ARC/INFO point coverage....

191

The mosaic structure of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42 and its relation to other symbiotic genome compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Symbiotic bacteria known as rhizobia interact with the roots of legumes and induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In rhizobia, essential genes for symbiosis are compartmentalized either in symbiotic plasmids or in chromosomal symbiotic islands. To understand the structure and evolution of the symbiotic genome compartments (SGCs), it is necessary to analyze their common genetic content and organization as well as to study their differences. To date, five SGCs belonging to distinct species of rhizobia have been entirely sequenced. We report the complete sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42, a microsymbiont of beans, and a comparison with other SGC sequences available. Results The symbiotic plasmid is a circular molecule of 371,255 base-pairs containing 359 coding sequences. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes common to other rhizobia are clustered in a region of 125 kilobases. Numerous sequences related to mobile elements are scattered throughout. In some cases the mobile elements flank blocks of functionally related sequences, thereby suggesting a role in transposition. The plasmid contains 12 reiterated DNA families that are likely to participate in genomic rearrangements. Comparisons between this plasmid and complete rhizobial genomes and symbiotic compartments already sequenced show a general lack of synteny and colinearity, with the exception of some transcriptional units. There are only 20 symbiotic genes that are shared by all SGCs. Conclusions Our data support the notion that the symbiotic compartments of rhizobia genomes are mosaic structures that have been frequently tailored by recombination, horizontal transfer and transposition.

Gonzalez, Victor; Bustos, Patricia; Ramirez-Romero, Miguel A; Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Salgado, Heladia; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Ismael; Hernandez-Celis, Juan Carlos; Quintero, Veronica; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Girard, Lourdes; Rodriguez, Oscar; Flores, Margarita; Cevallos, Miguel A; Collado-Vides, Julio; Romero, David; Davila, Guillermo

2003-01-01

192

Synchronized Retrovirus Fusion in Cells Expressing Alternative Receptor Isoforms Releases the Viral Core into Distinct Sub-cellular Compartments  

PubMed Central

Disparate enveloped viruses initiate infection by fusing with endosomes. However, the highly diverse and dynamic nature of endosomes impairs mechanistic studies of fusion and identification of sub-cellular sites supporting the nucleocapsid release. We took advantage of the extreme stability of avian retrovirus-receptor complexes at neutral pH and of acid-dependence of virus-endosome fusion to isolate the latter step from preceding asynchronous internalization/trafficking steps. Viruses were trapped within endosomes in the presence of NH4Cl. Removal of NH4Cl resulted in a quick and uniform acidification of all subcellular compartments, thereby initiating synchronous viral fusion. Single virus imaging demonstrated that fusion was initiated within seconds after acidification and often culminated in the release of the viral core from an endosome. Comparative studies of cells expressing either the transmembrane or GPI-anchored receptor isoform revealed that the transmembrane receptor delivered the virus to more fusion-permissive compartments. Thus the identity of endosomal compartments, in addition to their acidity, appears to modulate viral fusion. A more striking manifestation of the virus delivery to distinct compartments in the presence of NH4Cl was the viral core release into the cytosol of cells expressing the transmembrane receptor and into endosomes of cells expressing the GPI-anchored isoform. In the latter cells, the newly released cores exhibited restricted mobility and were exposed to a more acidic environment than the cytoplasm. These cores appear to enter into the cytosol after an additional slow temperature-dependent step. We conclude that the NH4Cl block traps the virus within intralumenal vesicles of late endosomes in cells expressing the GPI-anchored receptor. Viruses surrounded by more than one endosomal membrane release their core into the cytoplasm in two steps – fusion with an intralumenal vesicle followed by a yet unknown temperature-dependent step that liberates the core from late endosomes.

Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Marin, Mariana; Kondo, Naoyuki; Melikyan, Gregory B.

2012-01-01

193

Magma chambers: Formation, local stresses, excess pressures, and compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An existing magma chamber is normally a necessary condition for the generation of a large volcanic edifice. Most magma chambers form through repeated magma injections, commonly sills, and gradually expand and change their shapes. Highly irregular magma-chamber shapes are thermo-mechanically unstable; common long-term equilibrium shapes are comparatively smooth and approximate those of ellipsoids of revolution. Some chambers, particularly small and sill-like, may be totally molten. Most chambers, however, are only partially molten, the main part of the chamber being crystal mush, a porous material. During an eruption, magma is drawn from the crystal mush towards a molten zone beneath the lower end of the feeder dyke. Magma transport to the feeder dyke, however, depends on the chamber's internal structure; in particular on whether the chamber contains pressure compartments that are, to a degree, isolated from other compartments. It is only during large drops in the hydraulic potential beneath the feeder dyke that other compartments become likely to supply magma to the erupting compartment, thereby contributing to its excess pressure (the pressure needed to rupture a magma chamber) and the duration of the eruption. Simple analytical models suggest that during a typical eruption, the excess-pressure in the chamber decreases exponentially. This result applies to a magma chamber that (a) is homogeneous and totally fluid (contains no compartments), (b) is not subject to significant replenishment (inflow of new magma into the chamber) during the eruption, and (c) contains magma where exsolution of gas has no significant effect on the excess pressure. For a chamber consisting of pressure compartments, the exponential excess-pressure decline applies primarily to a single erupting compartment. When more than one compartment contributes magma to the eruption, the excess pressure may decline much more slowly and irregularly. Excess pressure is normally similar to the in-situ tensile strength of the host rock, 0.5-9 MPa. These in-situ strength estimates are based on hydraulic fracture measurements in drill-holes worldwide down to crustal depths of about 9 km. These measurements do not support some recent magma-chamber stress models that predict (a) extra gravity-related wall-parallel stresses at the boundaries of magma chambers and (b) magma-chamber excess pressures prior to rupture of as much as hundreds of mega-pascals, particularly at great depths. General stress models of magma chambers are of two main types: analytical and numerical. Earlier analytical models were based on a nucleus-of-strain source (a 'point pressure source') for the magma chamber, and have been very useful for rough estimates of magma-chamber depths from surface deformation during unrest periods. More recent models assume the magma chamber to be axisymmetric ellipsoids or, in two-dimensions, ellipses of various shapes. Nearly all these models use the excess pressure in the chamber as the only loading (since lithostatic stress effects are then automatically taken into account), assume the chamber to be totally molten, and predict similar local stress fields. The predicted stress fields are generally in agreement with the world-wide stress measurements in drill-holes and, in particular, with the in-situ tensile-strength estimates. Recent numerical models consider magma-chambers of various (ideal) shapes and sizes in relation to their depths below the Earth's surface. They also take into account crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies; in particular the effects of the effects of a nearby free surface and horizontal and inclined (dipping) mechanical layering. The results show that the free surface may have strong effects on the local stresses if the chamber is comparatively close to the surface. The mechanical layering, however, may have even stronger effects. For realistic layering, and other heterogeneities, the numerical models predict complex local stresses around magma chambers, with implications for dyke paths, dyke arrest, and ring-fault formation.

Gudmundsson, Agust

2012-09-01

194

p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation  

SciTech Connect

The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

Dobbelstein, Matthias [Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 25, 5000 Odense C (Denmark); Strano, Sabrina [Department of Experimental Oncology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Via delle Messi d'oro, 156, 00158 Rome (Italy); Roth, Judith [Abteilung Gastroenterologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Blandino, Giovanni [Department of Experimental Oncology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Via delle Messi d'oro, 156, 00158 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

2005-06-10

195

Head and neck fascia and compartments: No space for spaces.  

PubMed

An accurate understanding of the arrangement of cervical fascia and its associated compartments is essential for differential diagnosis, predicting the spread of disease, and surgical management. The purpose of this detailed review is to summarize the anatomic, clinical, and radiological literature to determine what is known about the arrangement of cervical fascia and to highlight controversies and consensus. The current terminology used to describe cervical fascia and compartments is replete with confusing synonyms and inconsistencies, creating important interdisciplinary differences in understanding. The term "spaces" is inappropriate. A modified nomenclature underpinned by evidence-based anatomic and radiologic findings is proposed. This should not only enhance our understanding of cervical anatomy but also facilitate clearer interdisciplinary communication. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 36: 1058-1068, 2014. PMID:23913739

Guidera, Alice K; Dawes, Patrick J D; Fong, Amy; Stringer, Mark D

2014-07-01

196

Triple compartment prolapse: sacrocolpopexy with anterior and posterior mesh extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-hysterectomy vault prolapse may be accompanied by anterior (cystocele) and posterior (rectocele) pelvic compartment prolapse. We describe our results with sacrocolpopexy with anterior and posterior polytetrafluoroethylene mesh (SCAPM) extensions. A prospective on-going study is presented of 12 consecutive, complicated patients referred to our tertiary referral unit with a median age of 60 years (range 39–69) who underwent SCAPM between April

Serge Peter Marinkovic; Stuart L Stanton

2003-01-01

197

The posterior compartment: Evaluation and functional outcomes after surgical repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) will continue to become more prevalent as the female population ages and life expectancy increases.\\u000a POP repair poses a challenging dilemma that is difficult to manage. Current research on various techniques of posterior compartment\\u000a repair favors a transvaginal approach. Randomized trials have demonstrated its superiority when compared to transanal repair.\\u000a Fascial defect reconstruction is superior to

Veronica Triaca; Christian O. Twiss; Shlomo Raz

2007-01-01

198

Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2011-03-01

199

Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.  

PubMed

For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

2014-01-01

200

Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels  

PubMed Central

For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

2014-01-01

201

Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a highly lethal event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent reports have described resuscitation-induced, “secondary” abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in trauma patients without intra-abdominal injuries. We have diagnosed secondary ACS in a variety of nontrauma as well as trauma patients. The purpose of this review is to characterize patients who develop secondary ACS.Methods: Our prospective ACS database was reviewed for cases of secondary ACS. Physiologic parameters and outcomes

Walter L Biffl; Ernest E Moore; Jon M Burch; Patrick J Offner; Reginald J Franciose; Jeffrey L Johnson

2001-01-01

202

Lower Limb (Well Leg) Compartment Syndrome After Urological Pelvic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWell leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is being seen more frequently as the complexity and duration of pelvic urological surgery increases, ie reconstruction\\/radical cancer surgery. The etiology of WLCS is multifactorial and prevention should form the mainstay of treatment. With significant morbidity and mortality, in particular lower limb morbidity secondary to fasciotomy wounds and long-term neurological sequelae, all urologists should be

ASIF RAZA; DEREK BYRNE; NICK TOWNELL

2004-01-01

203

Secondary Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Patientwith Isolated Extraperitoneal Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) associated with adverse physiologic\\u000a consequences. The ACS ismost commonly diagnosed in patients sustaining abdominal or pelvic trauma, or suffering some other\\u000a intraabdominal hemorrhagic catastrophe. Recently, several groups have reported cases in which patients sustaining extra-abdominal\\u000a trauma developed ACS following acute resuscitation with crystalloids or blood. This secondary ACS

Inchien Chamisa

2008-01-01

204

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, Abdominal Decompression, and Temporary Abdominal Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the abdominal compartment syndrome are life-threatening complications in severely injured\\u000a patients. They may trigger a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with subsequent fatal outcome. Early identification of high-risk\\u000a patients, close monitoring including repeated measuring of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and early or even prophylactic\\u000a surgical decompression of the abdomen may effectively lower morbidity and mortality. Following abdominal decompression,

Christoph Meier

205

The use of graft materials in anterior compartment pelvic reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, the number of reports in the urologic and gynecologic literature using synthetic and allograph prosthetics to\\u000a enhance the durability of anterior compartment repairs have increased significantly. Central to the use of these prosthetics\\u000a is long-term follow-up to demonstrate that their use actually confers a benefit to patients and surgeons alike. This review\\u000a attempts to catalog those reports and

J. Sean Begley; Kathleen C. Kobashi

2004-01-01

206

Multifocal streptococcal pyomyositis complicated by acute compartment syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old girl sought treatment for pyrexia of unknown origin. Despite prompt surgical drainage of a streptococcal septic arthritis of the ankle joint, her condition deteriorated. Multifocal pyomyositis was subsequently diagnosed. This was complicated by acute compartment syndrome in three extremities. With aggressive surgical and medical management, the child made a complete recovery. Orthopaedic clinicians in nontropical areas must familiarize themselves with this rare, potentially life-threatening, but eminently curable disease. PMID:11360777

Harrington, P; Scott, B; Chetcuti, P

2001-04-01

207

Liver Injury in Sepsis and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate the extent of liver injury after the onset of sepsis and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We divided 60 rats into four groups of 15. Group 1 was the sham group. In group 2, sepsis was induced by cecal puncture and\\u000a ligation; in group 3, ACS was created by placing a catheter in the abdominal cavity; and

M. A. Tolga Muftuoglu; Ali Aktekin; Nilgun C. Ozdemir; Abdullah Saglam

2006-01-01

208

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Current Problems and New Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a diffucult entity with two main problems during its course: (1) survival of the patient\\u000a during the early period and (2) closure of the open wounds during the late period. In this study we evaluated the decision\\u000a to decompress according to the level of intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and analysis of any recurrent or persistent increase

Cem Kaan Parsak; Gulsah Seydaoglu; Gurhan Sakman; T. Oguz Acarturk; Emre Karakoc; Ismail Hanta; Ali Haydar Alparslan; Salim Satar

2008-01-01

209

The subapical compartment: a traffic center in membrane polarity development.  

PubMed

Spatially separated apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains that have distinct functions and molecular compositions are a characteristic feature of epithelial cell polarity. The subapical compartment (SAC), also known as the common endosome (CE), where endocytic pathways from both surfaces merge, plays a crucial role in the maintenance and probably the biogenesis of these distinct membrane domains. Although differences in morphology are apparent, the same principal features of a SAC can be distinguished in different types of epithelial cells. As polarity develops, the compartment acquires several distinct machineries that, in conjunction with the cytoskeleton, are necessary for polarized trafficking. Disrupting trafficking via the SAC and hence bypassing its sorting machinery, as occurs upon actin depolymerization, leads to mis-sorting of apical and basolateral molecules, thereby compromising the development of polarity. The structural and functional integrity of the compartment in part depends on microtubules. Moreover, the acquisition of a particular set of Rab proteins, including Rab11 and Rab3, appears to be crucial in regulating molecular sorting and vesicular transport relevant both to recycling to either plasma membrane domain and to de novo assembly of the apical domain. Furthermore, subcompartmentalization of the SAC appears to be key to its various functions. PMID:15126620

Hoekstra, Dick; Tyteca, Donatienne; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D

2004-05-01

210

Engineered Protein Nano-Compartments for Targeted Enzyme Localization  

PubMed Central

Compartmentalized co-localization of enzymes and their substrates represents an attractive approach for multi-enzymatic synthesis in engineered cells and biocatalysis. Sequestration of enzymes and substrates would greatly increase reaction efficiency while also protecting engineered host cells from potentially toxic reaction intermediates. Several bacteria form protein-based polyhedral microcompartments which sequester functionally related enzymes and regulate their access to substrates and other small metabolites. Such bacterial microcompartments may be engineered into protein-based nano-bioreactors, provided that they can be assembled in a non-native host cell, and that heterologous enzymes and substrates can be targeted into the engineered compartments. Here, we report that recombinant expression of Salmonella enterica ethanolamine utilization (eut) bacterial microcompartment shell proteins in E. coli results in the formation of polyhedral protein shells. Purified recombinant shells are morphologically similar to the native Eut microcompartments purified from S. enterica. Surprisingly, recombinant expression of only one of the shell proteins (EutS) is sufficient and necessary for creating properly delimited compartments. Co-expression with EutS also facilitates the encapsulation of EGFP fused with a putative Eut shell-targeting signal sequence. We also demonstrate the functional localization of a heterologous enzyme (?-galactosidase) targeted to the recombinant shells. Together our results provide proof-of-concept for the engineering of protein nano-compartments for biosynthesis and biocatalysis.

Choudhary, Swati; Quin, Maureen B.; Sanders, Mark A.; Johnson, Ethan T.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

2012-01-01

211

Endfeet serve as diffusion-limited subcellular compartments in astrocytes.  

PubMed

Astrocytes extend their processes to make contact with neurons and blood vessels and regulate important processes associated with the physiology/pathophysiology of the brain. Their elaborate morphology, with numerous fine processes, could allow them to perform complex signal transductions with distinct compartments or to function as a spatial buffer depending on the diffusion properties of their intracellular molecules. Apart from calcium ions, however, the diffusion dynamics of molecules within astrocytes are poorly understood. In this study, we applied two-photon uncaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of fluorescent molecules to acute cortical brain slices from mice to investigate the diffusion dynamics of molecules within astrocytes. We found that diffusion was significantly more restricted at the endfeet than at trunks and distal ends of other processes. Slow diffusion dynamics at the endfeet resulted in a large population of molecules being retained in a small region for tens of seconds, creating subcellular compartments that were isolated from other regions. In contrast, diffusion was fast and free at other processes. The same patterns were observed with the diffusions of a higher molecular weight (10 kDa) molecule and 2-NBDG, a fluorescent analog of glucose. These findings suggest that molecular diffusion is not uniform across the intracellular environment and that subcellular compartments are present in astrocytes. Therefore, similar to neurons, the elaborate and specialized structures of astrocytes may enable them to perform complex computations by providing distinct information storage/processing capacity among processes. PMID:23426695

Nuriya, Mutsuo; Yasui, Masato

2013-02-20

212

Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

Goodman, Jerry R.

2010-01-01

213

The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

1995-01-01

214

Development of Protective Operator Compartment for Thin-Seam Mobile Bridge Carrier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines report summarizes the development of a protective operator compartment for a new generation thinseam mobile bridge carrier. The developed compartment is commercially available and is currently employed on approximately 15 bridge carrie...

A. J. Kwitowski R. J. Gunderman

1986-01-01

215

Oevertrycksventilation i Medelstora Lokaler: Foersoek med Mobila Flaektar (Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) in Medium Sized Compartments).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were carried out in a large compartment using Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV). The PPV is used by the fire brigade as a supplementary equipment when fighting ordinary compartment fires. The increased use of PPV has opened the possibility t...

H. Ingason R. Fallberg

1998-01-01

216

Three New Exploration and Development Concepts for Compartmented Basins. Annual Report, July 1993-June 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research continued in our three major areas of investigation: (1) fault-associated seals and reservoirs, (2) seal rupture and compartment leakage, and (3) compartment auto-isolation. A dual-component (feldspar and chert) geochemical system is proposed for...

Z. Al-Shaieb P. Ortoleva D. Powley

1994-01-01

217

A Diffusion Approximation Analysis of a General n-Compartment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new approach to the stochastic analysis of general compartment models is presented. The analysis is based on the concept of diffusion approximations. The state of a compartment system is represented as the superposition of a deterministic process, chara...

D. P. Gaver J. P. Lehoczky

1977-01-01

218

Block Ciphers - A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give a short overview of the state of the art of secret key block ciphers. We focus on the main application\\u000a of block ciphers, namely for encryption. The most important known attacks on block ciphers are linear cryptanalysis and differential\\u000a cryptanalysis. Linear cryptanalysis makes use of so-called linear hulls i.e., the parity of a subset of

Lars R. Knudsen

1997-01-01

219

Protein based Block Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers.

Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

220

Bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome after total hip arthroplasty under epidural anesthesia.  

PubMed

The gluteal compartment syndrome is uncommon and is discussed in only a few published case reports. The simultaneous bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome is exceptionally rare and is tackled in only 4 case reports to date. We report a case of bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome after total hip arthroplasty under epidural anesthesia and discuss its management. PMID:16376268

Somayaji, H Sadashiva; Hassan, A N A; Reddy, K; Heatley, F W

2005-12-01

221

Compartment model structure identification with qualitative methods for a stirred vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving process design, process optimization, safety analysis and other problems widely relies on mathematical models of the process. To solve problems related to mixing, detailed models such as compartment models or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are required. Compartment modelling generally uses four basic compartments: the mixer (M), the distributor (D), the perfectly mixed reactor and the ideal plug flow

Attila Egedy; Tamás Varga; Tibor Chován

2012-01-01

222

Surgical management of exertional compartment syndrome of the lower legLong-term followup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six limbs in 28 patients were surgically treated for exertional compartment syndrome. One group of 16 patients (26 limbs) underwent a fasciotomy for ex ertional anterior compartment syndrome (Group 1). A second group of 12 patients (20 limbs) underwent a fasciotomy for exertional deep posterior compartment syndrome (Group 2). Patients in Group 2 experienced symptoms for a significantly longer time

Anthony A. Schepsis; Douglas Martini; Michael Corbett

1993-01-01

223

Evaluation of limb compartments with increased interstitial pressure. An improved noninvasive method for determining quantitative hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to study a noninvasive method of evaluating limbs at risk of compartment syndrome. Untreated limb compartment syndrome may lead to irreversible dysfunction, chronic pain and contracture. An improved means of obtaining quantitative hardness measurements is reported. The handheld noninvasive compartment syndrome evaluator (NCSE) device formulates a quantitative hardness curve of force verse depth of

Bruce D. Steinberg

2005-01-01

224

Structure of the Golgi and Distribution of Reporter Molecules at 20?C Reveals the Complexity of the Exit Compartments  

PubMed Central

Incubating cells at 20°C blocks transport out of the Golgi complex and amplifies the exit compartments. We have used the 20°C block, followed by EM tomography and serial section reconstruction, to study the structure of Golgi exit sites in NRK cells. The dominant feature of Golgi structure in temperature-blocked cells is the presence of large bulging domains on the three trans-most cisternae. These domains extend laterally from the stack and are continuous with “cisternal” domains that maintain normal thickness and alignment with the other stacked Golgi cisternae. The bulging domains do not resemble the perpendicularly extending tubules associated with the trans-cisternae of control cells. Such tubules are completely absent in temperature-blocked cells. The three cisternae with bulging domains can be identified as trans by their association with specialized ER and the presence of clathrin-coated buds on the trans-most cisterna only. Immunogold labeling and immunoblots show a significant degradation of a medial- and a trans-Golgi marker with no evidence for their redistribution within the Golgi or to other organelles. These data suggest that exit from the Golgi occurs directly from three trans-cisternae and that specialized ER plays a significant role in trans-Golgi function.

Ladinsky, Mark S.; Wu, Christine C.; McIntosh, Shane; McIntosh, J. Richard; Howell, Kathryn E.

2002-01-01

225

High Relief Block Printing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

Foster, Michael

1989-01-01

226

Thermally actuated wedge block  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

Queen, Jr., Charles C. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

227

The block replacement problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block replacement policy requires that a unit or a block of units be replaced at specified timesk T, k = 1, 2,… and at failure. The mathematical solution to the problem of what is the optimal time Tfor replacement is well known and this paper describes this solution for the special cases of a truncated normal, gamma or Weibull

M. A. Hanscom; R. Cléroux

1975-01-01

228

Block copolymer investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time

Nataliya A. Yufa

2008-01-01

229

Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL) [Downers Grove, IL; Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL) [Downers Grove, IL

1993-01-01

230

Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

1998-05-10

231

Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles.  

PubMed

Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and parents can be reassured that no immediate treatment is required. PMID:23925689

Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

2014-06-01

232

Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase and its compartment in dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Peptide epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules are produced through sequential proteolysis, frequently terminating with an aminoterminal trimming step. While the trimming enzymes processing endogenous MHC class I ligands in the endoplasmic reticulum have by now been characterized extensively, we have only recently identified an endosomal enzyme, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) that can trim cross-presented peptides derived from proteins internalized by dendritic cells. Here we summarize the essential features of IRAP as a trimming enzyme, propose an updated model of cellular cross-presentation pathways, and discuss potential additional functions of IRAP and its compartment in dendritic cell biology. PMID:23123036

Saveanu, Loredana; Babdor, Joël; Lawand, Myriam; van Endert, Peter

2013-09-01

233

Physiology and pathology of proteostasis in the early secretory compartment.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the port of entry for proteins into the secretory pathway, is a multifunctional organelle emerging as a central integrator of numerous signalling pathways. The mechanisms that control proteostasis are integral part of this signalling network, providing cues for morphological and functional cell remodelling, proliferation, inflammation and cell death. The complexity of ER responses is exploited during physiological and pathological tissue development, cell differentiation and lifespan control. This essay outlines some of the mechanisms that link proteostasis within the early secretory compartment to signalling in development and disease. PMID:20178856

Anelli, Tiziana; Sitia, Roberto

2010-07-01

234

Common complication of crush injury, but a rare compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome (CS) is a common complication of crush injury but it is rare to find bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome (BGCS). Only six cases of BGCS have been reported in the literature. This syndrome has been reported after crush injury, drug overdose, surgical positioning, and vascular surgery. Apart from CS, crush injury is associated with multi-system adverse effects and these patients are at high risk for renal failure and sepsis. CS patients may present with dehydration; coagulation disorders; elevated creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin levels; hyperkalemia and hypocalcaemia, which may cause life-threatening arrhythmias and therefore need urgent and aggressive therapy. The early goal in these patients is prevention of acute renal failure with aggressive fluid therapy, alkalinization of urine, and forced diuresis. Early treatment of hyperkalemia, antibiotic therapy, immunoprophylaxis, and wound care will minimize the risk of arrhythmias and sepsis. CS must be considered when any patient is diagnosed with crush injury syndrome. CS is defined as elevation of interstitial/ intracompartmental pressure, leading to microvascular and myoneural dysfunction and secondary hypoxia; it may cause functional loss or even death if not detected early and treated properly. The increase in pressure in one or all compartments of the gluteal region causes CS with devastating effects on muscle and neurovascular bundles. CS is traditionally diagnosed on the basis of five 'p's: pain, pallor, paraesthesia, pulselessness and paralysis. Diagnosis of gluteal CS is difficult as the peripheral pulses are preserved and the condition is usually only diagnosed when neurological abnormality is noticed. Diagnosis of CS can be made by direct measurement of the compartment pressure and magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. Gluteal CS is managed by fasciotomy and debridement of necrosed tissue, with secondary closure of fascia. A high index of suspicion is necessary for the early diagnosis of gluteal CS, and this will reduce the disability and complications as a consequence of this syndrome. The acute-care physician, the intensivist, and the trauma surgeon must be aware of this rare syndrome, as it can result in multiorgan dysfunction and death. Here we report a case of bilateral gluteal CS that was successfully treated in our trauma intensive care unit. PMID:20606796

Shaikh, Nissar

2010-04-01

235

Upper limb compartment syndrome: An unusual complication of stroke thrombolysis.  

PubMed

Bleeding is the most important complication of treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. Neurologists are familiar with intracranial hemorrhage, the most feared site for bleeding following thrombolysis, but extracranial bleeding can also occur resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. We describe an 88-year-old woman with an acute stroke who developed bleeding into the left arm complicated by hemodynamic instability and compartment syndrome following intravenous thrombolysis. The patient was treated conservatively in view of the risks associated with fasciotomy and her other medical comorbidities. PMID:24291484

Brownlee, Wallace J; Wu, Teddy Y; Van Dijck, Stephanie A; Snow, Barry J

2014-05-01

236

Characterization of blocked isocyanates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ionomer crosslinker on the basis of partly blocked hexamethylene isocyanurate was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and by gel permeation chromatography. To determine the selectivity of the blocking reaction. model compounds were also prepared. Deblocking and curing courses were studied by FTIR thermal methods. The selectivity of the blocking reaction was found to be poor and therefore the obtained ionomer crosslinker consisted of different monomer and oligomer components. Deblocking and curing were highly temperature dependent. Curing was more efficient in one-pack systems consisting of the ionomer crosslinker and of an OH groups rich ionomer polyurethane resin.

Mir?eva, A.; Janeži?, M.; Žigon, M.; Malavaši?, T.

1992-03-01

237

Red blood cells: a neglected compartment in topotecan pharmacokinetic analysis.  

PubMed

Previously, a gender dependency of topotecan was found in the pharmacokinetics in the plasma compartment. Here, we prospectively studied the red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of topotecan and evaluated its consequences for overall drug disposition. Blood samples were obtained from 12 patients receiving cisplatin followed by i.v. topotecan. Topotecan pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in whole blood, plasma and RBCs. Significantly slower clearance was noted in females (n=7) compared to males (n=5) for lactone and total topotecan in plasma (p<0.0001), and for total drug in RBCs (p=0.027), but not in whole blood. In addition, no gender-dependent differences were observed in the terminal half-lives of topotecan in any of the compartments. The area under the curve ratios for RBC total to plasma lactone were 2.53+/-0.0640 and 2.13+/-0.442 in males and females, respectively. Hence, topotecan displays preferential affinity for RBCs compared to plasma, although these cells do not act as a depot in which drug accumulates over time. RBCs thus play a principal role in the distribution kinetics of topotecan and have a major impact on its plasma pharmacokinetics. The data warrant a change from current practice in pharmacokinetic studies with this agent and provide further evidence that, in general, the choice of the appropriate assay matrix should be rationally based. PMID:12634617

Loos, Walter J; Gelderblom, Hans; Verweij, Jaap; van Boven-van Zomeren, Desirée M; Nooter, Kees; Stoter, Gerrit; Sparreboom, Alex

2003-03-01

238

Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

1976-01-01

239

Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Tessa, Alessandra [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy)] [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Tonin, Paola [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Carrozzo, Rosalba [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Hospital-Molecular Medicine Unit, Roma (Italy)] [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Hospital-Molecular Medicine Unit, Roma (Italy); Mole, Sara E. [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Molecular Medicines Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London (United Kingdom)] [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Molecular Medicines Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London (United Kingdom); Santorelli, Filippo M. [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy)] [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Simonati, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.simonati@univr.it [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)

2011-12-09

240

Compartment syndrome after South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. In order to report the outcome of a patient who developed compartment syndrome after South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation, confirmed by subfascial pressure measurement and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Case details. A 63-year-old male was admitted 1 h after being bitten on the right elbow by a "large" snake, which was not brought for identification. Physical and laboratory features upon admission revealed two fang marks, local tense swelling, paresthesia, intense local pain, hypertension, coagulopathy, and CK = 1530 U/L (RV < 170 U/L). The case was initially treated with bothropic antivenom (80 mL, intravenously), with no improvement. Evolution within 13-14 h post-bite revealed generalized myalgia, muscle weakness, palpebral ptosis, and severe rhabdomyolysis (CK = 126,160 U/L) compatible with envenoming by C. d. terrificus. The patient was then treated with crotalic antivenom (200 mL, intravenously), fluid replacement, and urine alkalinization. Twenty-four-hour post-bite MRI showed marked muscular edema in the anterior compartment of the right forearm, with a high subfascial pressure (40 mmHg) being detected 1 h later. ELISA of a blood sample obtained upon admission, before antivenom infusion, revealed a high serum concentration of C. d. terrificus venom. No fasciotomy was performed and the patient was discharged seven days later without sequelae. Conclusion. Snakebite by C. d. terrificus with subfascial venom injection may lead to increased intracompartmental pressure. PMID:24940645

Bucaretchi, F; De Capitani, E M; Hyslop, S; Mello, S M; Fernandes, C B; Bergo, F; Nascimento, F B P

2014-07-01

241

Abdominal compartment syndrome in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients.A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were number of patients with ACS, radiologic and surgical interventions, morbidity, mortality, and methodological quality.After screening 169 articles, 7 studies were included. Three studies were prospective and 4 studies were retrospective. The overall methodological quality of the studies was moderate to low. The pooled data consisted of 271 patients, of whom 103 (38%) developed ACS. Percutaneous drainage of intraabdominal fluid was reported as first intervention in 11 (11%) patients. Additional decompressive laparotomy was performed in 8 patients. Decompressive laparotomy was performed in a total of 76 (74%) patients. The median decrease in intraabdominal pressure was 15 mm Hg (range, 33-18 mm Hg). Mortality in acute pancreatitis patients with ACS was 49% versus 11% without ACS. Morbidity ranged from 17% to 90%.Abdominal compartment syndrome during acute pancreatitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Studies are relatively small and have methodological shortcomings. The optimal timing and method of invasive interventions, as well as their effect on clinical outcomes, should be further evaluated. PMID:24921201

van Brunschot, Sandra; Schut, Anne Julia; Bouwense, Stefan A; Besselink, Marc G; Bakker, Olaf J; van Goor, Harry; Hofker, Sijbrand; Gooszen, Hein G; Boermeester, Marja A; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C

2014-07-01

242

Identification of a clonally expanding haematopoietic compartment in bone marrow  

PubMed Central

In mammals, postnatal haematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM) and involves specialized microenvironments controlling haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) behaviour and, in particular, stem cell dormancy and self-renewal. While these processes have been linked to a number of different stromal cell types and signalling pathways, it is currently unclear whether BM has a homogenous architecture devoid of structural and functional partitions. Here, we show with genetic labelling techniques, high-resolution imaging and functional experiments in mice that the periphery of the adult BM cavity harbours previously unrecognized compartments with distinct properties. These units, which we have termed hemospheres, were composed of endothelial, haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, were enriched in CD150+ CD48? putative HSCs, and enabled rapid haematopoietic cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Inducible gene targeting of the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 in endothelial cells disrupted hemospheres and, concomitantly, reduced the number of CD150+ CD48? cells. Our results identify a previously unrecognized, vessel-associated BM compartment with a specific localization and properties distinct from the marrow cavity.

Wang, Lin; Benedito, Rui; Bixel, M Gabriele; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Stehling, Martin; Savendahl, Lars; Haigh, Jody J; Snippert, Hugo; Clevers, Hans; Breier, Georg; Kiefer, Friedemann; Adams, Ralf H

2013-01-01

243

Assessment of cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments.  

PubMed

All nucleated cells, from yeast to animal cells, concentrate cationic chemicals (weak bases with a pKa~8-10) into acidic cell compartments (low retro-diffusion under a protonated form at low pH=ion trapping). The proton pump vacuolar (V)-ATPase is the driving force of this pseudotransport that concerns acidic organelles (mainly late endosomes and lysosomes). The latter rapidly become swollen (osmotic vacuolization) and macroautophagic. Cation concentration in cells is not proved to involve membrane transporters, but is prevented or reversed by inhibitors of V-ATPase, such as bafilomycin A1. Lipophilicity is a major determinant of the apparent affinity of this pseudotransport because simple diffusion of the uncharged form supports it. Quinacrine is a formerly used antiparasitic drug that is intensely fluorescent, lipophilic, and a tertiary amine. The drug, at micromolar concentrations, is proposed as a superior probe for assessing cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments, being readily quantified using fluorometry in cell extracts and analyzed using microscopy and cytofluorometry (fluorescence settings for fluorescein being applicable). Further, cells respond to micromolar levels of quinacrine by autophagic accumulation (e.g., accumulation of the activated macroautophagic effector LC3 II, immunoblots), an objective and universal response to sequestered amines. PMID:24359951

Marceau, François; Roy, Caroline; Bouthillier, Johanne

2014-01-01

244

Superalloy Lattice Block Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

2004-01-01

245

Low Frequency Blocking Oscillator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes a low frequency astable blocking oscillator composed of a transistor with a first transformer winding in the collector circuit and a second transformer winding in the base circuit to provide regenerative feedback between the collector...

C. H. Johnson

1972-01-01

246

RX for Writer's Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

1988-01-01

247

Mid-Career Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

Payne, Richard A.

1984-01-01

248

Recipient block TMA technique.  

PubMed

New high-throughput screening technologies have led to the identification of hundreds of genes with a potential role in cancer or other diseases. One way to prioritize the leads obtained in such studies is to analyze a large number of tissues for candidate gene expression. The TMA methodology is now an established and frequently used tool for high-throughput tissue analysis. The recipient block technology is the "classical" method of TMA making. In this method, minute cylindrical tissue punches typically measuring 0.6 mm in diameter are removed from donor tissue blocks and are transferred into empty "recipient" paraffin blocks. Up to 1,000 different tissues can be analyzed in one TMA block. The equipment is affordable and easy to use in places where basic skills in histology are available. PMID:20690050

Mirlacher, Martina; Simon, Ronald

2010-01-01

249

Block Copolymer Nanotubes.  

PubMed

Rigid cylindrical micelles are made from polyisoprene-block-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate). The PI-PCEMA-PtBA polymer assembles to micelles with PI as the core, PCEMA as the shell, and PtBA as the corona. The cylindrical structure is fixed by photocrosslinking the PCEMA shell, and PCEMA-PtBA nanotubes are obtained by degrading the PI core with ozone (see scheme). PMID:10649402

Stewart; Liu

2000-01-01

250

Leishmania parasitophorous vacuoles interact continuously with the host cell's endoplasmic reticulum; parasitophorous vacuoles are hybrid compartments.  

PubMed

Macrophages that express representative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecules tagged with green fluorescence protein were generated to assess the recruitment of ER molecules to Leishmania parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs). More than 90% of PVs harbouring Leishmania pifanoi or Leishmania donovani parasites recruited calnexin, to their PV membrane. An equivalent proportion of PVs also recruited the membrane-associated soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), Sec22b. Both ER molecules appeared to be recruited very early in the formation of nascent PVs. Electron microscopy analysis of infected Sec22b/YFP expressing cells confirmed that Sec22b was recruited to Leishmania PVs. In contrast to PVs, it was found that no more than 20% of phagosomes that harboured Zymosan particles recruited calnexin or Sec22b to their limiting phagosomal membrane. The retrograde pathway that ricin employs to access the cell cytosol was exploited to gain further insight into ER-PV interactions. Ricin was delivered to PVs in infected cells incubated with ricin. Incubation of cells with brefeldin A blocked the transfer of ricin to PVs. This implied that molecules that traffic to the ER are transferred to PVs. Moreover the results show that PVs are hybrid compartments that are composed of both host ER and endocytic pathway components. PMID:20497181

Ndjamen, Blaise; Kang, Byung-Ho; Hatsuzawa, Kiyotaka; Kima, Peter E

2010-10-01

251

Multigeometry nanoparticles and higher-order assemblies from block copolymer blends via kinetic control and chemical modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multigeometry micellar structures, due to segregation of unlike hydrophobic domains trapped within the same micelle core, have been produced via self-assembly of block copolymer mixtures in tetrahydrofuran/water solution. The mixture is composed of two block copolymers with distinctive hydrophobic blocks but the same poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrophilic block. By taking advantage of the complexation in the hydrophilic corona between the acid side chains of the PAA block and added organoamine molecules, unlike hydrophobic blocks can be trapped in the same micelle core. Locally, the unlike hydrophobic blocks can segregate into compartments and even express different interfacial curvatures, or geometries, within the same nanoparticle. Through controlled kinetic pathways, block copolymer design and mixing ratios, both micelle compartment size and shape can be controlled to generate sphere-sphere, sphere-cylinder, cylinder-cylinder, cylinder-bilayer, and bilayer-bilayer blended multigeometry nanoparticles. Furthermore, higher order assembly behavior of the micelles has been investigated by taking advantage of chemical modification on the hydrophilic PAA shells. New mixtures using functionalized-PAA-containing block copolymers produce nanoparticles with a compartmentalized surface. These patchy surfaces can be used as templates for asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles, but also as building blocks for hierarchical assembly of the nanoparticles to produce one-dimensional arrays or three dimensional networks.

Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Shiyi; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

2012-02-01

252

Ear - blocked at high altitudes  

MedlinePLUS

... and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction -high altitude ... Yawning or swallowing usually opens the Eustachian tube, which ... to equalize in the ears. Performing them can unclog blocked ...

253

Acquired factor VIII deficiency presenting with compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Acquired factor VIII deficiency is a rare disease that has high rates of mortality and morbidity. Although this bleeding disorder has a classic presentation, its infrequency can make it difficult to identify. We present a case report of an elderly woman who came to an emergency department with spontaneous bilateral lower extremity compartment syndrome. Although she presented with tachycardia and hypotension, her only laboratory abnormalities were an elevated activated partial thromboplastin time and anemia. She underwent bilateral fasciotomies and had a postoperative course that was complicated by significant incisional bleeding. She was ultimately found to have acquired factor VIII deficiency. Emergency physicians must be familiar with this rare entity because its recognition can avoid serious complications, particularly in those requiring operative management. PMID:24176587

Pham, Thuy V; Sorenson, Carina A; Nable, Jose V

2014-02-01

254

Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation  

SciTech Connect

SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

Tolliver, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dillow, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-08-01

255

Aging of the CD4 T Cell Compartment  

PubMed Central

Higher morbidity and mortality following infections, particularly influenza, is observed in the elderly population. Because of this, people over 65 years old are often targeted for preventive immunization. Many vaccines, however, are not as effective in generating protective antibodies in older individuals. CD4+ T cells, through their B cell helper functions, play a central role in the humoral response. Aging has deleterious effects on the immune system, and understanding how aging impairs CD4+ T cell functions is of critical importance to design new immunization and treatment strategies targeted to the elderly population. In this paper, we review some of the qualitative and quantitative changes in the CD4+ T cell compartment that arise with aging. We also summarize the age-related intrinsic defects that impact naïve, memory and regulatory CD4+ T cell functions.

Lefebvre, Julie S; Haynes, Laura

2013-01-01

256

Postinjury abdominal compartment syndrome: are we winning the battle?  

PubMed

Postinjury (primary) abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) was described more than 15 years ago as severe abdominal distension with high peak airway pressures, CO(2) retention, and oliguria, which led to unplanned re-exploration after damage-control laparotomy. Later, a more elusive type of ACS was recognized, which develops without abdominal injuries (secondary ACS). Both syndromes were recently characterized, their independent predictors were identified, and preventive strategies were developed to reduce their incidence. Once viewed as a syndrome with almost uniform mortality, systematic preventative strategies and therapeutic efforts have reduced the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of the syndrome. This review was designed to summarize the recent advances in the management of ACS, to classify the currently available evidence, and to identify future directions of research and clinical care. PMID:19343417

Balogh, Zsolt J; van Wessem, Karlijn; Yoshino, Osamu; Moore, Frederick A

2009-06-01

257

[Acute extremity compartment syndrome : Current concepts in diagnostics and therapy].  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome of the upper and lower limbs is observed following trauma, reperfusion or as an intraoperative complication caused by positioning. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known as a loss of perfusion due to rising compartmental pressures. It is a serious and potentially limb- and life-threatening complication. Early diagnosis is made primarily based on clinical findings. Early and focused therapy is crucial to prevent the devastating complications of this acute condition. However, diagnosis can be difficult, particularly in unconscious patients. Thus, in uncertain cases, pressure measurements are essential. Dermato-fasciotomy is the routine method to decompress the compartmental space. This review article examines the clinical findings, diagnostic techniques, and management options for the patient with musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:25030961

Sellei, R M; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H-C

2014-07-01

258

Chemical heterogeneity of the striosomal compartment in the human striatum.  

PubMed

The neurochemical organization of the striosomal compartment in the human striatum was analyzed by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques applied to postmortem tissue from normal individuals. The striosomes were delineated by using the following markers: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), enkephalin (ENK), substance P (SP), calbindin-D28k (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and NADPH-diaphorase. Comparisons were made between striosomal boundaries, as outlined by each marker applied on adjacent sections, and particular attention was paid to possible variations in the chemical features of striosomes along the rostrocaudal extent of the striatum. The main findings of this study are as follows: 1) the striosomal compartment is composed of two chemically distinct domains: a core and a peripheral region; 2) the core is largely devoid of CB and displays a less intense staining for ENK and LAMP than the peripheral region; 3) although striosomes are largely devoid of AChE, the activity of this enzyme is slightly higher in the core than in the peripheral region; 4) the core and peripheral regions are weakly stained for PV and intensely stained for SP; 5) ChAT-, CR- and NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons are preferentially distributed in the peripheral region; 6) at rostral striatal levels, striosomes are largely devoid of TH, whereas the inverse is true caudally; and 7) at caudal striatal levels, the peripheral region of striosomes is intensely stained for CB and ChAT. These results demonstrate that the striosomes in human display a strikingly complex and heterogeneous chemical architecture. PMID:10495446

Prensa, L; Giménez-Amaya, J M; Parent, A

1999-11-01

259

The formation of somite compartments in the avian embryo.  

PubMed

The somites develop from the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm that flanks the neural tube. They form in an intrinsic process which lays down the primary segmental pattern of the vertebrate body. We review the processes of somitogenesis and somite differentiation as well as the mechanisms involved in these developmental events. Long before overt differentiation occurs, different compartments of the still epithelial somites give rise to special cell lines and to particular derivatives. By means of isotypic grafting between quail and chick embryos, it is possible to follow the fate of groups of somitic cells. In this way, the development of the myotome and the back dermis from the dorsomedial quadrant and of the hypaxial body wall and limb musculature from the dorsolateral quadrant was established. The two ventral quadrants and the somitocoele give rise to the chondrogenic/fibroblastic lineage of the sclerotome and form the vertebral column. Somite compartments can first be visualized by the expression pattern of Pax genes. Pax-3 is expressed in the dorsal part of the epithelial somite, while the ventral two thirds express Pax-1, a marker of sclerotome development. Pax-3 expression is retained also in the premitotic myogenic cells that migrate into the limb buds. In differentiating myoblasts, Pax-3 expression is turned down and taken over by the activation of MDF's. This initial event in myogenesis occurs in the absence of local signals, whereas the expression of Pax-1 in the sclerotome can be shown to be induced by signals from the notochord and floor-plate of the neural tube. Epaxial myotome differentiation is supported by the neural tube, after the neural tube has received patterning signals from the notochord. The hypaxial musculature and limb musculature differentiate independently of the axial structures. The myogenic cells migrating within the limb buds respond to signals of the lateral plate mesoderm which guide their distalward migration and pattern the muscle. PMID:8735956

Brand-Saberi, B; Wilting, J; Ebensperger, C; Christ, B

1996-02-01

260

Lower limb compartment syndrome following lumbar discectomy in the knee-chest position  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on two cases of compartment syndrome following lumbar discectomy in the knee-chest position. This complication has only been described once since 1953. Seven cases of compartment syndrome following other surgical procedures were found in the literature. Any increases in tissue pressure of a muscle compartment exceeding 35–40 mmHg over a longer period of time can result in this

Alfred Aschoff; Hedwig Steiner-Milz; Hans-Herbert Steiner

1990-01-01

261

Magnetic resonance imaging verification of a multi-compartment perfusion model for a chromatography gel phantom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of MRI signal intensity was developed for chromatography column phantoms containing Sephadex gels, which were used to simulate tissue perfusion and the exchange of protons between extravascular and intravascular tissue compartments. Computer simulations of two-compartment and three-compartment models were compared in experiments that used two chromatography columns. One column contained a Sephadex G-25 gel that had a smaller

Xiangyang Ma; Grant T. Gullberg; Dennis L. Parker

1995-01-01

262

Concrete form block and form block structure  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A concrete form block for construction of a building includes first and second panel devices, each having inner and outer faces separated by ribs. Projecting connectors are disposed on the inner faces and each has a pin-receiving aperture. U-shaped couplers are used to connect the two panel devices together so that their inner faces are parallel. Each connector has first and second connecting pins and these are received in the apertures of the connectors of the panel devices, with each pin being pivotable in its aperture after insertion. The panel devices can be moved from a collapsed configuration having at least a reduced space between the inner faces and an in-use configuration with more space between these faces. There is also disclosed a panel structure having upper and lower channel forming frames connected to an outer wall portion thereof. These form a channel for receiving equipment for utilities.

2013-05-21

263

Nonfunctionalized nanocrystals can exploit a cell's active transport machinery delivering them to specific nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments.  

PubMed

We use high content cell analysis, live cell fluorescent imaging, and transmission electron microscopy approaches combined with inhibitors of cellular transport and nuclear import to conduct a systematic study of the mechanism of interaction of nonfunctionalized quantum dots (QDs) with live human blood monocyte-derived primary macrophages and cell lines of phagocytic, epithelial, and endothelial nature. Live human macrophages are shown to be able to rapidly uptake and accumulate QDs in distinct cellular compartment specifically to QDs size and charge. We show that the smallest QDs specifically target histones in cell nuclei and nucleoli by a multistep process involving endocytosis, active cytoplasmic transport, and entering the nucleus via nuclear pore complexes. Treatment of the cells with an anti-microtubule agent nocodazole precludes QDs cytoplasmic transport whereas a nuclear import inhibitor thapsigargin blocks QD import into the nucleus. These results demonstrate that the nonfunctionalized QDs exploit the cell's active transport machineries for delivery to specific intranuclear destinations. PMID:17949046

Nabiev, Igor; Mitchell, Siobhan; Davies, Anthony; Williams, Yvonne; Kelleher, Dermot; Moore, Richard; Gun'ko, Yurii K; Byrne, Stephen; Rakovich, Yury P; Donegan, John F; Sukhanova, Alyona; Conroy, Jennifer; Cottell, David; Gaponik, Nikolai; Rogach, Andrey; Volkov, Yuri

2007-11-01

264

Compartment syndrome after endoscopic harvest of the great saphenous vein during coronary artery bypass grafting.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening condition often associated with traumatic, crush, burn, and reperfusion injuries. It is characterized by the development of disproportionately severe pain, paresthesias, decreased range of motion, loss of pulse, and a tense, edematous limb. In addition, measured compartment pressures and creatine phosphokinase values are often elevated. The definitive treatment is a decompressive fasciotomy. Compartment syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting, however, is rare. The few reported cases all occurred in the vein donor leg after open harvest. We present a patient with compartment syndrome after endoscopic harvest of the saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:20103252

Kolli, Aparna; Au, Joyce T; Lee, Daniel C; Klinoff, Natalie; Ko, Wilson

2010-01-01

265

Bilateral anterior compartment syndrome after routine coronary artery bypass surgery and severe hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome is a very rare complication of coronary artery bypass grafting and previously it has only been described unilaterally. We describe the development of compartment syndrome in bilateral anterior compartments of the lower leg after vein harvest for coronary artery bypass grafting. We describe a series of predisposing factors contributing to this condition and its delayed diagnosis, including severe undiagnosed hypothyroidism. We advise a high index of suspicion in patients postvein harvest and recommend thyroid function testing for all patients who have compartment syndrome develop. PMID:20868840

Mills, Jane; Pretorius, Victor; Lording, Tim; Hardikar, Ashutosh; Murton, Mark

2010-10-01

266

Lower extremity compartment syndrome. When to suspect acute or chronic pressure buildup.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. A high index of suspicion is needed in cases of severe contusion, especially if patient complaints seem to outweigh physical findings. Acute surgical fasciotomy is an effective treatment and should be carried out expeditiously if compartment pressures are elevated over 70 mm Hg in order to avoid complications such as chronic disability due to contractures or rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome most often occurs in the anterior or the lateral compartment. Patients have only exercise-related symptoms and recover quickly after resting from the inciting activity. Diagnosis is difficult, but the anterior compartment pressure may be checked fairly readily with a handheld pressure catheter. Deep posterior compartment problems are harder to check because of the difficulty in reaching this area. Thallium stress testing appears promising for diagnosing both anterior and posterior problems and may augment, or even replace, the catheter measurement in the deep posterior and perhaps even the anterior compartment. Thallium stress testing is noninvasive and may be a more physiologic measurement. Fasciotomy may be indicated if conservative treatment lacks efficacy. For unknown reasons, the deep posterior compartment does not respond as quickly, or as well, to fasciotomy as the anterior compartment. PMID:10086040

Swain, R; Ross, D

1999-03-01

267

A review of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the lower leg.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) in the lower leg has been described as early as 1956. This review describes the five relevant anatomical compartments and the important clinical features on presentation used in diagnosis. Compartment pressure testing using various types of catheter is useful as a confirmatory investigation. Although the pathophysiology of this condition is poorly understood, current hypotheses are discussed. Surgical treatment is usually definitive and techniques for decompression of the five compartments are presented with comparison to available conservative treatments. PMID:10730989

Blackman, P G

2000-03-01

268

Adaptive Template Block-Based Block Matching for Object Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an adaptive template block for object tracking in typical block matching algorithms. The bounding box of moving object would have different scales while the object moves from near to far or from far to near. Therefore, the typical block matching algorithms using the fixed template block would obtain inaccurate object tracking and object recognition. The proposed adaptive

Wu-chih Hu

2008-01-01

269

Blocks and Screws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, each student is given a block of wood and a screw (or nail), and is asked to put the screw into the block, without any tool (like a screwdriver or hammer). Their efforts, with varying success, lead to a discussion of contrivances, using various items and strategies as make-do (contrived) tools for which they were not intended, and an exploration of many examples of contrivances or adaptive compromises and other imperfections in the living world, especially in humans. This situation may be better explained by evolution rather than the result of intelligent design.

Patterson, Tim

270

1.OA Measuring Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Unifix cubes * Large blocks in different sizes or varying lengths of sentence strips Note: The large blocks or the cut-up lengths of senten...

271

block copolymer - lamellae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A system of 800 building blocks of composition A5B5 at a concentration of 0.85, was run starting at a temperature of infinity then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of chiN = =52.7. The system was then run for ~10^6 time steps forming a sheet (lamella) phase.

Horsch, Mark

2004-11-22

272

Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

273

Block That Pain!  

MedlinePLUS

... of capsaicin—the substance that makes chili peppers hot—and a drug called QX-314. This combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical ...

274

Blocking in Category Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. The authors tested this hypothesis by conducting three category-learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range

Lewis Bott; Aaron B. Hoffman; Gregory L. Murphy

2007-01-01

275

Hierarchical Hybrid Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagram languages are now commonly used to design and even implement embedded systems. In the design phase, they are used to model both plant and controller, typically with continuous and discrete modeling respectively. The semantics of these lan- guages are often vague and\\/or complex, which is fine for some users but leaves others puzzled by the behav- iors they

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

276

Unitizing with Pattern Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students develop fraction sense by arranging pattern blocks to explore unitizing. Then they can see their correct answer tessellate. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

277

Blocked isocyanates III  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the completion of the third installment in the series of reviews of the literature on blocked isocyanates, Parts A and B of this review bring together the most important developments documented in over 1700 patents and publications that have been printed between 1980 and mid-2000. For references before 1980, see earlier reviews in this series [Prog. Org. Coat. 3

Douglas A Wicks; Zeno W Wicks

2001-01-01

278

2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

279

Blocked tear duct  

MedlinePLUS

A blocked tear duct is a partial or complete blockage in the pathway that carries tears from the surface of the eye into the ... Tears are constantly being made to help protect the surface of your eye. They drain into a ...

280

Computation of decompression tables using continuous compartment half-lives.  

PubMed

There is no consensus on the number of compartments and the half-lives (T1/2) used in the calculation of inert gas exchange and decompression sickness (DCS) boundary in existing dive tables and decompression computers. We propose the use of a continuous variable for the tissue half-lives, allowing the simulation of an infinite number of compartments and reducing the discrepancy between different algorithms to a single DCS boundary expression. Our computational method is based on the premise that M-values can be expressed in terms of T1/2 and ambient pressure (D). We combined the surfaces defined by M(D,T1/2) and tissue tension H(t,T1/2) to plan decompression. The efficiency and applicability of the method is investigated with four different DCS boundaries. The first two utilize the M-value relations proposed by Bühlmann and Wienke to derive no-D limits for sea level. The third boundary is defined by a surface fitted to the empirical M-values of US Navy, Bühlmann tables, US Air Force, and our altitude diving data. This expression was used to design the decompression procedure for a multilevel dive at 11,429-ft altitude and was used in six man dives in the Kaçkar Mountains, Turkey. Although precordial bubbles were observed in two dives, there were no cases of DCS. The fourth DCS boundary is constructed with the addition of a constraint that forces calculated M-values to stay below the available M-values. This constraint aims the highest degree of "conservatism". As an application of the new boundary, the method is used to derive decompression stop diving schedules for 11,429-ft altitude. The concept of continuous tissue half-lives is applicable to different types of gas exchange and DCS boundary functions or to a combination of different models with a desired level of conservatism. It has proved to be a useful tool in planning decompression for undocumented modes of diving such as decompression stop diving or multilevel diving at altitude. The algorithm can easily be incorporated into dive computers. PMID:11191160

Egi, S M; Gürmen, N M

2000-01-01

281

Differential Metabolic Activity in the Striosome and Matrix Compartments of the Rat Striatum during Natural Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

clusters by injections of anterograde tracer into electrophysi- ologically identified sites in SI. Peak metabolic activity was primarily confined to the matrix compartment under each be- havioral condition. These findings show that during relatively neutral behavioral conditions the balance of activity between the two compartments favors the matrix and suggest that this balance is present in the striatum as part

Lucy L. Brown; Samuel M. Feldman; Diane M. Smith; James R. Cavanaugh; Robert F. Ackermann; Ann M. Graybiel

2002-01-01

282

A pseudofield model approach to simulate compartment-fire phenomena for marine fire safety design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prevent the spread of marine compartment fires, it is necessary to understand the governing factors or characteristics of fire-spread phenomena. We present a pseudofield model approach to this problem. We first described a field model of turbulent heat convection based on a standard k - ? turbulence model. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of a two-linked compartment fire were

Nobuyoshi Fukuchi; Changhong Hu

2004-01-01

283

A portable impedance meter for monitoring liquid compartments of the human body under space flight conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of liquid compartments of the human body under zerogravity conditions is of theoretical and practi? cal interest for assessing dosed and individual correction of hydration state of the human body of astronauts after space flight (2, 6). Dynamics of liquid compartments of the human body have not yet been studied during longterm space flights because of the absence of

V. B. Noskov; D. V. Nikolaev; S. A. Tuikin; V. I. Kozharinov; V. A. Grachev

2007-01-01

284

What is the effect of compartment syndrome and fasciotomies on fracture healing in tibial fractures?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in tibial diaphyseal fractures has been associated with such complications as infection, delayed fracture healing or non-union, sensory and motor deficits, deformities, and poor functional outcome. Essential condition of an uncomplicated recovery is early diagnosis with prompt decompression. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to evaluate the impact of compartment syndrome and leg fasciotomies

Maria Mercedes Reverte; Rozalia Dimitriou; Nikolaos K. Kanakaris; Peter V. Giannoudis

2011-01-01

285

Electrowinning Aluminum from Aluminum Chloride: Operation of a Two-Compartment Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrochemical reduction of aluminum chloride to aluminum was investigated in a closed, two-compartment cell utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte. The externally heated cell was divided into a reduction compartment and a combination AlCl3 feed and...

E. I. Singleton D. E. Kirby T. A. Sullivan

1968-01-01

286

Isolated Anterior Compartment Syndrome After a Bimalleolar-Equivalent Ankle Fracture in a Collegiate Football Player  

PubMed Central

Compartment syndrome after an ankle fracture is an extremely rare and potentially devastating event. The authors report a case of an isolated anterior compartment syndrome in a college student athlete who suffered a bimalle olar ankle fracture dislocation. A review of the literature highlights the importance of vigilance when the sports medicine physician and the community orthopaedist are treating these seemingly basic orthopaedic injuries.

Starr, Adam M.; Swan, Kenneth G.; Swan, Kenneth G.

2011-01-01

287

Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg: Retrospective Study on Prevalence, Technique, and Outcome of Fasciotomies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute compartment syndrome is caused by bleeding or edema in a closed muscle compartment surrounded by fascia and bone. It is characterized by increased intracompartmental pressure and decreased tissue perfusion. Well-known causative incidents are acute trauma and reperfusion after treatment for acute arterial obstruction. Most commonly the lower leg is involved. Inadequate therapy of the syndrome usually leads to

Jeroen Heemskerk; Peter Kitslaar

2003-01-01

288

Simulation Method for the Fire Suppression Process Inside the Engine Core and APU Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire dangers exist inside engine core and auxiliary power unit compartments of commercial airplanes where jet fuel or lubricant oil leaks can catch fire on hot engine surfaces. Fire suppressants need to be quickly dumped into the compartments to prevent any eruption of fire. To quickly deliver fire suppressant from a storage bottle through a distribution pipe and injection nozzles

Jaesoo Lee

289

A machine vision approach to detect and categorize fires in aircraft dry bays and engine compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a machine vision approach is applied to detect and categorize hydrocarbon fires in aircraft dry bays and engine compartments. Images for computer analysis are provided by charge-coupled device imaging sensors placed inside dry bays and engine compartments. Using a set of heuristics based on statistical measures derived from the histogram and image subtraction analyses of successive image

Simon Y. Foo

1995-01-01

290

The effects on Schild regressions of antagonist removal from the receptor compartment by a saturable process  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A theoretical model of the effects of a saturable removal mechanism for an antagonist diffusing into the receptor compartment of a tissue is used to calculate expected deviations in Schild regressions.2.At concentrations of antagonist which do not saturate the removal mechanism, there can be a deficit of antagonist in the receptor compartment as compared to the concentration of antagonist bathing

Terry P. Kenakin; Deborah Beek

1987-01-01

291

B cell receptors and complement receptors target the antigen to distinct intracellular compartments.  

PubMed

The processing of exogenous Ags is an essential step for the generation of immunogenic peptides that will be presented to T cells. This processing relies on the efficient intracellular targeting of Ags, because it depends on the content of the compartments in which Ags are delivered in APCs. Opsonization of Ags by the complement component C3 strongly enhances their presentation by B cells and increases their immunogenicity in vivo. To investigate the role of C3 in the targeting of Ags, we compared the intracellular traffic of proteins internalized by complement receptor (CR) and B cell receptor (BCR) in B lymphocytes. Whereas both receptors are able to induce efficient Ag presentation, their intracellular pathways are different. CR ligand is delivered to compartments containing MHC class II molecules (MHC-II) but devoid of transferrin receptor and Lamp-2, whereas BCR rapidly targets its ligand toward Lamp-2-positive, late endosomal MHC-II-enriched compartments through intracellular vesicles containing transferrin receptor. CR and BCR are delivered to distinct endocytic pathways, and the kinetic evolution of the protein content of these pathways is very different. Both types of compartments contain MHC-II, but CR-targeted compartments receive less neosynthesized MHC-II than do BCR-targeted compartments. The targeting induced by CR toward compartments that are distinct from BCR-targeted compartments probably participates in C3 modulation of Ag presentation. PMID:15004157

Perrin-Cocon, Laure A; Villiers, Christian L; Salamero, Jean; Gabert, Françoise; Marche, Patrice N

2004-03-15

292

A Vibro-Acoustic Coupling Analysis of Bus Passenger Compartment Based on the Finite Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the finite element method (FEM), this paper presented a technique for analyzing the vibro-acoustic coupling characteristics of bus passenger compartments. In view of sound quality of vehicle interior noises in the low frequency range, the acoustical, structural and coupled acoustic-structural FEM models of the passenger compartment of a sample bus are respectively established for modal, harmonic response analysis.

Wang Yansong; Liu Xintian; Li Yan

2010-01-01

293

A two-zone fire growth and smoke movement model for multi-compartment buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire growth and smoke movement model for a multi-compartment building has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada. This development is primarily intended to help evaluate the risk from fires in buildings. This paper presents the related physical models, numerical methods, and some verification examples. The 2-zone ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are derived for the compartments with

Zhuman Fu; George Hadjisophocleous

2000-01-01

294

Pre, during, and post exercise anterior tibial compartment pressures in long distance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess pre, during, and postexercise compartment pressures in the anterior tibial compartment in asymptomatic long distance runners (5000 m) and recreational athletes. Forty-eight participants (n = 48, 24 females and 24 males) underwent the experimental procedures. The participants were assigned into 4 groups of 12 volunteers. Intracompartmen- tal pressures measurements were recorded 1

Panagiotis Baltopoulos; Eugenia Papadakou; Maria Tsironi; Panagiotis Karagounis

295

ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME AMONG CRITICALLY ILL SURGICAL AND TRAUMATISED PATIENTS: EXPERIENCE AT PIMS, ISLAMABAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) accompanied by evidence of organ dysfunction constitutes abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The ACS is now becoming an increasingly recognised fatal entity in the critically ill surgical and traumatized patients receiving critical care. The objectives were to determine the frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in critically ill surgical and traumatised patients and to identify the

Muhammad Saaiq; Syed Aslam Shah; Tanwir Khaliq

2009-01-01

296

Recurrent compartment syndrome in the posterior thighReport of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent compartment syndromes of the lower ex tremity, which usually occur in conjunction with in tense use of muscle groups, can be briefly defined as an uncomfortable circulatory disturbance associated with a pathologic increase in total intramuscular pres sure. This syndrome has been reported in each of the four compartments of the leg but not in the thigh. Characteristic features

Paul M. Raether; Lowell D. Lutter

1982-01-01

297

Quantitative muscle hardness as a noninvasive means for detecting patients at risk of compartment syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to study the efficacy of quantitative muscle hardness (QH) curve analysis for noninvasive measurement of muscle compartment interstitial pressure (IMP), and to eliminate the need for a comparison normal QH measurement to determine a pathologic reading. Elevation of IMP may lead to limb compartment syndrome, which may result in irreversible dysfunction, chronic pain and

Bruce Steinberg; Ryan Riel; Marshal Armitage; Hudson Berrey

2011-01-01

298

Pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in shallow and deep compartments.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the influence of the type of capillary bed, type of compartment, and the presence of active transport systems, on the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in tissues and fluids of the body. In the absence of active transport or local degradation, the mean concentration or 'area under the curve' of free (unbound) drug in ordinary extravascular sites over the dosing interval at equilibrium is equal to that in the serum. Because the latter is easily measured, there should be no need to measure tissue concentrations except in unusual circumstances. Among the factors that will alter the relationship described above are active transport, pH partition, and bulk flow. Antibiotics such as the macrolides, lincosamines and quinolones may accumulate in high concentrations in cells containing lysosomes. There is some evidence that the intracellular sites may serve as a reservoir from which these drugs may later be released into tissue fluids, a phenomenon not taken into account in the relationships described above. Although knowledge of the in-vitro activity and local concentrations of antibiotics is of use in predicting therapeutic activity, many factors which are difficult to quantify in a given instance make precise correlations impossible. The inability of antibiotics alone to sterilize abscesses is probably not due to a problem in antibiotic penetration but to insusceptibility of the organisms and inefficacy of the phagocytes in an abscess. Similar processes operate to reduce the efficacy of antibiotics when treatment is delayed. PMID:8335519

Barza, M

1993-05-01

299

Heterogeneity of Ca2+ handling among and within Golgi compartments.  

PubMed

The Golgi apparatus (GA) is a dynamic intracellular Ca(2+) store endowed with complex Ca(2+) homeostatic mechanisms in part distinct from those of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We describe the generation of a novel fluorescent Ca(2+) probe selectively targeted to the medial-Golgi. We demonstrate that in the medial-Golgi: (i) Ca(2+) accumulation takes advantage of two distinct pumps, the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase and the secretory pathway Ca(2+) ATPase1; (ii) activation of IP3 or ryanodine receptors causes Ca(2+) release, while no functional two-pore channel was found; (iii) luminal Ca(2+) concentration appears higher than that of the trans-Golgi, but lower than that of the ER, suggesting the existence of a cis- to trans-Golgi Ca(2+) concentration gradient. Thus, the GA represents a Ca(2+) store of high complexity where, despite the continuous flow of membranes and luminal contents, each sub-compartment maintains its Ca(2+) identity with specific Ca(2+) homeostatic characteristics. The functional role of such micro-heterogeneity in GA Ca(2+) handling is discussed. PMID:23918284

Wong, Andrea K C; Capitanio, Paola; Lissandron, Valentina; Bortolozzi, Mario; Pozzan, Tullio; Pizzo, Paola

2013-08-01

300

Chlamydial Effector Proteins Localized to the Host Cell Cytoplasmic Compartment?  

PubMed Central

Disease-causing microbes utilize various strategies to modify their environment in order to create a favorable location for growth and survival. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens often use specialized secretion systems to translocate effector proteins directly into the cytosol of the eukaryotic cells they infect. These bacterial proteins are responsible for modulating eukaryotic cell functions. Identification of the bacterial effectors has been a critical step toward understanding the molecular basis for the pathogenesis of the bacteria that use them. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that have a type III secretion system believed to translocate virulence effector proteins into the cytosol of their host cells. Selective permeabilization of the eukaryotic cell membrane was used in conjunction with metabolic labeling of bacterial proteins to identify chlamydial proteins that localize within the cytosol of infected cells. More than 20 Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae proteins were detected within the cytoplasmic compartment of infected cells. While a number of cytosolic proteins were shared, others were unique to each species, suggesting that variation among cytosolic chlamydial proteins contributes to the differences in the pathogenesis of the chlamydial species. The spectrum of chlamydial proteins exported differed concomitant with the progress of the developmental cycle. These data confirm that a dynamic relationship exists between Chlamydia and its host and that translocation of bacterial proteins into the cytosol is developmentally dependent.

Kleba, Betsy; Stephens, Richard S.

2008-01-01

301

Compartment Venting Analyses of Ares I First Stage Systems Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compartment venting analyses have been performed for the Ares I first stage systems tunnel using both the lumped parameter method and the three-dimensional (31)) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The main objective of venting analyses is to predict the magnitudes of differential pressures across the skin so the integrity of solid walls can be evaluated and properly designed. The lumped parameter method assumes the gas pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel are spatially uniform, which is questionable since the tunnel is about 1,700 in. long and 4 in. wide. Therefore, 31) transient CFD simulations using the commercial CFD code FLUENT are performed in order to examine the gas pressure and temperature variations inside the tunnel. It was found that the uniform pressure and temperature assumptions inside the systems tunnel are valid during ascent. During reentry, the uniform pressure assumption is also reasonable but the uniform temperature assumption is not valid. Predicted pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel using CFD are also compared with those from the lumped parameter method using the NASA code CHCHVENT. In general, the average pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel from CFD are between the burst and crush results from CHCHVENT during both ascent and reentry. The skin differential pressure and pressure inside the systems tunnel relative to freestream pressure from CHCHVENT as well as velocity vectors and streamlines are also discussed in detail.

Wang, Qunzhen; Arner, Stephen

2009-01-01

302

Compartment syndrome following thrombolysis: clinical features and associated conditions.  

PubMed

Major complications of thrombolysis are intracranial and extracranial bleedings. Compartment syndrome (CS) as a serious adverse event is sparsely reported. The purpose of the study is to present a systematic review of the literature on this complication based on a case vignette. A PubMed and Google Scholar search on CS following thrombolysis was performed. Twenty-four patients (11 male, 11 female, 2 not noted; median age 66 years, range 19-85 years) with thrombolysis associated CS were identified. Fifteen patients had thrombolysis with rtPA, 4 patients with streptokinase, 3 patients with urokinase, and 2 patients with tenecteplase. In 15 cases, CS affected the upper limb, and in 9 cases the lower limb. Indication for thrombolysis was myocardial infarction in 11 patients, arterial occlusion of the leg in 6 patients, pulmonary embolism in 4 patients, stroke in 2 patients, and deep venous thrombosis in 1 patient. In addition, in 15 cases, aspirin/ticlopidin, and/or heparin in therapeutic dosages had been prescribed. In 15 cases manipulations of the affected limb had been preceding. In both stroke patients, a hidden fracture was later diagnosed. The median time to the diagnosis of CS was 12 h (2 h-3 days). Therapy was mostly surgical with fasciotomy. The outcome of CS was favorable in 14 cases. However, in 5 cases, nerve damage persisted, and amputation was indicated in 2 patients. CS following thrombolysis is a rare condition. As predisposing factors different manipulations, hidden fracture and pronounced antithrombotic therapy are encountered. PMID:24272271

Freyer, Martin; Vachalova, Ivana; Zirngibl, Benedikt; Heckmann, Josef G

2014-08-01

303

Electrical Dissipative Structures in Membrane-Coupled Compartment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction-diffusion systems with charged particles are studied. Conditions for the arising of electrical dissipative structures in a compartment system consisting of two boxes separated by a membrane are derived. The appearance of a polar dissipative structure is proved for a simple capacitor model in combination with a simple second order chemical kinetics which leads to an analytically solvable problem. Electrical dissipative structures can in principle be considered as non equilibrium electrical batteries. The theoretical efficiency of such batteries is estimated.Translated AbstractElektrische Dissipative Strukturen in Membrangekoppelten SystemenEs werden Reaktions-Diffusionssysteme mit geladenen Teilchen studiert. Bedingungen für die Entstehung elektrischer dissipativer Strukturen in einem Kompartment-System, bestehend aus zwei durch eine Membran getrennten Zellen werden abgeleitet. Die Entstehung einer polaren dissipativen Struktur wird für ein einfaches Kondensatorenmodell in Kombination mit einer einfachen chemischen Kinetik, das analytische Lösbarkeit gestattet, nachgewiesen. Elektrische dissipative Strukturen können im Prinzip als elektrische Batterien fern von Gleichgewicht betrachtet werden. Der theoretische Wirkungsgrad einer solchen Batterie wird berechnet.

Feudel, U.; Feistel, R.; Ebeling, W.

304

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs.

Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

1991-01-01

305

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs.

Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

1991-12-31

306

Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

1998-01-01

307

Cell-free fusion of bacteria-containing phagosomes with endocytic compartments  

PubMed Central

Uptake of microorganisms by professional phagocytic cells leads to formation of a new subcellular compartment, the phagosome, which matures by sequential fusion with early and late endocytic compartments, resulting in oxidative and nonoxidative killing of the enclosed microbe. Few tools are available to study membrane fusion between phagocytic and late endocytic compartments in general and with pathogen-containing phagosomes in particular. We have developed and applied a fluorescence microscopy assay to study fusion of microbe-containing phagosomes with different-aged endocytic compartments in vitro. This revealed that fusion of phagosomes containing nonpathogenic Escherichia coli with lysosomes requires Rab7 and SNARE proteins but not organelle acidification. In vitro fusion experiments with phagosomes containing pathogenic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium indicated that reduced fusion of these phagosomes with early and late endocytic compartments was independent of endosome and cytosol sources and, hence, a consequence of altered phagosome quality.

Becken, Ulrike; Jeschke, Andreas; Veltman, Katharina; Haas, Albert

2010-01-01

308

Liquid blocking check valve  

DOEpatents

A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

Merrill, John T. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1984-01-01

309

Intraocular radiation blocking.  

PubMed

Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application. PMID:2211021

Finger, P T; Ho, T K; Fastenberg, D M; Hyman, R A; Stroh, E M; Packer, S; Perry, H D

1990-09-01

310

Herbert L. Block Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herb Block (also known as "Herblock") was one of the most influential political commentators and editorial cartoonists in American history. His work began to appear in 1929, and he continued creating social commentary for 72 years. The Library of Congress website digitized some of the 14,000 images that the Herb Block Foundation donated in 2002. Visitors interested in seeing the wide range of topics Block covered in his cartoons can click on the "Search This Collection" link that appears below the introductory paragraphs on the homepage. Once visitors have arrived to the search area they can click on "Subject and Format Headings" underneath the heading "Other Ways to Search" to see the A to Z subject index. Some of the topics include "Escalators--1960-1970","Government Officials--1970-1980","Mao, Zedong--1893-1976", "Overcrowding--1940-1950", and "Discrimination--1950-1960". Back on the homepage, visitors shouldn't miss the link to the "Image Sampler" which contains the "Herblock Collection Image Sampler" featuring 24 images.

311

Blocking and Anti-Blocking Pairs of Polyhedra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the main notions and theorems about blocking pairs of polyhedra and anti-blocking pairs of polyhedra are described. The two geometric duality theories conform in many respects, but there are certain important differences. Applications to various c...

D. R. Fulkerson

1970-01-01

312

Anatomy of the posterior approach to the lumbar plexus block  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the relation of the lumbar plexus with the psoas major and with the superficial\\u000a and deep landmarks close to it. Four cadavers were dissected and 22 computed tomography files of the lumbosacral region studied.\\u000a Cadaver dissections demonstrated that the lumbar plexus, at the level of L5, is within the substance of the

Juliana Farny; Pierre Drolet; Michel Girard

1994-01-01

313

Rallian "equivalent" cylinders reconsidered: comparisons with literal compartments.  

PubMed

In Rall's "equivalent" cylinder morphological-to-electrical transformation, neuronal arborizations are reduced to single unbranched core-conductors. The conventional assumption that such an "equivalent" reconstructs the electrical properties of the fibers it represents was tested directly; electrical properties and responses of "equivalent" cylinders were compared with those of their literal branch constituents for fibers with a single symmetrical bifurcation. The numerical solution methods were validated independently by their accurate reconstruction of the responses of an analog circuit configured with compartmental architecture to solve the cable equation for passive fibers with a symmetrical bifurcation. In passive fibers, "equivalent" cylinders misestimated the spatial distribution of voltage amplitudes and steady-state input resistance, partly due to the lack of axial current bifurcation. In active fibers with a single propagating action potential, the spatial distributions of point-to-point conduction velocity values (measured in meters/second) for a literal branch point differed significantly from those of their "equivalent" cylinders. "Equivalent" cylinders also underestimated the diameter-dependent delay in propagation through the branch point and branches, due to the larger "equivalent" diameter. Corrections to the "equivalent" cylinder did not reconcile differences between "equivalent" and literal models. However, "equivalent" and literal branch fibers had the same (a) steady-state resistance "looking into" an isolated symmetrical branch point and (b) geometry-independent point-to-point propagation velocity when measured in space constants per millisecond except within +/-1 space constant from the geometrical inhomogeneity. In summary, Rall's "equivalent" cylinders did not accurately reconstruct all passive or active electrophysiological properties and responses of their literal compartments. For the modeling of individual neurons, the requirement of single-branch resolution is discussed. PMID:15988799

Goldfinger, M D

2005-06-01

314

Reformulated tenofovir gel for use as a dual compartment microbicide  

PubMed Central

Objectives Coital use of 1% tenofovir gel was shown to be modestly effective at preventing HIV transmission when applied vaginally in the CAPRISA 004 trial. Because the gel is hyperosmolar, which would reduce the integrity of the epithelium and induce fluid movement into the lumen, rectal use may not be acceptable. This study evaluated the pre-clinical safety and efficacy of a reformulated (reduced osmolality) tenofovir gel product. Methods Reduced glycerine (RG)-tenofovir gel was compared with the original tenofovir gel for physiochemical characteristics, product safety and anti-HIV-1 activity. Results The formulations were similar in all characteristics except for osmolality and spreadability/firmness. The RG-tenofovir gel had a 73% lower osmolality, a 29.6% increase in spreadability and a 27% decrease in firmness as compared with the original tenofovir gel. When applied to epithelial cell monolayers, tenofovir gel showed a transient reduction in the transepithelial resistance while the RG-tenofovir gel did not. Both gels retained ectocervical and colorectal explant viability. However, tenofovir gel treatment resulted in epithelial stripping that was absent after RG-tenofovir gel treatment of the polarized explants. Anti-HIV-1 activity was confirmed by lack of HIV-1 infection in polarized explants treated with either gel as compared with the control explants. Conclusions Reducing the osmolality of the tenofovir gel resulted in improved epithelial integrity, which suggests better safety upon rectal use. The improved gel safety did not compromise drug release or anti-HIV-1 activity. These data support the use of this gel as a dual compartment microbicide.

Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Rohan, Lisa C.; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Shetler, Cory; Cost, Marilyn; Lynam, J. D.; Friend, David

2012-01-01

315

Experimental study of prognosis of chronic compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

There is little in the literature concerning the pathobiology and repair processes of impaired skeletal muscle after decompressive operation for chronic compartment syndrome (CCS), which would be valuable for prognosis. Repeated tourniquet compression through cuff inflation on rabbits' claves was performed daily for 2 hr, then stopped for 30 min, and applied for another 2 hr. The contralateral hindlimb, which was not compressed, served as a control. Rabbits were allocated to four groups: groups I and II were pressured with 80 and 120 mmHg for 3 days, and groups III and IV were pressured with 80 and 120 mmHg for 14 days. Skeletal muscle specimens from each group were obtained for histological and ultrastructural observation at day 1, 7, 14, and 28 post-compression. In groups I and II, a few necrotic fibers were observed and basal lamina was intact at 1 day after compression. Seven days after compression, there was an observable increase in the proliferation of satellite cells and development of myotube structures. Fourteen days after compression, regeneration of muscles was complete, and there was no significant difference compared with the control group. In groups III and IV, 1 day post-compression examination revealed a large area of necrotic fibers, fibrotic interstitium, and disintegratin basal lamina. Seven days later, proliferation of satellite cells was observed around the surviving basal lamina, and 28 days after compression we could see a large area of fibrosis. The degree of recovery of impaired muscle in rabbit's CCS-induced tissues is related to pressure and duration of compression. Complete recovery of the impaired muscle is determined by survival of basal lamina. PMID:20367119

Xu, YiMing; Bai, YueHong; Li, QingTian; Shen, XiaoYan; Jiang, Lan

2010-12-01

316

Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

317

How Is Heart Block Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... second-degree heart block, you may need a pacemaker . A pacemaker is a small device that's placed under the ... third-degree heart block, you will need a pacemaker. In an emergency, a temporary pacemaker might be ...

318

Purification of intracellular compartments involved in antigen processing: a new method based on magnetic sorting.  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we describe a method to specifically isolate intracellular compartments containing endocytosed antigen. We have demonstrated that isolated compartments represent a small proportion of the intracellular material, highly enriched in antigen. Antigen-containing vesicles are specifically sorted from other intracellular compartments, such as endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus, and from the plasma membrane. They remain functional in vitro since they can be acidified, and the antigen inside has been found to be partially proteolysed. In macrophages, kinetic analysis has revealed that the antigen is first found in compartments of endosomal density, carrying Rab 5 and Rab 7, then in late compartments of lysosomal density, which are rich in proteases. The global protein content of the compartments was mapped by two-dimensional electrophoresis. In B lymphocytes, this method has allowed the isolation of endocytic compartments emerging from receptor-mediated endocytosis of the antigen. After 2 h of chase, the antigen reached vesicles containing large amounts of MHC-class II molecules, invariant chain and human leucocyte antigen-DM, where peptide loading can occur.

Perrin-Cocon, L A; Marche, P N; Villiers, C L

1999-01-01

319

Mega compartment complex in the Anadarko basin: A completely sealed overpressured phenomenon  

SciTech Connect

Integrated pressure, potentiometric, and geologic data demonstrate the existence of a basin-wide, completely sealed overpressured compartment in the Anadarko basin. All reservoirs within this complex exhibit pressure gradients ranging form 0.6 to 0.98 psi/feet, which exceeds the normal gradient of 0.465 psi/feet. These reservoirs have produced large quantities of natural gas, particularly from the Pennsylvanian Red Fork and Morrowan sandstones. This mega compartment complex is enclosed by top, bottom, and lateral seals. The top seal, which is located between 8,500 and 11,000 feet below the surface, is relatively horizontal, dips slightly to the southwest, and appears to cut across stratigraphy. However, the basal seal is stratigraphically controlled and seems to coincide with the Devonian Woodford Shale. The complex is laterally sealed to the south by the Wichita Mountain uplift frontal fault zone and by the convergence of the top and basal seals along the eastern, northern, and western boundaries. Nested within this complex is a myriad of smaller compartments with their own distinct pressure gradients. In addition, local overpressured compartments are present outside the mega compartment complex in normal and near-normal pressured regions. Significant gas fields producing from the Morrow and Red Fork horizons are considered nested compartments within the mega compartment complex. The Southwest Leedey field contains a stratigraphically and/or lithologically sealed Red Fork sandstone compartment. The Upper Morrowan chert conglomerate reservoirs in the Cheyenne field area comprise a compartment with a distinct lateral seal associated with the frontal fault zone of the Wichita Mountain uplift.

Al-Shaieb, Z.; Puckette, J.; Ely, P.; Abdalla, A. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States))

1991-03-01

320

Painless, atraumatic, isolated lateral compartment syndrome of the leg: an unusual triad of atypical findings.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome can be a devastating complication with significant morbidity when not recognized or treated expediently. Among the classic pentad of signs and symptoms associated with compartment syndrome, pain that is out of proportion to the injury is often cited as the earliest and most sensitive. We present a case report of an atypical presentation of compartment syndrome of the leg in which a patient taking lithium for bipolar disorder did not report pain out of proportion to the injury mechanism. Lithium has been implicated in altering pain perception and increasing the tolerance and threshold for pain, but this has not been widely reported in the orthopedic literature. In addition to compartment syndrome that was painless, the patient presented with 2 additional atypical findings. She presented with compartment syndrome that was atraumatic and isolated to only 1 out of the 4 compartments of the leg. A compartment syndrome that is painless, atraumatic, and isolated to a single compartment represents an unusual triad of atypical findings that has not been previously reported. With unusual presentations of compartment syndrome, there is an increased risk of late or unrecognized diagnosis, consequently increasing the likelihood of significant nerve damage or muscle necrosis. Clinicians have historically applied a higher level of scrutiny to patients who were deemed "obtunded," that is, those in whom an assessment of pain cannot be reliably determined. In the past, obtunded patients have included intubated or comatose patients, infants and children, mentally disabled patients, and patients with altered mental status, nerve injury, or distracting injuries. Based on evidence from the psychiatry and anesthesia literatures, we propose that patients taking lithium should be added to this list of "obtunded" patients in whom a reliable assessment of pain may not be possible. PMID:20305839

Oh, Luke S; Lewis, Paul B; Prasarn, Mark L; Lorich, Dean G; Helfet, David L

2010-01-01

321

Atomic Basic Blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

322

Products of Block Toeplitz operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we characterize when the product of two block Toeplitz operators is a compact perturbation of a block Toeplitz operator on the Hardy space of the open unit disk. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the commutator of two block Toeplitz operators to be compact.

Caixing Gu; Dechao Zheng

1996-01-01

323

Property Blocks: Games and Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

324

Spectra of large block matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a frequency selective slow-fading channel in a MIMO system, the channel matrix is of the form of a block matrix. This paper pro- poses a method to calculate the limit of the eigenvalue distribution of block matrices if the size of the blocks tends to infinity. While it considers random matrices, it takes an operator-valued free probabil- ity approach

Reza Rashidi Far; Tamer Oraby; Wlodzimierz Bryc; Roland Speicher

2006-01-01

325

Accuracy of Palpation-Guided and Ultrasound-Guided Needle Tip Placement Into the Deep and Superficial Posterior Leg Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Invasive leg compartment testing may be performed to diagnose chronic exertional compartment syndrome. No prior study has assessed the accuracy of leg compartment needle tip access.Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe and determine the accuracy of palpation-guided and ultrasound-guided techniques for needle tip placement into the deep and superficial posterior leg compartments by a less experienced clinician and

Evan Peck; Jonathan T. Finnoff; Jay Smith; Heather Curtiss; Jeffery Muir; John H. Hollman

2011-01-01

326

Antagonism of Sigma-1 Receptors Blocks Compulsive-Like Eating  

PubMed Central

Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain a sugary, highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1?h a day under fixed ratio 1 operant conditioning. Following intake stabilization, we evaluated the effects of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on food responding. Using a light/dark conflict test, we also tested whether BD-1063 could block the time spent and the food eaten in an aversive, open compartment, where the palatable diet was offered. Furthermore, we measured Sig-1R mRNA and protein expression in several brain areas of the two groups, 24?h after the last binge session. Palatable rats rapidly developed binge-like eating, escalating the 1?h intake by four times, and doubling the eating rate and the regularity of food responding, compared to Chow rats. BD-1063 dose-dependently reduced binge-like eating and the regularity of food responding, and blocked the increased eating rate in Palatable rats. In the light/dark conflict test, BD-1063 antagonized the increased time spent in the aversive compartment and the increased intake of the palatable diet, without affecting motor activity. Finally, Palatable rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and a two-fold increase in Sig-1R protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex compared to control Chow rats. These findings suggest that the Sig-1R system may contribute to the neurobiological adaptations driving compulsive-like eating, opening new avenues of investigation towards pharmacologically treating binge eating disorder.

Cottone, Pietro; Wang, Xiaofan; Park, Jin Won; Valenza, Marta; Blasio, Angelo; Kwak, Jina; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Hayashi, Teruo; Sabino, Valentina

2012-01-01

327

Insulated building block  

SciTech Connect

An insulating building block made up of an insulating core and two concrete walls, each cast over one side of the core. The latter comprises a body having opposed parallel flat outer faces, bound by parallel longitudinal edges and parallel side edges, and having a transverse plane normal to the outer faces centrally between the longitudinal edges. Locking protrusions are formed integrally with the body and project from the outer faces. Each protrusion extends from either side of the transverse plane toward the longitudinal edges and terminates short of the longitudinal edges. The protrusions have outer surfaces and lateral edges tapering inwardly between the outer surfaces and the body outer faces. The protrusion side edges further make angles with the transverse plane suitable to facilitate demolding of the core when the core is molded in two half molds having a closure plane co-planar with the transverse plane, aforesaid. Each concrete wall comprises a concrete slab having cavities into which the protrusions are set; this slab having two contiguous edges co-planar with two contiguous edges of the core and two contiguous edges terminating short of the other two contiguous edges of the core, suitable to define therewith L-shaped rabbets for making mortar joints in the use of the building block.

Beliveau, J. L.

1985-12-10

328

Building Blocks for Youth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Building Blocks for Youth is an alliance of children's advocates, researchers, law enforcement professionals and community organizers that seeks to protect minority youth in the justice system and promote rational and effective justice policies." The organization's Website provides reports, data, and news releases concerning the issue of the treatment of minorities in the American criminal justice system. Issued this month, their latest report Off Balance: Youth Race and Crime in the News examines the media treatment of crime victims and perpetrators who are people of color. Building Blocks also offers three previous reports that analyze data concerning the discrepancies between sentencing for black and white juveniles accused of similar crimes, both nationally and specifically in California, and data on the growing practice of charging juveniles as adults. The site also features a number of fact sheets on related issues, a newsroom featuring press releases and links to related articles in the online press, and a monthly newsletter presenting the latest fact sheet. The reports are offered in HTML as well as .pdf formats for easy downloading.

329

Chronic exercise-induced compartment pressure elevation measured with a miniaturized fluid pressure monitorA laboratory and clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased pressure within an osteofascial compartment may produce a compartment syndrome, one of the principal causes of circulatory compromise in acute traumatic and chronic exercise-induced elevated com partment pressure. Acute and chronic diagnostic quan titation of compartment pressures are a valuable ad junct to clinical diagnosis, particularly when used to evaluate the athlete with exercise-induced pain. This study evaluated a

Brian J. Awbrey; Paul S. Sienkiewicz; Henry J. Mankin

1988-01-01

330

Post-Golgi membrane traffic: brefeldin A inhibits export from distal Golgi compartments to the cell surface but not recycling  

PubMed Central

Recent studies using the fungal metabolite brefeldin A (BFA) have provided important insights into the dynamics and the organization of the ER/Golgi membrane system. Here we examined the effect of BFA on the functional integrity of the distal part of the secretory pathway, i.e., transport between trans-Golgi cisternae and the cell surface. To assay export via the constitutive pathway, we followed the movement of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G glycoprotein that had been accumulated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by incubation of infected BHK-21 cells at 20 degrees C. Addition of BFA rapidly and reversibly inhibited cell surface transport of G protein. The block to secretion was not due to redistribution of externalized G protein to internal pools. It was also not due to collapse of TGN to the ER, since VSV G protein blocked in treated cells resided in compartments that were distinct from the ER/Golgi system. Similar effects were found with a bulk-flow marker: BFA blocked constitutive secretion of glycosaminoglycan chains that had been synthesized and sulfated in the trans-Golgi cisternae. To examine export via the regulated secretory pathway, we assayed secretion of [35S]SO4 labeled secretogranin II from PC12 cells, a marker that has been used to study secretory granule budding from the TGN (Tooze, S. A., U. Weiss, and W. B. Huttner. 1990. Nature [Lond.]. 347:207-208). BFA potently inhibited secretion of sulfated secretogranin II induced by K+ depolarization. Inhibition was at the level of granule formation, since BFA had no effect on regulated secretion from preformed granules. Taken together, the results suggest that BFA blocks export via both the constitutive and the regulated pathways. In contrast, endocytosis and recycling of VSV G protein were not blocked by BFA, consistent with previous studies that endocytosis is unaffected (Misumi, Y., Y. Misumi, K. Miki, A Takatsuki, G. Tamura, and Y. Ikehara. 1986. J. Biol. Chem. 261:11398-11403). These and earlier results suggest that the exo/endocytic pathway of mammalian cells consist of two similar but distinct endomembrane systems: an ER/Golgi system and a post-Golgi system. BFA prevents forward transport without affecting return traffic in both systems.

1992-01-01

331

Block copolymer investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or catastrophic damage. Although the polymer does not assume the same exact topography as before lithography or damage, the fingerprint patterns are shown to reform.

Yufa, Nataliya A.

332

77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...supplemental oxygen system for the passenger cabin occupants except for the 10 percent additional masks requirement of Sec. 25.1447(c)(1). (h) The illumination level of the normal overhead crew rest compartment lighting system must automatically...

2012-03-30

333

DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND METHYLMERCURY IN DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEM COMPARTMENTS IN THE EVERGLADES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury (Hg) species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades were analyzed at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation, and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to t...

334

46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...space; (2) Ensure working access to machinery and controls in the compartment; and (3) Include handrails and either gratings or other non-slip surfaces to ensure a safe working environment if hydraulic fluid leaks. Note: Where...

2013-10-01

335

Something Silent This Way Forms: The Functional Organization of the Repressive Nuclear Compartment  

PubMed Central

The repressive compartment of the nucleus is comprised primarily of telomeric and centromeric regions, the silent portion of ribosomal RNA genes, the majority of transposable element repeats, and facultatively repressed genes specific to different cell types. This compartment localizes into three main regions: the peripheral heterochromatin, perinucleolar heterochromatin, and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Both chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription of noncoding RNAs are involved in maintenance of repression in these compartments. Global reorganization of the repressive compartment occurs at each cell division, during early development, and during terminal differentiation. Differential action of chromatin remodeling complexes and boundary element looping activities are involved in mediating these organizational changes. We discuss the evidence that heterochromatin formation and compartmentalization may drive nuclear organization.

Ritland Politz, Joan C.; Scalzo, David; Groudine, Mark

2014-01-01

336

STS-35 Pilot Gardner in sleep station compartment on OV-102's middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner demonstrates the bunk-style sleep compartments onboard Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Gardner uses bunk #2 of the sleep station located against the middeck starboard wall.

1990-01-01

337

Compartment B3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment B-3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 aft to forward from passing room B-25. (030A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

338

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Additional Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-5 Compartments or...

2013-10-01

339

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a)...

2010-10-01

340

User Preferred Fire Extinguishing Agents for Engine and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) Compartments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the 'User Preferred Agent for Engine and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) Compartment Fire Extinguishing System' survey sent to airlines and airframe manufacturers are compiled in this report.

H. K. Mehta J. Benedictus J. Blackburn B. Dunker T. Grabow

1996-01-01

341

View of compartment B126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of compartment B-126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock hooks, ash hoist rails at top left and coal chute left of center. (047) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

342

Vibratory sensory testing in acute compartment syndromes: a clinical and experimental study.  

PubMed

Invasive and noninvasive diagnostic testing was correlated in 11 patients with acute compartmental syndromes of the forearm. The excellent correlation between diminished perception of vibration and increasing compartmental pressure suggested that 256 cycle per second (cps) vibratory stimuli may be useful clinically in determining the appropriate time for surgical intervention in the acute compartmental syndrome. In 12 adult male volunteers, elevated compartment pressures were created in the anterior tibial compartment of the leg. A decrease in perception to 256 cycle per second (cps) vibratory stimulus was the earliest sensory abnormality to occur with elevated tissue compartment pressures. Analysis of variance showed significantly that 256-cps vibration was the most reliable and earliest sensory modality to change at pressures of 35 to 40 mmHg. These clinical and experimental findings support the use of the 256-cps tuning fork as a noninvasive diagnostic test in the evaluation of the patient with suspected acute compartment syndrome. PMID:3575525

Phillips, J H; Mackinnon, S E; Beatty, S E; Dellon, A L; O'Brien, J P

1987-05-01

343

High-voltage electrical injury: a role for mandatory exploration of deep muscle compartments.  

PubMed Central

Patients sustaining high-voltage electrical burns involving the upper extremities were evaluated for deep muscle compartment necrosis by early surgical exploration. Following resuscitation, patients were taken to the operating room where mandatory exploration of volar and extensor forearm and hand compartments was done to evaluate muscle viability. It was observed that deep muscle layers sustained the greatest thermal injury and that extended fasciotomies were required to obviate compartment syndrome and the potential for continued ischemia. Although 10 emergency amputations were required for six patients, those who underwent extensive exploration of their forearms and hands did not require subsequent amputation for nonviable extremities during second-look operations. These observations support the role for early exploration with generous exposure of deep muscle compartments to access and treat the thermal injury that results from high-voltage burns.

d'Amato, T. A.; Kaplan, I. B.; Britt, L. D.

1994-01-01

344

Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.  

PubMed

The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2) ), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2) ). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their functional capability. In addition to improving our understanding of muscle anatomy and function, elucidation of forearm neuromuscular compartments architecture may ultimately provide information useful for selection of muscle subdivisions used in tendon transfer. PMID:24836406

Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

2014-07-01

345

Baroplastic Block copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

Hewlett, Sheldon A.

2005-03-01

346

Radiation Blocking Lenses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

1993-01-01

347

Blocking the Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of weakly interacting massive particles can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star.

Autzen, Martin; Kouvaris, Chris

2014-06-01

348

A memetic algorithm for the multi-compartment vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Multi-Compartment Vehicle Routing Problem (MC-VRP) consists of designing transportation routes to satisfy the demands,of a set of costumers for several products that because of incompatibility constraints must be loaded on independent vehicle compartments. Despite its wide practical applicability the MC-VRP has not received much attention in the literature, and the few existing methods assume perfect knowledge of the

Jorge E. Mendoza; Bruno Castanier; Christelle Guéret; Andrés L. Medaglia; Nubia Velasco

2010-01-01

349

Lower leg compartment syndrome following prolonged orthopedic surgery in the lithotomy position -A case report-  

PubMed Central

Surgical procedures necessitating the prolonged use of the lithotomy position can be associated with neuromuscular dysfunction. Compartment syndrome of the lower leg is a grave complication which, if unrecognized, can lead to either permanent neuromuscular dysfunction or limb loss. We report a case of compartment syndrome of lower leg that occurred in male patient aged 20 years after 380 minutes arthroscopic surgery in the lithotomy position.

Chung, Jin Hun; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Chun Sook; Kang, Kyu Sik; Yoo, Sie Hyeon; Chung, Ji Won; Kim, Nan Seol; Lee, Seung Jin

2010-01-01

350

Modification of an amplification reaction in recursively dynamic compartments driven by stirring.  

PubMed

In living systems, biochemical reactions are confined to cellular or subcellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane and the organelles within a cell. These biological compartments are usually subjected to recursive changes, such as combinations of growth, fusion, and division, to constitute repeating cell cycles. In such recursively dynamic compartments, the encapsulated biochemical reaction may exhibit dynamics that differ from those of the static compartment (i.e., test tubes) used in conventional biochemistry experiments. To test this hypothesis in a simplified model, we mechanically stirred femtoliter-sized water-in-oil emulsion droplets so that individual droplets were subjected to repeated coalescence and breakage. We show that recursive dynamics appeared in the emulsion, which were measured by the exponential propagation of a water-soluble dye. The rate of the propagation, ?, was controlled by modulating the pulse-width of stirring in an electromagnetic stirrer. Within this system, we studied the dynamics of an RNA-amplification reaction in recursively increasing reaction compartments at various values of ?. We showed that there was an optimal value of ? that maximized RNA amplification. This effect was explained by the balance between the opposing effects of supply of substrate and the dilution of amplified RNA both resulting from coalescence. Moreover, when we mixed two RNA species with different kinetic properties, we found a preferential amplification for one of the species only in the recursively dynamic emulsion. This effect was partly explained by a separation effect which preferentially amplifies the number of compartments for the molecular specie that can better follow the breakage dynamics of the compartments. The present work demonstrated how the recursive dynamics of compartments modifies the internal biochemical reaction. PMID:24219119

Ichii, Tetsuo; Tanahashi, Genya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

2013-12-17

351

Posterior compartment defect repair in vaginal surgery: Update on surgical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior colporrhaphy has been the most common surgical technique for the repair of posterior compartment defects. Traditional\\u000a posterior colporrhaphy involves plication of the levator ani, which may result in dyspareunia related to narrowing of the\\u000a introitus. Current posterior compartment repairs either plicate the midline fascia or repair the specific site of fascial\\u000a weakness. Despite insubstantial data, the use of grafts

Anh T. Van Ginger; Kathleen C. Kobashi

2007-01-01

352

Compartment A4 hold at midplatform level, view from starboard to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-4 hold at mid-platform level, view from starboard to port shows protective deck framing and underside of armor plate. Open wood ceiling aids in circulating air. Note ventilation duct for fresh air at center of photograph. Open hatch penetrates protective deck and leads to bread room, compartment A-102. (012) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

353

Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

1997-01-01

354

Epidemiology, Etiology, Pathophysiology and Diagnosis of the Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Extremity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to an insult that causes a pressure elevation in the compartment, which is the limited space surrounded by the unyielding\\u000a bone and fascia, the circulation is compromised resulting in muscular and neural ischemia and eventually tissue necrosis.\\u000a The diagnosis of the compartment syndrome has always been based on the clinical symptoms, however, multiple studies suggested\\u000a that clinical examination alone

Heinrich M. J. Janzing

2007-01-01

355

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of Forearm Flexor Muscles in Rock Climbers — Evaluation of Physiological Standard Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chronic exertional compartment syndromes (CECS) are a well-known topic in sports medicine. Most commonly affected is the tibialis\\u000a anterior compartment in runners and walkers. Diagnostic and therapeutic criteria for this group are widely discussed. Only\\u000a a few cases of CECS of the forearm flexor muscles have been reported, although an increasing number of patients with suspected\\u000a CECS have been seen

Volker R. Schöffl; Sebastian Klee; Wolf Strecker

356

Fatal acute compartment syndrome in patients after surgical treatment: 2 cases report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes 2 cases died from acute compartment syndrome after surgical treatment. Case 1 was a 30-year-old man suffered from upper arm fracture, who complicated with the acute compartment syndrome at the following day after surgical fixation, and died 6 days later. Case 2 was a 9-year-old woman sustained medial malleolus sprain, who experienced plaster cast immobilization and died

Bao-Li Zhu; Rui Zhao; Ru-Bo Li; Xu Wu; Da-Wei Guan; Guo-Hua Zhang

2009-01-01

357

Muscle activation characteristics in cross-country skiers with a history of anterior compartment pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of elite cross-country skiers suffer from chronic anterior compartment syndrome (CACS). This study used surface electromyograms (EMGs) to investigate whether differences existed in the activation characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle between elite cross-country skiers with a history of anterior compartment pain (symptomatic group) and a pain-free control group. Based on self-reported pain symptoms, twelve young, national-level

Peter Federolf; Emily Bakker

2012-01-01

358

Multicompartment and multigeometry nanostructures with block copolymers and kinetic control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of charged block copolymer architecture with the kinetic control of solvent processing offers great flexibility for the creation of new assembled morphologies in solution and outstanding ability to control and manipulate those morphologies. When charged, acidic blocks are present, assembled structures are tunable in a well-defined way via co-assembly of organic bases with adjustable chain structure and control of the solution assembly pathway. A rich variety of polymeric micelles have been made such as toroids, disks, and helical cylinders from poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(methyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PMA-b-PS) triblock copolymers in THF/water mixtures with multiamines to complex with the PAA. Both the type and amount of multiamine were found to be critical for formation of specific micelles. Kinetic pathways and temporal stabilities of different micelles and nanoscale aggregates have also been studied. Due to low chain exchange dynamics between block copolymeric micelles in solution, global thermodynamic equilibrium is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In our block copolymer/THF/water/multiamine quaternary systems, thermodynamics and kinetics of morphological evolution are governed by three important factors, including chain length of hydrophobic blocks, ratio of THF to water, and the interaction of multiamine with hydrophilic PAA block in the corona. Slow kinetics associated with these factors in solution greatly hinders the system from reaching a global equilibrium. However, by taking advantage of slow kinetics behavior of polymeric micelles in solution, one can purposely produce multicompartment micelles and mulitgeometry micelles by now mixing different PAA-containing block copolymers together but forcing them to ultimately reside in the same nanoscale structure through kinetic processing. While kinetically trapped in common nanostructures, local phase separation can occur producing compartments. This compartmentalization can be used within common micelle geometries to make complex spheres and cylinders or can be used to make new nanostructures such as multigeometry aggregates (e.g. hybrid cylinder-sphere aggregates). All is possible through the kinetic control of the assembly process.

Pochan, Darrin

2011-03-01

359

Activation of individual extrinsic thumb muscles and compartments of extrinsic finger muscles.  

PubMed

Mechanical and neurological couplings exist between musculotendon units of the human hand and digits. Studies have begun to understand how these muscles interact when accomplishing everyday tasks, but there are still unanswered questions regarding the control limitations of individual muscles. Using intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, this study examined subjects' ability to individually initiate and sustain three levels of normalized muscular activity in the index and middle finger muscle compartments of extensor digitorum communis (EDC), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), as well as the extrinsic thumb muscles abductor pollicis longus (APL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), and flexor pollicis longus (FPL). The index and middle finger compartments each sustained activations with significantly different levels of coactivity from the other finger muscle compartments. The middle finger compartment of EDC was the exception. Only two extrinsic thumb muscles, EPL and FPL, were capable of sustaining individual activations from the other thumb muscles, at all tested activity levels. Activation of APL was achieved at 20 and 30% MVC activity levels with significantly different levels of coactivity. Activation of EPB elicited coactivity levels from EPL and APL that were not significantly different. These results suggest that most finger muscle compartments receive unique motor commands, but of the four thumb muscles, only EPL and FPL were capable of individually activating. This work is encouraging for the neural control of prosthetic limbs because these muscles and compartments may potentially serve as additional user inputs to command prostheses. PMID:23803329

Birdwell, J Alexander; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A; Weir, Richard F Ff

2013-09-01

360

Analysis of lymphatic drainage in various forms of leg edema using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy.  

PubMed

The anatomical and functional status of the epifascial and subfascial lymphatic compartments was analyzed using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy in five groups of patients (total 55) with various forms of edema of the lower extremities. Digital whole body scintigraphy enabled semiquantitative estimation of radiotracer transport with comparison of lymphatic drainage between those individuals without (normal) and those with leg edema by calculating the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical transported to regional lymph nodes. A visual assessment of the lymphatic drainage pathways of the legs was also performed. In patients with cyclic idiopathic edema, an accelerated rate of lymphatic transport was detected (high lymph volume overload or dynamic insufficiency). In those with venous (phlebo) edemas, high volume lymphatic overload (dynamic insufficiency) of the epifascial compartment was scintigraphically detected by increased tracer uptake in regional nodes. In patients with deep femoral venous occlusion (post-thrombotic syndrome). subfascial lymphatic transport was uniformly markedly reduced (safety valve lymphatic insufficiency). On the other hand, in the epifascial compartment, lymph transport was accelerated. In those patients with recurrent or extensive skin ulceration, lymph transport was reduced. Patients with lipedema (obesity) scintigraphically showed no alteration in lymphatic transport. This study demonstrates that lymphatic drainage is notably affected (except in obesity termed lipedema) in various edemas of the leg. Lymphatic drainage varied depending on the specific compartment and the pathophysiologic mechanism accounting for the edema. Two compartment lymphoscintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of leg edema of known and unknown origin. PMID:9664268

Bräutigam, P; Földi, E; Schaiper, I; Krause, T; Vanscheidt, W; Moser, E

1998-06-01

361

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure was measured and lid motility determined on a subjective score scale. Whereas the modified O'Brien and lid blocks nearly abolished the muscle activity recorded in the EMG (p < 0.003), the Atkinson and van Lint blocks did not significantly affect these variables. The O'Brien and lid blocks decreased the force of lid closure and lid movements far more effectively than the Atkinson and van Lint blocks (p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of a mixture of metrizamide and lignocaine solutions was evaluated radiographically in eight additional patients, to assess potential causes for differences in the efficacy of the block techniques. The radiological results showed involvement of the region of the facial nerve trunk and its temporal and cervical divisions by the modified O'Brien block. The lid block, on the other hand, affected terminal branches of the facial nerve's temporal division. In this study, complete lid akinesia was achieved by both the modified O'Brien block and the lid block. However, because the modified O'Brien block involves the risk of neural injury to the facial nerve or its main divisions, the lid block is recommended as the most effective and safe method to achieve akinesia of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Images

Schimek, F; Fahle, M

1995-01-01

362

Neuropeptide Y: intraaccumbens injections produce a place preference that is blocked by cis-flupenthixol.  

PubMed

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been localized in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), where it may influence dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Extensive data implicate NAcc DA in reward-related learning, raising the possibility that NPY microinjected into the NAcc may induce rewarding effects mediated by DA. This hypothesis was tested using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Each experiment consisted of three distinct phase: preconditioning (three 15-min exposures to an apparatus with two compartments connected by a tunnel); conditioning (four 30-min pairing of one compartment with drug and four similar pairings of the other compartment with vehicle); and test (three 15-min exposures to the apparatus). A significant increase in the time spent in the drug-paired compartment from preconditioning to test was taken as evidence of a CPP. Two experiments showed that systemic (2.0 mg/kg, IP) or intraaccumbens amphetamine (10.0 micrograms in 0.5 microliters on each side) produced a CPP. The third experiment showed that intraaccumbens NPY (0.1 micrograms in 0.5 microliter on each side) produced a CPP. This CPP was blocked by pretreatment with a dose of the DA receptor blocker cis-flupenthixol (20.0 micrograms in 0.5 microliter on each side in the NAcc) that, alone, produced no CPP effect. These results strongly suggest that NPY applied to the NAcc is rewarding. In addition, these rewarding properties of NPY may be mediated by DA neurotransmission. PMID:8278431

Josselyn, S A; Beninger, R J

1993-11-01

363

A Bier block implementation protocol.  

PubMed

The Bier block procedure has been in use for over 100 years, but only recently has received renewed attention. As emergency departments look for ways to maximize efficiency, the use of the Bier block has been recognized as effective and fast with minimal adverse effects. This article summarizes a proposed protocol for the implementation of both pre- and posthospitalization Bier blocks by healthcare providers. PMID:24706243

Stancil, Stewart A

2014-01-01

364

Block-based neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel block-based neural network (BBNN) model and the optimization of its structure and weights based on a genetic algorithm. The architecture of the BBNN consists of a 2D array of fundamental blocks with four variable input\\/output nodes and connection weights. Each block can have one of four different internal configurations depending on the structure settings, The

Sang-Woo Moon; Seong-Gon Kong

2001-01-01

365

Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

1975-01-01

366

Cylinder block construction of engine  

SciTech Connect

In a cylinder block construction of an engine having a pair of balancer shafts provided at opposite sides thereof, the cylinder block being formed with a pair of bearing boss portions for supporting the balancer shafts. The improvement is described comprising: a pair of first mounting portions for securing a pair of engine mounts to the cylinder block, provided, in the vicinity of the bearing boss portions, at opposite side walls of the cylinder block so as to be integrally formed with the bearing boss portions.

Nishimura, K.; Takubo, H.; Kakui, K.

1988-03-08

367

Pluronic Block Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Polymer nanomaterials have sparked a considerable interest as vehicles used for diagnostic and therapeutic agents; research in nanomedicine has not only become a frontier movement but is also a revolutionizing drug delivery field. A common approach for building a drug delivery system is to incorporate the drug within the nanocarrier that results in increased solubility, metabolic stability, and improved circulation time. With this foundation, nanoparticles with stealth properties that can circumvent RES and other clearance and defense mechanisms are the most promising. However, recent developments indicate that select polymer nanomaterials can implement more than only inert carrier functions by being biological response modifiers. One representative of such materials is Pluronic block copolymers that cause various functional alterations in cells. The key attribute for the biological activity of Pluronics is their ability to incorporate into membranes followed by subsequent translocation into the cells and affecting various cellular functions, such as mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, activity of drug efflux transporters, apoptotic signal transduction, and gene expression. As a result, Pluronics cause drastic sensitization of MDR tumors to various anticancer agents, enhance drug transport across the blood brain and intestinal barriers, and causes transcriptional activation of gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these studies suggest that Pluronics have a broad spectrum of biological response modifying activities which make it one of the most potent drug targeting systems available, resulting in a remarkable impact on the emergent field of nanomedicine.

Batrakova, Elena V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

2008-01-01

368

A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

1990-01-01

369

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

370

Foldable patterns form construction blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building blocks with interlocking tabs can be constructed from flat sheets of material using minimum of tools and equipment. Blocks can be used for storing and shipping supplies to remote areas, then filled with soil and stacked to form inhabitable structures which can be dismantled and reused.

Huber, W. C.; Ritter, D. L.

1971-01-01

371

Block-shanno MBER beamforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate a block processing objective function for the bit error rate (BER) cost function and present a nonlinear optimization strategy for its rapid minimization. The resulting algorithm is called the block Shanno minimum BER (BSMBER), which is conducted in the context of DS-CDMA with beamforming applications. Simulation analyses show the enhancements in convergence rate and BER performance of the

Tamer A. Samir; S. Elnoubi; A. Elnashar

2007-01-01

372

Conventions for Block Diagram Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of block diagrams to represent various systems is very widespread, there are no standard conventions for the drawing of block diagrams. This is particularly true when such diagrams are used to represent complex nonlinear systems, and most practical systems of interest are of this type. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an approach to the

A. Bose; P. M. Anderson; C. Concordia; A. A. Fouad; P. Kundur; R. P. Schulz

1986-01-01

373

Pattern Blocks (Lesson - Grade 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces pattern blocks and an awareness of geometric shapes to young learners. Students identify and label the shapes and solve puzzles with the blocks. Links to templates, vocabulary and activity cards are provided (pdf). Extensions, an assessment plan and suggestions for parent involvement are also provided.

Lessonplans, Uen

2007-06-28

374

Literacy Learning during Block Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers long have sought a connection between play and literacy behaviors. Most agree that play is a basis for developing literacy skills. This study investigated the use of block play in a first-grade classroom. Results showed that the students increased the number of literacy behaviors after having been exposed to the enriched block-play…

Pickett, Linda

1998-01-01

375

Mixing Block and Traditional Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Boone, North Carolina, Watauga High School has developed an alternative schedule that blends traditional and block schedules. This composite schedule originated in the late 1990s when their faculty members and administrators were struggling to determine if the school should change to a full block schedule. The board of education encouraged…

Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

2005-01-01

376

Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

Bastedo, Helena

2010-01-01

377

Conduction block in vasculitic neuropathy.  

PubMed

We describe a 28-year-old man who developed a mononeuropathy with a conduction block of the median nerve in the forearm, during the acute stage of a polyarteritis nodosa. Sequential studies show progressive disappearance of the conduction block (together with the clinical symptoms), without signs of axonotmesis. PMID:7995304

Magistris, M R; Kohler, A; Estade, M

1994-01-01

378

Trafficking Motifs as the Basis for Two-Compartment Signaling Systems to Form Multiple Stable States  

PubMed Central

Transport of molecules in cells is a central part of cell biology. Frequently such trafficking is not just for material transport, but also for information propagation, and serves to couple signaling circuits across cellular compartments. Here, I show that trafficking transforms simple local signaling pathways into self-organizing systems that span compartments and confer distinct states and identities to these compartments. I find that three motifs encapsulate the responses of most single-compartment signaling pathways in the context of trafficking. These motifs combine with different trafficking reactions to generate a diverse set of cellular functions. For example, trafficked bistable switches can oscillate or become quad- or tristable, depending on trafficking mechanisms and rates. Furthermore, the analysis shows how compartments participating in traffic can settle to distinct molecular compositions characteristic of distinct organelle identities. This general framework shows how the interplay between molecular movement and local reactions can generate many system functions, and give distinct identities to different parts of the cell.

Bhalla, Upinder Singh

2011-01-01

379

CASE REPORT An Unusual Case of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Resection of Extensive Posttraumatic Mesenteric Ossification  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition, which often follows trauma and is frequently symptomatic. To date, there are no reports in the literature of abdominal compartment syndrome occurring after surgical resection of mesenteric calcification. The present report documents an unusual case of compartment syndrome complicating resection of extensive mesenteric calcification despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique. Method: A 48-year-old man undergoing components-separation technique for posttraumatic laparostomy hernia repair (ileostomy reversal and sigmoid stricture correction) was found to have extensive heterotopic mesenteric calcification, which needed resection. Results: Resection of the mesenteric calcification was complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage and unplanned small bowel resection. Later the patient developed secondary hemorrhage leading to an abdominal compartment syndrome, which was successfully treated by decompression, hemostasis, and Permacol-assisted laparotomy wound closure. The patient remains symptom-free more than 2 years after surgery. Discussion: The case herein reported gives an account of the rare occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome following resection of posttraumatic ectopic mesenteric ossifications. It is highly unusual in that it occurred because of “secondary hemorrhage” and despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique, which had been undertaken precisely to prevent compartment syndrome with direct closure. It therefore highlights the need for continued clinical vigilance in complex posttraumatic cases.

Nabulyato, William M.; Alsahiem, Hebah; Hall, Nigel R.; Malata, Charles M.

2013-01-01

380

Autoantigenicity of the basal compartment of seminiferous tubules in the rat.  

PubMed

The expression of testicular autoantigens has been thought to be restricted to the luminal compartment of the seminiferous tubules. In the present study it was observed that germ cells in the basal compartment of seminiferous tubules and lamina propria of the seminiferous tubule bound antibodies in anti-testis immunosera in vivo after passive transfer of the sera by intra-peritoneal injection. The anti-testis immunosera were prepared in orchiectomised rats to avoid pre-collection adsorption of antibodies in the basal compartment of the seminiferous tubules. When testis-immune sera collected from non-orchiectomised rats or normal sera were transferred no such binding of antibodies to the basal germ cell surface or the lamina propria occurred. In Western blot analysis the anti-testis immune sera prepared in orchiectomised rats defined polypeptides from the adult rat testis with relative MWs of 19-23, 26-28, 30, 34, 38, 40-43, 45-47, 51-52, 56-57, 68, 78 and 97 kDa. The 40-43 kDa band was not detected by sera prepared in non-orchiectomised rats, suggesting that this autoantigen was expressed in the basal compartment of the seminiferous tubules. These observations suggest that the segregation of testicular autoantigens in the luminal compartment of seminiferous tubules is not complete for all of them in the rat and emphasize the role of more dynamic mechanisms in prevention of anti-germ cell autoimmune disease. PMID:8887123

Saari, T; Jahnukainen, K; Pöllänen, P

1996-08-01

381

Calf compartment pressures in the Lloyd-Davies position: a cause for concern?  

PubMed

Lower limb compartment syndrome is a rare consequence of surgery where the lithotomy position is maintained for several hours. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of the lithotomy position on lower limb compartment pressure and blood flow to the lower limb in surgical patients having colorectal procedures. We prospectively studied 23 patients undergoing colorectal surgery requiring the lithotomy position and recorded lower limb compartment pressure, and the blood pressure in the upper and lower limbs. The lithotomy position led to a significant (p < 0.001) fall in blood pressure to the lower limb from 87 (SD 16) mmHg to 67.9 (SD 12) mmHg and a significant (p < 0.001) rise in lower limb compartment pressure from 13 (SD 7) mmHg to 31 (SD 12) mmHg. These two effects compromise blood flow to the lower limb in long surgical procedures where the lithotomy position is required. Intermittently lowering the legs and restoring blood flow may prevent compartment syndrome developing. PMID:12190756

Turnbull, D; Farid, A; Hutchinson, S; Shorthouse, A; Mills, G H

2002-09-01

382

A general multiple-compartment model for the transport of trace elements through animals  

SciTech Connect

Multiple-compartment models employed in the analysis of trace element transport in animals are often based on linear differential equations which relate the rate of change of contaminant (or contaminant concentration) in each compartment to the amount of contaminant (or contaminant concentration) in every other compartment in the system. This has the serious disadvantage of mixing intrinsic physiological properties with the geometry of the animal. The basic equations on which the model presented here is developed are derived from the actual physical process under way and are capable of separating intrinsic physiological properties from geometry. It is thus expected that rate coefficients determined through this model will be applicable to a wider category of physiologically similar animals. A specific application of the model for the study of contamination of sheep--or indeed for any ruminant--is presented, and the temporal evolution of contaminant concentration in the various compartments of the animal is calculated. The application of this model to a system of compartments with changing geometry is also presented.

Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A. (Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina (Greece))

1991-08-01

383

Structural requirements for localization and activation of protein kinase C ? (PKC?) at the Golgi compartment  

PubMed Central

We here describe the structural requirements for Golgi localization and a sequential, localization-dependent activation process of protein kinase C (PKC)? involving auto- and transphosphorylation. The structural basis for Golgi compartment localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy of HeLa cells expressing various PKC?–green fluorescent protein fusion proteins costained with the Golgi compartment–specific markers p24 and p230. Deletions of either the NH2-terminal hydrophobic or the cysteine region, but not of the pleckstrin homology or the acidic domain, of PKC? completely abrogated Golgi localization of PKC?. As an NH2-terminal PKC? fragment was colocalized with p24, this region of PKC? is essential and sufficient to mediate association with Golgi membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies confirmed the constitutive, rapid recruitment of cytosolic PKC? to, and stable association with, the Golgi compartment independent of activation loop phosphorylation. Kinase activity is not required for Golgi complex targeting, as evident from microscopical and cell fractionation studies with kinase-dead PKC? found to be exclusively located at intracellular membranes. We propose a sequential activation process of PKC?, in which Golgi compartment recruitment precedes and is essential for activation loop phoshorylation (serines 738/742) by a transacting kinase, followed by auto- and transphosphorylation of NH2-terminal serine(s) in the regulatory domain. PKC? activation loop phosphorylation is indispensable for substrate phosphorylation and thus PKC? function at the Golgi compartment.

Hausser, Angelika; Link, Gisela; Bamberg, Linda; Burzlaff, Annett; Lutz, Sylke; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Johannes, Franz-Josef

2002-01-01

384

Long-term myoneural function after an induced compartment syndrome in the canine hindlimb.  

PubMed

For evaluation of long-term myoneural function in a compartment syndrome model of the canine hindlimb, five conditioned dogs had injections of autologous plasma into the hindlimb anterolateral muscle compartment, maintaining the pressure at 40 mmHg for eight hours. A newly described technique for measuring muscle function was used before pressurization and at weekly intervals following pressurization for a period of one month. Two days after pressurization, isometric twitch torque and tetanic torque showed a significant decrease (p less than .05) when compared with baseline values. Time to peak tension, one-half relaxation time, and endurance tests showed no significant change throughout the four-week testing. At four weeks following pressurization, no muscle dysfunction was noted, and muscle examined histologically was normal. Therefore, the initial muscle dysfunction present was reversed by skeletal muscle recovery or regeneration. Although no long-term muscle dysfunction occurred in this study of dogs, there may exist a lower tolerance to elevated intramuscular pressure in humans. Since dogs have only fatigue-resistant muscle fibers with higher oxidative capacity than human fibers, dog muscle may have a greater regenerative capacity than human muscle. Therefore, exact extrapolation of these dog studies to clinical compartment syndromes is difficult. Although muscle function was recovered in these animal experiments, human muscle may have less capacity to recover. It is advisable to decompress muscle compartments at a pressure of 30 mmHg as soon as clinical symptoms of a compartment syndrome appear. PMID:3978962

Mortensen, W W; Hargens, A R; Gershuni, D H; Crenshaw, A G; Garfin, S R; Akeson, W H

1985-05-01

385

Uneven spread of cis- and trans-editing aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase domains within translational compartments of P. falciparum  

PubMed Central

Accuracy of aminoacylation is dependent on maintaining fidelity during attachment of amino acids to cognate tRNAs. Cis- and trans-editing protein factors impose quality control during protein translation, and 8 of 36 Plasmodium falciparum aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) assemblies contain canonical putative editing modules. Based on expression and localization profiles of these 8 aaRSs, we propose an asymmetric distribution between the parasite cytoplasm and its apicoplast of putative editing-domain containing aaRSs. We also show that the single copy alanyl- and threonyl-tRNA synthetases are dually targeted to parasite cytoplasm and apicoplast. This bipolar presence of two unique synthetases presents opportunity for inhibitor targeting their aminoacylation and editing activities in twin parasite compartments. We used this approach to identify specific inhibitors against the alanyl- and threonyl-tRNA synthetases. Further development of such inhibitors may lead to anti-parasitics which simultaneously block protein translation in two key parasite organelles, a strategy of wider applicability for pathogen control.

Khan, Sameena; Sharma, Arvind; Jamwal, Abhishek; Sharma, Vinay; Pole, Anil Kumar; Thakur, Kamal Kishor; Sharma, Amit

2011-01-01

386

NADPH oxidase is internalized by clathrin-coated pits and localizes to a Rab27A/B GTPase-regulated secretory compartment in activated macrophages.  

PubMed

Here, we report that activation of different types of tissue macrophages, including microglia, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or GM-CSF stimulation correlates with the quantitative redistribution of NADPH oxidase (cyt b(558)) from the plasma membrane to an intracellular stimulus-responsive storage compartment. Cryo-immunogold labeling of gp91(phox) and CeCl(3) cytochemistry showed the presence of gp91(phox) and oxidant production in numerous small (<100 nm) vesicles. Cell homogenization and sucrose gradient centrifugation in combination with transferrin-HRP/DAB ablation showed that more than half of cyt b(558) is present in fractions devoid of endosomal markers, which is supported by morphological evidence to show that the cyt b(558)-containing compartment is distinct from endosomes or biosynthetic organelles. Streptolysin-O-mediated guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate loading of Ra2 microglia caused exocytosis of a major complement of cyt b(558) under conditions where lysosomes or endosomes were not mobilized. We establish phagocytic particles and soluble mediators ATP, TNF?, and CD40L as physiological inducers of cyt b(558) exocytosis to the cell surface, and by shRNA knockdown, we identify Rab27A/B as positive or negative regulators of vesicular mobilization to the phagosome or the cell surface, respectively. Exocytosis was followed by clathrin-dependent internalization of cyt b(558), which could be blocked by a dominant negative mutant of the clathrin-coated pit-associated protein Eps15. Re-internalized cyt b(558) did not reach lysosomes but associated with recycling endosomes and undefined vesicular elements. In conclusion, cyt b(558) depends on clathrin for internalization, and in activated macrophages NADPH oxidase occupies a Rab27A/B-regulated secretory compartment, which allows rapid agonist-induced redistribution of superoxide production in the cell. PMID:22157766

Ejlerskov, Patrick; Christensen, Dan Ploug; Beyaie, David; Burritt, James B; Paclet, Marie-Helene; Gorlach, Agnes; van Deurs, Bo; Vilhardt, Frederik

2012-02-10

387

NADPH Oxidase Is Internalized by Clathrin-coated Pits and Localizes to a Rab27A/B GTPase-regulated Secretory Compartment in Activated Macrophages*  

PubMed Central

Here, we report that activation of different types of tissue macrophages, including microglia, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or GM-CSF stimulation correlates with the quantitative redistribution of NADPH oxidase (cyt b558) from the plasma membrane to an intracellular stimulus-responsive storage compartment. Cryo-immunogold labeling of gp91phox and CeCl3 cytochemistry showed the presence of gp91phox and oxidant production in numerous small (<100 nm) vesicles. Cell homogenization and sucrose gradient centrifugation in combination with transferrin-HRP/DAB ablation showed that more than half of cyt b558 is present in fractions devoid of endosomal markers, which is supported by morphological evidence to show that the cyt b558-containing compartment is distinct from endosomes or biosynthetic organelles. Streptolysin-O-mediated guanosine 5?-3-O-(thio)triphosphate loading of Ra2 microglia caused exocytosis of a major complement of cyt b558 under conditions where lysosomes or endosomes were not mobilized. We establish phagocytic particles and soluble mediators ATP, TNF?, and CD40L as physiological inducers of cyt b558 exocytosis to the cell surface, and by shRNA knockdown, we identify Rab27A/B as positive or negative regulators of vesicular mobilization to the phagosome or the cell surface, respectively. Exocytosis was followed by clathrin-dependent internalization of cyt b558, which could be blocked by a dominant negative mutant of the clathrin-coated pit-associated protein Eps15. Re-internalized cyt b558 did not reach lysosomes but associated with recycling endosomes and undefined vesicular elements. In conclusion, cyt b558 depends on clathrin for internalization, and in activated macrophages NADPH oxidase occupies a Rab27A/B-regulated secretory compartment, which allows rapid agonist-induced redistribution of superoxide production in the cell.

Ejlerskov, Patrick; Christensen, Dan Ploug; Beyaie, David; Burritt, James B.; Paclet, Marie-Helene; Gorlach, Agnes; van Deurs, Bo; Vilhardt, Frederik

2012-01-01

388

[Surgical management of talipes equinovarus as sequelae of a compartment and/or postischemic syndrome of the deep flexor compartment of the lower leg].  

PubMed

Cases of posttraumatic pes equinovarus after compartment syndrome have become more frequent in the last 3 decades because limb-saving procedures like compartment splitting, vascular repair, and microvascular free flaps have become well established in trauma surgery, thus reducing early below knee amputations. But if the deep flexor compartment is not split completely or if the muscles are crushed by direct trauma severe necrosis and subsequent muscle contractures result in a very severe clubfoot deformity. Metatarsalgia of fifth, fourth, and third metatarsal head even in well-fitted orthopaedic shoes occurs as well as painful bunions and fatigue fractures of the fifth metatarsal. Infected ulcers below the fifth/fourth metatarsal bone in a numb plantar sole often require head resection because of osteomyelitis.From 1994 to 2007 a total of 24 patients with severe pes equinovarus after compartment and/or postischemic syndrome were treated operatively. Only in 5 cases was a triple, Chopart, or Lisfranc arthrodesis necessary; 19 cases however could be treated only by soft tissue procedures like tenolysis, tendon lengthening, medial release of the scarred flexor retinacula and contracted capsules of the posterior ankle, subtalar and talonavicular joint to reorientate all axes of the foot. By temporary K-wire transfixation (6 weeks), initial external tibiotarsal transfixation of the foot (10 days), and additional tendon transfer for active foot elevation excellent and good long-term (5 years) results are achievable.The results according to the McKay Score are not significantly different regarding the triple arthrodesis group versus the pure soft tissue release group. Nevertheless, saving joints in the latter group seems to be very important. PMID:18946646

Zwipp, H; Sabauri, G; Amlang, M

2008-10-01

389

Fascia iliaca block prophylaxis for hip fracture patients at risk for delirium: a randomized placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent studies have indicated that unmanaged pain, both acute and chronic, can affect mental status and might precipitate\\u000a delirium, especially in elderly patients with hip fractures. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of fascia\\u000a iliaca compartment block (FICB) for prevention of perioperative delirium in hip surgery patients who were at intermediate\\u000a or high risk for this

George Mouzopoulos; George Vasiliadis; Nikolaos Lasanianos; George Nikolaras; Emanouil Morakis; Michalis Kaminaris

2009-01-01

390

Psoas abscess in an immunocompetent host.  

PubMed

We present a case of iliopsoas abscess in an immunocompetent patient. She experienced three weeks of worsening right hip pain, which was initially misdiagnosed as degenerative joint disease. This led to admission to the Intensive Care Unit for severe sepsis. The patient improved with intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous abscess drainage. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-08.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25083956

Mannino, Courtney M; Salhab, Mohammed; Schmidhofer, Sarah; Pop-Vicas, Aurora

2014-01-01

391

Transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding.  

PubMed

Changes in aircraft cabin pressure and its interplay with a fixed diameter fiberglass cylindrical cast and the closed air cells in waterproof cast padding may cause a transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome. In this case series, 2 patients reported transient compartment syndromes that resolved with aircraft decent. As proof of concept, this work displays photographic and video evidence showing the difference in air cell volume from experimental data in a vacuum chamber as well as real-world volume changes at cruise altitude in a commercial airliner. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndromes associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding are real and surgeons and patients should be advised of this potentially devastating complication. PMID:23431541

Kadzielski, John; Bae, Donald S

2013-01-01

392

Two nested developmental waves demarcate a compartment boundary in the mouse lung.  

PubMed

The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments-the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region-separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three-dimensions (3D) and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signalling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signalling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a new mechanism of boundary formation in complex, 3D organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth. PMID:24879355

Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A; Chen, Jichao

2014-01-01

393

Acute abdominal compartment syndrome complicating a colonoscopic perforation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction A perforation occurring during colonoscopy is an extremely rare complication that may be difficult to diagnose. It can be responsible for acute abdominal compartment syndrome, a potentially lethal complex pathological state in which an acute increase in intra-abdominal pressure may provoke the failure of several organ systems. Case presentation We report a case of acute abdominal compartment syndrome after perforation of the bowel during a colonoscopy in a 60-year-old North African man with rectal cancer, resulting in respiratory distress, cyanosis and cardiac arrest. Our patient was treated by needle decompression after the failure of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An emergency laparotomy with anterior resection, including the perforated sigmoid colon, was then performed followed by immediate anastomosis. Our patient remains alive and free of disease three years later. Conclusion Acute abdominal compartment syndrome is a rare disease that may occasionally occur after a colonoscopic perforation. It should be kept in mind during colonoscopy, especially considering its simple salvage treatment.

2012-01-01

394

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a case series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy.  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is rare in the published literature. We report the outcome of a series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy over a 14 year period. All patients underwent dynamic intra-compartmental pressure testing using a slit catheter technique before surgery. Raised intra-compartmental pressures on exercise, typical symptoms and the absence of other diagnoses were criteria for offering surgical intervention. The superficial flexor, deep flexor and extensor compartments were released. Median follow-up was 9.5 years (range 7 months to 12 years). Median patient-reported percentage improvement after surgery was 88% (range 0%-100%). Median time to return to full activity was 9 weeks. Eleven out of 12 patients were satisfied, very satisfied or extremely satisfied with the outcome of surgery. Fasciotomy can be an effective treatment for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm. PMID:21339238

Brown, J S; Wheeler, P C; Boyd, K T; Barnes, M R; Allen, M J

2011-06-01

395

Forearm compartment syndrome of a newborn associated with extravasation of contrast agent.  

PubMed

Extravasation of contrast agents is a possible complication of imaging studies. Although extravasations typically cause minimal swelling or erythema, they can lead to compartment syndrome when the volume of extravasation is high. In this article, we will present an exceptional case where an insignificant amount of contrast agent extravasation led to a forearm compartment syndrome in a newborn, who was treated with an extended fasciotomy. We would like to emphasize the preventive techniques and treatment options of this iatrogenic complication in newborns. Close followup of the patient by the nurses, awareness of the parents and the personnel in the radiology department are the most important preventive measures in this extremity-threatening complication. Forearm compartment syndrome due to contrast agent extravasation may progress more rapidly in newborns even with smaller amounts of extravasation and prompt recognition of the pathology and immediate intervention are unevitable. PMID:23841000

Altan, Egemen; Tutar, Onur; Senaran, Hakan; Ayd?n, Kerem; Acar, Mehmet Ali; Yalç?n, Levent

2013-01-01

396

The Loss of Gnai2 and Gnai3 in B Cells Eliminates B Lymphocyte Compartments and Leads to a Hyper-IgM Like Syndrome  

PubMed Central

B lymphocytes are compartmentalized within lymphoid organs. The organization of these compartments depends upon signaling initiated by G-protein linked chemoattractant receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins G?i2 and G?i3 in chemoattractant signaling we created mice lacking both proteins in their B lymphocytes. While bone marrow B cell development and egress is grossly intact; mucosal sites, splenic marginal zones, and lymph nodes essentially lack B cells. There is a partial block in splenic follicular B cell development and a 50-60% reduction in splenic B cells, yet normal numbers of splenic T cells. The absence of G?i2 and G?i3 in B cells profoundly disturbs the architecture of lymphoid organs with loss of B cell compartments in the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. This results in a severe disruption of B cell function and a hyper-IgM like syndrome. Beyond the pro-B cell stage, B cells are refractory to chemokine stimulation, and splenic B cells are poorly responsive to antigen receptor engagement. G?i2 and G?i3 are therefore critical for B cell chemoattractant receptor signaling and for normal B cell function. These mice provide a worst case scenario of the consequences of losing chemoattractant receptor signaling in B cells.

Hwang, Il-Young; Park, Chung; Luong, Thuyvi; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Kehrl, John H.

2013-01-01

397

Snell's Law with Large Blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introductory physics lab curriculum usually has one experiment devoted to the study of the refraction of light. The most obvious way to study the refraction of light is to lay a transparent block down on the lab bench and aim a laser beam horizontally at the block so that it refracts twice-inward upon entering the block and outward upon exiting. The vendors that provide us with lab equipment (Sargent-Welch, PASCO, Fisher Scientific, and Frey Scientific to name a few) sell acrylic blocks for this very purpose, but these are either too small or they are too expensive. If students are going to measure angles of incidence and refraction, the blocks should be larger than the typical student protractor, which has a radius of 3 in (~ 7½ cm). These blocks are just not large enough. They are generally not thick enough either so that the beam from a typical laser passes over them and not through them. The vendors mentioned above do sell blackboard optics kits that contain, among other parts, three blocks that are large enough-on the order of 10 to 20 cm. Unfortunately, these kits cost more than $1000.

Lynch, John J.

2007-03-01

398

Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Several Different Fat Compartments in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background. Chemicals that store in lipid-rich compartments have the potential for long-term disruption of metabolic and endocrine processes. Given the evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also alter systemic metabolic, endocrine, and immune system functions, it follows that elevated chemical concentrations in intra-abdominal fat may alter function, through local chemical signaling, of visceral organs. Despite this potential, there has been little study defining POP concentrations in live human intra-abdominal fat. It is at present uncertain whether POPs distribute equally to all fat compartments, including fat in serum. Methods. Seven human subjects scheduled for elective surgery for benign lesions or cancer provided consent for removal of samples of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat and/or cancerous tissue. These samples were analyzed for 22 chlorinated pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by GC/ECD plus GC/MS. Results. In only two subjects were the patterns and relative concentrations of PCBs and pesticides about the same in all fat compartments. In the other subjects, there were major differences in levels in subcutaneous as compared to other compartments, but with some higher and some lower. While the pattern of PCBs in the various compartments matched that of the pesticides in some, it was opposite in others. Interpretation. These results demonstrate a complicated distribution of PCB congeners and pesticides in various lipid compartments. The difference may reflect various Kows, different rates of metabolism, and/or different lengths of exposure. But the results suggest that contaminant levels in serum or even subcutaneous fat do not necessarily indicate concentrations and patterns in other kinds of adipose tissue.

Yu, George W.; Laseter, John; Mylander, Charles

2011-01-01

399

Intra-oral compartment pressures: a biofunctional model and experimental measurements under different conditions of posture.  

PubMed

Oral posture is considered to have a major influence on the development and reoccurrence of malocclusion. A biofunctional model was tested with the null hypotheses that (1) there are no significant differences between pressures during different oral functions and (2) between pressure measurements in different oral compartments in order to substantiate various postural conditions at rest by intra-oral pressure dynamics. Atmospheric pressure monitoring was simultaneously carried out with a digital manometer in the vestibular inter-occlusal space (IOS) and at the palatal vault (sub-palatal space, SPS). Twenty subjects with normal occlusion were evaluated during the open-mouth condition (OC), gently closed lips (semi-open compartment condition, SC), with closed compartments after the generation of a negative pressure (CCN) and swallowing (SW). Pressure curve characteristics were compared between the different measurement phases (OC, SC, CCN, SW) as well as between the two compartments (IOS, SPS) using analysis of variance and Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests adopting a significance level of ? = 0.05. Both null hypotheses were rejected. Average pressures (IOS, SPS) in the experimental phases were 0.0, -0.08 (OC); -0.16, -1.0 (SC); -48.79, -81.86 (CCN); and -29.25, -62.51 (SW)?mbar. CCN plateau and peak characteristics significantly differed between the two compartments SPS and IOS. These results indicate the formation of two different intra-oral functional anatomical compartments which provide a deeper understanding of orofacial biofunctions and explain previous observations of negative intra-oral pressures at rest. PMID:20127264

Engelke, Wilfried; Jung, Klaus; Knösel, Michael

2011-04-01

400

Three-compartment modeling of C-11 N-Methyl spiperone kinetics in the human brain  

SciTech Connect

N-Methyl spiperone, as well as spiperone, has been used to study the dopamine receptor system in the brain. The authors have applied a 3-compartment model consisting of vascular, extravascular unbound, and receptor-bound activity to two normal volunteers and one patient with Parkinson's disease. The model differs from that proposed by another study, in that, as in the Sokoloff model for deoxyglucose, there is no explicit term for blood flow. Furthermore, the authors used a 3-compartment model for the cerebellum as well as the caudate/putamen. Serial scans were obtained by PET for up to 2 hrs after injection of the tracer. Time-activity curves were generated over the caudate, putamen and cerebellum. The results indicate a close fit of the observed data to the 3-compatment model. In the model, K1 represents the rate constant of delivery of the tracer in the tissue from the vascular compartment. K2 is the reverse rate constant. K1 was approximately equal to K2 for the cerebellum. In the basal ganglia, K2 was less than K1 due to nonspecific binding in compartment 2. K3 represents the rate constant of binding of the tracer to the receptor binding sites in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia and to nonspecific binding sites in the cerebellum which contains essentially no dopamine receptors. K4 represents the rate constant for dissociation of the tracer from the receptors. For N-methyl spiperone K4 is very low in the caudate/putamen. The 3-compartment model seemed to fit the data better than the 2-compartment model for both the caudate/putamen and cerebellar activity.

Brooks, R.A.; Wong, D.F.; Di Chiro, G.; Wayner, R.T.; Douglass, K.H.; Frost, J.J.; Larson, S.M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1984-01-01

401

Long term results of compartment syndrome of the lower limb in polytraumatised patients.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome represents a severe complication after trauma of the lower extremity. To date, there is limited knowledge about the outcome of compartment syndrome of the lower limb in patients with multiple injuries. We hypothesised that multiple injuries worsen the long term results of compartment syndrome of the lower leg. Patients who underwent fasciotomy for established compartment syndrome of the lower leg from 1999 to 2004 in our level 1 trauma centre were included. Demographic data, additional injuries (Injury Severity Score) and method of treatment were analysed. Outcome assessments included clinical examination and isokinetic strength testing of plantar flexion and dorsal extension at two different angular velocities (60 degrees /s; 120 degrees /s). The mean age was 38.0+/-4.4 years at the time of injury; males were affected twice as often as females. The mean ISS of patients with multiple injuries was 20.2+/-2.3 points. The time between admission and surgical treatment of compartment syndrome was extended in patients with multiple injuries (38.6+/-13.8h versus 13.2+/-3.8h; p=0.04). At follow-up, 15.4% of all patients complained of pain at rest and 26.9% reported pain on exertion. A significant reduction of torque and work was found in the dorsal extensors on the injured side (p<0.05). Polytraumatised patients did not show extended weakness compared to those with isolated injuries. No difference was seen between the two groups regarding pain and function. Polytraumatised patients did not suffer from worse long term effects regarding sensory or motor deficits. Associated injuries did not seem to influence the outcome of the compartment syndrome. PMID:17306263

Frink, Michael; Klaus, Annie-Kathrin; Kuther, Gerald; Probst, Christian; Gosling, Thomas; Kobbe, Philipp; Hildebrand, Frank; Richter, Martinus; Giannoudis, Peter V; Krettek, Christian; Pape, Hans-Christoph

2007-05-01

402

1-2-3 Blocks: Beginning Block Activities for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses ways that blocks can be used with young children to help them develop different intellectual, motor, and social skills. The book is divided into four sections organized by block type: (1) unit blocks; (2) hollow blocks; (3) table blocks; and (4) homemade blocks. Each section describes the block type, gives reasons for using the…

Petersen, Evelyn

403

Fluvial entrainment of low density peat blocks (block carbon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many fluvial environments low density materials are transported in significant quantities and these form an important part of the stream load and /or have a distinct impact on sedimentation in these environments. However, there are significant gaps in understanding of how these materials are entrained and transported by streams and rivers. Eroding upland peatland environments in particular, frequently have fluvial systems in which large eroded peat blocks, often exceeding 1 m in length; form an important component of the stream material flux. Transport of this material is significant in determining rates of erosion but also has important impacts in terms of damage to infrastructure and carbon loss. This paper describes a field experiment designed to establish for the first time the conditions under which large peat blocks (c. > 0.1 m b axis) are initially entrained from a rough gravel bed. The field site is Trout Beck, in the North Pennines, Northern England which is an upland wandering river channel with occasional lateral and mid channel bars. Mean low flow stage is typically 0.2 m but during flood can rapidly rise, in one to two hours, to over 1.5 m. To study peat block entrainment a bespoke data acquisition system consisting of two pressure transducers, four release triggers and time lapse camera was set up. The pressure transducers provided a record of local depth and the release triggers were embedded in peat blocks to record initial motion and arranged on the rough stream bed. The time lapse camera provided verification of timing of block entrainment (during daylight hours) and also provided information on the mechanism of initial movement. Peat blocks were cut from a local source and were equidimensional, ranging in size from 0.1 to 0.7 m. The derived entrainment function is related to a critical depth of entrainment. Results demonstrate that peat blocks are entrained when the local depth approximates the height of the peat block. Blocks frequently shift position prior to entrainment but once entrained are rapidly transported downstream. Because of the rough stream bed local depth, measured on the four sides of the block varies markedly and needs to be considered in developing an appropriate entrainment function and; is useful in explaining initial movement prior to entrainment. In some experiments a small accelerometer (HOBO Pendant G data logger) was used to investigate transport dynamics following entrainment. Further work will seek to improve the entrainment function by extending the size range of tests, developing a shear stress related function and investigating the importance of block shape (rounding) on entrainment.

Warburton, Jeff

2014-05-01

404

Adsorption of charged block copolymers with two adsorbing blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the adsorption of diblock copolymers consisting of uncharged water-soluble dihydroxypropyl methacrylate (HMA) and positively charged dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (AMA) on TiO2 and SiO2. Adsorbed amounts of the block copolymers and of the homopolyelectrolyte AMA were determined by means of reflectometry, as a function of pH, ionic strength and block length ratio. These results are compared with theoretical calculations

N. G. Hoogeveen; M. A. Cohen Stuart; G. J. Fleer

1995-01-01

405

Experimental study of fire growth in a reduced-scale compartment under different approaching external wind conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the fire growth process in compartments under external wind conditions, detailed fire tunnel experiments were conducted in a reduced-scale compartment. The approaching external wind velocity was set to 0.0, 1.5 and 3.0m\\/s, and the location of the fire source was changed between the downwind corner, upwind corner and center of the compartment. The experiments considered the

Hong Huang; Ryozo Ooka; Naian Liu; Linhe Zhang; Zhihua Deng; Shinsuke Kato

2009-01-01

406

Compartment Syndrome of the Upper Arm After Closed Reduction and Percutaneous Pinning of a Supracondylar Humerus Fracture.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND:: Supracondylar fractures of the humerus are the most frequently seen elbow fractures in children. One of the most feared complications of this fracture, that is, compartment syndrome of the forearm is seen rarely. Compartment syndrome of the upper arm is an even more rare occurrence and to date, has not been reported in association with an isolated supracondylar humerus fracture in a child. METHODS:: A 9-year-old boy was cared for at our facility for a severe (Gartland type III) supracondylar humerus fracture and developed a compartment syndrome in the perioperative period. A clinical, radiographic, and literature review of this case was undertaken to better define this occurrence. RESULTS:: This patient sustained a closed supracondylar humerus fracture in association with a motor and sensory deficit of the radial nerve. Because of the severity of the deformity, a provisional reduction was performed in the emergency department. Eleven hours after the injury, a routine closed reduction and percutaneous pinning was performed. Although significant swelling was noted at that time, compartment syndrome was not clinically suspected. He was observed as an inpatient because of this persistent swelling. Over the next day, he developed considerable tenderness over the anterior arm and mobile wad musculature, hence, compartment pressure measurements were made. These confirmed a compartment syndrome in the anterior compartment of the arm and equivocally in the mobile wad. An urgent compartment release of the arm was done, which resulted in full recovery. CONCLUSIONS:: This is the first report of a compartment syndrome of the arm after an isolated supracondylar humerus fracture in a child. The presence of the associated fracture made the classic signs of compartment syndrome difficult to assess. Ultimately, muscle tenderness and compartment pressure measurement were most helpful in making this diagnosis. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for compartment syndrome of the arm as well as the forearm when evaluating children with severe supracondylar humerus fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Level IV, case report. PMID:23774207

Diesselhorst, Matthew M; Deck, Jason W; Davey, Joseph P

2013-06-14

407

Comparison of three-compartment Petri dishes and individual plates for routine culture of vaginal swabs.  

PubMed Central

Recovery of aerobes and facultative anaerobes from 200 consecutive randomly selected high vaginal swabs was evaluated using three-compartment Petri dishes containing Sabouraud, dextrose agar, GC selective agar, and chocolate agar. The method was compared with the traditional method using individual Petri dishes. The two methods produced comparable results both in terms and quantities of organisms recovered from the specimens. As three-compartment Petri dishes use less agar, save time in culturing specimens, yet still maintain the same standard of culture, they provide a more economical alternative to the traditional method for routine culture of vaginal swabs. Images

Reeder, J C; Shakespeare, A P; Bryan, C; Keaney, M G; Ganguli, L A

1990-01-01

408

Cell Replacement Strategies Aimed at Reconstitution of the ?-Cell Compartment in Type 1 Diabetes.  

PubMed

Emerging technologies in regenerative medicine have the potential to restore the ?-cell compartment in diabetic patients, thereby overcoming the inadequacies of current treatment strategies and organ supply. Novel approaches include: 1) Encapsulation technology that protects islet transplants from host immune surveillance; 2) stem cell therapies and cellular reprogramming, which seek to regenerate the depleted ?-cell compartment; and 3) whole-organ bioengineering, which capitalizes on the innate properties of the pancreas extracellular matrix to drive cellular repopulation. Collaborative efforts across these subfields of regenerative medicine seek to ultimately produce a bioengineered pancreas capable of restoring endocrine function in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. PMID:24757193

Orlando, Giuseppe; Gianello, Pierre; Salvatori, Marcus; Stratta, Robert J; Soker, Shay; Ricordi, Camillo; Domínguez-Bendala, Juan

2014-05-01

409

Massive ventral hernias: role of tissue expansion in abdominal wall restoration following abdominal compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Massive ventral hernias may result from a variety of clinical situations. One such clinical situation, a common problem in trauma patients, is abdominal compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome frequently results in a massive abdominal defect when primary closure after surgical decompression is not possible. We offer a technique for repairing these massive ventral hernias by first expanding the lateral abdominal wall muscles, fasciae, and skin with tissue expanders and then closing the defect with elements of the "components separation" method. Additionally we present other clinical situations resulting in a massive ventral hernia that were repaired using this technique. PMID:12013296

Admire, Anthony A; Dolich, Matthew O; Sisley, Amy C; Samimi, Kian J

2002-05-01

410

Pupillary block during cataract surgery.  

PubMed

Sudden phakic pupillary block occurred immediately upon cortical cleaving hydrodissection during cataract surgery in two patients. We believe this unique complication is related to the recent introduction of viscoelastics with properties that enhance the maintenance of the anterior chamber during capsulorhexis. We postulate that the cause of the block was a combination of O-ring capsulocortical and iridocapsular seals that tamponade hydrodissection fluid posteriorly. Additional precipitating factors were diabetes, poorly dilating pupils, and increased vitreous pressure, which may have contributed to the sudden and irreversible nature of this block. If this complication is not recognized, an aqueous misdirection syndrome may ensue, requiring pars plana vitrectomy. Immediate mechanical breakage of the pupillary and capsular block, resulting in an immediate decrease in intraocular pressure from greater than 70 mm Hg, may cause severe retinal vascular damage. These cases stress the importance of mechanical pupil dilation to prevent this serious complication of cataract surgery. PMID:8129005

Updegraff, S A; Peyman, G A; McDonald, M B

1994-03-15

411

Improved Ultrasonic Standard Reference Blocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of an improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards system is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are c...

G. F. Sushinsky D. G. Eitzen D. J. Chwirut C. J. Bechtoldt A. W. Ruff

1976-01-01

412

Carbon-carbon cylinder block  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

413

The Building Blocks of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about atoms and their structure (protons, electrons, neutrons) â the building blocks of matter. They see how scientific discoveries about atoms and molecules influence new technologies developed by engineers.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

414

Adaptive overlapped block motion compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive overlapped block motion compensation (OBMC) scheme, which takes the rate, distortion and complexity factors into account, is proposed in this research. With this scheme, the encoder uses the classification information to determine which blocks could be distorted after OBMC. Then, the BMC search rather than the OBMC search is applied to these blocks. Depending on the allowed computational complexity of the decoder, the encoder chooses the best set of OBMC macroblocks which requires a higher complexity. Other macroblocks simply adopt BMC. Furthermore, the motion bit rat can be reduced by soothing the motion field of BMC blocks during motion search in the encoder. An effective group OBMC motion search scheme is applied to this new adaptive OBMC motion scheme. Experimental results show that the complexity of both the encoder and the decoder is reduced while the visual quality remains the same due to ten improvement in the oversmooth region.

Kuo, Tien-Ying; Kuo, C. C. J.

1997-10-01

415

Defying gravity using Jenga™ blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how Jenga™ blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum.

Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

2007-11-01

416

Eugene Island Block 330 field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eugene Island Block 330 field ranks third in cumulative hydrocarbon production on the federal Outer Continental Shelf of the United States and at peak production was the largest O.C.S. oil-producing field. This giant field, located offshore Louisiana, covers parts of seven blocks in the Eugene Island area, South Addition. The field was discovered by the Pennzoil 1, OCS-G 2115

D. S. Holland; D. R. Lammlein; J. B. Leedy

1988-01-01

417

Differentially coherent FEC block coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of differentially coherent communications on a symbol-by-symbol basis are extended to code blocks. The relative phasings of code patterns within each block and the relative carrier phases of successive blocks are used to produce binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) combined with block coding for forward error correcton (FEC) coding. Differentially coherent block coding (DCBC) can yield significant coding gain relative to the performance of uncoded BPSK with differentially coherent detection (DC-BPSK). DCBC is of particular importance for low-speed digital communications where the channel dynamics of oscillator phase noise and Doppler rate may not allow reliable coherent detection. For the case of a static channel corrupted by additive Gaussian noise, DCBC is shown to yield better performance than coded DC-BPSK with other FEC codings of similar complexity. A code block of length N = 16 BPSK symbols for DCBC enables a coding gain of 3.9 dB to be achieved relative to uncoded DC-BPSK performance at a bit error probability of 10 to the -6th.

Rhodes, Smith A.

418

Metal Levels in Southern Leopard Frogs from the Savannah River Site: Location and Body Compartment Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tadpoles have been proposed as useful bioindicators of environmental contamination; yet, recently it has been shown that metal levels vary in different body compartments of tadpoles. Metals levels are higher in the digestive tract of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles, which is usually not removed during such analysis. In this paper we examine the heavy metal levels in southern leopard frog

Joanna Burger; Joel Snodgrass

2001-01-01

419

Simulation on energy use for mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning (MVAC) systems in train compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the conventional automotive, modem railway trains are designed with non-openable windows; and a mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning (MVAC) system is installed in each train compartment for better indoor air quality as well as to provide a thermally comfortable environment. The ventilation rate is no doubt a critical element in the design of a MVAC system, especially in Hong Kong

W. K. Chow; Philip C. H. Yu

2000-01-01

420

Nonoperative treatment of Grade II and III sprains of the lateral ligament compartment of the knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to learn the long-term results of nonoperatively treated sprains of the lateral compartment of the knee joint, generally known to be relatively rare injuries. A multidimensional follow-up analysis was performed on an average 8 years after the injury in 11 patients with Grade II sprains and in 12 patients with Grade III sprains, including

Pekka Kannus

1989-01-01

421

Changes in body fluid compartments during hypohydration and rehydration in heat-acclimated tropical subjects.  

PubMed

Body fluid compartments at different levels of graded hypohydration and partial rehydration were determined using radiotracers in 28 heat-acclimated, male volunteers from tropical regions of India, in hot dry conditions in a climatic chamber. These subjects were hypohydrated to varying degrees (i.e., 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% body mass deficit) by moderate work in hot conditions in a climatic chamber maintained at 45 degrees C dry bulb temperature and 30% relative humidity. Rehydration study was carried out only in those subjects who were hypohydrated to 3% and 4% body mass and who were brought back to 2% level of hypohydration by receiving a calculated amount of water. Up to the 2% level of hypohydration, a major contribution towards sweat loss was observed from the interstitial fluid (ISF) compartment. At higher levels of hypohydration, no further significant loss from ISF was seen, though significant losses in intracellular fluid (ICF) and plasma volume (PV) were apparent. The present study also found that at the 4% hypohydration level, a maximum fluid contribution was met by the ICF compartment. Significant increases observed in sweat K+ at 3 and 4% also indicate the ICF mobilization, which is rich in K+ ions. On partial rehydration, the ISF compartment held the repletion fluid in excess, and was found to be enough to restore sweat rate to euhydration level. This study clearly indicates that sudorific gain is achieved with partial restoration alone in subjects hypohydrated to 3 and 4% levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8476369

Singh, M V; Rawal, S B; Pichan, G; Tyagi, A K

1993-04-01

422

Myositis, rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome complicating influenza A in a child  

PubMed Central

A previously fit and healthy 8-year-old boy died following severe complications of influenza A. He developed lethargy and vomiting before presentation. On presentation to medical attention, on day 4 of his illness, he was in extremis and had extensive myositis, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure and compartment syndrome, which were resistant to supportive medical management.

Skellett, Sophie Clare; Dhesi, Rosepal

2009-01-01

423

75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...compartment occupants. Sections 25.1443, 25.1445, and 25.1447 contain oxygen requirements for flight crew, passengers, and...for the 10 percent additional masks requirement of 14 CFR 25.1447(c)(1). (h) The illumination level of the normal...

2010-01-04

424

75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...compartment occupants. Sections 25.1443, 25.1445, and 25.1447 contain oxygen requirements for flight crew, passengers, and...for the 10 percent additional masks requirement of 14 CFR 25.1447(c)(1). (h) The illumination level of the normal...

2010-01-04

425

76 FR 10476 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew-Rest Compartment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...compartment occupants. Sections 25.1443. 25.1445, and 25.1447 describe oxygen requirements for flightcrew, passengers, and...for the 10 percent additional masks requirement of 14 CFR 25.1447(c)(1). (h) The illumination level of the normal...

2011-02-25

426

Cohesin-based chromatin interactions enable regulated gene expression within preexisting architectural compartments  

PubMed Central

Chromosome conformation capture approaches have shown that interphase chromatin is partitioned into spatially segregated Mb-sized compartments and sub-Mb-sized topological domains. This compartmentalization is thought to facilitate the matching of genes and regulatory elements, but its precise function and mechanistic basis remain unknown. Cohesin controls chromosome topology to enable DNA repair and chromosome segregation in cycling cells. In addition, cohesin associates with active enhancers and promoters and with CTCF to form long-range interactions important for gene regulation. Although these findings suggest an important role for cohesin in genome organization, this role has not been assessed on a global scale. Unexpectedly, we find that architectural compartments are maintained in noncycling mouse thymocytes after genetic depletion of cohesin in vivo. Cohesin was, however, required for specific long-range interactions within compartments where cohesin-regulated genes reside. Cohesin depletion diminished interactions between cohesin-bound sites, whereas alternative interactions between chromatin features associated with transcriptional activation and repression became more prominent, with corresponding changes in gene expression. Our findings indicate that cohesin-mediated long-range interactions facilitate discrete gene expression states within preexisting chromosomal compartments.

Seitan, Vlad C.; Faure, Andre J.; Zhan, Ye; McCord, Rachel Patton; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Ing-Simmons, Elizabeth; Lenhard, Boris; Giorgetti, Luca; Heard, Edith; Fisher, Amanda G.; Flicek, Paul; Dekker, Job; Merkenschlager, Matthias

2013-01-01

427

What is the effect of compartment syndrome and fasciotomies on fracture healing in tibial fractures?  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in tibial diaphyseal fractures has been associated with such complications as infection, delayed fracture healing or non-union, sensory and motor deficits, deformities, and poor functional outcome. Essential condition of an uncomplicated recovery is early diagnosis with prompt decompression. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to evaluate the impact of compartment syndrome and leg fasciotomies on the time to fracture union and the incidence of delayed union and non-union in tibial diaphyseal fractures. A total of 16 articles, which included 245 tibial fractures complicated with compartment syndrome were analysed. There were statistically significant differences in the time to healing, being longer by 4.90 weeks (p<0.001), and in the rates of delayed union or non-union (55% versus 17.8%) (p<0.001) when these fractures were compared to tibial fractures without compartment syndrome. Patients with ACS of the tibia undergoing leg fasciotomies should be informed about the increased risk of impaired fracture healing and longer time to union. PMID:21993369

Reverte, Maria Mercedes; Dimitriou, Rozalia; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Giannoudis, Peter V

2011-12-01

428

Coronin and vacuolin identify consecutive stages of a late, actin-coated endocytic compartment in Dictyostelium.  

PubMed

Cells of the unicellular eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum take up all their nutrients by endocytosis. Both particle- and fluid-containing vacuoles are transiently surrounded by a cytoskeletal coat [1] [2]. When this coat has dissociated, acidification and digestion of the vesicle contents occur, followed by exocytosis of the indigestible remnants after 60-90 minutes. At least nine compartments are needed for mathematical modelling of endocytic transit [3], suggesting that markers associate for only a few minutes with a specific endocytic compartment. Among the proteins that have been identified as components of endocytic vesicles are actin, subunits of the V-H+ ATPase and small GTP-binding proteins of the Rab family [4] [5] [6] [7]. Using a monoclonal antibody produced against Dictyostelium endocytic vesicles, we have isolated a cDNA corresponding to a novel protein that we have named vacuolin. In order to determine the precise step along the endocytic pathway that involves vacuolin, we generated a fusion protein of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and vacuolin. GFP-vacuolin-decorated vesicles were identified as a post-lysosomal compartment that acquires endocytic markers shortly before exocytosis. At earlier stages, this post-lysosomal compartment was identified by the binding of a tagged cytoskeletal protein, coronin-GFP. Vacuoles were coated with filamentous actin along the entire post-lysosomal pathway, and the integrity of the actin coat was required for exocytosis. PMID:9276759

Rauchenberger, R; Hacker, U; Murphy, J; Niewöhner, J; Maniak, M

1997-03-01

429

Modeling maglev passenger compartment static magnetic fields from linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger compartment magnetic field levels in a low-speed magnetic levitation (maglev) vehicle that uses linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays for both levitation and propulsion are computed through superposition of fields due to patches of magnetization charge at surfaces where the magnetization is discontinuous. End effects due to the finite lengths of the arrays lead to fields that decay much less rapidly

James F. Hoburg

2004-01-01

430

Three-compartment electro-oxidation reactor for bio-refractory organics degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to produce oxidizing agents from water (mainly OH? radicals) in a three-compartment electrochemical cell, by heterogeneous catalytic reaction between a semiconductor and water under a superimposed electric field, was assessed for the degradation of non-biodegradable toxic organic compounds. The treated solution is not in contact with electrodes to avoid, in the case of high content of chlorine salt,

C. Carlesi Jara; D. Fino; G. Saracco; V. Specchia

2007-01-01

431

SORPTION AND DESORPTION BY IDEAL TWO-COMPARTMENT SYSTEMS: UNUSUAL BEHAVIOR AND DATA INTERPRETATION PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents an evaluation of the results of fitting curves to isotherm and kinetic data for idealized two-compartment systems of soil or sediment. Data were produced by numerically solving sets of Freundlich isotherm and first-order kinetics equations for mixtures of up ...

432

Effects of Cargo Loading and Active Containers on Aircraft Cargo Compartment Smoke Detection Times.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to evaluate how smoke detection times are affected when the same quantity of smoke is released in either an empty or fully loaded cargo compartment. It also evaluated the effect on smoke detection times from active cargo co...

D. Blake

2009-01-01

433

A compartment model for the mass transfer inside a conventional flotation cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is developed by taking into account the simultaneous mechanisms of true flotation and entrainment in a conventional flotation cell. The total volume of the cell is divided into three compartments: pulp collection zone, pulp quiescent zone and froth region, with the mechanisms being modeled as occurring at the same time but originating at different places: true flotation from

O. N. Savassi

2005-01-01

434

Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

Hunt, Leanne; Frost, Steve A; Hillman, Ken; Newton, Phillip J; Davidson, Patricia M

2014-01-01

435

Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is an elusive early complication of traumatic shock resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe term secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has been applied to describe trauma patients who develop ACS but do not have abdominal injuries. The purpose of this study was to describe major trauma victims who developed secondary ACS during standardized shock resuscitation.

Zsolt Balogh; Bruce A McKinley; Christine S Cocanour; Rosemary A Kozar; John B Holcomb; Drue N Ware; Frederick A Moore

2002-01-01

436

Gastric tonometry and direct intraabdominal pressure monitoring in abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) may complicate abdominal closure in patients with abdominal wall defects, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal bleeding, and infection. Increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) leads to respiratory compromise, organ hypoperfusion, and a high mortality rate. This study evaluates the efficacy of continuous direct monitoring of IAP and gastric tissue pH in detecting impending ACS. Methods: Ten mongrel puppies weighing

S. A. Engum; B. Kogon; E. Jensen; J. Isch; C. Balanoff; J. L. Grosfeld

2002-01-01

437

The abdominal compartment syndrome is a morbid complication of postinjury damage control surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a recognized complication of damage control surgery (DCS). The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the effect of ACS on outcome after DCS, (2) identify patients at high risk for the development of ACS, and (3) determine whether ACS can be prevented by preemptive intravenous bag closure during DCS.Methods: Patients requiring

Christopher D Raeburn; Ernest E Moore; Walter L Biffl; Jeffrey L Johnson; Daniel R Meldrum; Patrick J Offner; Reginald J Franciose; Jon M Burch

2001-01-01

438

The role of tissue pressure measurement in diagnosing chronic anterior compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure studies were performed in 55 patients (24 with chronic anterior leg pain and 31 asymptomatic recreational athletes). Pressure measurements were recorded at rest, during, and after exercise, using the slit catheter system. Seventeen of the twenty-four pa tients with symptomatic anterior leg pain were diag nosed on the basis of tissue pressure studies as having chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

C. H. Rorabeck; R. B. Bourne; P. J. Fowler; J. B. Finlay; Linda Nott

1988-01-01

439

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: An Indication for a Decompressing Laparotomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The currently prevailing paradigm calls for non-operative management of severe acute pancreatitis for as long as there is no evidence of infection. Our purpose in presenting this anecdotal experience is to propose that there is a subset of patients who may need a laparotomy in the absence of infection in order to decompress a clinically significant abdominal compartment syndrome

Gary Gecelter; Bashar Fahoum; Syed Gardezi; Moshe Schein

2002-01-01

440

Chronic leg pain in athletes due to a recurrent compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 29 patients, all engaged in sports activity on a regular basis, suffering from recurrent compart mental syndrome, is reported. The syndrome is not restricted only to long distance runners but to athletes involved in a variety of sports activities (soccer, volley ball, cycle racing, gymnastics, judo, physical education, and long distance running). Although most patients presented activity-related

Marc A. Martens; Marc Backaert; Gery Vermaut; Jozef C. Mulier

1984-01-01

441

Effects of thermal radiation and insolation on passenger compartments of an automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the dynamical simulation model of the thermal environment for automobile passenger compartments which is useful for the development of automobile air-conditioning systems. In our previous research, we proposed the model of this type considering the accuracy and the amount of computation, however, proposed model was insufficient to simulate the effect of thermal radiation and insolation on the thermal

Takuya Kubota; Ryo Watanabe; Hidenori Miyashita

2010-01-01

442

Compartment A7M cork lined powder magazine looking from forward ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-7M - cork lined powder magazine looking from forward to aft; valve at right center is a remotely controlled valve for flooding the magazine in an emergency. (020) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

443

Modelling of mercury transport and transformations in the water compartment of the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Basin is highly heterogeneous with regard to its climatic and oceanographic properties. The appropriate approach for simulating the transport and transformations of Hg in the water compartment requires the use of a hydrodynamic model with additional modules for transport–dispersion and biogeochemistry. In this work, the PCFLOW3D model was upgraded with a biogeochemical module and used for simulation of

Dušan Žagar; Gregor Petkovšek; Rudi Rajar; Nataša Sirnik; Milena Horvat; Antigoni Voudouri; George Kallos; Matjaž ?etina

2007-01-01

444

An unusual lysosome compartment involved in vitellogenin endocytosis by Xenopus oocytes  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the lysosomal compartment of Xenopus oocytes to determine the possible role of this organelle in the endocytic pathway of the yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin. Oocytes have lysosome-like organelles of unusual enzymatic composition at all stages of their development, and the amount of hydrolase activity increases steadily throughout oogenesis. These unusual lysosomes appear to be located primarily in a peripheral zone of oocyte cytoplasm. At least two distinct populations of lysosomal organelles can be identified after sucrose density gradient fractionation of vitellogenic oocytes. Most enzyme activity resides in a compartment of large size and high density that appears to be a subpopulation of yolk platelets that are less dense than most platelets within the cell. The appearance of this high density peak of lysosomal enzyme activity coincides with the time of onset of vitellogenin endocytosis during oocyte development. The data suggest that endocytic vesicles that contain vitellogenin fuse with modified lysosomes shortly after their internalization by the oocyte. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled vitellogenin suggest that the ligand passes through the low density platelet compartment en route to the heavy platelets. The accumulation of yolk proteins apparently results from a failure of these molecules to undergo complete digestion after their entry into an unusual lysosomal compartment. The yolk platelets that these proteins finally enter for prolonged storage appear to be a postlysosomal organelle.

1985-01-01

445

Application of statistical energy analysis to the design of crew rest compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longer flight times for modern commercial aircraft have led to the need for crew rest compartments. Noise levels in the crew rest compartments must be conducive to proper rest and recuperation. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has been used to develop a 777 crew rest compartment design that achieves appropriate noise levels at acceptable weight and cost. In this paper the design of a 777 overhead crew rest compartment is outlined using SEA design tools and methods. Noise data were gathered in flight to distinguish airplane source components and develop model inputs. Crew rest panels, the airplane fuselage, and acoustic volumes were modeled as SEA subsystems by taking into account geometry, material properties, modulus, and damping. A model was built, excited with inputs, and analyzed to determine energy flow paths and acoustic pressure at receiver locations. Prospective add-on treatments were then assessed to engineer an effective noise control package. The model development was supplemented by laboratory sound transmission loss testing of individual components. The good agreement between the laboratory tests and individual SEA models of the components increased confidence in the approach. Once the crew rest was installed on the airplane, the measured in-flight noise levels closely matched the SEA estimates.

Gmerek, Mark M.

2002-11-01

446

A fuzzy logic approach to fire detection in aircraft dry bays and engine compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a fuzzy logic approach is applied to detect hydrocarbon fires in aircraft dry bays and engine compartments. The inputs to the fuzzy system consist of a set of statistical measures derived from the histogram and image subtraction analyses of successive image frames. Specifically, fuzzy rules based on the median, standard deviation, and normalized first-order moment statistical measures

Simon Y. Foo

2000-01-01

447

The role of Dpp signaling in maintaining the Drosophila anteroposterior compartment boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subdivision of the developing Drosophila wing into anterior (A) and posterior (P) compartments is important for its development. The activities of the selector genes engrailed and invected in posterior cells and the transduction of the Hedgehog signal in anterior cells are required for maintaining the A\\/P boundary. Based on a previous study, it has been proposed that the signaling

Jie Shen; Christian Dahmann

2005-01-01

448

Vibration Imaging for Localization of Functional Compartments of the Extrinsic Flexor Muscles of the Hand  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop and test an MRI-based imaging technique for the localization of the functional compartments of the functionally finger-specific, yet anatomically indistinct, flexor muscles of the hand. Materials and Methods A total of 6 normal healthy volunteers were involved in five studies in which individual fingers were vibrated with mechanical actuators and the resultant motion within the corresponding functional compartments of the flexor muscles, mechanically transferred through the structurally connected tendons, was imaged with a phase-contrast MR imaging technique that is highly sensitive to cyclic motion. The motion amplitude and relative phase relationship between the functional compartments of various muscles and fingers were obtained and analyzed from these images as a means to differentiate the various subcompartments. Results The results show that this technique provides a detailed mapping of the regions of the complex flexor muscle compartments that correspond to each digit for both the flexor digitorum profundus and the flexor digitorum superficialis. The results also demonstrate the presence of mechanical interdependence between the flexor muscles. Conclusion It is concluded from the results that localization of the finger-specific subcompartments of the forearm flexor muscles can be performed with this technique.

Mariappan, Yogesh K; Manduca, Armando; Glaser, Kevin J; Chen, Jun; Amrami, Kimberly K; Ehman, Richard L

2010-01-01

449

The electrostatic potentials generated by loading multiple batches of product into a road tanker compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some circumstances it is necessary to load road tanker compartments in two or more separate stages with significant waiting periods between each stage. At least one accident has occurred within a few seconds of the start of a second or subsequent stage and it has been a cause of some surprise that high potentials can be generated so rapidly

H. L. Walmsley

1996-01-01

450

View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A21) showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A-21) showing port ventilation fan; electrical generator is at left center of photograph. Platform for generator is at bottom center of photograph. Hatch for passing powder up from magazine is located just above the generator base. Frames support armored protective deck. (018) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

451

Identification of Multivesicular Bodies as Prevacuolar Compartments in Nicotiana tabacum BY2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the dynamics and molecular components of plant prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We have demonstrated recently that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins are concentrated on PVCs. In this study, we generated transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) BY-2 cell lines expressing two yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fusion reporters that mark PVC and Golgi organelles. Both transgenic cell lines exhibited typical punctate

Yu Chung Tse; Beixin Mo; Stefan Hillmer; David G. Robinson; Liwen Jianga

2004-01-01

452

Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder-associated biomarker.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders. PMID:24487591

te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O; Wallom, Kerri L; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A; Hendriksz, Christian J; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie; Jacklin, Elizabeth; Riddick, Kate; Yanjanin, Nicole M; Wassif, Christopher A; Rolfs, Arndt; Rimmele, Florian; Wright, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Ramaswami, Uma; Cox, Timothy M; Hastings, Caroline; Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Ory, Daniel S; Arias, Begona; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Sillence, Daniel J; Wraith, James E; Porter, Forbes D; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Platt, Frances M

2014-03-01

453

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a case series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is rare in the published literature. We report the outcome of a series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy over a 14 year period. All patients underwent dynamic intra-compartmental pressure testing using a slit catheter technique before surgery. Raised intra-compartmental pressures on exercise, typical symptoms and the absence of other diagnoses were criteria

J. S. Brown; P. C. Wheeler; K. T. Boyd; M. R. Barnes; M. J. Allen

2011-01-01

454

Effect of Early Fasciotomy on Intramuscular Pressure and Electrical Excitability of Muscles in Experimental Compartment Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on rabbits with compartment syndrome of the leg showed that the main pathogenetic factors of muscle injury are postischemic contracture leading to extravascular microcirculatory disorders and tissue necrosis(early postcompression period) and progressive subfascial edema (18 h-4 days). Therapeutic effect of fasciotomy in the early period consists in restoration of bloodflow due to relaxation of contracted muscles and in the

V. I. Babinkov; N. K. Khitrov; Z. A. Cherkashina

2000-01-01

455

Compression-Induced Muscle Injury in Rats that Mimics Compartment Syndrome in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome (CS) is a serious complication arising from a variety of extremity injuries and resultant swelling within the fascicles of the muscle tissue. The current standard of care for CS is fasciotomy, which relieves the intracompartmental pressure of CS but inflicts further tissue damage. The development of new techniques to treat CS include angiogenic therapy, anti-fibrosis treatments, and stem

Tracy L. Criswell; Benjamin T. Corona; Catherine L. Ward; Marc Miller; Manish Patel; Zhan Wang; George J. Christ; Shay Soker

456