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1

A clinical comparison of psoas compartment and inguinal paravascular blocks combined with sciatic nerve block.  

PubMed

The extent of inguinal paravascular blockade and psoas compartment blockade with sciatic nerve block was evaluated in 60 patients. Volumes of 30 ml and 20 ml 0.35% bupivacaine with 1/200,000 epinephrine were injected for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block, respectively. Complete lumbar plexus blockade was achieved in 73% of the group who were treated with the psoas compartment technique and 43% of the group who were treated with the inguinal paravascular technique. Sensory blockade of the femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous and obturator nerves was obtained in 100%, 97% and 77% of the patients in the psoas compartment group, and 93%, 63% and 47% of the patients in the inguinal paravascular group, respectively. Sensory blockade of the lateral femoral cutaneous and obturator nerves was more rapid with psoas compartment block. The study suggests that the psoas compartment block is effective in blocking the femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous and obturator nerves, but the inguinal paravascular block is only effective in blocking the femoral nerve. PMID:12025523

Tokat, O; Türker, Y G; Uckunkaya, N; Yilmazlar, A

2002-01-01

2

Ultrasound-guided psoas compartment block and general anesthesia for arthroscopic knee surgery: a case report.  

PubMed

Anesthetizing the lumbar plexus at its origin facilitates a more "complete" psoas compartment block compared to peripheral approaches. It is usually performed using surface anatomical landmarks, and the site for local anesthetic injection is confirmed by observing quadriceps muscle contraction to peripheral nerve stimulation. Ultrasound may provide guidance alone or together with the aid of nerve stimulation during nerve blocks. We present a 48-year-old male patient, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status II, who refused spinal anesthesia, and underwent knee arthroscopy with ultrasound-guided psoas compartment block and general anesthesia. Following the standard monitoring and lateral decubitus positioning, the vertebral body, psoas, erector spinae, and quadratus lumborum muscles and hyperechoic nerve roots of the patient were visualized at the level of L4-5 with curvilinear ultrasound probe. The needle was inserted with ultrasound guidance, and correct tip position was confirmed with quadriceps contraction. Then, the mixture of 30 mL local anesthetic (10 mL 2% lidocaine and 20 ml 5% levobupivacaine) was injected at the estimated position of the lumbar plexus (junction of the posterior third and anterior two-thirds of the psoas muscle). He also received general anesthesia for the surgery. Anesthesia and surgical procedures were completed successfully without any additional anesthetic/analgesic requirement or complication. The postoperative period was pain-free both at rest and during mobilization for 24 hours. This case report shows that ultrasound-guided psoas compartment block is feasible and efficient for peri- and postoperative analgesia during knee arthroscopy. PMID:24481582

Salv?z, Emine Aysu; Gürkan, Yavuz; Tekin, Murat; Buluç, Levent

2014-01-01

3

Continuous Psoas Compartment Blocks After Major Orthopedic Surgery in Children: A Prospective Computed Tomographic Scan and Clinical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoral shaft or hip surgeries are very painful for chil- dren. We conducted both computed tomographic (CT) and clinical prospective studies to define new land- marks in children and to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous psoas compartment blocks (CPCBs) using disposable elastomeric pumps. In a preliminary CT scan study of 20 patients, the plexus depth was corre- lated to patient

C. Dadure; O. Raux; P. Gaudard; M. Sagintaah; R. Troncin; A. Rochette; X. Capdevila

2004-01-01

4

Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments.  

PubMed

Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally 'program' the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials. PMID:25362355

Huber, Matthias C; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M

2015-01-01

5

Comparison of the Three-in-One and Fascia lliaca Compartment Blocks in Adults: Clinical and Radiographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-in-1 (Group 1) and fascia iliaca compartment (Group 2) blocks, two single-injection, anterior ap- proach procedures used to simultaneously block the femoral, obturator, and lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC) nerves, were compared in 100 adults after lower limb surgery. Pain control, sensory and motor blockades, and radiographically visualized spread of local anes- thetic solution were studied prospectively. Both ap- proaches

X. Capdevila; M. Bouregba; Y. Barthelet; J. Rubenovitch; F. d'Athis

6

Prehospital administered fascia iliaca compartment block by emergency medical service nurses, a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with a proximal femur fracture are often difficult to evacuate from the accident scene. Prehospital pain management for this vulnerable group of patients may be challenging. Multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy and increased age may limit the choice of suitable analgesics. The fascia iliaca compartment (FIC) block may be an alternative to intravenous analgesics. However this peripheral nerve block is mainly applied by physicians. In the Netherlands, prehospital emergency care is mostly provided by EMS-nurses. Therefore we examined whether well-trained EMS-nurses are able to successfully perform a FIC block in order to ensure timely and appropriate effective analgesia. The study was study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR-nr 3824). Methods Ten EMS nurses were educated in the performance of a FIC-block. Indications, technique, side-effects and complications were discussed. Hereafter the trained EMS-nurses staffed ambulance teams were dispatched to patients with a suspicion for a proximal femur fracture. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the block was performed and 0.3 ml/kg lidocaine (10 mg/ml) with adrenaline 5 ?g/ml was injected. The quality of pain relief, occurrence of complications and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results In 108 patients a block was performed. One hundred patients could be included. Every EMS nurse performed at least 10 FIC blocks. The block was effective in 96 patients. The initial median (NRS)-pain score decreased after block performance to a score of 6 (after 10 minutes), 4 (after 20 minutes) and 3 (after 30 minutes). At arrival at the Emergency Department the median pain score was 3. Dynamic NRS-pain scores when transferring the patient from the accident scene to the ambulance stretcher, during transportation to the hospital and when transferring the patient to a hospital bed were, 4, 3 and 3.5 respectively. Patient satisfaction was very high. No complications were noted. Conclusion Additional educated EMS-nurses are able to successfully perform a FIC-block for providing acute pain relief to patients with a suspected proximal femur fracture. PMID:24957807

2014-01-01

7

Mathematical model of heat transfer in the U-shaped block of the unpressurized device compartment of a geostationary spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new dynamic mathematical distributed-lumped parameter model of heat transfer in the U-shaped block of the service-system module of the unpressurized device compartment of a promising geostationary orbiting spacecraft having a long service life is proposed. A computational algorithm and software for calculating the multidimensional nonstationary temperature fields arising in the process of operation of the airborne-equipment devices and the system of nonregulated heat pipes in the indicated block have been developed. Results of calculation of these fields are presented.

Burakov, V. A.; Korchagin, E. N.; Kozhukhov, V. P.; Tkachenko, A. S.; Shcherbakova, I. V.

2007-11-01

8

COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURE MISSED BECAUSE OF A LOCAL NERVE BLOCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome is a serious complication of frac- tures of the tibial shaft and its clinical presentation and eval- uation have been well documented (Holden 1975; Kikuchi, Hasue and Watanabe 1978). The most important diagnostic feature is the presence of inappropriate pain even after stabi- lisation of the fracture by a cast or by external or internal fixation. Pain is

N HYDER; S. KESSLER; A. G. JENNINGS; P. G. DE BOER

1996-01-01

9

Tropomyosin is in a reduced state in rabbit psoas muscle.  

PubMed

Tropomyosin (Tm) purified from skeletal and cardiac muscle often contains disulfide bonds due to oxidation of cysteine groups that are in close proximity in the coiled-coil structure. Are these disulfide crosslinks present in the muscle or produced by oxidation during preparation? To answer this question we reacted one part of freshly dissected rabbit psoas muscle fibers, which was permeabilized with Triton X-100, with N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) to block cysteine groups and another part with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro benzoate) (DTNB) to facilitate disulfide bond formation by interchain sulfhydryl-disulfide exchange. We found, by high resolution gradient SDS polyacrylamide gels, that the NEM-treated muscle was only composed of uncrosslinked Tm and the DTNB treated muscle was composed of disulfide-crosslinked Tm. This work indicates that Tm exists in a reduced state in rabbit psoas muscle. PMID:21590498

Lehrer, Sherwin S; Ly, Socheata; Fuchs, Franklin

2011-08-01

10

Single Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block for Post-Hip Fracture Pain Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip fractures can cause considerable pain when untreated or under-treated. To enhance pain relief and diminish the risk of delirium from typically administered parenteral analgesics and continued pain, we tested the efficacy of using fascia-iliaca blocks (FICB), administered by one of four attending physicians working in the emergency department (ED), with commonly available ED equipment. After informed consent, a physician

Daniel Godoy Monzon; Kenneth V. Iserson; Jorge A. Vazquez

2007-01-01

11

Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia. Aim: To test the hypothesis that, adding dexamethasone would significantly prolong the duration of Bupivacaine in FICB. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 80 years posted for ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) of fracture femur were included to receive FICB. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind study done at tertiary medical college hospital. Thirty patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml saline and another 30 patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml dexamethasone (8mg). Thirty minutes after FICB, patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anesthesia was recorded. In the post-operative period, duration of analgesia and the total doses of rescue analgesics were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients who received Bupivacaine with dexamethasone had significant prolongation of analgesia and required fewer doses of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone for FICB. However, the onset of analgesia, VAS scores and patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study shows that adding Dexamethasone (8mg) to Bupivacaine for FICB significantly prolonged the duration of block and decreased the requirement of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone. FICB is relatively easy and safe to perform. In our study we did not encounter any complication while doing the procedures and also by adding dexamethasone. PMID:25302209

Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

2014-01-01

12

Bilateral psoas abscess in the emergency department.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presented multiple times to the emergency department with acute low back pain and was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral psoas muscle abscess. Psoas abscess is an uncommon cause of acute low back pain that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The onset of symptoms is frequently insidious and the clinical presentation vague. Proper diagnosis requires vigilance of the physician to recognize signs in the history and physical examination that are suggestive of a potentially serious spinal condition and initiate further workup. While most patients with acute low back pain have a benign etiology, this case report demonstrates the challenge of diagnosing a patient with bilateral psoas abscess who had few known risk factors and symptoms typical of mechanical low back pain. PMID:20046252

Tomich, Eric B; Della-Giustina, David

2009-11-01

13

Bilateral Psoas Abscess in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presented multiple times to the emergency department with acute low back pain and was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral psoas muscle abscess. Psoas abscess is an uncommon cause of acute low back pain that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The onset of symptoms is frequently insidious and the clinical presentation vague. Proper diagnosis requires vigilance of the physician to recognize signs in the history and physical examination that are suggestive of a potentially serious spinal condition and initiate further workup. While most patients with acute low back pain have a benign etiology, this case report demonstrates the challenge of diagnosing a patient with bilateral psoas abscess who had few known risk factors and symptoms typical of mechanical low back pain. PMID:20046252

Tomich, Eric B.; Della-Giustina, David

2009-01-01

14

Compartments within a compartment  

PubMed Central

The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease. PMID:24732235

Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna AWM

2014-01-01

15

Bilateral Psoas Muscle Abscess Associated with Emphysematous Cystitis  

PubMed Central

Psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous urinary tract infection is very rare. There were very few reports about urinary tract infections such as renal abscess, perinephric abscess, and emphysematous pyelonephritis complicated with psoas muscle abscess; however, psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous cystitis has not yet been reported. Here, we report a case of bilateral posas muscle abscess following emphysematous cystitis in an 81-year-old nondiabetic man, who was treated successfully with prolonged antibiotic therapy and supportive care. Early recognition of psoas muscle abscess can prevent aggressive interventional procedure and warrant good prognosis. PMID:25755669

Choi, Jae-Ki; Kwon, Jae-Cheol

2015-01-01

16

An easily overlooked presentation of malignant psoas abscess: hip pain.  

PubMed

Psoas abscess is a rare infectious disease with nonspecific clinical presentation that frequently causes a diagnostic difficulty. Its insidious onset and occult characteristics can cause diagnostic delays. It is classified as primary or secondary. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly causative pathogen in primary psoas abscess. Secondary psoas abscess usually occurs as a result of underlying diseases. A high index of clinical suspicion, the past and recent history of the patient, and imaging studies can be helpful in diagnosing the disease. The delay of the treatment is related with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, 54-year-old patient with severe hip pain having an abscess in the psoas muscle due to metastatic cervical carcinoma is presented. PMID:25685574

Askin, Ayhan; Bayram, Korhan Baris; Demirdal, Umit Secil; Korkmaz, Merve Bergin; Gurgan, Alev Demirbilek; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

2015-01-01

17

An Easily Overlooked Presentation of Malignant Psoas Abscess: Hip Pain  

PubMed Central

Psoas abscess is a rare infectious disease with nonspecific clinical presentation that frequently causes a diagnostic difficulty. Its insidious onset and occult characteristics can cause diagnostic delays. It is classified as primary or secondary. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly causative pathogen in primary psoas abscess. Secondary psoas abscess usually occurs as a result of underlying diseases. A high index of clinical suspicion, the past and recent history of the patient, and imaging studies can be helpful in diagnosing the disease. The delay of the treatment is related with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, 54-year-old patient with severe hip pain having an abscess in the psoas muscle due to metastatic cervical carcinoma is presented. PMID:25685574

Askin, Ayhan; Bayram, Korhan Baris; Demirdal, Umit Secil; Korkmaz, Merve Bergin; Gurgan, Alev Demirbilek; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

2015-01-01

18

Ilio-psoas abscess in a neonate.  

PubMed

A full-term, small-for-gestational-age, neonate was born 4 days after rupture of the membranes. On the 5th day of life, she developed sepsis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae. On the 18th day of life, the right hip was noted swollen with limited range of motion, but it was painless on passive movements. Ultrasonography revealed abscess of the right ilio-psoas muscle with normal appearance of the right hip joint. Surgical incision and drainage and antibiotic administration resulted in a gradual full recovery. Ultrasonography can confirm the diagnosis of this exceptional clinical entity in neonates, which is difficult to differentiate from septic arthritis of the hip. PMID:9394159

Andreou, A; Karasavvidou, A; Papadopoulou, F; Koukoulidis, A

1997-10-01

19

Differentiation of psoas muscle abscess from septic arthritis of the hip in children.  

PubMed

A 20-year review was conducted of children presenting with psoas abscess at two major pediatric hospitals. Eleven children with psoas abscesses were identified. The extreme variability in the clinical presentation of this condition is shown. Psoas abscess was most difficult to differentiate from septic arthritis of the hip in pediatric patients. This study also shows the often circuitous investigative route traversed before arriving at the diagnosis of psoas abscess. Atypical features, such as femoral nerve neurapraxia or bladder irritability in association with hip pain, should alert the clinician to consider psoas abscess. Based on this study, a diagnostic algorithm to differentiate between psoas abscess and septic hip was formulated. PMID:11603678

Song, J; Letts, M; Monson, R

2001-10-01

20

Compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening and occasionally life-threatening injury. It occurs whenever the tissue pressure (referred to as interstitial pressure) within a closed anatomic space is greater than the perfusion pressure. Untreated, compartment syndrome leads to tissue necrosis, permanent functional impairment and, if severe in large compartments, renal failure and death. Compartment syndrome can occur within any muscle group located in a compartment. It is most common following an event that severely damages a muscle, like a crushing or twisting injury. Mechanisms of injury that involve circumferential burns, ischemia and tourniquets can cause compartment syndrome. Motorcyclists who suffer lower-extermity injuries in accidents are a high-risk group. A tough membrane referred to as a fascia covers muscle groups, forming a compartment for the muscle. In normal circumstances, this arrangement allows the muscle to function more efficiently, but if the muscle is injured in any way, the fascia limits the amount of swelling that can occur. This in turn restricts the flow of blood through the affected region. The first compromised function within the compartment is the flow of lymph and venous blood. If there are sensory nerves running through the compartment, they will not function correctly, causing the numbness, tingling and, later, the pain associated with compartment syndrome. With more swelling, arterial flow is compromised, pain worsens and motor function is impaired. An artificial way of producing a compartment syndrome is to place a cast or splint around a damaged extermity, compressing it. This is a way emergency personnel can compromise an injury and cause long-term consequences for the patient. Recovery is achieved by surgically opening the compartment involved (a fasciotomy) and releasing the pressure. The muscle at first will swell outside the compartment, but then it recovers, swelling is reduced and normal function can be recovered. Prehospital treatment of extremity injuries that will prevent or limit compartment syndrome is immobilization, elevation and cooling. Recognition of the syndrome later in its course, as in this case, requires the EMT to remove the patient to an appropriate emergency department. Prehospital providers need to recognize that many mechanisms of injury can produce this syndrome, even those that seem relatively minor. All injured patients should be educated to seek care should the symptoms of numbness, deep pain and coolness to the distal extremity occur. This case involved a patient who, from a relatively minor mechanism of trauma, experienced an internal disruption of the muscle group controlling the thumb (thenar mass). The early swelling in the thenar compartment resulted in the patient experiencing a tingling sensation in his left thumb. In many cases, such an injury would be referred to as a "stinger" (a temporary neurological deficit due to a sudden and excessive stimulation of a neurologic plexus or junction). But this patient had more swelling in the compartment, resulting in a lack of circulation manifested by a cool extremity, poor capillary refill and decreased pulse oximetry. Luckily, this officer recognized the need for medical evaluation of what appeared to be a minor injury and was returned to duty with no permanent impairment. PMID:14503155

Weinmann, Michael

2003-09-01

21

Compartment syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

1989-01-01

22

Eggerthella lenta Bacteremia Complicated by Spondylodiscitis, Psoas Abscess, and Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Eggerthella lenta bacteremia is uncommon and generally associated with abdominal sepsis. The organism and its clinical significance have not been well characterized due to historical difficulties with identification. We report a case of severe infection in a paraplegic man complicated by psoas abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis and discuss treatment challenges. PMID:24430458

Korman, T. M.; Junckerstorff, R. K.

2014-01-01

23

Differentiation of posterior pararenal space infection from psoas abscess by gallium imaging  

SciTech Connect

Three of four patients whose cases fit the clinical description of psoas abscess proved on gallium imaging to have infection in the posterior pararenal space sparing the psoas muscle. This space provides a route for spread of infection connecting the spine, the anterior abdominal wall, the scrotum, the anterior thigh, and the gluteal region as demonstrated by the cases presented. Clinical differentiation between posterior pararenal space infection and psoas abscesses is difficult and CT studies may not demonstrate the process when the psoas space is not involved.

Bose, A.; Mishkin, F.; Delgado, J.

1983-01-01

24

Appendicitis with psoas abscess successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery  

PubMed Central

Although acute appendicitis is a common disease, retroperitoneal abscesses are rarely observed. Here, we report a case consisting of a psoas abscess and cutaneous fistula caused by appendicitis. The patient was a 56-year-old male who was introduced to our institution due to an intractable right psoas abscess. Imaging tests had been performed over the previous 3 years; however, clinicians could not find the origin of the abscess and failed to resolve the problem. A successful operation was performed via a laparoscopic approach, and 17 mo have passed without recurrence. The advantage of laparoscopic surgery is well understood in cases of appendicitis with abscesses. However, the indication for laparoscopic approach is not clear for retroperitoneal abscesses. From our experience, we can conclude that appendicitis with retroperitoneal abscesses can be managed and treated using a laparoscopic approach. PMID:25009411

Otowa, Yasunori; Sumi, Yasuo; Kanaji, Shingo; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

25

Conservative management of psoas haematoma following complex lumbar surgery  

PubMed Central

We report psoas hematoma communicating with extradural hematoma and compressing on lumbar nerve roots during the postoperative period in a patient who underwent L3/4 level dynamic stabilization and L4/5 and L5/S1 posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Persistent radicular symptoms occurring soon after posterior lumbar surgery are not an unknown entity. However, psoas hematoma communicating with the extradural hematoma and compressing on L4 and L5 nerve roots soon after surgery, leading to radicular symptoms has not been reported. In addition to the conservative approach in managing such cases, this case report also emphasizes the importance of clinical evaluation and utilization of necessary imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to diagnose the cause of persistent severe radicular pain in the postoperative period. PMID:24600073

Lakkol, Sandesh; Sarda, Praveen; Karpe, Prasad; Krishna, Manoj

2014-01-01

26

Massive psoas haematoma causing lumbar plexus palsy: a case report.  

PubMed

An 84-year-old man who was receiving oral anticoagulation therapy presented with complete lumbar plexus palsy caused by a massive psoas haematoma. Conservative treatment rather than drainage of the haematoma was undertaken, because of the risk of bleeding complications and mortality. At the one-year follow-up, the patient had no clinical signs of neurological recovery. The patient died 2 months later due to his concurrent medical problems. A high degree of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis because of the insidiously developing neurological deficit. PMID:22535820

Conesa, Xavier; Ares, Oscar; Seijas, Roberto

2012-04-01

27

Primary psoas muscle abscess diagnosed and treated during pregnancy: case report and literature review.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Primary psoas muscle abscess is rare and can be difficult to diagnose, particularly during pregnancy. CASE: To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary psoas muscle abscess diagnosed during pregnancy. Clinical investigation did not reveal any infection spreading from adjacent structures. Surgical drainage and simultaneous Cesarean delivery of the infant, combined with appropriate antibiotics, enabled a cure. CONCLUSION: The possibility of psoas muscle abscess should be taken into account when investigating lower back pain during pregnancy if conventional approaches are unsatisfactory. PMID:15763914

Gezer, A.; Erkan, S.; Saygi Erzik, B.; Erel, C. T.

2004-01-01

28

G Protein Beta 5 Is Targeted to D2-Dopamine Receptor-Containing Biochemical Compartments and Blocks Dopamine-Dependent Receptor Internalization  

PubMed Central

G beta 5 (Gbeta5, G?5) is a unique G protein ? subunit that is thought to be expressed as an obligate heterodimer with R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins instead of with G gamma (G?) subunits. We found that D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) coexpression enhances the expression of G?5, but not that of the G beta 1 (G?1) subunit, in HEK293 cells, and that the enhancement of expression occurs through a stabilization of G?5 protein. We had previously demonstrated that the vast majority of D2R either expressed endogenously in the brain or exogenously in cell lines segregates into detergent-resistant biochemical fractions. We report that when expressed alone in HEK293 cells, G?5 is highly soluble, but is retargeted to the detergent-resistant fraction after D2R coexpression. Furthermore, an in-cell biotin transfer proximity assay indicated that D2R and G?5 segregating into the detergent-resistant fraction specifically interacted in intact living cell membranes. Dopamine-induced D2R internalization was blocked by coexpression of G?5, but not G?1. However, the same G?5 coexpression levels had no effect on agonist-induced internalization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), cell surface D2R levels, dopamine-mediated recruitment of ?-arrestin to D2R, the amplitude of D2R-G protein coupling, or the deactivation kinetics of D2R-activated G protein signals. The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and G?5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. PMID:25162404

Octeau, J. Christopher; Schrader, Joseph M.; Masuho, Ikuo; Sharma, Meenakshi; Aiudi, Christopher; Chen, Ching-Kang; Kovoor, Abraham; Celver, Jeremy

2014-01-01

29

[Infection of the hip joint following psoas abscess. Case report and literature review].  

PubMed

Infection of the hip joint following psoas abscess is uncommon. In fact, only two cases have been reported in the literature. The clinical aspect of psoas abscess is characterised only by unspecific back pain and hip pain, which are responsible for delayed diagnosis. MRT and culture of joint aspirate can permit early diagnosis. The preferred treatment is immediate surgical intervention with debridement, drainage and antibiotic therapy. Percutaneous drainage of psoas abscess alone only rarely is sufficient. In cases of infected hip joint, resection arthroplasty often cannot be avoided. Following complete decline of inflammatory parameters and certain absence of bacteria confirmed by repeated joint aspiration, prosthetic joint replacement is possible. This decision should be made on an individual basis, because Girdlestone hip also can lead to a satisfactory result concerning pain relief and functional outcome. PMID:15778825

Auerbach, F; Kolbow, B; Walz, M

2005-08-01

30

Psoas Major: a case report and review of its anatomy, biomechanics, and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

A 25-year-old male professional hockey player with right sided hip pain was diagnosed with myofascopathy of the right psoas major and rectus femoris. The patient maintained a conservative treatment regimen and was prescribed a four week active strengthening program. The program progressed from resisted concentric exercise to eccentric abduction/adduction exercises along with balance training, core stabilizing and endurance exercises in the first two weeks. In the final two weeks the program progressed to include sport specific exercises. At three weeks the patient was able to participate in non-contact practice and was clear for full contact at five weeks. The anatomy, biomechanics, and function of the psoas major muscle are discussed as is its influence on lumbar spine stability. Evidence-based evaluation and management strategies for psoas dysfunction are presented. PMID:20037696

Sajko, Sandy; Stuber, Kent

2009-01-01

31

Right-sided colonic tuberculosis: a rare cause of ilio-psoas abscess  

PubMed Central

Ilio-psoas abscess due to right colon origin is rare and normally occurs secondary to Crohn's disease, diverticulitis or cancer. We report a case of a caecal tuberculosis (TB) presented initially with an appendicular mass and systemic symptoms of fever and fatigue and 3?weeks after, with right-sided anterior thigh pain and found to have an ilio-psoas abscess. Colonoscopy and histology confirmed the diagnosis of caecal-TB. She had a CT drainage of the abscess and was discharged with anti-TB treatment and her drain in situ. Repeat pelvic MRI 10?days after treatment showed the abscess resolving and her systemic symptoms improving. PMID:23616337

Demetriou, George A; Nair, Manojkumar S; Navaratnam, Romi

2013-01-01

32

Extension of pancreatic pseudocyst into psoas muscle in a setting of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Pancreatic pseudocysts are known to extend beyond the confines of the pancreatic bed due to the digestive nature of enzyme rich pancreatic fluid. Extension of a pseudocyst beyond the retroperitoneum, along the retrofascial plane within the psoas muscle is, however, unusual, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented with right lumbar pain and painful ipsilateral hip extension. Imaging findings revealed extension of the pseudocyst into psoas along with features of acute pancreatitis. The pseudocyst was drained percutaneously under image guidance, which led to resolution of symptoms. PMID:25628323

Aswani, Yashant; Anandpara, Karan Manoj; Hira, Priya

2015-01-01

33

Water compartments in cells.  

PubMed

Human experience in the macrobiological world leads scientists to visualize water compartments in cells analogous to the bladder in the human pelvis or ventricles in the brain. While such water-filled cellular compartments likely exist, the volume contributions are insignificant relative to those of biomolecular hydration compartments. The purpose of this chapter is to identify and categorize the molecular water compartments caused by proteins, the primary macromolecular components of cells. The categorical changes in free energy of water molecules on proteins cause these compartments to play dominant roles in osmoregulation and provide important adjuncts to fundamental understanding of osmosensing and osmosignaling mechanisms. Water compartments possess differences in molecular motion, enthalpy, entropy, freezing point depression, and other properties because of electrostatic interaction of polar water molecules with electric fields generated by covalently bound pairs of opposite charge caused by electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the protein. Macromolecules, including polypeptides, polynucleotides, and polysaccharides, are stiff molecular chains with restricted folding capacities due to inclusion of rigid ring structures or double amide bonds in the backbone sequence. This creates "irreducible spatial charge separation" between positive and negative partial charges, causing elevated electrostatic energy. In the fully hydrated in vivo state of living cells the high dielectric coefficient of water reduces protein electrostatic free energy by providing polar "water bridge networks" between charges, thereby creating four measurably different compartments of bound water with distinct free energy differences. PMID:17875409

Fullerton, Gary D; Cameron, Ivan L

2007-01-01

34

Single compartment drug delivery.  

PubMed

Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as "privileged," since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

Cima, Michael J; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S

2014-09-28

35

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

36

The Effects of Psoas Major and Lumbar Lordosis on Hip Flexion and Sprint Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we analyzed the correlations between hip flexion power, sprint performance, lumbar lordosis (LL) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas muscle (PM). Ten young adults performed two sprint tests and isokinetic tests to determine hip flexion power. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine LL and PM CSA. There were…

Copaver, Karine; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

2012-01-01

37

Consistency in size and asymmetry of the psoas major muscle among elite footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle across multiple vertebral levels, to examine any asymmetry of the PM muscle and investigate the consistency across vertebral levels, and to determine whether a relationship exists between low back pain (LBP) and the size or asymmetry of the PM muscle among elite Australian

S. Stewart; W. Stanton; S. Wilson; J. Hides

2010-01-01

38

Acute compartment syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure – ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. Conclusion: acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS. PMID:25878982

Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

2015-01-01

39

Spacecraft compartment venting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At various times, concerns have been expressed that rapid decompressions of compartments of gas pockets and thermal blankets during spacecraft launches may have caused pressure differentials across their walls sufficient to cause minor structural failures, separations of adhesively-joined parts, ballooning, and flapping of blankets. This paper presents a close form equation expressing the expected pressure differentials across the walls of a compartment as a function of the external to the volume pressure drops, the pressure at which the rates occur and the vent capability of the compartment. The pressure profiles measured inside the shrouds of several spacecraft propelled by several vehicles and some profiles obtained from ground vacuum systems have been included. The equation can be used to design the appropriate vent, which will preclude excessive pressure differentials. Precautions and needed approaches for the evaluations of the expected pressures have been indicated. Methods to make a rapid assessment of the response of the compartment to rapid external pressure drops have been discussed. These are based on the evaluation of the compartment vent flow conductance, the volume and the length of time during which the rapid pressure drop occurs.

Scialdone, John J.

1998-10-01

40

[Chronic exertional compartment syndrome].  

PubMed

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon first reported in the mid 50's. This condition is characterized by sharp pain during physical activity, causing reduction in activity frequency or intensity and even abstention. This syndrome is caused by elevation of the intra-compartmental pressure which leads to decreased tissue perfusion, thus ischemic damage to the tissue ensues. Chronic exertional syndrome is usually related to repetitive physical activity, usually in young people and athletes. The physical activity performed by the patient causes a rise in intra-compartmental pressure and thereby causes pain. The patient discontinues the activity and the pain subsides within minutes of rest. Chronic exertional syndrome is reported to occur in the thigh, shoulder, arm, hand, foot and gluteal region, but most commonly in the leg, especially the anterior compartment. The diagnosis of chronic exertional syndrome is primarily based on patients' medical history, supported by intramuscular pressure measurement of the specific compartment involved. Treatment of chronic exertional syndrome, especially the anterior and lateral compartment of the leg is mainly by surgery i.e. fasciotomy. If the patient is reluctant to undergo a surgical procedure, the conservative treatment is based on abstention from the offending activity, changing footwear or using arch support. However, the conservative approach is not as successful as surgical treatment. PMID:24450036

Rom, Eyal; Tenenbaum, Shay; Chechick, Ofir; Burstein, Gideon; Amit, Yehuda; Thein, Ran

2013-10-01

41

Psoas abscess with associated septic arthritis of the hip in infants.  

PubMed

We describe psoas abscess with concomitant septic hip arthritis in 2 infants, 3 and 7 months old. The common clinical features were a palpable mass in the inguinal region, irritable hip, and delayed treatment. The diagnosis of septic hip was delayed in one child, and they both had residual hip deformity at follow-up. It is possible that initial delay in diagnoses resulted in the concurrent pathologic condition because of spread of infection. These 2 cases demonstrate the first known reports of concurrent psoas abscess and septic hip arthritis in infancy. Magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable method to identify these concurrent pathologic conditions. A proposed etiologic mechanism is also discussed in the article. PMID:21129563

Wang, Enbo; Ma, Lili; Edmonds, Eric W; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Lijun; Ji, Shijun

2010-12-01

42

Modified laparoscopic intravesical nonrefluxing ureteral reimplantation with psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling.  

PubMed

We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of the cystoscopy-assisted nonrefluxing ureteral reimplantation technique using submucosal tunneling during laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy (UNC) with a psoas hitch in patients with distal ureter stricture after gynecologic surgery. We reviewed six female patients who underwent gynecological surgeries. All patients showed persistent postoperative distal ureter stricture or obstruction. These patients underwent laparoscopic nonrefluxing UNC with a psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling technique combined with cystoscopy at our institute. They had corrective surgery at an average of 13.3 weeks after ureteral injury. The short-term success was confirmed either by voiding cystourethrography (VCU) or by diuretic isotope renal scan (MAG-3) conducted 3 months after the operation. None of the patients showed evidence of postoperative stricture at the reimplanted site and reflux on either MAG-3 renal scan or VCU. None of the patients showed major or minor complications during follow-up. It is safe and feasible to perform the laparoscopic nonrefluxing UNC with a psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling technique combined with cystoscopy for ureteral stricture. PMID:25610823

Kim, Chang-Hee; Ro, Joo Hwan; Jung, Han

2014-12-01

43

Modified laparoscopic intravesical nonrefluxing ureteral reimplantation with psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling  

PubMed Central

We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of the cystoscopy-assisted nonrefluxing ureteral reimplantation technique using submucosal tunneling during laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy (UNC) with a psoas hitch in patients with distal ureter stricture after gynecologic surgery. We reviewed six female patients who underwent gynecological surgeries. All patients showed persistent postoperative distal ureter stricture or obstruction. These patients underwent laparoscopic nonrefluxing UNC with a psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling technique combined with cystoscopy at our institute. They had corrective surgery at an average of 13.3 weeks after ureteral injury. The short-term success was confirmed either by voiding cystourethrography (VCU) or by diuretic isotope renal scan (MAG-3) conducted 3 months after the operation. None of the patients showed evidence of postoperative stricture at the reimplanted site and reflux on either MAG-3 renal scan or VCU. None of the patients showed major or minor complications during follow-up. It is safe and feasible to perform the laparoscopic nonrefluxing UNC with a psoas hitch using a submucosal tunneling technique combined with cystoscopy for ureteral stricture. PMID:25610823

Kim, Chang-Hee; Ro, Joo Hwan; Jung, Han

2014-01-01

44

Contamination control of the space shuttle Orbiter crew compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective contamination control as applied to manned space flight environments is a discipline characterized and controlled by many parameters. An introduction is given to issues involving Orbiter crew compartment contamination control. An effective ground processing contamination control program is an essential building block to a successful shuttle mission. Personnel are required to don cleanroom-grade clothing ensembles before entering the crew compartment and follow cleanroom rules and regulations. Prior to crew compartment entry, materials and equipment must be checked by an orbiter integrity clerk stationed outside the white-room entrance for compliance to program requirements. Analysis and source identification of crew compartment debris studies have been going on for two years. The objective of these studies is to determine and identify particulate generating materials and activities in the crew compartment. Results show a wide spectrum of many different types of materials. When source identification is made, corrective action is implemented to minimize or curtail further contaminate generation.

Bartelson, Donald W.

1986-01-01

45

Activity patterns of phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in microdissected fast and slow fibres from rabbit psoas and soleus muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for standardized determination of phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities in nanogram samples of microdissected single fibres of rabbit psoas and soleus muscle are described. Fast and slow fibres in soleus muscle show lower absolute activities of these enzymes than the respective fibre types in psoas muscle. Slow fibres represent a more

Cornelia Spamer; Dirk Pette

1977-01-01

46

Abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic,\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 musculoskeletal\\/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention

Jeffrey Bailey; Marc J Shapiro

2000-01-01

47

Interposition of the colon between the kidney and the psoas muscle: a normal anatomic variation studied by CT.  

PubMed

The position of the bowel in the pararenal space was examined in relation to the kidney and the psoas muscle in 1203 abdominal computed tomographic (CT) examinations. The ascending colon was found between the lower kidney pole and the psoas muscle in 1.7% and the descending colon in 0.7% of the patients. This variation appeared more frequently in women, young adults, and individuals with less intrabdominal fat. Lateral displacement of the lower kidney pole was observed in 40% of the patients with this normal variation. These findings may be of value when interpreting urographic and abdominal CT examinations. PMID:7950824

Prassopoulos, P; Gourtsoyiannis, N; Cavouras, D; Pantelidis, N

1994-01-01

48

Ultrasonographic measurement of tendon displacement caused by active force generation in the psoas major muscle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of using ultrasonography for detecting the force generated by the psoas major muscle, a muscle positioned in the deep trunk. We measured the displacement of central tendon on B-mode ultrasound images of two different longitudinal sections of the muscle during passive hip flexion-extension and isometric hip flexion at varied hip angles. In both tasks, the values of tendon displacement obtained independently from each section coincided well, indicating that tendon displacement took place along a straight trajectory, i.e., close to the nodal line between two scanned planes. It was strongly correlated with both the hip angle (R(2) = 0.98) and the hip-flexion torque (R(2) = 0.83). In the second set of experiment, we measured the tendon displacement during dynamic movements with the combination of ultrasonography and VICON-based motion analysis. From the tendon displacement during dynamic thigh lifting and walking, the force generated by the muscle could be estimated by extracting the force-related component. These results indicate that ultrasonography of the psoas major muscle can measure the displacement of its central tendon accompanied with either length change of the muscle or the elongation of tendon. Although much attention has to be paid to the limitations of this methodology, ultrasonography may be useful for detecting the force generation of the muscle during a variety of dynamic movements. PMID:18840323

Matsubayashi, Takeo; Kubo, Junjiro; Matsuo, Akifumi; Kobayashi, Kando; Ishii, Naokata

2008-10-01

49

Infectious Spondylodiscitis, Epidural Phlegmon, and Psoas Abscess Complicating Diabetic Foot Infection: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Few published case reports have cited vertebral osteomyelitis as a sequela of a diabetic foot infection. The purpose of the present report is to increase awareness of a potentially severe complication of diabetic foot ulceration: vertebral osteomyelitis and associated pathologic features. We present the case of a 63-year-old male with right calcaneal osteomyelitis who developed acute onset lower back pain with concomitant fever and chills. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed L4-L5 vertebral osteomyelitis, a T9-L1 epidural abscess, and a right psoas muscle abscess secondary to hematogenous seeding from the calcaneus. The patient underwent right partial calcanectomy, spinal and right psoas abscess incision and drainage, and direct lumbar interbody fusion of L4-L5 with a right iliac crest allograft. All bone, blood, and abscess cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. After the surgery, the patient's pain resolved in his back and hip and he regained full right lower extremity function. The 1-year follow-up examination revealed that the patient had vertebral arthritis but was able to perform his activities of daily living with a walker and cane. It is important to recognize the potential complications of diabetic foot ulcerations and be aware of the identifying symptoms and treatment options for this condition to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:25128309

Nicolosi, Nicole; Pratt, Christina

2014-08-12

50

[Primary hydatid cyst of the psoas muscle: description of 9 cases in Tunisia and review of the literature].  

PubMed

The psoas muscle is an uncommon location for hydatid cyst accounting for only 1 to 3% of cases. The purpose of this report is to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, paraclinical, and therapeutic features of primary hydatid cyst of the psoas muscle. A retrospective study conducted in Surgery Department A at the Rabta Hospital in Tunisia compiled a total of 9 cases of primary hydatid cyst of the psoas muscle treated between 1980 and 2006. There were 6 men and 3 women with a mean age of 42.8 years. Symptomatology was nonspecific with pain in 6 cases. Discovery was coincidental in two cases. Clinical examination detected a mass in the presents of an abdominal mass in 7 cases. Radiologic findings (ultrasound and/or CT scan) confirmed diagnosis in 8 cases. In one case a mistaken diagnosis of psoas muscle abscess was made in a patient with an infected hydatid cyst. Serological tests were performed in 4 cases and were positive in 3. All patients underwent surgical treatment. The extraperitoneal approach (Leriche) was used in 7 cases and the transperitoneal approach via median laparotomy in 2. In all cases the surgical procedure consisted of partial cystectomy leaving a part of the pericystic against neurovascular structures. There was no operative mortality. The only postoperative complication was urinary infection in one patient. Mean follow-up was 2.5 years. One local recurrence was observed 4 years after surgical treatment and required reoperation. PMID:18689318

Bedioui, H; Nouira, K; Daghfous, A; Ammous, A; Ayari, H; Rebai, W; Chebbi, F; Ksantini, R; Fteriche, F; Jouini, M; Kacem, M J; Menif, E; BenSafta, Z

2008-06-01

51

Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.  

PubMed

Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

2012-12-01

52

Compartment syndrome of the foot.  

PubMed

The hindfoot compartment syndrome occurs in 10% of cases after calcaneal fracture. We analyzed the pathological anatomical reasons for this syndrome using the 10 feet from cadavers plastinated and cut into 4-mm thick sequential sections. CT scans of patients with calcaneal fractures were then compared with the anatomical findings. The key component of this compartment syndrome is the quadratus plantae muscle. The sustentacular calcaneal fragment causes bleeding from the bone or the medial calcaneal arteries into this compartment. The medial and lateral plantar nerves and vessels are then compressed between the quadratus plantae muscle and the short flexor digitorum muscle. Relieving pressure by surgical decompression of the quadratus plantae compartment via a medial or plantar approach is the recommended treatment. PMID:11301465

Andermahr, J; Helling, H J; Tsironis, K; Rehm, K E; Koebke, J

2001-05-01

53

Osteomyelitis, discitis, epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica in a man with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed ?-thalassaemia trait.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ?-thalassaemia trait. Investigations for relapsing and remitting fever found vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis and epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica. PMID:25608980

Farrar, Helen; Abbey, Aoife; Patel, Vinod; Nair, Rajiv

2015-01-01

54

Primary extrahepatic alveolar echinococcosis of the lumbar spine and the psoas muscle  

PubMed Central

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) of human being caused by Echinococcus multilocularis is a rare but important zoonosis especially in tempered zones of middle Europe and Northern America with endemic character in many countries. Due to the long incubation period, various clinical manifestations, critical prognosis, and outcome AE presents a serious and severe disease. The primary focus of infection is usually the liver. Although secondary affection of visceral organs is possible extrahepatic AE is highly uncommon. Moreover, the involvement of bone and muscle presents with an even lower incidence. In the literature numerous cases on hepatic AE have been reported. However, extrahepatic AE involving bones and/or muscles was described very rarely. We report a case of an 80-year-old man with primary extrahepatic alveolar Echinococcosis of the lumbar spine and the psoas muscle. The etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, treatment options and outcome of this rare disease are discussed in context with the current literature. PMID:21496254

2011-01-01

55

Primary extrahepatic alveolar echinococcosis of the lumbar spine and the psoas muscle.  

PubMed

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) of human being caused by Echinococcus multilocularis is a rare but important zoonosis especially in tempered zones of middle Europe and Northern America with endemic character in many countries. Due to the long incubation period, various clinical manifestations, critical prognosis, and outcome AE presents a serious and severe disease. The primary focus of infection is usually the liver. Although secondary affection of visceral organs is possible extrahepatic AE is highly uncommon. Moreover, the involvement of bone and muscle presents with an even lower incidence. In the literature numerous cases on hepatic AE have been reported. However, extrahepatic AE involving bones and/or muscles was described very rarely. We report a case of an 80-year-old man with primary extrahepatic alveolar Echinococcosis of the lumbar spine and the psoas muscle. The etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, treatment options and outcome of this rare disease are discussed in context with the current literature. PMID:21496254

Nell, Manuel; Burgkart, Rainer H; Gradl, Guntmar; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Trappe, Dennis; da Costa, Clarissa Prazeres; Gradinger, Reiner; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

2011-01-01

56

Endoscopic compartment release for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

Knight, Justin R; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

2013-05-01

57

Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

2012-01-01

58

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

59

Metallosis, psoas abscess and infected hip prosthesis in a patient with bilateral metal on metal total hip replacement.  

PubMed

Metal on metal hip (MoM) resurfacing / replacement has recently been one of the most discussed topics in orthopaedics. Significant revision rates and complications are associated with MoM. We report a patient presenting with infection of a total hip prosthesis in conjunction with a psoas abscess in which the presentation is complicated by radiological evidence of suspected metallic debris in the lower limb tissues and elevated chromium and cobalt levels, suggestive of metallosis secondary to MoM. PMID:24960139

Rymaruk, S; Razak, A; McGivney, R

2012-01-01

60

Compartment syndrome with mononeuropathies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome rarely follows anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, when it does, it may result in mononeuropathies that are amenable to neurolysis. The authors of this study present an 18-yr-old woman who sustained a right anterior cruciate ligament tear and underwent uneventful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using femoral and popliteal nerve blocks. Postoperatively, she developed compartment syndrome requiring emergent fasciotomies. At 11 wks after fasciotomy, results of electrophysiologic tests showed evidence of severe fibular and tibial neuropathies. Magnetic resonance images showed extensive tricompartmental myonecrosis. Fibular and tibial neurolysis as well as decompression were performed, followed by intensive outpatient rehabilitation. At the 6-mo follow-up, she reported resolution of pain as well as significant improvement in sensation, strength, and function. Early recognition and intervention are crucial to prevent serious neurologic damage. Excessive tourniquet pressure and anesthetic nerve blocks may have been responsible. PMID:25802956

J Kindle, Brett; Murthy, Naveen; Stolp, Kathryn

2015-05-01

61

Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the cross-bridge cycle in rabbit psoas muscle fibers.  

PubMed Central

The effect of temperature on elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle was investigated with sinusoidal analysis technique in skinned rabbit psoas fibers. We studied the effect of MgATP on exponential process (C) to characterize the MgATP binding step and cross-bridge detachment step at six different temperatures in the range 5-30 degrees C. Similarly, we studied the effect of MgADP on exponential process (C) to characterize the MgADP binding step. We also studied the effect of phosphate (Pi) on exponential process (B) to characterize the force generation step and Pi-release step. From the results of these studies, we deduced the temperature dependence of the kinetic constants of the elementary steps and their thermodynamic properties. We found that the MgADP association constant (K0) and the MgATP association constant (K1) significantly decreased when the temperature was increased from 5 to 20 degrees C, implying that nucleotide binding became weaker at higher temperatures. K0 and K1 did not change much in the 20-30 degree C range. The association constant of Pi to cross-bridges (K5) did not change much with temperature. We found that Q10 for the cross-bridge detachment step (k2) was 2.6, and for its reversal step (k-2) was 3.0. We found that Q10 for the force generation step (Pi-isomerization step, k4) was 6.8, and its reversal step (k-4) was 1.6. The equilibrium constant of the detachment step (K2) was not affected much by temperature, whereas the equilibrium constant of the force generation step (K4) increased significantly with temperature increase. Thus, the force generation step consists of an endothermic reaction. The rate constant of the rate-limiting step (k6) did not change much with temperature, whereas the ATP hydrolysis rate increased significantly with temperature increase. We found that the force generation step accompanies a large entropy increase and a small free energy change; hence, this step is an entropy-driven reaction. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the hydrophobic interaction between residues of actin and myosin underlies the mechanism of force generation. We conclude that the force generation step is the most temperature-sensitive step among elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle, which explains increased isometric tension at high temperatures in rabbit psoas fibers. PMID:7819497

Zhao, Y; Kawai, M

1994-01-01

62

Hamstring and psoas length of crouch gait in cerebral palsy: a comparison with induced crouch gait in age- and sex-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait. Methods Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait. Results No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.456) lengths of patients and controls mimicking crouch gait. However, patients showed significantly shorter excursions of hamstring (p=0.022) and psoas (p=0.036) muscles than controls, whereas no significant excursion differences were observed between controls during normal gait and mimicking crouch gait. Conclusions Normal controls mimicking crouch gait and cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait demonstrate similar muscle length patterns. However, mimicked crouch gait did not reproduce the excursion pattern shown by patients with crouch gait, which suggests that reduced hamstring and psoas excursion is an innate characteristic of pathologic crouch gait. PMID:23363928

2013-01-01

63

Differential activity of regions of the psoas major and quadratus lumborum during submaximal isometric trunk efforts.  

PubMed

Controversy exists regarding the function of psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL) at the lumbar spine. The functions of discrete regions of PM and QL were studied during trunk loading tasks. Twelve healthy participants performed isometric trunk loading tasks in various directions in upright sitting. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrodes were inserted under ultrasound guidance into PM fascicles arising from the transverse process (PM-t) and vertebral body (PM-v) and the anterior (QL-a) and posterior (QL-p) layers of QL on the right side. Although right PM-t and PM-v were both active during right lateral-flexion trunk efforts, their activity was opposite in the sagittal plane, with greater PM-t towards extension and PM-v towards flexion. QL-a and QL-p were similarly active, though QL-p was active to a greater percentage of MVC during right trunk lateral-flexion efforts. Activity of QL-p was modulated with respiratory phase during the loading tasks with trunk efforts towards the right lateral-flexion/flexion and right lateral-flexion directions. These findings provide novel understanding of the unique activation of discrete regions of PM and QL. These differences must be considered in future EMG studies to better understand the function of these deeply situated trunk muscles in the control of the lumbar spine. PMID:21800359

Park, Rachel J; Tsao, Henry; Cresswell, Andrew G; Hodges, Paul W

2012-02-01

64

Stiffness of glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers in the rigor state. Filament-overlap relation.  

PubMed Central

The stiffness of glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers in the rigor state was measured at various sarcomere lengths in order to determine the distribution of the sarcomere compliance between the cross-bridge and other structures. The stiffness was determined by measuring the tension increment at one end of a fiber segment while stretching the other end of the fiber. The contribution of the end compliance to the rigor segments was checked both by laser diffractometry of the sarcomere length change and by measuring the length dependence of the Young's modulus; the contribution was found to be small. The stiffness in the rigor state was constant at sarcomere lengths of 2.4 microns or less; at greater sarcomere lengths the stiffness, when corrected for the contribution of resting stiffness, scaled with the amount of overlap between the thick and thin filaments. These results suggest that the source of the sarcomere compliance of the rigor fiber at the full overlapping of filaments is mostly the cross-bridge compliance. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 PMID:6713072

Tawada, K; Kimura, M

1984-01-01

65

Effect of viscosity on mechanics of single, skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle.  

PubMed Central

Muscle contraction is highly dynamic and thus may be influenced by viscosity of the medium surrounding the myofilaments. Single, skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were used to test this hypothesis. Viscosity within the myofilament lattice was increased by adding to solutions low molecular weight sugars (disaccharides sucrose or maltose or monosaccharides glucose or fructose). At maximal Ca2+ activation, isometric force (Fi) was inhibited at the highest solute concentrations studied, but this inhibition was not directly related to viscosity. Solutes readily permeated the filament lattice, as fiber diameter was unaffected by added solutes (except for an increased diameter with Fi < 30% of control). In contrast, there was a linear dependence upon 1/viscosity for both unloaded shortening velocity and also the kinetics of isometric tension redevelopment; these effects were unrelated to either variation in solution osmolarity or inhibition of force. All effects of added solute were reversible. Inhibition of both isometric as well as isotonic kinetics demonstrates that viscous resistance to filament sliding was not the predominant factor affected by viscosity. This was corroborated by measurements in relaxed fibers, which showed no significant change in the strain-rate dependence of elastic modulus when viscosity was increased more than twofold. Our results implicate cross-bridge diffusion as a significant limiting factor in cross-bridge kinetics and, more generally, demonstrate that viscosity is a useful probe of actomyosin dynamics. PMID:9512039

Chase, P B; Denkinger, T M; Kushmerick, M J

1998-01-01

66

Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

67

Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration-Stowage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration (CCI) stowage. The evolution of orbiter crew compartment stowage volume is also described, along with photographs presented of the on-orbit volume stowage capacity.

Morgan, L. Gary

2007-01-01

68

Chronic compartment syndrome: Diagnosis, management, and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consecutive operative series of 100 patients with chronic compartment syndrome involving 233 compart ments is reported. Seven of every eight were athletes, and runners predominated. Exercise-induced symp toms of consistently recurring tightness, aching (in some, sharp pains) in anatomically defined compart ments were pathognomonic. Mean months of symp toms prior to operation was 22; median age was 26 years.

Don E. Detmer; Kim Sharpe; Robert L. Sufit; Forrest M. Girdley

1985-01-01

69

Large eddy simulation of compartment fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at illustrating the capabilities of contemporary large eddy simulation (LES) solvers for compartment fire applications. Compartment fires refer to fires occurring indoors and feature a variety of complex phenomena associated with smoke accumulation and restricted air ventilation. The article provides a brief presentation of the main features of compartment fire dynamics followed by a review of

Arnaud Trouve; Yi Wang

2010-01-01

70

Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities' compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy. PMID:25120938

Sayar, Ufuk; Matarac?, ?lker

2014-01-01

71

Acute compartment syndrome of the foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute and post-traumatic compartment syndrome of the foot is typically associated with mechanisms of high-energy, multiple foot fractures, particularly those caused by crushing or trapping. Early diagnosis and treatment in view of the suspicion of an acute compartment syndrome in a traumatic foot will help prevent the effects of myoneural necrosis. Even though there are various methods of compartment pressure

A. Dalmau-Coll; R. Franco-Gómez; D. Codina-Granó; J. Vega-García

2011-01-01

72

The tibialis posterior muscle compartmentAn unrecognized cause of exertional compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional compartment syndrome in the deep poste rior compartment of the leg is well recognized. This paper reports investigations which were performed to prove that the tibialis posterior muscle is contained in its own osseofascial compartment, separate from the rest of the deep posterior compartment. Radiographs following the injection of radio-opaque dye into the tibialis posterior muscle demonstrated the fluid-imper

J. R. Davey; C. H. Rorabeck; P. J. Fowler

1984-01-01

73

Stochastic Calculus of Wrapped Compartments  

E-print Network

The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a variant of the Calculus of Looping Sequences (CLS). While keeping the same expressiveness, CWC strongly simplifies the development of automatic tools for the analysis of biological systems. The main simplification consists in the removal of the sequencing operator, thus lightening the formal treatment of the patterns to be matched in a term (whose complexity in CLS is strongly affected by the variables matching in the sequences). We define a stochastic semantics for this new calculus. As an application we model the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic neutrophils and a mechanism of gene regulation in E.Coli.

Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.6

2010-01-01

74

A Somitic Compartment of Tendon Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that the tendons associated with the axial skeleton derive from a heretofore unappreciated, fourth compartment of the somites. Scleraxis (Scx), a bHLH transcription factor, marks this somitic tendon progenitor population at its inception, and is continuously expressed through differentiation into the mature tendons. Two earlier-formed somitic compartments, the sclerotome and myotome, interact to establish this fourth Scx-positive compartment.

Ava E Brent; Ronen Schweitzer; Clifford J Tabin

2003-01-01

75

Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative ?-Calculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative ? -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed ? -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

76

Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Extremity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a limb-threatening emergency that requires prompt surgical treatment.\\u000a Early detection and decompression are necessary in order to avoid irreversible damage. In the lower extremity, compartment\\u000a syndrome may occur around the pelvis, in the thigh, the lower leg or the foot. Acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg\\u000a is most common. Sometimes, combined

Martin H. Hessmann; Patrick Ingelfinger; Pol M. Rommens

2007-01-01

77

PARTICULATE CONCENTRATION IN AUTOMOBILE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the dust concentration in automobile passenger compartments was conducted to understand how driving conditions and a vehicle's ventilation system can affect cabin air quality. The results of this study are essential for designing appropriate cabin air filters and developing proper test procedures.The particle size distribution of atmospheric contaminants entering the vehicle's passenger compartment through air registers

T. J. PTAK; STEPHEN L. FALLON

1994-01-01

78

Bilateral Compartment Syndrome Complicating Prolonged Lithotomy Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A case of bilateral compartment syndrome after prolonged Lloyd-Davies lithotomy position is described. The diagnosis was made early, despite effective extradural bupivacaine- fentanyl analgesia. The aetiology, diagnosis, pathology and treatment of compartment syn- drome are described. Complications of the syndrome may be life-threatening and perma- nently disabling. The anaesthetist should be aware of the potential complications of the operative

J. TUCKEY

1997-01-01

79

ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN TIBIAL DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

e reviewed 25 patients with tibial diaphyseal fractures which had been complicated by an acute compartment syndrome. Thirteen had undergone continuous monitoring of the compartment pressure and the other 12 had not. The average delay from injury to fasciotomy in the monitored group was 16 hours and in the non-monitored group 32 hours (p < 0.05). Of the 12 surviving

M. M. MCQUEEN; J. CHRISTIE; C. M. COURT-BROWN

1996-01-01

80

Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons  

SciTech Connect

As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

Tolliver, J.S.

1995-12-31

81

Lower Leg Compartment Syndrome after Appendicectomy  

PubMed Central

A 10-year-old boy presented with severe left lower leg pain, uncontrolled with increasing analgesia after appendicectomy. A diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome was made after a delayed referral to the orthopaedic service. The patient subsequently underwent an emergency fasciotomy and made a good functional recovery. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of paediatric lower leg compartment syndrome after appendicectomy in the literature. The case report serves to highlight the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome. PMID:25755900

O'Neill, Shane C.; Lui, Darren F.; Murphy, Colm; Kiely, Patrick J.

2015-01-01

82

49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9 Transportation Other...Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks...combination of compartments. (b) When the inner...

2010-10-01

83

14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...articles, and equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment...

2012-01-01

84

14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...articles, and equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment...

2014-01-01

85

14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...articles, and equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment...

2010-01-01

86

14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...articles, and equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment...

2013-01-01

87

14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...articles, and equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment...

2011-01-01

88

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most\\u000a commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental\\u000a pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the\\u000a affected compartment at the same

Alicia K. Tucker

2010-01-01

89

Population Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

Smith, Martin H.

1992-01-01

90

Anatomic Landmarks for the First Dorsal Compartment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Knowledge of anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment can assist clinicians with management of de Quervain's disease. The radial styloid, the scaphoid tubercle, and Lister's tubercle can be used as superficial landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. Methods: Thirty-two cadaveric wrists were dissected, and measurements were taken from the predetermined landmarks to the extensor retinaculum. The compartments were also inspected for variability of the abductor pollicis longus tendon and intracompartmental septations. Results: The average length of the extensor retinaculum from its proximal to distal extent measured approximately 2.2 cm. The distal aspect of the radial styloid was 0.3 cm distal to the distal aspect of the extensor retinaculum, and the distance between the distal aspect of the extensor retinaculum and the APL-Lister's-Scaphoid juncture was approximately 0.5 cm. A separate compartment for the extensor pollicis brevis was noted in 35% of the specimens. The abductor pollicis longus tendon demonstrated great variability with 1, 2, 3, or 4 slips in 9%, 30%, 43%, or 26% of the specimens, respectively. Conclusion: The superficial bony prominences of the radial wrist can be used reliably as anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. PMID:19092992

Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J.; Cooney, Damon; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

2008-01-01

91

Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

2014-11-01

92

Characterization of the intracellular GLUT-4 compartment.  

PubMed

Insulin stimulates glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissue by triggering the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface. In the present study we have attempted to characterize the intracellular GLUT-4 compartment using vesicle immunoadsorption. Silver staining of this fraction indicates that this compartment contains numerous polypeptides that exhibit a marked change in mobility upon treatment with reducing agents. The polypeptide composition of GLUT-4-containing vesicles isolated from a variety of insulin-sensitive cell types, including heart, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, is similar. In addition, the polypeptide composition of the GLUT-4 compartment isolated from CHO cells transfected with GLUT-4 resembles that observed in insulin-sensitive cells. Two major proteins in this vesicle fraction isolated from all cell types are the transferrin receptor (TfR) and the mannose 6-phosphate/IGF II receptor (MPR). Furthermore, vesicles immunoadsorbed from adipocytes, with antibodies specific for GLUT-4 and the TfR, also show conservation in their overall polypeptide composition. Protein micro sequencing of a major 80 kDa polypeptide enriched in the GLUT-4 compartment isolated from skeletal muscle revealed this protein to be rat transferrin. These data indicate that there is a close relationship between the intracellular GLUT-4 compartment and the endosomal system. Future studies will be required to determine if it is possible to isolate subcompartments within this system to determine if GLUT-4 is targeted to a specialized secretory compartment in insulin-sensitive cells or simply a subdomain within recycling endosomes. PMID:8520627

Hanpeter, D; James, D E

1995-01-01

93

Improved arthroscopic visualization of peripheral compartment.  

PubMed

Femoroacetabular impingement is a recognized cause of hip pain and motion restrictions. Advancements in hip arthroscopy have allowed surgeons the ability to treat this condition more effectively. However, the learning curve is steep for osteochondroplasty of the femoral head-neck junction in the peripheral compartment. Therefore we present a reproducible technique that allows improved visualization of the peripheral compartment and treatment of the cam lesion with hip arthroscopy. Our technique uses the anterior portal as a viewing portal, a distal anterolateral accessory portal as a working portal, and the anterolateral portal for soft-tissue retraction. PMID:23766977

Suslak, Adam G; Mather, Richard C; Kelly, Bryan T; Nho, Shane J

2012-09-01

94

COMKAT: Compartment Model Kinetic Analysis Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment models are the basis for most physiologically based quantification of nuclear medicine data. Although some software packages are available for this purpose, many are expensive, run on relatively few types of computers or are of limited capability, and cannot be extended because of the un- availability of source code. Consequently, institutions with mod- eling expertise often develop software for

Raymond F. Muzic; Shawn Cornelius

2001-01-01

95

DIVISION 10 SPECIALTIES 10155 TOILET COMPARTMENTS  

E-print Network

TOILET COMPARTMENTS A. Design Considerations 1. When selecting toilet enclosures screen type and mounting by NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 10200 LOUVERS AND VENTS RESERVED PART III DIVISION 10 PAGE 1 RUTGERS DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL MAY 2007 #12;10431 SIGNAGE A. Design Considerations 1. Interior/Exterior Signage for all

96

Ionic Blocks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

97

Isolated medial foot compartment syndrome after ankle sprain.  

PubMed

Foot compartment syndrome is a serious potential complication of foot crush injury, fractures, surgery, and vascular injury. An acute compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment of the foot after suffering an ankle sprain is a rare complication. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who developed a medial foot compartment syndrome after suffering a deltoid ligament rupture at ankle while playing football. The patient underwent a medial compartment fasciotomy with resolution of symptoms. Compartment syndromes of the foot are rare and have been reported to occur after severe trauma. But, there are some reports in the literature of acute exertional compartment syndrome. In our case, the compartment syndrome appeared after an ankle sprain without vascular injuries associated. PMID:24480507

Cortina, Josep; Amat, Carles; Selga, Jordi; Corona, Pablo Salvador

2014-03-01

98

14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192 Section 23.1192 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem...

2010-01-01

99

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2010-01-01

100

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2013-01-01

101

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2014-01-01

102

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2010-01-01

103

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2011-01-01

104

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2012-01-01

105

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2011-01-01

106

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2014-01-01

107

14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2013-01-01

108

14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 ...Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure...installed in places where reasonable temperatures can be maintained for effective use...

2012-01-01

109

Patterning and Compartment Formation in the Diencephalon  

PubMed Central

The diencephalon gives rise to structures that play an important role in connecting the anterior forebrain with the rest of the central nervous system. The thalamus is the major diencephalic derivative that functions as a relay station between the cortex and other lower order sensory systems. Almost two decades ago, neuromeric/prosomeric models were proposed describing the subdivision and potential segmentation of the diencephalon. Unlike the laminar structure of the cortex, the diencephalon is progressively divided into distinct functional compartments consisting principally of thalamus, epithalamus, pretectum, and hypothalamus. Neurons generated within these domains further aggregate to form clusters called nuclei, which form specific structural and functional units. We review the recent advances in understanding the genetic mechanisms that are involved in the patterning and compartment formation of the diencephalon. PMID:22593732

Chatterjee, Mallika; Li, James Y. H.

2012-01-01

110

Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum.  

PubMed

Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial. PMID:22787350

Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Groth, Shawn S; Leon, Jorge A; Mohr, William J

2012-04-01

111

Postoperative gastric dilatation causing abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of postoperative gastric dilatation on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single case report from a primary teaching hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 72-year-old woman demonstrated a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse following resection of a retroperitoneal sarcoma. This collapse was caused by abdominal compartment syndrome due to gastric dilatation. RESULTS: The patient was re-explored,

Ahmad Mahajna; Sharon Mitkal; Michael M Krausz

2008-01-01

112

The Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Aortic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: multi-organ failure is a leading cause of death following aneurysm surgery, especially in the emergency setting. Intra-abdominal hypertension is an important factor in the development of multi-organ failure. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome may reduce mortality following aneurysm surgery.Methods: a descriptive review of the literature from a Medline search.Results and

I. M Loftus; M. M Thompson

2003-01-01

113

The evaluation and treatment ofexertional compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional compartment syndrome (ECS) is becoming increasingly recognized as a cause of exercise-induced legpain in the athletic population. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology is not clearly understood. The use of 31P-NMR has shown that ischemia is not a significant component of ECS because it is in the acute syndrome. A primary diagnosis can be made after a thorough history and physical examination.

Y. Raja Rampersaud; Annunziato Amendola

1995-01-01

114

Complications of anterior compartment vaginal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many complications can be associated with anterior compartment surgery of the vagina. With the integration of synthetic materials\\u000a into the surgical armamentarium for the repair of stress urinary incontinence in the form of midurethral slings, and for the\\u000a repair of vaginal prolapse as a primary procedure or to augment an existing repair, the spectrum of complications related\\u000a to this type

Eric S. Rovner

2007-01-01

115

Nerve Blocks  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor. By performing a nerve block and then monitoring how the patient responds to the injection, the ... and/or imaging guidance. He or she will clean the area with antiseptic solution, and then the ...

116

Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

117

Enhancement of Force Generated by Individual Myosin Heads in Skinned Rabbit Psoas Muscle Fibers at Low Ionic Strength  

PubMed Central

Although evidence has been presented that, at low ionic strength, myosin heads in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers form linkages with actin filaments, the effect of low ionic strength on contraction characteristics of Ca2+-activated muscle fibers has not yet been studied in detail. To give information about the mechanism of muscle contraction, we have examined the effect of low ionic strength on the mechanical properties and the contraction characteristics of skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in both relaxed and maximally Ca2+-activated states. By progressively decreasing KCl concentration from 125 mM to 0 mM (corresponding to a decrease in ionic strength ? from 170 mM to 50 mM), relaxed fibers showed changes in mechanical response to sinusoidal length changes and ramp stretches, which are consistent with the idea of actin-myosin linkage formation at low ionic strength. In maximally Ca2+-activated fibers, on the other hand, the maximum isometric force increased about twofold by reducing KCl concentration from 125 to 0 mM. Unexpectedly, determination of the force-velocity curves indicated that, the maximum unloaded shortening velocity Vmax, remained unchanged at low ionic strength. This finding indicates that the actin-myosin linkages, which has been detected in relaxed fibers at low ionic strength, are broken quickly on Ca2+ activation, so that the linkages in relaxed fibers no longer provide any internal resistance against fiber shortening. The force-velocity curves, obtained at various levels of steady Ca2+-activated isometric force, were found to be identical if they are normalized with respect to the maximum isometric force. The MgATPase activity of muscle fibers during isometric force generation was found not to change appreciably at low ionic strength despite the two-fold increase in Ca2+-activated isometric force. These results can be explained in terms of enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads, but not by any changes in kinetic properties of cyclic actin-myosin interaction. PMID:23691080

Sugi, Haruo; Abe, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Sugiura, Seiryo

2013-01-01

118

Actin: its cumbersome pilgrimage through cellular compartments  

PubMed Central

In this article, we follow the history of one of the most abundant, most intensely studied proteins of the eukaryotic cells: actin. We report on hallmarks of its discovery, its structural and functional characterization and localization over time, and point to present days’ knowledge on its position as a member of a large family. We focus on the rather puzzling number of diverse functions as proposed for actin as a dual compartment protein. Finally, we venture on some speculations as to its origin. PMID:18438682

Schleicher, Michael

2008-01-01

119

Synthetic glycobiology: Exploits in the Golgi compartment.  

PubMed

The challenge of engineering glycosylation has been confronted by synthetic chemists, biochemists and cell biologists, each with the primary goal of optimizing glycoconjugates for therapeutic applications. In nature, glycans are constructed by glycosyltransferases that are organized in an assembly line in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartment. Recent insights into the domain architecture, localization and regulation of glycosyltransferases have provided a platform for engineering their position within the secretory pathway and access to substrates. Using this knowledge, glycosyltransferase assembly lines have been redesigned for the production of specific glycan structures using protein engineering and chemical approaches. These efforts epitomize the emerging field of 'synthetic glycobiology'. PMID:17056297

Czlapinski, Jennifer L; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

2006-12-01

120

An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present results of a one-dimensional dynamic Burridge-Knopoff-type model to demonstrate various aspects of the fluid-assisted fault instability described above. In the numerical model, the fault is represented by a series of blocks and springs, with fault rheology expressed by static and dynamic friction. In addition, the fault surface of each block has associated with it pore pressure, porosity and permeability. All of these variables are allowed to evolve with time, resulting in a wide range of phenomena related to fluid diffusion, dilatancy, compaction and heating. These phenomena include creep events, diffusion-controlled precursors, triggered earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, and multiple earthquakes. While the simulations have limitations inherent to 1-D fault models, they demonstrate that the fluid compartment model can, in principle, provide the rich assortment of phenomena that have been associated with earthquakes. ?? 1995 Birkha??user Verlag.

Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

1995-01-01

121

Herpes simplex virus replication compartments can form by coalescence of smaller compartments  

E-print Network

maturation, we have constructed and characterized a recombinant HSV-1 strain that expresses an ICP8 molecule inhibitor phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) or to replication compartments in the absence of PAA. A recombinant HSV-1 strain expressing the ICP8­GFP virus replicated in Vero cells, but the yield was increased by 150

Knipe, David M.

122

Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment  

DOEpatents

A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01

123

Acute Idiopathic Compartment Syndrome of the Forearm in an Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a condition typically associated with long bone fractures or severe trauma; however, non-traumatic etiologies also occur. We describe a case of an otherwise healthy female pediatric patient presenting with unilateral forearm pain without an inciting injury. Intracompartmental pressures of the forearm were measured and she was diagnosed with idiopathic compartment syndrome. Our goal is to encourage clinicians to consider acute compartment syndrome even in the absence of trauma. PMID:25671029

Smith, Kelley; Wolford, Robert W.

2015-01-01

124

Compartment strength and its evaluation in car crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In car-to-car crashes, the strength of the passenger compartment is widely acknowledged to be a significant factor reducing the injury risks to occupants. In the present research, the methodology for the evaluation of the passenger compartment strength was investigated. Car-to-car crash tests of a small car with stiff and less-stiff passenger compartments were carried out, and it was demonstrated that

K. Mizuno; Y. Arai; C. A. Newland

2004-01-01

125

Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg and Foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome of the lower leg or foot, a severe complication with a low incidence, is mostly caused by high-energy\\u000a deceleration trauma. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and intracompartmental pressure measurement. The most\\u000a sensitive clinical symptom of compartment syndrome is severe pain. Clinical findings must be documented carefully. A fasciotomy\\u000a should be performed when the difference between compartment

Michael Frink; Frank Hildebrand; Christian Krettek; Jurgen Brand; Stefan Hankemeier

2010-01-01

126

Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

1988-01-01

127

The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

1972-01-01

128

The Perinucleolar Compartment: RNA Metabolism and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a nuclear substructure associated with, but structurally distinct from, the nucleolus. The PNC contains several RNA processing proteins and several RNA pol III transcripts, which form novel complexes. As determined by cell culture experiments and human tumor samples, the PNC forms exclusively in cancer cells and the percentage of cancer cells in a population that have one or more PNCs directly correlates with the malignancy of that population of cells. Therefore, the PNC is being developed as a prognostic marker for several malignancies. PNC elimination in cancer cells has proven to be a useful as screening method to discover probe compounds used to elucidate PNC biology and to discover compounds with the potential to be developed as minimally toxic anti-cancer drugs. PMID:24222357

Norton, John T.; Huang, Sui

2015-01-01

129

Three-Compartment Photoreactor for Laser Isotope Separation off Tritium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new photoreactor has been designed and tested for laser isotope separation of tritium using trifluoromethane as a working substance. The reactor consists of three compartments in series which are stirred efficiently with recirculation pumps independently. The CO2 laser beam is sequentially focused with BaF2 lenses serving as the beam entrance windows of the compartments. In this reactor the reaction

Kazuo Takeuchi; Mitsushi Motoyama; Ichiro Inoue

1987-01-01

130

CASE REPORT Open Access The extravascular compartment of the bone  

E-print Network

CASE REPORT Open Access The extravascular compartment of the bone marrow: a niche for Plasmodium in the intravascular compartment. Erythrocytes infected with mature asexual stages (mature trophozoites and schizonts activation syndrome. A venous blood smear was performed on admission (i e, 10 days after onset of symptoms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Short communication A new vesicular compartment in Encephalitozoon cuniculi  

E-print Network

Short communication A new vesicular compartment in Encephalitozoon cuniculi Kaya Ghosh a,b,1 microscopy. The distribution pattern of this protein thus suggests either a novel vesicular compartment that cause a wide variety of clinical syndromes in humans, espe- cially in the context of immune suppression

Keeling, Patrick

132

Differential gene expression in anatomical compartments of the human eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The human eye is composed of multiple compartments, diverse in form, function, and embryologic origin, that work in concert to provide us with our sense of sight. We set out to systematically characterize the global gene expression patterns that specify the distinctive characteristics of the various eye compartments. RESULTS: We used DNA microarrays representing approximately 30,000 human genes to

Jennifer J Diehn; Maximilian Diehn; Michael F Marmor; Patrick O Brown

2005-01-01

133

Distal biceps brachii tendon rupture resulting in acute compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Distal biceps brachii tendon rupture is an uncommon injury. Compartment syndrome of the upper arm is rarely described in the literature. The diagnosis of upper arm compartment syndrome requires a high index of suspicion, and emergent surgical treatment with fasciotomy in the acute setting is necessary to avoid devastating neurovascular complications. This article reports a case of acute compartment syndrome of the anterior compartment of the upper arm after a complete rupture of the distal biceps brachii tendon. A healthy 45-year-old man presented with increasing arm pain; paresthesia in the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve distribution; and a tense, swollen anterior compartment of his upper arm. Side port catheter absolute pressure measurement was 83 mm Hg with a diastolic blood pressure of 92 mm Hg. The patient underwent an emergent fasciotomy and was found to have a complete rupture of his distal biceps brachii tendon. He subsequently underwent distal biceps tendon repair and delayed primary closure of his incision. Postoperatively, his paresthesia improved and he has no neurological deficit. There is a paucity of case reports describing compartment syndrome after rupture of either the proximal or distal end of the biceps brachii tendon, and none of the reports describe compartment syndrome of the upper arm after rupture of the distal biceps tendon. This article highlights an unusual complication of an uncommon injury and reviews diagnostic and treatment principles for the management of acute compartment syndrome of the upper arm. PMID:24200459

Grandizio, Louis C; Suk, Michael; Feltham, Glen T

2013-11-01

134

Anterior tibial compartment syndrome following rupture of a popliteal cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ruptured popliteal cyst usually results in calf pain and swelling. We report the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis\\u000a who developed anterior compartment syndrome of the leg following rupture of a popliteal cyst. Since acute compartment syndrome\\u000a requires prompt treatment, clinicians should be aware of this rare complication.

Toshio Ushiyama; Taku Kawasaki; Yoshitaka Matsusue

2003-01-01

135

Compartments and their boundaries in vertebrate brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen years ago, cell lineage restriction boundaries were discovered in the embryonic vertebrate hindbrain, subdividing it into a series of cell-tight compartments (known as rhombomeres). Compartition, together with segmentally reiterative neuronal architecture and the nested expression of Hox genes, indicates that the hindbrain has a truly metameric organization. This finding initiated a search for compartments in other regions of the

Clemens Kiecker; Andrew Lumsden

2005-01-01

136

Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic head to maximize flow passing down through the ochre bed. Filtration rate in the second compartment is also facilitated by thin ochre bed because of low residual Fe(II) in the overflow. Thus, compartment ratio also significantly affects the operation span of two-compartment VFR. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation.

Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

2014-05-01

137

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not. PMID:22606517

Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

2011-01-01

138

Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung - Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing - D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Baeuerle, Guenther [Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), Scharnhorststrasse 34-37, 10115 Berlin (Germany)

2007-07-01

139

Generation of nonidentical compartments in vesicular transport systems  

PubMed Central

How can organelles communicate by bidirectional vesicle transport and yet maintain different protein compositions? We show by mathematical modeling that a minimal system, in which the basic variables are cytosolic coats for vesicle budding and membrane-bound soluble N-ethyl-maleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) for vesicle fusion, is sufficient to generate stable, nonidentical compartments. A requirement for establishing and maintaining distinct compartments is that each coat preferentially packages certain SNAREs during vesicle budding. Vesicles fuse preferentially with the compartment that contains the highest concentration of cognate SNAREs, thus further increasing these SNAREs. The stable steady state is the result of a balance between this autocatalytic SNARE accumulation in a compartment and the distribution of SNAREs between compartments by vesicle budding. The resulting nonhomogeneous SNARE distribution generates coat-specific vesicle fluxes that determine the size of compartments. With nonidentical compartments established in this way, the localization and cellular transport of cargo proteins can be explained simply by their affinity for coats. PMID:15657397

Heinrich, Reinhart; Rapoport, Tom A.

2005-01-01

140

Generation of nonidentical compartments in vesicular transport systems.  

PubMed

How can organelles communicate by bidirectional vesicle transport and yet maintain different protein compositions? We show by mathematical modeling that a minimal system, in which the basic variables are cytosolic coats for vesicle budding and membrane-bound soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) for vesicle fusion, is sufficient to generate stable, nonidentical compartments. A requirement for establishing and maintaining distinct compartments is that each coat preferentially packages certain SNAREs during vesicle budding. Vesicles fuse preferentially with the compartment that contains the highest concentration of cognate SNAREs, thus further increasing these SNAREs. The stable steady state is the result of a balance between this autocatalytic SNARE accumulation in a compartment and the distribution of SNAREs between compartments by vesicle budding. The resulting nonhomogeneous SNARE distribution generates coat-specific vesicle fluxes that determine the size of compartments. With nonidentical compartments established in this way, the localization and cellular transport of cargo proteins can be explained simply by their affinity for coats. PMID:15657397

Heinrich, Reinhart; Rapoport, Tom A

2005-01-17

141

Bier's block revisited: intercuff block.  

PubMed Central

Bier introduced his intravenous technique of local anaesthesia to facilitate palliative surgery on the elbow or knee. He cannulated a suitably large vein in the vicinity of the joint to inject procaine after first isolating the operating site with a proximal and a distal tourniquet. This extra containment of the local anaesthetic solution made it feasible to flush out any unfixed drug with saline before release of the main tourniquet, an advantage which has been lost in the currently fashionable technique of intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) involving a single tourniquet above the elbow or knee and a fine butterfly needle in a vein on the dorsum of the hand or foot. A modern version of Bier's original method is described, conveniently called an intercuff block (ICB), which reintroduces the possibility of effective flushing, offers better operating conditions and engenders new ideas for further study. PMID:2182859

Hannington-Kiff, J G

1990-01-01

142

Bier's block revisited: intercuff block.  

PubMed

Bier introduced his intravenous technique of local anaesthesia to facilitate palliative surgery on the elbow or knee. He cannulated a suitably large vein in the vicinity of the joint to inject procaine after first isolating the operating site with a proximal and a distal tourniquet. This extra containment of the local anaesthetic solution made it feasible to flush out any unfixed drug with saline before release of the main tourniquet, an advantage which has been lost in the currently fashionable technique of intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) involving a single tourniquet above the elbow or knee and a fine butterfly needle in a vein on the dorsum of the hand or foot. A modern version of Bier's original method is described, conveniently called an intercuff block (ICB), which reintroduces the possibility of effective flushing, offers better operating conditions and engenders new ideas for further study. PMID:2182859

Hannington-Kiff, J G

1990-03-01

143

Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 ?g/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells. PMID:23603023

Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

2013-09-27

144

Protein Sorting by Directed Maturation of Golgi Compartments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the Golgi stack mediate transport of cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface? A possibility is that cargo-containing vesicles derived from the ER form early Golgi compartments that then mature by retrieval of processing enzymes from later Golgi compartments. Maturation continues at terminal Golgi compartments by retrieval of transport components from the endocytic pathway to promote sorting of cargo to multiple cellular destinations. Hence, retrograde movement may integrate exocytic and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells and coordinate membrane flow and cargo transport through the Golgi stack.

Bernard Allan (The Scripps Research Institute; Department of Cell Biology)

1999-07-02

145

46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compartment containing pumping engines and their auxiliaries which...operations, provided the pumping engine compartment contains no...compartment are completely water jacketed or insulated and that gasoline engine intakes are fitted with...

2011-10-01

146

46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compartment containing pumping engines and their auxiliaries which...operations, provided the pumping engine compartment contains no...compartment are completely water jacketed or insulated and that gasoline engine intakes are fitted with...

2010-10-01

147

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed off from the...

2010-10-01

148

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed off from the...

2012-10-01

149

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed off from the...

2011-10-01

150

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed off from the...

2014-10-01

151

46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105...Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed off from the...

2013-10-01

152

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2010-04-01

153

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2011-04-01

154

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2014-04-01

155

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2013-04-01

156

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2012-04-01

157

14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. 25.858 Section...baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with...baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested,...

2011-01-01

158

14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. 25.858 Section...baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with...baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested,...

2010-01-01

159

Lumbar Plexus Block for Management of Hip Surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbar plexus block (LPB) is one of the anesthetic options in the elderly patients undergoing hip surgeries. LPB could be safe because it targets somatic nerve in psoas region. Effectiveness of LPB is attributed to the sufficient analgesia provided intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. Adequate muscle relaxation and immobility during surgery refers to its acceptability. Objectives: In this study, LPB was used as the anesthetic method to manage the elderly patients subjected to hip surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients aged 51 to 100 years were enrolled in this study. LPB was accomplished after a mild sedation and with a modified method using patient's fingertip width (FTW) as the distance unit to determine needle entry point under electrical nerve stimulation assistance. After targeted injection, procedure time, establishment time, block duration, surgery time, hemodynamic variables, and surgeon satisfaction score were documented and analyzed. Propofol in trivial doses was infused intraoperatively to provide clinical sedation. Results: Mean patient's age was 73 ± 12 years with ASA II/III. Procedure time was 5.65 ± 1.24 minutes, establishment time was 130 ± 36 seconds, block duration was 13.1 ± 8 hours, surgery time was 149.7 ± 32.2 minutes, and surgeon satisfaction score was 9.8 ± 0.1. There was no complication and no failure. Hemodynamic stability was pleasantly achieved. Conclusions: By preserving hemodynamic stability, LPB in conjunction with a light sedation could be considered as a reliable prudent satisfying anesthetic option in management of hip fractures in the elderly patients with three beneficial characteristics of safety, effectiveness, and acceptability. PMID:25289374

Amiri, Hamid Reza; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Safari, Saeid

2014-01-01

160

Retrograde traffic out of the yeast vacuole to the TGN occurs via the prevacuolar/endosomal compartment.  

PubMed

A large number of trafficking steps occur between the last compartment of the Golgi apparatus (TGN) and the vacuole of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To date, two intracellular routes from the TGN to the vacuole have been identified. Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) travels through a prevacuolar/endosomal compartment (PVC), and subsequently on to the vacuole, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) bypasses this compartment to reach the same organelle. Proteins resident to the TGN achieve their localization despite a continuous flux of traffic by continually being retrieved from the distal PVC by virtue of an aromatic amino acid-containing sorting motif. In this study we report that a hybrid protein based on ALP and containing this retrieval motif reaches the PVC not by following the CPY sorting pathway, but instead by signal-dependent retrograde transport from the vacuole, an organelle previously thought of as a terminal compartment. In addition, we show that a mutation in VAC7, a gene previously identified as being required for vacuolar inheritance, blocks this trafficking step. Finally we show that Vti1p, a v-SNARE required for the delivery of both CPY and ALP to the vacuole, uses retrograde transport out of the vacuole as part of its normal cellular itinerary. PMID:9700156

Bryant, N J; Piper, R C; Weisman, L S; Stevens, T H

1998-08-10

161

7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and packaging rooms or compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate objectionable...

2014-01-01

162

7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and packaging rooms or compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate objectionable...

2011-01-01

163

7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and packaging rooms or compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate objectionable...

2013-01-01

164

7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and packaging rooms or compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate objectionable...

2012-01-01

165

The Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Current Management of Acute Compartment Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency warranting prompt evaluation and treatment. It can occur with any elevation in interstitial pressure in a closed osseo-fascial compartment. Resultant ischaemic damage may be irreversible within six hours and can result in long-term morbidity and even death. The diagnosis is largely clinical with the classical description of ‘pain out of proportion to the injury’. Compartment pressure monitors can be a helpful adjunct where the diagnosis is in doubt. Initial treatment is with the removal of any constricting dressings or casts, avoiding hypotension and optimizing tissue perfusion by keeping the limb at heart level. If symptoms persist, definitive treatment is necessary with timely surgical decompression of all the involved compartments. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of ACS. PMID:25067973

Donaldson, James; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim S

2014-01-01

166

2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

167

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

168

9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

169

10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

170

11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

171

46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the...

2012-10-01

172

14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...surfaces applied to the materials) used in each compartment...structural flooring, and materials used in the...electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering...are constructed of materials not covered...

2013-01-01

173

14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...surfaces applied to the materials) used in each compartment...structural flooring, and materials used in the...electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering...are constructed of materials not covered...

2014-01-01

174

14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...surfaces applied to the materials) used in each compartment...structural flooring, and materials used in the...electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering...are constructed of materials not covered...

2011-01-01

175

14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...surfaces applied to the materials) used in each compartment...structural flooring, and materials used in the...electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering...are constructed of materials not covered...

2012-01-01

176

[Acute compartment syndrome of the muscle in intensive care patients].  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome of the muscle occurs when elevation of tissue pressure in closed fascial compartments results in muscle and nerve ischemia. Prompt diagnosis and decompression is essential to avoid the devastating local complications with permanent disabilities and systemic even lethal complications. Despite its drawbacks, clinical assessment is still the diagnostic cornerstone of acute compartment syndrome. In critically multisystem injured patients, it often presents silently and clinical examination alone may be insufficient. Intracompartmental pressure measurement is a useful adjunct and can confirm the diagnosis when clinical assessment is difficult. In this article, the etiology, clinical signs, diagnosis and therapy is discussed and underscores the importance of routine surveillance for acute compartment syndrome of muscle. PMID:21568072

Mrsiç, Viviana; Rasic, Arko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Stojci?, Elvira Grizelj; Smiljani?, Aleksandra

2011-03-01

177

3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

178

Compartment syndrome following pelvic surgery in the lithotomy position.  

PubMed Central

We report the cases of two patients who developed compartment syndrome following pelvic surgery in the lithotomy position. These cases highlight this important and potentially devastating complication. PMID:12092867

Dua, R. S.; Bankes, M. J. K.; Dowd, G. S. E.; Lewis, A. A. M.

2002-01-01

179

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

180

46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation ...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces...

2011-10-01

181

46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation ...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces...

2010-10-01

182

46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation ...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces...

2012-10-01

183

46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation ...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces...

2013-10-01

184

46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation ...Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces...

2014-10-01

185

Analysis of dissipation of gaseous extinguisher agents in ventilated compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A perfect stirrer model was used to analyze the concentration decay of extinguisher agents in ventilated compartments. The exponential decay curves were integrated over time to yield dosages. In this way, extinguisher agent weights, compartment volumes, and ventilation rates were matched against allowable agent doses to yield selection nomographs for halon 1211, halon 1301, and carbon dioxide. The model predictions were compared with experimental data, and the concept of an effective airchange time was developed for practical application.

Eklund, T. I.

1983-05-01

186

Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios. PMID:25361367

Cohen, Eric; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

2014-11-01

187

Compartment Syndrome in Open Tibial Fractures*t  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective review of the cases of 180 patients who had 198 acute open fractures of the tibial shaft and were admitted to a multiple-trauma re- ferral center over a three-year period revealed an mci- dence of accompanying compartment syndrome of 9.1 per cent (eighteen fractures in sixteen patients). Each of the eighteen compartment syndromes was documented by measurements of

SAMUEL S. BLICK; ROBERT J. BRUMBACK; ATTILA POKA; ANDREW R. BURGESS; NABIL A. EBRAHEIM

188

STS-103 Wiring inspections in the aft compartment of Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Todd Biddle, with United Space Alliance, inspects wiring in the aft compartment of Discovery before launch. Electrical wire inspections and repairs in the orbiter's payload bay, external tank umbilical and engine compartment have been ongoing for more than a month and are near completion. Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 is scheduled for Dec. 11 at 11:42 p.m. from Launch Pad 39B. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

189

Numerical Investigation of Intermediate Thermal Compartment of SOFC system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, heat transfer including radiation and natural convection flow inside an intermediate thermal compartment of a conceptual SOFC system is analyzed numerically. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software StarCCM+ is utilized for extracting heat losses from several components to the surrounding air through insulation and for mapping temperature fields inside and outside the compartment. Simulations show the importance of thermal layout solution and degree of insulation of the components for good and solid thermal management of the system.

Miettinen, Pasi

2011-09-01

190

Hepatitis B surface antigen assembles in a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment  

PubMed Central

Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the major envelope protein of the virus, in the absence of other viral proteins leads to its secretion as oligomers in the form of disk-like or tubular lipoprotein particles. The observation that these lipoprotein particles are heavily disulphide crosslinked is paradoxical since HBsAg assembly is classically believed to occur in the ER, and hence in the presence of high levels of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) which should resolve these higher intermolecular crosslinks. Indeed, incubation of mature, highly disulphide crosslinked HBsAg with recombinant PDI causes the disassembly of HBsAg to dimers. We have used antibodies against resident ER proteins in double immunofluorescence studies to study the stages of the conversion of the HBsAg from individual protein subunits to the secreted, crosslinked, oligomer. We show that HBsAg is rapidly sorted to a post-ER, pre-Golgi compartment which excludes PDI and other major soluble resident ER proteins although it overlaps with the distribution of rab2, an established marker of an intermediate compartment. Kinetic studies showed that disulphide-linked HBsAg dimers began to form during a short (2 min) pulse, increased in concentration to peak at 60 min, and then decreased as the dimers were crosslinked to form higher oligomers. These higher oligomers are the latest identifiable intracellular form of HBsAg before its secretion (t 1/2 = 2 h). Brefeldin A treatment does not alter the localization of HBsAg in this PDI excluding compartment, however, it blocks the formation of new oligomers causing the accumulation of dimeric HBsAg. Hence this oligomerization must occur in a pre-Golgi compartment. These data support a model in which rapid dimer formation, catalyzed by PDI, occurs in the ER, and is followed by transport of dimers to a pre-Golgi compartment where the absence of PDI and a different lumenal environment allow the assembly process to be completed. PMID:1522109

1992-01-01

191

Modified Block Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Properly type a modified block style business letter. In your previous assignment, you created block style business letters. The letters, whether business or personal business, had all the content lined up on the left-hand side of the page. This is what made them block style. Today you are going to learn about modified block style letters. Modified block letters ...

Mrs. Simonson

2009-12-05

192

Changes in direction-specific activity of psoas major and quadratus lumborum in people with recurring back pain differ between muscle regions and patient groups.  

PubMed

Psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL) muscles have anatomically discrete regions. Redistribution of activity between these regions has been observed in people with low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised that the bias of activity of specific regions of PM and QL towards trunk extension may change depending on whether LBP individuals have more or less erector spinae (ES) activity in an extended/upright lumbar posture. Ten volunteers with recurring episodes of LBP and nine pain-free controls performed isometric trunk efforts in upright sitting. LBP individuals were subgrouped into those with high and low ES electromyographic activity (EMG) when sitting with a lumbar lordosis. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into fascicles of PM arising from the transverse process (PM-t) and vertebral body (PM-v) and anterior (QL-a) and posterior layers (QL-p) of QL. The LBP group with low ES EMG had greater bias of PM-t, PM-v and QL-p towards trunk extension. The LBP group with high ES activity showed less PM activity towards extension. These findings suggest redistribution of activity within and/or between these muscles with extensor moments. This is likely to be important to consider for effective clinical interventions for individuals with LBP. PMID:23453455

Park, Rachel J; Tsao, Henry; Cresswell, Andrew G; Hodges, Paul W

2013-06-01

193

Quantitative studies on the polarization optical properties of striated muscle. I. Birefringence changes of rabbit psoas muscle in the transition from rigor to relaxed state  

PubMed Central

The changes in birefringence in the rigor to relax transition of single triton-extracted rabbit psoas muscle fibers have been investigated with quantitative polarized light techniques. The total birefringence of rest lenght fibers in rigor was (1.46 +/- 0.08) x 10(-3) and increased to (1.67 +/- 0.05) x 10(-3) after Mg-ATP relaxation. Pyrophosphate relaxation increased the total birefringence only slightly, whereas subsequent Mg-ATP relaxation elicited the maximum increase in birefringence. Changes in lattice spacing did not account for the total increase in birefrigence during relaxation. Moreover, the increase in total birefringence was attributable to increases in intrinsic birefringence as well as form birefringence. No change in birefringence was exhibited upon exposure to a relaxation solution after myosin extraction. Synthetic myosin filaments were prepared and treated with relaxation and rigor solutions. The negatively stained filaments treated with a rigor solution had gross irregular projections at either end, while the filaments treated with a relaxing solution were more spindle shaped. The results are compatible with the view that the subfragment-2 moieties of myosin angle away from the myosin aggregates (light meromyosin) to permit the attachment of the subfragment-1 moieties to actin. PMID:16016

1976-01-01

194

The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.  

PubMed

A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. PMID:24929991

Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

2014-10-01

195

Human Cytomegalovirus pp28 (UL99) Localizes to a Cytoplasmic Compartment Which Overlaps the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi-Intermediate Compartment  

PubMed Central

Although the assembly of herpesviruses has remained an active area of investigation, considerable controversy continues to surround the cellular location of tegument and envelope acquisition. This controversy is particularly evident when the proposed pathways for ?- and ?-herpesvirus assembly are compared. We have approached this aspect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) assembly, specifically, envelopment, by investigating the intracellular trafficking of viral tegument proteins which localize in the cytoplasms of infected cells. In this study we have demonstrated that the virion tegument protein pp28 (UL99), a true late protein, was membrane associated as a result of myristoylation. A mutation in this protein which prevented incorporation of [3H]myristic acid also altered the detergent solubility and intracellular distribution of the protein when it was expressed in transfected cells. Using a panel of markers for intracellular compartments, we could localize the expression of wild-type pp28 to an intracellular compartment which colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-intermediate compartment (ERGIC), a dynamic compartment of the secretory pathway which interfaces with both the ER and Golgi apparatus. The localization of this viral tegument protein within an early secretory compartment of the cell provided further evidence that the assembly of the HCMV tegument likely includes a cytoplasmic phase. Because pp28 has been shown to be localized to a cytoplasmic assembly compartment in HCMV-infected cells, our findings also suggested that viral tegument protein interactions within the secretory pathway may have an important role in the assembly of the virion. PMID:10729158

Sanchez, Veronica; Sztul, Elizabeth; Britt, William J.

2000-01-01

196

Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.  

PubMed

Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance. PMID:23979618

Hanumanthaiah, Deepak; Vaidiyanathan, Sabanayagam; Garstka, Maria; Szucs, Szilard; Iohom, Gabriella

2013-09-01

197

Pattern Blocks with Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a class we will be exploring fractions with pattern blocks. Each student will have a selection of pattern blocks. The students will manipulate their blocks to match mine as we discover patterns. pattern blocks explained Two work stations to choose from 1. pattern block work station 2. pattern work station pattern assignment pattern block assignment 2 Paper copies of assignments will be handed out. Students ...

Mrs. Brown

2010-03-20

198

Conservative treatment of an acute compartment syndrome of the thigh.  

PubMed

Compartment syndromes of the thigh after blunt trauma without any fracture are rare. Most surgeons recommend operative treatment. There are different rules for compartment syndromes of the thigh in young athletes after blunt trauma compared to compartment syndromes at other locations [(1) the large volume of the quadriceps muscle, (2) its relatively elastic fascia, (3) the direct proximal contact to the hip muscles which allows extravasation of fluid out of the compartment)]. We present a case of conservative treatment of elevated intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) of the anterior thigh after blunt trauma and the follow-up until return to sport. Conservative treatment of a compartment syndrome of the thigh after blunt trauma in a young patient without fracture or vascular damage was successful without short-term sequelae. Recovery of muscle strength is delayed but return to sport is possible. Depending on the severity the diagnosis and follow-up with ICP measurements and MRI is necessary. There is a very good chance for excellent outcome without any risk of surgery. However, a long healing time is possible. PMID:16896742

Riede, U; Schmid, M R; Romero, J

2007-05-01

199

Acute hand compartment syndromes after closed crush: a reappraisal.  

PubMed

Severe crush to the hand is associated with a poor prognosis. The authors investigated the hypothesis that compartment syndrome complicates such injuries. From 1996 to 2000, the authors retrospectively identified 11 patients who, after sustaining a closed crush injury, developed acute hand compartment syndrome. Diagnosis was made on clinical grounds in two patients (the intracompartmental pressure was not measured) and after clinical examination plus measurement of intracompartmental pressure in nine patients. In all cases, the muscle burst out once the fascia was released from the affected compartment. Clinical clues to elicit the diagnoses were massive hand swelling and tenseness to palpation. Classic symptoms, such as excruciating pain, were absent or their intensity was attributed to the trauma event (in six patients). Classic signs such as intrinsic muscle minus position and pain on stretching were absent in six and three patients, respectively. In addition, the latter stretch test could not be properly judged in five more patients because of interference by the associated injuries. None of the patients developed contracture or sequela that could be attributed to compartment syndrome. On the basis of this experience, it was concluded that crush injury does not in itself carry a poor functional prognosis, provided that attention is paid to the often-concomitant compartment syndrome. Elevated subfascial pressure may be present despite the absence of classic signs and symptoms. PMID:12360060

Del Piñal, Francisco; Herrero, Francisco; Jado, Emilia; García-Bernal, Francisco J; Cerezal, Luis

2002-10-01

200

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag proteins are processed in two cellular compartments.  

PubMed Central

The structural proteins of the retroviral capsid are translated as a polyprotein (the Gag precursor) that is cleaved by a virally encoded protease. Processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag precursor Pr55 was analyzed through a combination of pulse-chase labeling, cell fractionation, and immunoprecipitation. We observed a membrane-associated processing pathway for the Gag precursor that gives rise to virions. In addition, we found that a significant amount of processing occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells resulting in the intracellular accumulation of appropriately processed viral proteins. This observation suggests the viral protease is active in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell. Processing of the Gag protein was blocked in both compartments by the addition of a viral protease inhibitor. A comparison of the amount of cytoplasmic processing seen in lytically infected cells with that seen in chronically infected cells showed that cytoplasmic processing was associated with the lytic infection. These observations raise the possibility that activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease in the cytoplasm of lytically infected cells might result in the cleavage of cellular proteins and thus contribute to cytotoxicity. Images PMID:2034693

Kaplan, A H; Swanstrom, R

1991-01-01

201

Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

1975-01-01

202

Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

2012-01-01

203

Mapping the distributions and quantifying the labelling intensities of cell compartments by immunoelectron microscopy: progress towards a coherent set of methods.  

PubMed

An important tool in cell biology is the combination of immunogold labelling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by which target molecules (e.g. antigens) are bound specifically to affinity markers (primary antibodies) and then detected and localised with visualisation probes (e.g. colloidal gold particles bound to protein A). Gold particles are electron-dense, punctate and available in different sizes whilst TEM provides high-resolution images of particles and cell compartments. By virtue of these properties, the combination can be used also to quantify one or more defined targets in cell compartments. During the past decade, new ways of quantifying gold labelling within cells have been devised. Their efficiency and validity rely on sound principles of specimen sampling, event counting and inferential statistics. These include random selection of items at each sampling stage (e.g. specimen blocks, thin sections, microscopical fields), stereological analysis of cell ultrastructure, unbiased particle counting and statistical evaluation of a suitable null hypothesis (no difference in the intensity or pattern of labelling between compartments or groups of cells). The following approaches are possible: (i) A target molecule can be tested for preferential labelling by mapping the localisation of gold particles across a set of compartments. (ii) Data from wild-type and knockdown/knockout control cells can be used to correct raw gold particle counts, estimate specific labelling densities and then test for preferential labeling. (iii) The same antigen can be mapped in two or more groups of cells to test whether there are experimental shifts in compartment labelling patterns. (iv) A variant of this approach uses more than one size of gold particle to test whether or not different antigens colocalise in one or more compartments. (v) In studies involving antigen translocation, absolute numbers of gold particles can be mapped over compartments at specific positions within polarised, oriented or dividing cells. Here, the current state of the art is reviewed and approaches are illustrated with virtual datasets. PMID:21999926

Mayhew, Terry M

2011-12-01

204

Characterization of the budding compartment of mouse hepatitis virus: evidence that transport from the RER to the Golgi complex requires only one vesicular transport step.  

PubMed

Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) buds into pleomorphic membrane structures with features expected of the intermediate compartment between the ER and the Golgi complex. Here, we characterize the MHV budding compartment in more detail in mouse L cells using streptolysin O (SLO) permeabilization which allowed us to better visualize the membrane structures at the ER-Golgi boundary. The MHV budding compartment shares membrane continuities with the rough ER as well as with cisternal elements on one side of the Golgi stack. It also labeled with p58 and rab2, two markers of the intermediate compartment, and with PDI, usually considered to be a marker of the rough ER. The membranes of the budding compartment, as well as the budding virions themselves, but not the rough ER, labeled with the N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin Helix pomatia. When the SLO-permeabilized cells were treated with guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S), the budding compartment accumulated a large number of beta-cop-containing buds and vesicular profiles. Complementary biochemical experiments were carried out to determine whether vesicular transport was required for the newly synthesized M protein, that contains only O-linked oligosaccharides, to acquire first, GalNAc and second, the Golgi modifications galactose and sialic acid. The results from both in vivo studies and from the use of SLO-permeabilized cells showed that, while GalNAc addition occurred under conditions which block vesicular transport, both cytosol and ATP were prerequisites for the M protein oligosaccharides to acquire Golgi modifications. Collectively, our data argue that transport from the rough ER to the Golgi complex requires only one vesicular transport step and that the intermediate compartment is a specialized domain of the endoplasmatic reticulum that extends to the first cisterna on the cis side of the Golgi stack. PMID:8294506

Krijnse-Locker, J; Ericsson, M; Rottier, P J; Griffiths, G

1994-01-01

205

STS-103 Wiring inspections in the aft compartment of Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Danny Wyatt, with NASA Quality, inspects wiring, using a flashlight and magnifying glass, in the aft compartment of Discovery before launch. Electrical wire inspections and repairs in the orbiter's payload bay, external tank umbilical and engine compartment have been ongoing for more than a month and are near completion. Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 is scheduled for Dec. 11 at 11:42 p.m. from Launch Pad 39B. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

206

STS-103 Wiring inspections in the aft compartment of Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chris Kidd, with United Space Alliance (USA) stands by outside the aft compartment of Discovery while Todd Biddle (USA) inspects wiring inside. Electrical wire inspections and repairs in the orbiter's payload bay, external tank umbilical and engine compartment have been ongoing for more than a month and are near completion. Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 is scheduled for Dec. 11 at 11:42 p.m. from Launch Pad 39B. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

207

Primary Cilia and Dendritic Spines: Different but Similar Signaling Compartments  

PubMed Central

Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures. PMID:24048681

Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Doroquez, David B.; Sengupta, Piali

2013-01-01

208

A model of cross-bridge attachment to actin in the A*M*ATP state based on x-ray diffraction from permeabilized rabbit psoas muscle.  

PubMed Central

A model of cross-bridges binding to actin in the weak binding A*M*ATP state is presented. The modeling was based on the x-ray diffraction patterns from the relaxed skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers where ATP hydrolysis was inhibited by N-phenylmaleimide treatment (S. Xu, J. Gu, G. Melvin, L. C. Yu. 2002. Biophys. J. 82:2111-2122). Calculations included both the myosin filaments and the actin filaments of the muscle cells, and the binding to actin was assumed to be single headed. To achieve a good fit, considerable flexibility in the orientation of the myosin head and the position of the S1-S2 junction is necessary, such that the myosin head can bind to a nearby actin whereas the tail end was kept in the proximity of the helical track of the myosin filament. Hence, the best-fit model shows that the head binds to actin in a wide range of orientations, and the tail end deviates substantially from its lattice position in the radial direction (approximately 60 A). Surprisingly, the best fit model reveals that the detached head, whose location thus far has remained undetected, seems to be located close to the surface of the myosin filament. Another significant requirement of the best-fit model is that the binding site on actin is near the N terminus of the actin subunit, a position distinct from the putative rigor-binding site. The results support the idea that the essential role played by the weak binding states M*ATP <--> A*M*ATP for force generation lies in its flexibility, because the probability of attachment is greatly increased, compared with the weak binding M*ADP*P(i) <--> A*M*ADP*P(i) states. PMID:11916868

Gu, Jin; Xu, Sengen; Yu, Leepo C

2002-01-01

209

Dynamic behaviour of half-sarcomeres during and after stretch in activated rabbit psoas myofibrils: sarcomere asymmetry but no 'sarcomere popping'.  

PubMed

We examined length changes of individual half-sarcomeres during and after stretch in actively contracting, single rabbit psoas myofibrils containing 10-30 sarcomeres. The myofibrils were fluorescently immunostained so that both Z-lines and M-bands of sarcomeres could be monitored by video microscopy simultaneously with the force measurement. Half-sarcomere lengths were determined by processing of video images and tracking the fluorescent Z-line and M-band signals. Upon Ca2+ activation, during the rise in force, active half-sarcomeres predominantly shorten but to different extents so that an active myofibril consists of half-sarcomeres of different lengths and thus asymmetric sarcomeres, i.e. shifted A-bands, indicating different amounts of filament overlap in the two halves. When force reached a plateau, the myofibril was stretched by 15-20% resting length (L0) at a velocity of approximately 0.2 L0 s(-1). The myofibril force response to a ramp stretch is similar to that reported from muscle fibres. Despite the approximately 2.5-fold increase in force due to the stretch, the variability in half-sarcomere length remained almost constant during the stretch and A-band shifts did not progress further, independent of whether half-sarcomeres shortened or lengthened during the initial Ca2+ activation. Moreover, albeit half-sarcomeres lengthened to different extents during a stretch, rapid elongation of individual sarcomeres beyond filament overlap ('popping') was not observed. Thus, in contrast to predictions of the 'popping sarcomere' hypothesis, a stretch rather stabilizes the uniformity of half-sarcomere lengths and sarcomere symmetry. In general, the half-sarcomere length changes (dynamics) before and after stretch were slow and the dynamics after stretch were not readily predictable on the basis of the steady-state force-sarcomere length relation. PMID:16527855

Telley, I A; Stehle, R; Ranatunga, K W; Pfitzer, G; Stüssi, E; Denoth, J

2006-05-15

210

Generation and migration of petroleum from abnormally pressured fluid compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sedimentary basins contain layers of two or more superimposed hydrogeological systems. The shallow systems are usually basin wide in extent and exhibit normal hydrostatic pressures. The deeper systems, where the oil is generated, are not basin wide and are abnormally overpressured. They usually consist of a series of individual fluid compartments that are not in hydraulic pressure communication with

J. Hunt

1990-01-01

211

The intertubular compartment morphometry in capybaras ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to characterize the intertubule element volume density, individual and total Leydig cells volume, Leydig cell number per testis and per gram of testis, and leydigosomatic index in adult capybaras. Eight capybaras from a commercial abattoir were utilized. The intertubular compartment volume density and the Leydig cells were 45.2 and 31.13%, respectively. The individual

D. S. Costa; T. A. R. Paula; S. L. P. Matta

2006-01-01

212

14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and stress concentrations and fatigue effects must be accounted for...pressurized compartment, the failure of which could interfere...caused by airplane or equipment failures not shown to be extremely improbable...determining the probability of failure or penetration and...

2010-01-01

213

38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, with salon wall panels removed to show engine frame. Main connecting rod from crank to walking beam appears at extreme right of view, top of cylinder and piston rod appear at extreme left. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

214

Salt splitting in a three-compartment membrane electrolysis cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-compartment membrane cell was used to investigate the electrohydrolysis of sodium sulphate for the regeneration of acid and base. The membranes used were Pall R1010 cation exchange and Pall R1030 anion exchange. The effect of flow rate, current density and initial salt concentration on the performance of the cell (current efficiencies, transport properties and product concentrations) are reported. The

N Tzanetakis; WM Taama; K Scott

2002-01-01

215

Lean manufacturing optimization of automotive motor compartment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oshawa's Plant #2 Motor Compartment Automated Monorail System (i.e., AMS) process is currently running at only 75% of its original scheduled production capacity. This AMS process was the first one implemented in the Corporation. Since it is the bottleneck, plant personnel feel that effort must be put forth to put in place a system to increase the current uptime to

Kenneth R. Morrison

1996-01-01

216

12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

217

Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome – a critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is increasingly recognized in critically ill patients, and the deleterious effects of increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) are well documented. Surgical decompression through a midline laparotomy or decompressive laparotomy remains the sole definite therapy for ACS, but the effect of decompressive laparotomy has not been studied in large patient series. METHODS: We reviewed English literature from

Jan J De Waele; Eric AJ Hoste; Manu LNG Malbrain

2006-01-01

218

Compartment syndrome after prolonged surgery with leg supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome has been reported in a few cases after prolonged surgery with patients in leg supports. A recent case in our hospital (57-year-old man undergoing cystourethrectomy because of cancer) made us interested in the problem. This case together with six from the literature are analysed. Moreover, the first 11 cases operated on with a pelvic pouch and ileoanal anastomosis

D. Bergqvist; M. Bohe; G. Ekelund; S. Hellsten; H. Jiborn; N. H. Persson; R. Takolander

1990-01-01

219

The use of magnetic resonance imaging in exertional compartment syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, double-blind study was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive method in the diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome (CCS). As well, a new radiopharmaceutical known as methoxy isobutyl isoni trile that has been shown to be taken up by muscle in direct proportion to its blood flow was used to illustrate

A. Amendola; C. H. Rorabeck; D. Vellett; W. Vezina; B. Rutt; Linda Nott

1990-01-01

220

Radioactive source term models in a compartment fire code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for the release of airborne radioactivity in fires have been developed. These radioactive source term models are used as subroutines in a compartment fire code called FIRIN. Each model is based on release factors developed using information from experiments. Models are developed for the following release mechanisms: burning of contaminated combustible solids; burning of contaminated combustible liquids; heating of

M. Y. Ballinger; P. C. Owczarski

1985-01-01

221

An unusual metallic foreign body in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A child presented with pain and swelling of the knee caused by a fall on the snow. Medical imaging showed an unusual metallic foreign body in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment. Arthroscopy revealed the nature of the foreign body; a metallic piece of stone had penetrated skin and cartilage and was fastened in the cartilage of the lateral femoral condyle where

Marleen Palmers; Carl Dierickx; Patrik Peene; Eric Bijnens

2002-01-01

222

Exercise-induced bilateral anterior tibial compartment syndrome without pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 41 year old man who complained of a severe bilateral deficit of the anterior tibial compartment two hours after prolonged exercise. On admission there was no spontaneous or evoked pain, no objective sensory deficit but total loss of dorsiflexion of feet and toes. Electrophysiological investigation showed no voluntary or evoked electrical activity in tibial

G. Ciacci; A. Federico; F. Giannini; M. Mondelli; F. Reale; A. Rossi

1986-01-01

223

Leg Anterior Compartment Syndrome Following Ankle Arthroscopy After Maisonneuve Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of leg anterior compartment syndrome following ankle arthroscopy after Maisonneuve fracture. A 21-year-old football player sprained his left ankle. Plain radiography of his left ankle showed a lateral dislocation of the talus without obvious fractures. Plain radiography of his left lower extremity showed a spiral fracture of the proximal fibula approximately one third distal to the

Shinji Imade; Masato Takao; Wataru Miyamoto; Hideaki Nishi; Yuji Uchio

2009-01-01

224

Intraabdominal compartment syndrome complicating transurethral resection of bladder tumor.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options. PMID:22957294

Narain, Sachin; Giquel, Jadelis; Ariza, Armando; Martinez-Ruiz, Ricardo; Kava, Bruce R; Matadial, Christina

2012-01-01

225

Regionally compartmented groundwater flow on Mars Keith P. Harrison1  

E-print Network

Regionally compartmented groundwater flow on Mars Keith P. Harrison1 and Robert E. Grimm1 Received] Groundwater flow on Mars likely contributed to the formation of several types of morphologic and mineralogic of groundwater flow required for their formation. For groundwater simulation purposes, a global Martian aquifer

Harrison, Keith

226

Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

2011-01-01

227

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

228

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view specified...

2011-01-01

229

14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flight and while landing. (b) Each pilot compartment must have a means to either remove or prevent the formation of fog or frost on an area of the internal portion of the windshield and side windows sufficiently large to provide the view specified...

2010-01-01

230

Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration  

PubMed Central

The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

2013-01-01

231

The mosaic structure of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42 and its relation to other symbiotic genome compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Symbiotic bacteria known as rhizobia interact with the roots of legumes and induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In rhizobia, essential genes for symbiosis are compartmentalized either in symbiotic plasmids or in chromosomal symbiotic islands. To understand the structure and evolution of the symbiotic genome compartments (SGCs), it is necessary to analyze their common genetic content and organization as well as to study their differences. To date, five SGCs belonging to distinct species of rhizobia have been entirely sequenced. We report the complete sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42, a microsymbiont of beans, and a comparison with other SGC sequences available. Results The symbiotic plasmid is a circular molecule of 371,255 base-pairs containing 359 coding sequences. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes common to other rhizobia are clustered in a region of 125 kilobases. Numerous sequences related to mobile elements are scattered throughout. In some cases the mobile elements flank blocks of functionally related sequences, thereby suggesting a role in transposition. The plasmid contains 12 reiterated DNA families that are likely to participate in genomic rearrangements. Comparisons between this plasmid and complete rhizobial genomes and symbiotic compartments already sequenced show a general lack of synteny and colinearity, with the exception of some transcriptional units. There are only 20 symbiotic genes that are shared by all SGCs. Conclusions Our data support the notion that the symbiotic compartments of rhizobia genomes are mosaic structures that have been frequently tailored by recombination, horizontal transfer and transposition. PMID:12801410

González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Salgado, Heladia; Hernández-González, Ismael; Hernández-Celis, Juan Carlos; Quintero, Verónica; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Girard, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Oscar; Flores, Margarita; Cevallos, Miguel A; Collado-Vides, Julio; Romero, David; Dávila, Guillermo

2003-01-01

232

MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are assessed redundantly showing excellent agreement for mass balance purposes with more than 95 % for carbon recovery. The experimental determination of nitrogen conversion yields has shown that more than 95 % for NH4+ is converted to NO2- in the first step and that more than 0.975 NO2- is transformed to NO3- in the second step. The biomass production yields are 0.4 and 0.3 g DM mol N-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi respectively. The maximum nitrogen oxidation rates are 0.9 and 3.5 mM day-1 respectively, indicating a limitation by oxygen transfer. Keywords: autotrophy, Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, ionic chromatography, flow cytometry

Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

2012-07-01

233

Block That Pain!  

MedlinePLUS

... combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, ... surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can cause numbness, paralysis, and other nervous ...

234

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

2008-12-10

235

The Block Scheduling Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Block scheduling encourages increased comprehensive immersion into subject matter, improved teacher-student relationships, and decreased disciplinary problems. While block scheduling may offer many advantages, moving to a block schedule from conventional scheduling can be a major adjustment for both students and teachers. This guide is intended to…

Queen, J. Allen

236

Building, block, street : residential block design  

E-print Network

Late twentieth-century housing, formed by economic and internally generated functional problems rather than by limitations imposed by traditional street pattern and block size, is fundamentally anti-urban. Modern American ...

Kamell, Elizabeth N. (Elizabeth Natanya)

1996-01-01

237

46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...will be required between a cargo tank and a compartment containing pumping engines and their auxiliaries which are used exclusively during pumping operations, provided the pumping engine compartment contains no cargo valves and is well...

2013-10-01

238

46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...will be required between a cargo tank and a compartment containing pumping engines and their auxiliaries which are used exclusively during pumping operations, provided the pumping engine compartment contains no cargo valves and is well...

2012-10-01

239

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2011-01-01

240

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2010-01-01

241

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2014-01-01

242

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2013-01-01

243

14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a) Sources of...

2012-01-01

244

View of compartment D16, passing room; shaft and universal joints ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of compartment D-16, passing room; shaft and universal joints at top of photograph transmit control forces to steering unit in compartment d-23. (p62) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

245

Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

246

Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

247

Lower Limb (Well Leg) Compartment Syndrome After Urological Pelvic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWell leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is being seen more frequently as the complexity and duration of pelvic urological surgery increases, ie reconstruction\\/radical cancer surgery. The etiology of WLCS is multifactorial and prevention should form the mainstay of treatment. With significant morbidity and mortality, in particular lower limb morbidity secondary to fasciotomy wounds and long-term neurological sequelae, all urologists should be

ASIF RAZA; DEREK BYRNE; NICK TOWNELL

2004-01-01

248

Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a highly lethal event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent reports have described resuscitation-induced, “secondary” abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in trauma patients without intra-abdominal injuries. We have diagnosed secondary ACS in a variety of nontrauma as well as trauma patients. The purpose of this review is to characterize patients who develop secondary ACS.Methods: Our prospective ACS database was reviewed for cases of secondary ACS. Physiologic parameters and outcomes

Walter L Biffl; Ernest E Moore; Jon M Burch; Patrick J Offner; Reginald J Franciose; Jeffrey L Johnson

2001-01-01

249

Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome. PMID:23264161

Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

2012-01-01

250

Wortmannin induces homotypic fusion of plant prevacuolar compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase, is a useful tool for studying protein trafficking and identifying organelles in the plant secretory and endocytic pathways. It has recently been demonstrated that wortmannin at 16.5 m Mo r 33mM caused the prevacuolar compartments (PVCs), identified as multivesicular bodies (MVBs) by their enrichment in vacuolar sorting receptor (VSRs) proteins and the BP-80

Junqi Wang; Yi Cai; Yansong Miao; Sheung Kwan Lam; Liwen Jiang

2009-01-01

251

Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2011-03-01

252

The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion.  

PubMed

Spatial reaction-diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction-diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as 'compartment-based' or 'on-lattice'. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of 'compartments'. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: 'how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?' First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient implementation of the first, it is derived in the continuum limit over the PDE region alone. We test our hybrid methods for functionality and accuracy in a variety of different scenarios by comparing the averaged simulations with analytical solutions of PDEs for mean concentrations. PMID:25904527

Yates, Christian A; Flegg, Mark B

2015-05-01

253

Shapes of Discoid Intracellular Compartments with Small Relative Volumes  

PubMed Central

A prominent feature of many intracellular compartments is a large membrane surface area relative to their luminal volume, i.e., the small relative volume. In this study we present a theoretical analysis of discoid membrane compartments with a small relative volume and then compare the theoretical results to quantitative morphological assessment of fusiform vesicles in urinary bladder umbrella cells. Specifically, we employ three established extensions of the standard approach to lipid membrane shape calculation and determine the shapes that could be expected according to three scenarios of membrane shaping: membrane adhesion in the central discoid part, curvature driven lateral segregation of membrane constituents, and existence of stiffer membrane regions, e.g., support by protein scaffolds. The main characteristics of each scenario are analyzed. The results indicate that even though all three scenarios can lead to similar shapes, there are values of model parameters that yield qualitatively distinctive shapes. Consequently, a distinctive shape of an intracellular compartment may reveal its membrane shaping mechanism and the membrane structure. The observed shapes of fusiform vesicles fall into two qualitatively different classes, yet they are all consistent with the theoretical results and the current understanding of their structure and function. PMID:22132079

Derganc, Jure; Boži?, Bojan; Romih, Rok

2011-01-01

254

Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

Goodman, Jerry R.

2010-01-01

255

The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

1995-01-01

256

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

2012-10-01

257

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

2013-10-01

258

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

2010-10-01

259

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming...overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used provided the motor is...

2011-10-01

260

A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics  

E-print Network

A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics NIKOLAOS M. TSOUKIAS AND STEVEN- compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics. J. Appl. Physiol. 85(2):653­666, 1998.--The in theoretical studies to assist in the interpretation of the experimental results. We have developed a two-compartment

George, Steven C.

261

Surgical management of exertional compartment syndrome of the lower legLong-term followup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six limbs in 28 patients were surgically treated for exertional compartment syndrome. One group of 16 patients (26 limbs) underwent a fasciotomy for ex ertional anterior compartment syndrome (Group 1). A second group of 12 patients (20 limbs) underwent a fasciotomy for exertional deep posterior compartment syndrome (Group 2). Patients in Group 2 experienced symptoms for a significantly longer time

Anthony A. Schepsis; Douglas Martini; Michael Corbett

1993-01-01

262

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which...ventilation may be used provided the motor is outside the compartment. (b) Compartments in which gas-consuming appliances are...least once every 6 minutes. The motor for the powered ventilation...

2014-10-01

263

Compartment A126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room compartment B-1 and compartment B-2. Scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) is at right center of photograph. Manikin wearing WWII wave uniform is in display case at left center. (045) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

264

A comparison of anterior compartment pressures in competitive runners and cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior compartment pressure was measured in 10 competitive runners and in 10 competitive cyclists who were asymptomatic for compartment syndrome. Pres sures were measured at rest, after exercise at 80% VO2max, after maximal exercise, and 15 minutes after both exercise bouts. No difference in compartment pressure was found after exercise at 80% VO2max in runners and cyclists. Total creatine phosphokinase

Susan G. Beckham; William A. Grana; Peter Buckley; James E. Breazile; P. L. Claypool

1993-01-01

265

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VENTILATION CONDITIONS AND CARBON MONOXIDE SOURCE TERM IN FULLY-DEVELOPED COMPARTMENT FIRES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main species yields of compartment fires can be correlated with the ventilation conditions of the compartment, a well known approach referred to as global equivalence ratio concept (GER-concept). From data of experiments in hoods and in a prototype compartment, Gottuk and Lattimer (SFPE 2002) have presented their idealised correlations of CO yields with the GER. The comparison of re-examined and

Burkhard Forell; Dietmar Hosser

2007-01-01

266

9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...50 Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...tag thereto. No equipment, alleyway, pen or compartment so tagged shall be...

2012-01-01

267

9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...50 Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...tag thereto. No equipment, alleyway, pen or compartment so tagged shall be...

2013-01-01

268

9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...50 Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...tag thereto. No equipment, alleyway, pen or compartment so tagged shall be...

2011-01-01

269

9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...50 Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...tag thereto. No equipment, alleyway, pen or compartment so tagged shall be...

2014-01-01

270

9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...50 Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane...tag thereto. No equipment, alleyway, pen or compartment so tagged shall be...

2010-01-01

271

14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...airplane type design) in a passenger or crew compartment...

2012-01-01

272

14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...airplane type design) in a passenger or crew compartment...

2014-01-01

273

14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...airplane type design) in a passenger or crew compartment...

2010-01-01

274

14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...airplane type design) in a passenger or crew compartment...

2013-01-01

275

14 CFR 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and...airplane type design) in a passenger or crew compartment...

2011-01-01

276

78 FR 25846 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A340-600 Series Airplanes; Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...applicable, for a complete description of the certification basis...compartments. While the installation of LDCR compartments is not...features associated with the installation of this LDCR compartment...a result of the crew rest installation. The applicant must...

2013-05-03

277

The osmotically sensitive potassium and sodium compartments of synaptosomes  

PubMed Central

1. Synaptosomes are pinched-off nerve terminals whose components can be liberated by osmotic `shock'. A synaptosome preparation run through a Sephadex column that was eluted with an iso-osmotic solution retained its small ions, whereas when the column was eluted hypo-osmotically the small ions were lost. In this way the osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ of synaptosomes were measured. Measurements of the lactate dehydrogenase occluded within the synaptosome were also made. The release of osmotically sensitive Na+ and K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase had similar characteristics with respect to the degree of osmotic `shock' necessary and the action of lytic agents. 2. The distribution of osmotically sensitive Na+, K+ and occluded lactate dehydrogenase in the subfractions of a crude mitochondrial preparation was examined. The synaptosome fraction was the richest source of these constituents. 3. On standing at 5° in iso-osmotic solution Na+ and K+ were lost from synaptosomes, whereas the amount of occluded lactate dehydrogenase remained stable, suggesting that the synaptosome membrane retained its integrity but that Na+ and K+ diffused through it out of the osmotically sensitive compartment. 4. The uptake of Na+ and K+ into the osmotically sensitive compartment was examined. At 5° the rates of uptake of Na+ and K+ were found to be equal to the rates of loss of these ions when correction to a uniform concentration gradient had been made. K+ travelled across the membrane slightly faster than Na+, the rate of K+ movement being about 1·0??equiv.cm.?2sec.?1 under a concentration gradient of 0·1m. Active transport is not thought to contribute to the ion movements under the conditions used. 5. The amount of K+ taken up into the osmotically sensitive compartment as a function of the external concentration was examined. Since the uncharged molecule d-[14C]galactose distributes across the synaptosome membrane similarly to K+ there is not thought to be a synaptosomal trans-membrane potential. The volume of the osmotically sensitive compartment was measured by this method and found to agree with estimates of the synaptosomal volume made from morphological studies. In media of low ionic strength synaptosomes exhibit a Donnan effect. 6. It is concluded from these studies that the osmotically sensitive compartment represents the inner volume of the synaptosome, which is completely separated from the outside environment by a diffusion barrier having many of the general properties of a biological membrane. PMID:6035507

Marchbanks, R. M.

1967-01-01

278

Base blocks decimals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this virtual manipulative, students can explore the meaning of place value and grouping as they add and subtract decimals. Base blocks consist of individual units, longs, flats, and blocks (ten of each set for base 10). These blocks can represent negative as well as positive numbers with one to four decimal places and in five different bases. Students exchange and group the blocks as needed to solve the problem. Problems can be presented to or created by the students. All material is available in Spanish and French as well as English, including instructions for using the manipulative, information about bases and place value, and suggested questions for classroom use.

Utah State University. National Library of Virtual Manipulatives for Interactive Mathematics

1999-01-01

279

Lower extremity nerve blocks.  

PubMed

Lower extremity nerve blocks have not become as popular as upper extremity blocks for anesthesia; however, the use of lower extremity nerve blocks will become more widespread, as teaching programs are now providing more regional anesthesia experiences for their trainees so that the anesthesia provider will have the familiarity to use these blocks. To increase the enthusiasm among our surgical colleagues, we must begin to use these blocks for surgery, and if the block must be supplemented with local anesthetic or a light general anesthetic, we must educate them that the block is not a failure but a success, as it will provide analgesia after surgery in a method of multimodal pain control. Lower extremity nerve blocks will become more popular when it is realized that they are an effective way of increasing operating room efficiency. Because the block may be placed in an induction room, there is no induction or emergence in the operating room. Patients may be discharged without the need for pain medications, thus lowering the incidence of nausea postoperatively and decreasing PACU and discharge times. PMID:10935013

Dilger, J A

2000-06-01

280

Protein based Block Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

281

compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual computer model has been constructed to simulate the compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. The model accounts for flow and transport in the variably saturated porous medium as well as biogeochemical change reactions. The most concentrated contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons and dissolved as well as mineral phase electron acceptors are considered. Also of major interest are reduced species with high oxygen demand such as ammonium. The influence of marsh plants on microbial activity, gas transport, water balance and contaminant fate in general is matter of current investigation. The constructed wetlands consist of a coarse sand or fine gravel porous medium. Marsh plants were introduced after installation, however, a number of control basins are operated unplanted. Water levels and through flow rates are adjusted to optimize the remediation efficiency. The system is likely to be neither reaction nor mixing limited, thus both, values of dispersivity and degradation kinetics may be crucial for remediation efficiency. Biogeochemical modelling is able to delineate in detail (i) the zonation of processes, (ii) temporal variation (breakthrough curves) and (iii) mass balance information. The contributions of biodegradation and volatilisation and the influence of plants (compartment transfer) can generally best be evaluated by the component's mass balance. More efficient mixing is expected in the wetlands with open water body which leads to both, more biodegradation and volatilisation. An important task is to quantify the role of plants and root systems for contaminant attenuation in constructed wetlands. The long term goal of investigation is to allow for predictions for the design of large scale compartment transfer wetlands that may be applied to remediate the site as a whole.

Maier, Uli; Oswald, Sascha; Thullner, Martin; Grathwohl, Peter

2010-05-01

282

Compartment syndrome secondary to spontaneous rupture of a Baker's cyst.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease secondary to posterior urethral valves has received two kidney transplants since 1975, and both have succumbed to chronic rejection. She has been anuric since 2003 and undergoes hemodialysis three times a week. She was admitted to our hospital for evaluation for a third kidney transplant. The kidney was found to be unsuitable for this recipient, and she was taken to dialysis prior to discharge. Shortly after dialysis, she developed acute pain in the lower portion of her left leg and received a venous ultrasound to rule out possible deep vein thrombosis. No thrombus was appreciated. Instead, a Baker's cyst appeared to have ruptured its contents into her deep posterior compartment. In the twenty minutes it took to perform the ultrasound, her symptoms worsened, and her leg became firm. The patient reported extreme pain, paresthesias over the lateral aspect of the lower portion of the leg, and an inability to plantarflex or dorsiflex the foot. The foot was warm to the touch and still had a palpable pulse. The leg was beginning to lighten in color. The patient underwent an emergent fasciotomy. Pressure within the posterior compartment of the leg was measured at 120 mm Hg just prior to incision. The anterior, medial, and lateral compartments were measured at pressures of 23, 32, and 26 mm Hg, respectively. A two-incision anterolateral faciotomy was performed, and the wounds were left open to heal by secondary intention. The patient's convalescence was unremarkable, and she is still listed for renal transplantation. PMID:17396475

Klovning, Jason; Beadle, Tom

2007-01-01

283

Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase and its compartment in dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Peptide epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules are produced through sequential proteolysis, frequently terminating with an aminoterminal trimming step. While the trimming enzymes processing endogenous MHC class I ligands in the endoplasmic reticulum have by now been characterized extensively, we have only recently identified an endosomal enzyme, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) that can trim cross-presented peptides derived from proteins internalized by dendritic cells. Here we summarize the essential features of IRAP as a trimming enzyme, propose an updated model of cellular cross-presentation pathways, and discuss potential additional functions of IRAP and its compartment in dendritic cell biology. PMID:23123036

Saveanu, Loredana; Babdor, Joël; Lawand, Myriam; van Endert, Peter

2013-09-01

284

Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

2015-01-01

285

Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01

286

Block and psychoticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that J. P. Block's (1977) criticisms of the Eysenck and Eysenck Adult Psychoticism Scale are one-sided and do not take into account all the evidence. It is also suggested that Block's criticisms center on a function not at all envisaged for the scale, that is, the discrimination of psychotics from normals and other nonpsychotic groups. The scale was constructed

Hans J. Eysenck; Sybil B. Eysenck

1977-01-01

287

Neuromuscular compartments of cat lateral gastrocnemius produce different torques about the ankle joint.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether the neuromuscular compartments of cat lateral gastrocnemius produce different mechanical actions on the skeletal system, by determining the contributions made by these compartments to the torques produced about the ankle joint. It was postulated that neuromuscular compartments might represent output elements of the spinal circuits. If so, they should produce unique mechanical actions. Isometric torques about the center of the ankle joint produced by the neuromuscular compartments of the cat lateral gastrocnemius were measured with a multiaxis force-moment sensor connected to the plantar surface of the foot. Individual compartment torques were elicited by activation of the primary compartment branches of the lateral gastrocnemius nerve. The magnitude of the individual torque components, and thus of the resultant torque, was significantly different between compartments. In three of the four lateral gastrocnemius compartments, significantly different torque trajectories were noted. The results, together with those from previous studies demonstrating that compartments can be activated in a task-dependent manner, suggest that neuromuscular compartments represent anatomical substrates that can be used by the nervous system for regulating movement. PMID:10529506

Carrasco, D I; Lawrence, J; English, A W

1999-10-01

288

Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

1976-01-01

289

Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology. PMID:25689980

Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

2015-03-01

290

Remodeling of secretory compartments creates CUPS during nutrient starvation.  

PubMed

Upon starvation, Grh1, a peripheral membrane protein located at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites and early Golgi in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under growth conditions, relocates to a compartment called compartment for unconventional protein secretion (CUPS). Here we report that CUPS lack Golgi enzymes, but contain the coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle tethering protein Uso1 and the Golgi t-SNARE Sed5. Interestingly, CUPS biogenesis is independent of COPII- and COPI-mediated membrane transport. Pik1- and Sec7-mediated membrane export from the late Golgi is required for complete assembly of CUPS, and Vps34 is needed for their maintenance. CUPS formation is triggered by glucose, but not nitrogen starvation. Moreover, upon return to growth conditions, CUPS are absorbed into the ER, and not the vacuole. Altogether our findings indicate that CUPS are not specialized autophagosomes as suggested previously. We suggest that starvation triggers relocation of secretory and endosomal membranes, but not their enzymes, to generate CUPS to sort and secrete proteins that do not enter, or are not processed by enzymes of the ER-Golgi pathway of secretion. PMID:25512390

Cruz-Garcia, David; Curwin, Amy J; Popoff, Jean-François; Bruns, Caroline; Duran, Juan M; Malhotra, Vivek

2014-12-22

291

Characterization of an apical ceramide-enriched compartment regulating ciliogenesis  

PubMed Central

We show that in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, an apical ceramide-enriched compartment (ACEC) at the base of primary cilia is colocalized with Rab11a. Ceramide and Rab11a vesicles isolated by magnetic sorting contain a highly similar profile of proteins (atypical protein kinase C [aPKC], Cdc42, Sec8, Rab11a, and Rab8) and ceramide species, suggesting the presence of a ciliogenic protein complex associated with ceramide at the ACEC. It is intriguing that C16 and C18 ceramide, although less abundant ceramide species in MDCK cells, are highly enriched in ceramide and Rab11a vesicles. Expression of a ceramide-binding but dominant-negative mutant of aPKC suppresses ciliogenesis, indicating that the association of ceramide with aPKC is critical for the formation of this complex. Our results indicate that ciliogenic ceramide is derived from apical sphingomyelin (SM) that is endocytosed and then converted to the ACEC. Consistently, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase with imipramine disrupts ACEC formation, association of ciliogenic proteins with Rab11a vesicles, and cilium formation. Ciliogenesis is rescued by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating that ceramide promotes tubulin acetylation in cilia. Taken together, our results suggest that the ACEC is a novel compartment in which SM-derived ceramide induces formation of a ciliogenic lipid–protein complex that sustains primary cilia by preventing deacetylation of microtubules. PMID:22718902

He, Qian; Wang, Guanghu; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Dinkins, Michael; Zhu, Gu; Bieberich, Erhard

2012-01-01

292

Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Müller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

2014-01-01

293

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment  

SciTech Connect

The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams [1]. The scope of this ``phase I`` analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering [2], is to carry out a ``scoping analysis`` of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the ``phase I`` calculations.

Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

1990-09-24

294

Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment  

SciTech Connect

The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams (1). The scope of this phase I'' analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering (2), is to carry out a scoping analysis'' of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the phase I'' calculations.

Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

1990-09-24

295

A three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model can explain variable toxicities of cobra venoms and their alpha toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetic profiles of labelled Naja melanoleuca, Naja nivea, Naja nigricollis and Naja haje venoms and their alpha neurotoxins were determined following rapid i.v. injection into rabbits. The data obtained fitted a triexponential equation characteristic of a three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model comprising a central compartment ‘blood’, a rapidly equilibrating ‘shallow’ tissue compartment and a slowly equilibrating ‘deep’ tissue compartment. The

M. Ismail; M. H. M. Aly; M. A. Abd-Elsalam; A. M. Morad

1996-01-01

296

Evolution of Orogenic Blocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of low-level flow upstream of the Continental Divide (Rocky Mountains) from being blocked, i.e. unable to surmount the barrier, to becoming unblocked and blocked again is studied observationally and numerically. During two months in the winter of 1991/92 a transect of three wind profilers measured the wind field every few minutes. Three -dimensional numerical simulations with the Colorado State Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) using realistic topography supplemented the observations with details of the blocked and unblocked flow. The results confirm the theory that a mountain -induced mesoscale high above the upwind slopes causes the blocking. While previous research of idealized situations focused on changes of the cross-barrier wind and stability as determining variables to build that mesoscale high, this study found synoptic and radiative forcing to drive the blocking evolution in the atmosphere. When the low -level flow was blocked by the mountain-induced mesoscale high a opposing synoptic cross-barrier pressure gradient could negate the mesoscale gradient. Therefore unblocking happened most frequently when the trough axis of a short wave was immediately upstream of the barrier, but sometimes synoptic pressure gradients caused by contrasts in vorticity and differential temperature advection were also strong enough to overpower the mesoscale pressure gradient. The flow returned to its blocked state when the ridge behind the trough approached the barrier so that the synoptic cross-barrier pressure gradient reinforced the mesoscale gradient. For a lower barrier or stronger solar insolation a well-mixed boundary layer could grow almost to the height of the barrier by afternoon and reconnect the blocked layer with the higher cross-barrier winds above the mountain. After sunset the radiative cooling stabilizes the lower atmosphere again and the transition back to the blocked state occurred. The transition between the two states happened rapidly on the order of an hour. A blocked flow event lasted on the average one and a half days. The depth of the blocked layer even during one blocking episode fluctuated considerably but never exceeded the height of the barrier.

Mayr, Georg Johann

297

31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2010-07-01

298

View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

299

Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

300

31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2012-07-01

301

31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2011-07-01

302

31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2013-07-01

303

31 CFR 541.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2014-07-01

304

Types of Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

305

Mid-Career Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

Payne, Richard A.

1984-01-01

306

Resolving writer's block.  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

Huston, P.

1998-01-01

307

Superalloy Lattice Block Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

2004-01-01

308

Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the osteons and similar to the "fully mineralized" stage of primary bone. The results of this study demonstrated that unremodeled compartments of bone grow older through maturation and growth of mineral crystals in a protracted fashion. However, the secondary osteonal remodeling impedes this aging process and maintains the mean tissue age fairly constant over decades. Therefore, slowing of remodeling may lead to brittle bone tissue through accumulation of fully mineralized tissue fragments.

Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

2003-01-01

309

Evolution of Orogenic Blocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of low-level flow upstream of the Continental Divide (Rocky Mountains) from being blocked, i.e. unable to surmount the barrier, to becoming unblocked and blocked again is studied observationally and numerically. During two months in the winter of 1991\\/92 a transect of three wind profilers measured the wind field every few minutes. Three -dimensional numerical simulations with the Colorado

Georg Johann Mayr

1993-01-01

310

Compartment Syndrome After Serial Casting in Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muchow RD, Flannery WD, Miedaner JA, Noonan KJ, McCarthy JJ. Compartment syndrome after serial casting in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: a case report.We present the case of a 24-year-old woman with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy who developed left lower extremity compartment syndrome after serial casting to treat an equinus contracture. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of compartment

Ryan D. Muchow; Walker D. Flannery; James A. Miedaner; Kenneth J. Noonan; James J. McCarthy

2010-01-01

311

Superalloy Lattice Block Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

2003-01-01

312

Precursors to atmospheric blocking events  

E-print Network

Atmospheric blocking events disturb synoptic-scale features from their normal eastward progression, causing anomalous weather conditions for the duration of the blocking event. The essence of blocking can be captured by ...

Marino, Garrett P

2009-01-01

313

EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE  

PubMed Central

Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

2011-01-01

314

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Caused by Massive Pyonephrosis in an Infant with Primary Obstructive Megaureter  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of abdominal compartment syndrome caused by massive pyonephrosis in an infant with primary obstructive megaureter successfully treated with emergency surgical decompression. PMID:21811507

Kavaguti, Silvia K.; Mackevicius, Barbara R.; de Andrade, Murilo F.; Tucci Jr, Silvio; Carlotti, Ana P. C. P.

2011-01-01

315

Compartment syndrome of the arm caused by transcatheter angiography or angioplasty.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome of the arm is a rare condition because of the large capacity of the arm compartment. Although several cases of compartment syndrome of the forearm associated with vascular access procedures have been reported, the literature contains few detailed reports of compartment syndrome of the arm caused by transcather angiography or angioplasty. This article presents 4 cases of compartment syndrome of the anterior arm caused by transcatheter angiography or angioplasty; all patients required surgical treatment and anticoagulation therapy. Following urgent fasciotomy and hemostasis, 1 patient experienced recurrent bleeding and another exhibited delayed complex regional pain syndrome of the forearm. The remaining 2 cases had good outcomes. Because all patients had been prescribed various oral anticoagulants, their compartment syndrome was considered a complication of thrombolytic therapy. In addition, because all patients had a history of multiple arterial diseases, atherosclerosis was considered to be severely advanced and the vessels to be easily damaged. Due to the authors' experiences with these 4 cases, they recommend that surgery be performed under general rather than local anesthesia and that the bleeding site be sutured or ligated. Compression of the bleeding point alone could allow heavy bleeding or recurrence of bleeding to occur because of the influence of anticoagulation therapy. Continuous bleeding of the arm may expand into the volar compartment of the forearm, leading to a condition similar to chronic compartment syndrome. Effective hemostasis, in addition to early decompressive fasciotomy, is essential in compartment syndrome caused by the catheter procedure. PMID:23276344

Omori, Shinsuke; Miyake, Junichi; Hamada, Kenichiro; Naka, Norifumi; Araki, Nobuhito; Yoshikawa, Hideki

2013-01-01

316

The path of axons in Drosophila wings in relation to compartment boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have tested the hypothesis that the paths taken by sensory axons in the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila are influenced by the boundaries between developmental compartments1. It has been proposed that differences in cell affinity keep the epidermal cells of adjacent compartments from intermingling2. Such differences in cell affinity might well also prevent the axons of sensory neurones, which are derived from the same populations as epidermal cells and which use them as growth substrates, from crossing compartment boundaries. However, as we report here, we have found that sensory axons in the wing of Drosophila do cross the boundary between the anterior and posterior compartments of the wing.

Palka, John; Schubiger, Margrit; Hart, H. Stephen

1981-12-01

317

The electrophysiological mapping of compartments within a mammalian cell  

PubMed Central

The electrical properties of structures within an intact cell were examined by impalement with micropipette electrodes. Mean potential differences (PDs) measured from interphase HeLa cells showed that internal membrane-bounded compartments such as the nucleus, Golgi region, and the mitochondria were more negative than the cytoplasm with respect to an external grounding electrode. The nuclear PDs, unlike Golgi and cytoplasmic PDs, shifted during interphase and reached a peak value shortly before mitosis. The positioning of micropipettes was confirmed by electron microscope examination of marker solutions that were microinjected into specific intracellular regions. The combination of methods described here offers a new approach for the study of physiological events within intact, living cells. PMID:63464

1977-01-01

318

The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin  

PubMed Central

Commensal microbes on the skin surface influence the behavior of cells below the epidermis. We hypothesized that bacteria or their products exist below the surface epithelium and thus permit physical interaction between microbes and dermal cells. Here, to test this hypothesis, we employed multiple independent detection techniques for bacteria including qPCR, Gram-staining, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization. Bacteria were consistently detectable within the dermis and dermal adipose of normal human skin. Sequencing of DNA from dermis and dermal adipose tissue identified bacterial 16S rRNA reflective of a diverse and partially distinct microbial community in each skin compartment. These results show the microbiota extends within the dermis, therefore enabling physical contact between bacteria and various cells below the basement membrane. These observations show that normal commensal bacterial communities directly communicate with the host in a tissue previously thought to be sterile. PMID:23385576

Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chiang, Hsin-I; Jiang, Shangi B.; Nagarajan, Harish; Zengler, Karsten; Gallo, Richard L.

2012-01-01

319

Viral and Cellular Components of AAV2 Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a helpervirus-dependent parvovirus with a bi-phasic life cycle comprising latency in absence and lytic replication in presence of a helpervirus, such as adenovirus (Ad) or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Helpervirus-supported AAV2 replication takes place in replication compartments (RCs) in the cell nucleus where virus DNA replication and transcription occur. RCs consist of a defined set of helper virus-, AAV2-, and cellular proteins. Here we compare the profile of cellular proteins recruited into AAV2 RCs or identified in Rep78-associated complexes when either Ad or HSV-1 is the helpervirus, and we discuss the potential roles of some of these proteins in AAV2 and helpervirus infection. PMID:24222808

Vogel, Rebecca; Seyffert, Michael; Pereira, Bruna de Andrade; Fraefel, Cornel

2013-01-01

320

Tissue Compartment Analysis for Biomarker Discovery by Gene Expression Profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Although high throughput technologies for gene profiling are reliable tools, sample/tissue heterogeneity limits their outcomes when applied to identify molecular markers. Indeed, inter-sample differences in cell composition contribute to scatter the data, preventing detection of small but relevant changes in gene expression level. To date, attempts to circumvent this difficulty were based on isolation of the different cell structures constituting biological samples. As an alternate approach, we developed a tissue compartment analysis (TCA) method to assess the cell composition of tissue samples, and applied it to standardize data and to identify biomarkers. Methodology/Principal Findings TCA is based on the comparison of mRNA expression levels of specific markers of the different constitutive structures in pure isolated structures, on the one hand, and in the whole sample on the other. TCA method was here developed with human kidney samples, as an example of highly heterogeneous organ. It was validated by comparison of the data with those obtained by histo-morphometry. TCA demonstrated the extreme variety of composition of kidney samples, with abundance of specific structures varying from 5 to 95% of the whole sample. TCA permitted to accurately standardize gene expression level amongst >100 kidney biopsies, and to identify otherwise imperceptible molecular disease markers. Conclusions/Significance Because TCA does not require specific preparation of sample, it can be applied to all existing tissue or cDNA libraries or to published data sets, inasmuch specific operational compartments markers are available. In human, where the small size of tissue samples collected in clinical practice accounts for high structural diversity, TCA is well suited for the identification of molecular markers of diseases, and the follow up of identified markers in single patients for diagnosis/prognosis and evaluation of therapy efficiency. In laboratory animals, TCA will interestingly be applied to central nervous system where tissue heterogeneity is a limiting factor. PMID:19901995

Disset, Antoine; Cheval, Lydie; Soutourina, Olga; Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Li, Guorong; Genin, Christian; Tostain, Jacques; Loupy, Alexandre

2009-01-01

321

Impression block with orientator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

2015-02-01

322

Stacked Blocks Tutorial Written by Michael Tonks  

E-print Network

Stacked Blocks Tutorial For ME 577 Written by Michael Tonks #12;CE/TOL Stacked Blocks TutorialStacked Blocks TutorialStacked Blocks TutorialStacked Blocks Tutorial 2 TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE:.................................................................................................................15 #12;CE/TOL Stacked Blocks TutorialStacked Blocks TutorialStacked Blocks TutorialStacked Blocks

323

Block copolymer nanocontainers.  

PubMed

Using cell dynamics computer simulation, we perform a systematic study of thin block copolymer films around a nanoparticle. Lamellar-, cylinder-, and sphere-forming block copolymers are investigated with respect to different film thicknesses, particle radii, and boundary conditions at the film interfaces. The obtained structures include standing lamellae and cylinders, "onions", cylinder "knitting balls", "golf ball", layered spherical, "virus"-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects. The kinetics of the structure formation and difference with planar thin films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nanocontainers can be formed by the coating of a sacrificial nanobead by a block copolymer layer with a well-controlled nanostructure. In addition, first scanning force microscopy experiments on a model system reveal surface structures similar to those predicted by our simulations. PMID:20496954

Pinna, Marco; Hiltl, Stephanie; Guo, Xiaohu; Böker, Alexander; Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

2010-05-25

324

Random Block Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study fundamental spectral properties of random block operators that are common in the physical modelling of mesoscopic disordered systems such as dirty superconductors. Our results include ergodic properties, the location of the spectrum, existence and regularity of the integrated density of states, as well as Lifshits tails. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities arising from the block structure such as the occurrence of a robust gap in the middle of the spectrum. Without randomness in the off-diagonal blocks the density of states typically exhibits an inverse square-root singularity at the edges of the gap. In the presence of randomness we establish a Wegner estimate that is valid at all energies. It implies that the singularities are smeared out by randomness, and the density of states is bounded. We also show Lifshits tails at these band edges. Technically, one has to cope with a non-monotone dependence on the random couplings.

Kirsch, Werner; Metzger, Bernd; Müller, Peter

2011-06-01

325

Anomalous atmospheric flows and blocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are presented on global scale circulations, the life cycles of persistent anomalies and blocking over the North Pacific, atmospheric blocking types and blocking numbers, observational characteristics of atmospheric planetary waves with bimodal amplitude distributions, and a study of eddy forcing during an Atlantic blocking episode. Topics discussed include the effect of local baroclinic instability on zonal inhomogeneities of vorticity

R. Benzi; A. C. Wiin-Nielson

1986-01-01

326

Underhood thermal analysis and improvement of a bus with rear engine compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal Analysis of a bus with rear engine compartment is carried out based on CFD in order to solving the problem of overheating. The temperature and flow field of the bus engine compartment is investigated at the most serious work conditions, full load hill climbing with low speed at hottest environment temperature. The reason for the overheating and the overheated

Kaiyao Hu; Xiaolong Yang; Jia Yang

2011-01-01

327

46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40 Section 58...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear...

2010-10-01

328

9 CFR 416.6 - Tagging insanitary equipment, utensils, rooms or compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that any equipment, utensil, room, or compartment at an official establishment is insanitary or that its use could cause the adulteration of product, he will attach to it a “U.S. Rejected” tag. Equipment, utensils, rooms, or compartments so tagged...

2010-01-01

329

14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

2010-01-01

330

14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121...OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The...

2011-01-01

331

Seasonal fluctuation of cholesterol in ovarian compartments R. K. CHALANA S. S. GURAYA  

E-print Network

Seasonal fluctuation of cholesterol in ovarian compartments of birds R. K. CHALANA S. S. GURAYA of seasonal fluctuation in the cholesterol content of ovarian compartments in three species of birds (crow. The pattern of seasonal fluctuation in the cholesterol content of the three bird species is similar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of a basketball injury.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is a serious although rare occurrence that was sparsely documented in the orthopedic literature until Schwartz et al reported on a series of 21 cases. Although classically associated with high-energy femur fracture, thigh contusion, or the use of military anti-shock trousers, compartment syndrome of the thigh has recently been diagnosed in seemingly low-energy injuries. A complete hamstring avulsion from its ischial origin during routine ambulation and rupture of the quadriceps tendon after a low-energy fall have been shown to result in compartment syndrome. In light of the potential medicolegal ramifications surrounding the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, emergency room consultations to rule out compartment syndrome are on the rise. Specifically, the time to fasciotomy was found to be linearly related to indemnity payment, and a fasciotomy performed within 8 hours was uniformly associated with a successful defense. This article describes a case of a 29-year-old healthy man who developed posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of an intrasubstance tear of the biceps femoris muscle sustained while attempting a lay-up during a recreational basketball game. His posterior thigh compartment pressure measured 70 mm Hg and he required emergent posterior thigh compartment fasciotomy. PMID:19968230

Mallo, Gregory C; Stanat, Scott J C; Al-Humadi, Mohaned; Divaris, Nicholas

2009-12-01

333

Compartment and Electodiffusion Models of Myelinated Axon Conduction Reliability J. S. Coggan*1,3  

E-print Network

Compartment and Electodiffusion Models of Myelinated Axon Conduction Reliability J. S. Coggan*1,3 C, small aqueous compartments and ion fluxes. Nodes of Ranvier are distributed at regular intervals along neuron diseases, including multiple sclerosis and Guillon-Barre syndrome. Factors governing

Sejnowski, Terrence J.

334

Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg: Retrospective Study on Prevalence, Technique, and Outcome of Fasciotomies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute compartment syndrome is caused by bleeding or edema in a closed muscle compartment surrounded by fascia and bone. It is characterized by increased intracompartmental pressure and decreased tissue perfusion. Well-known causative incidents are acute trauma and reperfusion after treatment for acute arterial obstruction. Most commonly the lower leg is involved. Inadequate therapy of the syndrome usually leads to

Jeroen Heemskerk; Peter Kitslaar

2003-01-01

335

46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40 Section 58...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear...

2012-10-01

336

46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40 Section 58...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear...

2014-10-01

337

46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40 Section 58...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear...

2013-10-01

338

46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40 Section 58...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear...

2011-10-01

339

Pre, during, and post exercise anterior tibial compartment pressures in long distance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess pre, during, and postexercise compartment pressures in the anterior tibial compartment in asymptomatic long distance runners (5000 m) and recreational athletes. Forty-eight participants (n = 48, 24 females and 24 males) underwent the experimental procedures. The participants were assigned into 4 groups of 12 volunteers. Intracompartmen- tal pressures measurements were recorded 1

Panagiotis Baltopoulos; Eugenia Papadakou; Maria Tsironi; Panagiotis Karagounis

340

Compartment Syndrome, Fasciotomy, and Neuropathy After a Rattlesnake Envenomation: Aspects of Monitoring and Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartment syndrome resulting from pitviper envenomation is uncommon in North America; however, when it does occur, early diagnosis, optimal antivenom therapy, and possible surgical de- compression are the primary means of preventing the complication of neuropathy. Here, we report a case of a rattlesnake envenomation in the anterior compartment of the lower leg that required high doses of morphine to

David L. Hardy Sr; Kelly R. Zamudio

2006-01-01

341

Forefoot Running Improves Pain and Disability Associated With Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anterior compartment pressures of the leg as well as kinematic and kinetic measures are significantly influenced by running technique. It is unknown whether adopting a forefoot strike technique will decrease the pain and disability associated with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) in hindfoot strike runners.Hypothesis: For people who have CECS, adopting a forefoot strike running technique will lead to

Angela R. Diebal; Robert Gregory; Curtis Alitz; J. Parry Gerber

2012-01-01

342

A new arthroscopic technique for revision of the posterior compartment in symptomatic total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthroscopy is effective in treating the symptomatic knee following total knee arthroplasty. A small number of patients complain about postoperative pain in the posterior compartment. Loose bodies and degenerated remnants of the menisci are the main reasons for this pain. We present a new technique for diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy of the posterior compartments in patients with symptomatic total knee

Franz Landsiedl; Nicolas Aigner; Michael Hexel; Christian Krasny; Siegfried Schenk; Gunter Steinböck

2005-01-01

343

Isoforms of the invariant chain regulate transport of MHC class II molecules to antigen processing compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly synthesized class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex must be transported to endosomal compartments where antigens are pro- cessed for presentation to class II-restricted T cells. The invariant chain (Ii), which assembles with newly synthesized class II et- and (3-chains in the endoplasmic reticulum, carries one or more targeting signals for transport to endosomal compartments where Ii dissoci-

Petra A. M. Warmerdam; Eric O. Long; Paul A. Roche

1996-01-01

344

Phosphoinositide isoforms determine compartment-specific ion channel activity  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositides serve as address labels for recruiting peripheral cytoplasmic proteins to specific subcellular compartments, and as endogenous factors for modulating the activity of integral membrane proteins. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a plasma-membrane (PM)–specific phosphoinositide and a positive cofactor required for the activity of most PM channels and transporters. This requirement for phosphoinositide cofactors has been proposed to prevent PM channel/transporter activity during passage through the biosynthetic/secretory and endocytic pathways. To determine whether intracellularly localized channels are similarly “inactivated” at the PM, we studied PIP2 modulation of intracellular TRPML1 channels. TRPML1 channels are primarily localized in lysosomes, but can also be detected temporarily in the PM upon lysosomal exocytosis. By directly patch-clamping isolated lysosomes, we previously found that lysosomal, but not PM-localized, TRPML1 is active with PI(3,5)P2, a lysosome-specific PIP2, as the underlying positive cofactor. Here we found that “silent” PM-localized TRPML1 could be activated by depleting PI(4,5)P2 levels and/or by adding PI(3,5)P2 to inside-out membrane patches. Unlike PM channels, surface-expressed TRPML1 underwent a unique and characteristic run-up upon patch excision, and was potently inhibited by a low micromolar concentration of PI(4,5)P2. Conversely, depletion of PI(4,5)P2 by either depolarization-induced activation or chemically induced translocation of 5?-phosphatase potentiated whole-cell TRPML1 currents. PI(3,5)P2 activation and PI(4,5)P2 inhibition of TRPML1 were mediated by distinct basic amino acid residues in a common PIP2-interacting domain. Thus, PI(4,5)P2 may serve as a negative cofactor for intracellular channels such as TRPML1. Based on these results, we propose that phosphoinositide regulation sets compartment-specific activity codes for membrane channels and transporters. PMID:22733759

Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Xinran; Xu, Haoxing

2012-01-01

345

Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

1998-01-01

346

Anatomical compartments of the parasellar region: adipose tissue bodies represent intracranial continuations of extracranial spaces  

PubMed Central

The cavernous sinus is traditionally described as a single anatomical compartment that contains cranial nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. A detailed analysis of 45 infant and 4 fetal parasellar regions shows that this view must be modified. The spatial arrangement, the topographic relations, and the expansion of the adipose and connective tissue spaces were analysed and reconstructed 3-dimensionally on a computer. It is shown that 3 different anatomical compartments, which are strictly demarcated by connective tissue, compose the parasellar region of infants. Two represent intracranial continuations of extracranial tissue spaces. The 3rd compartment corresponds to the so-called ‘cavernous sinus’ of the adult. Each of the 3 compartments contains characteristic adipose tissue bodies. Because the cavernous sinus represents only one compartment of the area, we propose to use the term ‘parasellar region’ to designate the entire anatomical region on either side of the sella turcica. PMID:9306202

WENINGER, WOLFGANG J.; STREICHER, JOHANNES; MÜLLER, GERD B.

1997-01-01

347

The Block Cipher Square  

Microsoft Academic Search

be Abstract. In this paper we present a new 128-bit block cipher called Square. The original design of Square concentrates on the resistance against dierential and linear cryptanalysis. However, after the initial design a dedicated attack was mounted that forced us to augment the numberofrounds.Thegoal ofthispaperisthepublicationoftheresult- ingcipherforpublicscrutiny.ACimplementationof

Joan Daemen; Lars R. Knudsen; Vincent Rijmen

1997-01-01

348

Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

349

Ischemic Nerve Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

Williams, Ian D.

350

2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

351

The monochromatic block number  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993 Voloshin introduced the concept of mixed hypergraph. A mixed hypergraph is characterised by the fact that it possesses anti-edges as well as edges. In a colouring of a mixed hypergraph, every anti-edge has at least two vertices of the same colour. In this paper a new parameter is introduced: the monochromatic block number mb. It is the number

Lorenzo Milazzo

1997-01-01

352

International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

2007-01-01

353

Cargo- and compartment-selective endocytic scaffold proteins  

PubMed Central

The endocytosis of membrane receptors is a complex and tightly controlled process that is essential for maintaining cellular homoeostasis. The removal of receptors from the cell surface can be constitutive or ligand-induced, and occurs in a clathrin-dependent or -independent manner. The recruitment of receptors into specialized membrane domains, the formation of vesicles and the trafficking of receptors together with their ligands within endocytic compartments are regulated by reversible protein modifications, and multiple protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions. Recent reports describe a variety of multidomain molecules that facilitate receptor endocytosis and function as platforms for the assembly of protein complexes. These scaffold proteins typically act in a cargo-specific manner, recognizing one or more receptor types, or function at the level of endocytic cellular microcompartments by controlling the movement of cargo molecules and linking endocytic machineries to signalling pathways. In the present review we summarize present knowledge on endocytic scaffold molecules and discuss their functions. PMID:15219178

2004-01-01

354

Structure and Function of the Perinucleolar Compartment in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The perinucleolar compartment (PNC) is a subnuclear body that forms in cancer cells. In vivo analyses using human tumor tissues demonstrate a close correlation between PNC prevalence and disease progress in colorectal carcinoma, and a high PNC prevalence is associated with poor patient outcome. These findings are consistent with previous observations in breast cancer and cancer cell lines in vitro. The PNC is composed of thick strands that form a filamental meshwork often extending into the nucleolus. Although it appears to be electron dense as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the actual density of the structure imaged by electron spectroscopy is much lower, similar to that of the interchromatin space, and is lined with ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). In situ detections show that the PNC is highly enriched with a subset of small RNAs of polymerase III (Pol III) origins and RNA-binding proteins primarily implicated in pre-mRNA processing. A novel gel-shifting approach demonstrates that the addition of PNC-associated RNAs into HeLa cell lysates increases the mobility of polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) protein in a native gel electrophoresis, suggesting an interaction between these RNAs and PTB proteins. On the basis of these and other findings, we propose a working model in which novel RNPs have a key role in regulating gene expression at the PNC in cancer cells. PMID:21289045

Slusarczyk, A.; Kamath, R.; Wang, C.; Anchel, D.; Pollock, C.; Lewandowska, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Bazett-Jones, D.P.; Huang, S.

2014-01-01

355

Subcellular compartment targeting of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Current investigations show that layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have high potential as effective non-viral agents for cellular drug delivery due to their low cytotoxicity, good biocompatibility, high drug loading, control of particle size and shape, targeted delivery and drug release control. Two types of Mg(2)Al-LDH nanoparticles with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were controllably prepared. One is morphologically featured as typical hexagonal sheets (50-150 nm laterally wide and 10-20 nm thick), while the other as typical rods (30-60 nm wide and 100-200 nm long). These LDH(FTIC) nanoparticles are observed to immediately transfect into different mammalian cell lines. We found that internalized LDH(FITC) nanorods are quickly translocated into the nucleus while internalized LDH(FITC) nanosheets are retained in the cytoplasm. Inhibition experiments show that the cellular uptake is a clathrin-mediated time- and concentration-dependent endocytosis. Endosomal escape of LDH(FITC) nanoparticles is suggested to occur through the deacidification of LDH nanoparticles. Since quick nuclear targeting of LDH(FITC) nanorods requires an active process, and although the exact mechanism is yet to be fully understood, it probably involves an active transport via microtubule-mediated trafficking processes. Targeted addressing of two major subcellular compartments by simply controlling the particle morphology/size could find a number of applications in cellular biomedicine. PMID:18614254

Xu, Zhi Ping; Niebert, Marcus; Porazik, Katharina; Walker, Tara L; Cooper, Helen M; Middelberg, Anton P J; Gray, Peter P; Bartlett, Perry F; Lu, Gao Qing Max

2008-08-25

356

Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

2010-01-01

357

[Congenital atrioventricular block].  

PubMed

Congenital atrioventricular block is defined (Yater) as a documented conduction defect in a young subject with unquestionable bradycardia in the absence of a history of infection which might have caused the condition after birth. It is a rare condition (1 out of 20,000 births) and may be isolated or associated with another congenital malformation. Four cardiac malformations are classically associated: endomyocardial fibrosis, morphological abnormalities close to the conduction system: corrected transposition, left isomerism; patent ductus arteriosus and atrial septal defect apparently unrelated but the most common; the association of mitral regurgitation in adults, although the significance is not very clear. Isolated block is often observed in patients with mothers suffering from autoimmune disease, often clinically latent. Anti Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B antibodies cross into the foetal circulation and cause inflammation of the conduction tissues but the causal mechanism is not known. The diagnosis of the conduction defect is sometimes made during foetal life by echocardiography. After birth, the diagnosis is made by electrocardiography but the block is not always complete or permanent, its degree often increasing with time. In addition, in advanced degrees of block, the escape rhythm tends to slow down. Long-term follow-up studies have revised the previously considered good prognosis of isolated congenital atrioventricular block but advances in cardiac pacing provide satisfactory treatment. In the foetus, isolated atrioventricular block is usually associated with an escape rhythm > 60/min and enables normal vaginal delivery; a low heart rate < 55/min and anasarca carry a poor prognosis. In the neonate, pacing is indicated in babies with cardiac failure and a heart rate < 55/min. Follow-up by Holter monitoring, exercise testing and echocardiography is justified in children and adolescents; the patients may become symptomatic at any age. Pacing is essential in symptomatic cases (malaise, ventricular dysfunction) and useful in cases with long QT intervals, frequent ventricular extrasystoles and wide ventriculogrammes. Pacing is not always easy in children. Epicardial pacing by thoracotomy or an epigastric approach is possible but endocavitary pacing is to be preferred using thin pacing catheters introduced via the subclavian vein and small pacemakers implanted in a sub or prepectoral site. A pacing mode which restores the normal atrioventricular sequence is theoretically superior to single ventricular pacing even if rate responsive frequency. PMID:10326158

Grolleau, R; Leclercq, F; Guillaumont, S; Voisin, M

1999-04-01

358

Neuromuscular blocking agents.  

PubMed

Clearly, many aspects of the action of neuromuscular blockers remain poorly understood at the molecular level. In the case of competitive blockers, blockade of EPPs by competitive binding to the ACh receptor site accounts for the most clinically important aspect of blockade. Although train-of-four fade produced by curare and some other competitive agents probably represents a presynaptic action, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been addressed. Depolarizing blockade is inherently more complicated than competitive blockade. Simple depolarization and inactivation of the mechanism for generation of the action potential probably account for the major clinical effect seen in phase I block. Furthermore, the relative balance between activation of channels and desensitization may also provide a qualitative explanation for phase II block and tachyphylaxis. However, effects that are more likely to be explained by presynaptic actions of depolarizing blockers have also been described, and it is not yet possible to assess quantitatively whether the rates of onset of the different postsynaptic actions can account for most aspects of depolarizing block. This discussion has raised several issues which need to be addressed in future studies. 1. What are the presynaptic effects of cholinergic drugs? Do these drugs act through a specific receptor or, on other ion channels in the terminal membrane, or do they operate by mechanisms distinct from effects on membrane conductance? Can any of the observations be explained by indirect effects mediated through postsynaptic ACh receptors, e.g., K+ release? 2. What are the factors that influence variability in sensitivity to neuromuscular blockers among species, muscles within species, and during development? Many of the potential factors, e.g., differences in safety factor, resting conductances, ACh receptor type, and differences in the presence and absence of presynaptic receptors, have been outlined, but definitive tests of the contribution of any particular mechanisms are lacking. 3. Does modulation of desensitization play a role in any components of neuromuscular blockade? 4. Can trapping of blocking agents in ion channels in some cases account for slowly reversible components of blockade? 5. Can closed-channel block provide an effective mechanism of neuromuscular block? PMID:2848776

Lingle, C J; Steinbach, J H

1988-01-01

359

19 CFR 24.13a - Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance by Customs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...13a Car, compartment, and package seals; and fastenings; standards; acceptance...Customs. (a) General standards. The seals and fastenings, together, shall...

2010-04-01

360

Solar Compartment Design Methods, Performance Analysis and Thermal Data for Solar Composting Latrines: A Full Scale Experimental Study  

E-print Network

. Pathogen resistance to disinfection or inactivation in latrines is multifaceted. The full-scale solar composting compartment studies at the University of Kansas have advanced the knowledge about feces composting in solar compartments based on climate...

Rendall, Joseph D.

2012-12-31

361

31 CFR 576.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2014-07-01

362

31 CFR 576.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2011-07-01

363

31 CFR 576.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2013-07-01

364

31 CFR 576.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2012-07-01

365

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2012-07-01

366

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2013-07-01

367

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2014-07-01

368

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2011-07-01

369

31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.301 Blocked account; blocked property....

2010-07-01

370

31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2010-07-01

371

31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2014-07-01

372

31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2013-07-01

373

31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2010-07-01

374

31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2011-07-01

375

31 CFR 544.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.301 Blocked account; blocked...

2012-07-01

376

Automated quantification of the subcellular localization of multi-compartment proteins via Q-SCAn  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotic cells, proteins can occupy multiple intracellular compartments and even move between compartments to fulfill critical biological functions or respond to cellular signals. Examples include transcription factors that reside in the cytoplasm but are mobilized to the nucleus as well as dual-purpose DNA repair proteins that are charged with simultaneously maintaining the integrity of both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. While numerous methods exist to study protein localization and dynamics, automated methods to quantify the relative amounts of proteins that occupy multiple subcellular compartments have not been extensively developed. To address this need, we present a rapid, automated method termed Quantitative Subcellular Compartmentalization Analysis (Q-SCAn). To develop this method, we exploited the facile molecular biology of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Individual subcellular compartments are defined by a fluorescent marker protein and the intensity of a target GFP-tagged protein is then quantified within each compartment. To validate Q-SCAn, we analyzed relocalization of the transcription factor Yap1 following oxidative stress and then extended the approach to multi-compartment localization by examining two DNA repair proteins critical for the base excision repair pathway, Ntg1 and Ung1. Our findings demonstrate the utility of Q-SCAn for quantitative analysis of the subcellular distribution of multi-compartment proteins. PMID:24034606

Bauer, Nicholas C.; Corbett, Anita H.; Doetsch, Paul W.

2013-01-01

377

Thermal blocking of preheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parametric resonance responsible for preheating after inflation will end when self-interactions of the resonating field and interactions of this field with secondary degrees of freedom become important. In many cases, the effect may be quantified in terms of an effective mass and the resulting shifting out of the spectrum of the strongest resonance band. In certain curvaton models, such thermal blocking can even occur before preheating has begun, delaying or even preventing the decay of the curvaton. We investigate numerically to what extent this thermal blocking is realised in a specific scenario, and whether the effective mass is well approximated by the perturbative leading order thermal mass. We find that the qualitative behaviour is well reproduced in this approximation, and that the end of preheating can be confidently estimated.

Lerner, Rose; Tranberg, Anders

2015-04-01

378

Liquid blocking check valve  

DOEpatents

A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

Merrill, John T. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1984-01-01

379

Base Blocks Decimal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows students to practice adding and subtracting whole numbers, decimals, or integers. Students use base blocks in blue to represent positive numbers, and red to represent either negative numbers or subtraction. The applet offers up to three decimal places, 2 to 4 columns, and bases from 2 through 5 and 10. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are available through the links at the top of the page.

2002-01-01

380

Characterization of periplastidal compartment-targeting signals in chlorarachniophytes.  

PubMed

Secondary plastids are acquired by the engulfment and retention of eukaryotic algae, which results in an additional surrounding membrane or pair of membranes relative to the more familiar primary plastids of land plants. In most cases, the endocytosed alga loses its eukaryotic genome as it becomes integrated, but in two algal groups, the cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes, the secondary plastids retain a vestigial nucleus in the periplastidal compartment (PPC), the remnant eukaryotic cytoplasm between the inner and the outer membrane pairs. Many essential housekeeping genes are missing from these reduced genomes, suggesting that they are now encoded in the host nucleus and their products are targeted to the PPC. One such nucleus-encoded, PPC-targeted protein, the translation elongation factor like (EFL) was recently identified in chlorarachniophytes. It bears an N-terminal-targeting sequence comprising a signal peptide and a transit peptide-like sequence (TPL) similar to the plastid-targeted proteins of chlorarachniophytes as well as a hydrophilic C-terminal extension rich in lysine and aspartic acid. Here, we characterize the function of the N- and C-terminal extensions of PPC-targeted EFL in transformed chlorarachniophyte cells. Using green fluorescent protein as a reporter molecule, we demonstrate that several negatively charged amino acids within the TPL are essential for accurate targeting to the PPC. Our findings further reveal that the C-terminal extension functions as a PPC retention signal in combination with an N-terminal plastid-targeting peptide, which suggests that plastid and PPC proteins may be sorted in the PPC. PMID:20133351

Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Gile, Gillian H; Ota, Shuhei; Keeling, Patrick J; Ishida, Ken-ichiro

2010-07-01

381

Herbert L. Block Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herb Block (also known as "Herblock") was one of the most influential political commentators and editorial cartoonists in American history. His work began to appear in 1929, and he continued creating social commentary for 72 years. The Library of Congress website digitized some of the 14,000 images that the Herb Block Foundation donated in 2002. Visitors interested in seeing the wide range of topics Block covered in his cartoons can click on the "Search This Collection" link that appears below the introductory paragraphs on the homepage. Once visitors have arrived to the search area they can click on "Subject and Format Headings" underneath the heading "Other Ways to Search" to see the A to Z subject index. Some of the topics include "Escalators--1960-1970","Government Officials--1970-1980","Mao, Zedong--1893-1976", "Overcrowding--1940-1950", and "Discrimination--1950-1960". Back on the homepage, visitors shouldn't miss the link to the "Image Sampler" which contains the "Herblock Collection Image Sampler" featuring 24 images.

382

Intraocular radiation blocking  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. (North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY (USA))

1990-09-01

383

Blocking and anti-blocking pairs of polyhedra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the main notions and theorems about blocking pairs of polyhedra and antiblocking pairs of polyhedra are described. The two geometric duality theories conform in many respects, but there are certain important differences. Applications to various combinatorial extremum problems are discussed, and some classes of blocking and anti-blocking pairs that have been explicitly determined are mentioned.

D. R. Fulkerson

1971-01-01

384

Antagonism of sigma-1 receptors blocks compulsive-like eating.  

PubMed

Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain a sugary, highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1?h a day under fixed ratio 1 operant conditioning. Following intake stabilization, we evaluated the effects of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on food responding. Using a light/dark conflict test, we also tested whether BD-1063 could block the time spent and the food eaten in an aversive, open compartment, where the palatable diet was offered. Furthermore, we measured Sig-1R mRNA and protein expression in several brain areas of the two groups, 24?h after the last binge session. Palatable rats rapidly developed binge-like eating, escalating the 1?h intake by four times, and doubling the eating rate and the regularity of food responding, compared to Chow rats. BD-1063 dose-dependently reduced binge-like eating and the regularity of food responding, and blocked the increased eating rate in Palatable rats. In the light/dark conflict test, BD-1063 antagonized the increased time spent in the aversive compartment and the increased intake of the palatable diet, without affecting motor activity. Finally, Palatable rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and a two-fold increase in Sig-1R protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex compared to control Chow rats. These findings suggest that the Sig-1R system may contribute to the neurobiological adaptations driving compulsive-like eating, opening new avenues of investigation towards pharmacologically treating binge eating disorder. PMID:22713906

Cottone, Pietro; Wang, Xiaofan; Park, Jin Won; Valenza, Marta; Blasio, Angelo; Kwak, Jina; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Hayashi, Teruo; Sabino, Valentina

2012-11-01

385

?F508 CFTR Surface Stability Is Regulated by DAB2 and CHIP-Mediated Ubiquitination in Post-Endocytic Compartments  

PubMed Central

The ?F508 mutant form of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (?F508 CFTR) that is normally degraded by the ER-associated degradative pathway can be rescued to the cell surface through low-temperature (27°C) culture or small molecular corrector treatment. However, it is unstable on the cell surface, and rapidly internalized and targeted to the lysosomal compartment for degradation. To understand the mechanism of this rapid turnover, we examined the role of two adaptor complexes (AP-2 and Dab2) and three E3 ubiquitin ligases (c-Cbl, CHIP, and Nedd4-2) on low-temperature rescued ?F508 CFTR endocytosis and degradation in human airway epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that siRNA depletion of either AP-2 or Dab2 inhibits ?F508 CFTR endocytosis by 69% and 83%, respectively. AP-2 or Dab2 depletion also increases the rescued protein half-life of ?F508 CFTR by ~18% and ~91%, respectively. In contrast, the depletion of each of the E3 ligases had no effect on ?F508 CFTR endocytosis, whereas CHIP depletion significantly increased the surface half-life of ?F508 CFTR. To determine where and when the ubiquitination occurs during ?F508 CFTR turnover, we monitored the ubiquitination of rescued ?F508 CFTR during the time course of CFTR endocytosis. Our results indicate that ubiquitination of the surface pool of ?F508 CFTR begins to increase 15 min after internalization, suggesting that CFTR is ubiquitinated in a post-endocytic compartment. This post-endocytic ubiquination of ?F508 CFTR could be blocked by either inhibiting endocytosis, by siRNA knockdown of CHIP, or by treating cells with the CFTR corrector, VX-809. Our results indicate that the post-endocytic ubiquitination of CFTR by CHIP is a critical step in the peripheral quality control of cell surface ?F508 CFTR. PMID:25879443

Fu, Lianwu; Rab, Andras; Tang, Li ping; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Rowe, Steven M.; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Collawn, James F.

2015-01-01

386

Human Copper Transporter 1 Lacking O-Linked Glycosylation Is Proteolytically Cleaved in a Rab9-positive Endosomal Compartment*  

PubMed Central

The human copper transporter hCTR1 is a homotrimer composed of a plasma membrane protein of 190 amino acids that contains three transmembrane segments. The extracellular 65-amino acid amino terminus of hCTR1 contains both N-linked (at Asn15) and O-linked (at Thr27) sites of glycosylation. If O-glycosylation at Thr27 is prevented, hCTR1 is efficiently cleaved, removing ?30 amino acids from the amino terminus. We have now investigated (i) the site of this cleavage, determining which peptide bonds are cleaved, (ii) the mechanism by which glycosylation prevents cleavage, and (iii) where in the cell the proteolytic cleavage takes place. Cleavage occurs in the sequence Ala-Ser-His-Ser-His (residues 29–33), which does not contain previously recognized protease cleavage sites. Using a series of hCTR1 mutants, we show that cleavage occurs preferentially between residues Ala29–Ser30–His31. We also show that the O-linked polysaccharide at Thr27 blocks proteolysis due to its proximity to the cleavage site. Moving the cleavage site away from the Thr27 polysaccharide by insertion of as few as 5 amino acids allows cleavage to occur in the presence of glycosylation. Imaging studies using immunofluorescence in fixed cells and a functional green fluorescent protein-tagged hCTR1 transporter in live cells showed that the cleaved peptide accumulates in punctate structures in the cytoplasm. These puncta overlap compartments were stained by Rab9, indicating that hCTR1 cleavage occurs in a late endosomal compartment prior to delivery of the transporter to the plasma membrane. PMID:19684018

Maryon, Edward B.; Zhang, Jing; Jellison, John W.; Kaplan, Jack H.

2009-01-01

387

Compartment Syndrome following Open Femoral Fracture with an Isolated Femoral Vein Injury Treated with Acute Repair  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency and its diagnosis is more difficult in obtunded or insensate patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Gustilo-Anderson grade III open midshaft femur fracture with an isolated femoral vein injury treated with direct repair. She developed lower leg compartment syndrome at 48 hours postoperatively, necessitating fasciotomies. She was subsequently found to have a DVT in her femoral vein at the level of the repair and was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the importance of recognition of isolated venous injuries in a trauma setting as a risk factor for developing compartment syndrome. PMID:25587476

Walmsley, David; Axelrod, Terry; Rodriguez-Elizalde, Sebastian

2014-01-01

388

Compartment syndrome in a five-year-old child following femoral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass.  

PubMed

The compartment syndrome is uncommon in children. It has been seen following bony trauma and has also been reported in two patients following cardiac catheterisation. We report its occurrence in a 5-year-old child following femoral artery and femoral vein cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. We believe that the presence of a cannula in the femoral vein as well as in the artery was an important factor in impeding the circulation and thus causing the compartment syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and early fasciotomy saved the limb from amputation; however, a residual footdrop persists. The development of the compartment syndrome following femoral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass has not been reported previously. PMID:2635931

Williams, P H; Bhatnagar, N K; Wisheart, J D

1989-01-01

389

Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following bariatric surgery: A rare but important complication  

PubMed Central

Gluteal Compartment Syndrome is a rare condition caused by excessive pressure within the gluteal compartments which leads to a number of potentially serious sequelae including rhabdomyolysis, nerve damage, renal failure and death. As bariatric patients are heavy and during prolonged bariatric procedures lie in one position for extended periods of time, they are especially susceptible to developing this complication. It is therefore essential that bariatric surgeons are aware of this complication and how to minimise the chances of it occurring and how to diagnose it. We describe a case of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome in a patient following a gastric bypass and review the aetiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prevention of this complication.

Pereira, Bernadette; Heath, Dugal

2015-01-01

390

Chronic exercise-induced compartment pressure elevation measured with a miniaturized fluid pressure monitorA laboratory and clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased pressure within an osteofascial compartment may produce a compartment syndrome, one of the principal causes of circulatory compromise in acute traumatic and chronic exercise-induced elevated com partment pressure. Acute and chronic diagnostic quan titation of compartment pressures are a valuable ad junct to clinical diagnosis, particularly when used to evaluate the athlete with exercise-induced pain. This study evaluated a

Brian J. Awbrey; Paul S. Sienkiewicz; Henry J. Mankin

1988-01-01

391

Opposing Activities of LIT-1/NLK and DAF-6/Patched-Related Direct Sensory Compartment Morphogenesis in  

E-print Network

Opposing Activities of LIT-1/NLK and DAF-6/Patched- Related Direct Sensory Compartment endings to create enclosed compartments required for neuronal function. This architecture is seen of these compartments, how they form is not known. We used the main sensory organ of C. elegans, the amphid

Shaham, Shai

392

Ear - blocked at high altitudes  

MedlinePLUS

High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction -high altitude ... opens the Eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear to the nose. These movements allow the pressure ...

393

Properties of blocked linear systems?  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature. PMID:23471460

Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D.O.; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander

2012-01-01

394

Epidural blocks for day surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar epidural blocks may be indicated for selected cases in day surgery; either by special request from the patient, prolonged or unpredictable duration of surgery, or caudal blocks for prolonged postoperative pain control in children. The drawbacks of epidural anesthesia, such as preoperative time consumption, may be minimized by introducing the epidural block by slow injection through the needle in

Johan Ræder

2000-01-01

395

California Energy Commission BLOCK GRANT  

E-print Network

California Energy Commission REVISED BLOCK GRANT GUIDELINES (FORMULA-BASED GRANTS) ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM FOR CONSIDERATION FOR ADOPTION BY THE CALIF. ENERGY COMMISSION and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program Guidelines 1. Background The California Energy Commission1 (Energy

396

On Blocking Numbers of Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blocking number of a manifold is the minimal number of points needed to block out lights between any two given points in the manifold. It has been conjectured that if the blocking number of a manifold is finite, then the manifold must be flat. In this paper we prove that this is true for 2-dimensional manifolds with non-trivial fundamental

Wing Kai Ho

2008-01-01

397

A delayed presentation of bilateral leg compartment syndrome following non-stop dancing.  

PubMed

We present the case of a young man with a 48?h delayed presentation of bilateral lower limb acute compartment syndrome (ACS) affecting the anterior compartments following an extended period of dancing at a music festival. On making the diagnosis of ACS, the patient was immediately taken to theatre for fasciotomies and compartmental decompression. Repeat look fasciotomies revealed further necrosis to the muscles of the anterior compartments bilaterally and, effectively, all the muscle bellies within the anterior compartments were excised. The patient has been left with a significant functional deficit and disability. This case highlights the importance of timely diagnosis of ACS as delay in presentation can impact significantly on subsequent functional outcome and quality of life. PMID:25786817

Jefferies, James Gordon; Carter, Tom; White, Tim Oliver

2015-01-01

398

View of compartment C110, senior officers ward room from port ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of compartment C-110, senior officers ward room from port to starboard, showing wooden furnishings, deck stanchions and the olympia's piano. (084) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

399

Something Silent This Way Forms: The Functional Organization of the Repressive Nuclear Compartment  

PubMed Central

The repressive compartment of the nucleus is comprised primarily of telomeric and centromeric regions, the silent portion of ribosomal RNA genes, the majority of transposable element repeats, and facultatively repressed genes specific to different cell types. This compartment localizes into three main regions: the peripheral heterochromatin, perinucleolar heterochromatin, and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Both chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription of noncoding RNAs are involved in maintenance of repression in these compartments. Global reorganization of the repressive compartment occurs at each cell division, during early development, and during terminal differentiation. Differential action of chromatin remodeling complexes and boundary element looping activities are involved in mediating these organizational changes. We discuss the evidence that heterochromatin formation and compartmentalization may drive nuclear organization. PMID:23834025

Ritland Politz, Joan C.; Scalzo, David; Groudine, Mark

2014-01-01

400

View of compartment B126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of compartment B-126 port side. Note mess tables, hammock hooks, ash hoist rails at top left and coal chute left of center. (047) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

401

Rna-seq analysis of the functional compartments within the rat placentation site  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rat placentation site is distinctly organized into interacting zones, the so-called labyrinth, junctional, and metrial gland compartments. These zones house unique cell populations equipped to undertake myriad prescribed functions including transport, hormonal responses, and immune interactions....

402

STS-35 Pilot Gardner in sleep station compartment on OV-102's middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner demonstrates the bunk-style sleep compartments onboard Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Gardner uses bunk #2 of the sleep station located against the middeck starboard wall.

1990-01-01

403

DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND METHYLMERCURY IN DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEM COMPARTMENTS IN THE EVERGLADES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury (Hg) species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades were analyzed at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation, and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to t...

404

Building With Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive site allows students to build with virtual blocks to discover geometry, three-dimensional space, and area. There are a number of different problems here, including Copy the Building, Building in the Night, Making Height Numbers, and Rotation Game. There are also Additional Problems for students to solve, such as repairing a broken table, putting arm rests on a chair, and making a tunnel through a mountain. Each asks students to reason with different, often non-standard, shapes and think about 3D form.

Jan van den Brink

2004-01-01

405

Isolated Anterior Compartment Syndrome After a Bimalleolar-Equivalent Ankle Fracture in a Collegiate Football Player  

PubMed Central

Compartment syndrome after an ankle fracture is an extremely rare and potentially devastating event. The authors report a case of an isolated anterior compartment syndrome in a college student athlete who suffered a bimalle olar ankle fracture dislocation. A review of the literature highlights the importance of vigilance when the sports medicine physician and the community orthopaedist are treating these seemingly basic orthopaedic injuries. PMID:23016060

Starr, Adam M.; Swan, Kenneth G.; Swan, Kenneth G.

2011-01-01

406

Lower leg compartment syndrome following prolonged orthopedic surgery in the lithotomy position -A case report-  

PubMed Central

Surgical procedures necessitating the prolonged use of the lithotomy position can be associated with neuromuscular dysfunction. Compartment syndrome of the lower leg is a grave complication which, if unrecognized, can lead to either permanent neuromuscular dysfunction or limb loss. We report a case of compartment syndrome of lower leg that occurred in male patient aged 20 years after 380 minutes arthroscopic surgery in the lithotomy position. PMID:21286459

Chung, Jin Hun; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Chun Sook; Kang, Kyu Sik; Yoo, Sie Hyeon; Chung, Ji Won; Kim, Nan Seol; Lee, Seung Jin

2010-01-01

407

Contribution of inflammation to cellular injury in compartment syndrome in an experimental rodent model.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome, a devastating consequence of limb trauma, is characterised by severe tissue injury and microvascular perfusion deficits. We hypothesised that leucopenia might provide significant protection against microvascular dysfunction and preserve tissue viability. Using our clinically relevant rat model of compartment syndrome, microvascular perfusion and tissue injury were directly visualised by intravital video microscopy in leucopenic animals. We found that while the tissue perfusion was similar in both groups (38.8% (standard error of the mean (sem) 7.1), 36.4% (sem 5.7), 32.0% (sem 1.7), and 30.5% (sem 5.35) continuously-perfused capillaries at 45, 90, 120 and 180 minutes compartment syndrome, respectively versus 39.2% (sem 8.6), 43.5% (sem 8.5), 36.6% (sem 1.4) and 50.8% (sem 4.8) at 45, 90, 120 and 180 minutes compartment syndrome, respectively in leucopenia), compartment syndrome-associated muscle injury was significantly decreased in leucopenic animals (7.0% (sem 2.0), 7.0%, (sem 1.0), 9.0% (sem 1.0) and 5.0% (sem 2.0) at 45, 90, 120 and 180 minutes of compartment syndrome, respectively in leucopenia group versus 18.0% (sem 4.0), 23.0% (sem 4.0), 32.0% (sem 7.0), and 20.0% (sem 5.0) at 45, 90, 120 and 180 minutes of compartment syndrome in control, p = 0.0005). This study demonstrates that the inflammatory process should be considered central to the understanding of the pathogenesis of cellular injury in compartment syndrome. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:539-43. PMID:25820895

Lawendy, A-R; Bihari, A; Sanders, D W; McGarr, G; Badhwar, A; Cepinskas, G

2015-04-01

408

The subcutaneous fat compartments in relation to aesthetically important facial folds and rhytides.  

PubMed

The ideal treatment of the nasolabial fold, the tear trough, the labiomandibular fold and the mentolabial sulcus is still discussed controversially. The detailed topographical anatomy of the fat compartments may clarify the anatomy of facial folds and may offer valuable information for choosing the adequate treatment modality. Nine non-fixed cadaver heads in the age range between 72 and 89 years (five female and four male) were investigated. Computed tomographic scans were performed after injection of a radiographic contrast medium directly into the fat compartments surrounding prominent facial folds. The data were analysed after multiplanar image reconstruction. The fat compartments surrounding the facial folds could be defined in each subject. Different arrangement patterns of the fat compartments around the facial rhytides were found. The nasolabial fold, the tear trough and the labiomandibular fold represent an anatomical border between adjacent fat compartments. By contrast, the glabellar fold and the labiomental sulcus have no direct relation to the boundaries of facial fat. Deep fat, underlying a facial rhytide, was identified underneath the nasolabial crease and the labiomental sulcus. In conclusion, an improvement by a compartment-specific volume augmentation of the nasolabial fold, the tear trough and the labiomandibular fold is limited by existing boundaries that extend into the skin. In the area of the nasolabial fold and the mentolabial sulcus, deep fat exists which can be used for augmentation and subsequent elevation of the folds. The treatment of the tear trough deformity appears anatomically the most challenging area since the superficial and deep fat compartments are separated by an osseo-cutaneous barrier, the orbicularis retaining ligament. In severe cases, a surgical treatment should be considered. By contrast, the glabellar fold shows the most simple anatomical architecture. The fold lies above one subcutaneous fat compartment that can be used for augmentation. PMID:22658728

Gierloff, M; Stöhring, C; Buder, T; Wiltfang, J

2012-10-01

409

Modification of an amplification reaction in recursively dynamic compartments driven by stirring.  

PubMed

In living systems, biochemical reactions are confined to cellular or subcellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane and the organelles within a cell. These biological compartments are usually subjected to recursive changes, such as combinations of growth, fusion, and division, to constitute repeating cell cycles. In such recursively dynamic compartments, the encapsulated biochemical reaction may exhibit dynamics that differ from those of the static compartment (i.e., test tubes) used in conventional biochemistry experiments. To test this hypothesis in a simplified model, we mechanically stirred femtoliter-sized water-in-oil emulsion droplets so that individual droplets were subjected to repeated coalescence and breakage. We show that recursive dynamics appeared in the emulsion, which were measured by the exponential propagation of a water-soluble dye. The rate of the propagation, ?, was controlled by modulating the pulse-width of stirring in an electromagnetic stirrer. Within this system, we studied the dynamics of an RNA-amplification reaction in recursively increasing reaction compartments at various values of ?. We showed that there was an optimal value of ? that maximized RNA amplification. This effect was explained by the balance between the opposing effects of supply of substrate and the dilution of amplified RNA both resulting from coalescence. Moreover, when we mixed two RNA species with different kinetic properties, we found a preferential amplification for one of the species only in the recursively dynamic emulsion. This effect was partly explained by a separation effect which preferentially amplifies the number of compartments for the molecular specie that can better follow the breakage dynamics of the compartments. The present work demonstrated how the recursive dynamics of compartments modifies the internal biochemical reaction. PMID:24219119

Ichii, Tetsuo; Tanahashi, Genya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

2013-12-17

410

Pre, during, and post exercise anterior tibial compartment pressures in long distance runners  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to assess pre, during, and postexercise compartment pressures in the anterior tibial compartment in asymptomatic long distance runners (5000 m) and recreational athletes. Forty-eight participants (n = 48, 24 females and 24 males) underwent the experimental procedures. The participants were assigned into 4 groups of 12 volunteers. Intracompartmental pressures measurements were recorded 1 minute before, at the 1st minute after the onset of exercise, and finally 5 minutes after the completion of the exercise on treadmill. The wick catheter technique was the method of choice for measuring intracompartmental pressure values. Post hoc analysis of the groups by measures interaction indicated that all pairwise comparisons among pre-test (1 minute before exercise), during-test (1st minute during exercise), and post-test measures (5 minutes after exercise) were statistically significant for male controls (p < .001), male athletes (p < .001), female controls (p < .001) and female athletes (p < .001). The results confirm the correlation between long distance runners and the increased risk of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) development. Key pointsCompartment syndrome is a condition characterised by increased intracompartmental pressures within inelastic fascia which surrounds muscular compartmentsInitial CECS symptomatology is not clear and increases graduallyAll the study participants presented the lowest intra-compartment pressure values one minute before the beginning of exercise (at rest) with the highest value being recorded at the first minute of exercise.Control population had lower intra-compartment pressure than professional runners.One minute after the beginning of exercise control and athlete men group showed higher intra-compartment pressure than control and athlete women group, indicating a probable sex difference both for athletes and controls.Further studies on predisposing factors of CECS, such as increased intracompartmental pressure values in asymptomatic population is needed to establish the diagnosis in a proper time. PMID:24150140

Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Papadakou, Eugenia; Tsironi, Maria; Karagounis, Panagiotis; Prionas, George

2008-01-01

411

Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

1997-01-01

412

Acute Anterior Thigh Compartment Syndrome Revisited: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a rare case of acute anterior compartment syndrome of the thigh in a rugby player with no history of trauma during\\u000a the game. Decompressive fasciotomy with subsequent closure of the wound resulted in good outcome. Acute compartment syndrome\\u000a of the thigh should be suspected following vigorous exercise and fasciotomy is to be performed on urgent basis.

Himanshu Wadhawan; Vishal Upadhyay; Adel Sabboubeh; Haydar A. J. Al Hussainy; Sanjeev Madan

2007-01-01

413

Missed compartment syndrome after replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament following continuous epidural analgesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a In this article we report a case of an early postoperative compartment syndrome of the anterior tibial compartment with complete\\u000a sensomotoric palsy of the peroneal nerve after arthroscopic-assisted replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of\\u000a the knee. The tourniquet pressure was 360 mm Hg and operation time was 1.75 h. After the operation the leg was bandaged to

F. Sorrentino; S. Eggli; U. Stricker; F. T. Ballmer; R. Hertel

1998-01-01

414

Monitoring dynamic anterior compartment pressures during exerciseA new technique using the STIC catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the early results of a new tech nique, using a solid-state transducer intracompart mental (STIC) catheter, developed to measure dy namic pressure changes in the anterior compartment of the leg in patients with exercise-induced anterior compartment syndrome. Nine male volunteers (15 limbs) with a history of exercise-induced anterior com partment pain were studied and compared to eleven

A. G. P. McDermott; A. E. Marble; R. H. Yabsley; Major B. Phillips

1982-01-01

415

Muscle activation characteristics in cross-country skiers with a history of anterior compartment pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of elite cross-country skiers suffer from chronic anterior compartment syndrome (CACS). This study used surface electromyograms (EMGs) to investigate whether differences existed in the activation characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle between elite cross-country skiers with a history of anterior compartment pain (symptomatic group) and a pain-free control group. Based on self-reported pain symptoms, twelve young, national-level

Peter Federolf; Emily Bakker

2012-01-01

416

Compartment A4 hold at midplatform level, view from starboard to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-4 hold at mid-platform level, view from starboard to port shows protective deck framing and underside of armor plate. Open wood ceiling aids in circulating air. Note ventilation duct for fresh air at center of photograph. Open hatch penetrates protective deck and leads to bread room, compartment A-102. (012) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

417

Activation of individual extrinsic thumb muscles and compartments of extrinsic finger muscles.  

PubMed

Mechanical and neurological couplings exist between musculotendon units of the human hand and digits. Studies have begun to understand how these muscles interact when accomplishing everyday tasks, but there are still unanswered questions regarding the control limitations of individual muscles. Using intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, this study examined subjects' ability to individually initiate and sustain three levels of normalized muscular activity in the index and middle finger muscle compartments of extensor digitorum communis (EDC), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), as well as the extrinsic thumb muscles abductor pollicis longus (APL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), and flexor pollicis longus (FPL). The index and middle finger compartments each sustained activations with significantly different levels of coactivity from the other finger muscle compartments. The middle finger compartment of EDC was the exception. Only two extrinsic thumb muscles, EPL and FPL, were capable of sustaining individual activations from the other thumb muscles, at all tested activity levels. Activation of APL was achieved at 20 and 30% MVC activity levels with significantly different levels of coactivity. Activation of EPB elicited coactivity levels from EPL and APL that were not significantly different. These results suggest that most finger muscle compartments receive unique motor commands, but of the four thumb muscles, only EPL and FPL were capable of individually activating. This work is encouraging for the neural control of prosthetic limbs because these muscles and compartments may potentially serve as additional user inputs to command prostheses. PMID:23803329

Birdwell, J Alexander; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A; Weir, Richard F Ff

2013-09-01

418

Gastrointestinal absorption of xenobiotics in physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. A two-compartment description.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption in physiologically based pharmacokinetic models is typically described as first-order transfer from one compartment directly into the liver. This approach appears to be adequate for water but not for oily vehicles. In this study, a two-compartment description of GI absorption was developed in which the chemical moved from the first compartment to the second (first-order rate constant KT) and was absorbed from both compartments (first-order rate constants KAS and KAD, respectively) into the liver. Rat blood time-course data sets for methylene chloride, chloroform, dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene after oral gavage in water or corn oil obtained from the literature were used for model validation. Optimization of the KAS, KAD, and KT values for each dosing solution allowed accurate simulation of each data set. In general, the KAS values were 3-4 times greater when water rather than corn oil vehicle was used. The KAD and KT values were similar for the two vehicles. By comparison, a one-compartment description resulted in a poor simulation of the oil gavage data. The two-compartment model rate constant values obtained by optimization of the rat blood time-course data set for trichloroethylene after oral gavage in water were used in the model to predict rat exhaled breath concentrations after oral gavage of trichloroethylene in water (data generated in this laboratory). Exhaled breath trichloroethylene concentrations compared favorably with model predictions. PMID:1673388

Staats, D A; Fisher, J W; Connolly, R B

1991-01-01

419

Uptake of heavy metals to the extracellular and intracellular compartments in three species of aquatic bryophyte.  

PubMed

Shoot tips of Fontinalis antipyretica, Scapania undulata, and Fissidens polyphyllus were maintained for 60 min with solutions containing 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn. A sequential extraction procedure was then used to estimate the amounts of the corresponding metal, and of K and Mg, in the extracellular compartment (extraction with NiCl(2) or EDTA), the intracellular compartment (subsequent extraction with cold dilute HNO(3)), and the particulate fraction (subsequent extraction with hot concentrated HNO(3)). In most cases more metal was taken up to the extracellular compartment than to the intracellular compartment, while particulate-fraction content was negligible. The relationship between metal concentration in the water and metal content in the extracellular compartment was well modeled with a Michaelis-Menten-type equation. Results suggest that in S. undulata extracellular cation-binding sites have a high metal affinity, while in F. polyphyllus it is relatively low. However, postincubation intracellular contents were highest in the latter species. The ranking of the six metals by amounts taken up into the intracellular compartment was the same for all three bryophyte species. Uptake of heavy metals led to considerable losses of intracellular K (probably due to effects on plasma membrane properties), and of extracellular Mg (probably due to displacement from cation-binding sites). Losses of intracellular K were most marked in S. undulata, followed by F. antipyretica. By contrast, S. undulata was the species from which losses of extracellular Mg were lowest. PMID:10499985

Vázquez, M D; López, J; Carballeira, A

1999-09-01

420

Activation of individual extrinsic thumb muscles and compartments of extrinsic finger muscles  

PubMed Central

Mechanical and neurological couplings exist between musculotendon units of the human hand and digits. Studies have begun to understand how these muscles interact when accomplishing everyday tasks, but there are still unanswered questions regarding the control limitations of individual muscles. Using intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, this study examined subjects' ability to individually initiate and sustain three levels of normalized muscular activity in the index and middle finger muscle compartments of extensor digitorum communis (EDC), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), as well as the extrinsic thumb muscles abductor pollicis longus (APL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), and flexor pollicis longus (FPL). The index and middle finger compartments each sustained activations with significantly different levels of coactivity from the other finger muscle compartments. The middle finger compartment of EDC was the exception. Only two extrinsic thumb muscles, EPL and FPL, were capable of sustaining individual activations from the other thumb muscles, at all tested activity levels. Activation of APL was achieved at 20 and 30% MVC activity levels with significantly different levels of coactivity. Activation of EPB elicited coactivity levels from EPL and APL that were not significantly different. These results suggest that most finger muscle compartments receive unique motor commands, but of the four thumb muscles, only EPL and FPL were capable of individually activating. This work is encouraging for the neural control of prosthetic limbs because these muscles and compartments may potentially serve as additional user inputs to command prostheses. PMID:23803329

Hargrove, Levi J.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Weir, Richard F. ff.

2013-01-01

421

Holomorphic blocks in three dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We decompose sphere partition functions and indices of three-dimensional = 2 gauge theories into a sum of products involving a universal set of "holomorphic blocks". The blocks count BPS states and are in one-to-one correspondence with the theory's massive vacua. We also propose a new, effective technique for calculating the holomorphic blocks, inspired by a reduction to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The blocks turn out to possess a wealth of surprising properties, such as a Stokes phenomenon that integrates nicely with actions of three-dimensional mirror symmetry. The blocks also have interesting dual interpretations. For theories arising from the compactification of the six-dimensional (2, 0) theory on a three-manifold M, the blocks belong to a basis of wave-functions in analytically continued Chern-Simons theory on M. For theories engineered on branes in Calabi-Yau geometries, the blocks offer a non-perturbative perspective on open topological string partition functions.

Beem, Christopher; Dimofte, Tudor; Pasquetti, Sara

2014-12-01

422

Building Blocks for Youth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Building Blocks for Youth is an alliance of children's advocates, researchers, law enforcement professionals and community organizers that seeks to protect minority youth in the justice system and promote rational and effective justice policies." The organization's Website provides reports, data, and news releases concerning the issue of the treatment of minorities in the American criminal justice system. Issued this month, their latest report Off Balance: Youth Race and Crime in the News examines the media treatment of crime victims and perpetrators who are people of color. Building Blocks also offers three previous reports that analyze data concerning the discrepancies between sentencing for black and white juveniles accused of similar crimes, both nationally and specifically in California, and data on the growing practice of charging juveniles as adults. The site also features a number of fact sheets on related issues, a newsroom featuring press releases and links to related articles in the online press, and a monthly newsletter presenting the latest fact sheet. The reports are offered in HTML as well as .pdf formats for easy downloading.

423

Block copolymer investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or catastrophic damage. Although the polymer does not assume the same exact topography as before lithography or damage, the fingerprint patterns are shown to reform.

Yufa, Nataliya A.

424

Defining ventral medullary respiratory compartments with a glutamate receptor agonist in the rat.  

PubMed

The regional organization of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) was examined with respect to generation of respiratory rhythm (breathing frequency) versus control of the respiratory motor pattern on individual nerves. In urethane-anaesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked and vagotomized Sprague-Dawley rats, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and respiratory motor outputs (phrenic, pharyngeal branch of the vagus, or superior laryngeal nerves) were recorded. The VRG organization was mapped systematically using injections of the excitatory amino acid DL-homocysteic acid (DLH; 5-20 mM, 2-6 nl) from single- or double-barrel pipettes at 100-200 microm intervals between the facial nucleus and the calamus scriptorius. Recording of respiratory neurons through the injection pipette ensured that the pipette was located within the VRG. At the end of each experiment, the injection pipette was used to make an electrical lesion, thereby marking the electrode position for subsequent histological reconstruction of injection sites. Four rostrocaudal regions were identified: (1) a rostral bradypnoea area, at the level of the Bötzinger complex, in which respiratory rhythm slowed and ABP increased, (2) a tachypnoea/dysrhythmia area, at the level of the preBötzinger complex, in which breathing rate either increased or became irregular, with little or no change in ABP, (3) a caudal bradypnoea area at the level of the anterior part of the rostral VRG in which ABP decreased and (4) a caudal 'no effect' region in the posterior part of the rostral VRG. The peak amplitude of phrenic nerve activity decreased with injections into all three rostral regions. Changes in respiratory rhythm were associated with opposite changes in inspiratory (TI) and expiratory (TE) durations after injections into either the Bötzinger complex or anterior rostral VRG, while both TI and TE decreased after injections into the preBötzinger complex. Effects on selected cranial nerves were similar to those on the phrenic nerve except that tonic activity was elicited on the superior larygneal nerve ipsilateral to injections in the Bötzinger complex and on the pharyngeal branch of the vagus ipsilateral to injections in the preBötzinger complex. These data reinforce the subdivision of the VRG into functionally distinct compartments and suggest that a further subdivision of the rostral VRG is warranted. They also suggest that region-specific influences, especially on the pattern of cranial motor discharge, can be used to assist the identification of recording sites within the VRG. However, the postulated clear functional separation of rhythm- versus pattern-generating regions was not supported. PMID:12640009

Monnier, A; Alheid, G F; McCrimmon, D R

2003-05-01

425

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure was measured and lid motility determined on a subjective score scale. Whereas the modified O'Brien and lid blocks nearly abolished the muscle activity recorded in the EMG (p < 0.003), the Atkinson and van Lint blocks did not significantly affect these variables. The O'Brien and lid blocks decreased the force of lid closure and lid movements far more effectively than the Atkinson and van Lint blocks (p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of a mixture of metrizamide and lignocaine solutions was evaluated radiographically in eight additional patients, to assess potential causes for differences in the efficacy of the block techniques. The radiological results showed involvement of the region of the facial nerve trunk and its temporal and cervical divisions by the modified O'Brien block. The lid block, on the other hand, affected terminal branches of the facial nerve's temporal division. In this study, complete lid akinesia was achieved by both the modified O'Brien block and the lid block. However, because the modified O'Brien block involves the risk of neural injury to the facial nerve or its main divisions, the lid block is recommended as the most effective and safe method to achieve akinesia of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Images PMID:7696239

Schimek, F; Fahle, M

1995-01-01

426

Nanostructured block copolymers.  

SciTech Connect

Block copolymers are well known to undergo micro-phase separation. Typical domain sizes range from a few to about 100 nanometers. With use of OPV{sub n-}PEG{sub m} diblock copolymers, long nanofiber, short nanorod, and lamella morphologies have been observed. OPV is oligo(phenylenevinylene) and PEG is poly(ethyleneglycol). The OPV segment is photoluminescent as well as electroluminescent. The micrometer long OPV{sub 13-}PEG{sub 45} nanofiber consists of OPV{sub 13} inner core with radius of 5.2 nm, and PEG{sub 45} outer shell with overall fiber radius of 7.9 nm. The nanorod has similar core-shell composition but with much shorter length of {approx}100 nm. Lamella morphology consists of alternating OPV and PEG layers. The structural characterization and physical properties of these nanostructured materials and their implication are summarized.

Wang, H. H.; Wang, H.; Yu, L.; Han, C. Y.; Csencsits, R.; Willing, G. A.; Thiyagarajan, P.

2002-07-09

427

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

428

Arabinogalactan Glycosyltransferases Target to a Unique Subcellular Compartment That May Function in Unconventional Secretion in Plants  

PubMed Central

We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31 (At1g32930)] was found in the small compartments, of which, 45 and 40% of AtGALT29A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 29 (At1g08280)] and AtGlcAT14A [Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase from family 14 (At5g39990)] colocalized with AtGALT31A, respectively; in contrast, N-glycosylation enzymes rarely colocalized (3–18%), implicating a role of the small compartments in a part of arabinogalactan (O-glycan) biosynthesis rather than N-glycan processing. The dual localization of AtGALT31A was also observed for fluorescently tagged AtGALT31A stably expressed in an Arabidopsis atgalt31a mutant background. Further, site-directed mutagenesis of a phosphorylation site of AtGALT29A (Y144) increased the frequency of the protein being targeted to the AtGALT31A-localized small compartments, suggesting a role of Y144 in subcellular targeting. The AtGALT31A localized to the small compartments were colocalized with neither SYP61 (syntaxin of plants 61), a marker for trans-Golgi network (TGN), nor FM4-64-stained endosomes. However, 41% colocalized with EXO70E2 (Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst protein Exo70 homolog 2), a marker for exocyst-positive organelles, and least affected by Brefeldin A and Wortmannin. Taken together, AtGALT31A localized to small compartments that are distinct from the Golgi apparatus, the SYP61-localized TGN, FM4-64-stained endosomes and Wortmannin-vacuolated prevacuolar compartments, but may be part of an unconventional protein secretory pathway represented by EXO70E2 in plants. PMID:25074762

Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory; Burow, Meike; Geshi, Naomi

2014-01-01

429

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

1976-01-01

430

A Bier block implementation protocol.  

PubMed

The Bier block procedure has been in use for over 100 years, but only recently has received renewed attention. As emergency departments look for ways to maximize efficiency, the use of the Bier block has been recognized as effective and fast with minimal adverse effects. This article summarizes a proposed protocol for the implementation of both pre- and posthospitalization Bier blocks by healthcare providers. PMID:24706243

Stancil, Stewart A

2014-01-01

431

Covariant approaches to superconformal blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop techniques for computing superconformal blocks in 4d superconformal field theories. First we study the super-Casimir differential equation, deriving simple new expressions for superconformal blocks for 4-point functions containing chiral operators in theories with -extended supersymmetry. We also reproduce these results by extending the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi to supersymmetric theories, where superconformal blocks can be represented as superspace integrals of three-point functions multiplied by shadow three-point functions.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Khandker, Zuhair U.; Li, Daliang; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

2014-08-01

432

Pre-embedding immunogold labeling to optimize protein localization at subcellular compartments and membrane microdomains of leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Precise immunolocalization of proteins within a cell is central to understanding cell processes and functions such as intracellular trafficking and secretion of molecules during immune responses. Here we describe a protocol for ultrastructural detection of proteins in leukocytes. The method uses a pre-embedding approach (immunolabeling before standard processing for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)). This protocol combines several strategies for ultrastructure and antigen preservation, robust blocking of nonspecific binding sites, as well as superior antibody penetration for detecting molecules at subcellular compartments and membrane microdomains. A further advantage of this technique is that electron microscopy (EM) processing is quick. This method has been used to study leukocyte biology, and it has helped demonstrate how activated leukocytes deliver specific cargos. It may also potentially be applied to a variety of different cell types. Excluding the initial time required for sample preparation (15 h) and the final resin polymerization step (16 h), the protocol (immunolabeling and EM procedures) can be completed in 8 h. PMID:25211515

Melo, Rossana C N; Morgan, Ellen; Monahan-Earley, Rita; Dvorak, Ann M; Weller, Peter F

2014-01-01

433

Teaching Mathematics in the Block. Teaching in the Block Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical suggestions are offered for teaching mathematics in a block schedule, including ways to make some topics more compact, integrate mathematics with other materials, and design lesson plans to maximize instructional time. Chapters are: (1) "NCTM [National Council of Teachers of Mathematics] Standards and Teaching Mathematics in a Block

Gilkey, Susan N.; Hunt, Carla H.

434

ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations  

SciTech Connect

An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems.

Yeh, G.T.

1981-05-01

435

Investigating the robustness of the classical enzyme kinetic equations in small intracellular compartments  

E-print Network

Classical descriptions of enzyme kinetics ignore the physical nature of the intracellular environment. Main implicit assumptions behind such approaches are that reactions occur in compartment volumes which are large enough so that molecular discreteness can be ignored and that molecular transport occurs via diffusion. Starting from a master equation description of enzyme reaction kinetics and assuming metabolic steady-state conditions, we derive novel mesoscopic rate equations which take into account (i) the intrinsic molecular noise due to the low copy number of molecules in intracellular compartments (ii) the physical nature of the substrate transport process, i.e. diffusion or vesicle-mediated transport. These equations replace the conventional macroscopic and deterministic equations in the context of intracellular kinetics. The latter are recovered in the limit of infinite compartment volumes. We find that deviations from the predictions of classical kinetics are pronounced (hundreds of percent in the estimate for the reaction velocity) for enzyme reactions occurring in compartments which are smaller than approximately 200nm, for the case of substrate transport to the compartment being mediated principally by vesicle or granule transport and in the presence of competitive enzyme inhibitors. This has implications for the common approach of modelling large intracellular reaction networks using ordinary differential equations and also for the calculation of the effective dosage of competitive inhibitor drugs.

Ramon Grima

2009-10-23

436

Partitioning a regional groundwater flow system into shallow local and deep regional flow compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of groundwater fluxes in aquifers is strongly influenced by topography, and organized between hillslope and regional scales. The objective of this study is to provide new insights regarding the compartmentalization of aquifers at the regional scale and the partitioning of recharge between shallow/local and deep/regional groundwater transfers. A finite-difference flow model was implemented, and the flow structure was analyzed as a function of recharge (from 20 to 500 mm/yr), at the regional-scale (1400 km2), in three dimensions, and accounting for variable groundwater discharge zones; aspects which are usually not considered simultaneously in previous studies. The model allows visualizing 3-D circulations, as those provided by Tothian models in 2-D, and shows local and regional transfers, with 3-D effects. The probability density function of transit times clearly shows two different parts, interpreted using a two-compartment model, and related to regional groundwater transfers and local groundwater transfers. The role of recharge on the size and nature of the flow regimes, including groundwater pathways, transit time distributions, and volumes associated to the two compartments, have been investigated. Results show that topography control on the water table and groundwater compartmentalization varies with the recharge rate applied. When recharge decreases, the absolute value of flow associated to the regional compartment decreases, whereas its relative value increases. The volume associated to the regional compartment is calculated from the exponential part of the two-compartment model, and is nearly insensitive to the total recharge fluctuations.

Goderniaux, Pascal; Davy, Philippe; Bresciani, Etienne; Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Borgne, Tanguy

2013-04-01

437

CASE REPORT An Unusual Case of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Resection of Extensive Posttraumatic Mesenteric Ossification  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition, which often follows trauma and is frequently symptomatic. To date, there are no reports in the literature of abdominal compartment syndrome occurring after surgical resection of mesenteric calcification. The present report documents an unusual case of compartment syndrome complicating resection of extensive mesenteric calcification despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique. Method: A 48-year-old man undergoing components-separation technique for posttraumatic laparostomy hernia repair (ileostomy reversal and sigmoid stricture correction) was found to have extensive heterotopic mesenteric calcification, which needed resection. Results: Resection of the mesenteric calcification was complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage and unplanned small bowel resection. Later the patient developed secondary hemorrhage leading to an abdominal compartment syndrome, which was successfully treated by decompression, hemostasis, and Permacol-assisted laparotomy wound closure. The patient remains symptom-free more than 2 years after surgery. Discussion: The case herein reported gives an account of the rare occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome following resection of posttraumatic ectopic mesenteric ossifications. It is highly unusual in that it occurred because of “secondary hemorrhage” and despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique, which had been undertaken precisely to prevent compartment syndrome with direct closure. It therefore highlights the need for continued clinical vigilance in complex posttraumatic cases. PMID:23573333

Nabulyato, William M.; Alsahiem, Hebah; Hall, Nigel R.; Malata, Charles M.

2013-01-01

438

A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

1990-01-01

439

Characterizing the inverses of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the inversion of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices and comment on the behaviour of these inverses as one moves away from the diagonal. Using matrix Möbius transformations, we first present an O(1) representation (with respect to the number of block rows and block columns) for the inverse matrix and subsequently use this representation to characterize the inverse matrix. There are four symmetry-distinct cases where the blocks of the inverse matrix (i) decay to zero on both sides of the diagonal, (ii) oscillate on both sides, (iii) decay on one side and oscillate on the other and (iv) decay on one side and grow on the other. This characterization exposes the necessary conditions for the inverse matrix to be numerically banded and may also aid in the design of preconditioners and fast algorithms. Finally, we present numerical examples of these matrix types.

Boffi, Nicholas M.; Hill, Judith C.; Reuter, Matthew G.

2015-01-01

440

The Loss of Gnai2 and Gnai3 in B Cells Eliminates B Lymphocyte Compartments and Leads to a Hyper-IgM Like Syndrome  

PubMed Central

B lymphocytes are compartmentalized within lymphoid organs. The organization of these compartments depends upon signaling initiated by G-protein linked chemoattractant receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins G?i2 and G?i3 in chemoattractant signaling we created mice lacking both proteins in their B lymphocytes. While bone marrow B cell development and egress is grossly intact; mucosal sites, splenic marginal zones, and lymph nodes essentially lack B cells. There is a partial block in splenic follicular B cell development and a 50-60% reduction in splenic B cells, yet normal numbers of splenic T cells. The absence of G?i2 and G?i3 in B cells profoundly disturbs the architecture of lymphoid organs with loss of B cell compartments in the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. This results in a severe disruption of B cell function and a hyper-IgM like syndrome. Beyond the pro-B cell stage, B cells are refractory to chemokine stimulation, and splenic B cells are poorly responsive to antigen receptor engagement. G?i2 and G?i3 are therefore critical for B cell chemoattractant receptor signaling and for normal B cell function. These mice provide a worst case scenario of the consequences of losing chemoattractant receptor signaling in B cells. PMID:23977324

Hwang, Il-Young; Park, Chung; Luong, Thuyvi; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Kehrl, John H.

2013-01-01

441

Retention of secretory proteins in an intermediate compartment and disappearance of the Golgi complex in an END4 mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

PubMed Central

Mutant V.24.1, a member of the End4 complementation group of temperature-sensitive CHO cells, is defective in secretion at the restrictive temperature (Wang, R.-H., P. A. Colbaugh, C.-Y. Kao, E. A. Rutledge, and R. K. Draper. 1990. J. Biol. Chem. 265:20179-20187; Presley, J. F., R. K. Draper, and D. T. Brown. 1991. J. Virol. 65:1332- 1339). We have further investigated the secretory lesion and report three main findings. First, the block in secretion is not due to aberrant folding or oligomerization of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum because the hemagglutinin of influenza virus folded and oligomerized at the same rate in mutant and parental cells at the restrictive temperature. Second, secretory proteins accumulated in a compartment intermediate between the ER and the Golgi. Several lines of evidence support this conclusion, the most direct being the colocalization by immunofluorescence microscopy of influenza virus hemagglutinin with a 58-kD protein that is known to reside in an intermediate compartment. Third, at the resolution of fluorescence microscopy, the Golgi complex in the mutant cells vanished at the restrictive temperature. PMID:1577851

1992-01-01

442

Pattern Blocks (Lesson - Grade 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces pattern blocks and an awareness of geometric shapes to young learners. Students identify and label the shapes and solve puzzles with the blocks. Links to templates, vocabulary and activity cards are provided (pdf). Extensions, an assessment plan and suggestions for parent involvement are also provided.

UEN LessonPlans

2007-06-28

443

Building Blocks for Primary Prevention  

E-print Network

Building Blocks for Primary Prevention Protecting Children from Lead-Based Paint Hazards October 2005 #12;#12;Building Blocks for Primary Prevention: Protecting Children from Lead-Based Paint from Lead-Based Paint Hazards. Atlanta: CDC, 2005 #12;#12;TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i

444

California Energy Commission BLOCK GRANT  

E-print Network

California Energy Commission BLOCK GRANT GUIDELINES (FORMULA-BASED GRANTS) ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM ADOPTED BY THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION OCTOBER 7, 2009 CEC-150 Grant (EECBG) Program Guidelines 1. Background The California Energy Commission1 (Energy Commission) has

445

Foldable patterns form construction blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building blocks with interlocking tabs can be constructed from flat sheets of material using minimum of tools and equipment. Blocks can be used for storing and shipping supplies to remote areas, then filled with soil and stacked to form inhabitable structures which can be dismantled and reused.

Huber, W. C.; Ritter, D. L.

1971-01-01

446

Adjustable-Angle Drill Block  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

Gallimore, F. H.

1986-01-01

447

Double jeopardy: two episodes of forearm compartment syndrome in the same patient.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old woman taking warfarin for previous deep venous thrombosis (DVT), presented with an acutely swollen and painful forearm after forcefully contracting her forearm flexor compartment while using a car hand brake and later, an axe. Compartment syndrome was diagnosed and emergency fasciotomy performed, with a haematoma discovered between the flexor compartments of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). After evacuation and resolution of symptoms, the wounds were closed 4?days later. Following discharge on the fifth day, symptoms recurred without warning, prompting re-exploration and discovery of further haematoma. Symptoms again resolved and in due course a skin graft was applied to close the wound without tension. PMID:25564596

Seth, Rohit; Vijayan, Roshan; Khandwala, Asit

2015-01-01

448

Two Nested Developmental Waves Demarcate a Compartment Boundary in the Mouse Lung  

PubMed Central

The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments — the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region — separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three dimensions and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signaling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signaling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a novel mechanism of boundary formation in complex, three-dimensional organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth. PMID:24879355

Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A.; Chen, Jichao

2014-01-01

449

Transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding.  

PubMed

Changes in aircraft cabin pressure and its interplay with a fixed diameter fiberglass cylindrical cast and the closed air cells in waterproof cast padding may cause a transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome. In this case series, 2 patients reported transient compartment syndromes that resolved with aircraft decent. As proof of concept, this work displays photographic and video evidence showing the difference in air cell volume from experimental data in a vacuum chamber as well as real-world volume changes at cruise altitude in a commercial airliner. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndromes associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding are real and surgeons and patients should be advised of this potentially devastating complication. PMID:23431541

Kadzielski, John; Bae, Donald S

2013-01-01

450

Scenarios Approach to the Electromagnetic Exposure: The Case Study of a Train Compartment  

PubMed Central

Previous studies identified the train compartment as the place where people can experience the highest exposure levels (still below the international guideline limits) to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range. Here a possible scenario of a train compartment has been reproduced and characterized, both numerically and experimentally. A good agreement between the simulated electric field distributions and measurements has been found. Results indicate that the higher values of exposure in specific positions inside the train compartment depend on the number of active cell phones, the bad coverage condition, the cell orientation, and the presence of metallic walls. This study shows that the proposed approach, based on the scenarios characterization, may efficiently support the assessment of the individual electromagnetic exposure. PMID:25802868

Paffi, A.; Apollonio, F.; Pinto, R.; Liberti, M.

2015-01-01

451

A Quantitative Microscopy Technique for Determining the Number of Specific Proteins in Cellular Compartments  

PubMed Central

This protocol describes a method to determine both the average number and variance of proteins in the few to tens of copies in isolated cellular compartments, such as organelles and protein complexes. Other currently available protein quantification techniques either provide an average number but lack information on the variance or are not suitable for reliably counting proteins present in the few to tens of copies. This protocol entails labeling the cellular compartment with fluorescent primary-secondary antibody complexes, TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) microscopy imaging of the cellular compartment, digital image analysis, and deconvolution of the fluorescence intensity data. A minimum of 2.5 days is required to complete the labeling, imaging, and analysis of a set of samples. As an illustrative example, we describe in detail the procedure used to determine the copy number of proteins in synaptic vesicles. The same procedure can be applied to other organelles or signaling complexes. PMID:22094731

Mutch, Sarah A.; Gadd, Jennifer C.; Fujimoto, Bryant S.; Kensel-Hammes, Patricia; Schiro, Perry G.; Bajjalieh, Sandra M.; Chiu, Daniel T.

2013-01-01

452

Effects of long-duration bed rest on structural compartments of m. soleus in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histomorphometry and electron microscopy of muscle demonstrate that long-term exposure to actual or simulated weightlessness (including head down bed rest) leads to decreased volume of antigravity muscles in mammals. In muscles interbundle space is occupied by the connective tissue. Rat studies show that hindlimb unloading induces muscle fiber atrophy along with increase in muscle non-fiber connective tissue compartment. Beside that, usually 20% of the muscle fiber volume is comprised by non-contractile (non-myofibrillar) compartment. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in muscle volume, and in muscle fiber size with alterations in myofibrillar apparatus, and in connective tissue compartment in human m. soleus under conditions of 120 day long head down bed rest (HDBR).

Belozerova, I.; Shenkman, B.; Mazin, M.; Leblanc, A.; LeBlanc, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

2001-01-01

453

Two nested developmental waves demarcate a compartment boundary in the mouse lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lung is a branched tubular network with two distinct compartments—the proximal conducting airways and the peripheral gas exchange region—separated by a discrete boundary termed the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ). Here we image the developing mouse lung in three-dimensions (3D) and show that two nested developmental waves demarcate the BADJ under the control of a global hormonal signal. A first wave of branching morphogenesis progresses throughout embryonic development, generating branches for both compartments. A second wave of conducting airway differentiation follows the first wave but terminates earlier, specifying the proximal compartment and setting the BADJ. The second wave is terminated by a glucocorticoid signalling: premature activation or loss of glucocorticoid signalling causes a proximal or distal shift, respectively, in BADJ location. The results demonstrate a new mechanism of boundary formation in complex, 3D organs and provide new insights into glucocorticoid therapies for lung defects in premature birth.

Alanis, Denise Martinez; Chang, Daniel R.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Krasnow, Mark A.; Chen, Jichao

2014-05-01

454

Anatomic Variations of the First Extensor Compartment and Abductor Pollicis Longus Tendon in Trapeziometacarpal Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Anatomic variation of the trapeziometacarpal joint stabilizing structures is one of the concepts proposed to explain the pathogenesis of trapeziometacarpal arthritis. We undertook this study to test the hypothesis that septation of the first extensor compartment or variation of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon (supernumerary insertions) are more frequently associated with the progression or severity of trapeziometacarpal arthritis. Septation within the first extensor compartment was significantly associated with trapeziometacarpal arthritis (p?=?0.013), whereas supernumerary APL insertions (trapezium or thenar) did not reveal a significant association (p?=?0.811 and p?=?0.937, respectively). The results of this study do not support a role for variations of APL tendon insertions in trapeziometacarpal arthritis. Yet, the presence of septation within the first extensor compartment may play an important role in the pathogenesis of trapeziometacarpal arthritis. PMID:19834771

Opreanu, Razvan C.; Wechter, John; Tabbaa, Hazem; Kepros, John P.; Baulch, Michelle; Xie, Yan; Lackey, Wendy

2009-01-01

455

A Bullet in the Supraspinatus Compartment Successfully Removed by Arthroscopy: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Arthroscopic removal of bullet from intra-articular compartment has been described for several joints. Only few reports dealing with this condition in the shoulder have been reported especially for the glenohumeral and the subacromial compartments. We report the story of a fifty-seven-year-old man presenting a bullet in the supraspinatus compartment of his left shoulder successfully removed by arthroscopy. PMID:25699194

Galland, Alexandre; Lunebourg, Alexandre; Airaudi, Stéphane; Gravier, Renaud

2015-01-01

456

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

Eitzen, D. G.

1975-01-01

457

Development of a multi-compartment pharmacokinetic model to characterize the exposure to Hexamoll® DINCH®.  

PubMed

We developed and calibrated a multi compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model to predict urinary concentrations after oral exposure of four specific DINCH metabolites: MINCH, OH-MINCH, cx-MINCH, and oxo-MINCH. This descriptive model has 4 compartments: a "stomach" (SC) compartment, a "holding" (HC) compartment, a "blood" (BC) compartment and a "bladder" (BLC) compartment. DINCH is assumed to first deposit into the SC, with transfer split between the HC and the BC. Unmetabolized DINCH from the HC then transfers to the BC. The DINCH metabolism is assumed to occur in the BC before excretion via the BLC. At each urination event, all the metabolite mass in the BLC is excreted. The model was calibrated using published urine metabolite data from 3 different male volunteers, each orally dosed with 50mg DINCH. Full urine voids were taken for 48h after dosage. The predicted values showed a good agreement with the observed urinary DINCH metabolite concentrations, with a Spearman correlation coefficient exceeding 0.7 for all oxidized metabolites. We showed the importance of a holding reservoir. Without it, a good agreement could not be found. We applied the model to a set of 24-h general population samples measured for DINCH metabolites. The model was unable to duplicate the ratio of metabolites seen in the 24-h samples. Two possibilities were offered to explain the difference: the exposure pattern in the general population did not match the oral exposure in the dosing experiments, or the long-term toxicokinetics of DINCH was not captured in the 48-h controlled dosing experiments. PMID:25710321

Schütze, Andre; Lorber, Matthew; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Apel, Petra; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

2015-06-01

458

Three-compartment modeling of C-11 N-Methyl spiperone kinetics in the human brain  

SciTech Connect

N-Methyl spiperone, as well as spiperone, has been used to study the dopamine receptor system in the brain. The authors have applied a 3-compartment model consisting of vascular, extravascular unbound, and receptor-bound activity to two normal volunteers and one patient with Parkinson's disease. The model differs from that proposed by another study, in that, as in the Sokoloff model for deoxyglucose, there is no explicit term for blood flow. Furthermore, the authors used a 3-compartment model for the cerebellum as well as the caudate/putamen. Serial scans were obtained by PET for up to 2 hrs after injection of the tracer. Time-activity curves were generated over the caudate, putamen and cerebellum. The results indicate a close fit of the observed data to the 3-compatment model. In the model, K1 represents the rate constant of delivery of the tracer in the tissue from the vascular compartment. K2 is the reverse rate constant. K1 was approximately equal to K2 for the cerebellum. In the basal ganglia, K2 was less than K1 due to nonspecific binding in compartment 2. K3 represents the rate constant of binding of the tracer to the receptor binding sites in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia and to nonspecific binding sites in the cerebellum which contains essentially no dopamine receptors. K4 represents the rate constant for dissociation of the tracer from the receptors. For N-methyl spiperone K4 is very low in the caudate/putamen. The 3-compartment model seemed to fit the data better than the 2-compartment model for both the caudate/putamen and cerebellar activity.

Brooks, R.A.; Wong, D.F.; Di Chiro, G.; Wayner, R.T.; Douglass, K.H.; Frost, J.J.; Larson, S.M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1984-01-01

459

The intracellular virus-containing compartments in primary human macrophages are largely inaccessible to antibodies and small molecules.  

PubMed

HIV-1 assembly and release occurs at the plasma membrane of human T lymphocytes and model epithelial cell lines, whereas in macrophages intracellular sites of virus assembly or accumulation predominate. The origin of the intracellular virus-containing compartment (VCC) has been controversial. This compartment is enriched in markers of the multivesicular body, and has been described as a modified endosomal compartment. Several studies of this compartment have revealed the presence of small channels connecting to the plasma membrane, suggesting that instead of an endosomal origin the compartment is a modified plasma membrane compartment. If the compartment is accessible to the external environment, this would have important implications for antiviral immune responses and antiviral therapy. We performed a series of experiments designed to determine if the VCC in macrophages was open to the external environment and accessible to antibodies and small molecules. The majority of VCCs were found to be inaccessible to exogenously-applied antibodies to tetraspanins in the absence of membrane permeabilization, while tetraspanin staining was readily observed following membrane permeabilization. Cationized ferritin was utilized to stain the plasma membrane, and revealed that the majority of virus-containing compartments were inaccessible to ferritin. Low molecular weight dextrans could access only a very small percentage of VCCs, and these tended to be more peripheral compartments. We conclude that the VCCs in monocyte-derived human macrophages are heterogeneous, but the majority of VCCs are closed to the external environment. PMID:22567100

Chu, Hin; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Qi, Mingli; Yoon, Jeong-Joong; Wen, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xuemin; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul

2012-01-01

460

Threshold dynamics of a periodic SIR model with delay in an infected compartment.  

PubMed

Threshold dynamics of epidemic models in periodic environments attract more attention. But there are few papers which are concerned with the case where the infected compartments satisfy a delay differential equation. For this reason, we investigate the dynamical behavior of a periodic SIR model with delay in an infected compartment. We first introduce the basic reproduction number R0 for the model, and then show that it can act as a threshold parameter that determines the uniform persistence or extinction of the disease. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the analytical results and illustrate the dependence of R0 on the seasonality and the latent period. PMID:25811548

Bai, Zhenguo

2015-06-01

461

CASE REPORT Spontaneous Forearm Compartment Syndrome in a Boy With Hemophilia A: A Therapeutic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Objective: We present the case of a 14-year-old Factor VIII-deficient patient with no history of trauma, who developed acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the volar forearm. We also suggest a treatment strategy. Methods: Fasciotomy with hematoma evacuation and ipsilateral carpal tunnel release was performed, and the wound was closed with vascular loops in “Jacob's ladder” fashion. Factor infusions were continued overnight. Results: The volar forearm compartment was successfully decompressed, and the patient's coagulopathy was managed with appropriate clotting factors. Conclusions: Hemophilic patients warrant special consideration and multispecialty care; with replenished coagulation factors and timely surgical decompression, they can expect satisfactory recovery of muscular and neurological function. PMID:23573336

Kim, Jennifer; Zelken, Jonathan; Sacks, Justin Michael

2013-01-01

462

Orbital compartment syndrome following transvenous embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula.  

PubMed

Superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) thrombosis is a rare complication of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) embolization and is usually associated with a paradoxical worsening of signs followed by subsequent spontaneous resolution. We report a case in a 69-year-old female who developed orbital compartment syndrome due to SOV thrombosis following transvenous embolization of an indirect CCF. The patient was treated with an urgent lateral canthotomy and cantholysis and had good recovery. This report demonstrates that the paradoxical worsening due to SOV thrombosis in CCF may result in orbital compartment syndrome and require early recognition and prompt decompressive measures to avoid permanent visual sequelae. PMID:24144159

Sia, Paul Ikgan; Sia, David Ik Tuo; Scroop, Rebecca; Selva, Dinesh

2014-02-01

463

Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

464

Fluvial entrainment of low density peat blocks (block carbon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many fluvial environments low density materials are transported in significant quantities and these form an important part of the stream load and /or have a distinct impact on sedimentation in these environments. However, there are significant gaps in understanding of how these materials are entrained and transported by streams and rivers. Eroding upland peatland environments in particular, frequently have fluvial systems in which large eroded peat blocks, often exceeding 1 m in length; form an important component of the stream material flux. Transport of this material is significant in determining rates of erosion but also has important impacts in terms of damage to infrastructure and carbon loss. This paper describes a field experiment designed to establish for the first time the conditions under which large peat blocks (c. > 0.1 m b axis) are initially entrained from a rough gravel bed. The field site is Trout Beck, in the North Pennines, Northern England which is an upland wandering river channel with occasional lateral and mid channel bars. Mean low flow stage is typically 0.2 m but during flood can rapidly rise, in one to two hours, to over 1.5 m. To study peat block entrainment a bespoke data acquisition system consisting of two pressure transducers, four release triggers and time lapse camera was set up. The pressure transducers provided a record of local depth and the release triggers were embedded in peat blocks to record initial motion and arranged on the rough stream bed. The time lapse camera provided verification of timing of block entrainment (during daylight hours) and also provided information on the mechanism of initial movement. Peat blocks were cut from a local source and were equidimensional, ranging in size from 0.1 to 0.7 m. The derived entrainment function is related to a critical depth of entrainment. Results demonstrate that peat blocks are entrained when the local depth approximates the height of the peat block. Blocks frequently shift position prior to entrainment but once entrained are rapidly transported downstream. Because of the rough stream bed local depth, measured on the four sides of the block varies markedly and needs to be considered in developing an appropriate entrainment function and; is useful in explaining initial movement prior to entrainment. In some experiments a small accelerometer (HOBO Pendant G data logger) was used to investigate transport dynamics following entrainment. Further work will seek to improve the entrainment function by extending the size range of tests, developing a shear stress related function and investigating the importance of block shape (rounding) on entrainment.

Warburton, Jeff

2014-05-01

465

Limiting spectral distribution of block matrices with Toeplitz block structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension k×k) matrices, where the blocks (of size n×n) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by nk) when (a) k is fixed and n→∞ (b) n is fixed and k→∞ (c) n

Riddhipratim Basu; Arup Bose; Shirshendu Ganguly; Rajat Subhra Hazra

2012-01-01

466

Site blocking in surface diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between adatoms can change the diffusivity in a surface layer as the concentration is increased. Another effect that may contribute, however, is site blocking: the probability that an atom can find a site into which to jump diminishes as the concentration increases. The contribution of site blocking to the concentration dependence of the diffusivity is illustrated by considering two non-interacting lattice gases: a Langmuir layer, and a lattice gas with exclusion of nearest-neighbor sites. In both, site blocking is shown to compete with the thermodynamic factor in affecting the diffusivity.

Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Ehrlich, Gert

1999-01-01

467

Ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block.  

PubMed

The axillary brachial plexus block is the most widely performed upper limb block. It is relatively simple to perform and one of the safest approaches to brachial plexus block. With the advent of ultrasound technology, there is a marked improvement in the success rate of the axillary block. This review will focus on the technique of ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block. PMID:25110766

Ranganath, Anil; Srinivasan, Karthikeyan Kallidaikurichi; Iohom, Gabriella

2014-09-01

468

Beta1 integrin deletion from the basal compartment of the mammary epithelium affects stem cells  

E-print Network

Beta1 integrin deletion from the basal compartment of the mammary epithelium affects stem cells receptors, integrins, than luminal cells. We show that the deletion of 1 integrin from basal cells abolishes at the end of gestation, the secretory alveoli develop from 1 integrin-positive progenitors. Lack of 1

469

1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells  

E-print Network

1 1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells receptors, integrins, than luminal cells. We show that the deletion of 1 integrin from basal cells abolishes at the end of gestation, the secretory alveoli develop from 1 integrin-positive progenitors. Lack of 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

470

Leg cramps in pregnancy caused by chronic compartment syndrome and relieved by fasciotomy after childbirth  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message A case of intolerable leg pain in pregnancy, caused by Chronic Compartment Syndrome (CCS), is presented. Increasing amounts of opioids were given throughout the pregnancy. Anesthetical dilemmas and surgery are discussed. In conclusion, early surgery rather than opioids is recommended. PMID:25356260

Orlin, Jan Roar; Øen, Jarle; Andersen, John Roger; Tjugum, Ivar Jostein; Westbye, Hans Jacob; Roska, Jomar; Aasved, Helene; Hjelmeland, Kjersti

2014-01-01

471

VPS27 controls vacuolar and endocytic traffic through a prevacuolar compartment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly synthesized vacuolar hydrolases such as carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) are sorted from the secretory pathway in the late-Golgi compartment and reach the vacuole after a distinct set of membrane-traf- ficking steps. Endocytosed proteins are also delivered to the vacuole. It has been proposed that these path- ways converge at a \\

Robert C. Piper; Antony A. Cooper; Hong Yang; Tom H. Stevens

1995-01-01

472

75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...25-392-SC] Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment...conditions are issued for the Alenia Model C-27J airplane. This airplane has novel...other novel or unusual design features of the C- 27J. DATES: Effective Date:...

2010-02-08

473

Gastric tonometry and direct intraabdominal pressure monitoring in abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) may complicate abdominal closure in patients with abdominal wall defects, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal bleeding, and infection. Increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) leads to respiratory compromise, organ hypoperfusion, and a high mortality rate. This study evaluates the efficacy of continuous direct monitoring of IAP and gastric tissue pH in detecting impending ACS. Methods: Ten mongrel puppies weighing

S. A. Engum; B. Kogon; E. Jensen; J. Isch; C. Balanoff; J. L. Grosfeld

2002-01-01

474

GLUT4 Traffic through an ESCRT-III-Dependent Sorting Compartment in Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

In insulin target tissues, GLUT4 is known to traffic through multiple compartments that may involve ubiquitin- and/or SUMO-dependent targeting. During these trafficking steps, GLUT4 is sorted into a storage reservoir compartment that is acutely released by insulin signalling processes that are downstream of PI 3-kinase associated changes in inositol phospholipids. As ESCRT components have recently been found to influence cellular sorting processes that are related to changes in both ubiquitination and inositol phospholipids, we have examined whether GLUT4 traffic is routed through ESCRT dependent sorting steps. Introduction of the dominant negative inhibitory constructs of the ESCRT-III components CHMP3 (CHMP3(1–179)) and Vps4 (GFP-Vps4E235Q) into rat adipocytes leads to the accumulation of GLUT4 in large, coalesced and extended vesicles structures that co-localise with the inhibitory constructs over large parts of the extended structure. A new swollen hybrid and extensively ubiquitinated compartment is produced in which GLUT4 co-localises more extensively with the endosomal markers including EEA1 and transferrin receptors but also with the TGN marker syntaxin6. These perturbations are associated with failure of insulin action on GLUT4 traffic to the cell surface and suggest impairment in an ESCRT-dependent sorting step used for GLUT4 traffic to its specialised reservoir compartment. PMID:23049745

Koumanov, Françoise; Pereira, Vinit J.; Whitley, Paul R.; Holman, Geoffrey D.

2012-01-01

475

Identification of Multivesicular Bodies as Prevacuolar Compartments in Nicotiana tabacum BY2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the dynamics and molecular components of plant prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We have demonstrated recently that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins are concentrated on PVCs. In this study, we generated transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) BY-2 cell lines expressing two yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fusion reporters that mark PVC and Golgi organelles. Both transgenic cell lines exhibited typical punctate

Yu Chung Tse; Beixin Mo; Stefan Hillmer; David G. Robinson; Liwen Jianga

2004-01-01

476

Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder–associated biomarker  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders. PMID:24487591

te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O.; Wallom, Kerri L.; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A.; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H.; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie; Jacklin, Elizabeth; Riddick, Kate; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Rolfs, Arndt; Rimmele, Florian; Wright, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Ramaswami, Uma; Cox, Timothy M.; Hastings, Caroline; Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Ory, Daniel S.; Arias, Begona; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Sillence, Daniel J.; Wraith, James E.; Porter, Forbes D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Platt, Frances M.

2014-01-01

477

Forearm compartment syndrome: anatomical analysis of surgical approaches to the deep space.  

PubMed

Forearm compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency that usually requires release of the superficial muscle compartments. In some clinical situations it is imperative to also explore the deep muscle compartments. There are no anatomical guides for surgical exploration of the deep compartments that would minimize collateral damage to surrounding vessels, nerves, and muscles. Surgical injury in the setting of ischemia, especially vascular injury, compounds the tissue damage that has already occurred. The authors evaluated four surgical approaches (three volar and one dorsal) to the deep forearm by performing detailed anatomical dissections on 10 embalmed and plastinated cadavers. They used a scoring system to rate the approaches for their ability to visualize the deep space without causing iatrogenic injury to superficial muscles, arteries, and nerves. In the volar forearm, an ulnar approach to the deep space is simple, causes the least iatrogenic surgical injury, and provides access to the deep volar forearm structures. The plane of dissection is between the flexor carpi ulnaris and the flexor digitorum superficialis. Dividing one or two distal segmental branches of the ulnar artery to the distal flexor digitorum superficialis exposes the pronator quadratus. Lifting the ulnar neurovascular bundle with the flexor digitorum superficialis in the middle third of the forearm exposes the flexor digitorum profundus and the flexor pollicis longus. This approach to the deep space requires no sharp dissection. In the dorsal forearm, a midline approach between the extensor digitorum communis and the extensor carpi radialis brevis is simple and safe. PMID:15318048

Ronel, Daniel N; Mtui, Estomih; Nolan, William B

2004-09-01

478

Silver contamination on abiotic and biotic compartments of Nahuel Huapi National Park lakes, Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ag contents of abiotic and biotic compartments of different lakes of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina were analyzed. The water bodies studied were lakes Nahuel Huapi, Moreno, Escondido, Espejo Chico and Traful, the latter chosen as a reference lake. The Ag concentration profiles of short sediment cores, dated by 210Pb and 137Cs techniques, were analyzed, as well as

Sergio Ribeiro Guevara; Mar??a Arribére; Débora Bubach; Pablo Vigliano; Andrea Rizzo; Marcelo Alonso; Ricardo Sánchez

2005-01-01

479

The Value of Intercondylar Notch Visualization of the Posteromedial and Posterolateral Compartments During Knee Arthroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The intercondylar notch views allow for visualization of the posteromedial and posterolateral compartments of the knee without the use of accessory portals. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether these views are useful either diagnostically or therapeutically in the performance of knee arthroscopy. Two surgeons at one institution performed 150 consecutive knee arthroscopies. After arthroscopic examination

Kumar B. Amin; Andrew J. Cosgarea; Christopher C. Kaeding

1999-01-01

480

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: An Indication for a Decompressing Laparotomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The currently prevailing paradigm calls for non-operative management of severe acute pancreatitis for as long as there is no evidence of infection. Our purpose in presenting this anecdotal experience is to propose that there is a subset of patients who may need a laparotomy in the absence of infection in order to decompress a clinically significant abdominal compartment syndrome

Gary Gecelter; Bashar Fahoum; Syed Gardezi; Moshe Schein

2002-01-01

481

The abdominal compartment syndrome is a morbid complication of postinjury damage control surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a recognized complication of damage control surgery (DCS). The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the effect of ACS on outcome after DCS, (2) identify patients at high risk for the development of ACS, and (3) determine whether ACS can be prevented by preemptive intravenous bag closure during DCS.Methods: Patients requiring

Christopher D Raeburn; Ernest E Moore; Walter L Biffl; Jeffrey L Johnson; Daniel R Meldrum; Patrick J Offner; Reginald J Franciose; Jon M Burch

2001-01-01

482

The role of tissue pressure measurement in diagnosing chronic anterior compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure studies were performed in 55 patients (24 with chronic anterior leg pain and 31 asymptomatic recreational athletes). Pressure measurements were recorded at rest, during, and after exercise, using the slit catheter system. Seventeen of the twenty-four pa tients with symptomatic anterior leg pain were diag nosed on the basis of tissue pressure studies as having chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

C. H. Rorabeck; R. B. Bourne; P. J. Fowler; J. B. Finlay; Linda Nott

1988-01-01

483

Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is an elusive early complication of traumatic shock resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe term secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has been applied to describe trauma patients who develop ACS but do not have abdominal injuries. The purpose of this study was to describe major trauma victims who developed secondary ACS during standardized shock resuscitation.

Zsolt Balogh; Bruce A McKinley; Christine S Cocanour; Rosemary A Kozar; John B Holcomb; Drue N Ware; Frederick A Moore

2002-01-01

484

Chronic leg pain in athletes due to a recurrent compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 29 patients, all engaged in sports activity on a regular basis, suffering from recurrent compart mental syndrome, is reported. The syndrome is not restricted only to long distance runners but to athletes involved in a variety of sports activities (soccer, volley ball, cycle racing, gymnastics, judo, physical education, and long distance running). Although most patients presented activity-related

Marc A. Martens; Marc Backaert; Gery Vermaut; Jozef C. Mulier

1984-01-01

485

View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A21) showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A-21) showing port ventilation fan; electrical generator is at left center of photograph. Platform for generator is at bottom center of photograph. Hatch for passing powder up from magazine is located just above the generator base. Frames support armored protective deck. (018) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

486

View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C1; note RPM indicator ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; note RPM indicator at top right of photograph, bilge drain manifold at lower right; worm gear at left is probably part of a hydraulic reversing gear. (057) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

487

Compartment model for long-term contamination prediction in deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiocesium contamination from the Chernobyl accident of different parts (fruits, leaves, and shoots) of selected apricot trees in North Greece was systematically measured in 1987 and 1988. The results are presented and discussed in the framework of a simple compartment model describing the long-term contamination uptake mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident.

M. Antonopoulos-Domis; A. Clouvas; A. Gagianas

1990-01-01

488

Uptake of Heavy Metals to the Extracellular and Intracellular Compartments in Three Species of Aquatic Bryophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot tips of Fontinalis antipyretica, Scapania undulata, and Fissidens polyphyllus were maintained for 60 min with solutions containing 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn. A sequential extraction procedure was then used to estimate the amounts of the corresponding metal, and of K and Mg, in the extracellular compartment (extraction with

M. D. Vázquez; J. López; A. Carballeira

1999-01-01

489

Zygotically controlled F-actin establishes cortical compartments to stabilize furrows during Drosophila cellularization  

PubMed Central

Summary Cortical compartments partition proteins and membrane at the cell surface to define regions of specialized function. Here we ask how cortical compartments arise along the plasma membrane furrows that cellularize the early Drosophila embryo, and investigate the influence that this compartmentalization has on furrow ingression. We find that the zygotic gene product Nullo aids the establishment of discrete cortical compartments, called furrow canals, which form at the tip of incipient furrows. Upon nullo loss-of-function, proteins that are normally restricted to adjacent lateral regions of the furrow, such as Neurotactin and Discs large, spread into the furrow canals. At the same time, cortical components that should concentrate in furrow canals, such as Myosin 2 (Zipper) and Anillin (Scraps), are missing from some furrows. Depletion of these cortical components from the furrow canal compartments precipitates furrow regression. Contrary to previous models, we find that furrow compartmentalization does not require cell-cell junctions that border the furrow canals. Instead, compartmentalization is disrupted by treatments that reduce levels of cortical F-actin. Because the earliest uniform phenotype detected in nullo mutants is reduced levels of F-actin at furrow canals, we propose that Nullo compartmentalizes furrows via its regulation of Factin, thus stabilizing furrows and insuring their ingression to complete cellularization. PMID:18460582

Sokac, Anna Marie; Wieschaus, Eric

2009-01-01

490

View forward to aft of compartment A126, port side fore ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View forward to aft of compartment A-126, port side fore to aft showing scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) in background, deck fittings, coal bunker manhole cover at lower left. (043) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

491

Effect of watershed parameters on mercury distribution in different environmental compartments in the  

E-print Network

Effect of watershed parameters on mercury distribution in different environmental compartments sediment THg levels were observed in main river channels, except for reaches impacted by coal mining levels associated with coal mining. Aqueous MeHg concentrations in main river channels were as high

Chaubey, Indrajeet